Sample records for solid breeder material

  1. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dienst, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Material- und Festkoerperforschung; Flament, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Commissariat A L`Energie Atomique; Lorenzetto, P. [NET Team, Garching (Germany); Noda, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takai, Ibaraki, (Japan); Roux, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes et de Recherches Les Materiaux (France). Commissariat a L`Energie Atomique


    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  2. Characteristics of tritium release behavior from solid breeder materials

    Kinjyo, T.; Nishikawa, M.; Yamashita, N.; Koyama, T.; Suematsu, K.; Fukada, S. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Enoeda, M. [Naka Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)


    A tritium release model has been developed by the present authors. The tritium release curves estimated by this tritium model give good agreement with experimental curves for Li {sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} or LiAlO{sub 2} under various purge gas conditions in our out-of-pile bred tritium release. The characteristics of tritium release behavior from various solid breeder materials carried out by us and in EXOTIC experiments at Petten are discussed in this study. (authors)

  3. Production behavior of irradiation defects in solid breeder materials

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)


    The irradiation effects in solid breeder materials are important for the performance assessment of fusion reactor blanket systems. For a clearer understanding of such effects, we have studied the production behavior of irradiation defects in some lithium ceramics by an in-situ luminescence measurement technique under ion beam irradiation. The luminescence spectra were measured at different temperatures, and the temperature-transient behaviors of luminescence intensity were also measured. The production mechanisms of irradiation defects were discussed on the basis of the observations. (author)

  4. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    Johnson, C.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Kondo, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Roux, N. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Tanaka, S. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Vollath, D. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.))


    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Progress in Solid Tritium Breeder Materials%固态氚增殖剂研究进展

    赵林杰; 肖成建; 陈晓军; 龚宇; 彭述明; 龙兴贵


    增殖包层作为实现可控核聚变燃料“自持”的关键,不仅能实现氚的增殖,而且起着能量转换的作用,氚增殖剂是其中最重要的功能材料。本文从材料体系的制备、性能以及改性总结了固态氚增殖剂的发展趋势。同时,基于当前的研究现状对固态氚增殖剂的发展进行了展望。%The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction.Tritium breeding material is one of the most important functional materials.Herein,we reviewed the trends in solid tritium breeder development,including the fabrication,properties and modification.Meanwhile,the focus of the solid tritium breeder materials were prospected based on the current research situa-tion.

  6. The effect of water on tritium release behavior from solid breeder candidates

    Suematsu, K.; Nishikawa, M.; Fukada, S.; Kinjyo, T.; Koyama, T.; Yamashita, N. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka, 812-8581 (Japan)


    The authors have made a tritium release model to represent the release behavior of bred tritium from solid breeder materials using a series of studies. It has been observed that a large amount of adsorbed water and water produced by water formation reaction are released to the purge gas even though dry purge gas with hydrogen is introduced to solid breeder materials. According to our tritium release model, the presence of water in the purge gas and surface water on the material has a large effect on the tritium release behavior. In this study, the authors quantified the amount of adsorbed water and the capacity of the water formation reaction for various solid breeder materials (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, LiAlO{sub 2}). The effect of surface water on the chemical form of tritium released from the LiAlO{sub 2} blanket is also discussed in this study. (authors)

  7. Design and safety analysis of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket for CFETR

    Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Guangming; Lv, Zhongliang; Jin, Cheng; Chen, Hongli [University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology


    This paper reports the design and safety analysis results of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket of the Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). Materials selection and basic structure of the blanket have been presented. Performance analysis including neutronics analysis and thermo-mechanical analysis has shown good results. And the safety analysis of the blanket under Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions has been described. Results showed the current design can deal well with the selected accident scenarios.

  8. Development of fuels and structural materials for fast breeder reactors

    Baldev Raj; S L Mannan; P R Vasudeva Rao; M D Mathew


    Fast breeder reactors (FBRs) are destined to play a crucial role inthe Indian nuclear power programme in the foreseeable future. FBR technology involves a multi-disciplinary approach to solve the various challenges in the areas of fuel and materials development. Fuels for FBRs have significantly higher concentration of fissile material than in thermal reactors, with a matching increase in burn-up. The design of the fuel is an important aspect which has to be optimised for efficient, economic and safe production of power. FBR components operate under hostile and demanding environment of high neutron flux, liquid sodium coolant and elevated temperatures. Resistance to void swelling, irradiation creep, and irradiation embrittlement are therefore major considerations in the choice of materials for the core components. Structural and steam generator materials should have good resistance to creep, low cycle fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction and sodium corrosion. The development of carbide fuel and structural materials for the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam was a great technological challenge. At the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), advanced research facilities have been established, and extensive studies have been carried out in the areas of fuel and materials development. This has laid the foundation for the design and development of a 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. Highlights of some of these studies are discussed in this paper in the context of our mission to develop and deploy FBR technology for the energy security of India in the 21st century.

  9. Preliminary structural design and thermo-mechanical analysis of helium cooled solid breeder blanket for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor

    Li, Min; Chen, Hongli, E-mail:; Zhou, Guangming; Liu, Qianwen; Wang, Shuai; Lv, Zhongliang; Ye, Minyou


    Highlights: • A helium cooled solid breeder blanket module was designed for CFETR. • Multilayer U-shaped pebble beds were adopted in the blanket module. • Thermal and thermo-mechanical analyses were carried out under normal operating conditions. • The analysis results were found to be acceptable. - Abstract: With the aim to bridge the R&D gap between ITER and fusion power plant, the Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) was proposed to be built in China. The mission of CFETR is to address the essential R&D issues for achieving practical fusion energy. Its blanket is required to be tritium self-sufficient. In this paper, a helium cooled solid breeder blanket adopting multilayer U-shaped pebble beds was designed and analyzed. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the first wall and side wall combined with breeder unit was carried out for normal operating steady state conditions. The results showed that the maximum temperatures of the structural material, neutron multiplier and tritium breeder pebble beds are 523 °C, 558 °C and 787 °C, respectively, which are below the corresponding limits of 550 °C, 650 °C and 920 °C. The maximum equivalent stress of the structure is under the allowable value with a margin about 14.5%.

  10. Conceptual design and analysis of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket for CFETR

    Chen, Hongli, E-mail:; Li, Min; Lv, Zhongliang; Zhou, Guangming; Liu, Qianwen; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Jie; Ye, Minyou


    Highlights: • A helium cooled solid blanket was proposed as a candidate blanket concept for CFETR. • Material selection, basic structure and gas flow scheme of the blanket were introduced. • A series of performance analyses for the blanket were summarized. - Abstract: To bridge the gap between ITER and DEMO and to realize the fusion energy in China, a fusion device Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) was proposed and is being designed mainly to demonstrate 50–200 MW fusion power, 30–50% duty time factor, tritium self-sustained. Because of the high demand of tritium production and the realistic engineering consideration, the design of tritium breeding blanket for CFETR is a challenging work and getting special attention. As a blanket candidate, a helium cooled solid breeder blanket has been designed with the emphasis on conservative design and realistic blanket technology. This paper introduces the basic blanket scheme, including the material selection, structural design, cooling scheme and purge gas flow path. In addition, some results of neutronics, thermal-hydraulic and stress analysis are presented.

  11. Pebble fabrication of super advanced tritium breeders using a solid solution of Li2+xTiO3+y with Li2ZrO3

    Tsuyoshi Hoshino


    Full Text Available Lithium titanate with excess lithium (Li2+xTiO3+y is one of the most promising candidates among advanced tritium breeders for demonstration power plant reactors because of its good tritium release characteristics. However, the tritium breeding ratio (TBR of Li2+xTiO3+y is smaller than that of e.g., Li2O or Li8TiO6 because of its lower Li density. Therefore, new Li-containing ceramic composites with both high stability and high Li density have been developed. Thus, this study focused on the development of a solid solution with a new characteristic. The solid-solution pebbles of Li2+xTiO3+y with Li2ZrO3 (Li2+x(Ti,ZrO3+y, designated as LTZO, were fabricated by an emulsion method. The X-ray diffraction patterns of sintered LTZO pebbles are approximately the same as those of Li2+xTiO3+y pebbles, and no peaks attributable to Li2ZrO3 are observed. These results demonstrate that LTZO pebbles are not a two-phase material but rather a solid solution. Furthermore, LTZO pebbles were easily sintered under air. Thus, the LTZO solid solution is a candidate breeder material for super advanced (SA tritium breeders.

  12. Isotope exchange reactions on ceramic breeder materials and their effect on tritium inventory

    Nishikawa, M.; Baba, A. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawamura, Y.; Nishi, M.


    Though lithium ceramic materials such as Li{sub 2}O, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} are considered as breeding materials in the blanket of a D-T fusion reactor, the release behavior of the bred tritium in these solid breeder materials has not been fully understood. The isotope exchange reaction rate between hydrogen isotopes in the purge gas and tritium on the surface of breeding materials have not been quantified yet, although helium gas with hydrogen or deuterium is planned to be used as the blanket purge gas in the recent blanket designs. The mass transfer coefficient representing the isotope exchange reaction between H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}O or that between D{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O in the ceramic breeding materials bed is experimentally obtained in this study. Effects of isotope exchange reactions on the tritium inventory in the bleeding blanket is discussed based on data obtained in this study where effects of diffusion of tritium in the grain, absorption of water in the bulk of grain, and adsorption of water on the surface of grain, together with two types of isotope exchange reactions are considered. The way to estimate the tritium inventory in a Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} blanket used in this study shows a good agreement with data obtained in such in-situ experiments as MOZART, EXOTIC-5, 6 and TRINE experiments. (author)

  13. Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets

    Malang, S. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Mattas, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Liquid metals are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. The subjects of this comparison are the differences between the two candidate liquid metal breeder materials Li and LiPb for use in breeding blankets in the areas of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control, compatibility with structural materials, heat extraction system, safety, and required R&D program. Both candidates appear to be promising for use in self-cooled breeding blankets which have inherent simplicity with the liquid metal serving as both breeders and coolant. The remaining feasibility question for both breeder materials is the electrical insulation between liquid metal and duct walls. Different ceramic coatings are required for the two breeders, and their crucial issues, namely self-healing of insulator cracks and radiation induced electrical degradation are not yet demonstrated. Each liquid metal breeder has advantages and concerns associated with it, and further development is needed to resolve these concerns.

  14. Key achievements in elementary R&D on water-cooled solid breeder blanket for ITER test blanket module in JAERI

    Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Hatano, T.; Hirose, T.; Hayashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Tobita, K.; Akiba, M.


    This paper presents the significant progress made in the research and development (R&D) of key technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER test blanket modules in JAERI. Development of module fabrication technology, bonding technology of armours, measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of pebble beds, neutronics studies on a blanket module mockup and tritium release behaviour from a Li2TiO3 pebble bed under neutron-pulsed operation conditions are summarized. With the improvement of the heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 °C followed by normalizing it at 930 °C after the hot isostatic pressing process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armour and an F82H structural material was developed using a solid-state bonding method based on uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. As a result of high heat flux tests of F82H first wall mockups, it has been confirmed that a fatigue lifetime correlation, which was developed for the ITER divertor, can be made applicable for the F82H first wall mockup. As for R&D on the breeder material, Li2TiO3, the effect of compression loads on effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds has been clarified for the Li2TiO3 pebble bed. The tritium breeding ratio of a simulated multi-layer blanket structure has successfully been measured using 14 MeV neutrons with an accuracy of 10%. The tritium release rate from the Li2TiO3 pebble has also been successfully measured with pulsed neutron irradiation, which simulates ITER operation.

  15. Effect of the environment on the corrosion of EUROFER97 by solid lithium breeders

    Hernández, Teresa, E-mail:; Fernández, Pilar


    EUROFER97 has been tested in contact with lithium silicates during 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks in a H{sub 2}/He atmosphere at 1 MPa. The results show a large interaction of the steel with the lithium ceramic breeder. The corroded samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance techniques and analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and microprobe. The results indicated that a corrosion layer formed on the EUROFER97 being of complex nature that is noticeable even a few hours of testing. The process begins with the Fe-dealloying of the EUROFER97 producing a layer enriched in Cr, which seems to retard the corrosion attack.

  16. Sheared solid materials

    Akira Onuki; Akira Furukawa; Akihiko Minami


    We present a time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau model of nonlinear elasticity in solid materials. We assume that the elastic energy density is a periodic function of the shear and tetragonal strains owing to the underlying lattice structure. With this new ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic flow high-density dislocations emerge at large strains to accumulate and grow into shear bands where the strains are localized. In addition to the elastic displacement, we also introduce the local free volume . For very small the defect structures are metastable and long-lived where the dislocations are pinned by the Peierls potential barrier. However, if the shear modulus decreases with increasing , accumulation of around dislocation cores eventually breaks the Peierls potential leading to slow relaxations in the stress and the free energy (aging). As another application of our scheme, we also study dislocation formation in two-phase alloys (coherency loss) under shear strains, where dislocations glide preferentially in the softer regions and are trapped at the interfaces.

  17. Compatibility of structural materials with fusion reactor coolant and breeder fluids

    DeVan, J.H.


    Fusion reactors are characterized by a lithium-containing blanket, a heat transfer medium that is integral with the blanket and first wall, and a heat engine that couples to the heat transfer medium. A variety of lithium-containing substances have been identified as potential blanket materials, including molten lithium metal, molten LiF--BeF/sub 2/, Pb--Li alloys, and solid ceramic compounds such as Li/sub 2/O. Potential heat transfer media include liquid lithium, liquid sodium, molten nitrates, water, and helium. Each of these coolants and blankets requires a particular set of chemical and mechanical properties with respect to the associated reactor and heat engine structural materials. This paper discusses the materials factors that underlie the selection of workable combinations of blankets and coolants. It also addresses the materials compatibility problems generic to those blanket-coolant combinations currently being considered in reactor design studies.

  18. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Ainscow, J.W.H.


    Carbonaceous materials such as coal or oil shale are distilled by being passed in a continuous stream through a retort heated externally and at temperatures increasing from the inlet to the outlet end, the distillates being taken off through openings in the retort wall.

  19. Nanoprobes, nanostructured materials and solid state materials

    Yin, Houping


    Novel templates have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials through nonsurfactant templated pathway. And new applications of these materials, such as drug delivery and molecular imprinting, have been explored. The relationship between template content and pore structure has been investigated. The composition and pore structures were studied in detail using IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials have tunable diameters in the range of 2--12 nm. Due to the many advantages of this nonsurfactant templated pathway, such as environment friendly and biocompatibility, controlled release of antibiotics in the nanoporous materials were studied. The in vitro release properties were found to depend on the silica structures which were well tuned by varying the template content. A controlled long-term release pattern of vancomycin was achieved when the template content was 30 wt% or lower. Nanoscale electrochemical probes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1--2 mum in length were fabricated using electron beam deposition on the apex of conventional micron size electrodes. The electroactive region was limited to the extreme tip of the nanoprobe by coating with an insulating polymer and re-opening of the coating at the extreme tip. The novel nanoelectrodes thus prepared were employed to probe neurons in mouse brain slice and the results suggest that the nanoprobes were capable of recording neuronal excitatory postsynaptic potential signals. Interesting solid state chemistry was found in oxygenated iron phthalocyanine. Their Mossbauer spectra show the formation of four oxygenated species apart from the unoxygenated parent compound. The oxygen-bridged compounds formed in the solid matrix bear no resemblance to the one formed by solution chemistry. Tentative assignment of species has been made with the help of Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy. An effort to modify aniline trimer for potential nanoelectronics applications and to

  20. Materials accounting in a fast-breeder-reactor fuels-reprocessing facility: optimal allocation of measurement uncertainties

    Dayem, H.A.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Martinez, D.P.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.


    This report describes the conceptual design of a materials accounting system for the feed preparation and chemical separations processes of a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing facility. For the proposed accounting system, optimization techniques are used to calculate instrument measurement uncertainties that meet four different accounting performance goals while minimizing the total development cost of instrument systems. We identify instruments that require development to meet performance goals and measurement uncertainty components that dominate the materials balance variance. Materials accounting in the feed preparation process is complicated by large in-process inventories and spent-fuel assembly inputs that are difficult to measure. To meet 8 kg of plutonium abrupt and 40 kg of plutonium protracted loss-detection goals, materials accounting in the chemical separations process requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.3%, a shortterm correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.4%, a short-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.1%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.05%. The effects of process design on materials accounting are identified. Major areas of concern include the voloxidizer, the continuous dissolver, and the accountability tank.

  1. Materials accounting in a fast-breeder-reactor fuels-reprocessing facility: optimal allocation of measurement uncertainties

    Dayem, H.A.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Martinez, D.P.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.


    This report describes the conceptual design of a materials accounting system for the feed preparation and chemical separations processes of a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing facility. For the proposed accounting system, optimization techniques are used to calculate instrument measurement uncertainties that meet four different accounting performance goals while minimizing the total development cost of instrument systems. We identify instruments that require development to meet performance goals and measurement uncertainty components that dominate the materials balance variance. Materials accounting in the feed preparation process is complicated by large in-process inventories and spent-fuel assembly inputs that are difficult to measure. To meet 8 kg of plutonium abrupt and 40 kg of plutonium protracted loss-detection goals, materials accounting in the chemical separations process requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.3%, a shortterm correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.4%, a short-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.1%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.05%. The effects of process design on materials accounting are identified. Major areas of concern include the voloxidizer, the continuous dissolver, and the accountability tank.

  2. The long-term future for civilian nuclear power generation in France: The case for breeder reactors. Breeder reactors: The physical and physical chemistry parameters, associate material thermodynamics and mechanical engineering: Novelties and issues

    Dautray, Robert


    The author firstly gives a summary overview of the knowledge base acquired since the first breeder reactors became operational in the 1950s. "Neutronics", thermal phenomena, reactor core cooling, various coolants used and envisioned for this function, fuel fabrication from separated materials, main equipment (pumps, valves, taps, waste cock, safety circuits, heat exchange units, etc.) have now attained maturity, sufficient to implement sodium cooling circuits. Notwithstanding, the use of metallic sodium still raises certain severe questions in terms of safe handling (i.e. inflammability) and other important security considerations. The structural components, both inside the reactor core and outside (i.e. heat exchange devices) are undergoing in-depth research so as to last longer. The fuel cycle, notably the refabrication of fuel elements and fertile elements, the case of transuranic elements, etc., call for studies into radiation induced phenomena, chemistry separation, separate or otherwise treatments for materials that have different radioactive, physical, thermodynamical, chemical and biological properties. The concerns that surround the definitive disposal of certain radioactive wastes could be qualitatively improved with respect to the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in service today. Lastly, the author notes that breeder reactors eliminate the need for an isotope separation facility, and this constitutes a significant contribution to contain nuclear proliferation. Among the priorities for a fully operational system (power station - the fuel cycle - operation-maintenance - the spent fuel pool and its cooling system-emergency cooling system-emergency electric power-transportation movements-equipment handling - final disposal of radioactive matter, independent safety barriers), the author includes materials (fabrication of targets, an irradiation and inspection instrument), the chemistry of all sorting processes, equipment "refabrication" or rehabilitation

  3. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    Hagenmuller, Paul


    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  4. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to- air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Khatak, H. S.; Dayal, R. K.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.


    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800,9Cr-lMo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-lMo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance.

  5. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others


    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  6. TOKOPS: Tokamak Reactor Operations Study: The influence of reactor operations on the design and performance of tokamaks with solid-breeder blankets: Final report

    Conn, R.W.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Firestone, M.A. (eds.)


    Reactor system operation and procedures have a profound impact on the conception and design of power plants. These issues are studied here using a model tokamak system employing a solid-breeder blanket. The model blanket is one which has evolved from the STARFIRE and BCSS studies. The reactor parameters are similar to those characterizing near-term fusion engineering reactors such as INTOR or NET (Next European Tokamak). Plasma startup, burn analysis, and methods for operation at various levels of output power are studied. A critical, and complicating, element is found to be the self-consistent electromagnetic response of the system, including the presence of the blanket and the resulting forces and loadings. Fractional power operation, and the strategy for burn control, is found to vary depending on the scaling law for energy confinement, and an extensive study is reported. Full-power reactor operation is at a neutron wall loading pf 5 MW/m/sup 2/ and a surface heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. The blanket is a pressurized steel module with bare beryllium rods and low-activation HT-9-(9-C-) clad LiAlO/sub 2/ rods. The helium coolant pressure is 5 MPa, entering the module at 297/sup 0/C and exiting at 550/sup 0/C. The system power output is rated at 1000 MW(e). In this report, we present our findings on various operational scenarios and their impact on system design. We first start with the salient aspects of operational physics. Time-dependent analyses of the blanket and balance of plant are then presented. Separate abstracts are included for each chapter.


    Dmitrenko D. V.


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the determination of conditions for solid bodies’ fragmentation, providing minimal size of particles by means of their mechanical dispersion through the example of powders of titanium carbide (TiC, cubic boron nitride – borazon (CBN and boron carbide (B4C. The theoretical and practical aspects of the process of mechanical fragmentation of particles of solid powder materials in ball mill for their further utilization in furnace charge for high-speed gas-flame sputtering of wear-resistant composite materials are examined in the article. Methods of preliminary calculation of minimum allowable size of solid particles of powder materials during mechanical fragmentation, based upon Griffiths’ mechanical theory of rapture using experimental data for hardness of material and its yield are proposed and theoretically substantiated. There we have the results of experiments on mechanical fragmentation of titanium carbide in attritor, boron carbide and cubic boron nitride in centrifugal planetary mill, confirming correctness of theoretical propositions and calculations are set out. Recommendations on mechanical fragmentation of solid powder materials in ball mills are formulated as well

  8. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Interconnection materials in a solid oxide fuel cell are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. The thermal expansion characteristics of substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromite interconnect materials were evaluated by dilatometry as a function of oxygen partial pressures from 1 atm to 10{sup -18} atm, controlled using a carbon dioxide/hydrogen buffer.

  9. Cellular Automata Model for Elastic Solid Material

    DONG Yin-Feng; ZHANG Guang-Cai; XU Ai-Guo; GAN Yan-Biao


    The Cellular Automaton (CA) modeling and simulation of solid dynamics is a long-standing difficult problem.In this paper we present a new two-dimensional CA model for solid dynamics.In this model the solid body is represented by a set of white and black particles alternatively positioned in the x-and y-directions.The force acting on each particle is represented by the linear summation of relative displacements of the nearest-neighboring particles.The key technique in this new model is the construction of eight coefficient matrices.Theoretical and numerical analyses show that the present model can be mathematically described by a conservative system.So,it works for elastic material.In the continuum limit the CA model recovers the well-known Navier equation.The coefficient matrices are related to the shear module and Poisson ratio of the material body.Compared with previous CA model for solid body,this model realizes the natural coupling of deformations in the x-and y-directions.Consequently,the wave phenomena related to the Poisson ratio effects are successfully recovered.This work advances significantly the CA modeling and simulation in the field of computational solid dynamics.

  10. Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter


    and electronic conductor (MIEC) the electrode is. Selected examples of literature studies of specific electrodes in solid oxide cells (SOC) are discussed. The reported effects of impurities - both impurities in the electrode materials and in the gases – point to high reactivity and mobility of materials...... in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrodes may...

  11. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.


    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  12. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    Coronado, Paul R.; Coleman, Sabre J.; Sanner, Robert D.; Dias, Victoria L.; Reynolds, John G.


    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  13. Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter


    and electronic conductor (MIEC) the electrode is. Selected examples of literature studies of specific electrodes in solid oxide cells (SOC) are discussed. The reported effects of impurities - both impurities in the electrode materials and in the gases – point to high reactivity and mobility of materials...... place. The length of the TPB is a key factor even though the width and depth of the zone, in which the rate limiting reactions take place, may vary depending of the degree of the electrode materials ability to conduct both electrons and ions, i.e. the TPB zone volume depends on how good a mixed ionic...... in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrodes may...

  14. Numerical-experimental analyses by Hot-Wire method of an alumina cylinder for future studies on thermal conductivity of the fusion breeder materials

    Lo Frano, R.; Moscardini, M.; Aquaro, D.


    The determination of the thermal conductivity of breeder materials is one of the main goal in order to find the best candidate material for the fusion reactor technology. Experimental tests have been and will be carried out with a dedicated experimental devices, built at the Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering of the University of Pisa. The methodological approach used in doing that is characterized by two main phases strictly interrelated each other: the first one focused on the experimental evaluation of thermal conductivity of a ceramic material, by means of hot wire method, to be subsequently used in the second phase, based on the test rig method, to determine the thermal conductivity of pebble bed material. To the purpose, two different experimental devices have been designed and built. This paper deals with the first phase of the methodology. In this framework, the equipment set up and built to perform Hot wire tests, the ceramic material (a cylinder of alumina), the experimental procedure and the measured results obtained varying the temperature, are presented and discussed. The experimental campaign has been lead from 50°C up to 400°C. The thermal conductivity of the ceramic material at different bulk temperatures has been obtained in stationary conditions (detected on the basis of the temperature values measured during the experiment). Numerical analyses have been also performed by means of FEM code Ansys©. The numerical results were in quite good agreement with the experimental one, confirming also the reliability of code in reproducing heat transfer phenomena.

  15. Heat resistant reduced activation 12% Cr steel of 16Cr12W2VTaB type-advanced structural material for fusion and fast breeder power reactors

    Ioltukhovskiy, A. G.; Leonteva-Smirnova, M. V.; Solonin, M. I.; Chernov, V. M.; Golovanov, V. N.; Shamardin, V. K.; Bulanova, T. M.; Povstyanko, A. V.; Fedoseev, A. E.


    Heat resistant 12% Cr steels of the 16Cr12W2VTaB type (12Cr-2W-V-Ta-B-0.16C) provide a reduced activation material that can be used as a structural material for fusion and fast breeder reactors. The composition under study meets scientific and engineering requirements and has an optimal base element composition to provide a δ-ferrite content of no more than 20%. It also has a minimum quantity of low melting impurity elements and non-metallic inclusions. Short-term tensile properties for the steel tested to 700 °C are provided after the standard heat treatment (normalization, temper). Rupture strength and creep properties for the steel depending on the initial heat treatment conditions are also given. The microstructural stability of the 16Cr12W2VTaB type steel at temperatures up to 650 °C is predicted to be good, and the properties of the steel after irradiation in BOR-60 are demonstrated.

  16. Heat resistant reduced activation 12% Cr steel of 16Cr12W2VTaB type-advanced structural material for fusion and fast breeder power reactors

    Ioltukhovskiy, A.G. E-mail:; Leonteva-Smirnova, M.V.; Solonin, M.I.; Chernov, V.M.; Golovanov, V.N.; Shamardin, V.K.; Bulanova, T.M.; Povstyanko, A.V.; Fedoseev, A.E


    Heat resistant 12% Cr steels of the 16Cr12W2VTaB type (12Cr-2W-V-Ta-B-0.16C) provide a reduced activation material that can be used as a structural material for fusion and fast breeder reactors. The composition under study meets scientific and engineering requirements and has an optimal base element composition to provide a {delta}-ferrite content of no more than 20%. It also has a minimum quantity of low melting impurity elements and non-metallic inclusions. Short-term tensile properties for the steel tested to 700 deg. C are provided after the standard heat treatment (normalization, temper). Rupture strength and creep properties for the steel depending on the initial heat treatment conditions are also given. The microstructural stability of the 16Cr12W2VTaB type steel at temperatures up to 650 deg. C is predicted to be good, and the properties of the steel after irradiation in BOR-60 are demonstrated.

  17. Comparison of solid highlighter materials for thermography

    Genest, M.; Forsyth, D.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail:; Maldague, X. [Univ. Laval, Electrical and Computing Engienering Dept., Quebec, Quebec (Canada)


    Bare metal surfaces are difficult to inspect with flash thermography due to the high reflectivity and low emissivity of metal surfaces. Often black paint is used to prepare these surfaces for inspection. The additional time required to apply, dry, and then remove paint after inspection can be a significant barrier to using thermographic inspection techniques in these applications. This paper examines the use of solid 'highlighter' materials instead of paint to provide desirable surface characteristics and ease of use. Both positive pressure and vacuum methods were used to apply a variety of materials to metal test specimens, which were then inspected with a commercial pulsed flash thermography system. A vacuum-applied black latex material provided surface performance close to that of black paint without the extra burden of paint application and removal. (author)

  18. Activation calculation analysis for the China 2×6 solid breeder test blanket module%中国2×6固态实验包层模块活化计算分析

    韩静茹; 陈义学; 张国书; 曹启祥


    Based on the new design of China 2x6 helium cooled solid breeder (CH-HCSB) test blanket module (TBM), three-dimensional activation calculation analysis was performed by using the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP and European activation code FISPACT. The results show that, at the beginning moment after shutdown, the total activity is 1.78×1016Bq, and the total afterheat is 3.01kW. They are both dominated by the structural material CLF-1. Meanwhile, the dominant radioactivity nuclides and reaction pathways have been identified. The results will provide useful indications for materials selection and further optimization design of the TBM. On basis of the calculated contact dose rate, the activated materials can be reused with the remote handling recycling options. That is effective for preventing from the radiation environmental hazard.%基于中国氦冷固态实验包层模块(CH-HCSB-TBM)的新设计方案,采用蒙特卡罗粒子输运程序MCNP和欧洲活化计算程序FISPACT,对CH-HCSB-TBM进行了三维活化计算分析.计算结果表明,停堆初期TBM总的放射性活度、衰变余热分别为1.78× 1016Bq和3.01kW,主要受结构材料CLF-1影响.同时给出了影响TBM材料活化特性的主要核素及其生成途径,为TBM设计的材料选取和优化提供依据.根据计算的停堆剂量率可知,TBM中的活化材料都能采取远程操作实现再循环利用,可有效防止放射性环境危害问题.

  19. Li vaporization property of two-phase material of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} for tritium breeder

    Ogawa, Seiya [Course of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Masuko, Yuki; Kato, Hirokazu; Yuyama, Hayato; Sakai, Yutaro [Department of Prime Mover Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Niwa, Eiki; Hashimoto, Takuya [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, 3-8-1 Sakurajousui, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Mukai, Keisuke [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hosino, Tsuyoshi [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuch, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Sasaki, Kazuya, E-mail: [Course of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Department of Prime Mover Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Course of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)


    Highlights: • We synthesized two phase materials based on Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}. • We investigated the Li vaporization property of the two-phase materials. • Li vaporization occurs significantly from only Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} grains in the vicinity of the surface of the pellets. • The Li vaporization is remarkable only for an early short time for the vaporization from Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} grains at the vicinity of the surface. • The second stable phase added functions effectively for inhibition of the Li vaporization. - Abstract: Li vaporization property of two-phase materials of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} in a working condition for the solid tritium breeder used in the demonstration power plant of fusion reactor was investigated, and the suppression mechanism of the vaporization was considered. The Li vaporization rate from the specimen pellet was measured by gravimetric method, and the change of Li concentration distribution in the pellet was analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer. Li was vaporized only from the Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} at the vicinity of the surface of the pellet. The remarkable vaporization of Li arose only in an early short time. The inhibition of the vaporization from the Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} was successful by adding the small amount of the stable secondary phase of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}.

  20. Solid freeform fabrication of biological materials

    Wang, Jiwen

    This thesis investigates solid freeform fabrication of biological materials for dental restoration and orthopedic implant applications. The basic approach in this study for solid freeform fabrication of biological materials is micro-extrusion of single or multiple slurries for 3D components and inkjet color printing of multiple suspensions for functionally graded materials (FGMs). Common issues associated with micro-extrusion and inkjet color printing are investigated. These common issues include (i) formulation of stable slurries with a pseudoplastic property, (ii) cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate as a function of the extrusion parameters, (iii) fabrication path optimization for extrusion process, (iv) extrusion optimization for multi-layer components, (v) composition control in functionally graded materials, and (vi) sintering optimization to convert the freeform fabricated powder compact to a dense body for biological applications. The present study clearly shows that the rheological and extrusion behavior of dental porcelain slurries depend strongly on the pH value of the slurry and extrusion conditions. A slurry with pseudoplastic properties is a basic requirement for obtaining extruded lines with rectangular cross-sections. The cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate is also strongly affected by extrusion parameters including the extrusion nozzle height, nozzle moving speed, extrusion rate, and critical nozzle height. Proper combinations of these extrusion parameters are necessary in order to obtain single line extrudates with near rectangular cross-sections and 3D objects with dimensional accuracy, uniform wall thickness, good wall uprightness, and no wall slumping. Based on these understandings, single-wall, multi-wall, and solid teeth have been fabricated via micro-extrusion of the dental slurry directly from a CAD digital model in 30 min. Inkjet color printing using stable Al2O3 and ZrO 2 aqueous suspensions has been developed to fabricate

  1. Sealing materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Larsen, P.H.


    A major obstacle in the achievement of high electrical efficiency for planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks (SOFC) is the need for long term stable seals at the operational temperature between 850 and 1000 deg. C. In the present work the formation and properties of sealing materials for SOFC stacks that fulfil the necessary requirements were investigated. The work comprises analysis of sealing material properties independently, in simple systems as well as tests in real SOFC stacks. The analysed sealing materials were based on pure glasses or glass-ceramic composites having B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} or siO{sub 2} as glass formers, and the following four glass systems were investigated: MgO/caO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2} and BaO/Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. (au) 32 tabs., 106 ills., 107 refs.

  2. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  3. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  4. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  5. Metallic materials in solid oxide fuel cells

    Willem Joseph Quadakkers


    Full Text Available Fe-Cr alloys with variations in chromium content and additions of different elements were studied for potential application in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC. Recently, a new type of FeCrMn(Ti/La based ferritic steels has been developed to be used as construction material for SOFC interconnects. In the present paper, the long term oxidation resistance of this class of steels in both air and simulated anode gas will be discussed and compared with the behaviour of a number of commercial available ferritic steels. Besides, in-situ studies were carried out to characterize the high temperature conductivity of the oxide scales formed under these conditions. Main emphasis will be put on the growth and adherence of the oxide scales formed during exposure, their contact resistance at service temperature as well as their interaction with various perovskite type contact materials. Additionally, parameters and protection methods in respect to the volatilization of chromia based oxide scales will be illustrated.

  6. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Macías, A.


    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  7. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others


    Chromite interconnection materials in an SOFC are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. Because such conditions could lead to component failure, the authors have evaluated thermal, electrical, chemical, and structural stabilities of these materials as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The crystal lattice of the chromites was shown to expand for oxygen partial pressures smaller than 10{sup {minus}10} atm, which could lead to cracking and debonding in an SOFC. Highly substituted lanthanum chromite compositions were the most susceptible to lattice expansion; yttrium chromites showed better dimensional stability by more than a factor of two. New chromite compositions were developed that showed little tendency for lattice expansion under strongly reducing conditions, yet provided a good thermal expansion match to other fuel cell components. Use of these new chromite interconnect compositions should improve long-term SOFC performance, particularly for planar cell configurations. Thermodynamic properties of substituted lanthanum manganite cathode compositions have been determined through measurement of electromotive force as a function of temperature. Critical oxygen decomposition pressures for Sr and Ca-substituted lanthanum manganites were established using cells based on a zirconia electrolyte. Strontium oxide and calcium oxide activities in a lanthanum manganite matrix were determined using cells based on strontium fluoride and calcium fluoride electrolytes, respectively. The compositional range of single-phase behavior of these ABO{sub 3}-type perovskites was established as a function of A/B cation ratios and the extent of acceptor doping. Before this work, very little thermodynamic information was in existence for substituted manganite compositions. Such information is needed to predict the long-term stability of solid oxide fuel cell assemblies.

  8. Nanophase materials in solid freeform fabrication

    Manthiram, A.; Bourell, D. L.; Marcus, H. L.


    Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) is a manufacturing technology that produces parts directly from computer-aided design databases. Examples of the SFF approach are selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser reactive sintering (SLRS), both of which have the potential to directly produce structurally sound metallic or ceramic parts. The development of suitable materials systems that can optimize the SLS or SLRS processes are critical to this technology. For instance, nanocomposites, in which the constituents are mixed on a nanometer scale, have the potential to provide important advantages in the SLS and SLRS processes. One strategy is to design and develop nanocomposites in which one nanosize component has a lower melting point than the other nanosize component, either of which can serve as the matrix phase. The nanoscale dispersion of the low-melting component can aid the sintering process during SLS or SLRS. In this article, the philosophical basis for SLS and SLRS of nanocomposites is discussed. Conceptual design of nanocomposite systems and the SLS/SLRS results of a few exploratory systems are presented.

  9. The long-term future for civilian nuclear power generation in France: The case for breeder reactors. Breeder reactors: The physical and physical chemistry parameters, associate material thermodynamics and mechanical engineering: Novelties and issues; La production d'electricite d'origine nucleaire en France, dans le futur a long terme: Le cas des surgenerateurs: Les reacteurs nucleaires surgenerateurs: Les parametres physique et physico-chimiques, la thermodynamique associee des materiaux et de l'ingenierie mecanique: Nouveautes et options

    Dautray, R. [Academie des sciences, 23, quai de Conti, 75270 Paris cedex 06 (France)


    The author gives a summary overview of the knowledge base acquired since the first breeder reactors became operational in the fifties. Neutron transport theory, thermal phenomena, reactor core cooling, various coolants used and envisioned for this function, fuel fabrication from separated materials, main equipment (pumps, valves, heat exchanges...) have now attained maturity, sufficient to implement sodium cooling circuits. However, the use of metallic sodium still raises certain severe questions in terms of safe handling and security considerations. The structural components, both inside the reactor core and outside (i.e. heat exchangers) are undergoing in-depth research so as to last longer. The fuel cycle, notably the re-fabrication of fuel elements and fertile elements, the case of transuranic elements, etc., call for studies into radiation induced phenomena, chemistry separation, separate or otherwise treatments for materials that have different radioactive, physical, thermodynamical, chemical and biological properties. The concerns that surround the definitive disposal of certain radioactive wastes could be qualitatively improved with respect to the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in service today. Lastly, the author notes that breeder reactors eliminate the need for an isotope separation facility, and this constitutes a significant contribution to contain nuclear proliferation. France was in the forefront of nuclear breeder power generation science, technological research and also in the knowledge base related to breeder reactors. It is in the country's interest to pursue these efforts. (author)

  10. Diffusion in Solids Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-Controlled Processes

    Mehrer, Helmut


    Diffusion is a vital topic in solid-state physics and chemistry, physical metallurgy and materials science. Diffusion processes are ubiquitous in solids at elevated temperatures. A thorough understanding of diffusion in materials is crucial for materials development and engineering. This book first gives an account of the central aspects of diffusion in solids, for which the necessary background is a course in solid state physics. It then provides easy access to important information about diffuson in metals, alloys, semiconductors, ion-conducting materials, glasses and nanomaterials. Several diffusion-controlled phenomena, including ionic conduction, grain-boundary and dislocation pipe diffusion, are considered as well. Graduate students in solid-state physics, physical metallurgy, materials science, physical and inorganic chemistry or geophysics will benefit from this book as will physicists, chemists, metallurgists, materials engineers in academic and industrial research laboratories.

  11. Materials for diode pumped solid state lasers

    Chase, L. L.; Davis, L. E.; Krupke, W. F.; Payne, S. A.


    The advantages of semiconductor diode lasers and laser arrays as pump sources for solid state lasers are reviewed. The properties that are desirable in solid state laser media for various diode pumping applications are discussed, and the characteristics of several promising media are summarized.

  12. Youth Solid Waste Educational Materials List, November 1991.

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide provides a brief description and ordering information for approximately 300 educational materials for grades K-12 on the subject of solid waste. The materials cover a variety of environmental issues and actions related to solid waste management. Entries are divided into five sections including audiovisual programs, books, magazines,…

  13. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.


    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  14. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  15. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Armstrong, T.R.; Pederson, L.R.; Stevenson, J.W.; Raney, P.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    The phase stability and sintering behavior of materials used in SOFCs has been evaluated. The sintering behavior of Ca and Sr doped lanthanum. manganite (the preferred SOFC cathode material) is highly dependent on the relative proportion of A and B site cations in the material. Ca and Sr doped lanthanum chromite (the preferred interconnect material) have been shown to rapidly expand in reducing atmospheres at temperatures as low as 700{degrees}C. This expansion is due to the reduction of Cr{sup 4+} to Cr{sup 3+} in reducing environments.

  16. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    Suchet, J P


    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon

  17. Nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials for solid fuel cell systems

    Brinkman, Kyle S


    Disclosed are solid fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells and PEM fuel cells that include nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials as a component of the fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can include nanocrystalline cerium oxide as a cathode component and microcrystalline cerium oxide as an electrolyte component, which can prevent mechanical failure and interdiffusion common in other fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can also include nanocrystalline cerium oxide in the anode. A PEM fuel cell can include cerium oxide as a catalyst support in the cathode and optionally also in the anode.

  18. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter


    During combustion of solid fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions can occur and cause decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentration, which may cause...... deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...

  19. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez


    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  20. Solid-State Explosive Reaction for Nanoporous Bulk Thermoelectric Materials.

    Zhao, Kunpeng; Duan, Haozhi; Raghavendra, Nunna; Qiu, Pengfei; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Jihui; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong


    High-performance thermoelectric materials require ultralow lattice thermal conductivity typically through either shortening the phonon mean free path or reducing the specific heat. Beyond these two approaches, a new unique, simple, yet ultrafast solid-state explosive reaction is proposed to fabricate nanoporous bulk thermoelectric materials with well-controlled pore sizes and distributions to suppress thermal conductivity. By investigating a wide variety of functional materials, general criteria for solid-state explosive reactions are built upon both thermodynamics and kinetics, and then successfully used to tailor material's microstructures and porosity. A drastic decrease in lattice thermal conductivity down below the minimum value of the fully densified materials and enhancement in thermoelectric figure of merit are achieved in porous bulk materials. This work demonstrates that controlling materials' porosity is a very effective strategy and is easy to be combined with other approaches for optimizing thermoelectric performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Understanding solids: the science of materials

    Tilley, Richard J. D.


    This edition contains new sections on the use of computing methods to solve materials problems and has been thoroughly updated to include the many developments and advances made in the past 10 years, e.g.  batteries, solar cells, lighting technology, laser...

  2. Soft solids a primer to the theoretical mechanics of materials

    Freed, Alan D


    This textbook presents the physical principles pertinent to the mathematical modeling of soft materials used in engineering practice, including both man-made materials and biological tissues. It is intended for seniors and masters-level graduate students in engineering, physics, or applied mathematics. It will also be a valuable resource for researchers working in mechanics, biomechanics, and other fields where the mechanical response of soft solids is relevant.   Soft Solids: A Primer to the Theoretical Mechanics of Materials is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the basic concepts needed to give both Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of the mechanical response of soft solids. Part II presents two distinct theories of elasticity and their associated theories of viscoelasticity. Seven boundary-value problems are studied over the course of the book, each pertaining to an experiment used to characterize materials. These problems are discussed at the end of each chapter, giving students the opportunit...

  3. Understanding solids the science of materials

    Tilley, Richard J D


    A modern introduction to the subject taking a unique integrated approach designed to appeal to both science and engineering students. Covering a broad spectrum of topics, this book includes numerous up-to-date examples of real materials with relevant applications and a modern treatment of key concepts. The science bias allows this book to be equally accessible to engineers, chemists and physicists. * Carefully structured into self-contained bite-sized chapters to enhance student understanding * Questions have been designed to reinforce the concepts presented * Includes coverage of radioactivit

  4. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  5. Homogeneity studies in reference materials with Zeeman solid sampling GFAAS

    Mohl, C.; Stoeppler, M.; Grobecker, K.H.


    The homogeneity of lead and cadmium in reference materials was investigated by solid sampling GFAAS. The following materials were comparatively analyzed: Standard reference materials from NBS, Washington 1567 wheat flour, 1568 rice flour and 1577a bovine liver, certified reference materials from BCR, Brussels, No 63 milk powder, No 184 bovine muscle, No 185 bovine liver, No 186 pig kidney, No 189 wholemeal flour, No 191 brown bread and a whole fish (dab) homogenate from the environmental specimen bank in the FRG. The results are remarkably different for the investigated materials.

  6. SRM (Solid Rocket Motor) propellant and polymer materials structural modeling

    Moore, Carleton J.


    The following investigation reviews and evaluates the use of stress relaxation test data for the structural analysis of Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) propellants and other polymer materials used for liners, insulators, inhibitors, and seals. The stress relaxation data is examined and a new mathematical structural model is proposed. This model has potentially wide application to structural analysis of polymer materials and other materials generally characterized as being made of viscoelastic materials. A dynamic modulus is derived from the new model for stress relaxation modulus and is compared to the old viscoelastic model and experimental data.

  7. Method of investigation of deformations of solids of incompressible materials

    Abdrakhmanova, A. I.; Garifullin, I. R.; Sultanov, L. U.


    The aim of this work is development mathematical models, algorithm for the investigation stress-strain state of elastic solids, taking into account the incompressibility materials. The constitutive equations are received using a potential energy of deformations. The system of the linear algebraic equations is received by linearization of a resolving equation. The penalty method is applied for a modelling of the incompressibility of the material. The finite element method is used for numerical solution of the problems.

  8. PVD materials for electrochromic all-solid-state devices

    Ottermann, Clemens R.; Segner, Johannes G.; Bange, Klaus


    The electrochromic properties of all solid state devices (ASSDs) are strongly defined by thin film materials used as well as the method of deposition. Various thin film materials deposited by evaporation and sputtering are described serving as electrode, reflector, electrolyte, storage medium, or electrochromic film in ASSD. The impact of process parameters upon the device functionality is shown. In addition, the long-term stability of ASSDs for the different thin film systems is reported.

  9. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    Yazdan Mehr, M.


    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology i

  10. Introduction of Materials Science Through Solid State Chemistry.

    Mueller, William M.

    Presented is a report of a program of the American Society for Metals, designed to introduce materials science principles via solid state chemistry into high school chemistry courses. At the time of the inception of this program in the mid-sixties, it was felt that high school students were not being adequately exposed to career opportunities in…

  11. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    Yazdan Mehr, M.


    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology

  12. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra


    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  13. Triggerless vacuum shunting plasma by metallic and solid materials

    Yukimura, Ken; Tani, Yuuji; Masamune, Sadao


    Shunting discharge is an alternating capacitor discharge through a rod of solid-state or metallic materials. Optimization of the discharge condition has realized self-ignition of the arc discharge with low input power to the rod, leading to a much longer rod life time than in conventional shunting arc or peripheral arc. The shunting-arc-produced plasma contains mainly the ions of the solid-state material, and ion extraction from the plasma has also been demonstrated. Thus, the shunting arc works as a pulsed ion source for solid-state materials for plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and ion processing. This article describes the characteristics of pulsed shunting arc, using the materials of carbon, niobium and silicon. The capacitor of 10 nF of which charging voltage is 10 to 25 kV using a thyratron as a closing switch. Glow discharge is firstly produced after the heat of the materials and then the plasma changes the style to the arc discharge. A negative high voltage pulse of -5 to -10 kV was applied to a target which was located at 30 cm away from the electrodes. We will discuss the ion species of the shunting plasma and ion extraction from the plasma using the time evolution of target current.

  14. Accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from protoplanetary disks

    Tanigawa, Takayuki [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Maruta, Akito; Machida, Masahiro N., E-mail: [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)


    We investigate the accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from heliocentric orbits rotating in protoplanetary disks, which is a key process for the formation of regular satellite systems. In the late stage of the gas-capturing phase of giant planet formation, the accreting gas from protoplanetary disks forms circumplanetary disks. Since the accretion flow toward the circumplanetary disks affects the particle motion through gas drag force, we use hydrodynamic simulation data for the gas drag term to calculate the motion of solid materials. We consider a wide range of size for the solid particles (10{sup –2}-10{sup 6} m), and find that the accretion efficiency of the solid particles peaks around 10 m sized particles because energy dissipation of drag with circum-planetary disk gas in this size regime is most effective. The efficiency for particles larger than 10 m becomes lower because gas drag becomes less effective. For particles smaller than 10 m, the efficiency is lower because the particles are strongly coupled with the background gas flow, which prevents particles from accretion. We also find that the distance from the planet where the particles are captured by the circumplanetary disks is in a narrow range and well described as a function of the particle size.

  15. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne


    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Transport phenomena and drying of solids and particulate materials

    Lima, AG


    The purpose of this book, Transport Phenomena and Drying of Solids and Particulate Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer, transport phenomena, drying and wetting of solids and particulate materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the heat and mass transfer in solids and particulate materials. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena, drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional c...

  17. Exploring Magnetic Elastocaloric Materials for Solid-State Cooling

    Liu, Jian; Zhao, Dewei; Li, Yang


    In the past decade, there has been an increased surge in the research on elastocaloric materials for solid-state refrigerators. The strong coupling between structure and magnetism inspires the discovery of new multi-field driven elastocaloric alloys. This work is devoted to magnetic shape memory alloys suitable for mechanical cooling applications. Some novel characteristics in magnetostructural transition materials other than conventional shape memory alloys are overviewed. From the physical and engineering points of view, we have put forward general strategies to maximize elastocaloric temperature change to increase performance reversibility and to improve mechanical properties. The barocaloric effect as a sister-cooling alternative is also discussed.

  18. Review on MIEC Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Burnwal, Suman Kumar; Bharadwaj, S.; Kistaiah, P.


    The cathode is one of the most important components of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The reduction of oxygen at the cathode (traditional cathodes like LSM, LSGM, etc.) is the slow step in the cell reaction at intermediate temperature (600-800∘C) which is one of the key obstacles to the development of SOFCs. The mixed ionic and electronic conducting cathode (MIEC) like LSCF, BSCF, etc., has recently been proposed as a promising cathode material for SOFC due to the improvement of the kinetic of the cathode reaction. The MIEC materials provide not only the electrons for the reduction of oxygen, but also the ionic conduction required to ensure the transport of the formed oxygen ions and thereby improves the overall electrochemical performance of SOFC system. The characteristics of MIEC cathode materials and its comparison with other traditional cathode materials is studied and presented in the paper.

  19. Novel solidsolid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose used for temperature stabilisation

    Wojda Marta


    Full Text Available Thermal management is one of crucial issues in the development of modern electronic devices. In the recent years interest in phase change materials (PCMs as alternative cooling possibility has increased significantly. Preliminary results concerning the research into possibility of the use of solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs for stabilisation temperature of electronic devices has been presented in the paper. Novel solid-solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose has been synthesized. Attempt to improve its thermal conductivity has been taken. Material has been synthesized for the purpose of stabilisation of temperature of electronic devices.

  20. Calorimetry study of microwave absorption of some solid materials.

    He, Chun Lin; Ma, Shao Jian; Su, Xiu Juan; Chen, Yan Qing; Liang, Yu Shi


    In practice, the dielectric constant of a material varies the applied frequency the material composition, particle size, purity, temperature, physical state (solid or liquid), and moisture content. All of these parameters might change during processing, therefore, it is difficult to predict how well a material will absorb microwave energy in a given process. When the temperature is measured by a digital thermometer, it could not accurately reflect the true temperature of the bulk materials, especially for mixed materials. Thus, in this paper we measured the microwave absorption characteristics of different materials by calorimetry. The microwave power levels, irradiation times, and masses of the materials were varied. It was difficult to predict the microwave energy absorption characteristics of reagent-grade inorganic compounds based on their color, metallic cation, or water stoichiometry. CuO, MnO2, Fe3O4, and MnSO4 x H2O (Taishan) strongly absorbed microwave energy. Most of the remaining inorganic compounds were poor absorbers, with silica hardly absorbing any microwave energy. Carbon-based materials had significantly different microwave absorption characteristics. Activated carbon and coke were especially sensitive to microwaves, but different types of coal were poor absorbers. The jamesonite concentrate absorbed microwave energy strongly, while the zinc concentrate was a poor absorber.

  1. The reprocessing of advanced mixed lithium orthosilicate/metatitanate tritium breeder pebbles

    Leys, Oliver, E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Bergfeldt, Thomas; Kolb, Matthias H.H.; Knitter, Regina [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Goraieb, Aniceto A. [Karlsruhe Beryllium Handling Facility, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany)


    Highlights: • The recycling of advanced breeder pebbles without a deterioration of the material properties is possible using a melt-based process. • The only accumulation of impurities upon reprocessing, results from the platinum crucible alloy used for processing. • It is possible to replenish burnt-up lithium by additions of LiOH·H{sub 2}O to the melt during reprocessing. - Abstract: The recycling of tritium breeding materials will be necessary for any future use of nuclear fusion energy due to economical as well as ecological considerations. In the case of the solid breeder blanket concept, the ceramic pebble beds that are intended for the generation of tritium will eventually need to be restored due to depleted lithium levels as well as due to fractured pebbles, which will cause a deterioration of the pebble bed properties. It is proposed that the pebbles, which are fabricated using a melt-based process, are recycled using the same initial process, by replenishing the lithium levels and reforming the pebbles at the same time. To prove this recycling scheme, advanced ceramic pebbles were fabricated and then re-melted multiple times to prove that the reprocessing did not have any negative effect on the pebble properties and secondly, pebbles were produced with a simulated lithium burn-up and subsequently replenished by additions of LiOH to the melt. It was shown that the re-melting and lithium re-enrichment had no effect on the pebble properties, demonstrating that a melt-based process is suitable for recycling used breeder pebbles.

  2. Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of inorganic materials

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J D


    Techniques of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are constantly being extended to a more diverse range of materials, pressing into service an ever-expanding range of nuclides including some previously considered too intractable to provide usable results. At the same time, new developments in both hardware and software are being introduced and refined. This book covers the most important of these new developments. With sections addressed to non-specialist researchers (providing accessible answers to the most common questions about the theory and practice of NMR asked by novices) as well as a more specialised and up-to-date treatment of the most important areas of inorganic materials research to which NMR has application, this book should be useful to NMR users whatever their level of expertise and whatever inorganic materials they wish to study.

  3. Converters and electric machines. Solid insulating materials. Electrical characteristics; Convertisseurs et machines electriques. Materiaux isolants solides. Caracteristiques electriques

    Anton, A. [Institut National Superieur de Chimie Industrielle, 76 - Rouen (France)


    The aim of this article is to allow a preselection of a solid insulating material using the most common electrical characteristics: tangent of the loss angle, relative permittivity, dielectric rigidity, superficial resistivity, transverse resistivity, resistance to high voltage creeping spark currents, index of creeping resistance. The characteristics of the main solid insulating materials are presented in tables for: thermoplastics, thermosetting materials, natural insulating materials, mineral insulating materials, rubber and synthetic elastomers, stratified insulating materials, thermoplastic films, composite synthetic papers. A comparison is made between the different materials using the three properties: tangent of the loss angle, relative permittivity and resistance to HV spark creeping currents. (J.S.)

  4. Oxide anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)


    A major advantage of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) over polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is their tolerance for the type and purity of fuel. This fuel flexibility is due in large part to the high operating temperature of SOFCs, but also relies on the selection and development of appropriate materials - particularly for the anode where the fuel reaction occurs. This paper reviews the oxide materials being investigated as alternatives to the most commonly used nickel-YSZ cermet anodes for SOFCs. The majority of these oxides form the perovskite structure, which provides good flexibility in doping for control of the transport properties. However, oxides that form other crystal structures, such as the cubic fluorite structure, have also shown promise for use as SOFC anodes. In this paper, oxides are compared primarily in terms of their transport properties, but other properties relative to SOFC anode performance are also discussed. (author)

  5. Crystal-Field Engineering of Solid-State Laser Materials

    Henderson, Brian; Bartram, Ralph H.


    This book examines the underlying science and design of laser materials. It emphasizes the principles of crystal-field engineering and discusses the basic physical concepts that determine laser gain and nonlinear frequency conversion in optical crystals. Henderson and Bartram develop the predictive capabilities of crystal-field engineering to show how modification of the symmetry and composition of optical centers can improve laser performance. They also discuss applications of the principles of crystal-field engineering to a variety of optical crystals in relation to the performances of laser devices. This book will be of considerable interest to physical, chemical and material scientists and to engineers involved in the science and technology of solid state lasers.

  6. Resilient Sealing Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Signo T. Reis; Richard K. Brow


    This report describes the development of ''invert'' glass compositions designed for hermetic seals in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Upon sealing at temperatures compatible with other SOFC materials (generally {le}900 C), these glasses transform to glass-ceramics with desirable thermo-mechanical properties, including coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) over 11 x 10{sup -6}/C. The long-term (>four months) stability of CTE under SOFC operational conditions (e.g., 800 C in wet forming gas or in air) has been evaluated, as have weight losses under similar conditions. The dependence of sealant properties on glass composition are described in this report, as are experiments to develop glass-matrix composites by adding second phases, including Ni and YSZ. This information provides design-guidance to produce desirable sealing materials.

  7. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan


    The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

  8. The solid lubricating material experiment device for Shenzhou-7 Spaceship


    A solid lubricating material exposure experiment in space is one of the missions during the seventh manned spaceflight of China,and the key is to develop a device which can be fixed reliably outside of the orbital module and can be fetched conveniently by an astronaut during space walk.The solid lubricating material experiment device needs to be locked reliably in a vibrating and impacting environment during the launch phase,and should meet the requirement that it can be unlocked and fetched reliably by the astronaut wearing an extravehicular spacesuit via simple operations in orbit in an environment of high and low temperature.As for the device we developed,the environmental characteristic of the mission was analyzed,the mechanical analysis and thermal analysis were carried out,and then a mechanism with functions of mechanical locking,structural self-locking and manual unlocking was designed.The device was verified by a sequence of experiments and was fetched by the astronaut during the flight of the Shenzhou-7 Spaceship.

  9. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  10. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Saime Guzel


    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  11. Test and Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Ablative Materials

    Clayton, J. Louie


    Asbestos free solid motor internal insulation samples were tested at the MSFC Hyperthermal Facility. Objectives of the test were to gather data for analog characterization of ablative and in-depth thermal performance of rubber materials subject to high enthalpy/pressure flow conditions. Tests were conducted over a range of convective heat fluxes for both inert and chemically reactive sub-sonic free stream gas flow. Instrumentation included use of total calorimeters, thermocouples, and a surface pyrometer for surface temperature measurement. Post-test sample forensics involved measurement of eroded depth, charred depth, total sample weight loss, and documentation of the general condition of the eroded profile. A complete Charring Material Ablator (CMA) style aero-thermal analysis was conducted for the test matrix and results compared to the measured data. In general, comparisons were possible for a number of the cases and the results show a limited predictive ability to model accurately both the ablative response and the in-depth temperature profiles. Lessons learned and modeling recommendations are made regarding future testing and modeling improvements that will increase understanding of the basic chemistry/physics associated with the complicated material ablation process of rubber materials.

  12. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.


    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  13. Pre-conceptual design study on K-DEMO ceramic breeder blanket

    Park, Jong Sung, E-mail: [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sungjin; Im, Kihak; Kim, Keeman [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Thomas; Neilson, George [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)


    A pre-conceptual design study has been carried out for the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) tokamak featured by high magnetic field (B{sub T0} = 7.4 T), R = 6.8 m, a = 2.1 m, and a steady-state operation. The design concepts of the K-DEMO blanket system considering the cooling in-vessel components with pressurized water and a solid pebble breeder are described herein. The structure of the K-DEMO blanket is toroidally subdivided into 16 inboard and 32 outboard sectors, in order to allow the vertical maintenance. Each blanket module is composed of plasma-facing first wall, layers of breeding parts, shielding and manifolds. A ceramic breeder using Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles with Be{sub 12}Ti as neuron multiplier is employed for study. MCNP neutronic simulations and thermo-hydraulic analyses are interactively performed in order to satisfy two key aspects: achieving a global Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) >1.05 and operating within the maximum allowable temperature ranges of materials.

  14. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  15. Novel Materials and Devices for Solid-State Neutron Detection

    Manginell, Ronald P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pfeifer, Kent B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    There is a need in many fields, such as nuclear medicine, non-proliferation, energy exploration, national security, homeland security, nuclear energy, etc, for miniature, thermal neutron detectors. Until recently, thermal neutron detection has required physically large devices to provide sufficient neutron interaction and transduction signal. Miniaturization would allow broader use in the fields just mentioned and open up other applications potentially. Recent research shows promise in creating smaller neutron detectors through the combination of high-neutron-cross-section converter materials and solid-state devices. Yet, till recently it is difficult to measure low neutron fluxes by solidstate means given the need for optimized converter materials (purity, chemical composition and thickness) and a lack of designs capable of efficient transduction of the neutron conversion products (x-rays, electrons, gamma rays). Gadolinium-based semiconductor heterojunctions have detected electrons produced by Gd-neutron reactions but only at high neutron fluxes. One of the main limitations to this type of approach is the use of thin converter layers and the inability to utilize all the conversion products. In this LDRD we have optimized the converter material thickness and chemical composition to improve capture of conversion electrons and have detected thermal neutrons with high fidelity at low flux. We are also examining different semiconductor materials and converter materials to attempt to capture a greater percentage of the conversion electrons, both low and higher energy varieties. We have studied detector size and bias scaling, and cross-sensitivity to xrays and shown that we can detect low fluxes of thermal neutrons in less than 30 minutes with high selectivity by our approach. We are currently studying improvements in performance with direct placement of the Gd converter on the detector. The advancement of sensitive, miniature neutron detectors will have benefits in

  16. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan


    AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed strontium-and-magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSGM). The objective of the study was to identify the materials system for fabrication and evaluation of intermediate temperature (600-800 C) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The slurry-coated electrode materials had fine porosity to enhance catalytic activity. Cathode materials investigated include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM-doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF-LSGM. The anode materials were Ni-Ce{sub 0.85}Gd{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} (Ni-GDC) and Ni-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (Ni-LDC) composites. Experiments conducted with the anode materials investigated the effect of having a barrier layer of GDC or LDC in between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode to prevent adverse reaction of the Ni with lanthanum in LSGM. For proper interpretation of the beneficial effects of the barrier layer, similar measurements were performed without the barrier layer. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the system were obtained over time as a function of temperature (600-800 C), firing temperature, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. The study revealed important details pertaining to the ohmic and the polarization resistances of the electrode as they relate to stability and the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrode structures.

  17. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.


    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  18. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A


    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the successful commercialization of several LBDDS products over the years, a large discrepancy exists between the number of poorly water-soluble drugs displaying suboptimal in vivo performances and the application of LBDDS to mitigate their various delivery challenges. Conventional LBDDS, including lipid solutions and suspensions, emulsions, and self-emulsifying formulations, suffer from various drawbacks limiting their widespread use and commercialization. Accordingly, solid-state LBDDS, fabricated by adsorbing LBDDS onto a chemically inert solid carrier material, have attracted substantial interest as a viable means of stabilizing LBDDS whilst eliminating some of the various limitations. This review describes the impact of solid carrier choice on LBDDS performance and highlights the importance of appropriate solid carrier material selection when designing hybrid solid-state LBDDS. Specifically, emphasis is placed on discussing the ability of the specific solid carrier to modulate drug release, control lipase action and lipid digestion, and enhance biopharmaceutical performance above the original liquid-state LBDDS. To encourage the interested reader to consider their solid carrier choice on a higher level, various novel materials with the potential for future use as solid carriers for LBDDS are described. This review is highly significant in guiding future research directions in the solid-state LBDDS field and fostering the translation of these delivery systems to the pharmaceutical marketplace.

  19. Fast breeder reactor protection system

    van Erp, J.B.


    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  20. Breeder nutrition and offspring performance

    F Calini


    Full Text Available Vertical integration in poultry industry strongly emphasizes the importance of cost control at all levels. In the usual broiler production operations, the costs involved with the production of the hatching egg or the day old chick are negligible if seen in the perspective of the cost per kg of live bird. From a research point of view, anyway, the greatest attention is usually given to the performance of broiler breeders, and most of the research in the field is focused on the improvement of their relative performance, mainly in terms of saleable chicks produced per hen, while less attention has been given to the quality of the chick and to the improvement of its growth performances, even if these last parameters have an effective impact on the overall economics of the poultry growing business. Most of the data available is quite dated, as can be seen from some recent reviews, and in general little attention is given to the impact of parental nutrition on the subsequent broiler performance. It is in fact more usual to find data about dam nutrition influence on egg fertility and hatchability than on subsequent progeny performance. The objectives of this review were to assess, on the basis of published reports, the effects of selected nutrients and anti-nutrients normally prevailing in commercial broiler breeder feeds - vitamins, micro-minerals, mycotoxins, - trying to pinpoint which could be the positive and the negative effects of both on the subsequent broiler performance, with a particular attention to the impact on immune function and carcass yield.

  1. Laser (cooling) refrigeration in erbium based solid state materials

    Lynch, Jonathan W.

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of erbium based solid state materials for laser refrigeration in bulk material. A great deal of work in the field has been focused on the use of ytterbium based ZBLAN glass. Some experiments have also reported cooling in thulium based solid state materials but with considerably less success. We proposed that erbium had many attractive features compared to ytterbium and therefore should be tried for cooling. The low lying energy level structure of erbium provides energy levels that could bring obtainable temperatures two orders of magnitude lower. Erbium transitions of interest for cooling fall in the near IR region (0.87 microns and 1.5 microns). Lasers for one of these transitions, in the 1.5 micron region, are well developed for communication and are in the eye-safe and water and atmosphere transparent region. Theoretical calculations are also presented so as to identify energy levels of the eleven 4f electrons in Er3+ in Cs2NaYCl 6:Er3+ and the transitions between them. The strengths of the optical transitions between them have been calculated. Knowledge of such energy levels and the strength of the laser induced transitions between them is crucial for understanding the refrigeration mechanisms and different energy transfer pathways following the laser irradiation. The crystal host for erbium was a hexa-chloro-elpasolite crystal, Cs 2NaYCl6:Er3+ with an 80% (stoichiometric) concentration of erbium. The best cooling results were obtained using the 0.87 micron transition. We have demonstrated bulk cooling in this crystal with a temperature difference of ~6.2 K below the surrounding temperature. The temperatures of the crystal and its immediate surrounding environment were measured using differential thermometry. Refrigeration experiments using the 1.5 micron transition were performed and the results are presented. The demonstrated temperature difference was orders of magnitude smaller. Only a temperature

  2. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.


    ... MATERIALS Definitions § 227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (a) For the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. 227.32 Section 227.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  3. Solid State NMR Studies of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials

    Jankuru Hennadige, Sohan Roshel De Silva

    NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy is utilized to study energy conversion and storage materials. Different types of NMR techniques including Magic Angle Spinning, Cross-polarization and relaxation measurement experiments were employed. Four different projects are discussed in this dissertation. First, three types of CFx battery materials were investigated. Electrochemical studies have demonstrated different electrochemical performances by one type, delivering superior performance over the other two. 13C and 19F MAS NMR techniques are employed to identify the atomic/molecular structural factors that might account for differences in electrochemical performance among different types. Next as the second project, layered polymer dielectrics were investigated by NMR. Previous studies have shown that thin film capacitors are improved by using alternate layers of two polymers with complementary properties: one with a high breakdown strength and one with high dielectric constant as opposed to monolithic layers. 13C to 1H cross-polarization techniques were used to investigate any inter-layer properties that may cause the increase in the dielectric strength. The third project was to study two types of thermoelectric materials. These samples were made of heavily doped phosphorous and boron in silicon by two different methods: ball-milled and annealed. These samples were investigated by NMR to determine the degree of disorder and obtain insight into the doping efficiency. The last ongoing project is on a lithium-ion battery system. The nature of passivating layers or the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the electrodes surface is important because of the direct correlation between the SEI and the battery life time/durability. Multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) techniques are employed to identify the composition of the SEI formation of both positive and negative electrodes.

  4. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas


    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  5. Application of solid waste containing lead for gamma ray shielding material



    Abstract. The basic strategies to decrease solid waste disposal problems have focused on the reduction of waste production and recovery of usable materials using waste and making raw materials. Generally, various materials have been used for radiation shielding in different areas and situations. In this study, a novel shielding material produced by a metallurgical solid waste containing lead has been analyzed in order to make a shielding material against gamma radiation. The photon total mass...

  6. New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Allan J. Jacobson


    the perovskite compositions that were being investigated at PNNL, in order to assess the relative importance of the intrinsic properties such as oxygen ion diffusion and surface exchange rates as predictors of performance in cell tests. We then used these measurements to select new materials for scaled up synthesis and performance evaluation in single cell tests. The results of the single cell tests than provided feedback to the materials synthesis and selection steps. In this summary, the following studies are reported: (1) Synthesis, characterization, and DC conductivity measurements of the P1 compositions La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3-x} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3-x} were completed. A combinational approach for preparing a range P1 (La,Sr)FeO{sub 3} compositions as thin films was investigated. Synthesis and heat treatment of amorphous SrFeO{sub 3-x} and LaFeO{sub 3-x} films prepared by pulsed laser deposition are described. (2) Oxygen transport properties of K1 compositions La{sub x}Pr{sub 2-x}NiO{sub 4+d} (x =2.0, 1.9, 1.2, 1.0 and 0) measured by electrical conductivity relaxation are presented in this report. Area specific resistances determined by ac impedance measurements for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} on CGO are encouraging and suggest that further optimization of the electrode microstructure will enable the target to be reached. (3) The oxygen exchange kinetics of the oxygen deficient double perovskite LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (Ln=Pr and Nd) were determined by electrical conductivity relaxation. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The first complete cell measurements were performed on Ni/CGO/CGO/PBCO/CGO cells. (4) The oxygen exchange kinetics of highly epitaxial thin films of PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (PBCO) has been determined by electrical conductivity

  7. Thermomechanics of solid materials with application to the Gurson-Tvergaard material model

    Santaoja, K. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity


    The elastic-plastic material model for porous material proposed by Gurson and Tvergaard is evaluated. First a general description is given of constitutive equations for solid materials by thermomechanics with internal variables. The role and definition of internal variables are briefly discussed and the following definition is given: The independent variables present (possibly hidden) in the basic laws for thermomechanics are called controllable variables. The other independent variables are called internal variables. An internal variable is shown always to be a state variable. This work shows that if the specific dissipation function is a homogeneous function of degree one in the fluxes, a description for a time-independent process is obtained. When damage to materials is evaluated, usually a scalar-valued or tensorial variable called damage is introduced in the set of internal variables. A problem arises when determining the relationship between physically observable weakening of the material and the value for damage. Here a more feasible approach is used. Instead of damage, the void volume fraction is inserted into the set of internal variables. This allows use of an analytical equation for description of the mechanical weakening of the material. An extension to the material model proposed by Gurson and modified by Tvergaard is derived. The derivation is based on results obtained by thermomechanics and damage mechanics. The main difference between the original Gurson-Tvergaard material model and the extended one lies in the definition of the internal variable `equivalent tensile flow stress in the matrix material` denoted by {sigma}{sup M}. Using classical plasticity theory, Tvergaard elegantly derived an evolution equation for {sigma}{sup M}. This is not necessary in the present model, since damage mechanics gives an analytical equation between the stress tensor {sigma} and {sigma}M. Investigation of the Clausius-Duhem inequality shows that in compression

  8. 76 FR 46290 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...


    ... and steel scrap, other metals, paper fiber) sustainability; C&D materials; and zero waste. Topic 3... AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source... Report called ``Municipal Solid Waste in the United States'' as part of a broader discussion about...

  9. Potential electrode materials for symmetrical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Ruiz Morales, J. C.


    Full Text Available Chromites, titanates and Pt-YSZ-CeO2 cermets have been investigated as potential electrode materials for an alternative concept of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC, the symmetrical SOFCs (SFC. In this configuration, the same electrode material is used simultaneously as anode and cathode. Interconnector materials, such as chromites, could be considered as potential SFC electrodes, at least under pure hydrogen-fed at relatively high temperatures, as they do not exhibit significant catalytic activity towards hydrocarbon oxidation. This may be overcome by partially substituting Cr in the perovskite B-sites by other transition metal cations such as Mn. La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-δ (LSCM is a good candidate for such SFCs, rendering fuel cell performances in excess of 500 and 300mW/cm2 using pure H2 and CH4 as fuel, at 950 oC. Similarly, typical n-type electronic conductors traditionally regarded as anode materials, such as strontium titanates, may also operate under oxidising conditions as cathodes by substituting some Ti content for Fe to introduce p-type conductivity. Preliminary electrochemical experiments on La4Sr8Ti12-xFexO38-δ-based SFCs show that they perform reasonably well under humidified H2, at high temperatures. A third group of materials is the support material of any typical cermet anode, i.e. YSZ, CeO2 plus a current collector. It has been found that this combination could be optimised to operate as SFC electrodes, rendering performances of 400mW/cm2 under humidified pure H2 at 950oC.

    Cromitas, titanatos y cermets de Pt-YSZ-CeO2 han sido investigados como potenciales materiales de electrodo para un concepto alternativo de Pilas de Combustible de Óxidos Sólidos (SOFC, las pilas SOFC simétricas (SFC. En

  10. 75 FR 64585 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...


    ... nonsubstantive changes, however, to correct grammar, internal paragraph references, and a temperature conversion... means the English version of the ``International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code'' published by...

  11. Characterizaticr of Solid State Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials.


    materials useful in the different methods for obtaining frequency agility: narrow line emitters with multiple lasing channels and nonlinear optical materials . In...codoped with two or more rare earth ions were studied and computers models developed to explain their spectral dynamics. The nonlinear optical materials investigated

  12. Evaluation of nutrient specifications for broiler breeders.

    Wilson, H R; Harms, R H


    Two experiments were conducted to determine if previously suggested nutrient requirements of broiler breeders (23 g protein, 850 mg sulfur amino acids, 4.5 g calcium, and 750 mg phosphorus/bird/day) are in excess and could be reduced during the laying period. In Experiment 1, Cobb color-sex broiler breeders were fed daily nutrient allowances that were 100.0, 96.3, 92.5, 89.4, and 86.6% of the suggested requirements. In Experiment 2, Cobb feather-sex breeders were fed daily allowances that were 92.5, 89.4, 86.6, 83.4, and 80.9% of the suggested requirements. Birds on all diets were fed the same energy level; however, energy varied with season to maintain body weight. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, egg weight, and shell quality were not significantly affected by the reductions in nutrient intake in either experiment. The diet with the lowest nutrient level (80.9% of the suggested requirement) was adequate, indicating a considerable margin of safety for the stated requirements. Body weight was quite variable but tended to decrease with nutrient restriction. Weights of broilers hatched from treated breeders were not significantly affected at 49 days of age by the breeder dietary treatments. These results indicate that broiler breeder diets formulated to meet presently suggested requirements have a large margin of safety and a reduction of specifications by approximately 10% is suggested. The revised daily intakes recommended are: 20.6 g protein, 754 mg sulfur amino acids, 400 mg methionine, 938 mg lysine, 1379 mg arginine, 256 mg tryptophan, 4.07 g calcium, 683 mg total phosphorus, and 170 mg sodium.

  13. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    Judd, A M


    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  14. Jet engine with electromagnetic field excitation of expendable solid-state material

    Tsybin, O. Yu.; Makarov, S. B.; Ostapenko, O. N.


    Electromagnetic field action on a solid-state natural raw material is considered here in the context of producing a mechanical reactive momentum. We suggest the development of a jet engine that possesses fast control and low thrust based on desorption or sputtering of particles flow from a solid surface.

  15. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source... management, recycling, measurement, data, data collection, construction and demolition (C&D)...


    V. A. Okovity


    Full Text Available The paper presents an oxide ceramic material with addition of solid lubricant which has good technological characteristics and which is able to form high wear-resistant plasma coatings with low friction coefficient.

  17. Ultrathin two-dimensional inorganic materials: new opportunities for solid state nanochemistry.

    Sun, Yongfu; Gao, Shan; Lei, Fengcai; Xiao, Chong; Xie, Yi


    CONSPECTUS: The ultimate goal of solid state chemistry is to gain a clear correlation between atomic, defect, and electronic structure and intrinsic properties of solid state materials. Solid materials can generally be classified as amorphous, quasicrystalline, and crystalline based on their atomic arrangement, in which crystalline materials can be further divided into single crystals, microcrystals, and nanocrystals. Conventional solid state chemistry mainly focuses on studying single crystals and microcrystals, while recently nanocrystals have become a hot research topic in the field of solid state chemistry. As more and more nanocrystalline materials have been artificially fabricated, the solid state chemistry for studying those nanosolids has become a new subdiscipline: solid state nanochemistry. However, solid state nanochemistry, usually called "nanochemistry" for short, primarily studies the microstructures and macroscopic properties of a nanomaterial's aggregation states. Due to abundant microstructures in the aggregation states, it is only possible to build a simple but imprecise correlation between the microscopic morphology and the macroscopic properties of the nanostructures. Notably, atomically thin two-dimensional inorganic materials provide an ideal platform to establish clear structure-property relationships in the field of solid state nanochemistry, thanks to their homogeneous dispersion without the assistance of a capping ligand. In addition, their atomic structures including coordination number, bond length, and disorder degree of the examined atoms can be clearly disclosed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Also, their more exposed interior atoms would inevitably induce the formation of various defects, which would have a non-negligible effect on their physicochemical properties. Based on the obtained atomic and defect structural characteristics, density-functional calculations are performed to study their electronic structures

  18. Fabrication of Li4SiO4 Ceramic Pebbles by Gelation Nodulizing and Solid-reaction Sintering Process

    CHEN; Xing; YANG; Hong-guang


    In fusion reactor,lithium ceramics are considered as the candidate solid tritium breeders in the blanket.Recently,Li4SiO4 and Li2TiO3 have been recognized as promising candidate material because of its highlithium density,good tritium release,chemical stability,compatibility with structural material and low-activation characteristics.Therefore,Li4SiO4 is considered as the first candidate material in the China

  19. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 3

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 3 covers reviews that are directly related to the two devices which are the epitome of applied solid state science - the transistor and the laser. The book discusses the physics of multilayer-gate IGFET memories; the application of the transient charge technique in drift velocity; and trapping in semiconductors and in materials used in xerography, nuclear particle detectors, and space-charge-limited devices; as well as thin film transistors. The text describes the manipulation of laser beams in solids and discusses

  20. An Overview of Pickering Emulsions: Solid-Particle Materials, Classification, Morphology, and Applications

    Yunqi Yang


    Full Text Available Pickering emulsion, a kind of emulsion stabilized only by solid particles locating at oil–water interface, has been discovered a century ago, while being extensively studied in recent decades. Substituting solid particles for traditional surfactants, Pickering emulsions are more stable against coalescence and can obtain many useful properties. Besides, they are more biocompatible when solid particles employed are relatively safe in vivo. Pickering emulsions can be applied in a wide range of fields, such as biomedicine, food, fine chemical synthesis, cosmetics, and so on, by properly tuning types and properties of solid emulsifiers. In this article, we give an overview of Pickering emulsions, focusing on some kinds of solid particles commonly serving as emulsifiers, three main types of products from Pickering emulsions, morphology of solid particles and as-prepared materials, as well as applications in different fields.

  1. Femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent solid materials

    Tan, D.Z.; Sharafudeen, K.N.; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with transparent materials is a topic that has caused great interest of scientists over the past two decades. It will continue to be a fascinating field in the coming years. This is because many challenging fundamental problems have not been...... solved, especially concerning the interaction of strong, ultra-short electromagnetic pulses with matter, and also because potential advanced technologies will emerge due to the impressive capability of the intense femtosecond laser to create new material structures and hence functionalities. When......–matter interaction, and fabricate various integrated micro-devices. In recent years we have witnessed exciting development in understanding and applying femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent materials. The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with transparent materials relies on non...

  2. Materials corrosion in ammonia/solid heat pump working media

    Wilson, D.F.; Howell, M.; DeVan, J.H.


    Salt/ammonia complexes will undergo thermal cycles during use as working media for heat pumps. The interaction between container materials and complexes under thermal cyclic conditions was assessed to screen possible containment materials. Aluminum alloys 3003, 1100, and 6063 and carbon steel A214 were tested against possible heat pump working media SrCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, CaBr{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, and CaCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}. None of the containment materials showed susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. While all the materials demonstrated excellent general corrosion resistance to SrCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, only A214 displayed good general corrosion resistance to CaCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}. The complex CaBr{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} was found to be subject to thermal cyclic instability and should not be used as a heat pump working medium.


    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan


    AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted on symmetrical cells of the type [gas, electrode/LSGM electrolyte/electrode, gas]. The electrode materials were slurry-coated on both sides of the LSGM electrolyte support. The electrodes selected for this investigation are candidate materials for SOFC electrodes. Cathode materials include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM + doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF + LSGM. Pt metal electrodes were also used for the purpose of comparison. Anode material investigated was the Ni + GDC composite. The study revealed important details pertaining to the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrodes. The information obtained can be used to design electrodes for intermediate temperature SOFCs based on LSGM electrolyte.

  4. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.


    and experimental conditions were reported. The study was performed using 4 samples: 3 reference substrates (starch, cellulose and gelatine), and 1 raw material (mung bean). The BMP of mung bean was carried out at two inoculum to substrate ratios (ISR), specifically 2 and 1. The methane yields of reference......L CH4/g VSadded and 86±8%, respectively. In addition, the anaerobic digestion of the raw material elected did not show influence on the ISR in the extent of the biotransformation....

  5. The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials

    Werner Österle


    Full Text Available This review article comprises of three parts. Firstly, reports of brake manufacturers on the beneficial impact of solid lubricants for pad formulations are surveyed. Secondly, since tribofilms were identified to play a crucial role in friction stabilization and wear reduction, the knowledge about tribofilm structures formed during automotive braking was reviewed comprehensively. Finally, a model for simulating the sliding behavior of tribofilms is suggested and a review on modelling efforts with different model structures related to real tribofilms will be presented. Although the variety of friction composites involved in commercial brake systems is very broad, striking similarities were observed in respect to tribofilm nanostructures. Thus, a generalization of the tribofilm nanostructure is suggested and prerequisites for smooth sliding performance and minimal wear rates have been identified. A minimum of 13 vol % of soft inclusions embedded in an iron oxide based tribofilm is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. As long as the solid lubricants or their reaction products are softer than magnetite, the main constituent of the tribofilm, the model predicts smooth sliding and minimum wear.

  6. Proceedings of the sixth international workshop on ceramic breeder blanket interactions

    Noda, Kenji [ed.


    This report is the Proceedings of `the Sixth International Workshop on Ceramic Breeder Blanket Interactions` which was held as a workshop on ceramic breeders under Annex II of IEA Implementing Agreement on a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials, and Japan-US Workshop 97FT4-01. This workshop was held in Mito city, Japan on October 22-24, 1997. About forty experts from EU, Japan, USA, and Chile attended the workshop. The scope of the workshop included the following: (1) fabrication and characterization of ceramic breeders, (2) properties data for ceramic breeders, (3) tritium release characteristics, (4) modeling of tritium behavior, (5) irradiation effects on performance behavior, (6) blanket design and R and D requirements, (7) hydrogen behavior in materials, and (8) blanket system technology and structural materials. In the workshop, information exchange was performed for fabrication technology of ceramic breeder pebbles in EU and Japan, data of various properties of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, tritium release behavior of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} including tritium diffusion, modeling of tritium release from Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} in ITER condition, helium release behavior from Li{sub 2}O, results of tritium release irradiation tests of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles in EXOTIC-7, R and D issues for ceramic breeders for ITER and DEMO blankets, etc. The 23 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Compatibility tests between Jarytherm DBT synthetic oil and solid materials from wastes

    Fasquelle, Thomas; Falcoz, Quentin; Neveu, Pierre; Flamant, Gilles; Walker, Jérémie


    Direct thermocline thermal energy storage is the cheapest sensible thermal energy storage configuration. Indeed, a thermocline tank consists in one tank instead of two and reduces costs. Thermocline thermal energy storages are often filled with cheap solid materials which could react with the heat transfer fluid in the case of incompatibility. PROMES laboratory is building a pilot-scale parabolic trough solar loop including a direct thermocline thermal energy storage system. The working fluid will be a synthetic oil, the Jarytherm® DBT, and the thermal energy storage tank will be filled with stabilized solid materials elaborated from vitrified wastes. Compatibility tests have been conducted in order to check on one hand if the thermo-mechanical properties and life time of the energy storage medium are not affected by the contact with oil and, on the other hand, if the thermal oil performances are not degraded by the solid filler. These experiments consisted in putting in contact the oil and the solid materials in small tanks. In order to discriminate the solid materials tested in the shortest time, accelerating aging conditions at 330 °C for 500 hours were used. The measurements consisted in X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy for the solids, and thermo-physical and chemical properties measurements for the oil. Regarding the solid samples, their crystalline structure did not change during the test, but it is difficult to conclude about their elementary composition and they seem to absorb oil. While thermal properties still makes Jarytherm® DBT a good heat transfer fluid after the accelerated aging tests, this study results in differentiating most compatible materials. Thus according to our study, Jarytherm® DBT can be used in direct thermocline thermal energy storage applications when compatibility of the solid material has been demonstrated.

  8. High Reversibility of Soft Electrode Materials in All-solid-state Batteries

    Atsushi eSakuda


    Full Text Available All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery lives owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy (more than 300 Wh kg-1 secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li3NbS4, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric energy density of conventional LIBs.Favorable solid-solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to be given rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge-discharge processes. Here we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid-solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approx. 400 mAh g-1, suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  9. Pressure effect on hysteresis in spin-crossover solid materials

    Gudyma, Iurii, E-mail: [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Ivashko, Victor [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Dimian, Mihai [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Howard University, Washington DC 20059 (United States); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science & Integrated Center for Research, Development and Innovation in Advanced Materials, Nanotechnologies, and Distributed Systems for fabrication and control, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania)


    A generalized microscopic Ising-like model is proposed to describe behavior of compressible spin-crossover solids with two states: low-spin and high-spin. The model was solved in mean-field approximation and shows hysteretic behavior at low energy difference between the states. We study the thermal transition between states under external hydrostatic pressure taking into account the changes in the volume of spin-crossover molecules in different states. Depending on the applied pressure, a spin-crossover system can have three types of behavior of molecular fraction in the high-spin state: hysteretic, second-order phase transition and no-phase transition. For the hysteretic regime, it is shown that the transition temperature under pressure is increased while the width of the hysteresis reduced.

  10. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...


    ... Bulk MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet NCB National Cargo Bureau NEPA National Environmental Policy Act... material safety data sheet (MSDS) address some portions of proposed Sec. 148.60. We agree with the comment... in the form of an MSDS. e. One comment observed that, as proposed in the 1994 NPRM, Sec. 148.60(d...

  11. A novel shielding material prepared from solid waste containing lead for gamma ray

    Erdem, Mehmet; Baykara, Oktay; Doğru, Mahmut; Kuluöztürk, Fatih


    Human beings are continuously exposed to cosmogenic radiation and its products in the atmosphere from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) within Earth, their bodies, houses and foods. Especially, for the radiation protection environments where high ionizing radiation levels appear should be shielded. Generally, different materials are used for the radiation shielding in different areas and for different situations. In this study, a novel shielding material produced by a metallurgical solid waste containing lead was analyzed as shielding material for gamma radiation. The photon total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ/ ρ) were measured and calculated using WinXCom computer code for the novel shielding material, concrete and lead. Theoretical and experimental values of total mass attenuation coefficient of the each studied sample were compared. Consequently, a new shielding material prepared from the solid waste containing lead could be preferred for buildings as shielding materials against gamma radiation.

  12. Molybdate Based Ceramic Negative-Electrode Materials for Solid Oxide Cells

    Graves, Christopher R.; Reddy Sudireddy, Bhaskar; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    Novel molybdate materials with varying Mo valence were synthesized as possible negative-electrode materials for solid oxide cells. The phase, stability, microstructure and electrical conductivity were characterized. The electrochemical activity for H2O and CO2 reduction and H2 and CO oxidation wa...

  13. Development of high temperature materials for solid propellant rocket nozzle applications

    Manning, C. R., Jr.; Lineback, L. D.


    Aspects of the development and characteristics of thermal shock resistant hafnia ceramic material for use in solid propellant rocket nozzles are presented. The investigation of thermal shock resistance factors for hafnia based composites, and the preparation and analysis of a model of elastic materials containing more than one crack are reported.

  14. Alternative anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Goodenough, John B.; Huang, Yun-Hui [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, 1 University Station, C2200, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    The electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an O{sup 2-}-ion conductor. The anode must oxidize the fuel with O{sup 2-} ions received from the electrolyte and it must deliver electrons of the fuel chemisorption reaction to a current collector. Cells operating on H{sub 2} and CO generally use a porous Ni/electrolyte cermet that supports a thin, dense electrolyte. Ni acts as both the electronic conductor and the catalyst for splitting the H{sub 2} bond; the oxidation of H{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O occurs at the Ni/electrolyte/H{sub 2} triple-phase boundary (TPB). The CO is oxidized at the oxide component of the cermet, which may be the electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia, or a mixed oxide-ion/electron conductor (MIEC). The MIEC is commonly a Gd-doped ceria. The design and fabrication of these anodes are evaluated. Use of natural gas as the fuel requires another strategy, and MIECs are being explored for this application. The several constraints on these MIECs are outlined, and preliminary results of this on-going investigation are reviewed. (author)

  15. A Study of Damage on the Pipe Flow Materials Caused by Solid Particle Erosion

    Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Choi, Duk-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Joon [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    Wall thinning can be classified into three types: flow-accelerated corrosion, cavitation erosion and solid particle erosion. This article presents a study of solid particle erosion, which frequently causes damages to power plants' pipe system. Unlike previous studies, this study uses a mechanism to make solid particles in a fluid flow collide with pipe materials in underwater condition. Experiment is conducted in three cases of velocity according to solid-water ratio using the three types of the materials of A106B, SS400, and A6061. The experiments were performed for 30 days, and the surface morphology and hardness of the materials were examined for every 7 days. Based on the velocity change of the solid particles in a fluid flow, the surface changes, the change in the amount of erosion, the erosion rate and the variation in the hardness of carbon steel and aluminum family pipe materials can all be determined. In addition, factor based erosion rates are verified and a wall-thinning relation function is suggested for the pipe materials.

  16. Thermodynamics of water-solid interactions in crystalline and amorphous pharmaceutical materials.

    Sacchetti, Mark


    Pharmaceutical materials, crystalline and amorphous, sorb water from the atmosphere, which affects critical factors in the development of drugs, such as the selection of drug substance crystal form, compatibility with excipients, dosage form selection, packaging, and product shelf-life. It is common practice to quantify the amount of water that a material sorbs at a given relative humidity (RH), but the results alone provide minimal to no physicochemical insight into water-solid interactions, without which pharmaceutical scientists cannot develop an understanding of their materials, so as to anticipate and circumvent potential problems. This research was conducted to advance the science of pharmaceutical materials by examining the thermodynamics of solids with sorbed water. The compounds studied include nonhygroscopic drugs, a channel hydrate drug, a stoichiometric hydrate excipient, and an amorphous excipient. The water sorption isotherms were measured over a range of temperature to extract the partial molar enthalpy and entropy of sorbed water as well as the same quantities for some of the solids. It was found that water-solid interactions spanned a range of energy and entropy as a function of RH, which was unique to the solid, and which could be valuable in identifying batch-to-batch differences and effects of processing in material performance.

  17. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Jairo F. Pereira


    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  18. Rheorefining process. Semi-solid processing available for reuse of materials; Reorifuain ho. Zairyo saisei no tameno semi solid kako

    Ichikawa, K.; Kato, S.; Asuke, T.; Nakazawa, K. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan). Agency of Industrial Science and Technology


    Rheorefining process is one of methodologies of the rheocasting process produces high-purity material by using the temperature region of solid-liquid coexistence of alloy, but still remains in a stage of basic investigation. The authors have paid attention to the fact that deterioration of metallic products is caused by impurity invading and accumulating mainly in crystal grain boundary or solid crystal gaps from the surrounding environment during the use and have investigated the development of a technique to recover effectively reusable metallic materials from spent products through the rheorefining process. A test piece of Al-50 wt% Sn alloy is evacuated by a vacuum pump followed by heating, maintained isothermally in the temperature region of solid-liquid coexistence, pressurized with a plunger and filtered through a filter. By selecting a proper temperature and plunger speed, Sn can be remover efficiently to afford Al with 98% purity. Rheorefining experiments on Al-2, 1, 0.5 and 0.2 wt% Ni alloys show reduction of the Ni contents and reduction of the amount of eutectic crystals is observed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Novel functionalized polymeric fabric and fiber material as solid support for solid-phase synthesis and biomedical applications

    Xiang, Bei

    The aim of the research is to develop novel polymer solid support by modifying or fabricating polymeric fibrous materials for peptide synthesis and biomedical applications. Originally chemical inert isotactic polypropylene (iPP) fabric was utilized and modified to serve as a functional flexible planar solid support for solid phase peptide synthesis. The modification was achieved through thermal initiated radical grafting polymerization using acrylic acid, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate as monomers, and benzoyl peroxide as radical initiator. The iPP fabric was successfully functionalized and possessing as high as 0.7mmol/g carboxylic acid groups. Peptide ligand LHPQF was successfully synthesized on the new functional planar support. Specific enzyme immobilization was fulfilled on the functional iPP fabric support. A commercially available ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer was made into ultrafine copolymer fiber bundles which are composed of nanofibers with diameters ranging from 200nm to 800nm. Various mixing ratios of copolymer/matrix materials were utilized to explore the effect on the final nanofiber physical properties including morphology and stability in solvents. The surface carboxylic acid groups were further converted to amino groups before the functional nanofibers can be applied in solid phase peptide synthesis. Two peptide ligands, LHPQF and HWRGWV, were also successfully synthesized on the nanofiber bundles. Streptavidin and human immunoglobulin G specific binding with the corresponding ligand which was anchored on the nanofibers was conducted successfully to illustrate the potential applications of the nanofiber materials in biomedical field. Further study on the dispersion of the ethylene-acrylic acid nanofiber bundles was pursued to take advantage of the super high active surface area of functional nanofibers. To manipulate the polymer nanofibers during synthesis and bio-assays, a technique was developed to controllably assemble and disperse the

  20. Preparation QTi3.5-3.5 Graphite Lubricant Material with Semi-solid Casting Technology

    Peng ZHANG; Yunhui DU; Daben ZENG; Jianzhong CUI; Limin BA


    For the first time, the distribution of graphite particles in QTi3.5-3.5 graphite ingot was studied by using semi-solid casting technology. The results show that: the relationship between solid fraction and stirring temperature of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry is y=759.4-0.711x (where y is solid fraction, x is stirring temperature). With the increasing of solid fraction of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry, the agglomeration of graphite particles in ingot reduces gradually. The condition to prepare QTi3.5-3.5 graphite lubricant material with even distribution of graphite particles is that the solid fraction of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry is larger than 40%.

  1. Steel silos for particulate solid materials : part 2 - membrane forces at filling and discharge.

    Petrovčič, Simon; Guggenberger, Werner; Brank, Boštjan


    In the paper, the expressions for membrane forces in an axisymmetric steel silo structure at filling and discharge with a particulate solid material are presented. Graphical plots of these expressions are given. They can be used for a quick and easy estimate of membrane forces distribution in all parts of a silo structure. The plots are valid for any silo geometry and for any material stored. The influence of silo geometry and stored material properties on the size and distribution of membran...

  2. Steel silos for particulate solid materials. Part 1, Actions at filling and discharge.

    Petrovčič, Simon; Guggenberger, Werner; Brank, Boštjan


    In the paper, the expressions for membrane forces in an axisymmetric steel silo structure at filling and discharge with a particulate solid material are presented. Graphical plots of these expressions are given. They can be used for a quick and easy estimate of membrane forces distribution in all parts of a silo structure. The plots are valid for any silo geometry and for any material stored. The influence of silo geometry and stored material properties on the size and distribution of membran...

  3. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.


    and experimental conditions were reported. The study was performed using 4 samples: 3 reference substrates (starch, cellulose and gelatine), and 1 raw material (mung bean). The BMP of mung bean was carried out at two inoculum to substrate ratios (ISR), specifically 2 and 1. The methane yields of reference...... substrates for starch, cellulose and gelatine were 352±33, 353±29 and 382±42 mL/g VSadded, respectively. The percentages of biotransformation of these substrates into methane were 85±8, 85±7 and 88±10%, respectively. On the other hand, the values of methane yields and biodegradability for MB were 373±35 m...

  4. Numerical simulation of mechanical deformation of semi-solid material using a level-set based finite element method

    Sun, Zhidan; Bernacki, Marc; Logé, Roland; Gu, Guochao


    In this work, a level-set based finite element method was used to numerically evaluate the mechanical behavior in a small deformation range of semi-solid materials with different microstructure configurations. For this purpose, a finite element model of the semi-solid phase was built based on Voronoï diagram. Interfaces between the solid and the liquid phases were implicitly described by level-set functions coupled to an anisotropic meshing technique. The liquid phase was considered as a Newtonian fluid, whereas the behavior of the solid phase was described by a viscoplastic law. Simulations were performed to study the effect of different parameters such as solid phase fraction and solid bridging. Results show that the macroscopic mechanical behavior of semi-solid material strongly depends on the solid fraction and the local microstructure which play important roles in the formation of hot tearing. These results could provide valuable information for the processing of semi-solid materials.

  5. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    Julie Braun


    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.


    Z. Parveen, A. A. Nasir, K.Tasneem and A. Shah


    Full Text Available During January, 2003 Pasteurella multocida the causative agent of fowl cholera was isolated from a breeder flock in Lahore District. The age of the flock was 245 days. Increased mortality, swollen wattles and lameness were the clinical findings present in almost all the affected birds, while gross lesions were typical of fowl cholera. To prove the virulence of the organism, mice and six-week old cockerals were infected and P. multocida was reisolated.

  7. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 2

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 2 covers topics about complex oxide materials such as the garnets, which dominate the field of magnetoelasticity and are among the most important laser hosts, and sodalite, which is one of the classic photochromic materials. The book discusses the physics of the interactions of electromagnetic, elastic, and spin waves in single crystal magnetic insulators. The text then describes the mechanism on which inorganic photochromic materials are based, as observed in a variety of materials in single crystal, powder, and gl

  8. BREEDER: a microcomputer program for financial analysis of a large-scale prototype breeder reactor

    Giese, R.F.


    This report describes a microcomputer-based, single-project financial analysis program: BREEDER. BREEDER is a user-friendly model designed to facilitate frequent and rapid analyses of the financial implications associated with alternative design and financing strategies for electric generating plants and large-scale prototype breeder (LSPB) reactors in particular. The model has proved to be a useful tool in establishing cost goals for LSPB reactors. The program is available on floppy disks for use on an IBM personal computer (or IBM look-a-like) running under PC-DOS or a Kaypro II transportable computer running under CP/M (and many other CP/M machines). The report documents version 1.5 of BREEDER and contains a user's guide. The report also includes a general overview of BREEDER, a summary of hardware requirements, a definition of all required program inputs, a description of all algorithms used in performing the construction-period and operation-period analyses, and a summary of all available reports. The appendixes contain a complete source-code listing, a cross-reference table, a sample interactive session, several sample runs, and additional documentation of the net-equity program option.

  9. Characterisation of Materials used in Flex Bearings of Large Solid Rocket Motors

    CH.V. Ram Mohan


    Full Text Available Solid rocket motors are propulsion devices for both satellite launchers and missiles, which require guidance and steering to fly along a programmed trajectory and to compensate for flight disturbances. A typical solid rocket motor consists of motor case, solid propellant grain, motor insulation, igniter and nozzle. In most solid rocket motors, thrust vector control (TVC is required. One of the most efficient methods of TVC is by flex nozzle system. The flex nozzle consists of a flexible bearing made of an elastomeric material alternating with reinforcement rings of metallic or composite material. The material characterisation of AFNOR 15CDV6 steel and the natural rubber-based elastomer developed for use in flex nozzle are discussed. This includes testing, modelling of the material, selection of a material model suitable for analysis, and the validation of material model.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.264-269, DOI:

  10. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    AB Traldi


    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  11. New Lithium Solid Electrolytes, Thio-Lisicon Materials Design Concept and Application to Solid State Battery

    Kanno, Ryoji; Murayama, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki


    Materials design concept of the new crystalline 'thio-LlSICON' (LIthium Superlonic CONductor) family was discussed. The thio-LISICON was found in the ternary systems, Li2S-MS2-M'xSy (M=Si, Ge, M'=P, Sb, Al, Zn, etc), and showed the highest conductivity of 2.2 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 25°C of any sintered ceramic, together with negligible electronic conductivity, high electrochemical stability, no reaction with lithium metal, and no phase transition up to 300°C. The advantage and disadvantage of the crystalline materials were discussed based on the ionic conduction, chemical stability and electrochemical potential window.

  12. Material growth and characterization for solid state devices

    Collis, Ward J.; Abul-Fadl, A.; Iyer, S.


    During this period InGaAs and InGaAsP were grown on (100)InP by liquid phase electroepitaxy (LPEE). Results of the epitaxial growth of InGaAs on sputtered quartz masked substrates are presented. The resulting surface morphology can be related to the current density distribution near the edges of a masked pattern. The quaternary InGaAs was grown with compositions corresponding to 1.3 micron and 1.5 micron emission wavelengths. Growth rates were found to be linearly dependent upon current density, and a strong dependence upon composition was noted. These compositions lie in the miscibility gap region of the alloy phase diagram at the 645 C growth temperature. Growths were performed at 685 C to avoid the miscibility gap. Epilayers were characterized by photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Hall effect measurements. Aluminum oxide was deposited on silicon and InGaAs substrates for the characterization of this material as an insulator in a field effect transistor structure. It was determined that the results did not warrant further work with the deposition from an aluminum isopropoxide source. A metallographic vapor phase epitaxy system installation is nearing completion for use in hybrid III-V semiconductor epilayer growths.

  13. Scaling similarities of multiple fracturing of solid materials

    P. G. Kapiris


    Full Text Available It has recently reported that electromagnetic flashes of low-energy -rays emitted during multi-fracturing on a neutron star, and electromagnetic pulses emitted in the laboratory by a disordered material subjected to an increasing external load, share distinctive statistical properties with earthquakes, such as power-law energy distributions (Cheng et al., 1996; Kossobokov et al., 2000; Rabinovitch et al., 2001; Sornette and Helmstetter, 2002. The neutron starquakes may release strain energies up to erg, while, the fractures in laboratory samples release strain energies approximately a fraction of an erg. An earthquake fault region can build up strain energy up to approximately erg for the strongest earthquakes. Clear sequences of kilohertz-megahertz electromagnetic avalanches have been detected from a few days up to a few hours prior to recent destructive earthquakes in Greece. A question that arises effortlessly is if the pre-seismic electromagnetic fluctuations also share the same statistical properties. Our study justifies a positive answer. Our analysis also reveals 'symptoms' of a transition to the main rupture common with earthquake sequences and acoustic emission pulses observed during laboratory experiments (Maes et al., 1998.

  14. Optimization of Structure and Material Properties for Solids Composed of Softening Material

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Guedes, J.M.; J.M., Plaxton;


    Recent results on the design of material properties in the context of global structural optimization provide, in analytical form, a prediction of the optimal material tensor distributions for two or three dimensional continuum structures. The model developed for that purpose is extended here...... to cover the design of a structure and associated material properties for a system composed of a generic form of nonlinear softening material. As was established in the earlier study on design with linear materials, the formulation for combined 'material and structure' design with softening materials can...

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies



    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  16. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)


    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  17. Collection-efficient, axisymmetric vacuum sublimation module for the purification of solid materials.

    May, Michael; Paul, Elizabeth; Katovic, Vladimir


    A vacuum sublimation module of axisymmetric geometry was developed and employed to purify solid-phase materials. The module provides certain practical advantages and it comprises: a metering valve, glass collector, glass lower body, main seal, threaded bushing, and glass internal cartridge (the latter to contain starting material). A complementary process was developed to de-solvate, sublime, weigh, and collect solid chemical materials exemplified by oxalic acid, ferrocene, pentachlorobenzene, chrysene, and urea. The oxalic acid sublimate was analyzed by titration, melting range, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and its (aqueous phase) electrolytically generated gas. The analytical data were consistent with a high-purity, anhydrous oxalic acid sublimate. Cyclic voltammograms of 0.11 mol. % oxalic acid in water displayed a 2.1 V window on glassy carbon electrode beyond which electrolytic decomposition occurs. During module testing, fifteen relatively pure materials were sublimed with (energy efficient) passive cooling and the solid-phase recovery averaged 95 mass %. Key module design features include: compact vertical geometry, low-angle conical collector, uniformly compressed main seal, modest power consumption, transparency, glovebox compatibility, cooling options, and preferential conductive heat transfer. To help evaluate the structural (module) heat transfer, vertical temperature profiles along the dynamically evacuated lower body were measured versus electric heater power: for example, an input of 18.6 W generated a temperature 443-K at the bottom. Experimental results and engineering calculations indicate that during sublimation, solid conduction is the primary mode of heat transfer to the starting material.

  18. Collection-efficient, axisymmetric vacuum sublimation module for the purification of solid materials

    May, Michael; Paul, Elizabeth; Katovic, Vladimir


    A vacuum sublimation module of axisymmetric geometry was developed and employed to purify solid-phase materials. The module provides certain practical advantages and it comprises: a metering valve, glass collector, glass lower body, main seal, threaded bushing, and glass internal cartridge (the latter to contain starting material). A complementary process was developed to de-solvate, sublime, weigh, and collect solid chemical materials exemplified by oxalic acid, ferrocene, pentachlorobenzene, chrysene, and urea. The oxalic acid sublimate was analyzed by titration, melting range, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and its (aqueous phase) electrolytically generated gas. The analytical data were consistent with a high-purity, anhydrous oxalic acid sublimate. Cyclic voltammograms of 0.11 mol. % oxalic acid in water displayed a 2.1 V window on glassy carbon electrode beyond which electrolytic decomposition occurs. During module testing, fifteen relatively pure materials were sublimed with (energy efficient) passive cooling and the solid-phase recovery averaged 95 mass %. Key module design features include: compact vertical geometry, low-angle conical collector, uniformly compressed main seal, modest power consumption, transparency, glovebox compatibility, cooling options, and preferential conductive heat transfer. To help evaluate the structural (module) heat transfer, vertical temperature profiles along the dynamically evacuated lower body were measured versus electric heater power: for example, an input of 18.6 W generated a temperature 443-K at the bottom. Experimental results and engineering calculations indicate that during sublimation, solid conduction is the primary mode of heat transfer to the starting material.

  19. Cavity-enhanced laser cooling of solid-state materials in a standing-wave cavity

    Youhua Jia; Biao Zhong; Jianping Yin


    We propose a new method to cool the Yba+-doped ZBLANP glass in a standing-wave cavity. There are two advantages of this cavity-enhanced technique: the pumping power is greatly enhanced and the absorption of the cooling material is greatly increased. We introduce the basic principle of the cavity-enhanced laser cooling and discuss the cooling effect of a solid-state material in a cavity. From the theoretical study, it is found that the laser cooling effect is strongly dependent on the reflectivity of the cavity mirrors, the length of the solid material, the surface scattering of the material, and so on. Some optimal parameters for efficient laser cooling are obtained.

  20. A study on synthetic method and material characteristics of magnesium ammine chloride as ammonia transport materials for solid SCR

    Shin, Jong Kook; Yoon, Cheon Seog [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Suk [Engine Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Among various ammonium salts and metal ammine chlorides used as solid materials for the sources of ammonia with solid SCR for lean NOx reduction, magnesium ammine chloride was taken up for study in this paper because of its ease of handling and safety. Lab-scale synthetic method of magnesium ammine chloride were studied for different durations, temperatures, and pressures with proper ammonia gas charged, as a respect of ammonia gas adsorption rate(%). To understand material characteristics for lab-made magnesium ammine chloride, DA, IC, FT-IR, XRD and SDT analyses were performed using the published data available in literature. From the analytical results, the water content in the lab-made magnesium ammine chloride can be determined. A new test procedure for water removal was proposed, by which the adsorption rate of lab-made sample was found to be approximately 100%.

  1. Hatching distribution of eggs varying in weight and breeder age

    SL Vieira


    Full Text Available Broiler chicks from one incubator hatch within long periods of time, which leads to dehydration and reduction in yolk sac reserves of those chicks that have hatched earlier and potentially impairs early performance. The present research investigated the hatching distribution at intervals of incubation using eggs of different weights within one breeder age or eggs from widely different breeder ages. Eggs from breeders at 27 and 59 weeks of age (54 and 69 g and from breeders at 40 weeks of age, which were graded as light (58 g and heavy (73 g, were placed in a commercial incubator. There were a total of 1,184 eggs distributed in four treatments and eight replicates: eggs from 27-week-old breeders (27B, eggs from 59-week-old breeders (59B, light eggs from 40-week-old breeders (40BL and heavy eggs from 40-week-old breeders (40BH. Replicates were comprised of 37 eggs that were placed in each incubator tray. The treatments were physically separated from each other using a plate. Eggs were transferred to a hatcher after 432 hours of incubation and the first chick hatched at 449 hours of incubation. Afterwards, the number of completely hatched chicks from each replicate was recorded at six-hour intervals until 503 hours of incubation, when the hatchings stopped. Hatched chicks were removed from the trays after each measurement. Data were submitted to an analysis of variance with repeated measures. There was a significant interaction between breeder age and incubation length. The hatching onset of eggs from the old breeders was later compared to young breeders. Hatchability (%incubated eggs was lower for the old breeders; however, differences in hatchability as a percentage of the hatched eggs were not so evident. Complete hatchability occurred only at 503 hours of incubation; however, more than 90% eggs had hatched 18 hours earlier.

  2. Material efficient production of complex (hybrid) components using semi solid forming processes

    Riedmüller, Kim Rouven; Liewald, Mathias


    By means of lightweight design and lightweight material structures, weight of single components and of resulting component assemblies should be reduced and, additionally, existing functionalities, reliabilities and material properties should be preserved. Therefore, on the one hand novel materials and hybrid material combinations are investigated and on the other hand weight reduction is realized by material efficient component designs. With regard to the manufacturing of such complex component geometries with high dimensional accuracy and relating to the realization of hybrid material concepts, semi solid forming technology offers promising prospects. This paper deals with two research projects recently conducted at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU, University of Stuttgart) in the field of this forming technology. First project is concerned with the manufacturing of hybrid components with integrated sensor and/or actuator functions and second project is in the field of material efficient manufacturing.

  3. Ab initio Defect Energetics in LaBO3 Perovskite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Morgan, Dane; Kleis, Jesper;


    Perovskite materials of the form ABO3 are a promising family of compounds for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. Study of the physics of these compounds under SOFC conditions with ab initio methods is particularly challenging due to high temperatures, exchange of oxygen with O2 gas...

  4. Tritium adsorption/release behaviour of advanced EU breeder pebbles

    Kolb, Matthias H. H.; Rolli, Rolf; Knitter, Regina


    The tritium loading of current grades of advanced ceramic breeder pebbles with three different lithium orthosilicate (LOS)/lithium metatitanate (LMT) compositions (20-30 mol% LMT in LOS) and pebbles of EU reference material, was performed in a consistent way. The temperature dependent release of the introduced tritium was subsequently investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments to gain insight into the desorption characteristics. The obtained TPD data was decomposed into individual release mechanisms according to well-established desorption kinetics. The analysis showed that the pebble composition of the tested samples does not severely change the release behaviour. Yet, an increased content of lithium metatitanate leads to additional desorption peaks at medium temperatures. The majority of tritium is released by high temperature release mechanisms of chemisorbed tritium, while the release of physisorbed tritium is marginal in comparison. The results allow valuable projections for the tritium release behaviour in a fusion blanket.

  5. Helium-cooled molten-salt fusion breeder

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; Devan, J.H.


    We present a new conceptual design for a fusion reactor blanket that is intended to produce fissile material for fission power plants. Fast fission is suppressed by using beryllium instead of uranium to multiply neutrons. Thermal fission is suppressed by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding medium (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + ThF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and to the on-line processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket and the austenitic steel tubes that contain the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion by molten salt. We estimate that a breeder having 3000 MW of fusion power will produce 6500 kg of /sup 233/U per year. This amount is enough to provide makeup for 20 GWe of light-water reactors per year or twice that many high-temperature gas-cooled reactors or Canadian heavy-water reactors. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times a light-water reactor of the same power. The estimated cost of the /sup 233/U produced is $40/g for fusion plants costing 2.35 times that of a light-water reactor if utility owned or $16/g if government owned.

  6. Data uncertainties in material flow analysis: Municipal solid waste management system in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko


    Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014. Initially, the uncertainties and their ranges were identified by the data classification model of Hedbrant and Sörme, followed by the application of sensitivity analysis. The average lower and upper bounds were 29% and 71%, respectively, in 2007, increasing to 41% and 96%, respectively, in 2014. This indicates higher data quality in 2007 than in 2014. Results also show that not only data are partially missing from the established flows such as waste generation to final disposal, but also that they are limited and inconsistent in emerging flows and processes such as waste generation to material recovery (hence the wider variation in the 2014 parameters). The sensitivity analysis further clarified the most influencing parameter and the degree of influence of each parameter on the waste flows and the interrelations among the parameters. The findings highlight the need for an integrated municipal solid waste management approach to avoid transferring or worsening the negative impacts among the parameters and flows.

  7. Review of Solid State Hydrogen Storage Methods Adopting Different Kinds of Novel Materials

    Renju Zacharia


    Full Text Available Overview of advances in the technology of solid state hydrogen storage methods applying different kinds of novel materials is provided. Metallic and intermetallic hydrides, complex chemical hydride, nanostructured carbon materials, metal-doped carbon nanotubes, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, metal-doped metal organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks (COFs, and clathrates solid state hydrogen storage techniques are discussed. The studies on their hydrogen storage properties are in progress towards positive direction. Nevertheless, it is believed that these novel materials will offer far-reaching solutions to the onboard hydrogen storage problems in near future. The review begins with the deficiencies of current energy economy and discusses the various aspects of implementation of hydrogen energy based economy.

  8. Solid-State Thermal Reaction of a Molecular Material and Solventless Synthesis of Iron Oxide

    Roy, Debasis; Roy, Madhusudan; Zubko, Maciej; Kusz, Joachim; Bhattacharjee, Ashis


    Solid-state thermal decomposition reaction of a molecular material {As}({C}6{H}5)4[{Fe}^{II}{Fe}^{III} ({C}2{O}4)3]}n has been studied using non-isothermal thermogravimetry (TG) in an inert atmosphere. By analyzing the TG data collected at multiple heating rates in 300 K-1300 K range, the kinetic parameters (activation energy, most probable reaction mechanism function and frequency factor) are determined using different multi-heating rate analysis programs. Activation energy and the frequency factor are found to be strongly dependent on the extent of decomposition. The decomposed material has been characterized to be hematite using physical techniques (FT-IR and powder XRD). Particle morphology has been checked by TEM. A solid-state reaction pathway leading the molecular precursor to hematite has been proposed illustrating an example of solventless synthesis of iron oxides utilizing thermal decomposition as a technique using innocuous materials.

  9. Materials and Components for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells – an Overview

    D. Radhika


    Full Text Available This article summarizes the recent advancements made in the area of materials and components for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs. LT-SOFC is a new trend in SOFCtechnology since high temperature SOFC puts very high demands on the materials and too expensive to match marketability. The current status of the electrolyte and electrode materials used in SOFCs, their specific features and the need for utilizing them for LT-SOFC are presented precisely in this review article. The section on electrolytes gives an overview of zirconia, lanthanum gallate and ceria based materials. Also, this review article explains the application of different anode, cathode and interconnect materials used for SOFC systems. SOFC can result in better performance with the application of liquid fuels such methanol and ethanol. As a whole, this review article discusses the novel materials suitable for operation of SOFC systems especially for low temperature operation.

  10. Fluorescent material concentration dependency: Förster resonance energy transfer in quasi-solid state DSSCs

    Kim, Dong Woo; Jo, Hyun-Jun; Thogiti, Suresh; Yang, Weon Ki; Cheruku, Rajesh; Kim, Jae Hong


    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is critical for wide spectral absorption, an increased dye loading, and photocurrent generation of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This process consists of organic fluorescent materials (as an energy donor), and an organic dye (as an energy acceptor on TiO2 surfaces) with quasi-solid electrolyte. The judicious choice of the energy donor and acceptor facilitates a strong spectral overlap between the emission and absorption regions of the fluorescent materials and dye. This FRET process enhances the light-harvesting characteristics of quasi-solid state DSSCs. In this study, DSSCs containing different concentrations (0, 1, and 1.5 wt%) of a fluorescent material (FM) as the energy donor are investigated using FRET. The power conversion efficiency of DSSCs containing FMs in a quasi-solid electrolyte increased by 33% over a pristine cell. The optimized cell fabricated with the quasi-solid state DSSC containing 1.0 wt% FM shows a maximum efficiency of 3.38%, with a short-circuit current density (J SC ) of 4.32 mA/cm-2, and an open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.68 V under illumination of simulated solar light (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm-2). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. High Speed Lapping of SiC Ceramic Material with Solid (Fixed) Abrasives

    ZHANG Wei; YANG Xin-hong; SHANG Chun-min; HU Xiao-yong; HU Zhong-hui


    An experimental investigation is carried out to machine SiC ceramic material through the method of high speed plane lapping with solid(fixed) abrasives after the critical condition of brittle-ductile transition is theoretically analyzed. The results show that the material removal mechanism and the surface roughness are chiefly related to the granularity of abrasives for brittle materials such as SiC ceramic. It is easily realized to machine SiC ceramic in the ductile mode using W3.5 grit and a high efficiency, low cost and smooth surface with a surface roughness of Ra 2.4nm can be achieved.

  12. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 6

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 6 covers the application of composites in electronic systems. The book discusses different types of composite-composite materials consisting of finely dispersed mixtures of metals and insulators; composite devices in which two distinct semiconductor devices are combined in one package; and composite glass fibers with the core and cladding differing in their optical properties. The text describes articles dealing with properties that can be achieved in versatile materials; light-emitting diodes and photodetectors th

  13. Modelling of Physical, Chemical, and Material Properties of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Jakub Kupecki


    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of modelling techniques applicable for system-level studies to account for physical, chemical, and material properties of solid oxide fuel cells. Functionality of 0D to 3D models is discussed and selected examples are given. Author provides information on typical length scales in evaluation of power systems with solid oxide fuel cells. In each section, proper examples of previous studies done in the field of 0D–3D modelling are recalled and discussed.

  14. Electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of organic solid-state materials IV. Materials Research Society, symposium proceedings Volume 488

    Reynolds, J.R.; Jen, A.K.Y.; Rubner, M.F.; Chiang, L.Y.; Dalton, L.R. [eds.


    The symposium, Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid-State Materials IV, was sponsored by the Materials Research Society and held December 1--5, 1997, in Boston, Massachusetts. Early studies of charge transport in conducting polymers have evolved from the elucidation of fundamental structure/function relationships to applications as batteries, simple electrical devices such as diodes, chemical sensors, antistatic coatings, microwave and millimeter wave-absorbing materials, and photochromic devices. A particularly exciting evolution has been the discovery and development of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) which appear to be nearing commercialization in an amazingly short period of time. This application is of particular interest because both electrical and optical properties must be considered, and these have been important parallel themes of the conference. Moreover, nanostructure control is important for OLEDs, and nanoscale architectural engineering has been an increasingly important theme of the conference. Indeed, not only has the study of conjugated (quasidelocalized) electrons in organic solid-state materials resulted in interesting physical properties and device applications, but the desire to exploit these properties has promoted the development of new synthesis and processing methodologies to achieve special nanoscale and microscale structures. One hundred five papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Industrial solar breeder project using concentrator photovoltaics

    Hamilton, R; Wohlgemuth, J; Burkholder, J; Levine, A; Storti, G; Wrigley, C; McKegg, A


    The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the use of a concentrating photovoltaic system to provide the energy for operating a silicon solar cell production facility, i.e., to demonstrate a solar breeder. Solarex has proposed to conduct the first real test of the solar breeder concept by building and operating a 200 kW(e) (peak) concentrating photovoltaic system based on the prototype and system design developed during Phase I. This system will provide all of the electrical and thermal energy required to operate a solar cell production line. This demonstration would be conducted at the Solarex Rockville facility, with the photovoltaic array located over the company parking lot and on an otherwise unusable flood plain. Phase I of this program included a comprehensive analysis of the application, prototype fabrication and evaluation, system design and specification, and a detailed plan for Phases II and III. A number of prototype tracking concentrator solar collectors were constructed and operated. Extensive system analysis was performed to design the Phase II system as a stand-alone power supply for a solar cell production line. Finally, a detailed system fabrication proposal for Phase II and an operation and evaluation plan for Phase III were completed. These proposals included technical, management, and cost plans for the fabrication and exercise of the proposed system.

  16. Optimization of solid-state synthesis process of advanced ceramics materials: influence of mixing conditions.

    Sakri Adel


    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of mixing process on solid state reaction of solid oxide material mixture was studied. Lead piezoelectric ceramic specimens 0.5 Pb(Zn1/3,Sb2/3O3-0.5 Pb0.98La0.02(Zr0.48,Ti0.52O3 prepared by different mixing procedures, were conducted under different conditions such as order, combination and mixing time. The phase formation, composition nature, structural properties of powder mixture was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The obtained results for different mixing processes make the solid state reaction method more selective, taking into consideration the attraction forces between the reactants and the electronegativity of oxide reactants.

  17. Study of Solid-Liquid Ratio of Fly Ash Geopolymer as Water Absorbent Material

    Angga Prasetya Fandi


    Full Text Available Geopolymer has been synthesized from fly ash to be applicated as water absorbent material. This research conducted to determine the ability of geopolymer to abrsop water by variation of solid – liquid ratio at optimum molarity of NaOH; 3 M. In this research, the synthesis of geopolymer was conducted at the variation of solid-liquid ratio; 60:40, 65:35, 70:30, and 75:25. Result of the treatment were characterized by XRD and SEM to compare the geopolymer structure. Water absorption capacity was measured by immersing the geopolymer specimens in water for 24 hours. Based on the result, solid – liquid ratio with maximum water absorbed was 70:30 with 13,04 wt%.

  18. Second sphere coordination of hybrid metal-organic materials: solid state reactivity.

    Guo, Fang; Martí-Rujas, Javier


    When compared to other hybrid metal organic materials such as metal-organic frameworks, hydrogen bonded materials self-assembled by metals and organic molecules using second sphere interactions have been poorly investigated. Consequently, their solid-sate properties are also scarce. In this perspective, earlier research mainly on host-guest chemistry and its evolution towards more extended structures by applying crystal engineering principles using second sphere coordination is described. Crystal-to-crystal guest exchange reactions, permanently porous hybrid metal organic materials, mechanochemical reactivity, thermally induced phase transformations as well as some examples of functional technological applications using second sphere adducts such as gas adsorption, separation and non-linear optical phenomena are also reported. Although some tutorial reviews on second sphere adducts have been conducted mainly in the solution state focusing on metal based anion receptors, to the best of our knowledge, an overview on relevant works that focus on the solid-state properties has not been carried out. The aim of this article is to highlight from some of the early fundamental work to the latest reports on hybrid metal-organic materials self-assembled via second sphere interactions with a focus on solid-state chemistry.

  19. Vertical transportation system of solid material for backfilling coal mining technology

    Ju Feng; Zhang Jixiong; Zhang Qiang


    For transportation of solid backfill material such as waste and fly ash from the surface to the bottom of the shaft in a fully mechanized backfilling coal backfilling coal mining technology,we developed a new vertical transportation system to transport this type of solid backfill material.Given the demands imposed on safely in feeding this material,we also investigated the structure and basic parameter of this system.For a mine in the Xingtai mining area the results show that:(1) a vertical transportation system should include three main parts,i.e.,a feeding borehole,a maintenance chamber and a storage silo; (2) we determined that 486 mm is a suitable diameter for bore holes,the diameter of the storage silo is 6 m and its height 30 m in this vertical transportation system; (3) a conical buffer was developed to absorb the impact during the feeding process.To ensure normal implementation of fully mechanized backfilling coal mining technology and the safety of underground personnel,we propose a series of security technologies for anti-blockage,storage silo cleaning.high pressure air release and aspiration.This vertical transporting system has been applied in one this particular mine,which has fed about 4 million tons solid material with a feeding depth of 350 m and safely exploited 3 million tons of coal.

  20. Parameters for quantification of hunger in broiler breeders.

    Jong, de I.C.; Voorst, van A.S.; Blokhuis, H.J.


    The commercial restricted feeding programme of broiler breeders has a major negative effect on welfare, as the birds are continuously hungry. Objective parameters of hunger are needed to evaluate new management or feeding systems that may alleviate hunger and thus improve broiler breeder welfare. Th

  1. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Jong, Ingrid de; van de Werd, Heleen A.


    , cover panels, and substrate (for broiler breeders housed in cage systems). However, most of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broiler breeders need to be further developed and studied with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and welfare, and the interaction with genotype and production...

  2. Qualitative Analysis of Relationship between Refractive Index and Atomic Parameters of Solid Materials

    罗遵度; 黄艺东


    The refractive index is one of the important parameters describing the optical properties of solid materials. However, it is difficult to obtain a quantitative relation between the refractive index and the structure and composition of materials. A qualitative relation between the refractive index and some atomic parameters of materials was proposed and demonstrated by some oxide optical crystals. A parameter P=r-/F=r-/(r+ΔxD) is defined, in which Δx is the difference of the electronegativities between cations and anions in the materials and r+ and r- are the radii of cations and anions respectively. On the other hand, the factor D was introduced to describe the effect of mass difference of the ions. It is demonstrated by both theoretical discussion and experimental data that refractive index is a decreasing function of parameter P. The relation may be useful for the investigation of optical materials.

  3. Utilization of sepiolite materials as a bottom liner material in solid waste landfills.

    Guney, Yucel; Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Tanyu, Burak F; Koparal, Savas


    Landfill bottom liners are generally constructed with natural clay soils due to their high strength and low hydraulic conductivity characteristics. However, in recent years it is increasingly difficult to find locally available clay soils that satisfy the required engineering properties. Fine grained soils such as sepiolite and zeolite may be used as alternative materials in the constructions of landfill bottom liners. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using natural clay rich in kaolinite, sepiolite, zeolite, and their mixtures as a bottom liner material. Unconfined compression tests, swell tests, hydraulic conductivity tests, batch and column adsorption tests were performed on each type of soil and sepiolite-zeolite mixtures. The results of the current study indicate that sepiolite is the dominant material that affects both the geomechanical and geoenvironmental properties of these alternative liners. An increase in sepiolite content in the sepiolite-zeolite mixtures increased the strength, swelling potential and metal adsorption capacities of the soil mixtures. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreased significantly with the addition of sepiolite. The utilization of sepiolite-zeolite materials as a bottom liner material allowed for thinner liners with some reduction in construction costs compared to use of a kaolinite-rich clay.

  4. Ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions on the base piezoelectric ceramic materials for components of micromechatronics

    Bochenek, Dariusz; Zachariasz, Radosław; Niemiec, Przemysław; Ilczuk, Jan; Bartkowska, Joanna; Brzezińska, Dagmara


    In the presented work, a ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions based on PZT and ferrite powders have been obtained. The main aim of combination of ferroelectric and magnetic powders was to obtain material showing both electric and magnetic properties. Ferroelectric ceramic powder (in amount of 90%) was based on the doped PZT type solid solution while magnetic component was nickel-zinc ferrite Ni1-xZnxFe2O4 (in amount of 10%). The synthesis of components of ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions was performed using the solid phase sintering. Final densification of synthesized powder has been done using free sintering. The aim of the work was to obtain and examine in the first multicomponent PZT type ceramics admixed with chromium with the following chemical composition Pb0.94Sr0.06(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3+0.25 at% Cr2O3 and next ferroelectromagnetic solid solution based on a PZT type ferroelectric powder (Pb0.94Sr0.06(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3+0.25 at% Cr2O3) and nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4), from the point of view of their mechanical and electric properties, such as: electric permittivity, ε; dielectric loss, tanδ; mechanical losses, Q-1; and Young modulus, E.

  5. ORIGEN2 model and results for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    Croff, A G; Bjerke, M A


    Reactor physics calculations and literature information acquisition have led to the development of a Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) model for the ORIGEN2 computer code. The model is based on cross sections taken directly from physics codes. Details are presented concerning the physical description of the fuel assemblies, the fuel management scheme, irradiation parameters, and initial material compositions. The ORIGEN2 model for the CRBR has been implemented, resulting in the production of graphical and tabular characteristics (radioactivity, thermal power, and toxicity) of CRBR spent fuel, high-level waste, and fuel-assembly structural material waste as a function of decay time. Characteristics for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), commercial liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) have also been included in this report for comparison with the CRBR data.

  6. Palynological Investigation of Post-Flight Solid Rocket Booster Foreign Material

    Nelson, Linda; Jarzen, David


    Investigations of foreign material in a drain tube, from the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) of a recent Space Shuttle mission, was identified as pollen. The source of the pollen is from deposits made by bees, collecting pollen from plants found at the Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The pollen is determined to have been present in the frustum drain tubes before the shuttle flight. During the flight the pollen did not undergo thermal maturation.

  7. Solid-fluid mixture microstructure design of composite materials with application to tissue engineering scaffold design

    Lin, Cheng-Yu

    The ability to design the material microstructure brings the use of composite materials into the next generation. In this paper, we report pioneering research to implement the computational material microstructure design into the internal architecture design for a tissue engineering scaffold. A tissue engineering design postulate is that scaffolds should match specified healthy tissue stiffness, while concurrently providing sufficient porosity for cell migration and tissue regeneration. Employing the inverse homogenization method and the adaptive topology optimization method, a complex 3D microstructure can be designed to perform with the anisotropic elastic stiffness and porosities analogous to a native bone specimen. Besides the elastic stiffness from its solid part, fluid in the porous region also plays an important role in tissue engineering. The flow of fluid through the pores brings nutrients to cells in the tissue matrix and also removes their waste. Fluid permeability of cylinderical trabecular bone grafts was found to predict clinical success. Deriving from Darcy's Law, we developed software to calculate the homogenized fluid permeability of 3D cancellous voxel models, which were directly reconstructed from micro-CT images. Furthermore, an Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO) algorithm was utilized to maximize fluid permeability in the microstructure. The fluid optimization scheme was then collaborated with solid phase optimization through Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to create an integrated solid-fluid mixture microstructure design. In addition, to ensure the fabrication feasibility, we also implemented a post-optimization process to enhance design results by improving the dynamic stiffness to eliminate weak connections and checkerboard pattern. The design scaffolds were then built by an indirect solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique using various bio-compatible materials and ready for further investment. This computational

  8. Heterogeneous catalytic materials solid state chemistry, surface chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    Busca, Guido


    Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for cata

  9. Solid-State Lasers for Bathymetry and Communications. Studies of Four Rare-Earth Materials.


    The envelope was cerium -doped quartz, to reduce UV emission. The lamp was operated in simmer mode. The pulse forming network contained a 50-PF...class of solid state lasing materials called rare-earth fluorides . In these materials, the host lattice is LiYF4 (often called YLF), and the active...1971-1973 in which terbium-doped rare-earth fluorides were grown, and spectroscopy and lasing measurements conducted. A sample of Tb:LiGdF4 was lased

  10. Dynamic model of Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    Vaidyanathan, G., E-mail: [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Kasinathan, N.; Velusamy, K. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)


    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 M Wt/13.2 MWe sodium cooled reactor operating since 1985. It is a loop type reactor. As part of the safety analysis the response of the plant to various transients is needed. In this connection a computer code named DYNAM was developed to model the reactor core, the intermediate heat exchanger, steam generator, piping, etc. This paper deals with the mathematical model of the various components of FBTR, the numerical techniques to solve the model, and comparison of the predictions of the code with plant measurements. Also presented is the benign response of the plant to a station blackout condition, which brings out the role of the various reactivity feedback mechanisms combined with a gradual coast down of reactor sodium flow.

  11. The Effect of Supplemental Carbon Dioxide in Chicken Incubation with Eggs from Heavy Breeder Parents

    Laurentiu Carlea


    Full Text Available The study followed the results of 0.85% CO2 influence on chick embryonic development. Biological material wascomposed of chicken eggs obtained from COBB500 hybrid broiler breeder parents. After weight determination ofchick embryos in different stages of development, egg components and embryos annexes, pH measurements ofalbumen and yolk sac were made. All of this analysis was made in order to determine the positive influence of 0.85%CO2 level on multistage chick incubation.

  12. General approach of the photothermoelectric technique for thermal characterization of solid thermoelectric materials

    Touati, Karim; Depriester, Michael; Guilmeau, Emmanuel; Sotelo, Andrés; Madre, Maria A.; Gascoin, Franck; Sahraoui, Abdelhak Hadj


    This work focuses on the photothermoelectric (PTE) technique allowing the thermal characterization of solid-state thermoelectric (TE) materials. Previously, this technique was restricted to TE materials having low electrical conductivities. Here, the PTE technique is extended and generalized to all solid-state TE materials with low or high electrical conductivities. This is achieved by taking into account the Gaussian shape of the thermal excitation source. The formalism of this new methodology is developed and the procedure for extracting thermal parameters is proposed. For illustration, two different TE materials are studied: with relatively high electrical conductivity (Bi2Te2.4Se0.6) and relatively low electrical conductivity (Bi2Ca2Co1.7O x ). The thermal properties of these two materials (thermal diffusivity, effusivity and conductivity) are found and compared to those obtained by the photothermal radiometry which is a well established technique. The good concordance between the results obtained by these two techniques demonstrates the relevance of the generalized PTE technique. One of the main advantages of this technique is its non use of an external sensor.

  13. High reliability solid refractive index matching materials for field installable connections in FTTH network

    Saito, Kotaro; Kihara, Mitsuru; Shimizu, Tomoya; Yoneda, Keisuke; Kurashima, Toshio


    We performed environmental and accelerated aging tests to ensure the long-term reliability of solid type refractive index matching material at a splice point. Stable optical characteristics were confirmed in environmental tests based on an IEC standard. In an accelerated aging test at 140 °C, which is very much higher than the specification test temperature, the index matching material itself and spliced fibers passing through it had steady optical characteristics. Then we performed an accelerated aging test on an index matching material attached to a built-in fiber before splicing it in the worst condition, which is different from the normal use configuration. As a result, we confirmed that the repeated insertion and removal of fiber for splicing resulted in failure. We consider that the repetition of adhesion between index matching material and fibers causes the splice to degrade. With this result, we used the Arrhenius model to estimate a median lifetime of about 68 years in a high temperature environment of 60 °C. Thus solid type index matching material at a splice point is highly reliable over long periods under normal conditions of use.

  14. A new method to study complex materials in solid state chemistry: application to chalcogenide materials

    Lippens, P. E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J. C.


    We show that a combined application of Mössbauer spectroscopy and other experimental tools such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance provides a coherent picture of the local electronic structure in chalcogenide materials. In order to develop this idea we propose an analysis of the Sn, Sb and Te local electronic structures for three different systems of materials. The first example concerns the In Sn S system. We show that Li insertion in In16Sn4S32 leads to changes of the Sn oxidation states from Sn(IV) to Sn(II). The second example concerns materials of the Tl Sb S system. We show that variations of the 121Sb Mössbauer isomer shift and surface of the first peak of the X-ray absorption spectra at the Sb LIII edge can be linearly correlated because of the main influence of the Sb 5s electrons. This is explained by changes in the local environment of the Sb atoms. The last example concerns the crystalline phases of the Tl Sn Te system. The formal oxidation numbers of the Te atoms are determined from 125Te Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They are related to the different types of bonds involving the Te atoms in the Tl Sn Te compounds.

  15. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of hydrogen storage systems utilising solid state H storage materials

    Lototskyy, M., E-mail: [South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Yartys, V.A., E-mail: [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO-2027 (Norway); Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)


    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of H stores with various solid H storage materials was done. • Volumetric and gravimetric H storage densities and energy consumption were evaluated. • Effects of H storage containment and heat exchanger were estimated. • Pressure–temperature conditions of H storage strongly affect the overall performance. • Material’s packing density influences safety of operation and efficiency of H stores. - Abstract: Evaluation of the performances of hydrogen storage systems accommodating solid H storage materials should include characteristics on their reversible hydrogen storage capacity, operating pressures and temperatures, packing densities, and heat effects of hydrogen uptake and release. We have conducted a performance evaluation of the systems accumulating 5 kg of hydrogen in a containment of cylindrical geometry filled with a solid H storage material including such hydrides and reactive hydride composites as AlH{sub 3}, MgH{sub 2}, “low-temperature” (inter)metallic hydrides, NaAlH{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6}, LiBH{sub 4} + MgH{sub 2}, and MOFs. The analysis yielded gravimetric and volumetric H storage capacities, and energy efficiencies of hydrogen stores. We conclude that the weight efficiency of hydrogen stores, apart from the gravimetric H storage capacity of the material, is greatly affected by its packing density, and by the pressure–temperature conditions which determine type and dimensions of the containment. The materials with low heat effects of H exchange, operating close to the ambient conditions, should be targeted in the course of the development of new hydrogen stores as offering the best energy efficiency of their operation.

  16. Measurement of electromagnetic properties of powder and solid metal materials for additive manufacturing

    Todorov, Evgueni Iordanov


    The lack of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for examination during and after additive manufacturing (AM) component fabrication is one of the obstacles in the way of broadening use of AM for critical applications. Knowledge of electromagnetic properties of powder (e.g. feedstock) and solid AM metal components is necessary to evaluate and deploy electromagnetic NDE modalities for examination of AM components. The objective of this research study was to develop and implement techniques for measurement of powder and solid metal electromagnetic properties. Three materials were selected - Inconel 625, duplex stainless steel 2205, and carbon steel 4140. The powder properties were measured with alternate current (AC) model based eddy current technique and direct current (DC) resistivity measurements. The solid metal properties were measured with DC resistivity measurements, DC magnetic techniques, and AC model based eddy current technique. Initial magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity were acquired for both powder and solid metal. Additional magnetic properties such as maximum permeability, coercivity, retentivity, and others were acquired for 2205 and 4140. Two groups of specimens were tested along the build length and width respectively to investigate for possible anisotropy. There was no significant difference or anisotropy when comparing measurements acquired along build length to those along the width. A trend in AC measurements might be associated with build geometry. Powder electrical conductivity was very low and difficult to estimate reliably with techniques used in the study. The agreement between various techniques was very good where adequate comparison was possible.

  17. Preliminary Design of a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR Based on the BIT Concept

    Ma, Xuebin; Liu, Songlin; Li, Jia; Pu, Yong; Chen, Xiangcun


    CFETR is the “ITER-like” China fusion engineering test reactor. The design of the breeding blanket is one of the key issues in achieving the required tritium breeding radio for the self-sufficiency of tritium as a fuel. As one option, a BIT (breeder insider tube) type helium cooled ceramic breeder blanket (HCCB) was designed. This paper presents the design of the BIT—HCCB blanket configuration inside a reactor and its structure, along with neutronics, thermo-hydraulics and thermal stress analyses. Such preliminary performance analyses indicate that the design satisfies the requirements and the material allowable limits.

  18. Development of a new solid-state absorber material for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Swapna Lilly Cyriac; B Deepika; Bhaskaran Pillai; S V Nair; K R V Subramanian


    In contrast to the conventional DSSC systems, where the dye molecules are used as light harvesting material, here a solid-state absorber was used as a sensitizer in conjunction with the dye. The materials like ZnO and Al2O3 : C, which will show optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) upon irradiation were used as extremely thin absorber layers. This novel architecture allows broader spectral absorption, an increase in photocurrent, and hence, an improved efficiency because of the mobility of the trapped electrons in the absorber material after irradiation, to the TiO2 conduction band. Nanocrystalline mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes were fabricated using these solid-state absorber materials and after irradiation, a few number of samples were co-sensitized with N719 dye. On comparing both the dye loaded photoanodes (ZnO/TiO2 and Al2O3 : C/TiO2), it can be concluded from the present studies that, the Al2O3 : C is superior to ZnO under photon irradiation. Al2O3 : C is more sensitive to photon irradiation than ZnO and hence there can be more trap centres produced in Al2O3 : C.

  19. Arc Jet Test and Analysis of Asbestos Free Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Dome Ablative Materials

    Clayton, J. Louie


    Asbestos free solid motor internal insulation samples were recently tested at the MSFC Hyperthermal Arc Jet Facility. Objectives of the test were to gather data for solid rocket motor analog characterization of ablative and in-depth thermal performance of rubber materials subject to high enthalpy/pressure flow conditions. Tests were conducted over a range of convective heat fluxes for both inert and chemically reactive sub-sonic free stream gas flow. Active instrumentation included use of total calorimeters, in-depth thermocouples, and a surface pyrometer for in-situ surface temperature measurement. Post-test sample forensics involved determination of eroded depth, charred depth, total sample weight loss, and documentation of the general condition of the eroded profile. A complete Charring Material Ablator (CMA) style aero thermal analysis was conducted for the test matrix and results compared to the measured data. In general, comparisons were possible for a number of the cases and the results show a limited predictive ability to model accurately both the ablative response and the in-depth temperature profiles. Lessons learned and modeling recommendations are made regarding future testing and modeling improvements that will increase understanding of the basic chemistry/physics associated with the complicated material ablation process of rubber materials.

  20. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y


    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  1. Studies in new materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Skinner, Alex W.

    Ceramic materials have historically been of interest for their thermal and mechanical properties. However, certain ceramic materials can have very interesting electrical, magnetic and optical properties, leading to a new subclass, the electroceramics. Perovskites, in particular, have become the subject of intense research in this field. Specifically, doped barium zirconates have shown high proton conductivity in the intermediate temperature range (600--800°C), making them advantageous for use in solid oxide fuel cells. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy into electricity using ion-conducting oxide ceramics as electrolytes. The anode component of the cell is also of interest. Cermets or ceramic metals can serve a dual role as substrates for thin film electrolytes and anodes in the cell. Thin films of gadolinium and ytterbium doped barium zirconate were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (KrF; 1--3 J/cm2) on several substrates, including cermets developed in our lab, in a 10--400 mTorr oxygen environment with various substrate temperatures. Crystalline structure and chemical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis, respectively. Preliminary electrical measurements of the electrolyte/cermet structure were taken using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Keywords: solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), perovskites, proton conductors, electroceramics, gadolinium-doped barium zirconate (BZG).

  2. Study of transport of laser-driven relativistic electrons in solid materials

    Leblanc, Philippe

    With the ultra intense lasers available today, it is possible to generate very hot electron beams in solid density materials. These intense laser-matter interactions result in many applications which include the generation of ultrashort secondary sources of particles and radiation such as ions, neutrons, positrons, x-rays, or even laser-driven hadron therapy. For these applications to become reality, a comprehensive understanding of laser-driven energy transport including hot electron generation through the various mechanisms of ionization, and their subsequent transport in solid density media is required. This study will focus on the characterization of electron transport effects in solid density targets using the state-of- the-art particle-in-cell code PICLS. A number of simulation results will be presented on the topics of ionization propagation in insulator glass targets, non-equilibrium ionization modeling featuring electron impact ionization, and electron beam guiding by the self-generated resistive magnetic field. An empirically derived scaling relation for the resistive magnetic in terms of the laser parameters and material properties is presented and used to derive a guiding condition. This condition may prove useful for the design of future laser-matter interaction experiments.

  3. Assessment of Bacterial Spores in Solid Materials: Curriculum Improvements Partnership Award for the Integration of Research (CIPAIR)

    Lavallee, Richard J.


    This summer, we quantified the release, by cryogenic grinding at liquid nitrogen temperatures, of microbes present in 4 different spacecraft solids: epoxy 9309, epoxy 9394, epoxy 9396, and a silicone coating. Three different samples of each material were prepared: aseptically prepared solid material, powdered material inoculated with a known spore count of Bacillus atrophaeus, and solid material artificially embedded with a known spore count of Bacillus atrophaeus. Samples were cryogenically ground as needed, and the powders were directly cultured to determine the number of microbial survivors per gram of material. Recovery rates were found to be highly material-dependent, varying from 0.2 to 50% for inoculated material surfaces and 0.002 to 0.5% for embedded spores. A study of the spore survival rate versus total grinding time was also performed, with results indicating that longer grinding time decreases recovery rates of viable spores.


    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier


    This report describes the result of the first eight months of effort on a project directed at improving metallic interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The results include cyclic oxidation studies of a group of ferritic alloys, which are candidate interconnect materials. The exposures have been carried out in simulated fuel cell atmospheres. The oxidation morphologies have been characterized and the ASR has been measured for the oxide scales. The effect of fuel cell electric current density on chromia growth rates has been considered The thermomechanical behavior of the scales has been investigated by stress measurements using x-ray diffraction and interfacial fracture toughness measurements using indentation. The ultimate goal of this thrust is to use knowledge of changes in oxide thickness, stress and adhesion to develop accelerated testing methods for evaluating SOFC interconnect alloys. Finally a theoretical assessment of the potential for use of ''new'' metallic materials as interconnect materials has been conducted and is presented in this report. Alloys being considered include materials based on pure nickel, materials based on the ''Invar'' concept, and coated materials to optimize properties in both the anode and cathode gases.

  5. Effective utilization of incinerated municipal solid waste incineration ash: zeolitic material synthesis and silica extraction.

    Bac, Bui Hoang; Song, Yungoo; Moon, Yonghee; Kim, Myung Hun; Kang, Il Mo


    In this study the effective utilization of two types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ashes, namely air-cooled ash (ACS) and water-cooled ash (WCS) samples obtained from a municipal solid waste incineration plant, was examined by applying zeolitic material synthesis and silica extraction. The influence of the experimental conditions including the ratio of sample : NaOH solution, the reaction temperature and time, and the concentration of NaOH solution were investigated. The results for the 25 experimental trials can be summarized as: (1) the formation of tobermorite and/or pectolite-1A as a major component in most conditions; (2) the synthesis of hydroxycancrinite as a major phase at 200 degrees C; (3) a dramatic increase in the extracted SiO(2) yield at 1 : 30 value of sample : NaOH ratio and 200 degrees C, even at short reaction times; and (4) relatively high SiO(2) yields for WCS ashes rather than ACS ashes. An increase in the reaction time improved the quantity of synthesized zeolitic materials. The reaction temperature determined the type of zeolite. An increase in the NaOH concentration can be an essential factor to improve zeolitic material synthesis, but it significantly reduced the yield of SiO(2) extraction. In conclusion, suitable conditions for obtaining both SiO(2) extraction and synthesized zeolites from the ashes of the incinerated solid waste materials should be: 200 degrees C reaction temperature; a 1 : 30 (g : mL) value for the sample : NaOH ratio; 2 mol L(-1) NaOH concentration; and a reaction time of more than 24 h.

  6. Solid-state thermolysis of ammonia borane and related materials for high-capacity hydrogen storage.

    Wang, Ping


    Ammonia borane (NH(3)BH(3), AB) is a unique molecular crystal containing an intriguingly high density of hydrogen. In the past several years, AB has received extensive attention as a promising hydrogen storage medium. Several strategies have been successfully developed for promoting H(2) release and for suppressing the evolution of volatile by-products from the solid-state thermolysis of AB. Several potentially cost-effective and energy-efficient routes for regenerating AB from the spent fuels have been experimentally demonstrated. These remarkable technological advances offer a promising prospect of using AB-based materials as viable H(2) carriers for on-board application. In this perspective, the recent progresses in promoting H(2) release from the solid-state thermolysis of AB and in developing regeneration technologies are briefly reviewed.

  7. Thermal stability of the solid DNA as a novel optical material

    Nizioł, Jacek; Makyła-Juzak, Katarzyna; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Ekiert, Robert; Marzec, Monika; Gondek, Ewa


    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been extensively exploited for the past decade as the matrix material in organic electronics and nonlinear optics. In this work thermal stability of DNA in solid form was thoroughly studied, mainly by optical methods. Solid samples of low molecular mass DNA were subjected to heating according to different protocols and dissolved. The temperature effect was observed in the evolution of UV absorption and circular dichroism spectra. Thin films of DNA were deposited on polished silicon wafers. They were conditioned at consecutively raised temperature and simultaneously measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Changes in chemical composition of thermally treated films were studied by XPS. Below 100 °C all thermal effects were reversible. Melting occurred at c.a.140 °C. Irreversible chemical changes probably occurred at 170-180 °C.

  8. Solid-State Physics An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science

    Ibach, Harald


    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completly updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. From a review of the original edition �...

  9. [Origin of Lewis acidity in solid materials]. DOE Final Report for Grant DE-FG02-90ER14130

    Fripiat, J. J.


    The aim of the research undertaken within the framework of this DOE grant was to further understanding of the origin of the Lewis acidity in solid materials. The study centered around aluminas and alumino-silicates. The main tools for investigation of this phenomenon were high-resolution solid state {sub 27}Al NMR, complemented by EPR and the chemical determination of catalytic activity.

  10. Enhanced reversibility and durability of a solid oxide Fe-air redox battery by carbothermic reaction derived energy storage materials.

    Zhao, Xuan; Li, Xue; Gong, Yunhui; Huang, Kevin


    The recently developed solid oxide metal-air redox battery is a new technology capable of high-rate chemistry. Here we report that the performance, reversibility and stability of a solid oxide iron-air redox battery can be significantly improved by nanostructuring energy storage materials from a carbothermic reaction.

  11. Exploring new coolants for nuclear breeder reactors

    Lafuente, A., E-mail: anlafuente@etsii.upm.e [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Piera, M. [ETSII:UNED, c/Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Breeder reactors are considered a unique tool for fully exploiting natural nuclear resources. In current Light Water Reactors (LWR), only 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from a mine is converted into useful heat. The rest remains in the depleted uranium or spent fuel. The need to improve resource-efficiency has stimulated interest in Fast-Reactor-based fuel cycles, which can exploit a much higher fraction of the energy content of mined uranium by burning U-238, mainly after conversion into Pu-239. Thorium fuel cycles also offer several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle. The coolant initially selected for most of the FBR programs launched in the 1960s was sodium, which is still considered the best candidate for these reactors. However, Na-cooled FBRs have a positive void reactivity coefficient. Among other factors, this fundamental drawback has resulted in the canceled deployment of these reactors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to explore new options for breeder coolants. In this paper, a proposal is presented for a new molten salt (F{sub 2}Be) coolant that could overcome the safety issues related to the positive void reactivity coefficient of molten metal coolants. Although it is a very innovative proposal that would require an extensive R and D program, this paper presents the very appealing properties of this salt when using a specific type of fuel that is similar to that of pebble bed reactors. The F{sub 2}Be concept was studied over a typical MOX composition and extended to a thorium-based cycle. The general analysis took into account the requirements for criticality (opening the option of hybrid subcritical systems); the requirements for breeding; and the safety requirement of having a negative coolant void reactivity coefficient. A design window was found in the definition of a F{sub 2}Be cooled reactor where the safety requirement was met, unlike for molten metal-cooled reactors, which always have positive void

  12. Exploring new coolants for nuclear breeder reactors

    Lafuente, A. [ETSI Industriales-Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Breeder reactors are considered the unique tool for fully exploiting the natural nuclear resources. In current LWR, only a 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from the mine is converted into useful heat, with the rest remaining in the depleted uranium or in the spent fuel. The objective of resource-efficiency stimulated the interest in Fast- Reactor-based fuel cycles which can exploit a much higher fraction of the energy content of the mined uranium by burning U-238, mainly after conversion into Pu-239. Thorium fuel cycles would also offers several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle. The coolant initially chosen for most of the FBR programs launched in the 60's was sodium, which still is considered the best candidate for these reactors. However, Na-cooled FBR have a positive void reactivity coefficient, which has been among others, a fundamental drawback that has cancelled the deployment of these reactors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to explore totally new options on coolants for breeders. In this paper, a proposal is presented on a new molten salt (F{sub 2}Be) coolant that could overcome the safety issues related to the positive void reactivity coefficient of molten metal coolants. Although it is a very innovative proposal that would need an extensive R and D programme, this paper presents the very appealing properties of this salt, in the case of using a specific type of fuel, similar to that of pebble bed reactors. The concept will be studied over a typical MOX composition and extended to a Thorium-based cycle. The general analysis takes into account requirements for criticality (opening the option of hybrid subcritical systems); requirements for breeding; and the safety requirement of having a negative coolant void reactivity coefficient. A design window is found in the definition of a F{sub 2}Be cooled reactor where the safety requirement is met, unlike for molten metal cooled reactors which always have positive void

  13. Characterization of pharmaceutically relevant materials at the solid state employing chemometrics methods.

    Calvo, Natalia L; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S


    The understanding of materials and processes is a requirement when it comes to build quality into pharmaceutical products. This can be achieved through the development of rapid, efficient and versatile analytical methods able to perform qualification or quantification tasks along the manufacturing and control process. Process monitoring, capable of providing reliable real-time insights into the processes performance during the manufacturing of solid dosage forms, are the key to improve such understanding. In response to these demands, in recent times multivariate chemometrics algorithms have been increasingly associated to different analytical techniques, mainly vibrational spectroscopies [Raman, mid-infrared (MIR), near-infrared (NIR)], but also ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and other methodologies. The resulting associations have been applied to the characterization and evaluation of different aspects of pharmaceutical materials at the solid state. This review examines the different scenarios where these methodological marriages have been successful. The list of analytical problems and regulatory demands solved by chemometrics analysis of solid-state multivariate data covers the whole manufacturing and control processes of both, active pharmaceutical ingredients in bulk and in their drug products. Hence, these combinations have found use in monitoring the crystallization processes of drugs and supramolecular drug associations (co-crystals, co-amorphous and salts), to access the correct crystal morphology, particle size, solubility and dissolution properties. In addition, they have been applied to identify and quantitate specific compounds, mainly active pharmaceutical ingredients in complex solid state mixtures. This included drug stability against different stimuli, solid-state transformations, or detection of adulterated or fraudulent medicines. The use of chemometrics-assisted analytical methods as part of the modern

  14. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a new approach to study humic material?

    Knicker, Heike; Lange, Sascha; van Rossum, Barth; Oschkinat, Hartmut


    Compared to solution NMR spectroscopy, solid-state NMR spectra suffer from broad resonance lines and low resolution. This could be overcome by the use of 2-dimenstional solid-state NMR pulse sequences. Until recently, this approach has been unfeasible as a routine tool in soil chemistry, mainly because of the low NMR sensitivity of the respective samples. A possibility to circumvent those sensitivity problems represents high-field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR spectroscopy (Barnes et al., 2008), allowing considerable signal enhancements (Akbey et al., 2010). This is achieved by a microwave-driven transfer of polarization from a paramagnetic center to nuclear spins. Application of DNP to MAS spectra of biological systems (frozen solutions) showed enhancements of the factor 40 to 50 (Hall et al., 1997). Enhancements of this magnitude, thus may enable the use of at least some of the 2D solid-state NMR techniques that are presently already applied for pure proteins but are difficult to apply to soil peptides in their complex matrix. After adjusting the required acquisition parameters to the system "soil organic matter", lower but still promising enhancement factors were achieved. Additional optimization was performed and allowed the acquisition of 2D 13C and 15N solid-state NMR spectra of humified 13C and 15N enriched plant residues. Within the present contribution, the first solid-state DNP NMR spectra of humic material are presented. Those data demonstrate the great potential of this approach which certainly opens new doors for a better understanding of biochemical processes in soils, sediments and water. Akbey, Ü., Franks, W.T., Linden, A., Lange, S., Griffin, R.G., van Rossum, B.-J., Oschkinat, H., 2010. Dynamic nuclear polarization of deuterated proteins. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 49, 7803-7806. Barnes, A.B., De Paëpe, G., van der Wel, P.C.A., Hu, K.N., Joo, C.G., Bajaj, V.S., Mak-Jurkauskas, M.L., Sirigiri, J.R., Herzfeld, J

  15. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Atashgahi, S.; Maphosa, F.; Vrieze, de J.; Haest, P.J.; Boon, N.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.


    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that

  16. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Atashgahi, S.; Maphosa, F.; Vrieze, de J.; Haest, P.J.; Boon, N.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.


    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that

  17. A rheometer for measuring the material moduli for granular solids. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    Rajajopal, K.R.


    The design of an orthogonal rheometer for measuring the properties of granular solids is described. A section is presented on the constitutive modeling of granular materials based on continuum theory.

  18. An investigation of lithium solid electrolyte materials with first principles calculations

    Lepley, Nicholas

    Inorganic solid electrolyte materials have recently become the focus of considerable interest due to the discovery of novel compounds with high ionic conductivities (> 1e-4 S/cm ). Sulfur based solid electrolytes are particularly notable in this regard, as well as for their compatibility for Li-S electrode systems. This work applies compu- tational methods based on density functional theory to the problem of identifying and characterizing novel electrolyte materials, with an emphasis on the Li2S-P2S5 system. In addition to a broad overview of likely materials, two compounds are studied in depth, Li7P3S11 and Li3PS4 . For Li7P3 S11 the results show excellent agreement with respect to migration energetics, and good agreement with the experimentally described structure and observed stability. For Li3PS4 , in addition to structure, stability, and migration energetics, the properties of the interface between the electrolyte and vacuum and the electrolyte and lithium metal are considered.

  19. Review of high-throughput techniques for detecting solid phase Transformation from material libraries produced by combinatorial methods

    Lee, Jonathan A.


    High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.

  20. Laser-material interactions: A study of laser energy coupling with solids

    Shannon, M A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    This study of laser-light interactions with solid materials ranges from low-temperature heating to explosive, plasma-forming reactions. Contained are four works concerning laser-energy coupling: laser (i) heating and (ii) melting monitored using a mirage effect technique, (iii) the mechanical stress-power generated during high-powered laser ablation, and (iv) plasma-shielding. First, a photothermal deflection (PTD) technique is presented for monitoring heat transfer during modulated laser heating of opaque solids that have not undergone phase-change. Of main interest is the physical significance of the shape, magnitude, and phase for the temporal profile of the deflection signal. Considered are the effects that thermophysical properties, boundary conditions, and geometry of the target and optical probe-beam have on the deflection response. PTD is shown to monitor spatial and temporal changes in heat flux leaving the surface due to changes in laser energy coupling. The PTD technique is then extended to detect phase-change at the surface of a solid target. Experimental data shows the onset of melt for indium and tin targets. The conditions for which melt can be detected by PTD is analyzed in terms of geometry, incident power and pulse length, and thermophysical properties of the target and surroundings. Next, monitoring high-powered laser ablation of materials with stress-power is introduced. The motivation for considering stress-power is given, followed by a theoretical discussion of stress-power and how it is determined experimentally. Experiments are presented for the ablation of aluminum targets as a function of energy and intensity. The stress-power response is analyzed for its physical significance. Lastly, the influence of plasma-shielding during high-powered pulsed laser-material interactions is considered. Crater size, emission, and stress-power are measured to determine the role that the gas medium and laser pulse length have on plasma shielding.

  1. Exploding the myths about the fast breeder reactor

    Burns, S.


    This paper discusses the facts and figures about the effects of conservation policies, the benefits of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor demonstration plant, the feasibility of nuclear weapons manufacture from reactor-grade plutonium, diversion of plutonium from nuclear plants, radioactive waste disposal, and the toxicity of plutonium. The paper concludes that the U.S. is not proceeding with a high confidence strategy for breeder development because of a variety of false assumptions.

  2. Safeguards in prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU

    Deshimaru, Takehide; Tomura, Katsuji; Okuda, Yosihisa; Iwamoto, Tomonori [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    MONJU is the prototype fast breeder reactor in Japan designed to have the electricity output of 280 MWe. Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) started its construction in the autumn of 1985 in Tsuruga site. The loading of the core fuel assemblies to the core have been started since October 1993 and the pre-operational test is undergoing. MONJU uses 198 MOX fuel assemblies as core fuel and 172 DU assemblies as blanket fuel. Assemblies loaded in core and stored in the ex-vessel storage tank (EVST) exist in liquid sodium. These Pu containing fuel assemblies, MOX and irradiated DU, are regarded as in the difficult-to-access area, and the flows of fuel assemblies into and out of the area are requested to be verified. The verification of the flows is designed to be made with fuel flow monitors measuring radiations, which can abridge the inspector attendance during the fuel handling. This paper describes the detailed aspects of the fuel transfers in MONJU facility and the verification of them through flow monitors together with the functions of other safeguards equipments. (author).

  3. Electrode materials: a challenge for the exploitation of protonic solid oxide fuel cells

    Emiliana Fabbri, Daniele Pergolesi and Enrico Traversa


    Full Text Available High temperature proton conductor (HTPC oxides are attracting extensive attention as electrolyte materials alternative to oxygen-ion conductors for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs operating at intermediate temperatures (400–700 °C. The need to lower the operating temperature is dictated by cost reduction for SOFC pervasive use. The major stake for the deployment of this technology is the availability of electrodes able to limit polarization losses at the reduced operation temperature. This review aims to comprehensively describe the state-of-the-art anode and cathode materials that have so far been tested with HTPC oxide electrolytes, offering guidelines and possible strategies to speed up the development of protonic SOFCs.

  4. Application of material flow analysis to municipal solid waste in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko


    Understanding waste flows within an urban area is important for identifying the main problems and improvement opportunities for efficient waste management. Assessment tools such as material flow analysis (MFA), an extensively applied method in waste management studies, provide a structured and objective evaluating process to characterize the waste management system best, to identify its shortcomings and to propose suitable strategies. This paper presents the application of MFA to municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The results included the identification and quantification of the main input and output flows of the MSWM system in 2007 and 2014, from the generation, material recovery and collection, to final disposal and the unaccounted flow of municipal solid waste (MSW). We estimated that the waste generation increased from 397×10(3) tonnes in 2007 to 437×10(3) tonnes in 2014, whereas the total material recovery was insignificant in both years - 3×10(3) and 7×10(3) tonnes, respectively. As for collection and final disposal, the official collection of waste to the local dumpsite in the inner city increased about threefold, from 76×10(3) to 253×10(6) tonnes. For waste unaccounted for, the estimates indicated a reduction during the study period from 300×10(3) to 158×10(3) tonnes, due to the increase of collection services. The emphasized aspects include the need for practical waste reduction strategies, the opportunity to explore the potential for material recovery, careful consideration regarding the growing trend of illegal dumping and the urgency in phasing-out from the harmful practice of open dumping.

  5. Development of a feeding device for solid material; Kiinteaen materiaalin syoettoelaitteen kehittaeminen

    Heinonen, O.; Tiihonen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland). R and D Section


    Feeding of solid fuel into high pressure is an essential part of the pressurized power plant processes. A pilot scale fuel feeder meeting the requirements of these processes has been designed and built by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO). The fuel feeder is capable of feeding both relatively dry and wet solid material into high pressure. The object of this project was to develop the pilot scale fuel feeder to commercial level. The project was financed by IVO and Bioenergia -research programme. The project included testing of the previously built pilot-feeder at real operating conditions using peat and wood biomass as feedstocks. The testing consisted of short term and long term runs, which provided information about the operation and durability of the feeder with different materials. The tests were carried out partly in IVO`s laboratory, and partly in Jyvaeskylae at the pressurized steam drying pilot plant owned by IVO and VTT. The pilot-feeder operated well and reliably during the feeding tests. The feeder was dissembled and the parts were inspected between and after the test periods. No sign of excessive wear of the parts was noticed. Based on the good experiences from the pilot scale testing a commercial feeder with the capacity of 50 m{sup 3}/h was designed

  6. Ultrasonic decontamination of prototype fast breeder reactor fuel pins.

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Bhatt, R B; Behere, P G; Afzal, Mohd


    Fuel pin decontamination is the process of removing particulates of radioactive material from its exterior surface. It is an important process step in nuclear fuel fabrication. It assumes more significance with plutonium bearing fuel known to be highly radio-toxic owing to its relatively longer biological half life and shorter radiological half life. Release of even minute quantity of plutonium oxide powder in the atmosphere during its handling can cause alarming air borne activity and may pose a severe health hazard to personnel working in the vicinity. Decontamination of fuel pins post pellet loading operation is thus mandatory before they are removed from the glove box for further processing and assembly. This paper describes the setting up of ultrasonic decontamination process, installed inside a custom built fume-hood in the production line, comprising of a cleaning tank with transducers, heaters, pin handling device and water filtration system and its application in cleaning of fuel pins for prototype fast breeder reactor. The cleaning process yielded a typical decontamination efficiency of more than 99%.

  7. Conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor

    P K Vijayan; A Basak; I V Dulera; K K Vaze; S Basu; R K Sinha


    The third stage of Indian nuclear power programme envisages the use of thorium as the fertile material with 233U, which would be obtained from the operation of Pu/Th-based fast reactors in the later part of the second stage. Thorium-based reactors have been designed in many configurations, from light water-cooled designs to high-temperature liquid metal-cooled options. Another option, which holds promise, is the molten salt-fuelled reactor, which can be configured to give significant breeding ratios. A crucial part for achieving reasonable breeding in such reactors is the need to reprocess the salt continuously, either online or in batch mode. India has recently started carrying out fundamental studies so as to arrive at a conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor (IMSBR). Presently, various design options and possibilities are being studied from the point of view of reactor physics and thermal hydraulic design. In parallel, fundamental studies on natural circulation and corrosion behaviour of various molten salts have also been initiated.

  8. Development of the Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module in Japan

    Enoeda, Mikio, E-mail: [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji; Yoshikawa, Akira; Tsuru, Daigo; Akiba, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)


    The development of a Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is being performed as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket in Japan. For the TBM testing and evaluation toward DEMO blanket, the module fabrication technology development by a candidate structural material, reduced activation martensitic/ferritic steel, F82H, is one of the most critical items from the viewpoint of realization of TBM testing in ITER. In Japan, fabrication of a real scale first wall, side walls, a breeder pebble bed box and assembling of the first wall and side walls have succeeded. Recently, the real scale partial mockup of the back wall was fabricated. The fabrication procedure of the back wall, whose thickness is up to 90 mm, was confirmed toward the fabrication of the real scale back wall by F82H. Important key technologies are almost clarified for the fabrication of the real scale TBM module mockup. From the view point of testing and evaluation, development of the technology of the blanket tritium recovery, development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles and the development of the blanket neutronics measurement technology are also performed. Also, tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility has been started as the verification test of tritium production performance. This paper overviews the recent achievements of the development of the WCCB TBM in Japan.

  9. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)


    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  10. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.


    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  11. Identification and Mitigation of Generated Solid By-Products during Advanced Electrode Materials Processing.

    Tsai, Candace S J; Dysart, Arthur D; Beltz, Jay H; Pol, Vilas G


    A scalable, solid-state elevated-temperature process was developed to produce high-capacity carbonaceous electrode materials for energy storage devices via decomposition of a starch-based precursor in an inert atmosphere. In a separate study, it is shown that the fabricated carbonaceous architectures are useful as an excellent electrode material for lithium-ion, sodium-ion, and lithium-sulfur batteries. This article focuses on the study and analysis of the formed nanometer-sized by-products during the lab-scale synthesis of the carbon material. The material production process was studied in operando (that is, during the entire duration of heat treatment). The unknown downstream particles in the process exhaust were collected and characterized via aerosol and liquid suspensions, and they were quantified using direct-reading instruments for number and mass concentrations. The airborne emissions were collected using the Tsai diffusion sampler (TDS) for characterization and further analysis. Released by-product aerosols collected in a deionized (DI) water trap were analyzed, and the aerosols emitted from the post-water-suspension were collected and characterized. After long-term sampling, individual particles in the nanometer size range were observed in the exhaust aerosol with layer-structured aggregates formed on the sampling substrate. Upon the characterization of the released aerosol by-products, methods were identified to mitigate possible human and environmental exposures upon industrial implementation.

  12. Rational design of novel cathode materials in solid oxide fuel cells using first-principles simulations

    Choi, YongMan; Liu, Meilin [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, N.W., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Lin, M.C. [Department of Chemistry, Emory University, 1515 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Center for Interdisciplinary Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010 (China)


    The search for clean and renewable sources of energy represents one of the most vital challenges facing us today. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are among the most promising technologies for a clean and secure energy future due to their high energy efficiency and excellent fuel flexibility (e.g., direct utilization of hydrocarbons or renewable fuels). To make SOFCs economically competitive, however, development of new materials for low-temperature operation is essential. Here we report our results on a computational study to achieve rational design of SOFC cathodes with fast oxygen reduction kinetics and rapid ionic transport. Results suggest that surface catalytic properties are strongly correlated with the bulk transport properties in several material systems with the formula of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}BO{sub 2.75} (where B = Cr, Mn, Fe, or Co). The predictions seem to agree qualitatively with available experimental results on these materials. This computational screening technique may guide us to search for high-efficiency cathode materials for a new generation of SOFCs. (author)

  13. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria


    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  14. A rheometer for measuring the material moduli for granular solids. Final report, August 7, 1990--February 6, 1995

    Rajagopal, K.R.


    A great many industrial processes involve interaction between solids and fluids (i.e. gases or liquids). Combustion, gasification of solid fuels, shales or solid wastes, drying of particles, calcining, particle heating, regenerative heat exchangers, oxidation or reduction of ores, metal surface treatments and catalytic and thermal cracking are some of such processes. Solids and fluids serve different roles and several combinations of solids and fluids can arise in a practical situation. Thus, when considering processes or plants it is necessary to be clear as to the particular purpose served by the fluids and the solids. Heating and drying of solids, for example, involve heat and mass transfer only, whereas combustors, gasifiers etc. have the additional complication of chemical reactions which have to be carried out simultaneously with heat and mass transfer. Again, there are many processes where just the flow of granular particles take place, for example, the flow of food grain, coal or sand particles through bin, silo, hoppers, chutes, conveyor belts, inclined planes etc. In most of these cases, a theoretical modeling of the process requires a complete and thorough understanding of the phenomena involved and constitutive modeling of the constituents along with the usual balance laws. In a process, where both a fluid and a solid constituents are involved, it is essential to model both the constituents such that the models accurately describes the characteristics of the constituent concerned. While there are many different models available for fluids, the models for granular materials lack from an understanding of the material parameters.

  15. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae


    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  16. Preparation and characterization of cross-linking PEG/MDI/PE copolymer as solid-solid phase change heat storage material

    Li, Wei-Dong [Key Laboratory of Cellulose and Lignocellulosics Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding, En-Yong [Key Laboratory of Cellulose and Lignocellulosics Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)


    Phase change materials (PCMs) are a series of functional materials with storing and releasing energy properties. PCMs can impact small environment around them through storing and releasing energy during phase change process. Phase change latent heat of PCMs has two main characters: one is high enthalpy and capacity of per unit volume and the other is that the temperature over phase change process keeps constant or changes slightly. PCMs have been widely used in lots of fields such as solar energy storing, smart housing, thermo-regulated fibers and agricultural greenhouse. In this article, a novel solid-solid phase change heat storage material was synthesized via the two-step condensation reaction of high molecule weight polyethylene glycol (PEG10000) with pentaerythritol (PE) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). To characterize the resulting product in comparison with pristine PEG10000, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), polarization optical microscopy (POM) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements were employed to investigate their ingredients, thermal properties and crystalline behaviors. The results indicated that the cross-linking PCM showed typical solid-solid phase transition property, and its phase change enthalpy and crystallinity reached 152.97 kJ/kg and 81.76%, respectively. (author)

  17. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  18. Analysis of optimization processses for solid state fabrication of olivine cathode materials

    Oladimeji, Charles

    Lithium ion battery discovered since the 1980s has become pivotal to our energy needs. With the need for a shift to renewable energy and increased use of portable devices, energy storage has become a very important aspect of modern day life and technology. In the thesis, optimization techniques for solid state calcination of lithium olivine batteries are characterized and analyzed. A brief introduction into lithium ion battery is discussed, the chemistry and physics of the materials is studied in details. Emphasis is placed on the olivine structure, industrially utilized synthesis method and the performance of olivine lithium ion batteries are also discussed in details. Olivine structure LiFePO4 (LFP) was synthesized via solid state processes, using Li2CO3, NH4H 2PO4 and FeC2O4˙H2O and C12H22O11 as precursor materials. The effects of calendaring in terms of charge/discharge capacity, cycle life performance, surface morphology, and ac impedance was analyzed. The resulting LFP electrode was divided in part, Part A was left as is and Part B was calendared. The calendared electrode exhibited lower impedance under electrochemical impedance test. The calendared electrode also exhibited a higher discharge capacity of about 130 mAh/g at 0.1C compared to the as-is electrode with discharge capacity of about 120mAh/g. Olivine structure LiMnPO4 (LMP) was also synthesized via solid state processes, using Li2CO3, NH4H 2PO4, MnCO3 and C12H22O 11 as precursor materials. Comparison of the carbon addition process was done by adding sucrose to the initial precursor mix and carbon black at the later stages of fabrication. The 3 step carbon addition exhibited the highest specific capacity of about 72mAh/g, 1 step carbon addition possessed the least capacity of about 45mAh/g, while the 2 step process had a capacity of about 65mA/g.

  19. Torque measurements reveal large process differences between materials during high solid enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose

    Palmqvist Benny


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common trend in the research on 2nd generation bioethanol is the focus on intensifying the process and increasing the concentration of water insoluble solids (WIS throughout the process. However, increasing the WIS content is not without problems. For example, the viscosity of pretreated lignocellulosic materials is known to increase drastically with increasing WIS content. Further, at elevated viscosities, problems arise related to poor mixing of the material, such as poor distribution of the enzymes and/or difficulties with temperature and pH control, which results in possible yield reduction. Achieving good mixing is unfortunately not without cost, since the power requirements needed to operate the impeller at high viscosities can be substantial. This highly important scale-up problem can easily be overlooked. Results In this work, we monitor the impeller torque (and hence power input in a stirred tank reactor throughout high solid enzymatic hydrolysis (Arundo donax and spruce. Two different process modes were evaluated, where either the impeller speed or the impeller power input was kept constant. Results from hydrolysis experiments at a fixed impeller speed of 10 rpm show that a very rapid decrease in impeller torque is experienced during hydrolysis of pretreated arundo (i.e. it loses its fiber network strength, whereas the fiber strength is retained for a longer time within the spruce material. This translates into a relatively low, rather WIS independent, energy input for arundo whereas the stirring power demand for spruce is substantially larger and quite WIS dependent. By operating the impeller at a constant power input (instead of a constant impeller speed it is shown that power input greatly affects the glucose yield of pretreated spruce whereas the hydrolysis of arundo seems unaffected. Conclusions The results clearly highlight the large differences between the arundo and spruce materials, both in terms of

  20. A Quantitative Property-Property Relationship for the Internal Diffusion Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Solid Materials

    Huang, Lei; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier


    Indoor releases of organic chemicals encapsulated in solid materials are major contributors to human exposures and are directly related to the internal diffusion coefficient in solid materials. Existing correlations to estimate the diffusion coefficient are only valid for a limited number...... of chemical-material combinations. This paper develops and evaluates a quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) to predict diffusion coefficients for a wide range of organic chemicals and materials. We first compiled a training dataset of 1103 measured diffusion coefficients for 158 chemicals in 32...... consolidated material types. Following a detailed analysis of the temperature influence, we developed a multiple linear regression model to predict diffusion coefficients as a function of chemical molecular weight (MW), temperature, and material type (adjusted R2 of 0.93). The internal validations showed...


    Willi Pabst


    Full Text Available Minimum solid area (MSA models are popular models for the calculation of the effective properties of porous materials and are frequently used to justify the use of a simple exponential relation for fitting purposes. In this contribution it is shown that MSA models, and the simple exponentials they support, are misleading and should be avoided. In particular, taking Young modulus and conductivity (thermal or electrical as examples, it is shown that MSA models are based on the unjustified (and unjustifiable hypothesis that the relative Young modulus and relative conductivity are identical, and moreover equal to the MSA fraction itself. This claim is generally false for isotropic materials, both random or periodic. Although indeed a very specific case exists in which this claim is true for the properties in one specific direction (viz., extremely anisotropic materials with translational invariance, in this specific case MSA models are redundant, because the relative properties are given exactly by the volume- or area-weighted arithmetic mean. It is shown that the mere existence of non-trivial cross-property relations is incompatible with the existence of MSA models. Finally, it is shown by numerical (finite-element modeling that MSA models provide incorrect results even in the simplest of the cases for which they were originally designed, i.e. for simple cubic packings of partially sintered isometric (initially spherical grains. Therefore, paraphrasing Box, MSA models are not only wrong, but also useless, and should be abandoned.

  2. Construction material properties of slag from the high temperature arc gasification of municipal solid waste.

    Roessler, Justin G; Olivera, Fernando D; Wasman, Scott J; Townsend, Timothy G; McVay, Michael C; Ferraro, Christopher C; Blaisi, Nawaf I


    Slag from the high temperature arc gasification (HTAG) of municipal solid waste (MSW) was tested to evaluate its material properties with respect to use as a construction aggregate. These data were compared to previously compiled values for waste to energy bottom ash, the most commonly produced and beneficially used thermal treatment residue. The slag was tested using gradations representative of a base course and a course aggregate. Los Angeles (LA) abrasion testing demonstrated that the HTAG slag had a high resistance to fracture with a measured LA loss of 24%. Soundness testing indicated a low potential for reactivity and good weathering resistance with a mean soundness loss of 3.14%. The modified Proctor compaction testing found the slag to possess a maximum dry density (24.04kN/m(3)) greater than conventionally used aggregates and WTE BA. The LBR tests demonstrated a substantial bearing capacity (>200). Mineralogical analysis of the HTAG suggested the potential for self cementing character which supports the elevated LBR results. Preliminary material characterization of the HTAG slag establishes potential for beneficial use; larger and longer term studies focusing on the material's possibility for swelling and performance at the field scale level are needed.




    In the investigation of outbreaks of plague it is frequently more satisfactory to send specimens of suspected material collected in the field to a central laboratory, where usually better facilities for their more detailed examination are available. In the present study the authors have investigated the suitability of solid CO(2) (dry-ice) for the preservation of such material during transit. Three types of preparation were tested: broth suspensions of Pasteurella pestis, the livers and spleens of guinea-pigs dying after being infected with two different strains of P. pestis, and whole carcasses of mice and ground-squirrels infected with the organism. An additional test to ascertain the rate at which animal specimens became frozen and thawed was also carried out.These studies showed that (1) organisms in the various tissues frozen in dry-ice were not adversely affected by such treatment; (2) the survival of P. pestis cells did not depend on the number of organisms present in broth cultures or tissue suspensions, small numbers surviving equally well as large; and (3) plague bacilli contained in whole carcasses, even when present in small numbers, were also successfully preserved. It is concluded from these results, and also from the authors' practical use of the method over several years, that for the transport of plague-suspect materials from the field to the laboratory freezing with dry-ice can be confidently recommended.

  4. Tubular micro- and nanostructures of TCO materials grown by a vapor-solid method

    Carlos Bueno


    Full Text Available Microtubes and rods with nanopipes of transparent conductive oxides (TCO, such as SnO2, TiO2, ZnO and In2O3, have been fabricated following a vapor-solid method which avoids the use of catalyst or templates. The morphology of the as-grown tubular structures varies as a function of the precursor powder and the parameters employed during the thermal treatments carried out under a controlled argon flow. These materials have been also doped with different elements of technological interest (Cr, Er, Li, Zn, Sn. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS measurements show that the concentration of the dopants achieved by the vapor-solid method ranges from 0.5 to 3 at.%. Luminescence of the tubes has been analyzed, with special attention paid to the influence of the dopants on their optical properties. In this work, we summarize and discuss some of the processes involved not only in the anisotropic growth of these hollow micro and nanostructures, but also in their doping.


    Pytko-Polończyk, Jolanta; Antosik, Agata; Zajac, Magdalena; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Krywult, Agnieszka; Jachowicz, Renata; Opoka, Włodzimierz


    Caries is the most popular problem affecting teeth and this is the reason why so many temporary dental filling materials are being developed. An example of such filling is zinc oxide paste mixed with eugenol, Thymodentin and Coltosol F®. Zinc-oxide eugenol is used in dentistry because of its multiplied values: it improves heeling of the pulp by dentine bridge formation; has antiseptic properties; is hygroscopic. Because of these advantages compouds of zinc oxide are used as temporary fillings, especially in deep caries lesions when treatment is oriented on support of vital pulp. Temporary dental fillings based on zinc oxide are prepared ex tempone by simple mixing powder (Thymodentin) and eugenol liqiud together or a ready to use paste Coltosol F®. Quantitative composition depends mainly on experience of person who is preparing it, therefore, exact qualitative composition of dental fillings is not replicable. The main goal of the study was to develop appropriate dental fillings in solid form containing set amount of zinc oxide. Within the study, the influence of preparation method on solid dental fillings properties like mechanical properties and zinc ions release were examined.

  6. Method of treating oils derived by thermal treatment of solid carbonaceous materials

    Culbertson, W.J.; Nevens, T.D.; Schnackenberg, W.D.


    A method for treating a heavy fraction separated under substantially non-cracking conditions from a crude oil derived by thermal treatment of solid carbonaceous material in order to produce a heavy fraction and a light fraction consists of heat treating the separated heavy fraction at a temperature above about 600$F. This temperature is below the point of incipient thermal decomposition of the heavy fraction. The heat treatment takes place for a period of time which is inversely proportional to the temperature to produce a product which, when combined with at least part of a light fraction, results in an oil having a pour point lower than that of the original crude oil. The heat treatment produces substantially no non-condensible hydrocarbons and substantially no elemental carbon. (21 claims)

  7. Silica nanoparticles produced by DC arc plasma from a solid raw materials

    Kosmachev, P. V.; Vlasov, V. A.; Skripnikova, N. K.


    Plasma synthesis of SiO2 nanoparticles in experimental atmospheric pressure plasma reactor on the basis of DC arc plasma generator was presented in this paper. Solid high-silica raw materials such as diatomite from Kamyshlovskoye deposit in Russia, quartzite from Chupinskoye deposit in Russia and milled window glass were used. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized based on their morphology, chemical composition and size distribution. Scanning electron microscopy, laser diffractometry, nitrogen absorption (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesized products. The obtained silica nanoparticles are agglomerated, have spherical shape and primary diameters between 10-300 nm. All samples of synthesized nanopowders were compared with commercial nanopowders.

  8. Two and three dimensional electron backscattered diffraction analysis of solid oxide cells materials

    Saowadee, Nath

    in solid oxide fuel cell and electrolysis cell. Conductivity of STN is one of the important properties that researchers desire to improve. Grin boundary conductivity contributes to the overall conductivity of the STN. Grain boundary density controlled by mainly grain growth in material processing. Grain...... boundary migration in grain growth involves grain boundary mobility and net pressure on it. Thus grain boundary energy and pressure of STN were calculated in this work. Secondary phase is undesired in STN and YSZ synthesis. The secondary phase in ceramics with the same compounds can have different lattice...... the lattice constant. Both 2D and 3D EBSD were used in acquiring microstructure and crystallographic information of STN and YSZ. Prior to EBSD data collection, effect of FIB milling on STN and YSZ was investigated to optimize EBSD data quality and acquisition time for 3D-EBSD experiments by FIB serial...

  9. Thermodynamic stability of perovskite and lanthanum nickelate-type cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Cetin, Deniz

    The need for cleaner and more efficient alternative energy sources is becoming urgent as concerns mount about climate change wrought by greenhouse gas emissions. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are one of the most efficient options if the goal is to reduce emissions while still operating on fossil energy resources. One of the foremost problems in SOFCs that causes efficiency loss is the polarization resistance associated with the oxygen reduction reaction(ORR) at the cathodes. Hence, improving the cathode design will greatly enhance the overall performance of SOFCs. Lanthanum nickelate, La2NiO4+delta (LNO), is a mixed ionic and electronic conductor that has competitive surface oxygen exchange and transport properties and excellent electrical conductivity compared to perovskite-type oxides. This makes it an excellent candidate for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. It has been previously shown that composites of LNO with Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-delta (SDC20) as cathode materials lead to higher performance than standalone LNO. However, in contact with lanthanide-doped ceria, LNO decomposes resulting in free NiO and ceria with higher lanthanide dopant concentration. In this study, the aforementioned instability of LNO has been addressed by compositional tailoring of LNO: lanthanide doped ceria (LnxCe 1-xO2,LnDC)composite. By increasing the lanthanide dopant concentration in the ceria phase close to its solubility limit, the LNO phase has been stabilized in the LNO:LnDC composites. Electrical conductivity of the composites as a function of LNO volume fraction and temperature has been measured, and analyzed using a resistive network model which allows the identification of a percolation threshold for the LNO phase. The thermomechanical compatibility of these composites has been investigated with SOFC systems through measurement of the coefficients of thermal expansion. LNO:LDC40 composites containing LNO lower than 50 vol%and higher than 40 vol% were identified as being

  10. Trace minerals profile of blood serum and estrual mucus in repeat breeder Kankrej cows

    N F Chaudhari


    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with an idea to ascertain involvement of trace minerals in failure of conception in Knakrej cow. Materials and Methods: The animals under study were comprised of 10 normal (Group-I and 20 repeat breeder (Group-II Kankrej cows. Blood samples of each repeat breeding and normally cycling cows was collected before Artificial insemination. The mucus samples were collected aseptically before breeding. The cervical mucus was diluted with triple glass distilled water at the rate of 1: 3 using vertex machine. The diluted mucus and serum was used for the trace minerals estimation. Results: The values observed for copper, iron, zinc and manganese in blood serum of normal and repeat breeding animals was 2.27 ± 0.05 vs 0.87 ± 0.02, 1.41 ± 0.02 vs 0.65 ± 0.01, 1.94 ± 0.01 vs 1.78 ± 0.02 and 0.43 ± 0.02 vs 0.18 ± 0.01 ppm, respectively and in estrual mucus it was 1.37 ± 0.10 vs 0.44 ± 0.06, 0.74 ± 0.07 vs 0.33 ± 0.05, 1.47 ± 0.10 vs 0.82 ± 0.06 and 0.29 ± 0.04 vs 0.23 ± 0.03 ppm, respectively. All the values in blood serum and estrual mucus were significantly (p<0.01 higher in normal than repeat breeder cows except manganese in estrual mucus, which was non significantly higher in normal as compared to repeat breeder Kankrej cows. Conclusion: All trace minerals was higher in blood serum of normal animals as compared to repeat breeder. In estrual mucus except manganese, all trace minerals was higher in normal cows than repeat breeder. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 143-146

  11. Lanthanum chromite materials as potential symmetrical electrodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Ruiz-Morales, J. C.


    Full Text Available A commonly used interconnector material has been tested as electrode for a new concept of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, where the same material could be used, simultaneously, as interconnector, anode and cathode. We have found that a typical substituted chromite, such as La0.7Ca0.3CrO3-δ (LCC can be considered a good candidate for such configuration, due to its high electronic conductivity in both reducing and oxidising conditions, and moderate catalytic properties for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation. The symmetrical design renders performances of 100 mWcm-2 at 950ºC, using O2 and H2 as oxidant and fuel respectively. Performances exceeding 300 mWcm-2 can be predicted for a 100μm-thick YSZ electrolyte.

    Un material comúnmente utilizado como interconector ha sido probado como electrodo para un nuevo concepto de Pila de Combustible de Óxidos Sólido, en el cual el mismo material se utiliza, simultáneamente, como interconector, ánodo y cátodo. Hemos encontrado que una cromita típica como La0.7Ca0.3CrO3-δ (LCC puede ser considerada una buena candidata para dicha configuración, debido a sus altas conductividades eléctricas tanto en condiciones reductoras como oxidantes y una aceptable actividad catalítica para la reducción del oxígeno y la oxidación del hidrógeno. El diseño simétrico permite obtener rendimientos del orden de 100mWcm-2 a 950ºC, utilizando O2 e H2 como oxidante y combustible, respectivamente. Rendimientos que superan los 300mWcm-2 pueden predecirse para pilas con electrolitos de YSZ de 100 μm de grosor.

  12. Monte Carlo modeling of 60 Co HDR brachytherapy source in water and in different solid water phantom materials

    Sahoo S


    Full Text Available The reference medium for brachytherapy dose measurements is water. Accuracy of dose measurements of brachytherapy sources is critically dependent on precise measurement of the source-detector distance. A solid phantom can be precisely machined and hence source-detector distances can be accurately determined. In the present study, four different solid phantom materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1 are modeled using the Monte Carlo methods to investigate the influence of phantom material on dose rate distributions of the new model of BEBIG 60 Co brachytherapy source. The calculated dose rate constant is 1.086 ± 0.06% cGy h−1 U−1 for water, PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1. The investigation suggests that the phantom materials RW1 and Solid Water represent water-equivalent up to 20 cm from the source. PMMA and polystyrene are water-equivalent up to 10 cm and 15 cm from the source, respectively, as the differences in the dose data obtained in these phantom materials are not significantly different from the corresponding data obtained in liquid water phantom. At a radial distance of 20 cm from the source, polystyrene overestimates the dose by 3% and PMMA underestimates it by about 8% when compared to the corresponding data obtained in water phantom.

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Ludovico Dipineto


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  14. Are Kirindy sifaka capital or income breeders? It depends.

    Lewis, R J; Kappeler, P M


    The capital and income breeding framework has only recently been used to explain variation in female reproductive strategies in primates. The application of this framework to primates and other mammals with long reproductive cycles has not been consistent. We evaluated data on Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) in the Kirindy Forest of western Madagascar to determine whether they are capital or income breeders. We found that Verreaux's sifaka can be classified as either capital or income breeders, depending on how these concepts are operationalized. These conflicting findings highlight why the capital/income framework is currently problematic and must be standardized if it is to be a useful framework for primatologists.

  15. Application of results of geological exploration of deposits of solid mineral raw materials in mining

    Ilić Miloje M.


    Full Text Available Important application in mining have the results of geological exploration of the deposits of solid mineral raw materials, before all geological data obtained (including their interpretations regarding basic properties of the deposts and their changeability, and regarding quantity and quality (i.e. resources and reserves of the belonging mineral raw material which have an essential significance for mineral projects. The geological data, together with the other relevant data (in the first place technical and economic ones are applied as basic parameters in documentation of mineral projects. Since the successfulness of the projects is dependent upon the confidence of the data, a special attention is dedicated to the acts that contribute to attaining of an adequate level of confidence of the data, as follows: a a gradual realization of the projects through two phases (geological and mining ones having seven development stages (reconnaissance, prospecting, preliminary exploration and detailed exploration stages of the geological phase and mine design, mine construction and mine production stages of the mining phase; b finding out optimal solutions in drawing up a plan of exploratory workings and its carrying out in accordance with basic properties of a deposit and their changeability; c a realistic estimation of mineral resources/reserves as a predominantly geological task (not 'calculation' of the resources/reserves as a mathematical task; d an objective evaluation of the successfulness of a project at the end of every geological stage ‒ presented in corresponding geological analyses and technical-economic studies.

  16. The physics of solid-state neutron detector materials and geometries.

    Caruso, A N


    Detection of neutrons, at high total efficiency, with greater resolution in kinetic energy, time and/or real-space position, is fundamental to the advance of subfields within nuclear medicine, high-energy physics, non-proliferation of special nuclear materials, astrophysics, structural biology and chemistry, magnetism and nuclear energy. Clever indirect-conversion geometries, interaction/transport calculations and modern processing methods for silicon and gallium arsenide allow for the realization of moderate- to high-efficiency neutron detectors as a result of low defect concentrations, tuned reaction product ranges, enhanced effective omnidirectional cross sections and reduced electron-hole pair recombination from more physically abrupt and electronically engineered interfaces. Conversely, semiconductors with high neutron cross sections and unique transduction mechanisms capable of achieving very high total efficiency are gaining greater recognition despite the relative immaturity of their growth, lithographic processing and electronic structure understanding. This review focuses on advances and challenges in charged-particle-based device geometries, materials and associated mechanisms for direct and indirect transduction of thermal to fast neutrons within the context of application. Calorimetry- and radioluminescence-based intermediate processes in the solid state are not included.

  17. Simulation and design of an electron beam ion source charge breeder for the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade

    Clayton Dickerson


    Full Text Available An electron beam ion source (EBIS will be constructed and used to charge breed ions from the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade (CARIBU for postacceleration into the Argonne tandem linear accelerator system (ATLAS. Simulations of the EBIS charge breeder performance and the related ion transport systems are reported. Propagation of the electron beam through the EBIS was verified, and the anticipated incident power density within the electron collector was identified. The full normalized acceptance of the charge breeder with a 2 A electron beam, 0.024π  mm mrad for nominal operating parameters, was determined by simulating ion injection into the EBIS. The optics of the ion transport lines were carefully optimized to achieve well-matched ion injection, to minimize emittance growth of the injected and extracted ion beams, and to enable adequate testing of the charge bred ions prior to installation in ATLAS.

  18. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    J. A. (Bart) Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman


    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  19. Body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders: impact of feeding strategies

    Emous, van R.A.


    ABSTRACT Key words: broiler breeder, feeding strategies, body composition, reproduction, behavior Nowadays, welfare issues in broiler breeders associated with nutrition and reproductive characteristics, are becoming increasingly challenging. Due to genetic selection on broilers,

  20. Factors Affecting Maternal Care in an Income Breeder, the European Roe Deer

    Reidar Andersen; Jean-Michel Gaillard; John D. C. Linnell; Patrick Duncan


    ...), which rely heavily on body reserves to raise their young. Roe deer, in contrast, are close to the income breeder end of the capital-income breeder continuum, and show high levels of maternal care. 2...

  1. Using Arrested Solid-Solid Multiphase Reactions in Geological Materials to Deduce the Rate of Crustal Uplift

    Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.


    The history geological terrains experience can be traced as a series of temperature and pressure changes. Each change drives the system toward a new state of thermodynamic equilibrium. The resultant overprinted rock fabrics, textures and chemical heterogeneities can be difficult to interpret. However, if carefully chosen, features from the scale of kilometers to nanometers can be used to reconstruct the history of mountain systems. Uplift of the Sri Lankan Central Highlands was rapid enough to preserve well-developed symplectite textures, some of which represent arrested solid-state diffusion-controlled reactions of garnet + O{sub 2} to form orthopyroxene + plagioclase + magnetite, as the rocks were exhumed from over 30 km in the earth's crust. Our objective has been to determine the reaction mechanisms responsible for symplectite development, and to establish the time interval over which these reactions occurred, to constrain the rate of mountain uplift. Considering that the most rapid mechanism is solid state grain-boundary diffusion of oxygen, the reaction time can be constrained by bounding the rate of oxygen supply to the reaction site. The solid state grain boundary diffusion rate of oxygen has been inferred to be ca. 10{sup -14}m{sup 2}-sec (Farver and Yund, 1991), but is sensitive to inferred grain boundary width. The range of rates thus determined allows the distinction between rapid uplift similar to that of the Himalayan Mountains, and the slow and progressive erosion of a less dramatic terrain. Further constraints on diffusion control and energetic relationships are determined from crystallographic relationships between the reactant and product phases, and submicron scale microstructure.

  2. Effect of litter quality on foot pad dermatitis, hock burns and breast blisters in broiler breeders during the production period.

    Kaukonen, Eija; Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna


    Foot pad dermatitis and hock burn lesions are a form of contact dermatitis, a condition affecting skin areas in contact with unsuitable or irritating material. Contact dermatitis is a common problem, reducing the welfare of broilers, and is believed to also affect broiler breeders. However, there is very little research on contact dermatitis in breeders. This study followed the severity of foot pad lesions in broiler breeders throughout the production period. At slaughter the presence of hock burns and breast blisters was also determined. In addition, changes in litter condition over time and the impact of litter quality on foot pads were evaluated. The study was performed on 10 broiler breeder farms, including altogether 18 flocks. Foot pads of 100 hens per flock were assessed at the end of rearing period, three times during the production period, and at slaughter. Foot pad and hock lesions, as well as litter condition were scored on a 5-point scale. Litter quality was evaluated as pH, moisture and ammonia content. The condition of foot pads deteriorated towards slaughter age, with the occurrence of severe lesions reaching a maximum of 64% on average at slaughter. Hock lesions and breast blisters were rare. The litter layer became drier over time. Although poorer litter condition and wetness influenced foot pad health negatively, the effect on severe lesions was not significant. We also observed a negative effect on foot pad condition of larger slat areas. In conclusion, maintaining good litter quality alone is not enough to ensure healthy foot pads in broiler breeders.

  3. Corrosion test for ARAA in the Experimental loop for liquid breeder

    Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, E. H.; Jim, H. G.; Shin, K. I.; Choi, B. G.; Lee, D. W.; Jung, Y. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed the latter one to be tested in the ITER. The liquid-type TBM is one of candidate TBM for KO Demos. In this concept, helium (He) and liquid lithium (Li) were used as a coolant and a breeder, respectively. A ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) was considered as a structural material and the Advanced Reduced Activation Alloy (ARAA) is being developed as a HCCR TBM structural material. However, according to our strategy for developing the liquid breeder TBM and its more relevant DEMO concept, liquid breeders not only considered liquid lithium but also lead-lithium (PbLi). An Experimental Loop for Liquid breeder (ELLI) was constructed for the purpose of validating the electromagnetic (EM) pump design, which designed and fabricated by ourselves; testing the effects of magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD); and investigating the compatibility of PbLi using structural materials such as ferritic martensitic steel. The performance test on each component such as heaters, the control systems for heating the loop were performed and the characteristic tests with a magnet and the EM pump were carried out. The first corrosion tests using ELLI were performed with grade 91 FMS steel during 250 hours in 2011. In this study, the corrosion tests with developed ARAA were carried out in the ELLI loop using EM pump to investigate the corrosion behavior of ARAA, and the test results will be compared the previous corrosion tests of FMS corrosion specimens. Long term operation tests with the EM pump were carried out. During the two separate experiments, an EM pump was operated for 250 h with a speed of 0.16 m/s (0.95 Kg/s) for corrosion tests. The corrosion test for the ARAA was performed to investigate the corrosion behavior of ARAA in flowing PbLi. After micro structural observation on the ARAA surface and elemental analysis were done using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the corrosion results of the ARAA specimens will be compared

  4. Fundamental Studies of the Durability of Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier


    Ferritic stainless steels are a leading candidate material for use as an SOFC interconnect, but have the problem of forming volatile chromia species that lead to cathode poisoning. This project has focused both on optimization of ferritic alloys for SOFC applications and evaluating the possibility of using alternative materials. The initial efforts involved studying the oxidation behavior of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels in the temperature range 700-900 C in atmospheres relevant to solid oxide fuel cell operation. The alloys exhibited a wide variety of oxidation behavior based on composition. A method for reducing the vaporization is to add alloying elements that lead to the formation of a thermally grown oxide layer over the protective chromia. Several commercial steels form manganese chromate on the surface. This same approach, combined with observations of TiO{sub 2} overlayer formation on the chromia forming, Ni-based superalloy IN 738, has resulted in the development of a series of Fe-22 Cr-X Ti alloys (X=0-4 wt%). Oxidation testing has indicated that this approach results in significant reduction in chromia evaporation. Unfortunately, the Ti also results in accelerated chromia scale growth. Fundamental thermo-mechanical aspects of the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect alloys have also been investigated. A key failure mechanism for interconnects is the spallation of the chromia scale that forms on the alloy, as it is exposed to fuel cell environments. Indentation testing methods to measure the critical energy release rate (Gc) associated with the spallation of chromia scale/alloy systems have been evaluated. This approach has been used to evaluate the thermomechanical stability of chromia films as a function of oxidation exposure. The oxidation of pure nickel in SOFC environments was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the NiO scaling kinetics and a four-point probe was used to measure

  5. Real-Time Time-Frequency Two-Dimensional Imaging of Ultrafast Transient Signals in Solid-State Organic Materials

    Jun Takeda


    Full Text Available In this review, we demonstrate a real-time time-frequency two-dimensional (2D pump-probe imaging spectroscopy implemented on a single shot basis applicable to excited-state dynamics in solid-state organic and biological materials. Using this technique, we could successfully map ultrafast time-frequency 2D transient absorption signals of β-carotene in solid films with wide temporal and spectral ranges having very short accumulation time of 20 ms per unit frame. The results obtained indicate the high potential of this technique as a powerful and unique spectroscopic tool to observe ultrafast excited-state dynamics of organic and biological materials in solid-state, which undergo rapid photodegradation.

  6. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.


    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry a

  7. Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document

    Duckett, A.J.; Sorenson, K.B.


    The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref.

  8. Big liver and spleen disease in broiler breeders in Italy

    Gloria Torcoli


    Full Text Available For the first time in Italy, we have reported two outbreaks resembling big liver and spleen disease in broiler breeder flocks. The combination of clinical signs and pathological findings and the laboratory investigation results appeared corrisponde to previously recorded outbreaks in other countries.

  9. Feeding broiler breeders to improve their welfare whilst maintaining productivity

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    of their litter may have affected their thermoregulation. This experiment indicates that high fibre diets can alleviate the feeling of hunger currently experienced by broiler breeders, and a high ratio of insoluble fibre can reduce stereotypies and may improve the well-being of the birds....

  10. Semen bacterial flora of Rhode Island Breeder cocks in Zaria ...

    Semen bacterial flora of Rhode Island Breeder cocks in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. ... procedure, 27 of the 77 semen samples (35.1%) contained bacterial isolates. ... Bacteria isolates obtained from the semen include: Escherichia coli, ... destroyed in the interest of the efficient collection, preservation and delivery of highly ...

  11. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.


    Results of a conceptual design study of a /sup 233/U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed.

  12. Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells based on Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 Framework Materials

    YANG Hong; CHENG Yun-Fei; LI Fu-You; ZHOU Zhi-Guo; YI Tao; HUANG Chun-Hui; JIA Neng-Qin


    @@ We develop a novel and efficient quasi-solid-state electrolyte based on the mesoporous silica SBA-15 as a framework material for a dye sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cell. A solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.34% is achieved under AM 1.5 illumination (100mW/cm2).

  13. Experimental Method Development for Estimating Solid-phase Diffusion Coefficients and Material/Air Partition Coefficients of SVOCs

    The solid-phase diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material-air partition coefficient (Kma) are key parameters for characterizing the sources and transport of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment. In this work, a new experimental method was developed to es...

  14. 49 CFR 173.211 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group I.


    ... in Packing Group I. 173.211 Section 173.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group I. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a solid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I...

  15. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.


    ... in Packing Group III. 173.213 Section 173.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group III. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a solid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I, II or...

  16. 49 CFR 173.212 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.


    ... in Packing Group II. 173.212 Section 173.212 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group II. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a solid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I or...

  17. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim


    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places.

  18. Nickel and its alloys as perspective materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers operating on proton conducting solid acids as electrolyte

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf


    to protonconducting solid acids or transition metal phosphates as electrolytes. It was shown that Au is subject to corrosion in molten KH 2PO4 during polarisation. However, Ni and Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L) demonstrated high corrosion stability and can be recommended as a construction material for bipolar...

  19. Metal hydride-based materials towards high performance negative electrodes for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

    Zeng, Liang; Kawahito, Koji; Ikeda, Suguru; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Miyaoka, Hiroki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu


    Electrode performances of MgH2-LiBH4 composite materials for lithium-ion batteries have been studied using LiBH4 as the solid-state electrolyte, which shows a high reversible capacity of 1650 mA h g(-1) with an extremely low polarization of 0.05 V, durable cyclability and robust rate capability.

  20. Ferrite-based perovskites as cathode materials for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Mai, Andreas; Haanappel, Vincent A.C.; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Tietz, Frank; Stoever, Detlev [Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems, Forschungszentrum Juelich, IWV-1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)


    The properties and the applicability of iron- and cobalt-containing perovskites were evaluated as cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in comparison to state-of-the-art manganite-based perovskites. The materials examined were La{sub 1-x-y}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (x=0.2 and 0.4; y=0-0.05), La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3-{delta}}, La{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} and Ce{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}}. The main emphasis was placed on the electrochemical properties of the materials, which were investigated on planar anode-supported SOFCs with 8 mol% yttria-stabilised zirconia (8YSZ) electrolytes. An interlayer of the composition Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} was placed between the electrolyte and the cathode to prevent undesired chemical reactions between the materials. The sintering temperatures of the cathodes were adapted for each of the materials to obtain similar microstructures. In comparison to the SOFCs with state-of-the-art manganite-based cathodes, SOFCs with La{sub 1-x-y}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} cathodes achieved much higher current densities. Small A-site deficiency and high strontium content had a particularly positive effect on cell performance. The measured current densities of cells with these cathodes were as high as 1.76 A/cm{sup 2} at 800 {sup o}C and 0.7 V, which is about twice the current density of cells with LSM/YSZ cathodes. SOFCs with La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} cathodes have been operated for more than 5000 h in endurance tests with a degradation of 1.0-1.5% per 1000 h.

  1. First wall and blanket module safety enhancement by material selection and design decision

    Merrill, B.J.


    A thermal/mechanical study has been performed which illustrates the behavior of a fusion reactor first wall and blanket module during a loss of coolant flow event. The relative safety advantages of various material and design options were determined. A generalized first wall-blanket concept was developed to provide the flexibility to vary the structural material (stainless steel vs titanium), coolant (helium vs water), and breeder material (liquid lithium vs solid lithium aluminate). In addition, independent vs common first wall-blanket cooling and coupled adjacent module cooling design options were included in the study. The comparative analyses were performed using a modified thermal analysis code to handle phase change problems.

  2. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur


    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  3. Preparation and characterization of porous carbon material-coated solid-phase microextraction metal fibers.

    Zhu, Fang; Guo, Jiaming; Zeng, Feng; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai; Luan, Tiangang; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Tongbu; Ouyang, Gangfeng


    Two kinds of porous carbon materials, including carbon aerogels (CAs), wormhole-like mesoporous carbons (WMCs), were synthesized and used as the coatings of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. By using stainless steel wire as the supporting core, six types of fibers were prepared with sol-gel method, direct coating method and direct coating plus sol-gel method. Headspace SPME experiments indicated that the extraction efficiencies of the CA fibers are better than those of the WMC fibers, although the surface area of WMCs is much higher than that of CAs. The sol-gel-CA fiber (CA-A) exhibited excellent extraction properties for non-polar compounds (BTEX, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene), while direct-coated CA fiber (CA-B) presented the best performance in extracting polar compounds (phenols). The two CA fibers showed wide linear ranges, low detection limits (0.008-0.047μgL(-1) for BTEX, 0.15-5.7μgL(-1) for phenols) and good repeatabilities (RSDs less than 4.6% for BTEX, and less than 9.5% for phenols) and satisfying reproducibilities between fibers (RSDs less than 5.2% for BTEX, and less than 9.9% for phenols). These fibers were successfully used for the analysis of water samples from the Pearl River, which demonstrated the applicability of the home-made CA fibers.

  4. A Noncontact Measurement Technique for the Density and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid and Liquid Materials

    Chung, Sang K.; Thiessen, David B.; Rhim, Won-Kyu


    A noncontact measurement technique for the density and the thermal expansion refractory materials in their molten as well as solid phases is presented. This technique is based on the video image processing of a levitated sample. Experiments were performed using the high-temperature electrostatic levitator (HTESL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which 2-3 mm diameter samples can be levitated, melted, and radiatively cooled in a vacuum. Due to the axisymmetric nature of the molten samples when levitated in the HTESL, a rather simple digital image analysis can be employed to accurately measure the volumetric change as a function of temperature. Density and the thermal expansion coefficient measurements were made on a pure nickel sample to test the accuracy of the technique in the temperature range of 1045-1565 C. The result for the liquid phase density can be expressed by p = 8.848 + (6.730 x 10(exp -4)) x T (degC) g/cu cm within 0.8% accuracy, and the corresponding thermal expansion coefficient can be expressed by Beta=(9.419 x 10(exp -5)) - (7.165 x 10(exp -9) x T (degC)/K within 0.2% accuracy.

  5. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Zn4Sb3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrode

    Lin, Y. C.; Lee, K. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chuang, T. H.


    The ZnSb intermetallic compound may have thermoelectric applications because it is low in cost and environmentally friendly. In this study, a Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric element coated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode using a Ag/Sn/Ag solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process. The results indicated that a Ni5Zn21 intermetallic phase formed easily at the Zn4Sb3/Ni interface, leading to sound adhesion. In addition, Sn film was found to react completely with the Ag layer to form a Ag3Sn intermetallic layer having a melting point of 480°C. The resulting Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric module can be applied at the optimized operation temperature (400°C) of Zn4Sb3 material as a thermoelectric element. The bonding strengths ranged from 14.9 MPa to 25.0 MPa, and shear tests revealed that the Zn4Sb3/Cu-joints fractured through the interior of the thermoelectric elements.

  6. Apparatus for Measuring Spectral Emissivity of Solid Materials at Elevated Temperatures

    Ren, Dengfeng; Tan, Hong; Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Li, Qiang


    Spectral emissivity measurements at high temperature are of great importance for both scientific research and industrial applications. A method to perform spectral emissivity measurements is presented based on two sample heating methods, the flat plate and tubular furnace. An apparatus is developed to measure the normal spectral emissivity of solid material at elevated temperatures from 1073 K to 1873 K and wavelengths from 2 \\upmu hbox {m} to 25 \\upmu hbox {m}. Sample heating is accomplished by a torch flame or a high temperature furnace. Two different variable temperature blackbody sources are used as standard references and the radiance is measured by a FTIR spectrometer. Following calibration of the spectral response and background radiance of the spectrometer, the effect of the blackbody temperature interval on calibration results is discussed. Measurements are performed of the normal spectral emissivity of SiC and graphite over the prescribed temperature and wavelength range. The emissivity of SiC at high temperatures is compared with the emissivity at room temperature, and the influence of an oxide layer formed at the surface of SiC on the emissivity is studied. The effect of temperature on the emissivity of graphite is also investigated. Furthermore, a thorough analysis of the uncertainty components of the emissivity measurement is performed.

  7. Selected Application of Electron Beams in Solid State Materials and Devies Technology

    S. C. Jain


    Full Text Available Experimental work on electron beam annealing of implanted or diffused semiconductor layers is reviewed. In the pulsed beam annealing technique, the top layer of the semiconductor melts and regrows epitaxially. All dopant atoms are frozen in electrically active state during this process. The point defects and clusters caused by radiation damage are completely annealed out. The bulk of the material remains unaffected as its temperature does not rise by more than a few degrees. In the CW electron beam annealing, the layer does not melt but due to sharp temperature gradient and high temperature of the layer, the growth of solid phase epitaxial layer is induced. However, a part of the dopant atoms may remain electrically inactive in this process of annealing. The pulsed beam annealing has also been used for growing high quality single crystal layers of germanium on silicon substrate. Recently, a new technology has been developed to grow silicon single crystal layers on amorphous substrates. Recent advances in the method of determination of lifetime using electron beams are also discussed.

  8. Chaotic exchange of solid material between planetary systems: implications for lithopanspermia

    Belbruno, Edward; Malhotra, Renu; Savransky, Dmitry


    We examine a low energy mechanism for the transfer of meteoroids between two planetary systems embedded in a star cluster using quasi-parabolic orbits of minimal energy. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the exchange of meteoroids could have been significantly more efficient than previously estimated. Our study is relevant to astrobiology as it addresses whether life on Earth could have been transferred to other planetary systems in the solar system's birth cluster and whether life on Earth could have been transferred here from beyond the solar system. In the solar system, the timescale over which solid material was delivered to the region from where it could be transferred via this mechanism likely extended to several hundred million years (as indicated by the 3.8-4.0 Ga epoch of the Late Heavy Bombardment). This timescale could have overlapped with the lifetime of the Solar birth cluster (~100-500 Myr). Therefore, we conclude that lithopanspermia is an open possibility if life had an early start. ...

  9. Development of a poly(dimethylacrylamide) based matrix material for solid phase high density peptide array synthesis employing a laser based material transfer

    Ridder, Barbara; Foertsch, Tobias C.; Welle, Alexander; Mattes, Daniela S.; von Bojnicic-Kninski, Clemens M.; Loeffler, Felix F.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Meier, Michael A. R.; Breitling, Frank


    Poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) based matrix materials were developed for laser-based in situ solid phase peptide synthesis to produce high density arrays. In this specific array synthesis approach, amino acid derivatives are embedded into a matrix material, serving as a "solid" solvent material at room temperature. Then, a laser pulse transfers this mixture to the target position on a synthesis slide, where the peptide array is synthesized. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature of the matrix material, it softens, allowing diffusion of the amino acid derivatives to the synthesis surface and serving as a solvent for peptide bond formation. Here, we synthesized PDMA six-arm star polymers, offering the desired matrix material properties, using atom transfer radical polymerization. With the synthesized polymers as matrix material, we structured and synthesized arrays with combinatorial laser transfer. With densities of up to 20,000 peptide spots per cm2, the resolution could be increased compared to the commercially available standard matrix material. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry experiments revealed the penetration behavior of an amino acid derivative into the prepared acceptor synthesis surface and the effectiveness of the washing protocols.

  10. Material synthesis and fabrication method development for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Ding, Hanping

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are operated in high temperature conditions (750-1000 °C). The high operating temperature in turn may lead to very complicated material degradation issues, significantly increasing the cost and reducing the durability of SOFC material systems. In order to widen material selections, reduce cost, and increase durability of SOFCs, there is a growing interest to develop intermediate temperature SOFCs (500-750 °C). However, lowering operating temperature will cause substantial increases of ohmic resistance of electrolyte and polarization resistance of electrodes. This dissertation aimed at developing high-performance intermediate-temperature SOFCs through the employment of a series of layered perovskite oxides as novel cathode materials to minimize the potential electrode polarization on oxygen reduction reaction resulting from the unique crystal structure. The high performance of such perovskites under lower temperatures lies in the fact that a simple cubic perovskite with randomly occupied A-sites transforming into a layered compound with ordered lanthanide and alkali-earth cations may reduce the oxygen bonding strength and provide disorder-free channels for oxygen ion migrations. In order to compromise the cell performance and chemical and mechanical stability, the substitution of Fe in B site was comprehensively investigated to explore the effects of Fe doping on the crystal structure, thermal and electrical properties, as well as electrochemical performance. Furthermore, a platinum nanowire network was successfully developed as an ultrathin electrochemically efficient current collector for SOFCs. The unique platinum network on cathode surface can connect the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) sites at the nano-scale to the external circuit while being able to substantially avoid blocking the open pores of the cathode. The superior electrochemical performance was exhibited, including the highly reduced electrode polarization resistance

  11. New directions for high-performance materials via postextrusion solid state polymerization

    Almonacil, Celine

    Solid state polymerization (SSP) usually consists of heating condensation polymers to temperatures below their melting point and holding there for a significant time to raise their molecular weight. The process is common in the polymer industry for the production of high molecular weight polyesters and polyamides for industrial fibers and molded products. Recent research has shown that post-extrusion SSP, where polymerization is performed on extruded products such as thin films or fibers, has the potential to lead to high performance materials. Although literature on SSP is abundant, the mechanisms and possible morphological consequences have remained largely unexplored. The purpose of this work is to explore the potential for generating high performance oriented polymer morphologies by performing a fundamental analysis of the mechanisms and morphological consequences of post-extrusion SSP in oriented polymers. It is based on recent research that has shown that interchange reactions can play a fundamental role during many solid state polymerizations by providing the primary mechanism for migration of functionality. It is also based on the recent recognition that these reactions can cause profound changes in the morphology of the polymer. A coarse-grained model which can be used to explore quantitatively the effect of interchange reactions on the topological distribution of chains in inter-crystalline regions is presented here. It includes a novel thermodynamic scheme, coupled with Monte Carlo Rotational Isomeric State simulations, to determine quantitatively the relative probabilities of morphologically different reaction pathways. The results show the role of intrinsic molecular rigidity on interconversions of bridges and loops during SSP of different polymers. The generalized scheme presented here can serve to identify, via gedanken experiments, appropriate semi-rigid systems to explore through real synthesis and processing of high mechanical performance polymers

  12. Integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from green cut material from landscape conservation and private households.

    Hensgen, F; Richter, F; Wachendorf, M


    Green cut material is a potential source of renewable energy which is not fully exploited through conventional energy recovery systems. A new energy conversion process, the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB), which includes mechanical separation after hydro-thermal conditioning, was investigated. Ash softening temperature and lower heating value of the solid fuel were increased through the IFFB process in comparison to the untreated raw material. The net energy yield of IFBB at 40 °C conditioning temperature ranged between 1.96 and 2.85 kWh kg(-1) dry matter (DM) and for the direct combustion between 1.75 and 2.65 kWh kg(-1) DM. Conversion efficiencies for the IFBB system were 0.42-0.68 and for direct combustion 0.42-0.63. The IFBB system produces storable energy from material which is nowadays not used for energy conversion.

  13. Oxides with polyatomic anions considered as new electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    Bin Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor


    Materials with Polyatomic anions of [Al{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -8}, [Ti{sub 2}O{sub 8}]{sup -8} and [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -4} were investigated with respect to their ionic conductivity properties as well as its thermal expansion properties with the aim to use them as SOFCs electrolytes. The polyatomic anion groups selected from the oxy-cuspidine family of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} and Gd{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 10} as well as from pyrophosphate SnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The pure oxy-cuspidine Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, the series of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} with x=0.10-1.0 and Gd{sub 4-x}M{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} (M=Ca, Sr) with x = 0.05-0.5 were prepared successfully by the citrate complexation method. All samples showed the crystal structure of monoclinic oxycuspidine structure with space group of P2{sub 1/c} and Z=4. No solid solution was observed for Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} where additional phases of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO were presence. XRD semiquantitative analysis together with SEM-EDX analysis revealed that Mg{sup 2+} was not able to substitute the Al{sup 3+} ions even at low Mg{sup 2+} concentration. The solid solution limit of Gd{sub 4-x}Ca{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} and Gd{sub 4-x}Sr{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} was determined between 0.05-0.10 and 0.01-0.05 mol for Ca and Sr, respectively. Beyond the substitution limit Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, GdAlO{sub 3} and SrGd{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7} appeared as additional phases. The highest electrical conductivity obtained at 900 C yielded {sigma}= 1.49 x 10{sup -4}Scm{sup -1} for Gd{sub 3.95}Ca{sub 0.05}Al{sub 2}O{sub 8.98}. In comparison, the conductivity of pure Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} was {sigma}= 1.73 x 10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1}. The conductivities determined were in a similar range as those of other cuspidine materials investigated previously. The thermal expansion coefficient of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} at 1000 C was 7.4 x 10{sup -6}K{sup -1}. The earlier reported

  14. Oxides with polyatomic anions considered as new electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    Bin Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor


    Materials with Polyatomic anions of [Al{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -8}, [Ti{sub 2}O{sub 8}]{sup -8} and [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -4} were investigated with respect to their ionic conductivity properties as well as its thermal expansion properties with the aim to use them as SOFCs electrolytes. The polyatomic anion groups selected from the oxy-cuspidine family of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} and Gd{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 10} as well as from pyrophosphate SnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The pure oxy-cuspidine Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, the series of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} with x=0.10-1.0 and Gd{sub 4-x}M{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} (M=Ca, Sr) with x = 0.05-0.5 were prepared successfully by the citrate complexation method. All samples showed the crystal structure of monoclinic oxycuspidine structure with space group of P2{sub 1/c} and Z=4. No solid solution was observed for Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} where additional phases of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO were presence. XRD semiquantitative analysis together with SEM-EDX analysis revealed that Mg{sup 2+} was not able to substitute the Al{sup 3+} ions even at low Mg{sup 2+} concentration. The solid solution limit of Gd{sub 4-x}Ca{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} and Gd{sub 4-x}Sr{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} was determined between 0.05-0.10 and 0.01-0.05 mol for Ca and Sr, respectively. Beyond the substitution limit Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, GdAlO{sub 3} and SrGd{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7} appeared as additional phases. The highest electrical conductivity obtained at 900 C yielded {sigma}= 1.49 x 10{sup -4}Scm{sup -1} for Gd{sub 3.95}Ca{sub 0.05}Al{sub 2}O{sub 8.98}. In comparison, the conductivity of pure Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} was {sigma}= 1.73 x 10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1}. The conductivities determined were in a similar range as those of other cuspidine materials investigated previously. The thermal expansion coefficient of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} at 1000 C was 7.4 x 10{sup -6}K{sup -1}. The earlier reported


    Aziz I. Abdullah


    Full Text Available Solid Detergent is one of  the Economic materials and Environmentally friendly method towards enhancing properties of concrete. Lightweight, slow reaction and anti acid concrete can achieving by using this materials, so many test made to validate the advantage and disadvantage ; initial and final hardening time  for cement mortar and compressive strength of concrete, also anti acid test made for cement mortar.The results of tests show this materials are suitable for achieving the purpose to lightweight, slow reaction additional  anti acid concrete.

  16. New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    Dumont, Philip John [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

  17. CO2-Doped Diamond: A Potential Solid-State CO2 Laser Material?

    Tratt, D.


    This paper describes a novel concept for a solid-state CO subscript 2 laser medium which, by eschewing the gas-phase approach, may offer prospects for a compact, robust 9 - 11 (micro)m coherent source, coupled with the potentially superior frequency stability characteristics afforded by monolithic solid-state construction.

  18. Thermodynamic study of semiconducting related materials by use of EMF method with solid electrolyte

    Katayama Iwao


    Full Text Available Electromotive force method with solid electrolyte is briefly explained, and a thermodynamic study of semi conducting compound solid solution ZnTe-CdTe is picked up to show the way how thermodynamic functions of this system are obtained by several experimental methods based on our published papers and recently published data are added for comparison.

  19. Solid Waste Management Available Information Materials. Total Listing 1966-1976.

    Larsen, Julie L.

    This publication is a compiled and indexed bibliography of solid waste management documents produced in the last ten years. This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publication is compiled from the Office of Solid Waste Management Programs (OSWMP) publications and the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) reports. Included are…

  20. Conceptual design of a water cooled breeder blanket for CFETR

    Liu, Songlin, E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pu, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoman [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Jia; Peng, ChangHong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ma, Xuebing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)


    Highlights: • We proposed a water cooled ceramic breeder blanket with superheated steam. • Superheated steam is generated at the first wall and the front part of breeder zone. • Superheated steam has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW and improves TBR. • The superheated steam at higher temperature can improve thermal efficiency. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like superconducting tokamak reactor. Its major radius is 5.7 m, minor radius is 1.6 m and elongation ratio is 1.8. Its mission is to achieve 50–200 MW of fusion power, 30–50% of duty time factor, and tritium breeding ratio not less than 1.2 to ensure the self-sufficiency. As one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR, a water cooled breeder blanket with superheated steam is proposed and its conceptual design is being carried out. In this design, sub-cooling water at 265 °C under the pressure of 7 MPa is fed into cooling plates in breeding zone and is heated up to 285 °C with saturated steam generated, and then this steam is pre-superheated up to 310 °C in first wall (FW), final, the pre-superheated steam coming from several blankets is fed into the other one blanket to superheat again up to 517 °C. Due to low density of superheated steam, it has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW so that the high energy neutrons entering into breeder zone moderated by water in cooling plate help enhance tritium breeding by {sup 6}Li(n,α)T reaction. Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles and Be{sub 12}Ti pebbles are chosen as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier respectively, because Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Be{sub 12}Ti are expected to have better chemical stability and compatibility with water in high temperature. However, Be{sub 12}Ti may lead to a reduction in tritium breeding ratio (TBR). Furthermore, a spot of sintered Be plate is used to improve neutron multiplying capacity in a multi-layer structure. As one alternative option

  1. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Ambrose, Diana [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  2. Cluster-Expanded Solids: A Strategy for Assembling Functional Porous Materials

    Long, Jeffrey R.


    This grant provided (partial) support for the research efforts of three graduate students and two undergraduate students. The intention of the program was to explore the use of molecular precursors in generating functional porous materials with precisely tailored structures and properties. Prior work in our laboratory had demonstrated the feasibility of employing face-capped octahedral clusters of the type [Re{sub 6}Q{sub 8}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-} (Q = S, Se, Te) in the expansion of known metal-cyanide frameworks. For example, the use of [Re{sub 6}Se{sub 8}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4-} as a reactant in place of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4-} resulted in formation of Fe{sub 4}[Re{sub 6}Se{sub 8}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}·36H{sub 2}O, featuring an expanded form of the porous three-dimensional framework of Prussian blue (Fe{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}·14H{sub 2}O). This compound could be dehydrated without loss of integrity, and the increase in void volume significantly enhances its capacity as a molecular sieve, enabling absorption of larger molecules. For this project, we continued with our efforts to devise new routes to microporous coordination solids that function as molecular sieves, sensors, or catalysts. In particular, our focus was on: (i) the synthesis of new molecular precursors of specific utility for such purposes, and (ii) attempts to incorporate these and existing molecular precursors into new coordination solids. Investigations of the terminal ligand substitution chemistry of the carbon-centered, trigonal prismatic cluster [W{sub 6}CCl{sub 18}]{sup 2-} generated the solvated species [W{sub 6}CCl{sub 12}(DMF){sub 6}]{sup 2+} and [W{sub 6}CCl{sub 12}(py){sub 6}]{sup 2+}, as well as the potential framework building units [W{sub 6}C(CN){sub 18}]{sup 3-}, [W6CCl{sub 12}(pyrazine){sub 6}]{sup 2+}, [W6CCl{sub 12}(4-cyanopyridine){sub 6}]{sup 2+}, and [W{sub 6}CCl{sub12}(4,4-bipyridine){sub 6}]{sup 2+}. Efforts to produce microporous magnets capable of performing magnetic

  3. Corrosion test using commercial FMS and developed ARAA in the Experimental loop for liquid breeder

    Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, E. H.; Jin, H. G.; Lee, D. W.; Jung, Y. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A liquid-type TBM, a Helium Cooled Molten Lithium (HCML) TBM, is one of candidate TBM for KO Demos. In this concept, helium (He) and liquid lithium (Li) were used as a coolant and a breeder, respectively. However, according to our strategy for developing the liquid breeder TBM and its more relevant DEMO concept, liquid breeders not only considered liquid lithium but also lead-lithium (PbLi). An Experimental Loop for Liquid breeder (ELLI) was constructed for the purpose of validating the electromagnetic (EM) pump design, which designed and fabricated by ourselves; testing the effects of magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD); and investigating the compatibility of PbLi using structural materials such as ferritic martensitic steel. The picture of the experimental loop is shown in Fig. 1. The performance test on each component such as heaters, the control systems for heating the loop were performed and the characteristic tests with a magnet and the EM pump were carried out. A corrosion tests using ELLI were performed with grade 91 FMS steel and ARAA during 250 hours. The corrosion tests specimens using developed commercial-scale ARAA-1 will be carried out in the ELLI loop using EM pump to investigate the corrosion behavior of ARAA-1, and the test results will be compared the previous corrosion tests of FMS corrosion specimens. A commercial FMS with grade 91 and developed ARAA steel was used for corrosion test-specimens to compare the corrosion characteristics in the flowing Pbli loop. Long term operation performance of the ELLI loop was conformed during 250 h corrosion tests. During the two separate experiments, an EM pump was operated for 250 h with a speed of 0.16 m/s (0.95 Kg/s) for corrosion tests. Mass of samples was decreased about 0.006% for ARAA-sample and 0.009% for Gr.91-sample, which corresponded to 0.22 g/m2 and 0.34 g/m2 of a corrosion attack, respectively. Unfortunately, it was unavailable to compare these weight losses with previous reports because of the

  4. Early staphylococcal biofilm formation on solid orthopaedic implant materials: in vitro study.

    Hironobu Koseki

    Full Text Available Biofilms forming on the surface of biomaterials can cause intractable implant-related infections. Bacterial adherence and early biofilm formation are influenced by the type of biomaterial used and the physical characteristics of implant surface. In this in vitro research, we evaluated the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis, the main pathogen in implant-related infections, to form biofilms on the surface of the solid orthopaedic biomaterials, oxidized zirconium-niobium alloy, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy (Co-Cr-Mo, titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V, commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti and stainless steel. A bacterial suspension of Staphylococcus epidermidis strain RP62A (ATCC35984 was added to the surface of specimens and incubated. The stained biofilms were imaged with a digital optical microscope and the biofilm coverage rate (BCR was calculated. The total amount of biofilm was determined with the crystal violet assay and the number of viable cells in the biofilm was counted using the plate count method. The BCR of all the biomaterials rose in proportion to culture duration. After culturing for 2-4 hours, the BCR was similar for all materials. However, after culturing for 6 hours, the BCR for Co-Cr-Mo alloy was significantly lower than for Ti-6Al-4V, cp-Ti and stainless steel (P0.05. These results suggest that surface properties, such as hydrophobicity or the low surface free energy of Co-Cr-Mo, may have some influence in inhibiting or delaying the two-dimensional expansion of biofilm on surfaces with a similar degree of smoothness.


    Avery, R.


    A nuclear reactor having a region operating predominantly on fast neutrons and another region operating predominantly on slow neutrons is described. The fast region is a plutonium core and the slow region is a natural uranium blanket around the core. Both of these regions are free of moderator. A moderating reflector surrounds the uranium blanket. The moderating material and thickness of the reflector are selected so that fissions in the uranium blanket make a substantial contribution to the reactivity of the reactor.

  6. Ab initio study of perovskite type oxide materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Lee, Yueh-Lin


    Perovskite type oxides form a family of materials of significant interest for cathodes and electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). These perovskites not only are active catalysts for surface oxygen reduction (OR) reactions but also allow incorporating the spilt oxygen monomers into their bulk, an unusual and poorly understood catalytic mechanism that couples surface and bulk properties. The OR mechanisms can be influenced strongly by defects in perovskite oxides, composition, and surface defect structures. This thesis work initiates a first step in developing a general strategy based on first-principles calculations for detailed control of oxygen vacancy content, transport rates of surface and bulk oxygen species, and surface/interfacial reaction kinetics. Ab initio density functional theory methods are used to model properties relevant for the OR reactions on SOFC cathodes. Three main research thrusts, which focus on bulk defect chemistry, surface defect structures and surface energetics, and surface catalytic properties, are carried to investigate different level of material chemistry for improved understanding of key physics/factors that govern SOFC cathode OR activity. In the study of bulk defect chemistry, an ab initio based defect model is developed for modeling defect chemistry of LaMnO 3 under SOFC conditions. The model suggests an important role for defect interactions, which are typically excluded in previous defect models. In the study of surface defect structures and surface energetics, it is shown that defect energies change dramatically (1˜2 eV lower) from bulk values near surfaces. Based on the existing bulk defect model with the calculated ab initio surface defect energetics, we predict the (001) MnO 2 surface oxygen vacancy concentration of (La0.9Sr0.1 )MnO3 is about 5˜6 order magnitude higher than that of the bulk under typical SOFC conditions. Finally, for surface catalytic properties, we show that area specific resistance, oxygen

  7. Hydrophilic solid-phase extraction of melamine with ampholine-modified hybrid organic-inorganic silica material.

    Wang, Tingting; Zhu, Yiming; Ma, Junfeng; Xuan, Rongrong; Gao, Haoqi; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui


    In this work, an ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent was successfully used to extract melamine from a milk formula sample by a hydrophilic interaction solid-phase extraction protocol. Primary factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the material such as extraction solvent, elution solvent, sample loading volume, and elution volume have been thoroughly optimized. Under the optimized hydrophilic solid-phase extraction conditions, the recoveries of melamine spiked in milk formula samples ranged from 86.2 to 101.8% with relative standard deviations of 4.1-9.4% (n = 3). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 0.32 μg/g. The adsorption capacity toward melamine was 30 μg of melamine per grams of sorbent. Due to its simplicity, rapidity and cost effectiveness, the newly developed hydrophilic solid-phase extraction method should provide a promising tool for daily monitoring of doped melamine in milk formula.

  8. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor - Rev. 2

    Olson, Gail Lynn; Mc Cardell, Richard Keith; Illum, Douglas Brent


    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was developed by Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to demonstrate the potential of a water-cooled, thorium oxide fuel cycle breeder reactor. The LWBR core operated from 1977-82 without major incident. The fuel and fuel components suffered minimal damage during operation, and the reactor testing was deemed successful. Extensive destructive and nondestructive postirradiation examinations confirmed that the fuel was in good condition with minimal amounts of cladding deformities and fuel pellet cracks. Fuel was placed in wet storage upon arrival at the Expended Core Facility, then dried and sent to the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center for underground dry storage. It is likely that the fuel remains in good condition at its current underground dry storage location at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Reports show no indication of damage to the core associated with shipping, loading, or storage.

  9. Charge breeder for the SPIRAL1 upgrade: Preliminary results

    Maunoury, L., E-mail:; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Bajeat, O.; Frigot, R.; Jeanne, A.; Jardin, P.; Kamalou, O.; Lecomte, P.; Osmond, B.; Peschard, G.; Savalle, A. [GANIL, Bd H. Becquerel BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Angot, J.; Sole, P.; Lamy, T. [LPSC - Université Grenoble Alpes - CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barton, C. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)


    In the framework of the SPIRAL1 upgrade under progress at the GANIL lab, the charge breeder based on a LPSC Phoenix ECRIS, first tested at ISOLDE has been modified to benefit of the last enhancements of this device from the 1+/n+ community. The modifications mainly concern the 1 + optics, vacuum techniques, and the RF—buffer gas injection into the charge breeder. Prior to its installation in the midst of the low energy beam line of the SPIRAL1 facility, it has been decided to qualify its performances and several operation modes at the test bench of LPSC lab. This contribution shall present preliminary results of experiments conducted at LPSC concerning the 1 + to n+ conversion efficiencies for noble gases as well as for alkali elements and the corresponding transformation times.

  10. Photo-physical Characterisation of Novel Organic Dye-doped Solid-state Laser Materials

    A.Penzkofer; A.Tyagi; T.Susdorf; D.del; Agua; O.García; R.Sastre; A.Costela; I.García-Moreno


    1 Results The development of tuneable solid-state organic dye lasers is a subject of considerable interest and research activity.Compared to conventional liquid dye lasers they have the advantage of being free of solvent handling,having small size,and being easy to operate.For high-performance solid-state dye lasers highly photo-stable dyes with low quantum yield of triplet formation and low triplet-triplet absorption cross-section in the lasing wavelength region are required.For solid state dye lasers ...

  11. Novel restricted access materials combined to molecularly imprinted polymers for selective solid-phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from honey.

    He, Juan; Song, Lixin; Chen, Si; Li, Yuanyuan; Wei, Hongliang; Zhao, Dongxin; Gu, Keren; Zhang, Shusheng


    A novel restricted access materials (RAM) combined to molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), using malathion as template molecule and glycidilmethacrylate (GMA) as pro-hydrophilic co-monomer, were prepared for the first time. RAM-MIPs with hydrophilic external layer were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and recognition and selectivity properties were compared with the restricted access materials-non-molecularly imprinted polymers (RAM-NIPs) and unmodified MIPs. RAM-MIPs were used as the adsorbent enclosed in solid phase extraction column and several important extraction parameters were comprehensively optimized to evaluate the extraction performance. Under the optimum extraction conditions, RAM-MIPs exhibited comparable or even higher selectivity with greater extraction capacity toward six kinds of organophosphorus pesticides (including malathion, ethoprophos, phorate, terbufos, dimethoate, and fenamiphos) compared with the MIPs and commercial solid phase extraction columns. The RAM-MIPs solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography was successfully applied to simultaneously determine six kinds of organophosphorus pesticides from honey sample. The new established method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1), low limits of detection (0.0005-0.0019 μg mL(-1)), acceptable reproducibility (RSD, 2.26-4.81%, n = 6), and satisfactory relative recoveries (90.9-97.6%). It was demonstrated that RAM-MIPs solid phase extraction with excellent selectivity and restricted access function was a simple, rapid, selective, and effective sample pretreatment method.

  12. Haemorrhagic enteritis seroconversion in turkey breeders: field observations

    Raffaella Ceruti


    Full Text Available Seroconversion to viral haemorrhagic enteritis (HE was studied in seven flocks of turkey breeders (17.974 birds in total, after 20 weeks of the onset of egg production. They showed no clinical signs, and mortality rate was normal. However, the infection caused a drop in egg production lasting about five weeks (-2.32 eggs laid during this period, but had no effect on hatching parameters.

  13. Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    Qvist, Staffan Alexander

    In light of the scientific evidence for changes in the climate caused by greenhouse-gas emissions from human activities, the world is in ever more desperate need of new, inexhaustible, safe and clean primary energy sources. A viable solution to this problem is the widespread adoption of nuclear breeder reactor technology. Innovative breeder reactor concepts using liquid-metal coolants such as sodium or lead will be able to utilize the waste produced by the current light water reactor fuel cycle to power the entire world for several centuries to come. Breed & burn (B&B) type fast reactor cores can unlock the energy potential of readily available fertile material such as depleted uranium without the need for chemical reprocessing. Using B&B technology, nuclear waste generation, uranium mining needs and proliferation concerns can be greatly reduced, and after a transitional period, enrichment facilities may no longer be needed. In this dissertation, new passively operating safety systems for fast reactors cores are presented. New analysis and optimization methods for B&B core design have been developed, along with a comprehensive computer code that couples neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and structural mechanics and enables a completely automated and optimized fast reactor core design process. In addition, an experiment that expands the knowledge-base of corrosion issues of lead-based coolants in nuclear reactors was designed and built. The motivation behind the work presented in this thesis is to help facilitate the widespread adoption of safe and efficient fast reactor technology.

  14. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin


    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  15. Influence of gas pressure on the effective thermal conductivity of ceramic breeder pebble beds

    Dai, Weijing [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Pupeschi, Simone [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Hanaor, Dorian [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Institute for Materials Science and Technologies, Technical University of Berlin (Germany); Gan, Yixiang, E-mail: [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)


    Highlights: • This study explicitly demonstrates the influence of the gas pressure on the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds. • The gas pressure influence is shown to correlated to the pebble size. • The effective thermal conductivity is linked to thermal-mechanical properties of pebbles and packing structure. - Abstract: Lithium ceramics have been considered as tritium breeder materials in many proposed designs of fusion breeding blankets. Heat generated in breeder pebble beds due to nuclear breeding reaction must be removed by means of actively cooled plates while generated tritiums is recovered by purge gas slowly flowing through beds. Therefore, the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds that is one of the governing parameters determining heat transport phenomenon needs to be addressed with respect to mechanical status of beds and purge gas pressure. In this study, a numerical framework combining finite element simulation and a semi-empirical correlation of gas gap conduction is proposed to predict the effective thermal conductivity. The purge gas pressure is found to vary the effective thermal conductivity, in particular with the presence of various sized gaps in pebble beds. Random packing of pebble beds is taken into account by an approximated correlation considering the packing factor and coordination number of pebble beds. The model prediction is compared with experimental observation from different sources showing a quantitative agreement with the measurement.

  16. Recent advances in small molecular, non-polymeric organic hole transporting materials for solid-state DSSC

    Bui Thanh-Tuan


    Full Text Available Issue from thin-film technologies, dye-sensitized solar cells have become one of the most promising technologies in the field of renewable energies. Their success is not only due to their low weight, the possibility of making large flexible surfaces, but also to their photovoltaic efficiency which are found to be more and more significant (>12% with a liquid electrolyte, >7% with a solid organic hole conductor. This short review highlights recent advances in the characteristics and use of low-molecular-weight glass-forming organic materials as hole transporters in all solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. These materials must feature specific physical and chemical properties that will ensure both the operation of a photovoltaic cell and the easy implementation. This review is an english extended version based on our recent article published in Matériaux & Techniques 101, 102 (2013.

  17. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    Ding, I-Kang


    We report using doctor-blading to replace conventional spin coating for the deposition of the hole-transport material spiro-OMeTAD (2,20,7,70-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)- 9,90-spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Doctor-blading is a roll-to-roll compatible, large-area coating technique, is capable of achieving the same spiro-OMeTAD pore filling fraction as spin coating, and uses much less material. The average power conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells made from doctorblading is 3.0% for 2-lm thick films and 2.0% for 5-lm thick films, on par with devices made with spin coating. Directions to further improve the filling fraction are also suggested. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. From waste biomass to solid support: lignosulfonate as a cost-effective and renewable supporting material for catalysis.

    Sun, Shaohuan; Bai, Rongxian; Gu, Yanlong


    Lignosulfonate (LS) is an organic waste generated as a byproduct of the cooking process in sulfite pulping in the manufacture of paper. In this paper, LS was used as an anionic supporting material for immobilizing cationic species, which can then be used as heterogeneous catalysts in some organic transformations. With this strategy, three lignin-supported catalysts were prepared including 1) lignin-SO3 Sc(OTf)2 , 2) lignin-SO3 Cu(OTf), and 3) lignin-IL@NH2 (IL=ionic liquid). These solid materials were then examined in many organic transformations. It was finally found that, compared with its homogeneous counterpart as well as some other solid catalysts that are prepared by using different supports with the same metal or catalytically active species, the lignin-supported catalysts showed better performance in these reactions not only in terms of activity but also with regard to recyclability.

  19. Graphene-Based Materials as Solid Phase Extraction Sorbent for Trace Metal Ions, Organic Compounds, and Biological Sample Preparation.

    Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Nodeh, Hamid Rashidi; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin


    Graphene is a new carbon-based material that is of interest in separation science. Graphene has extraordinary properties including nano size, high surface area, thermal and chemical stability, and excellent adsorption affinity to pollutants. Its adsorption mechanisms are through non-covalent interactions (π-π stacking, electrostatic interactions, and H-bonding) for organic compounds and covalent interactions for metal ions. These properties have led to graphene-based material becoming a desirable adsorbent in a popular sample preparation technique known as solid phase extraction (SPE). Numerous studies have been published on graphene applications in recent years, but few review papers have focused on its applications in analytical chemistry. This article focuses on recent preconcentration of trace elements, organic compounds, and biological species using SPE-based graphene, graphene oxide, and their modified forms. Solid phase microextraction and micro SPE (µSPE) methods based on graphene are discussed.

  20. Reproduction responses of broiler-breeders to anticoccidial agents.

    Jones, J E; Solis, J; Hughes, B L; Castaldo, D J; Toler, J E


    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of anticoccidial agents on production and reproduction of broiler breeders. In Experiment 1, nicarbazin (NCZ) was fed at 20, 50, and 100 ppm. There was no depression in egg production, egg weight, or fertility from feeding these levels. As level of NCZ increased, there was a linear decrease in hatchability. The amount of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) in the egg yolks increased linearly as the levels of NCZ went up; the degree of egg-shell depigmentation was directly related to the level of NCZ fed starting at 50 ppm. Experiment 2 utilized a different strain of broiler breeders. Halofuginone (3 ppm), maduramicin (5 ppm), monensin (100 ppm), narasin (70 ppm), NCZ (125 ppm), robenidine (33 ppm), and salinomycin (60 ppm) were fed to broiler breeders at the levels listed. Only NCZ reduced egg production. Narasin induced a reduction in egg weight. Both narasin and salinomycin caused a significant drop in hatchability. Feeding NCZ also induced a rapid and more severe decrease in hatchability. Monensin was the only anticoccidial agent that reduced fertility. Halofuginone, maduramicin, and robenidine had no biologically significant effect on henday production, egg weight, hatch of fertile eggs, or shell depigmentation. Feeding NCZ at 125 ppm caused a complete bleaching of brown-shell eggs by the 3rd consecutive day of treatment; but 7 days after NCZ was withdrawn from the feed, pigmentation returned to the pretreatment level.

  1. Production aspects of broiler breeders submitted to different drinker types

    LP Colvero


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was of evaluate the influence of different drinker types on the egg production, water intake, mortality, poultry litter relative humidity, egg weight, eggshell percentage, and egg specific gravity of broiler breeders. The experiment was carried out in a commercial farm with 37- to 44-wk-old broiler breeders. A randomized block experimental design, consisting of two treatments (bell or nipple drinkers with four replicates of 4.000 females each, was applied. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the test of Student-Newman-Keuls at 5% significance level. Birds submitted to nipple drinkers presented lower water intake (p0.05 of drinker type on egg production or mortality. Poultry litter relative humidity was lower (p<0.05 under the nipple-drinker system. Birds drinking from bell drinkers produced heavier eggs (p<0.05 between weeks 39 and 40. Hens drinking from bell drinkers laid eggs with higher specific gravity and eggshell percentage. It was concluded that nipple drinkers can be used for broiler breeders during lay.

  2. Bulk and surface acoustic waves in solid-fluid Fibonacci layered materials.

    Quotane, I; El Boudouti, E H; Djafari-Rouhani, B; El Hassouani, Y; Velasco, V R


    We study theoretically the propagation and localization of acoustic waves in quasi-periodic structures made of solid and fluid layers arranged according to a Fibonacci sequence. We consider two types of structures: either a given Fibonacci sequence or a periodic repetition of a given sequence called Fibonacci superlattice. Various properties of these systems such as: the scaling law and the self-similarity of the transmission spectra or the power law behavior of the measure of the energy spectrum have been highlighted for waves of sagittal polarization in normal and oblique incidence. In addition to the allowed modes which propagate along the system, we study surface modes induced by the surface of the Fibonacci superlattice. In comparison with solid-solid layered structures, the solid-fluid systems exhibit transmission zeros which can break the self-similarity behavior in the transmission spectra for a given sequence or induce additional gaps other than Bragg gaps in a periodic structure.

  3. Solid-state Ceramic Laser Material for Remote Sensing of Ozone Using Nd:Yttria Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tunable solid state lasers have played an important role in providing the technology necessary for active remote sensing of the atmosphere. Recently, polycrystalline...

  4. Anode materials for hydrogen sulfide containing feeds in a solid oxide fuel cell

    Roushanafshar, Milad

    SOFCs which can directly operate under high concentration of H2S would be economically beneficial as this reduces the cost of gas purification. H2S is highly reactive gas specie which can poison most of the conventional catalysts. As a result, developing anode materials which can tolerate high concentrations of H2S and also display high activity toward electrochemical oxidation of feed is crucial and challenging for this application. The performance of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3+/-delta -Y0.2Ce0.8O2-delta (LST-YDC) composite anodes in solid oxide fuel cells significantly improved when 0.5% H2 S was present in syngas (40% H2, 60% CO) or hydrogen. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the rate of electrochemical oxidation of all fuel components improved when H2S containing syngas was present in the fuel. Electrochemical stability tests performed under potentiostatic condition showed that there was no power degradation for different feeds, and that there was power enhancement when 0.5% H2S was present in various feeds. The mechanism of performance improvement by H2S was discussed. Active anodes were synthesized via wet chemical impregnation of different amounts of La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) and La 0.4Sr0.6TiO3 (L4ST) into porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Co-impregnation of LDC with LS4T significantly improved the performance of the cell from 48 (L4ST) to 161 -2 (LDC-L4ST) using hydrogen as fuel at 900 °C. The contribution of LDC to this improvement was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EIS measurements using symmetrical cells showed that the polarization resistance decreased from 3.1¦ 2 to 0.5 O.cm2 when LDC was co-impregnated with LST, characterized in humidified H2 (3% H2O) at 900 °C. In addition, the microstructure of the cell was modified when LDC was impregnated prior to L4ST into the porous YSZ. TEM and SEM

  5. Molecularly imprinted polymers: New molecular recognition materials for selective solid-phase extraction of organic compounds

    Martín Esteban, A.


    During the last few years molecularly imprinted polymers have appeared as new selective sorbents for solid-phase extraction of organic compounds in different samples. Molecular imprinting technology involves the preparation of a polymer with specific recognition sites for certain molecules. Once the polymer has been obtained, it can be used in solid-phase extraction protocols, where a careful selection of the most appropriate solvents to be used in the different steps (sample loading, washing...

  6. Characterization of dielectric constant of solid materials (Leather belt at X-Band

    Ambika Singh


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experimental measurement technique for dielectric constant (i.e.permittivity of leather belt at X-band. This measurement play selection of dielectric constant for antenna substrate. This leather can be used as flexible substrate of wearable microstrip antenna. This measurement system consist of solid state klystron power supply, isolator, VSWR meter, frequency meter, solid dielectric cell (XC-501. This data may be interested in flexibility wearable microstrip antenna studies.

  7. Study of Mg-based materials to be used in a functional solid state hydrogen reservoir for vehicular applications

    Maddalena, Amedeo; Petris, Milo; Palade, Petru; Sartori, Sabrina; Principi, Giovanni [Settore Materiali and CNISM, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Settimo, Eliseo [Celco-Profil, via dell' Artigianato 4, 30030 Vigonovo (Venezia) (Italy); Molinas, Bernardo [Venezia Tecnologie, via delle Industrie 39, 30175 Marghera (Venezia) (Italy); Lo Russo, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    Powders mixtures of nanosized MgH{sub 2} and suitable additives, obtained by high energy milling, have been studied as materials to be used in a functional solid state hydrogen reservoir. A prototype of a two stages reservoir is under development (patent pending). The hydrogen release from the main stage, with high capacity Mg-based hydrides, is primed by a primer stage containing commercial hydrides able to operate at room temperature. (author)

  8. EBR-2 (Experimental Breeder Reactor-2), IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) prototype testing programs

    Lehto, W.K.; Sackett, J.I.; Lindsay, R.W. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA). EBR-II Div. Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Planchon, H.P.; Lambert, J.D.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))


    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) is a sodium cooled power reactor supplying about 20 MWe to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) grid and, in addition, is the key component in the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). EBR-2's testing capability is extensive and has seen four major phases: (1) demonstration of LMFBR power plant feasibility, (2) irradiation testing for fuel and material development. (3) testing the off-normal performance of fuel and plant systems and (4) operation as the IFR prototype, developing and demonstrating the IFR technology associated with fuel and plant design. Specific programs being carried out in support of the IFR include advanced fuels and materials development and component testing. This paper discusses EBR-2 as the IFR prototype and the associated testing programs. 29 refs.

  9. An unstructured mathematical model for growth of Pleurotus ostreatus on lignocellulosic material in solid-state fermentation systems

    Sarikaya, A.; Ladisch, M.R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    Inedible plant material, generated in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), should be recycled preferably by bioregenerative methods that utilize enzymes or micro-organisms. This material consists of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin with the lignin fraction representing a recalcitrant component that is not readily treated by enzymatic methods. Consequently, the white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus, is attractive since it effectively degrades lignin and produces edible mushrooms. This work describes an unstructured model for the growth of P. ostreatus in a solid-state fermentation system using lignocellulosic plant materials from Brassica napus (rapeseed) as a substrate at three different particle sizes. A logistic function model based on area was found to fit the surface growth of the mycelium on the solid substrate with respect to time, whereas a model based on diameter, alone, did not fit the data as well. The difference between the two measures of growth was also evident for mycelial growth in a bioreactor designed to facilitate a slow flowrate of air through the 1.5 cm thick mat of lignocellulosic biomass particles. The result is consistent with the concept of competition of the mycelium for the substrate that surrounds it, rather than just substrate that is immediately available to single cells. This approach provides a quantitative measure of P. ostreatus growth on lignocellulosic biomass in a solid-state fermentation system. The experimental data show that the best growth is obtained for the largest particles (1 cm) of the lignocellulosic substrate. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Material-specific Conversion Factors for Different Solid Phantoms Used in the Dosimetry of Different Brachytherapy Sources

    Sedigheh Sina


    Full Text Available Introduction Based on Task Group No. 43 (TG-43U1 recommendations, water phantom is proposed as a reference phantom for the dosimetry of brachytherapy sources. The experimental determination of TG-43 parameters is usually performed in water-equivalent solid phantoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the conversion factors for equalizing solid phantoms to water. Materials and Methods TG-43 parameters of low- and high-energy brachytherapy sources (i.e., Pd-103, I-125 and Cs-137 were obtained in different phantoms, using Monte Carlo simulations. The brachytherapy sources were simulated at the center of different phantoms including water, solid water, poly(methyl methacrylate, polystyrene and polyethylene. Dosimetric parameters such as dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function of each source were compared in different phantoms. Then, conversion factors were obtained to make phantom parameters equivalent to those of water. Results Polynomial coefficients of conversion factors were obtained for all sources to quantitatively compare g(r values in different phantom materials and the radial dose function in water. Conclusion Polynomial coefficients of conversion factors were obtained for all sources to quantitatively compare g(r values in different phantom materials and the radial dose function in water.

  11. Recent Advances in Fast Ion Conducting Materials and Devices - Proceedings of the 2nd Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Liu, Qingguo; Chen, Liquan

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Invited Papers * Recent Trends in Solid State Ionics * Theoretical Aspects of Fast Ion Conduction in Solids * Chemical Bonding and Intercalation Processes in Framework Structures * Extra-Large Near-Electrode Regions and Diffusion Length on the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interface as Studied by Photo-EMF Method * Frequency Response of Glasses * XPS Studies on Ion Conducting Glasses * Characterization of New Ambient Temperature Lithium Polymer-Electrolyte * Recent Development of Polymer Electrolytes: Solid State Voltammetry in Polymer Electrolytes * Secondary Solid State Batteries: From Material Properties to Commercial Development * Silver Vanadium Oxide Bronze and its Applications for Electrochemical Devices * Study on β''-Alumina Solid Electrolyte and β Battery in SIC * Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * Processing for Super Superionic Ceramics * Hydrogen Production Using Oxide Ionic or Protonic Conductor * Ionically Conductive Sulfide-Based Lithium Glasses * Relation of Conductivity to Structure and Structural Relaxation in Ion-Conducting Glasses * The Mechanism of Ionic Conductivity in Glass * The Role of Synthesis and Structure in Solid State Ionics - Electrodes to Superconductors * Electrochromism in Spin-Coated Thin Films from Peroxo-Poly tungstate Solutions * Electrochemical Studies on High Tc Superconductors * Multivalence Fast Ionic Conductors - Montmorillonites * Contributed Papers * Volt-Ampere Characteristics and Interface Charge Transport in Solid Electrolytes * Internal Friction of Silver Chalcogenides * Thermal Expansion of Ionic and Superionic Solids * Improvement of PEO-LiCF3SO3 Complex Electrolytes Using Additives * Ionic Conductivity of Modified Poly (Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol Methacrylate) s-Lithium Salt Complexes * Solid Polymer Electrolytes of Crosslinked Polyethylene Glycol and Lithium Salts * Single Ionic Conductors Prepared by in Situ Polymerization of Methacrylic Acid

  12. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction for the identification of MVOCs from moldy building materials.

    Wady, Loay; Bunte, Annicka; Pehrson, Christina; Larsson, Lennart


    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction (GC-MS/SPME) was applied to identify microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in water-damaged, mold-infested building materials (gypsum board papers (n=2), mineral wool, and masonite) and in cultivated molds (Aspergillus penicillioides, Stachybotrys chartarum, and Chaetomium globosum). Three SPME fibers (65-microm PDMS-DVB, 75-microm Carboxen-PDMS, and 70-microm Carbowax-stableflex) designed for automated injection were used of which the latter showed best performance. A number of previously reported MVOCs were detected both in the building materials and the cultivated molds. In addition, methyl benzoate was identified both in the S. chartarum and A. penicillioides cultures and in the building materials. SPME combined with GC-MS may be a useful method for the determination of MVOCs emitted from mold-infested building materials.

  13. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes in alkali-activated materials, ceramics and granular applications: A review.

    Silva, R V; de Brito, J; Lynn, C J; Dhir, R K


    This paper presents a literature review on the incorporation of municipal solid waste incinerated bottom ash as raw material in several markets, other than those where it is conventionally used, such as geotechnical applications and road pavement construction. The main findings of an ample selection of experimental investigations on the use of the bottom ash as precursor of alkali-activated materials, as an adsorbent material for the removal of hazardous elements from wastewater and landfill gases, as soil replacement in agricultural activities, as partial or complete substitute of raw materials for the manufacture of ceramic-based products, as landfill cover and as biogas production enhancer, were gathered, collated and analysed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system.

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro


    This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Applications of Natural Polymeric Materials in Solid Oral Modified-Release Dosage Forms.

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Xin; Gu, Xiangqin; Mao, Shirui


    Solid oral modified-release dosage forms provide numerous advantages for drug delivery compared to dosage forms where the drugs are released and absorbed rapidly following ingestion. Natural polymers are of particular interest as drug carriers due to their good safety profile, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and rich sources. This review described the current applications of important natural polymers, such as chitosan, alginate, pectin, guar gum, and xanthan gum, in solid oral modified-release dosage forms. It was shown that natural polymers have been widely used to fabricate solid oral modified-release dosage forms such as matrix tablets, pellets and beads, and especially oral drug delivery systems such as gastroretentive and colon drug delivery systems. Moreover, chemical modifications could overcome the shortcomings associated with the use of natural polymers, and the combination of two or more polymers presented further advantages compared with that of single polymer. In conclusion, natural polymers and modified natural polymers have promising applications in solid oral modified-release dosage forms. However, commercial products based on them are still limited. To accelerate the application of natural polymers in commercial products, in vivo behavior of natural polymers-based solid oral modified-release dosage forms should be deeply investigated, and meanwhile quality of the natural polymers should be controlled strictly, and the influence of formulation and process parameters need to be understood intensively.


    Pasternak Ia.M.


    Full Text Available The paper presents a review on the recent advances in the theoretical and experimental studies of functional (smart materials and structures. Particular attention is paid to piezoelectric and magnetoelectroelastic materials, which internally couple mechanical, electric and magnetic fields and can operate as sensors or actuators. Modern smart magnetoelectroelastic materials consisting of piezoelectric and piezomagnetic phases are widely used due to the effect of electromagnetic coupling, which is hundred or even thousand times larger than that of a single crystal magnetoelectroelastic materials. The highest electromagnetic coupling due to the regular arrangement of phases is possessed by ferrite-piezoelectric nanostructures, in particular self-assembled nanocomposite thin films. Ferroelectric materials are widely used in modern technologies, especially precise devices, due to the highest values of electro-mechanical coupling among other piezoelectric materials. In turn, all ferroelectric materials are pyroelectric ones, thus, polarize when heated or cooled. The presence of different defects (e.g. cracks or inclusions can additionally cause high stress and electric displacement intensity under the applied thermal load, especially, when the pyroelectric material is not homogeneous, or consists of homogeneous parts bonded together. The paper presents a comprehensive review on the methods, especially numeric and analytic ones, used to study the influence of different fields on stress concentration at defects and fibers. The questions on fracture of defective solids with thin inclusions are also examined.

  17. Crystallization and solid-state reaction as a route to asymmetric synthesis from achiral starting materials.

    Green, B S; Lahav, M


    Many molecules which are achiral can crystallize in chiral (enantiomorphic) crystals and, under suitable conditions, crystals of only one chirality may be obtained. The formation of right- or left-handed crystals in excess is equally probable. Lattice-controlled (topochemical) photochemical or thermal solid-state reactions may then afford stable, optically active products. In the presence of the chiral products, achiral reactants may preferentially produce crystals of one chirality, leading to a feedback mechanism for the generation and amplification of optical activity. Amplification of optical activity can also be achieved by solid-state reactions. The optical synthesis of biologically relevant compounds by such routes may be envisaged.

  18. Properties of Copper Doped Neodymium Nickelate Oxide as Cathode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Lee Kyoung-Jin; Choe Yeong-Ju; Hwang Hae-Jin


    Mixed ionic and electronic conducting K2NiF4-type oxide, Nd2Ni1-xCuxO4+δ (x=0~1) powders were synthesized by solid state reaction technique and solid oxide fuel cells consisting of a Nd2Ni1-xCuxO4+δ cathode, a Ni-YSZ anode and ScSZ as an electrolyte were fabricated. The effect of copper substitution for nickel on the electrical and electrochemical properties was examined. Small amount of copper doping (x=0.2) resulted in the increased electrical conductivity and decreased polarization resista...

  19. Computation of single solid particle impact on the target of ductile material to study the rebound characteristics of particle

    Yeuan, Jian Jong


    The objective of this research work is to simulate a single solid particle impact on a solid target using elastic-plastic theory. The entire impact process involves the adhesion, deformation and rebound process interacting between the solid particle and the target. The governing equations for two dimensional elastic-plastic flow are formulated in Lagrangian coordinates. The equation of state in the elastic region is the time rate of change of Hooke's law. In the plastic region, the experimental Hugoniot equation of state and the yield condition of R. von Mises are used. The effect of strain rate on the material strength is considered using a semi-empirical formulation. The developed computer program employs a finite volume numerical technique and two step explicit MacCormack scheme, which is second order accurate in time, allowing finer resolution of the transient phenomena of impact. Results are presented for a hard tool steel particle impacting on a mild steel target at impact angles of 20 to 90 degrees. The computational results are compared with experimental data for a range of impacting velocities up to 350 m/sec. The effect of particle in the particle rebound characteristics are also investigated. In the previous research, the particle rebound characteristics obtained from experiments were correlated and used in the calculation of particle trajectories in turbomachinery flows. Here, the computational results are applied to predict solid particle trajectories in a highly loaded axial flow turbine.


    Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh


    This report summarizes the results of the work conducted under the program: ''Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells'' under contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The program goal is to advance materials and processes that can be used to produce economical, high-performance solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) capable of achieving extraordinary high power densities at reduced temperatures. Under this program, anode-supported thin electrolyte based on lanthanum gallate (LSMGF) has been developed using tape-calendering process. The fabrication parameters such as raw materials characteristics, tape formulations and sintering conditions have been evaluated. Dense anode supported LSGMF electrolytes with thickness range of 10-50 micron have been fabricated. High performance cathode based on Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (SSC) has been developed. Polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} has been achieved at 600 C with Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}cathode. The high-performance SSC cathode and thin gallate electrolyte have been integrated into single cells and cell performance has been characterized. Tested cells to date generally showed low performance because of low cell OCVs and material interactions between NiO in the anode and lanthanum gallate electrolyte.

  1. Radon diffusion studies in some building materials using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Singh, S; Singh, B; Singh, J


    LR-115 plastic track detector has been used to study radon diffusion through some building materials, viz. cement, soil, marble chips, sand and lime as well as air. Diffusion constant and diffusion length is calculated for all these materials.

  2. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

    Veronika Czerwinski


    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76% reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams

  3. Chemometrics-assisted solid-state characterization of pharmaceutically relevant materials. Polymorphic substances.

    Calvo, Natalia L; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S


    Current regulations command to properly characterize pharmaceutically relevant solid systems. Chemometrics comprise a range of valuable tools, suitable to process large amounts of data and extract valuable information hidden in their structure. This review aims to detail the results of the fruitful association between analytical techniques and chemometrics methods, focusing on those which help to gain insight into the characteristics of drug polymorphism as an important aspect of the solid state of bulk drugs and drug products. Hence, the combination of Raman, terahertz, mid- and near- infrared spectroscopies, as well as instrumental signals resulting from X-ray powder diffraction, (13)C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thermal methods with quali-and quantitative chemometrics methodologies are examined. The main issues reviewed, concerning pharmaceutical drug polymorphism, include the use of chemometrics-based approaches to perform polymorph classification and assignment of polymorphic identity, as well as the determination of given polymorphs in simple mixtures and complex systems. Aspects such as the solvation/desolvation of solids, phase transformation, crystallinity and the recrystallization from the amorphous state are also discussed. A brief perspective of the field for the next future is provided, based on the developments of the last decade and the current state of the art of analytical instrumentation and chemometrics methodologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gas dispersion and immobile gas volume in solid and porous particle biofilter materials at low air flow velocities.

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G


    Gas-phase dispersion in granular biofilter materials with a wide range of particle sizes was investigated using atmospheric air and nitrogen as tracer gases. Two types of materials were used: (1) light extended clay aggregates (LECA), consisting of highly porous particles, and (2) gravel, consisting of solid particles. LECA is a commercial material that is used for insulation, as a soil conditioner, and as a carrier material in biofilters for air cleaning. These two materials were selected to have approximately the same particle shape. Column gas transport experiments were conducted for both materials using different mean particle diameters, different particle size ranges, and different gas flow velocities. Measured breakthrough curves were modeled using the advection-dispersion equation modified for mass transfer between mobile and immobile gas phases. The results showed that gas dispersivity increased with increasing mean particle diameter for LECA but was independent of mean particle diameter for gravel. Gas dispersivity also increased with increasing particle size range for both media. Dispersivities in LECA were generally higher than for gravel. The mobile gas content in both materials increased with increasing gas flow velocity but it did not show any strong dependency on mean particle diameter or particle size range. The relative fraction of mobile gas compared with total porosity was highest for gravel and lowest for LECA likely because of its high internal porosity.

  5. Single molecule sensing with solid-state nanopores: novel materials, methods, and applications.

    Miles, Benjamin N; Ivanov, Aleksandar P; Wilson, Kerry A; Doğan, Fatma; Japrung, Deanpen; Edel, Joshua B


    This tutorial review will introduce and explore the fundamental aspects of nanopore (bio)sensing, fabrication, modification, and the emerging technologies and applications that both intrigue and inspire those working in and around the field. Although nanopores can be classified into two categories, solid-state and biological, they are essentially two sides of the same coin. For instance, both garner popularity due to their ability to confine analytes of interest to a nanoscale volume. Due to the vast diversity of nanopore platforms and applications, no single review can cover the entire landscape of published work in the field. Therefore, in this article focus will be placed on recent advancements and developments taking place in the field of solid-state nanopores. It should be stated that the intention of this tutorial review is not to cite all articles relating to solid-state nanopores, but rather to highlight recent, select developments that will hopefully benefit the new and seasoned scientist alike. Initially we begin with the fundamentals of solid-state nanopore sensing. Then the spotlight is shone on the sophisticated fabrication methods that have their origins in the semiconductor industry. One inherent advantage of solid-state nanopores is in the ease of functionalizing the surface with a range of molecules carrying functional groups. Therefore, an entire section is devoted to highlighting various chemical and bio-molecular modifications and explores how these permit the development of novel sensors with specific targets and functions. The review is completed with a discussion on novel detection strategies using nanopores. Although the most popular mode of nanopore sensing is based upon what has come to be known as ionic-current blockade sensing, there is a vast, growing literature based around exploring alternative detection techniques to further expand on the versatility of the sensors. Such techniques include optical, electronic, and force based methods

  6. End plate for e.g. solid oxide fuel cell stack, sets thermal expansion coefficient of material to predetermined value


    .05-0.3 mm. USE - End plate for solid oxide fuel cell stack (claimed). Can also be used in polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack and direct methanol fuel cell stack. ADVANTAGE - The robustness of the end plate is improved. The structure of the end plate is simplified. The risk of delamination of the stack......NOVELTY - The end plate is made of material whose thermal expansion coefficient is corresponding to that of material of a cell (103). The thermal expansion coefficient of material is 9asterisk10-6 K-1 to 14asterisk10-6 K11. The thickness of the end plate is within the range of 0.001-1 mm and 0...


    Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh


    This document summarizes the technical progress from April to September 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. Characteristics of doped lanthanum gallate (LSGMF) powder suitable for thin electrolyte fabrication have been defined. Bilayers with thin LSGMF electrolyte supported on an anode were fabricated and the fabrication process was improved. Preliminary performance was characterized. High performance cathode material Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} has been down-selected and is being optimized by modifying materials characteristics and processing parameters. The selected cathode exhibited excellent performance with cathode polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} at 600 C.

  8. The municipal solid waste and the quality of life of collectors of recyclable materials in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.

    de Barros Pimenta, Aline; Santos, Sueli Maria dos Reis; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Borges, Marcos Mantins; de Oliveira Marques, Geraldo Luciano; Abdalla, E José Gustavo Francis


    The generation growing and diversified of Municipal Solid Waste is configured as an environmental problem, economic and social deterioration, especially, by application of inappropriate management of them. Faced with this urban context, the research in development presents as specific objective assessment of the quality of life of the gatherers of recyclable materials were active in the city of Juiz de Fora, in the brazilian state of Minas Gerais. In addition, the objective is, still, the recognition of the activity of sorting performed by "scavengers" in order to maximize the reduction, reuse and recycling energy and material waste daily. The proposed methodology is based on the application of the questionnaire Word Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100), prepared by the World Health Organization, in order to value the quality of life of the gatherers of recyclable materials, involved, even in educational workshops in order to discuss and organize strategies of health care and scouting to the basement to public policies.

  9. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.


    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  10. Solid-state synthesis and electrochemical properties of SmVO4 cathode materials for low temperature SOFCs

    SUN Xueli; LI Song; SUN Juncai


    A new cathode material fabricated by solid state reaction method was reported. The SmVO4 powder was obtained by firing the mixture of Sm2O3 and V2O5 powders in the temperature range of 700-1200 ℃. Its structure was identified by X-ray diffraction method and the electrochemical properties of SmVO4 as cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were investigated in single unit cell at the temperature ranged from 450-550 ℃. The results of the single fuel cell unit show that the maximum current densities are 641, 797, 688 mA·cm-2 and the maximum power output are 165, 268, 303 mW·cm-2 and the open circuit voltage are 1.04,0.96,0.92Vat 450, 500 and 550 ℃, respectively.

  11. An efficient method and device for transfer of semisolid materials into solid-state NMR spectroscopy rotors.

    Hisao, Grant S; Harland, Michael A; Brown, Robert A; Berthold, Deborah A; Wilson, Thomas E; Rienstra, Chad M


    The study of mass-limited biological samples by magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy critically relies upon the high-yield transfer of material from a biological preparation into the MAS rotor. This issue is particularly important for maintaining biological activity and hydration of semi-solid samples such as membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, pharmaceutical formulations, microcrystalline proteins and protein fibrils. Here we present protocols and designs for rotor-packing devices specifically suited for packing hydrated samples into Pencil-style 1.6 mm, 3.2 mm standard, and 3.2 mm limited speed MAS rotors. The devices are modular and therefore readily adaptable to other rotor and/or ultracentrifugation tube geometries.

  12. Capacity Titration Technique for Determining the Solid Diffusion Coefficient of Intercalary Species within Insertion-host Materials

    Xin Cun TANG; Tian Duo LI


    In this paper, the capacity titration technique (CT technique) was developed on basis of the RPG (ratio of potentio-charge capacity to galvano-charge capacity) method to continuously determine the solid diffusion coefficient D of the intercalary species within insertion-host materials with a small voltage region. The linear equations of D vs. q (value of ratio of the potentio-charge capacity to the galvano-charge capacity) were given in different range of q. By the CT technique,the Li+ solid diffusion coefficients D within LiMn2O4 at different voltages were determined. The results showed that the values of D varied from 3.447× 10-9 cm2/s to 7.60× 10-11cm2/s in the voltage range of charge from 3.3V to 4.3V as a function of voltage with "W" shape.

  13. Topology-Scaling Identification of Layered Solids and Stable Exfoliated 2D Materials

    Ashton, Michael; Paul, Joshua; Sinnott, Susan B.; Hennig, Richard G.


    The Materials Project crystal structure database has been searched for materials possessing layered motifs in their crystal structures using a topology-scaling algorithm. The algorithm identifies and measures the sizes of bonded atomic clusters in a structure's unit cell, and determines their scaling with cell size. The search yielded 826 stable layered materials that are considered as candidates for the formation of two-dimensional monolayers via exfoliation. Density-functional theory was used to calculate the exfoliation energy of each material and 680 monolayers emerge with exfoliation energies below those of already-existent two-dimensional materials. The crystal structures of these two-dimensional materials provide templates for future theoretical searches of stable two-dimensional materials. The optimized structures and other calculated data for all 826 monolayers are provided at our database (

  14. Research and development on liquid Pb-17Li breeder in europe

    Casini, G.; Sannier, J.


    Research on eutectic Pb-17Li is part of the blanket studies carried-out in the frame of the EC-Fusion Technology Programme. Two blanket concepts using liquid Pb-17Li as breeder, one water-cooled and the other self-cooled, are being investigated and are among the candidates for testing in the Next Step machines. After a brief recall of the main features of both concepts, the paper presents the progress on the Pb-17Li data base acquisition, namely: — thermophysical properties, — solubility of metallic and non metallic elements (with a special attention to tritium), — chemical reactivity, — corrosion of structural materials and related mechanical effects, — tritium production and recovery.

  15. Research and development on liquid Pb-17Li breeder in Europe

    Casini, G. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre); Sannier, J. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Recherche Technologique et de Developpement Industriel (IRDI))

    Research on eutectic Pb-17Li is part of the blanket studies carried-out in the frame of the EC-Fusion Technology Programme. Two blanket concepts using liquid Pb-17Li as breeder, one water-cooled and the other self-cooled, are being investigated and are among the candidates for testing in the Next Step machines. After a brief recall of the main features of both concepts, the paper presents the progress on the Pb-17Li data base acquisition, namely: - thermophysical properties, - solubility of metallic and non metallic elements (with a special attention to tritium), - chemical reactivity, - corrosion of structural materials and related mechanical effects, - tritium production and recovery. (orig.).

  16. Electrical behaviour of ceramic breeder blankets in pebble form after γ-radiation

    E. Carella


    Full Text Available Lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4 ceramics in from of pebble bed is the European candidate for ITER testing HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed breeding modules. The breeder function and the shielding role of this material, represent the areas upon which attention is focused. Electrical measurements are proposed for monitoring the modification created by ionizing radiation and at the same time provide information on lithium movement in this ceramic structure. The electrical tests are performed on pebbles fabricated by Spray-dryer method before and after gamma-irradiation through a 60Co source to a fluence of 4.8 Gy/s till a total dose of 5 ∗ 105 Gy. The introduction of thermal annealing treatments during the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements points out the recombination effect of the temperature on the γ-induced defects.

  17. Ochratoxicosis in White Leghorn breeder hens: Production and breeding performance

    Zahoor Ul Hassan*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed1, Umer Sadique2 and Aisha Khatoon


    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ochratoxin A (OTA upon production and breeding parameters in White Leghorn (WL breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 WL breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. The hens in these groups were maintained on feed contaminated with OTA @ 0.0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg, respectively for 21 days. These hens were artificially inseminated with semen obtained from healthy roosters kept on OTA free feed. Egg production and their quality parameters were recorded. Fertile eggs obtained from each group were set for incubation on weekly basis. At the end of the experiment, hens in each group were killed to determined gross and microscopic lesions in different organs. OTA residue concentrations were determined in extracts of liver, kidneys and breast muscles by immunoaffinity column elution and HPLC-Fluorescent detection techniques. Feeing OTA contaminated diet resulted in a significant decrease in egg mass and egg quality parameters. Liver and kidneys showed characteristic lesions of ochratoxicosis. Residue concentration (ng/g of OTA in the hens fed 10 mg/kg OTA, was the highest in liver (26.336±1.16 followed by kidney (8.223±0.85 and were least in breast muscles (1.235±0.21. Embryonic mortalites were higher, while hatachabilites of the chicks were lower in the groups fed higher doses of OTA. Feeding OTA contaminated diets to breeder hen resulted in residues accumulation in their tissues along with significantly reduced production and breeding performance.

  18. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C


    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Corrosion susceptibility of EUROFER97 in lithium ceramics breeders

    Hernández, Teresa, E-mail:; Fernández, Pilar; Vila, Rafael


    EUROFER97 specimens were exposed in vacuum to lithium silicate pebbles at 550 °C for up to 2880 h, to evaluate its corrosion susceptibility in a simulated breeder blanket environment. The specimens and pebble bed were then analyzed and characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD, and HR-TEM. The results revealed the formation of a double chromium/iron oxide corrosion layer. HR-TEM also showed that the inner layer was amorphous, while the outer was crystalline. The amorphous layer was brittle, broke easily, and became detached from the steel.


    Cok. Gede Indra Partha


    Full Text Available Kebutuhan akan daya listrik saat ini semakin meningkat, seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi, cara hidup, kebutuhan dan budaya di daerah tersebut. Untuk itu keandalan dan kontinuitas pelayanan, sistem transmisidan distribusi perlu ditingkatkan untuk memperoleh pelayanan yang optimal dengan losses terendah. Padapenelitian ini digunakan metode Breeder Algoritma Genetika (BGA yang telah dikembangkan dalam optimasibeban seimbang untuk rekonfigurasi jaring distribusi tegangan menengah (JTM. Proses optimasi beban dilakukandengan cara merubah switch-switch pada penyulang (sebagai gen-gen dalam kromosom jaring distribusi sehinggadiperoleh jaring distribusi yang paling optimal. Hasil analisis menggunakan BGA menunjukkan konfigurasi baruyang optimal dengan losses terendah serta lebih cepat konvergen jika dibandingkan dengan Genetic Algorithm(GA biasa.

  1. A revised artificial insemination schedule for broiler breeder hens.

    Van Krey, H P; Siegel, P B


    Broiler type hens maintained in individual cages were artificially inseminated with either 0.023, 0.035, or 0.047 ml. of pooled semen. Insemination intervals were nine, nine, and ten days on a repetitive basis. This schedule was adopted because it allowed an extension of the conventional insemination interval and yet remained compatible with a five-day industrial work-week. The results demonstrated that maintaining broiler breeder hens in cages and utilizing artificial insemination as a means of obtaining fertile eggs were feasible. The data also indicated that extending the insemination interval to 10 days is possible providing the number of spermatozoa inseminated is increased.

  2. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor

    G Pandikumar; V Gopalakrishnan; P Mohanakrishnan


    In a thermal neutron reactor, multiple recycle of U–Pu fuel is not possible due to degradation of fissile content of Pu in just one recycle. In the FBR closed fuel cycle, possibility of multi-recycle has been recognized. In the present study, Pu-239 equivalence approach is used to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving near constant input inventory of Pu and near stable Pu isotopic composition after a few recycles of the same fuel of the prototype fast breeder reactor under construction at Kalpakkam. After about five recycles, the cycle-to-cycle variation in the above parameters is below 1%.

  3. Corrosion test in the Experimental loop for an ITER TBM liquid breeder

    Yoon, Jae Sung; Kim, Suk Kwon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    An Experimental Loop for Liquid breeder (ELLI) was constructed for the purpose of validating the electromagnetic (EM) pump design, which designed and fabricated by ourselves: testing the effects of magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD): and investigating the compatibility of PbLi using structural materials such as ferritic martensitic steel. In the ELLI, Pb-15.7Li, where Li is 15.7 at % (called PbLi hereafter), is used as the breeding material and an EM pump circulates it in the loop with the maximum flow rate of 60 lpm. The operating pressure and temperature in the loop are 0.4 MPa and 300 .deg. C, respectively and the maximum operating pressure and temperature are 0.5 MPa and 550 .deg. C, respectively. After the performance test on each component such as heaters, the control systems for heating the loop and the characteristic tests with a magnet and the EM pump, long-term operational tests of the EM pump were performed during three different corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed in the ELLI loop by forced convection circulation using an EM pump to investigate the corrosion behavior of FMS in flowing PbLi. For the corrosion specimens, two samples were fabricated using Grade 91 FMS: tubular-type and cylindrical-type specimens. The specimens were exposed to the flowing PbLi with a speed of 0.16 m/s at 340 .deg. C for the three different experiments. The corrosion tests by forced convection using an EM pump can conveniently vary the speed of a liquid breeder by changing the currents of the EM pump than that of using a thermal convection

  4. Quantitative Contact Resonance Force Microscopy for Viscoelastic Measurement of Soft Materials at the Solid-Liquid Interface.

    Churnside, Allison B; Tung, Ryan C; Killgore, Jason P


    Viscoelastic property measurements made at the solid-liquid interface are key to characterizing materials for a variety of biological and industrial applications. Further, nanostructured materials require nanoscale measurements. Here, material loss tangents (tan δ) were extracted from confounding liquid effects in nanoscale contact resonance force microscopy (CR-FM), an atomic force microscope based technique for observing mechanical properties of surfaces. Obtaining reliable CR-FM viscoelastic measurements in liquid is complicated by two effects. First, in liquid, spurious signals arise during cantilever excitation. Second, it is challenging to separate changes to cantilever behavior due to the sample from changes due to environmental damping and added mass effects. We overcame these challenges by applying photothermal cantilever excitation in multiple resonance modes and a predictive model for the hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrated quantitative, nanoscale viscoelastic CR-FM measurements of polymers at the solid-liquid interface. The technique is demonstrated on a point-by-point basis on polymer samples and while imaging in contact mode on a fixed plant cell wall. Values of tan δ for measurements made in water agreed with the values for measurements in air for some experimental conditions on polystyrene and for all examined conditions on polypropylene.

  5. Homogeneous Diffusion Solid Model as a Realistic Approach to Describe Adsorption onto Materials with Different Geometries

    Sabio, E.; Zamora, F.; González-García, C. M.; Ledesma, B.; Álvarez-Murillo, A.; Román, S.


    In this work, the adsorption kinetics of p-nitrophenol (PNP) onto several commercial activated carbons (ACs) with different textural and geometrical characteristics was studied. For this aim, a homogeneous diffusion solid model (HDSM) was used, which does take the adsorbent shape into account. The HDSM was solved by means of the finite element method (FEM) using the commercial software COMSOL. The different kinetic patterns observed in the experiments carried out can be described by the developed model, which shows that the sharp drop of adsorption rate observed in some samples is caused by the formation of a concentration wave. The model allows one to visualize the changes in concentration taking place in both liquid and solid phases, which enables us to link the kinetic behaviour with the main features of the carbon samples.

  6. Neutron cross sections of cryogenic materials: a synthetic kernel for molecular solids

    Granada, J.R.; Gillette, V.H.; Petriw, S. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Inst. Balseiro (Argentina); Cantargi, F.; Pepe, M.E.; Sbaffoni, M.M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes (Argentina)


    A new synthetic scattering function aimed at the description of the interaction of thermal neutrons with molecular solids has been developed. At low incident neutron energies, both lattice modes and molecular rotations are specifically accounted for, through an expansion of the scattering law in few phonon terms. Simple representations of the molecular dynamical modes are used, in order to produce a fairly accurate description of neutron scattering kernels and cross sections with a minimum set of input data. As the neutron energies become much larger than that corresponding to the characteristic Debye temperature and to the rotational energies of the molecular solid, the 'phonon formulation' transforms into the traditional description for molecular gases. (orig.)

  7. Dendrimers-modified solid supports: towards nanostructures materials for clinical diagnostic

    Vida, Y.; Collado, D; Najera, F.; Montañe, M I; Perez-Inestrosa, E.; Ruiz-Sanchez, A


    The design and synthesis of new materials for biomedical applications is a high-priority research topic in a number of biomedical areas. The rapid development of nanotechnology over the past few decades has created wide prospects for using nano- and micro-scale materials in such areas, where careful control of interactions between particles and biosystems is essential for effective use of these materials in biomedicine. Worth special note in this respect is the use of nanoparticles in diagnos...

  8. Assessment of municipal solid waste generation and recyclable materials potential in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Saeed, Mohamed Osman; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Mujeebu, M Abdul


    This paper presents a forecasting study of municipal solid waste generation (MSWG) rate and potential of its recyclable components in Kuala Lumpur (KL), the capital city of Malaysia. The generation rates and composition of solid wastes of various classes such as street cleansing, landscape and garden, industrial and constructional, institutional, residential and commercial are analyzed. The past and present trends are studied and extrapolated for the coming years using Microsoft office 2003 Excel spreadsheet assuming a linear behavior. The study shows that increased solid waste generation of KL is alarming. For instance, the amount of daily residential SWG is found to be about 1.62 kg/capita; with the national average at 0.8-0.9 kg/capita and is expected to be increasing linearly, reaching to 2.23 kg/capita by 2024. This figure seems reasonable for an urban developing area like KL city. It is also found that, food (organic) waste is the major recyclable component followed by mix paper and mix plastics. Along with estimated population growth and their business activities, it has been observed that the city is still lacking in terms of efficient waste treatment technology, sufficient fund, public awareness, maintaining the established norms of industrial waste treatment etc. Hence it is recommended that the concerned authority (DBKL) shall view this issue seriously.

  9. High efficiency light source using solid-state emitter and down-conversion material

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Gu, Yimin; Freyssinier, Jean Paul


    A light emitting apparatus includes a source of light for emitting light; a down conversion material receiving the emitted light, and converting the emitted light into transmitted light and backward transmitted light; and an optic device configured to receive the backward transmitted light and transfer the backward transmitted light outside of the optic device. The source of light is a semiconductor light emitting diode, a laser diode (LD), or a resonant cavity light emitting diode (RCLED). The down conversion material includes one of phosphor or other material for absorbing light in one spectral region and emitting light in another spectral region. The optic device, or lens, includes light transmissive material.

  10. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites - WASTE_SOLID_ACTIVE_PERMITTED_IDEM_IN: Active Permitted Solid Waste Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WASTE_SOLID_ACTIVE_PERMITTED_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains active permitted solid waste site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  11. Applications of solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in studies of Portland cements-based materials

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Andersen, Morten Daugaard; Jakobsen, Hans Jørgen


    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy represents an important research tool in the characterization of a range of structural properties for cement-based materials. Different approaches of the technique can be used to obtain information on hydration kinetics, mobile and bound water, porosity, and local...... atomic structures. After a short introduction to these NMR techniques, it is exemplified how magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR can provide quantitative and structural information about specific phases in anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements with main emphasis on the incorporation of Al3+ ions...

  12. Solid Warehouse Material Management System Based on ERP and Bar Code Technology

    ZHANG Cheng; WANG Jie; YUAN Bing; WU Chao; HU Qiao-dan


    This paper presents a manufacturing material management system based on ERP, which is combined with industrial bar code information collection and material management, and carries out extensive research on the system structure and function model, as well as a detailed application scheme.

  13. 75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste


    ... avoided extraction and processing emissions 0.006 MTCO 2 E/ MMBtu for coal, the total avoided GHG is 0.019.../MMBtu of PM associated with extraction and processing of the coal. Please see the Materials... (fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag); foundry sand; silica fume; and secondary glass material....

  14. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.


    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  15. Group size adjustment to ecological demand in a cooperative breeder.

    Zöttl, Markus; Frommen, Joachim G; Taborsky, Michael


    Environmental factors can determine which group size will maximize the fitness of group members. This is particularly important in cooperative breeders, where group members often serve different purposes. Experimental studies are yet lacking to check whether ecologically mediated need for help will change the propensity of dominant group members to accept immigrants. Here, we manipulated the perceived risk of predation for dominant breeders of the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher to test their response to unrelated and previously unknown immigrants. Potential immigrants were more readily accepted if groups were exposed to fish predators or egg predators than to herbivorous fish or control situations lacking predation risk. Our data are consistent with both risk dilution and helping effects. Egg predators were presented before spawning, which might suggest that the fish adjust acceptance rates also to a potential future threat. Dominant group members of N. pulcher apparently consider both present and future need of help based on ecological demand. This suggests that acceptance of immigrants and, more generally, tolerance of group members on demand could be a widespread response to ecological conditions in cooperatively breeding animals.


    A NIAR


    Full Text Available 4377 pregnant ewes have been used in this study to realise a curve of lambing. This curve prove that the three most important breeds of Algerian sheep can breed all year round.                 To prove also that Algerian sheep are no  seasonal breeder, a cytological and histological study of ewes vaginal mucosa have been done. The exfoliative cytology over all the phases of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy consistent in appearance and appear to be influenced directly by the changes in endogenous ovarian steroid hormones. The histological features of the anterior vaginal epithelium of the ewe sampled all year round, before, during, after oestrus and at pregnancy are described. In the present study, we have never found an arrest of the cyclical genital activity of ewes at any moment of the year. This finding agree with results of the curve of lambing. We can conclude that Algerian ewes are nonseasonal breeders.

  17. Surface oxygen exchange properties of bismuth oxide-based solid electrolytes and electrode materials

    Boukamp, B.A.; Vinke, I.C.; Vries, de K.J.; Burggraaf, A.J.


    The surface oxygen exchange coefficient, ks, has been measured for the solid solution (Bi2O3)0.75(Er2O3)0.25 and (Bi2O3)0.6(Tb2O3)0.4 (abbreviated BE25 and BT40), using gas-phase 18O exchange techniques. The activation enth alpy of ks amounts to ΔE=110 kJ/molforBT40 andΔE=130 kJ/molforBE25. The magn

  18. Mass spectrometric methods for the direct elemental and isotopic analysis of solid material

    Ganeev, A. A.; Gubal, A. R.; Potapov, S. V.; Agafonova, N. N.; Nemets, V. M.


    Methods for the direct analysis of solids have a number of undeniable advantages over the methods that require preliminary dissolution of samples. High sensitivity and selectivity make the direct mass spectrometric techniques the most in-demand. The review concerns spark source mass spectrometry, laser ionization mass spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, secondary neutral mass spectrometry and glow discharge mass spectrometry. Basic principles, analytical characteristics and trends in the development of these techniques are discussed. Particular attention is given to applications of the techniques as well as to their competitive advantages and drawbacks. The bibliography includes 123 references.

  19. Solid State Raman Materials Characterization for High Average Power 1.3 micrometer Laser Frequency Shift


    reflectivity at 1067 rim wavelength. Solid state phototrop filter based on gallium -scandium- gadolinium garnet doped with chromium was used as a passive Q-switch... gadolinium tungstate, KGd(W0 4)2 exhibited efficient Raman properties . In spite of the fact that its Raman gain coefficient at 1064 nm (6 cm/GW) is twice less...studied by high- temperature Raman scattering (HTRS) technique. According to [1], the lattice cell of KGd(W04) 2 low - temperature modification is a base

  20. Directory of crystal growth and solid state materials production and research

    Connolly, T.F.; Battle, G.C.; Keesee, A.M. (comps.)


    This directory lists only those who returned questionnaires distributed by the Research Materials Information Center during 1978. The directory includes, in addition to crystal growers, those preparing starting materials for crystal growth and ultrapure noncrystalline research specimens. It also includes responses from those characterizing, or otherwise studying, the properties of materials provided by others. The international coverage of the directory is limited to the United States, Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Finland, East Germany, Hungary, India, Israel, Japan, Mexico, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Taiwan, Yugoslavia, and Zaire.

  1. Fracture Toughness, Mechanical Property, And Chemical Characterization Of A Critical Modification To The NASA SLS Solid Booster Internal Material System

    Pancoast, Justin; Garrett, William; Moe, Gulia


    A modified propellant-liner-insulation (PLI) bondline in the Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket booster required characterization for flight certification. The chemical changes to the PLI bondline and the required additional processing have been correlated to mechanical responses of the materials across the bondline. Mechanical properties testing and analyses included fracture toughness, tensile, and shear tests. Chemical properties testing and analyses included Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cross-link density, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and wave dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The testing identified the presence of the expected new materials and found the functional bondline performance of the new PLI system was not significantly changed from the old system.

  2. Surfactant assisted solid-state synthesis and gas sensor application of a SWCNT/SnO2 nanocomposite material.

    Lu, Jun; Ma, Anson; Yang, Shihe; Ng, Ka Ming


    Although tin oxide has been the most widely investigated metal oxide material for gas detection, it suffers from the large resistance and high operating temperature. This could be overcome by hybridization with nanostructured carbon. In this work, tin oxide nanoparticles with ultrasmall sizes of 1-3 nm have been uniformly coated onto bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes by a surfactant assisted solid state synthesis approach for the first time. Gas sensor properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposite material toward NO2 (from 5 to 60 ppm) are measured at 150 degrees C. Compared to the pure carbon tubes gas sensors, the nanocomposite gas sensor responds to NO2 in low concentrations with good linearity, high sensitivity, and fast recovery, while working at a relatively low temperature.

  3. Simulation of ceramic materials relevant for nuclear waste management: Case of La1-xEuxPO4 solid solution

    Kowalski, Piotr M.; Ji, Yaqi; Li, Yan; Arinicheva, Yulia; Beridze, George; Neumeier, Stefan; Bukaemskiy, Andrey; Bosbach, Dirk


    Using powerful computational resources and state-of-the-art methods of computational chemistry we contribute to the research on novel nuclear waste forms by providing atomic scale description of processes that govern the structural incorporation and the interactions of radionuclides in host materials. Here we present various results of combined computational and experimental studies on La1-xEuxPO4 monazite-type solid solution. We discuss the performance of DFT + U method with the Hubbard U parameter value derived ab initio, and the derivation of various structural, thermodynamic and radiation-damage related properties. We show a correlation between the cation displacement probabilities and the solubility data, indicating that the binding of cations is the driving factor behind both processes. The combined atomistic modeling and experimental studies result in a superior characterization of the investigated material.

  4. Recent Progress on Advanced Materials for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Operating Below 500 °C.

    Zhang, Yuan; Knibbe, Ruth; Sunarso, Jaka; Zhong, Yijun; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping; Zhu, Zhonghua


    Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electricity generators that can convert the chemical energy in various fuels directly to the electric power with high efficiency. Recent advances in materials and related key components for SOFCs operating at ≈500 °C are summarized here, with a focus on the materials, structures, and techniques development for low-temperature SOFCs, including the analysis of most of the critical parameters affecting the electrochemical performance of the electrolyte, anode, and cathode. New strategies, such as thin-film deposition, exsolution of nanoparticles from perovskites, microwave plasma heating, and finger-like channeled electrodes, are discussed. These recent developments highlight the need for electrodes with higher activity and electrolytes with greater conductivity to generate a high electrochemical performance at lower temperatures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Progress in studies of Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ as liquid breeder for fusion reactor blankets

    Casini, G.


    A review of the experimental and conceptual design work in progress at JRC-Ispra to investigate the feasibility of the eutectic Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ as a liquid breeder for experimental power reactors is presented. Results of recent measurements to implement the data base of this material are given in the following areas: physical parameters, hydrogen solubility and recovery, chemical reactivity with air and water, compatibility with steel. The studies carried out on blanket concepts for the INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor)/NET (Next European Torus) projects are outlined and discussed.

  6. Nanomechanical analysis of high performance materials (solid mechanics and its applications)


    This book is intended for researchers who are interested in investigating the nanomechanical properties of materials using advanced instrumentation techniques. The chapters of the book are written in an easy-to-follow format, just like solved examples. The book comprehensively covers a broad range of materials such as polymers, ceramics, hybrids, biomaterials, metal oxides, nanoparticles, minerals, carbon nanotubes and welded joints. Each chapter describes the application of techniques on the selected material and also mentions the methodology adopted for the extraction of information from the raw data. This is a unique book in which both equipment manufacturers and equipment users have contributed chapters. Novices will learn the techniques directly from the inventors and senior researchers will gain in-depth information on the new technologies that are suitable for advanced analysis. On one hand, fundamental concepts that are needed to understand the nanomechanical behavior of materials is included in the i...

  7. Solid-State Ceramic Laser Material for Remote Sensing of Ozone Using Nd:Yttria Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase II we will develop transparent Nd:Yttria ceramic laser materials that can operate at 914 nm and 946 nm suitable for applications in ozone LIDAR systems. We...

  8. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Kong, Zueqian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  9. Improving the sensitivity of J coupling measurements in solids with application to disordered materials

    Paul Guerry


    Full Text Available It has been shown previously that for magic angle spinning (MAS solid state NMR the refocused INADEQUATE spin-echo (REINE experiment can usefully quantify scalar (J couplings in disordered solids. This paper focuses on the two z filter components in the original REINE pulse sequence, and investigates by means of a product operator analysis and fits to density matrix simulations the effects that their removal has on the sensitivity of the experiment and on the accuracy of the extracted J couplings. The first z filter proves unnecessary in all the cases investigated here and removing it increases the sensitivity of the experiment by a factor ∼1.1–2.0. Furthermore, for systems with broad isotropic chemical shift distributions (namely whose full widths at half maximum are greater than 30 times the mean J coupling strength, the second z filter can also be removed, thus allowing whole-echo acquisition and providing an additional √2 gain in sensitivity. Considering both random and systematic errors in the values obtained, J couplings determined by fitting the intensity modulations of REINE experiments carry an uncertainty of 0.2–1.0 Hz (∼1−10 %.

  10. Improving the sensitivity of J coupling measurements in solids with application to disordered materials

    Guerry, Paul; Brown, Steven P.; Smith, Mark E.


    It has been shown previously that for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR the refocused INADEQUATE spin-echo (REINE) experiment can usefully quantify scalar (J) couplings in disordered solids. This paper focuses on the two z filter components in the original REINE pulse sequence, and investigates by means of a product operator analysis and fits to density matrix simulations the effects that their removal has on the sensitivity of the experiment and on the accuracy of the extracted J couplings. The first z filter proves unnecessary in all the cases investigated here and removing it increases the sensitivity of the experiment by a factor ˜1.1-2.0. Furthermore, for systems with broad isotropic chemical shift distributions (namely whose full widths at half maximum are greater than 30 times the mean J coupling strength), the second z filter can also be removed, thus allowing whole-echo acquisition and providing an additional √2 gain in sensitivity. Considering both random and systematic errors in the values obtained, J couplings determined by fitting the intensity modulations of REINE experiments carry an uncertainty of 0.2-1.0 Hz (˜1-10 %).

  11. Thin film solid-state reactions forming carbides as contact materials for carbon-containing semiconductors

    Leroy, W. P.; Detavernier, C.; Van Meirhaeghe, R. L.; Lavoie, C.


    Metal carbides are good candidates to contact carbon-based semiconductors (SiC, diamond, and carbon nanotubes). Here, we report on an in situ study of carbide formation during the solid-state reaction between thin films. The solid-state reaction was examined between 11 transition metals (W, Mo, Fe, Cr, V, Nb, Mn, Ti, Ta, Zr, and Hf) and an amorphous carbon layer. Capping layers (C or TiN) of different thicknesses were applied to prevent oxidation. Carbide formation is evidenced for nine metals and the phases formed have been identified (for a temperature ranging from 100to1100°C). W first forms W2C and then WC; Mo forms Mo2C; Fe forms Fe3C; Cr first forms metastable phases Cr2C and Cr3C2-x, and finally forms Cr3C2; V forms VCx; Nb transforms into Nb2C followed by NbC; Ti forms TiC; Ta first forms Ta2C and then TaC; and Hf transforms into HfC. The activation energy for the formation of the various carbide phases has been obtained by in situ x-ray diffraction.

  12. A novel approach to engineer the microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Nunez, P.; Dominguez-Gonzalez, J.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200-La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, D. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C. S. I. C.) Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Canales-Vazquez, J. [Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain)


    A novel and cost-effective process to accurately control the design of 3D structures of SOFC materials is proposed. A master mould is fabricated from a rubber-based material. Metallic meshes are used to transfer any type of patterns to the rubber-based material. The reusable master mould can then be filled with a slurry of inorganic materials made of single or complex oxides and other organic components commonly used in tape-casting technology. After drying at room temperature, the master-mould can be easily peeled-off and then a slow thermal process allows obtaining a sintered material with precisely controlled features such as the size and distribution of the pore holes in the structure, the thickness of the electrode and electrolyte layers, type of patterning, etc. The potential advantages of micro- and nanoengineering of materials for energy applications are also discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Ionic Borate-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks: Lightweight Porous Materials for Lithium-Stable Solid State Electrolytes

    Black, Hayden T; Harrison, Katharine Lee


    The synthesis and characterization of the first polyelectrolyte of intrinsic microporosity (PEIM) is described. The novel material was synthesized via reaction between the nitrile group in the polymer backbone and n-butyl lithium, effectively anchoring an imine anion to the porous framework while introducing a mobile lithium counterion. The PEIM was characterized by 13C, 1H, and 7Li NMR experiments, revealing quantitative conversion of the nitrile functionality to the anionic imine. Variable temperature 7Li NMR analysis of the dry PEIM and the electrolyteswollen PEIM revealed that lithium ion transport within the dry PEIM was largely due to interchain hopping of the Li+ ions, and that the mobility of polymer associated Li+ was reduced after swelling in electrolyte solution. Meanwhile, the swollen PEIM supported efficient transport of dissolved Li+ within the expanded pores. These results are discussed in the context of developing novel solid or solid-like lithium ion electrolytes using the new PEIM material.

  14. Novel Mg-Doped SrMoO3 Perovskites Designed as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Vanessa Cascos


    Full Text Available SrMo1−xMxO3−δ (M = Fe and Cr, x = 0.1 and 0.2 oxides have been recently described as excellent anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures (IT-SOFC with LSGM as the electrolyte. In this work, we have improved their properties by doping with aliovalent Mg ions at the B-site of the parent SrMoO3 perovskite. SrMo1−xMgxO3−δ (x = 0.1, 0.2 oxides have been prepared, characterized and tested as anode materials in single solid-oxide fuel cells, yielding output powers near 900 mW/cm−2 at 850 °C using pure H2 as fuel. We have studied its crystal structure with an “in situ” neutron power diffraction (NPD experiment at temperatures as high as 800 °C, emulating the working conditions of an SOFC. Adequately high oxygen deficiencies, observed by NPD, together with elevated disk-shaped anisotropic displacement factors suggest a high ionic conductivity at the working temperatures. Furthermore, thermal expansion measurements, chemical compatibility with the LSGM electrolyte, electronic conductivity and reversibility upon cycling in oxidizing-reducing atmospheres have been carried out to find out the correlation between the excellent performance as an anode and the structural features.

  15. Development of materials for solid state electrochemical sensors and fuel cell applications. Final report, September 30, 1995--December 30, 1995

    Bobba, R.; Hormes, J.; Young, V.; Baker, J.A.


    The intent of this project was two fold: (1) to develop new ionically conducting materials for solid state gas phase sensors and fuel cells and (2) to train students and create an environment conducive to Solid State Ionics research at Southern University. The authors have investigated the electrode-electrolyte interfacial reactions, defect structure and defect stability in some perovoskite type solid electrolyte materials and the effect of electrocatalyst and electrolyte on direct hydrocarbon and methanol/air fuel cell performance using synchrotron radiation based Extended X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (EXAFS), surface analytical and Impedance Spectroscopic techniques. They have measured the AC impedance and K edge EXAFS of the entire family of rare earth dopants in Cerium Oxide to understand the effect of dopants on the conductivity and its impact on the structural properties of Cerium Oxide. All of the systems showed an increase in the conductivity over undoped ceria with ceria doped Gd, Sm and Y showing the highest values. The conductivity increased with increasing ionic radius of the dopant cation. The authors have measured the K edge of the EXAFS of these dopants to determine the local structural environment and also to understand the nature of the defect clustering between oxygen vacancies and trivalent ions. The analysis and the data reduction of these complex EXAFS spectra is in progress. Where as in the DOWCs, the authors have attempted to explore the impact of catalyst loadings on the performance of direct oxidation of methanol fuel cells. Their initial measurements on fuel cell performance characteristics and EXAFS are made on commercial membranes Pt/Ru/Nafion 115, 117 and 112.

  16. Respiratory diseases and allergic sensitization in swine breeders: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Galli, Luigina; Facchetti, Susanna; Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; D'Anna, Mauro


    The daily occupation as a swine breeder involves exposure to several bacterial components and organic dusts and inhalation of a large amount of allergens. To investigate the risk of respiratory diseases and atopy in swine breeders compared with the general population living in the same area. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an agricultural area of northern Italy that enrolled a random sample of resident male breeders and non-breeders. Demographic features, comorbidities, and presence of allergic respiratory disease were retrieved through interview. Prick tests for common allergens were performed. An evaluation of pollen and mold in air samples taken inside and outside some swine confinement buildings also was performed. One hundred one male breeders (78 native-born, mean age ± SD 43.0 ± 11.1 years) and 82 non-breeders (43.0 ± 11.1 years) were enrolled. When restricting the analysis to native-born subjects, breeders vs non-breeders showed a lower prevalence of respiratory allergy (12.8% vs 31.1%, respectively, P = .002), asthma (6.4% vs 15.8%, P = .059), rhinitis (16.7% vs 51.2%, P swine buildings investigated, particularly when the pigs were inside vs outside the buildings. This study suggests that swine breeding does not increase, and might decrease, the risk of pollen sensitization and allergic disease. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Educating the Next Generation of Plant Breeders: The Need and the Challenge

    Plant breeding is critical to the future of productive agriculture, food security, and economic prosperity. Increasingly, many plant breeders are working in industry or governmental agencies that do not include education of the next generation of plant breeders as part of their mission. At the sam...

  18. Investigations of the structure and "interfacial" surface chemistry of Bioglass (RTM) materials by solid-state multinuclear NMR spectroscopy

    Sarkar, Gautam

    Bioactive materials such as BioglassRTM 45S5 (45% SiO 2, 24.5% CaO, 24.5% Na2O, and 6% P2O5 by weight) are sodium-phosphosilicate glasses containing independent three-dimensional silicate and phosphate networks and Na+ and Ca2+ ions as modifying cations. Due to their bioactivity, these materials are currently used as implants and for other surgical and clinical applications. The bioactivity of BioglassesRTM is due to their unique capability to form chemical bonds to tissues through an octacalciumphosphate (OCP)- and/or hydroxyapatite-like (HA) "interfacial" matrix. The formation of OCP and/or HA is preceded by the formation of a silica-rich surface layer and the subsequent growth of an amorphous calcium phosphate (a-CP) layer. Structural characterization of a series of commercial and synthesized Bioglass materials 45S5 52S, 55S, 60S, and synthesized 17O-labelled "Bioglass materials 45S, 52S, 55S and 60S" have been obtained using solid-state single-pulse magic-angle spinning (SP/MAS) 17O, 23Na, 29Si and 31P NMR. The 17O NMR isotropic chemical shifts and estimates of the quadrupole coupling constants (Cq) [at fixed asymmetry parameter ( hQ ) values of zero] have been obtained from solid-state spin-echo 17O SP/MAS NMR spectra of 17O-labelled "Bioglasses". The simulation results of these spectra reveal the presence of both bridging-oxygens (BO, i.e. ≡ Si-17OSi ≡ ) and non-bridging oxygens (NBO, i.e. ≡ Si-17O-Na+/Ca2+ ) in the silicate networks in these materials. 17O NMR spectra of these Bioglass materials do not show any direct evidence for the presence of BO and NBO atoms in the phosphate units; however, they are expected to be present in small amounts. In vitro reactions of BioglassRTM 45S5, 60S and 77S powders have been used to study the "interfacial" surface chemistry of these materials in simulated body-fluid (SBF, Kyoto or K9 solution) and/or 17O-enriched tris-buffer solution. 29Si and 31P SP/MAS NMR have been used to identify and quantify the extent of

  19. Advanced functional materials in solid phase extraction for ICP-MS determination of trace elements and their species - A review.

    He, Man; Huang, Lijin; Zhao, Bingshan; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin


    For the determination of trace elements and their species in various real samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), solid phase extraction (SPE) is a commonly used sample pretreatment technique to remove complex matrix, pre-concentrate target analytes and make the samples suitable for subsequent sample introduction and measurements. The sensitivity, selectivity/anti-interference ability, sample throughput and application potential of the methodology of SPE-ICP-MS are greatly dependent on SPE adsorbents. This article presents a general overview of the use of advanced functional materials (AFMs) in SPE for ICP-MS determination of trace elements and their species in the past decade. Herein the AFMs refer to the materials featuring with high adsorption capacity, good selectivity, fast adsorption/desorption dynamics and satisfying special requirements in real sample analysis, including nanometer-sized materials, porous materials, ion imprinting polymers, restricted access materials and magnetic materials. Carbon/silica/metal/metal oxide nanometer-sized adsorbents with high surface area and plenty of adsorption sites exhibit high adsorption capacity, and porous adsorbents would provide more adsorption sites and faster adsorption dynamics. The selectivity of the materials for target elements/species can be improved by using physical/chemical modification, ion imprinting and restricted accessed technique. Magnetic adsorbents in conventional batch operation offer unique magnetic response and high surface area-volume ratio which provide a very easy phase separation, greater extraction capacity and efficiency over conventional adsorbents, and chip-based magnetic SPE provides a versatile platform for special requirement (e.g. cell analysis). The performance of these adsorbents for the determination of trace elements and their species in different matrices by ICP-MS is discussed in detail, along with perspectives and possible challenges in the future

  20. The TMSR as actinide burner and thorium breeder

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Le Brun, C.; Allibert, M.; Ghetta, V. [LPSC/IN2P3/CNRS - INPG/ENSPG - UJF, 53, avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)


    Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) are one of the six systems retained by Generation IV as a candidate for the next generation of nuclear reactors. Molten Salt Reactor is a very attractive concept especially for the Thorium fuel cycle which allows nuclear energy production with a very low production of radio-toxic minor actinides. Studies have thus been done on the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) of Oak-Ridge to re-evaluate this concept. They have shown that the MSBR suffers from major drawbacks concerning for example safety and reprocessing, drawbacks incompatible with any industrial development. On the other hand, the advantages of the Thorium fuel cycle were too attractive not to look further into it. With these considerations, we have reassessed the whole concept to propose an innovative reactor called Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR). Many parametric studies of the TMSR have been carried out, correlating the core arrangement and composition, the reprocessing performances, and the salt composition. In particular, by changing the moderation ratio of the core the neutron spectrum can be modified and placed anywhere between a very thermalized neutron spectrum and a relatively fast spectrum. Even if the epithermal TMSR configurations have not been completely excluded by our calculations, our studies have shown that the reactor design where there is no graphite moderator inside the core appears to be the most promising in terms of safety coefficients, reprocessing requirements, and breeding and deployment capabilities. Larger fissile matter inventories are necessary in such a reactor configuration compared to the thermalized TMSR configurations, but the resulting deployment limitation could be solved by using transuranic elements as initial fissile load. This work is based on the coupling of a neutron transport code called MCNP with the materials evolution code REM. The former calculates the neutron flux and the reaction rates in all the cells while the latter solves

  1. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S


    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  2. Solid Matter

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  3. Optical characterization and crystal field calculations for some erbium based solid state materials for laser refrigeration

    Hasan, Z.; Qiu, Z.; Johnson, Jackie; Homerick, Uwe


    The potential of three erbium based solids hosts has been investigated for laser cooling. Absorption and emission spectra have been studied for the low lying IR transitions of erbium that are relevant to recent reports of cooling using the 4I15/2-4I9/2 and4I15/2 -4I13/2 transitions. Experimental studies have been performed for erbium in three hosts; ZBLAN glass and KPb2Cl5 and Cs2NaYCl6 crystals. In order to estimate the efficiencies of cooling, theoretical calculations have been performed for the cubic Elpasolite (Cs2NaYCl6 ) crystal. These calculations also provide a first principle insight into the cooling efficiency for non-cubic and glassy hosts where such calculations are not possible.

  4. III-nitride nanowires: novel materials for solid-state lighting

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Huang, Jianyu; Talin, A. Alec; Armstrong, Andrew; Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Prasankumar, Rohit P.


    Although planar heterostructures dominate current solid-state lighting architectures (SSL), 1D nanowires have distinct and advantageous properties that may eventually enable higher efficiency, longer wavelength, and cheaper devices. However, in order to fully realize the potential of nanowire-based SSL, several challenges exist in the areas of controlled nanowire synthesis, nanowire device integration, and understanding and controlling the nanowire electrical, optical, and thermal properties. Here recent results are reported regarding the aligned growth of GaN and III-nitride core-shell nanowires, along with extensive results providing insights into the nanowire properties obtained using cutting-edge structural, electrical, thermal, and optical nanocharacterization techniques. A new top-down fabrication method for fabricating periodic arrays of GaN nanorods and subsequent nanorod LED fabrication is also presented.

  5. III-nitride nanowires : novel materials for solid-state lighting.

    Wang, George T.; Upadhya, Prashanth C. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Prasankumar, Rohit P. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Armstrong, Andrew M.; Huang, Jian Yu; Li, Qiming; Talin, Albert Alec (NIST, Gaithersburg, MD)


    Although planar heterostructures dominate current solid-state lighting architectures (SSL), 1D nanowires have distinct and advantageous properties that may eventually enable higher efficiency, longer wavelength, and cheaper devices. However, in order to fully realize the potential of nanowire-based SSL, several challenges exist in the areas of controlled nanowire synthesis, nanowire device integration, and understanding and controlling the nanowire electrical, optical, and thermal properties. Here recent results are reported regarding the aligned growth of GaN and III-nitride core-shell nanowires, along with extensive results providing insights into the nanowire properties obtained using cutting-edge structural, electrical, thermal, and optical nanocharacterization techniques. A new top-down fabrication method for fabricating periodic arrays of GaN nanorods and subsequent nanorod LED fabrication is also presented.

  6. Effect of materials mixture on the higher heating value: Case of biomass, biochar and municipal solid waste.

    Boumanchar, Imane; Chhiti, Younes; M'hamdi Alaoui, Fatima Ezzahrae; El Ouinani, Amal; Sahibed-Dine, Abdelaziz; Bentiss, Fouad; Jama, Charafeddine; Bensitel, Mohammed


    The heating value describes the energy content of any fuel. In this study, this parameter was evaluated for different abundant materials in Morocco (two types of biochar, plastic, synthetic rubber, and cardboard as municipal solid waste (MSW), and various types of biomass). Before the evaluation of their higher heating value (HHV) by a calorimeter device, the thermal behavior of these materials was investigated using thermogravimetric (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. The focus of this work is to evaluate the calorific value of each material alone in a first time, then to compare the experimental and theoretical HHV of their mixtures in a second time. The heating value of lignocellulosic materials was between 12.16 and 20.53MJ/kg, 27.39 for biochar 1, 32.60MJ/kg for biochar 2, 37.81 and 38.00MJ/kg for plastic and synthetic rubber respectively and 13.81MJ/kg for cardboard. A significant difference was observed between the measured and estimated HHVs of mixtures. Experimentally, results for a large variety of mixture between biomass/biochar and biomass/MSW have shown that the interaction between biomass and other compounds expressed a synergy of 2.37% for biochar 1 and 6.11% for biochar 2, 1.09% for cardboard, 5.09% for plastic and 5.01% for synthetic rubber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental study on composite solid propellant material burning rate using algorithm MATLAB

    Thunaipragasam Selvakumaran


    Full Text Available In rocketry application, now-a-days instead of monopropellants slowly composite propellants are introduced. Burning rate of a solid state composite propellant depends on many factors like oxidizer-binder ratio, oxidizer particle size and distribution, particle size and its distribution, pressure, temperature, etc. Several researchers had taken the mass varied composite propellant. In that, the ammonium perchlorate mainly varied from 85 to 90%. This paper deals with the oxidizer rich propellant by allowing small variation of fuel cum binder ranging from 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% by mass. Since the percent of the binder is very less compared to the oxidizer, the mixture remains in a powder form. The powder samples are used to make a pressed pellet. Experiments were conducted in closed window bomb set-up at pressures of 2, 3.5, and 7 MN/m2. The burning rates are calculated from the combustion photography (images taken by a high-speed camera. These images were processed frame by frame in MATLAB, detecting the edges in the images of the frames. The burning rate is obtained as the slope of the linear fit from MATLAB and observed that the burn rate increases with the mass variation of constituents present in solid state composite propellant. The result indicates a remarkable increase in burn rate of 26.66%, 20%, 16.66%, and 3.33% for Mix 1, 2, 3, 4 compared with Mix 5 at 7 MN/m2. The percentage variations in burn rate between Mix 1 and Mix 5 at 2, 3.5, and 7 MN/m2 are 25.833%, 32.322%, and 26.185%, respectively.

  8. Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    Freeze, Ronald [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 μl injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few μl of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

  9. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management performance by material flow analysis: Theoretical approach and case study.

    Zaccariello, Lucio; Cremiato, Raffaele; Mastellone, Maria Laura


    The main role of a waste management plan is to define which is the combination of waste management strategies and method needed to collect and manage the waste in such a way to ensure a given set of targets is reached. Objectives have to be sustainable and realistic, consistent with the environmental policies and regulations and monitored to verify the progressive achievement of the given targets. To get the aim, the setting up and quantification of indicators can allow the measurement of efficiency of a waste management system. The quantification of efficiency indicators requires the developing of a material flow analysis over the system boundary, from waste collection to secondary materials selling, processing and disposal. The material flow analysis has been carried out with reference to a case study for which a reliable, time- and site-specific database was available. The material flow analysis allowed the evaluation of the amount of materials sent to recycling, to landfilling and to waste-to-energy, by highlighting that the sorting of residual waste can further increase the secondary materials amount. The utilisation of energy recovery to treat the low-grade waste allows the maximisation of waste diversion from landfill with a low production of hazardous ash. A preliminary economic balance has been carried out to define the gate fee of the waste management system that was in the range of 84-145 € t(-1) without including the separate collection cost. The cost of door-by-door separate collection, designed to ensure the collection of five separate streams, resulted in 250 € t(-1) ±30%.

  10. Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4 nanowires with a high conductance for flexible solid state supercapacitors

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Xi, Yi; Lang, Qiang; Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo


    The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in a high pseudocapacitive performance with a relatively high specific energy and specific power. Such a new type of pseudocapacitive material of Cu7S4-NWs with its low cost is very promising for actual application in supercapacitors.The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in

  11. Solid state photochemistry. Subpanel A-2(a): Design of molecular precursors for electronic materials

    Wells, R.L. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)


    Recent achievements of synthetic chemistry in the field of electronic materials are presented in three categories; viz, precursor design for improved processing, new chemistry for selective growth, and new growth techniques. This is followed by a discussion of challenges and opportunities in two general areas designated as composition and structure, and growth and processing.

  12. Co-composting solid biowastes with alkaline materials to enhance carbon stabilization and revegetation potential.

    Chowdhury, Saikat; Bolan, Nanthi S; Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Wijesekara, Hasintha; Xu, Yilu; Yang, Jianjun; Kim, Geon-Ha; Sparks, Donald; Rumpel, Cornelia


    Co-composting biowastes such as manures and biosolids can be used to stabilize carbon (C) without impacting the quality of these biowastes. This study investigated the effect of co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials on C stabilization and monitored the fertilization and revegetation values of these co-composts. The stabilization of C in biowastes (poultry manure and biosolids) was examined by their composting in the presence of various alkaline amendments (lime, fluidized bed boiler ash, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, and red mud) for 6 months in a controlled environment. The effects of co-composting on the biowastes' properties were assessed for different physical C fractions, microbial biomass C, priming effect, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorus, and revegetation of an urban landfill soil. Co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials increased C stabilization, attributed to interaction with alkaline materials, thereby protecting it from microbial decomposition. The co-composted biowastes also increased the fertility of the landfill soil, thereby enhancing its revegetation potential. Stabilization of biowastes using alkaline materials through co-composting maintains their fertilization value in terms of improving plant growth. The co-composted biowastes also contribute to long-term soil C sequestration and reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals.

  13. Novel family of solid acid catalysts: substantially amorphous or partially crystalline zeolitic materials

    Nicolaides, CP


    Full Text Available of the samples obtained at the various temperatures showed that for synthesis temperatures of up to 70 degrees C, X-ray amorphous aluminosilicates were obtained, whereas treatment at 90 degrees C produced a material exhibiting a 2% XRD crystallinity. Higher...

  14. Glass-containing composite cathode contact materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cheng, Lei; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.


    The feasibility of adding glass to conventional SOFC cathode contact materials in order to improve bonding to adjacent materials in the cell stack is assessed. A variety of candidate glass compositions are added to LSM and SSC. The important properties of the resulting composites, including conductivity, sintering behavior, coefficient of thermal expansion, and adhesion to LSCF and Mn1.5Co1.5O4-coated 441 stainless steel are used as screening parameters. Adhesion of LSM to LSCF improved from 3.9 to 5.3 MPa upon addition of SCZ-8 glass. Adhesion of LSM to coated stainless steel improved from 1.8 to 3.9 MPa upon addition of Schott GM31107 glass. The most promising cathode contact material/glass composites are coated onto Mn1.5Co1.5O4-coated 441 stainless steel substrates and subjected to area-specific resistance testing at 800 °C. In all cases, area-specific resistance is found to be in the range 2.5-7.5 mOhm cm2 and therefore acceptable. Indeed, addition of glass is found to improve bonding of the cathode contact material layer without sacrificing acceptable conductivity.

  15. Dynamic experimentation on the confocal laser scanning microscope : application to soft-solid, composite food materials

    Plucknett, K.P.; Pomfret, S.J.; Normand, V.; Ferdinando, D.; Veerman, C.; Frith, W.J.; Norton, I.T.


    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is used to follow the dynamic structural evolution of several phase-separated mixed biopolymer gel composites. Two protein/polysaccharide mixed gel systems were examined: gelatin/maltodextrin and gelatin/agarose. These materials exhibit 'emulsion-like' struc

  16. Numerical Derivation of Strain Rate Effects on Material Properties of Masonry with Solid Clay Bricks

    WEI Xueying; HAO Hong


    In this paper,numerical method is used to study the strain rate effect on masonry materials.A typical unit of masonry is selected to serve as a representative volume element (RVE).Numerical model of RVE is established with detailed distinctive modeling of brick and mortar with their respective dynamic material properties obtained from laboratory tests.The behavior of brick and mortar are characterized by a dynamic damage model that accounts for rate-sensitive and pressuredependent properties of masonry materials.Dynamic loads of different loading rates are applied to RVE.The equivalent homogenized uniaxial compressive strength,threshold strain and elastic modulus in three directions of the masonry are derived from the simulated responses of the RVE.The strain rate effect on the masonry material with clay brick and mortar,such as the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of the ultimate strength and elastic modulus as a function of strain rate are derived from the numerical results.

  17. Solid state laser employing diamond having color centers as a laser active material

    Rand, S.C.; De Shazer, L.G.


    A laser is described comprising: resonant cavity means for supporting coherent radiation; a diamond containing color centers as a laser active material; means for exciting the color centers to emit coherent radiation; and optical path means for providing an exit path for the radiation from the resonant cavity means.

  18. The Effect of Low-Density Broiler Breeder Diets on Performance and Immune Status of their Offspring

    Enting, H.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Winden, van S.C.L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.


    Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal

  19. Safeguards in the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU

    Usami, S.; Deshimaru, T.; Tomura, K. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuels Development Corporation, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)


    MONJU is a prototype fast breeder reactor in Japan designed to have a 280-MW(electric) output. The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) started its construction in the autumn of 1985 in Tsuruga. The loading of the core fuel assemblies was started in October 1993, and the preoperational test is ongoing. MONJU uses 198 mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies as core fuel and 172 depleted uranium assemblies as blanket fuel. Assemblies loaded in-core and stored in the ex-vessel storage tank (EVST) reside in liquid sodium. These plutonium-containing fuel assemblies, MOX, and irradiated depleted uranium are regarded as in the difficult-to-access area, and the flows of fuel assemblies into and out of the area must be verified. Flow is verified by fuel flow monitors measuring radiation, which can limit inspector attendance during fuel handling.

  20. Designing a SCADA system simulator for fast breeder reactor

    Nugraha, E.; Abdullah, A. G.; Hakim, D. L.


    SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system simulator is a Human Machine Interface-based software that is able to visualize the process of a plant. This study describes the results of the process of designing a SCADA system simulator that aims to facilitate the operator in monitoring, controlling, handling the alarm, accessing historical data and historical trend in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) type Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). This research used simulation to simulate NPP type FBR Kalpakkam in India. This simulator was developed using Wonderware Intouch software 10 and is equipped with main menu, plant overview, area graphics, control display, set point display, alarm system, real-time trending, historical trending and security system. This simulator can properly simulate the principle of energy flow and energy conversion process on NPP type FBR. This SCADA system simulator can be used as training media for NPP type FBR prospective operators.

  1. Impact of radionuclides on maintenance of Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    Olson, W.H.


    More than 20 years of Experimental-Breeder-Reactor-II (EBR-II) operation has demonstrated the capability to maintain radioactive equipment without undue radiation exposure to operating and maintenance personnel. The dominant radioisotopes in EBR-II primary systems are the activated corrosion product /sup 54/Mn and the fission products /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. The presence of radioisotopes from direct activation, deposit of activated corrosion products, and release of fission products from breached fuel elements dictates special procedures, equipment, and planning but does not prohibit maintenance activities. Since 1977, the average yearly exposure of operating and maintenance personnel has been reduced while the radioactivity of systems and components has increased.

  2. Design study of an upgraded charge breeder for ISOLDE

    Shornikov, A; Wenander, F; Pikin, A


    In this work we present our progress in the design study of a new Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) to be installed as a charge breeder for reacceleration of rare ions at ISOLDE. The work is triggered by the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade {[}1] and the planned TSR@ISOLDE project {[}2]. To fulfill the requests of the user community the new EBIS should reach an electron beam density of 10(4) A/cm(2) at electron energies up to 150 key and, provide UHV environment and ion cooling in the breeding region to ensure confinement of the ions long enough to reach the requested charge states. We report on the established design parameters and first prototyping steps towards production and testing of suitable equipment. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Challenges for Plant Breeders from the View of Animal Nutrition

    Gerhard Flachowsky


    Full Text Available The question of how to feed the growing world population is very old, but because of the increase of population and possible climate change, currently it has an explosive impact. Plant breeding can be considered as the starting point for the whole human food chain. Therefore, high, stable and highly digestible yields of phytogenic biomass with low external inputs of non-renewable resources, such as water, fuel, arable land, fertilizers, etc.; low emissions of gases with greenhouse potential during cultivation; and high resistance against biotic and abiotic stressors, including adaptation to potential climate change, and a low concentration of undesirable substances in the plants are real challenges for plant breeders in the future. Virtually unlimited resources such as sunlight, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the air as well as the genetic pool of microbes, plants and animals can be used to breed/develop optimal plants/crops. Biofortification of plants may also be an objective of plants breeders, but it is more important for human nutrition to avoid micronutrient deficiencies. A lower concentration of undesirable substances in the plants can be considered as more important than higher concentrations of micronutrients in plants/feeds. Animal nutritionists have various possibilities for feed additive supplementation to meet animal nutrient requirements. Examples to reduce undesirable substances in feed plants are discussed and shown in the paper. In summary, plant breeding has a large and strategic potential for global feed and food security. All breeding technologies may contribute to solving important global challenges, such as sustainable use of limited global resources, improved use of unlimited resources, adaption to climate change and lowering global greenhouse gas emission. More publically supported research seems to be necessary in this field. All methods of plant breeding that contribute to a more resource-efficient production of high

  4. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor

    Illum, D.B.; Olson, G.L.; McCardell, R.K.


    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was a small water cooled, U-233/Th-232 cycle breeder reactor developed by the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors to improve utilization of the nation's nuclear fuel resources in light water reactors. The LWBR was operated at Shippingport Atomic Power Station (APS), which was a Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly Atomic Energy Commission)-owned reactor plant. Shippingport APS was the first large-scale, central-station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electric power. The Shippingport LWBR was operated successfully from 1977 to 1982 at the APS. During the five years of operation, the LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy. After final shutdown, the 39 core modules of the LWBR were shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). At ECF, 12 of the 39 modules were dismantled and about 1000 of more than 17,000 rods were removed from the modules of proof-of-breeding and fuel performance testing. Some of the removed rods were kept at ECF, some were sent to Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho and some to ANL-East in Chicago for a variety of physical, chemical and radiological examinations. All rods and rod sections remaining after the experiments were shipped back to ECF, where modules and loose rods were repackaged in liners for dry storage. In a series of shipments, the liners were transported from ECF to Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The 47 liners containing the fully-rodded and partially-derodded core modules, the loose rods, and the rod scraps, are now stored in underground dry wells at CPP-749.

  5. Laser Spectroscopy Characterization of Materials for Frequency Agile Solid State Laser Systems


    decreases for LS5 to CS5 as seen in Fig. I, A parameters since a simple model is being used to describe must decrease from LS5 to CSS . Therefore, the...materials such as quire incorporation of multiple trapping levels in describ- Bi12SiO𔃺 , 2’ BaTiO 3,𔄀’ 7 GaAs, 22 and CdTe . 23 In the pi- ing the

  6. Organic and Hybrid Organic Solid-State Photovoltaic Materials and Devices


    conductive polyarylene ethynylene polymers for photovoltaic applications. The structure at the molecular scale was characterized using X-ray scattering...Processing of Thin Film Flexible Solar Cells” who exchanged knowledge about device-level questions and capabilities of simulations. The Ohio Department of...Indianapolis, IN, May, 2011. (2) “Hybrid Photovoltaic Materials: Characterization of Polymer -Nanoparticle composites” Lama, B.; Espe, M. P.; Central Regional

  7. Plutonium and americium monazite materials: Solid state synthesis and X-ray diffraction study

    Bregiroux, D. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR CNRS-Universite no. 6638, Batiment Chimie, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); E-mail:; Belin, R. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Valenza, P. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Audubert, F. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Bernache-Assollant, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France)


    High-temperature solid state syntheses of monazite powders containing plutonium (III), plutonium (IV) and americium (III) were performed. Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Pu{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} was readily obtained as a single phase by heating a Pu{sup 4+}O{sub 2}-NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} mixture under argon atmosphere. Traces of tetravalent plutonium phosphate Pu{sup 4+}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} were detected when synthesized under air atmosphere. The incorporation of (Pu{sup 4+},Ca{sup 2+}) in the monazite structure was investigated under air and argon atmosphere. We showed that Pu{sup 4+} is fully reduced in Pu{sup 3+} under argon atmosphere whereas, under air, the compound with the formula Pu{sub 0.4}{sup 3+}Pu{sub 0.3}{sup 4+}Ca{sub 0.3}{sup 2+}PO{sub 4} was obtained. Pure Am{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} was also synthesized under argon atmosphere. X-ray patterns revealed a complete amorphisation of the monazite structure at a relatively low cumulative alpha dose for {sup 241}AmPO{sub 4}.

  8. Prediction and measurement of thermal transport across interfaces between isotropic solids and graphitic materials.

    Norris, Pamela M.; Smoyer, Justin L.; Duda, John Charles.; Hopkins, Patrick E.


    Due to the high intrinsic thermal conductivity of carbon allotropes, there have been many attempts to incorporate such structures into existing thermal abatement technologies. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphitic materials (i.e., graphite and graphene flakes or stacks) have garnered much interest due to the combination of both their thermal and mechanical properties. However, the introduction of these carbon-based nanostructures into thermal abatement technologies greatly increases the number of interfaces per unit length within the resulting composite systems. Consequently, thermal transport in these systems is governed as much by the interfaces between the constituent materials as it is by the materials themselves. This paper reports the behavior of phononic thermal transport across interfaces between isotropic thin films and graphite substrates. Elastic and inelastic diffusive transport models are formulated to aid in the prediction of conductance at a metal-graphite interface. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductance at Au-graphite interfaces is measured via transient thermoreflectance from 78 to 400 K. It is found that different substrate surface preparations prior to thin film deposition have a significant effect on the conductance of the interface between film and substrate.

  9. Organic proton-conducting molecules as solid-state separator materials for fuel cell applications

    Jimenez-Garcia, Lucia; Kaltbeitzel, Anke; Enkelmann, Volker; Gutmann, Jochen S.; Klapper, Markus; Muellen, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)


    Organic proton-conducting molecules are presented as alternative materials to state-of-the-art polymers used as electrolytes in proton-exchanging membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Instead of influencing proton conductivity via the mobility offered by polymeric materials, the goal is to create organic molecules that control the proton-transport mechanism through supramolecular order. Therefore, a series of phosphonic acid-containing molecules possessing a carbon-rich hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic periphery was synthesized and characterized. Proton conductivity measurements as well as water uptake and crystallinity studies (powder and single-crystal X-ray analysis) were performed under various conditions. These experiments reveal that proton mobility is closely connected to crystallinity and strongly dependent on the supramolecular ordering of the compound. This study provides insights into the proton-conducting properties of this novel class of materials and the mechanisms responsible for proton transport. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth; Elaboracion de material de construccion a partir de residuos industriales solidos granulares procedentes de tierras diatomaceas

    Del Angel S, A.


    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  11. High-flexibility combinatorial peptide synthesis with laser-based transfer of monomers in solid matrix material.

    Loeffler, Felix F; Foertsch, Tobias C; Popov, Roman; Mattes, Daniela S; Schlageter, Martin; Sedlmayr, Martyna; Ridder, Barbara; Dang, Florian-Xuan; von Bojničić-Kninski, Clemens; Weber, Laura K; Fischer, Andrea; Greifenstein, Juliane; Bykovskaya, Valentina; Buliev, Ivan; Bischoff, F Ralf; Hahn, Lothar; Meier, Michael A R; Bräse, Stefan; Powell, Annie K; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Breitling, Frank; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander


    Laser writing is used to structure surfaces in many different ways in materials and life sciences. However, combinatorial patterning applications are still limited. Here we present a method for cost-efficient combinatorial synthesis of very-high-density peptide arrays with natural and synthetic monomers. A laser automatically transfers nanometre-thin solid material spots from different donor slides to an acceptor. Each donor bears a thin polymer film, embedding one type of monomer. Coupling occurs in a separate heating step, where the matrix becomes viscous and building blocks diffuse and couple to the acceptor surface. Furthermore, we can consecutively deposit two material layers of activation reagents and amino acids. Subsequent heat-induced mixing facilitates an in situ activation and coupling of the monomers. This allows us to incorporate building blocks with click chemistry compatibility or a large variety of commercially available non-activated, for example, posttranslationally modified building blocks into the array's peptides with >17,000 spots per cm(2).

  12. Niobium doped lanthanum calcium ferrite perovskite as a novel electrode material for symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells

    Kong, Xiaowei; Zhou, Xiaoliang; Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei


    Development of cost-effective and efficient electrochemical catalysts for the fuel cells electrode is of prime importance to emerging renewable energy technologies. Here, we report for the first time the novel La0.9Ca0.1Fe0.9Nb0.1O3-δ (LCFNb) perovskite with good potentiality for the electrode material of the symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (SSOFC). The Sc0.2Zr0.8O2-δ (SSZ) electrolyte supported symmetrical cells with impregnated LCFNb and LCFNb/SDC (Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ) electrodes achieve relatively high power outputs with maximum power densities (MPDs) reaching up to 392 and 528.6 mW cm-2 at 850 °C in dry H2, respectively, indicating the excellent electro-catalytic activity of LCFNb towards both hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction. Besides, the MPDs of the symmetrical cells with LCFNb/SDC composite electrodes in CO and syngas (CO: H2 = 1:1) are almost identical to those in H2, implying that LCFNb material has similar catalytic activities to carbon monoxide compared with hydrogen. High durability in both H2, CO and syngas during the short term stability tests for 50 h are also obtained, showing desirable structure stability, and carbon deposition resistance of LCFNb based electrodes. The present results indicate that the LCFNb perovskite with remarkable cell performance is a promising electrode material for symmetrical SOFCs.

  13. A Brief Description of High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell’s Operation, Materials, Design, Fabrication Technologies and Performance

    Muneeb Irshad


    Full Text Available Today’s world needs highly efficient systems that can fulfill the growing demand for energy. One of the promising solutions is the fuel cell. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is considered by many developed countries as an alternative solution of energy in near future. A lot of efforts have been made during last decade to make it commercial by reducing its cost and increasing its durability. Different materials, designs and fabrication technologies have been developed and tested to make it more cost effective and stable. This article is focused on the advancements made in the field of high temperature SOFC. High temperature SOFC does not need any precious catalyst for its operation, unlike in other types of fuel cell. Different conventional and innovative materials have been discussed along with properties and effects on the performance of SOFC’s components (electrolyte anode, cathode, interconnect and sealing materials. Advancements made in the field of cell and stack design are also explored along with hurdles coming in their fabrication and performance. This article also gives an overview of methods required for the fabrication of different components of SOFC. The flexibility of SOFC in terms fuel has also been discussed. Performance of the SOFC with varying combination of electrolyte, anode, cathode and fuel is also described in this article.

  14. Determination of phthalates released from paper packaging materials by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Gao, Xin; Yang, Bofeng; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wang, Fengmei; Xu, Hui; Cai, Xue


    A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 phthalic acid esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diamyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ethanol (v/v) instead of the different types of food simulated the migration of 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials; the phthalic acid esters in four food simulants were enriched and purified by a C18 SPE column and nitrogen blowing, and quantified by HPLC with a diode array detector. The chromatographic conditions and extraction conditions were optimized and all 10 of the phthalate acid esters had a maximum absorbance at 224 nm. The method showed limitations of detection in the range of 6.0-23.8 ng/mL the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9999 in all cases, recovery values ranged between 71.27 and 106.97% at spiking levels of 30, 60 and 90 ng/mL and relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.86 to 8.00%. The method was considered to be simple, fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food.

  15. High-flexibility combinatorial peptide synthesis with laser-based transfer of monomers in solid matrix material

    Loeffler, Felix F.; Foertsch, Tobias C.; Popov, Roman; Mattes, Daniela S.; Schlageter, Martin; Sedlmayr, Martyna; Ridder, Barbara; Dang, Florian-Xuan; von Bojničić-Kninski, Clemens; Weber, Laura K.; Fischer, Andrea; Greifenstein, Juliane; Bykovskaya, Valentina; Buliev, Ivan; Bischoff, F. Ralf; Hahn, Lothar; Meier, Michael A. R.; Bräse, Stefan; Powell, Annie K.; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Breitling, Frank; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander


    Laser writing is used to structure surfaces in many different ways in materials and life sciences. However, combinatorial patterning applications are still limited. Here we present a method for cost-efficient combinatorial synthesis of very-high-density peptide arrays with natural and synthetic monomers. A laser automatically transfers nanometre-thin solid material spots from different donor slides to an acceptor. Each donor bears a thin polymer film, embedding one type of monomer. Coupling occurs in a separate heating step, where the matrix becomes viscous and building blocks diffuse and couple to the acceptor surface. Furthermore, we can consecutively deposit two material layers of activation reagents and amino acids. Subsequent heat-induced mixing facilitates an in situ activation and coupling of the monomers. This allows us to incorporate building blocks with click chemistry compatibility or a large variety of commercially available non-activated, for example, posttranslationally modified building blocks into the array's peptides with >17,000 spots per cm2.

  16. Application of direct solid sample analysis for the determination of chlorine in biological materials using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Santos de Gois, Jefferson; Pereira, Éderson R. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente do CNPq (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G., E-mail: [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente do CNPq (Brazil)


    This work describes a methodology developed to carry out Cl determination in biological materials using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis. The solid samples were directly weighed into graphite ‘cups’ and inserted into the graphite furnace. The RF power and the carrier gas flow rate were optimized at 1300 W and 0.7 L min{sup −1}, respectively. Calibration could be carried out using aqueous standard solutions with pre-dried modifiers (Pd + Nd or Pd + Ca) or using solid certified reference materials with the same pre-dried modifiers or without the use of modifiers. The limit of quantification was determined as 5 μg g{sup −1} under optimized conditions and the Cl concentration was determined in five certified reference materials with certified concentrations for Cl, in addition to three certified reference materials, for which certified values for Cl were unavailable; in the latter case, the results were compared with those obtained using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. Good agreement at a 95% statistical confidence level was achieved between determined and certified or reference values. - Highlights: • Direct determination of chlorine in solid biological materials is described for the first time using ICP-MS. • Calibration against aqueous standards is feasible. • The method is accurate and sensitive, regardless of the composition of the solid sample.

  17. The Early Characterization of Irradiation Effects in Stainless Steels at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II

    D. L. Porter


    The new Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is revitalizing interest in materials development for fast spectrum reactors. With this comes the need for new, high-performance materials that are resistant to property changes caused by radiation damage. In the 1970s there was an effort to monitor the irradiation effects on stainless steels used in fast reactor cores, largely because there were a number of ‘surprises’ where materials subjected to a high flux of fast neutrons incurred dimensional and property changes that had not been expected. In the U.S., this applied to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Void swelling and irradiation-induced creep caused dimensional changes in the reactor components that shortened their useful lifetime and impacted reactor operations by creating fuel handling difficulties and reactivity anomalies. The surveillance programs and early experiments studied the simplest of austenitic stainless steels, such as Types 304 and 304L stainless steel, and led to some basic understanding of the links between these irradiation effects and microchemical changes within the steel caused by operational variables such as temperature, neutron flux and neutron fluence. Some of the observations helped to define later alloy development programs designed to produce alloys that were much more resistant to the effects of neutron irradiation.

  18. Al-MoSi2 Composite Materials: Analysis of Microstructure, Sliding Wear, Solid Particle Erosion, and Aqueous Corrosion

    Gousia, V.; Tsioukis, A.; Lekatou, A.; Karantzalis, A. E.


    In this effort, AMCs reinforced with new intermetallic phases, were produced through casting and compared as far as their microstructure, sliding wear, solid particle erosion, and aqueous corrosion response. Casting was selected as a production method based on the concept: (a) ease-to-handle and low cost production route and (b) optimum homogeneity of the reinforcing phase distribution. The MoSi2 phase was produced through vacuum arc melting and the resulting drops were milled for 30 h to produce fine powder, the characteristics of which were ascertained through SEM-EDS and XRD analysis. MoSi2 was used as precursor source for the final reinforcing phase. The powder material was incorporated in molten Al1050 alloy to additions of 2, 5 and 10 vol.% respectively. Extensive reactivity between the molten Al and the MoSi2 particles was observed, leading to the formation of new reinforcing phases mainly of the Al-Mo system. In all cases, a uniform particle distribution was observed, mainly characterized by isolated intermetallic phases and few intermetallic phase clusters. Sliding wear showed a beneficial action of the reinforcing phase on the wear of the composites. Surface oxidation, plastic deformation, crack formation, and debris abrasive action were the main degradation features. The results of solid particle erosion showed that the mechanism is different as the impact angle and the vol.% change. Regarding the corrosion, the analysis revealed localized corrosion effects. The composite behavior was not altered significantly compared to that of the monolithic matrix.

  19. Dissolution improvement of solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of fenofi brate using an inorganic high surface adsorption material

    Shazly Gamal


    Full Text Available Solidification of lipid formulations using adsorbents is a recent technique attracting great interest due to its favourable properties including flexibility in dose division, reduction of intra-subject and inter-subject variability, improvement in efficacy/safety profile and enhancement of physical/ chemical stability. The current study aims to convert liquid self-emulsifying/nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS/SNEDDS into solid SEDDS/SNEDDS and to assess how adsorption of the drug onto an inorganic high surface area material, NeusilinR grade US2 (NUS2, affects its in vitro dissolution performance. Lipid formulation classification systems (LFCS Type III formulations were designed for the model anti-cholesterol drug fenofibrate. NUS2 was used to solidify the SEDDS/SNEDDS. Particle size and SEM analyses of solid SEDDS/SNEDDS powder were carried out to investigate the adsorption efficiency. In vitro dissolution studies were conducted to compare the developed formulations with the marketed product. The results of characterization studies showed that the use of 50 % (m/m adsorbent resulted in superior flowability and kept the drug stable is amorphous state. Dissolution studies allow the conclusion that the formulation containing a surfactant of higher water solubility (particularly, Type IIIB SNEDDS has comparably faster and higher release profiles than Type IIIA (SEDDS and marketed product


    Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh


    This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

  1. Research of Methods, Technologies and Materials for Drainage Water Treatment at the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Salaryevo

    Gogina Elena


    Full Text Available The article deals with innovative methods, technologies and materials intended to reduce the adverse ecological impact of human waste and various industrial waste situated in municipal solid waste landfills (MSW, on water bodies, soil, and atmosphere. The existence of these factors makes the region less attractive for urban development. A comparison has been made of the methods intended to reduce the damage caused to the environment, in order to provide for sustainable development of cities, using the example of an actual landfill situated in the territory of Moscow. A scheme of reconstruction is recommended for the drainage water treatment plant at this landfill, which will lead to improvement of the environmental situation and contribute to the development of territories in the adjacent districts, and to reduction of pollution load on the river and atmosphere.

  2. Recycling of Pre-Washed Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash in the Manufacturing of Low Temperature Setting Geopolymer Materials

    Raffaele Cioffi


    Full Text Available In this work, three samples of municipal solid waste incinerators fly ash (MSWI-FA have been stabilized in systems containing coal fly ash to create geopolymers through a polycondensation reaction. Monolithic products have been obtained with both MSWI fly ash as received and after the partial removal of chloride and sulfate by water washing. The polycondensation products have been characterized qualitatively by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively, through the determination of the volume of reacted water and silicate. Furthermore, the heavy metals and chloride releases together with the physico-mechanical properties have been evaluated on the hardened products. In conclusion, considering the technological and environmental performances of the obtained geopolymers, they could be suitable for many non-structural applications, such as backfilling of abandoned quarries, decorative materials or brick fireplaces, hearths, patios, etc.

  3. Use of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis to investigate the distribution of trace elements among subsamples of solid materials

    DAgostino, Giancarlo; Giordani, Laura; Oddone, Massimo; Kipphardt, Heinrich; Richter, Silke


    The results of analytical measurements performed with solid-sampling techniques are affected by the distribution of the analytes within the matrix. The effect becomes significant in case of determination of trace elements in small subsamples. In this framework we propose a measurement model based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis to determine the relative variability of the amount of an analyte among subsamples of a material. The measurement uncertainty is evaluated and includes the counting statistics, the full-energy gamma peak efficiency and the spatial gradient of the neutron flux at the irradiation position. The data we obtained in a neutron activation experiment and showing the relative variability of As, Au, Ir, Sb and W among subsamples of a highly pure Rh foil are also presented.

  4. Nanostructured materials for solid-state hydrogen storage: A review of the achievement of COST Action MP1103

    Callini, Elsa; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois; Ahuja, Rajeev


    In the framework of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action MP1103 Nanostructured Materials for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage were synthesized, characterized and modeled. This Action dealt with the state of the art of energy storage and set up a competitive and coordinated...... the structure from bulk to thin film, nanoparticles and nanoconfined composites improved the hydrogen sorption properties and opened the perspective to new technological applications. Direct imaging of the hydrogenation reactions and in situ measurements under operando conditions have been carried out...... in these studies. Computational screening methods allowed the prediction of suitable compounds for hydrogen storage and the modeling of the hydrogen sorption reactions on mono-, bi-, and three-dimensional systems.This manuscript presents a review of the main achievements of this Action. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy...

  5. Calcium-doped ceria materials for anode of solid oxide fuel cells running on methane fuel

    Zhao, Kai; Du, Yanhai


    A calcium-doped ceria with nominal compositions of Ce1-xCaxO2-δ (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.30) has been developed as an anode component for solid oxide fuel cells running on methane fuel. Crystal phases of Ce1-xCaxO2-δ are investigated with respect to the amount of calcium dopant. The Ce1-xCaxO2-δ shows single fluorite phase when the calcium is within 15 mol.%, and higher calcium doping levels lead to the appearance of a secondary phase (CaO). Conductivities of Ce1-xCaxO2-δ ceramics are studied by a four-probe method in air and the composition of Ce0.9Ca0.1O2-δ (x = 0.10) is found exhibiting the highest conductivity among the samples investigated in this work. Electrocatalytic properties of Ce0.9Ca0.1O2-δ are evaluated based on Ni-Ce1-xCaxO2-δ anode supported single cell running on methane fuel. At 800 °C, the single cell with Ni-Ce0.9Ca0.1O2-δ (x = 0.10) anode exhibits an optimum maximum powder density (618 mW cm-2) and good performance stability during 30 h operation in methane fuel. The promising findings substantiate the good performance of Ni-Ce0.9Ca0.1O2-δ anode for electrochemical oxidation of methane fuel.

  6. Solid-state sodium batteries using polymer electrolytes and sodium intercalation electrode materials

    Ma, Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.


    Solid-state sodium cells using polymer electrolytes (polyethylene oxide mixed with sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate: PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) and sodium cobalt oxide positive electrodes are characterized in terms of discharge and charge characteristics, rate capability, cycle life, and energy and power densities. The P2 phase Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} can reversibly intercalate sodium in the range of x = 0.3 to 0.9, giving a theoretical specific energy of 440 Wh/kg and energy density of 1,600 Wh/l. Over one hundred cycles to 60% depth of discharge have been obtained at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Experiments show that the electrolyte/Na interface is stable and is not the limiting factor to cell cycle life. Na{sub 0.7}CoO{sub 2} composite electrodes containing various amounts of carbon black additive are investigated. The transport properties of polymer electrolytes are the critical factors for performance. These properties (the ionic conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient, and ion transference number) are measured for the PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} system over a wide range of concentrations at 85 C. All the three transport properties are very salt-concentration dependent. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum at about n = 20. The transference number, diffusion coefficient, and thermodynamic factor all vary with salt concentration in a similar fashion, decreasing as the concentration increases, except for a local maximum. These results verify that polymer electrolytes cannot be treated as ideal solutions. The measured transport-property values are used to analyze and optimize the electrolytes by computer simulation and also cell testing. Salt precipitation is believed to be the rate limiting process for cells using highly concentrated solutions, as a result of lower values of these properties, while salt depletion is the limiting factor when a dilute solution is used.

  7. Quasiparticle GW calculations for solids, molecules, and two-dimensional materials

    Hüser, Falco; Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    We present a plane-wave implementation of the GW approximation within the projector augmented wave method code GPAW. The computed band gaps of ten bulk semiconductors and insulators deviate on average by 0.2eV (~5%) from the experimental values, the only exception being ZnO where the calculated...... band gap is around 1eV too low. Similar relative deviations are found for the ionization potentials of a test set of 32 small molecules. The importance of substrate screening for a correct description of quasiparticle energies and Fermi velocities in supported two-dimensional (2D) materials...

  8. Copper-containing ceramic precursor synthesis: Solid-state transformations and materials technology

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Eckles, William E.; Duraj, Stan A.; Andras, Maria T.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Richman, Robert M.; Sabat, Michael L.; Power, Michael B.; Gordon, Edward M.; Barron, Andrew


    Three copper systems with relevance to materials technology are discussed. In the first, a CuS precursor, Cu4S1O (4-methylpyridine)(sub 4)- (4-MePy), was prepared by three routes: reaction of Cu2S, reaction of CuBr-SMe2, and oxidation of copper powder with excess sulfur in 4-methylpyridine by sulfur. In the second, copper powder was found to react with excess thiourea (H2NC(S)NH2) in 4-methylpyridine to produce thiocyanate (NCS(-)) complexes. Three isolated and characterized compounds are: Cu(NCS)(4-MePy)(sub 2), a polymer, (4-MePy-H)(Cu(NCS)(sub 3)(4-MePy)(sub 2)), a salt, and t-Cu(NCS)(sub 2)(4-MePy)(sub 4). Finally, an attempt to produce a mixed-metal sulfide precursor of Cu and Ga in N-methylimidazole (N-MeIm) resulted in the synthesis of a Cu-containing polymer, Cu(SO4)(N-MeIm). The structures are presented; the chemistry will be briefly discussed in the context of preparation and processing of copper-containing materials for aerospace applications.

  9. Effect of adding bulking materials over the composting process of municipal solid biowastes

    Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaña


    Full Text Available Biowastes (BW, the main raw materials for the composting installations in developing countries, are characterized for containing uncooked food wastes (FW, high moisture content, low porosity, acidic pH, and low C/N ratios which affects the overall composting process (CP. In this study, we evaluated the effect of adding sugarcane bagasse (SCB and star grass (SG (Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg. as bulking materials (BM over the quality of the substrate, progress of the process, and quality of the obtained product. In this sense, two pilot-scale experiments were performed. The first one contained a substrate formed by 78% BW and 22% SCB (pile A. The second experiment contained a substrate formed by 66% BW and 34% SG (pile B. For each experiment, control treatments (piles A' and B' respectively were performed by using 100% BW without BM. The results showed that in both cases the adding of BM improved substrate quality (pH, moisture, and total organic C content [TOC], speeding up the starting step (2-3 d and reducing the duration of the thermophilic phase of CP (3 d. However, the physico-chemical properties of both BM increased cooling and maturation phases duration (between 15 and 20 d. Obtained products quality was improved in terms of higher TOC, cation-exchange capacity, bulk density, and higher water holding capacity. Application of obtained products A and B could improve some soil properties like major nutrient, water retention, and increasing the organic matter.

  10. Solid state 1H NMR studies of cell wall materials of potatoes

    Tang, Huiru; Belton, Peter S.; Ng, Annie; Waldron, Keith W.; Ryden, Peter


    Cell wall materials from potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum) prepared by two different methods have been studied using NMR proton relaxation times. Spin lattice relaxation in both the rotating and laboratory frames as well as transverse relaxation have been measured over a range of temperatures and hydration levels. It was observed that the sample prepared using a DMSO extraction showed anomalous behaviour of spin lattice relaxation in the laboratory frame probably due to residual solvent in the sample. Spin lattice relaxation in the laboratory frame is the result of hydroxymethyl rotation and another unidentified high frequency motion. In the rotating frame relaxation is adequately explained by hydroxymethyl rotation alone. In neither experiment is methyl group rotation observed, calculation suggests that this is due to the low density of methyl groups in the sample. Non-freezing water in potato cell walls, α-cellulose and pectin was found about 0.2, 0.04 and 0.18 g per gram dry matter, indicating preferable hydration of pectin compared to cellulose. The effects of hydration are most noticeable in the measurements that reflect low frequency motions, particularly transverse relaxation, where both second moments and the relative intensity of signals arising from immobile material are reduced by hydration.

  11. Ionic liquids and their solid-state analogues as materials for energy generation and storage

    Macfarlane, Douglas R.; Forsyth, Maria; Howlett, Patrick C.; Kar, Mega; Passerini, Stefano; Pringle, Jennifer M.; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Yan, Feng; Zheng, Wenjun; Zhang, Shiguo; Zhang, Jie


    Salts that are liquid at room temperature, now commonly called ionic liquids, have been known for more than 100 years; however, their unique properties have only come to light in the past two decades. In this Review, we examine recent work in which the properties of ionic liquids have enabled important advances to be made in sustainable energy generation and storage. We discuss the use of ionic liquids as media for synthesis of electromaterials, for example, in the preparation of doped carbons, conducting polymers and intercalation electrode materials. Focusing on their intrinsic ionic conductivity, we examine recent reports of ionic liquids used as electrolytes in emerging high-energy-density and low-cost batteries, including Li-ion, Li-O2, Li-S, Na-ion and Al-ion batteries. Similar developments in electrolyte applications in dye-sensitized solar cells, thermo-electrochemical cells, double-layer capacitors and CO2 reduction are also discussed.

  12. Computational analysis of gas-solid interactions in materials for energy storage and conversion

    Lysgaard, Steen

    The extensive use of fossil fuels are harmful to the climate and the general standard of living due to global warming effects and pollution. Thus the rising energy needs in the World caused by an increase in both population and wealth especially in developing countries will have to be met...... by a renewable energy production. Sustainable energy sources such as solar or wind power are not constant and efficient methods firstly to convert electricity into chemical energy and secondly to store the high energy materials are needed. In this thesis both issues of conversion and storage are treated...... exchange and diffusion processes of water and ammonia in magnesium chloride hexammine and hexahydrate as a method for non-thermal release of ammonia. A mixed phase containing both water and ammonia have been shown to be stable in a small region around room temperature. It is possible to shift the release...

  13. A new solid particle erosion model for oriented fiber composite materials

    Valeriu DRAGAN


    Full Text Available The work describes a new model of erosion estimation equation which factors in both the impingement angle α and the fiber orientation angle β. Two examples of particular erosion equations are presented, for carbon fiber as well as for glass fiber in epoxidic matrix. Our methods are semi-empirical meaning that the general shape of the erosion equation is maintained while specific material coefficients must be determined for each of the matrix-fiber combination. As showed in the paper, the proposed model correlates well with the experimental data available in the literature. The work is significant since it provides a generalized method for estimating erosion rates for oriented fiber composites which can be further implemented in simulation software in a simple manner.

  14. Solid Silicone Elastomer Material(DC745U)-Historical Overview and New Experimental Results

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    DC745U is a silicone elastomer used in several weapon systems. DC745U is manufactured by Dow Corning and its formulation is proprietary. Risk changes without notification to the customer. {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} NMR have previously determined that DC745U contains {approx} 98.5% dimethyl siloxane, {approx}1.5% methyl-phenyl siloxane, and a small amount (<1%) of vinyl siloxane repeat units that are converted to crosslinking sites. The polymer is filled with {approx} 38 wt.% of a mixture of fumed silica and quartz. Some conclusions are: (1) DMA shows that crystallization does have an effect on the mechanical properties of DC745U; (2) DMA shows that the crystallization is time and temperature dependent; (3) Mechanical tests show that DC745U undergo a crystalline transition at temperatures below -50 C; (4) Rate and temperature does not have an effect above crystalline transition; (5) Crystalline transition occurs faster at colder temperatures; (6) The material remains responsive and recovers after warming it to temperature above -40 C; (7) We were able to review all previous historical data on DC745U; (8) Identified specific gaps in materials understanding; (9) Developed design of experiments and testing methods to address gaps associated with post-curing and low temperature mechanical behavior; (10) Resolved questions of post-cure and alleviated concerns associated with low temperature mechanical behavior with soak time and temperature; and (11) This work is relevant to mission-critical programs and for supporting programmatic work for weapon research.

  15. Solid phase immobilization of optically responsive liposomes insol-gel materials for chemical and biological sensing

    Yamanaka, Stacey A.; Charych, Deborah H.; Loy, Douglas A.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.


    Liposomes enhanced with surface recognition groups have previously been found to have high affinity for heavy metal ions and virus particles with unique fluorescent and colorimetric responses, respectively. These lipid aggregate systems have now been successfully immobilized in a silica matrix via the sol-gel method, affording sensor materials that are robust, are easily handled, and offer optical clarity. The mild processing conditions allow quantitative entrapment of preformed liposomes without modification of the aggregate structure. Lipid extraction studies of immobilized nonpolymerized liposomes showed no lipid leakage in aqueous solution over a period of 3 months. Heavy metal fluorescent sensor materials prepared with 5 percent N-[8-[1-octadecyl-2-(9-(1-pyrenyl)nonyl)-rac-glyceroyl]-3,6-dioxaoctyl]imino acid/distearylphosphatidylcholineliposomes exhibited a 4-50-fold enhancement in sensitivity to various metal ions compared to that of the liposomes in free solution. Through ionic attraction the anionic silicate surface, at the experimental pH of 7.4, may act as a preconcentrator of divalent metal ions, boosting the gel's internal metal concentration. Entrapped sialic acid-coated polydiacetylene liposomes responded with colorimetric signaling to influenza virus X31, although slower than the free liposomes in solution. The successful transport of the virus (50-100 nm diameter) reveals a large pore diameter of the gel connecting the liposome to the bulk solution. The porous and durable silica matrix additionally provides a protective barrier to biological attack (bacterial, fungal) and allows facile recycling of the liposome heavy metal sensor.

  16. Contact resistance of ceramic interfaces between materials used for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Koch, S.


    The contact resistance can be divided into two main contributions. The small area of contact between ceramic components results in resistance due to current constriction. Resistive phases or potential barriers at the interface result in an interface contribution to the contact resistance, which may be smaller or larger than the constriction resistance. The contact resistance between pairs of three different materials were analysed (strontium doped lanthanum manganite, yttria stabilised zirconia and strontium and nickel doped lanthanum cobaltite), and the effects of temperature, atmosphere, polarisation and mechanical load on the contact resistance were investigated. The investigations revealed that the mechanical load of a ceramic contact has a high influence on the contact resistance, and generally power law dependence between the contact resistance and the mechanical load was found. The influence of the mechanical load on the contact resistance was ascribed to an area effect. The contact resistance of the investigated materials was dominated by current constriction at high temperatures. The measured contact resistance was comparable to the resistance calculated on basis of the contact areas found by optical and electron microscopy. At low temperatures, the interface contribution to the contact resistance was dominating. The cobaltite interface could be described by one potential barrier at the contact interface, whereas the manganite interfaces required several consecutive potential barriers to model the observed behaviour. The current-voltage behaviour of the YSZ contact interfaces was only weakly non-linear, and could be described by 22{+-}1 barriers in series. Contact interfaces with sinterable contact layers were also investigated, and the measured contact resistance for these interfaces were more than 10 times less than for the other interfaces. (au)


    Bruce R. Lanning; James Arps; Ronghua Wei; Goeff Dearnaley


    Interconnects are a critical element of an SOFC assembly and although much work has focused on chromium and chromium-iron alloys containing an oxide that is both oxidation resistant and electrically conductive, the thermal instability of typical native metal oxides allow interdiffusion of cations across the interconnect-electrode boundary that ultimately leads to degradation of SOFC performance. Phase I of the SECA Core Technology Program has been a one-year effort to investigate and evaluate the feasibility of: (1) Ion implanting an alumina-scale forming ferritic steel, such as FeCrAlY, to form an interconnect material with low resistance (< 0.1 {Omega}/cm{sup 2}) in oxidizing/reducing environments up to 800 C, and (2) Maintaining the above low resistance metric for an extended time (> 1000 hours at 800 C) in contact with an LSF cathode material. We confirmed, as part of our oxidation kinetics evaluation of FeCrAlY and 430 ferritic steel, the parabolic growth of a mixed chromia/alumina scale on FeCrAlY and a single chromia layer in the case of the 430 stainless steel; the outer contiguous layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, in the case of FeCrAlY, forming a stable, self-limiting, protective scale with no detectable cation interdiffusion between FeCrAlY and an LSF electrode even after 1000 hours at 800 C in air. To render the alumina scale conductive, we implanted either titanium or niobium ions into FeCrAlY scales to a fixed depth (0.12 {micro}m), varying only the thickness of the oxide. ASR for an un-doped FeCrAlY oxide scale (i.e., alumina) was more than an order of magnitude greater than the 430 control sample whereas, the ASR for the doped FeCrAlY oxide scale sample was comparable to the 430 control sample; hence, the resistance of a doped alumina scale on FeCrAlY was equal to the resistance of a chromia-scale forming alloy, such as 430 (chromia scales of which are typically < 0.1 {Omega}-cm). Along with the ASR measurements, AC impedance measurements were conducted

  18. Characterization of material properties of soft solid thin layers with acoustic radiation force and wave propagation.

    Urban, Matthew W; Nenadic, Ivan Z; Qiang, Bo; Bernal, Miguel; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F


    Evaluation of tissue engineering constructs is performed by a series of different tests. In many cases it is important to match the mechanical properties of these constructs to those of native tissues. However, many mechanical testing methods are destructive in nature which increases cost for evaluation because of the need for additional samples reserved for these assessments. A wave propagation method is proposed for characterizing the shear elasticity of thin layers bounded by a rigid substrate and fluid-loading, similar to the configuration for many tissue engineering applications. An analytic wave propagation model was derived for this configuration and compared against finite element model simulations and numerical solutions from the software package Disperse. The results from the different models found very good agreement. Experiments were performed in tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms with thicknesses of 1 and 4 mm and found that the wave propagation method could resolve the shear modulus with very good accuracy, no more than 4.10% error. This method could be used in tissue engineering applications to monitor tissue engineering construct maturation with a nondestructive wave propagation method to evaluate the shear modulus of a material.

  19. Inelastic electron-solid interactions for the processing and characterization of soft materials

    Faney, Thibault

    Magnetic confinement fusion is a promising technology for electricity production due to available fuel and low waste products. However, the construction of a nuclear fusion reactor remains a scientific challenge. One of the main issues is the resistance of the plasma facing materials exposed to very harsh operating conditions. Tungsten is the leading candidate for the divertor, a crucial plasma facing component. This dissertation focuses on modeling the behavior of tungsten under irradiation conditions relevant to the divertor operations using a multi-scale modeling approach. In particular, high fluxes of helium ions at low energy impact the divertor and are responsible for changes in the tungsten microstructure such as the formation of helium blisters and ''fuzz"-like structures which can ultimately lead to erosion, degradation of materials performance and materials failure. A spatially dependent cluster dynamics model is introduced in order to model the evolution of the tungsten microstructure under irradiation. This continuum model is based on kinetic rate theory and handles each material defect type independently. Under the assumptions of a low dilute limit and no spatial correlation between defects, this leads to a large system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. Hence, the results addressed in this thesis consist in the determination of the kinetic parameters for the cluster dynamics model, the construction of a solver which efficiently deals with the large non-linear system of partial differential equations, the determination of the applicability of the model to fusion relevant conditions, and the model results for a variety of irradiation conditions. The input kinetic parameters to the cluster dynamics model are the defects' diffusion coefficients, binding energies and capture radii. These can be determined using a molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations as well as empirical data. The challenge lies in obtaining a consistent set

  20. Material growth and characterization for solid state devices. Report, 1 June 1985-31 December 1986

    Collis, W.J.; Abul-Fadl, A.; Iyer, S.


    During this period InGaAs and InGaAsP were grown on (100)InP by liquid phase electroepitaxy (LPEE). Results of the epitaxial growth of InGaAs on sputtered quartz masked substrates are presented. The resulting surface morphology can be related to the current density distribution near the edges of a masked pattern. The quaternary InGaAs was grown with compositions corresponding to 1.3 micron and 1.5 micron emission wavelengths. Growth rates were found to be linearly dependent upon current density, and a strong dependence upon composition was noted. These compositions lie in the miscibility gap region of the alloy phase diagram at the 645 C growth temperature. Growths were performed at 685 C to avoid the miscibility gap. Epilayers were characterized by photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Hall effect measurements. Aluminum oxide was deposited on silicon and InGaAs substrates for the characterization of this material as an insulator in a field effect transistor structure. It was determined that the results did not warrant further work with the deposition from an aluminum isopropoxide source. A metallographic vapor phase epitaxy system installation is nearing completion for use in hybrid III-V semiconductor epilayer growths.

  1. Finite element analysis of ion transport in solid state nuclear waste form materials

    Rabbi, F.; Brinkman, K.; Amoroso, J.; Reifsnider, K.


    Release of nuclear species from spent fuel ceramic waste form storage depends on the individual constituent properties as well as their internal morphology, heterogeneity and boundary conditions. Predicting the release rate is essential for designing a ceramic waste form, which is capable of effectively storing the spent fuel without contaminating the surrounding environment for a longer period of time. To predict the release rate, in the present work a conformal finite element model is developed based on the Nernst Planck Equation. The equation describes charged species transport through different media by convection, diffusion, or migration. And the transport can be driven by chemical/electrical potentials or velocity fields. The model calculates species flux in the waste form with different diffusion coefficient for each species in each constituent phase. In the work reported, a 2D approach is taken to investigate the contributions of different basic parameters in a waste form design, i.e., volume fraction, phase dispersion, phase surface area variation, phase diffusion co-efficient, boundary concentration etc. The analytical approach with preliminary results is discussed. The method is postulated to be a foundation for conformal analysis based design of heterogeneous waste form materials.

  2. Dual Functional TiO2-Au Nanocomposite Material for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Pandikumar, A; Suresh, S; Murugesan, S; Ramaraj, R


    Titanium dioxide-gold nanocomposite ((TiO2-Au)(nps)) materials dispersed in poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) polymer electrolyte are employed as solid-state electrolytes in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) containing nanocrystalline TiO2 nanoparticle (P25) or (P25-Au)(nps) thin film photoanode adsorbed with a near-IR dye sensitizer, nickel-phthalocyanine (NiPcTs). The photocurrent-photovoltage characteristics of the DSSCs are evaluated under standard AM 1.5 G simulated solar irradiation of 100 mW/cm2. The (TiO2-Au)(nps) nanocomposite material incorporated into the PDDA polymer electrolyte promotes interfacial charge transfer process, reduces crystallinity of the polymer electrolyte and enhances mobility of the /-/I3- redox couple, which are resulted in -6-fold increase in the overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency when compared to the unmodified polymer electrolyte based DSSC. When the P25 photoanode is replaced with the (P25-Au)(nps) photoanode, a further 8-fold increase in the overall energy conversion efficiency is achieved, owing to the increas in the charge transport through the photoanode. The photovoltaic performance of the present DSSC configuration is also compared with that of a cell sensitized by using standard N719 dye.

  3. Synthesis strategies for improving the performance of doped-BaZrO 3 materials in solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Bi, Lei


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer an efficient energy conversion technology for alleviating current energy problems. High temperature proton-conducting (HTPC) oxides are promising electrolytes for this technology, since their activation energy is lower than that of conventional oxygen-ion conductors, enabling the operating temperature reduction at 600 °C. Among HTPC oxides, doped BaZrO3 materials possess high chemical stability, needed for practical applications. Though, poor sinterability and the resulting large volume of highly resistive grain boundaries hindered their deployment for many years. Nonetheless, the recently demonstrated high proton conductivity of the bulk revived the attention on doped BaZrO3, stimulating research on solving the sintering issues. The proper selection of dopants and sintering aids was demonstrated to be successful for improving the BaZrO3 electrolyte sinterability. We here briefly review the synthesis strategies proposed for preparing BaZrO3-based nanostructured powders for electrolyte and electrodes, with the aim to improve the SOFC performance. © Materials Research Society 2013.

  4. Direct Numerical Simulations in Solid Mechanics for Quantifying the Macroscale Effects of Microstructure and Material Model-Form Error

    Bishop, Joseph E.; Emery, John M.; Battaile, Corbett C.; Littlewood, David J.; Baines, Andrew J.


    Two fundamental approximations in macroscale solid-mechanics modeling are (1) the assumption of scale separation in homogenization theory and (2) the use of a macroscopic plasticity material model that represents, in a mean sense, the multitude of inelastic processes occurring at the microscale. With the goal of quantifying the errors induced by these approximations on engineering quantities of interest, we perform a set of direct numerical simulations (DNS) in which polycrystalline microstructures are embedded throughout a macroscale structure. The largest simulations model over 50,000 grains. The microstructure is idealized using a randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellation in which each polyhedral Voronoi cell represents a grain. An face centered cubic crystal-plasticity model is used to model the mechanical response of each grain. The overall grain structure is equiaxed, and each grain is randomly oriented with no overall texture. The detailed results from the DNS simulations are compared to results obtained from conventional macroscale simulations that use homogeneous isotropic plasticity models. The macroscale plasticity models are calibrated using a representative volume element of the idealized microstructure. Ultimately, we envision that DNS modeling will be used to gain new insights into the mechanics of material deformation and failure.

  5. Recycling of agroindustrial solid wastes as additives in brick manufacturing for development of sustainable construction materials

    Lisset Maritza Luna-Cañas


    Full Text Available La acumulación de residuos sólidos agroindustriales no administ rados especialmente en los países en vías de desarrollo ha dado lugar a una creciente preocupación ambiental. El reciclaje de tales res iduos como un material de construcción sostenible parece ser un a solución viable no sólo al problema de la contaminación, sino también un a opción económica para diseñar edificios verdes. El presente t rabajo estudia la aplicación de varios residuos agroindustriales en la fabricación de ladrillos, que incluyen cáscara de cacao, aserr ín, cáscara de arroz y caña de azúcar. En primer lugar, se determinó la compos ición mineralógica y química de los residuos y del suelo arcill oso. A continuación, los ladrillos se fabricaron con diferentes cantid ades de residuos (5%, 10% y 20%. El efecto de la adición de es tos residuos en el comportamiento tecnológico del ladrillo se evaluó mediant e ensayos de resistencia a la compresión, resistencia a la flex ión y durabilidad. Con base en los resultados obtenidos, las cantidad es óptimas de residuos agroindustriales para obtener ladrillos fueron mezclando 10% de cáscara de cacao y 90% de suelo arcilloso. Est os porcentajes producen ladrillos cuyas propiedades mecánicas e ran adecuadas para su uso como materias primas secundarias en la pr oducción de ladrillos.

  6. Assessing and monitoring the effects of filter material amendments on the biophysicochemical properties during composting of solid winery waste under open field and varying climatic conditions.

    Mtimkulu, Y; Meyer, A H; Mulidzi, A R; Shange, P L; Nchu, F


    Waste management in winery and distillery industries faces numerous disposal challenges as large volumes of both liquid and solid waste by-products are generated yearly during cellar practices. Composting has been suggested as a feasible option to beneficiate solid organic waste. This incentivized the quest for efficient composting protocols to be put in place. The objective of this study was to experiment with different composting strategies for spent winery solid waste. Compost materials consisting of chopped pruning grape stalks, skins, seed and spent wine filter material consisting of a mixture of organic and inorganic expend ingredients were mixed in compost heaps. The filter material component varied (in percentage) among five treatments: T1 (40%) lined, T2 (20%) lined, T3 (0%) lined, T4 (40%) ground material, lined and T5 (40%) unlined. Composting was allowed to proceed under open field conditions over 12months, from autumn to summer. Indicators such as temperature, moisture, enzyme activities, microbial counts, pH, and C/N ratio, were recorded. Generally, season (df=3, 16, Pmaterials (T1, T4 and T5) had higher N (16,100-21,300mg/kg), P (1500-2300mg/kg), K (19,800-28,200mg/kg), neutral pH, and lower C/N ratios (13:1-10:1), which were also comparable with commercially produced composts. Filter materials therefore, appears to be a vital ingredient for composting of winery solid waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. BACE0.85Y0.15O3-DELTA Based Materials for Inovative Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Krezhov, Kiril; Vladikova, Daria


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a promising green technology of direct conversion of chemical energy of fuel into electricity. Among the families of metal oxides, which can be successfully used as electrodes (cathodes or anodes) in SOFC, certain members of the large family of transition-metal oxides with perovskite structure ABO _{3} were found very prospective to fulfil most of the features required for preparation of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) oxide materials for SOFCs operated in the intermediate temperature range. In this regard Barium cerate with Y-substitution at the B-site (Ce site) is well known for excellent conduction capabilities in the temperature range 400-800 °C as a result from the proton motion in the crystal lattice. Doping with Y ^{3+} is very effective and the proton conductivity in BaCe _{1-x}Y _{x}O _{3-δ} increases with the increasing of the dopant concentration up to x =0.2. However, the phase behaviour of the composition BCY20 (x=0.20) is very complicated. Even at room temperature the crystalline structure remains contradictory because various structures of monoclinic, rhombohedral and orthorhombic symmetry are reported. The characterization of the chemical composition and stability, oxygen stoichiometry and cationic ratios of each synthesized phase is of great importance to understand the defect-chemistry that would govern the transport properties. We report on oxygen-deficient BaCe _{0.85}Y _{0.15}O _{3-δ} (BCY15) perovskites prepared by auto-combustion with following calcination at high temperature. The structural details of powder, dense and porous samples of materials based on BCY15 were investigated from full profile analysis of neutron and x-ray diffraction patterns. The materials were used recently as cathode, anode and central membrane in an innovative monolithic design of SOFC.

  8. Discovery and application of peptides that bind to proteins and solid state inorganic materials

    Stearns, Linda A.

    A series of three projects was undertaken on the theme of peptide-based molecular recognition. In the first project, a messenger RNA (mRNA) display selection was carried out against the II-VI semiconductors zinc sulfide (ZnS), zinc selenide (ZnSe), and cadmium sulfide (CdS). Sequence analysis of 18-mer semiconductor-binding peptides (SBPs) following four rounds of selection indicated that the amino acid sequences were enriched in polar residues compared to the naive library, suggesting that hydrogen-bonding interactions are a dominant mode of interaction between the SBPs and their cognate inorganic surfaces. Select peptides were expressed as fusions of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to visualize their recognition of semiconductor crystals. Interpretation of the results was complicated by a high fluorescence background that was observed with certain control GFP fusions. Additional experiments, including cross-specificity binding assays, are needed to characterize the peptides that were isolated in this selection. A second project described the practical application of a known inorganic-binding and nucleating peptide. Peptide A3, which was previously isolated by phage display, was chemically conjugated to a short DNA strand using the heterobifunctional linker succinimidyl 4-[N-maleimidomethyl]cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC). The resulting peptide-DNA conjugate was hybridized to ten complementary single-stranded capture probes extending outward from the surface of an origami DNA nanotube. A gold precursor solution was added to initiate nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles at the site of the peptide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to visualize the gold nanoparticle-decorated nanostructures. This approach holds immense promise for organizing compositionally-diverse materials at the nanoscale. In a third project, a novel non-iterative approach to mRNA display called covalent capture was demonstrated. Using human transferrin as a target

  9. Coupled fluid and solid mechanics study for improved permeability estimation of fines' invaded porous materials

    Mirabolghasemi, M.; Prodanovic, M.


    destruction of particle bridges. Finally, depending on the material and fluids that penetrate into the porous medium, the ionic forces might play a significant role in the filtration process. We thus also report on influence of particle attachment (and detachment) on the type of clogging mechanisms. Pore scale simulations allow for visualization and understanding of fundamental processes, and, further, the velocity fields are integrated into a distinctly non-monotonic permeability-porosity/(depth of penetration) relationship.

  10. Effects of breeder age and pre-incubation storage of eggs on ...


    hatched chicks was influenced by the storage period x breeder age ... liver weight as a percentage of live weight was higher when eggs obtained from 10 ... and it remains unclear how these storage conditions affect water vapour loss during.

  11. The Case Against the Fast Breeder Reactor: An Anti-Nuclear Establishment View.

    Lovins, Amory B.


    Environmentalists lobby points out that hazards which may result from mistakes in proposed fast breeder reactor for additional energy can be detrimental for mankind. Such projects must be carefully planned and cautiously executed. (PS)

  12. Slow and stunted: Plutonium accounting and the growth of fast breeder reactors in India

    Ramana, M.V. [Program in Science, Technology and Environmental Policy and Program on Science and Global Security, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542 (United States); Suchitra, J.Y. [Independent Researcher, 303, Meenakshi Apartments, 45 Ranga Rao Road, Shankarapuram, Bangalore 560004 (India)


    The Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has projected a large growth of nuclear power in the country predominantly based on breeder reactors. These projections use a simplistic methodology that does not carefully account for the availability of plutonium that is required to fuel breeder reactors. In this paper, we demonstrate that this methodology is problematic, in particular that it would result in negative balances of plutonium if the DAE's projections were to come true. The DAE's projections also ignore constraints coming from reprocessing capacity in the country. As an alternative, we project the possible growth of nuclear power based on breeder reactors using a methodology consistent with plutonium constraints. The resulting breeder reactor capacity will be only between 17% and 40% of the DAE's projections, and will likely never constitute a major source of electricity in India for several decades at the very least. (author)

  13. Capillariosis in breeder discus (Symphysodon aequifasciatus in Iran

    Rahmati-Holasoo Hooman


    Full Text Available The global ornamental fish trade is a rapidly growing industry. Cultivation and propagation of ornamental fishes have been increasing in the last 20 years in Iran. Discus (Symphysodon aequifasciatus from Cichlidae is one of the most popular and expensive aquarium fish. In the past few years farming of this fish has been well developed in Iran. Two breeder discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciatus from two different propagation centres (with high mortality with signs of anorexia, loss of balance, moribundity and darkness in skin colour were referred to Laboratory of Aquatic Diseases of Veterinary Faculty, University of Tehran. After the survey of ectoparasites, necropsy was performed under aseptic conditions; bacterial culture on standard media was done and the alimentary canal was extruded. In both fish no ectoparasite was detected and no bacteria from these cases grew on the standard media. In internal survey 5 and 25 nematodes were detected in each fish. A high number of free eggs were observed in intestine of fish. Regarding morphological characteristics of the nematodes and their eggs, they were identified as Capillaria sp. Treatment of other fish with levamisole was effective and the loss was terminated. Some helminthes like Capillaria pterophylli Heinze, 1933, can cause a high mortality in cichlid aquarium fishes. This study showed that infection with some species of Capillaria could cause a heavy loss in ornamental fish from Cichlidae. Diagnosis of parasites of these fishes can help us to prevent high mortalities.

  14. Bacterial orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders.

    Monleon, Rafael; Martin, Michael P; John Barnes, H


    Two cases of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders are described. The first case occurred in a 62-week-old rooster showing signs of breeding inactivity. Grossly, the left testis was abnormally shaped and had multiple yellow foci, prominent blood vessels, and a gelatinous mass on the surface. The right testis and other tissues appeared normal. A pure, heavy growth of Staphylococcus aureus was obtained on bacterial culture, and intralesional Gram-positive cocci were numerous on histopathology. The second case occurred in a 28-week-old rooster that was found dead. Both testes were abnormally shaped, swollen, firm, and had irregular, dark, depressed areas, prominent vessels, and multiple petechial haemorrhages. Epididymides were enlarged and nodular. Other lesions in this rooster included poor nutritional condition, distended cloaca, and urate scalding of the abdominal skin below the vent. Microscopically, there was extensive, severe heterophilic intratubular orchitis and epididymitis with intralesional Gram-negative bacteria. A heavy, pure growth of Escherichia coli was obtained from the testes and epididymides. In both cases, the findings suggested that the most probable route of infection was ascending via the ductus deferens.

  15. Risk-assessment methodology for fast breeder reactors

    Ott, K. O.


    The methods applied or proposed for risk assessment of nuclear reactors are reviewed, particularly with respect to their applicability for risk assessment of future commercial fast breeder reactors. All methods are based on the calculation of accident consequences for relatively few accident scenarios. The role and general impact of uncertainties in fast-reactor accident analysis are discussed. The discussion shows the need for improvement of the methodology. A generalized and improved risk-assessment methodology is outlined and proposed (accident-spectra-progression approach). The generalization consists primarily of an explicit treatment of uncertainties throughout the accident progression. The results of this method are obtained in form of consequence distributions. The width and shape of the distributions depend in part on the superposition of the uncertainties. The first moment of the consequence distribution gives an improved prediction of the ''average'' consequence. The higher-consequence moments can be used for consideration of risk aversion. The assessment of the risk of one or a certain number of nuclear reactors can only provide an ''isolated'' risk assessment. The general problem of safety risk assessment and its relation to public acceptance of certain modes of power production is a much broader problem area, which is also discussed.

  16. Organotin materials and their solid state properties, and, The utility of NADA in the synthesis of a new metallate synthon

    Munguia, Teresita

    A series of novel bioactive organometallic materials of the type (o-EMeC 6H4)CH2MR3-nCln were synthesized to form: (1) M = Si, (2) M = Ge, (3) M = Sn, (4) M = Pb [E = S, R = Ph, n = 0], (5) n = 1, (6) n = 2 [M = Sn, R = Ph], (7) n = 0, (8) n = 1 [M = Sn, R = p-(t-BuPh)], (9) n = 0, (10) n = 1, (11) n = 2 [E = O, R = Ph]. Their crystal and molecular structures have been determined and characterized by solution NMR and X-ray crystallography. To further illustrate intramolecular interactions and to understand molecular motions in the solid state of these materials, solid-state 119Sn CPMAS NMR was performed on compounds 3-11 and compared to 119Sn solution state chemical shifts. Analysis shows that the tin atom approaches a pseudo-trigonal bipyramidal pentacoordination as a consequence of intramolecular Sn-S (3, 5-8) and Sn-O (9-11) interactions. The intramolecular Sn-S distances range from 3.699 A and 3.829 A in 3 (88% and 91.2% vdW radii), 3.062 A in 5 (73% vdW radii) and 2.994 A in 6 (71% vdW radii) whereas the Sn-O distances in 9, 10 and 11 are 3.07 A (82.9% the sum of the van der Waal radii), 2.76 A (74.5% vdW radii) and 2.92 A (78.9% vdW radii), respectively. The geometry of compound 11 is additionally complicated by an intermolecular interaction of 3.488 A between Sn in one molecule and Cl in a neighboring molecule creating a distorted octahedral geometry. Furthermore, the utility of CPMAS 119Sn NMR is again illustrated as a second crystal form of 3, 3', which is monoclinic, with one molecule in the unit cell, and a Sn-S distance of 3.973 A (94.6% vdW radii) was discovered.

  17. Digestible Threonine Levels in the Starter Diet of Broilers Derived from Breeders of Different Ages

    CBGS Tanure


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.

  18. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis and intrauterine infections in repeat breeder cows.

    Pothmann, H; Prunner, I; Wagener, K; Jaureguiberry, M; de la Sota, R L; Erber, R; Aurich, C; Ehling-Schulz, M; Drillich, M


    The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and the presence of common uterine pathogens in repeat breeder cows. A total of 121 cows with three or more consecutive artificial inseminations without conception and no clinical signs of disease were defined as repeat breeder cows and were enrolled in this trial. Intrauterine samples were collected with the cytobrush technique to determine the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and bacteriologic infections. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma to assess ovarian activity. Furthermore, breed, parity, history of calving and postpartum uterine infection, clinical findings of transrectal palpation, and backfat thickness were analyzed as potential factors for the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows was 12.7%; but common uterine pathogens, Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, were found in only one and three cows, respectively. Ovarian activity was determined in 95.0% of all cows. Recorded variables had no effect on the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. In conclusion, subclinical endometritis and uterine infections linked to common pathogens were playing a minor role as a cause for repeat breeder cows in this study. Alternative reasons for failure to conceive in these cows are discussed.

  19. Egg traits and physiological neonatal chick parameters from broiler breeder at different ages

    BC Luquetti


    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out to study egg traits (weight, specific gravity and eggshell thickness, and neonatal chick parameters (weight, blood, cardiac and lung parameters from breeder at different ages. After hatching, neonatal chicks, male and female, from broiler breeder at three different ages (30, 45 and 60 weeks were sacrificed and blood (red blood cell number, hematocrit, mean cell volume, blood viscosity, and haemoglobin, cardiac (right ventricle and total ventricle weights, cardiac index and lung (mean pulmonary pressure, fresh relative lung weight parameters were measured. No significant differences in eggshell thickness or specific gravity were observed in eggs from the three different breeder age. The incubated eggs and neonatal chicks showed heavier absolute weights with increasing breeder age. Broiler breeder age did not affect blood parameters or cardiac index, but affected right ventricle and total ventricle absolute weights. Red blood cell number and hematocrit were higher and lung weight and lung weight:chick weight index were lower for female neonatal chicks. The findings of this study revealed that breeder age affects neonatal chick parameters such as body weight, heart and lung absolute weights, but not blood parameters.

  20. Selective breeding of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses in Algeria: perceptions, objectives and practices of owners-breeders

    Safia Tennah


    Full Text Available This survey, conducted with 461 racehorse owners-breeders in Algeria between 2009 and 2011, investigates their perceptions, objectives and practices regarding selective breeding. Racehorse breeding is a full-time professional activity for a third of interviewees. The holdings are small-sized with 77% owning one or two mares. The regular practice of mating is here used to categorize breeders according to their degree of professionalization (38.4% professional vs. 61.6% occasional breeders. Experience in the sector was also used to classify breeders, considering as "junior" the breeders under 10 years experience (38.8% and as "senior" those above 10 years (61.2%. More than professionalization, experience shows a significant impact on practices and objectives. Thus, experience influences breed choice (junior breeders tend to specialize while senior own both Arabian and Thoroughbreds, age at first foaling (sooner among senior breeders, information sources considered for selecting stallions (senior use more diversified sources, the importance granted to the price of mating (greater for junior breeders, the importance granted to the ranking compared to earnings (the ranking being more important to junior breeders, and the priority given to breeding (junior breeders give higher priority to a buy-race-resell activity. Finally, racehorse breeding is poorly professionalized, the only financial goal being cost coverage. Despite inappropriate practices, an interest for selection is noticed.

  1. Materials space of solid-state electrolytes: unraveling chemical composition-structure-ionic conductivity relationships in garnet-type metal oxides using cheminformatics virtual screening approaches.

    Kireeva, Natalia; Pervov, Vladislav S


    The organic electrolytes of most current commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LiBs) are flammable, toxic, and have limited electrochemical energy windows. All-solid-state battery technology promises improved safety, cycling performance, electrochemical stability, and possibility of device miniaturization and enables a number of breakthrough technologies towards the development of new high power and energy density microbatteries for electronics with low processing cost, solid oxide fuel cells, electrochromic devices, etc. Currently, rational materials design is attracting significant attention, which has resulted in a strong demand for methodologies that can accelerate the design of materials with tailored properties; cheminformatics can be considered as an efficient tool in this respect. This study was focused on several aspects: (i) identification of the parameters responsible for high Li-ion conductivity in garnet structured oxides; (ii) development of quantitative models to elucidate composition-structure-Li ionic conductivity relationships, taking into account the experimental details of sample preparation; (iii) circumscription of the materials space of solid garnet-type electrolytes, which is attractive for virtual screening. Several candidate compounds have been recommended for synthesis as potential solid state electrolyte materials.

  2. On the Defect Chemistry, Electrical Properties and Electrochemical Performances As Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials of New La-(Sr/Vac)-Co-Ti-O Perovskites

    García-Alvarado, Flaviano; Gómez-Pérez, Alejandro; Pérez-Flores, Juan Carlos


    Perovskite-type oxides are well known materials that have been proposed as electrodes and electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The structure, which is referred to the ABO3 stoichiometry, can accommodate many different transition metal ions in the B-site; its electronic conductivity wi...

  3. The materials and elements production practice of counter-erosional and thermal protection system of the SPR-solid-propellant sustainer nozzle

    Shkurenko, V. M.


    This paper presents the production scheme for heat- and erosion-protective carbon plastic materials for heat shield elements of solid-propellant nozzles. Attention is also given the method of manufacturing adhesive joint assemblies, and the production scheme is included.

  4. Synthesis and characterization by solid-state impedance spectroscopy of semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4 material for photovoltaic technologies

    Muñoz, M.; Vera-López, E.; Gómez-Cuaspud, J. A.; Pineda-Triana, Y.


    Current work is focused on the synthesis and characterization of a Cu2ZnSnS4 material (Abbreviated CZTS), identified as a potential candidate for the manufacture of photovoltaic cells. The material was obtained by means of a hydrothermal route which permits a simple and economical alternative to synthesize advanced materials for photovoltaic applications. The synthesis of a solid started from corresponding metal nitrates of Cu(NO3)2.6H2O, Zn(NO3)2, Sn(NO3)4.6H2O and thiourea as S source, which were dissolved in deionized water until complete a 1.0mol L-1 concentration. The solution was kept in a Teflon lined steel vessel with magnetic stirring (150 rpm) and treated at 300°C for 12 hours to form the crystalline phase. The initial characterization of solid was done using UV spectroscopy to validate the chemical process and identify the corresponding Band-gap around (1.43eV). The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction, confirmed the presence of nanometric solids (140-260nm). The morphological characterization by SEM analysis evidenced a homogeneous material in the form of micrometric aggregates, by a related synthesis method. Finally, the electrical characterization by means of solid state impedance spectroscopy demonstrated a semiconductor behaviour which evidenced the transport phenomena associated with a Warburg resistance.

  5. Evaluation of plastic materials for range shifting, range compensation, and solid-phantom dosimetry in carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Koba, Yusuke; Ogata, Risa [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)


    Purpose: Beam range control is the essence of radiotherapy with heavy charged particles. In conventional broad-beam delivery, fine range adjustment is achieved by insertion of range shifting and compensating materials. In dosimetry, solid phantoms are often used for convenience. These materials should ideally be equivalent to water. In this study, the authors evaluated dosimetric water equivalence of four common plastics, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyoxymethylene (POM). Methods: Using the Bethe formula for energy loss, the Gottschalk formula for multiple scattering, and the Sihver formula for nuclear interactions, the authors calculated the effective densities of the plastics for these interactions. The authors experimentally measured variation of the Bragg peak of carbon-ion beams by insertion of HDPE, PMMA, and POM, which were compared with analytical model calculations. Results: The theoretical calculation resulted in slightly reduced multiple scattering and severely increased nuclear interactions for HDPE, compared to water and the other plastics. The increase in attenuation of carbon ions for 20-cm range shift was experimentally measured to be 8.9% for HDPE, 2.5% for PMMA, and 0.0% for POM while PET was theoretically estimated to be in between PMMA and POM. The agreement between the measurements and the calculations was about 1% or better. Conclusions: For carbon-ion beams, POM was dosimetrically indistinguishable from water and the best of the plastics examined in this study. The poorest was HDPE, which would reduce the Bragg peak by 0.45% per cm range shift, although with marginal superiority for reduced multiple scattering. Between the two clear plastics, PET would be superior to PMMA in dosimetric water equivalence.

  6. Pr4Ni3O10+δ: A new promising oxygen electrode material for solid oxide fuel cells

    Vibhu, Vaibhav; Rougier, Aline; Nicollet, Clément; Flura, Aurélien; Fourcade, Sébastien; Penin, Nicolas; Grenier, Jean-Claude; Bassat, Jean-Marc


    The present work is focused on the study of Pr4Ni3O10+δ as a new cathode material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs). The structural study leads to an indexation in orthorhombic structure with Fmmm space group, this structure being thermally stable throughout the temperature range up to 1000 °C under air and oxygen. The variation of oxygen content (10+δ) as a function of temperature under different atmospheres show that Pr4Ni3O10+δ is always oxygen over-stoichiometric, which further suggests its MIEC properties. The polarization resistance (Rp) of Pr4Ni3O10+δ electrode is measured for GDC/co-sintered and two-step sintered half cells. The Rp for co-sintered sample is found to be 0.16 Ω cm2 at 600 °C under air, which is as low as the one of highest performing Pr2NiO4+δ nickelate (Rp = 0.15 Ω cm2 at 600 °C). Moreover, an anode supported (Ni-YSZ//YSZ) single cell including GDC//Pr4Ni3O10+δ co-sintered electrode shows a maximum power density of 1.60 W cm-2 at 800 °C and 0.68 W cm-2 at 700 °C. Here, the work is emphasized on the very close electrochemical performance of Pr4Ni3O10+δ compared to the one of Pr2NiO4+δ with higher chemical stability, which gives great interests to consider this material as a very interesting oxygen-electrode for SOFCs.

  7. On the theory for the arrest of an advancing molten contact line on a cold solid of the same material

    Schiaffino, Stefano; Sonin, Ain A.


    We show that a conventional continuum formulation of the equations and boundary conditions for the spreading of a pure molten material over a cold, solid substrate of its own kind has no meaningful solution for the angle of attack θs of the fusion front at the contact line, which is the quantity that determines contact-line arrest. θs is determined by the heat flux just behind the contact line, and the heat flux in the mathematical model is singular at the contact line. The scale of the physical mechanism which limits the heat flux at the contact line and removes the singularity is estimated by computing the point where the continuum model must be cut off in order to bring it into agreement with the experimental data for a microcrystalline wax. The cutoff scale is in the range 0.1-1 μm, that is, much larger than molecular dimensions, but of order 10-2-10-1 times the convective thermal length scale α/U.

  8. Photothermal Mirror Method for the Study of Thermal Diffusivity and Thermo-Elastic Properties of Opaque Solid Materials

    Marcano, Aristides; Gwanmesia, Gabriel; Workie, Bizenuh


    We have carried out the theoretical and experimental time evolution and amplitude study of the photothermal mirror signal generated by focusing a laser beam on the surface of a suite of solid samples. Based on a theoretical model that resolves the thermal diffusivity equation and the equation for thermo-elastic deformations simultaneously, we have calculated the transient time evolution and amplitude of the signal. We observe the same time evolution pattern for samples as diverse as glass, quartz, metals, and synthetic ceramic oxides. The data have yielded a linear dependence between the time build-up of the thermal mirror and the inverse of the thermal diffusivity for all the samples. For moderate power levels, we also observe a linear behavior between the stationary value of the signal and the thermally induced phase shift value. From the calibration curves, we have determined the thermally induced phase and the thermal diffusivity coefficients of two prospective nuclear reactor control rod materials, dysprosium titanate (Dy2TiO5) and dysprosium dititanate (Dy2Ti2O7) to be D = (7.0 ± 0.4) × 10^{-7} m^{2\\cdot s^{-1}}.

  9. Cobalt based layered perovskites as cathode material for intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A brief review

    Pelosato, Renato; Cordaro, Giulio; Stucchi, Davide; Cristiani, Cinzia; Dotelli, Giovanni


    Nowadays, the cathode is the most studied component in Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFCs). Decreasing SOFCs operating temperature implies slow oxygen reduction kinetics and large polarization losses. Double perovskites with general formula REBaCo2O5+δ are promising mixed ionic-electronic conductors, offering a remarkable enhancement of the oxygen diffusivity and surface exchange respect to disordered perovskites. In this review, more than 250 compositions investigated in the literature were analyzed. The evaluation was performed in terms of electrical conductivity, Area Specific Resistance (ASR), chemical compatibility with electrolytes and Thermal Expansion Coefficient (TEC). The most promising materials have been identified as those bearing the mid-sized rare earths (Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd). Doping strategies have been analyzed: Sr doping on A site promotes higher electrical conductivity, but worsen ASR and TECs; B-site doping (Fe, Ni, Mn) helps lowering TECs, but is detrimental for the electrochemical properties. A promising boost of the electrochemical activity is obtained by simply introducing a slight Ba under-stoichiometry. Still, the high sensitivity of the electrochemical properties against slight changes in the stoichiometry hamper a conclusive comparison of all the investigated compounds. Opportunities for an improvement of double perovskite cathodes performance is tentatively foreseen in combining together the diverse effective doping strategies.

  10. Co- and Ce/Co-coated ferritic stainless steel as interconnect material for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Falk-Windisch, Hannes; Claquesin, Julien; Sattari, Mohammad; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Froitzheim, Jan


    Chromium species volatilization, oxide scale growth, and electrical scale resistance were studied at 650 and 750 °C for thin metallic Co- and Ce/Co-coated steels intended to be utilized as the interconnect material in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFC). Mass gain was recorded to follow oxidation kinetics, chromium evaporation was measured using the denuder technique and Area Specific Resistance (ASR) measurements were carried out on 500 h pre-exposed samples. The microstructure of thermally grown oxide scales was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX). The findings of this study show that a decrease in temperature not only leads to thinner oxide scales and less Cr vaporization but also to a significant change in the chemical composition of the oxide scale. Very low ASR values (below 10 mΩ cm2) were measured for both Co- and Ce/Co-coated steel at 650 and 750 °C, indicating that the observed change in the chemical composition of the Co spinel does not have any noticeable influence on the ASR. Instead it is suggested that the Cr2O3 scale is expected to be the main contributor to the ASR, even at temperatures as low as 650 °C.

  11. Use of metakaolin to stabilize sewage sludge ash and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash in cement-based materials.

    Cyr, M; Idir, R; Escadeillas, G


    The landfilling of municipal incineration residues is an expensive option for municipalities. This work evaluates an alternative way to render waste inert in cement-based materials by combining the reduction of waste content with the immobilization properties of metakaolin (MK). The functional and environmental properties of ternary and quaternary binders using cement, metakaolin, and two industrial by-products from combustion processes (MSWIFA - Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash and SSA - Sewage Sludge Ash) were evaluated. The binders were composed of 75% cement, 22.5% metakaolin and 2.5% residue. Results on the impact of residues on the functional and environmental behavior of mortars showed that the mechanical, dimensional and leaching properties were not affected by the residues. In particular, the use of metakaolin led to a significant decrease in soluble fractions and heavy metals released from the binder matrix. The results are discussed in terms of classification of the leaching behavior, efficiency and role of metakaolin in the immobilization of heavy metals in of MSWIFA and SSA, and the pertinence of the dilution process.

  12. Rational development of solid dispersions via hot-melt extrusion using screening, material characterization, and numeric simulation tools.

    Zecevic, Damir E; Wagner, Karl G


    Effective and predictive small-scale selection tools are inevitable during the development of a solubility enhanced drug product. For hot-melt extrusion, this selection process can start with a microscale performance evaluation on a hot-stage microscope (HSM). A batch size of 400 mg can provide sufficient materials to assess the drug product attributes such as solid-state properties, solubility enhancement, and physical stability as well as process related attributes such as processing temperature in a twin-screw extruder (TSE). Prototype formulations will then be fed into a 5 mm TSE (~1-2 g) to confirm performance from the HSM under additional shear stress. Small stress stability testing might be performed with these samples or a larger batch (20-40 g) made by 9 or 12 mm TSE. Simultaneously, numeric process simulations are performed using process data as well as rheological and thermal properties of the formulations. Further scale up work to 16 and 18 mm TSE confirmed and refined the simulation model. Thus, at the end of the laboratory-scale development, not only the clinical trial supply could be manufactured, but also one can form a sound risk assessment to support further scale up even without decades of process experience.

  13. The Effect of Hole Transport Material Pore Filling on Photovoltaic Performance in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Melas-Kyriazi, John


    A detailed investigation of the effect of hole transport material (HTM) pore filling on the photovoltaic performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) and the specific mechanisms involved is reported. It is demonstrated that the efficiency and photovoltaic characteristics of ss-DSCs improve with the pore filling fraction (PFF) of the HTM, 2,2\\',7,7\\'-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9\\'-spirobifluorene(spiro-OMeTAD). The mechanisms through which the improvement of photovoltaic characteristics takes place were studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and transient photovoltage/photocurrent measurements. It is shown that as the spiro-OMeTAD PFF is increased from 26% to 65%, there is a higher hole injection efficiency from dye cations to spiro-OMeTAD because more dye molecules are covered with spiro-OMeTAD, an order-of-magnitude slower recombination rate because holes can diffuse further away from the dye/HTM interface, and a 50% higher ambipolar diffusion coefficient due to an improved percolation network. Device simulations predict that if 100% PFF could be achieved for thicker devices, the efficiency of ss-DSCs using a conventional rutheniumdye would increase by 25% beyond its current value. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Thermal hydraulics in the hot pool of Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    Padmakumar, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, TN 603 102 (India)], E-mail:; Pandey, G.K.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, TN 603 102 (India)


    Sodium cooled Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of 40 MWt/13 MWe capacity is in operation at Kalpakkam, near Chennai. Presently it is operating with a core of 10.5 MWt. Knowledge of temperatures and flow pattern in the hot pool of FBTR is essential to assess the thermal stresses in the hot pool. While theoretical analysis of the hot pool has been conducted by a three-dimensional code to access the temperature profile, it involves tuning due to complex geometry, thermal stresses and vibration. With this in view, an experimental model was fabricated in 1/4 scale using acrylic material and tests were conducted in water. Initially hydraulic studies were conducted with ambient water maintaining Froude number similarity. After that thermal studies were conducted using hot and cold water maintaining Richardson similitude. In both cases Euler similarity was also maintained. Studies were conducted simulating both low and full power operating conditions. This paper discusses the model simulation, similarity criteria, the various thermal hydraulic studies that were carried out, the results obtained and the comparison with the prototype measurements.

  15. Design of an EBIS charge breeder system for rare-isotope beams

    Park, Young-Ho; Son, Hyock-Jun; Kim, Jongwon


    Rare-isotope beams will be produced by using the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) system at the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP). A proton cyclotron is the driver accelerator for ISOL targets, and uranium carbide (UCx) will be a major target material. An isotope beam of interest extracted from the target will be ionized and selected by using a mass separator. The beam emittance will then be reduced by using a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) cooler before the beam is injected into the electron-beam ion-source (EBIS) charge breeder (CB). The maximum electron beam current of the EBIS is 3 A from a cathode made of IrCe in an applied magnetic field of 0.2 T. The size of the electron beam is compressed by magnetic fields of up to 6 T caused in the charge-breeding region by a superconducting solenoid. The design of EBIS-CB was performed by using mechanics as well as beam optics. A test stand for the electron gun and its collector, which can take an electron-beam power of 20 kW, are under construction. The gun assembly was first tested by using a high-voltage pulse so as to measure its perveance. The design of the EBIS, along with its test stand, is described.

  16. Ceramics for fusion reactors: The role of the lithium orthosilicate as breeder

    Carella, Elisabetta, E-mail: [National Laboratory for Magnetic Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Teresa [National Laboratory for Magnetic Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)


    Lithium-based oxide ceramics are studied as breeder blanket materials for the controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR). Lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) is one of the most promising candidates because of its lithium concentration (0.54 g/cm{sup 3}), its high melting temperature (1523 K) and its excellent tritium release behavior. It is reported that the diffusion of tritium is closely related to that of lithium, so it is possible to find an indirect measure of the trend of tritium studying the diffusivity of Li{sup +}. In the present work, the synthesis of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} is carried out by Spray drying followed by pyrolysis. The study of the Li{sup +} ion diffusion on the sintered bodies, is investigated by means of electrical conductivity measurements. The effect of the {gamma}-ray irradiation is evaluated by the impedance spectroscopy method (EIS) from room temperature to 1173 K. The results indicate that the sintesis process employed can produce Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} in the form of pebbles, finally the best ion species for the electrical conduction is the Li{sup +} and is shown that the g-irradiation to a dose of 5MGy, facilitate its mobility through the creation of defects, without change in its conduction process.

  17. Performance characterization of geopolymer composites for hot sodium exposed sacrificial layer in fast breeder reactors

    Haneefa, K. Mohammed, E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Santhanam, Manu [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Parida, F.C. [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)


    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of geopolymers subjected to hot liquid sodium is performed. • Apart from mechanical properties, micro-analytical techniques are used for material characterization. • The geopolymer composite showed comparatively lesser damage than conventional cement composites. • Geopolymer technology can emerge as a new choice for sacrificial layer in SCFBRs. - Abstract: A sacrificial layer of concrete is used in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors (SCFBRs) to mitigate thermo-chemical effect of accidentally spilled sodium at and above 550 °C on structural concrete. Performance of this layer is governed by thermo-chemical stability of the ingredients of sacrificial layer concrete. Concrete with limestone aggregate is generally used as a sacrificial layer. Conventional cement based systems exhibit instability in hot liquid sodium environment. Geo-polymer composites are well known to perform excellently at elevated temperatures compared to conventional cement systems. This paper discusses performance of such composites subjected to exposure of hot liquid sodium in air. The investigation includes comprehensive evaluation of various geo-polymer composites before any exposure, after heating to 550 °C in air, and after immersing in hot liquid sodium initially heated to 550 °C in air. Results from the current study indicate that hot liquid sodium produces less damage to geopolymer composites than to the existing conventional cement based system. Hence, the geopolymer technology has potential application in mitigating the degrading effects of sodium fires and can emerge as a new choice for sodium exposed sacrificial layer in SCFBRs.

  18. 特种功能材料中的固态相变及应用%Solid-State Phase Transformations and Their Applications in Special Functional Materials

    徐惠彬; 宫声凯; 蒋成保; 赵新青; 李岩; 郭洪波


    固态相变已经从传统结构材料的增强增韧延伸到新型功能材料研究领域,引发多种奇特的物理效应。目前已经形成一批基于固态相变的新型功能材料。这些新型功能材料蕴含着丰富的固态相变理论。固态相变现已成为新型功能材料设计与功能特性实现的重要手段之一。文章结合作者在固态相变及特种功能材料方面的研究工作,重点介绍高温形状记忆合金、高阻尼形状记忆合金、磁致伸缩材料和热障涂层材料中的固态相变特征及其在这些特种功能材料设计与功能实现和调控中应用的研究进展。%Solid-state phase transformations have been extended from toughening and strengthening of traditional structural materials to advanced functional materials, inducing many interesting physical phenomena. Varieties of functional materials have been developed based on the solid-state phase transformations. Studies on these functional materials have effectively enriches the theories of solid-state materials. The solid-state transformation have become one of the important approaches of functional materials designing and functionalities output. This paper briefly introduces the advances in solidstate phase transformations and their applications in high-temperature shape memory alloys, high damping shape memory alloys, magnetostrictive materials, and thermal barrier coatings.

  19. New in situ solid-state NMR strategies for exploring materials formation and adsorption processes: prospects in heterogenous catalysis

    Harris, Kenneth David Maclean


    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique for studying structural and dynamic properties of solids and has considerable potential to be exploited for in situ studies of chemical processes. However, adapting solid-state NMR techniques and instrumentation for in situ applications are often associated with technical challenges, and for this reason, the opportunities remain underexploited. This paper highlights two experimental strategies that we have developed in recent years for in s...

  20. Solid expellant plasma generator

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)


    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.