Sample records for soldier fitness csf

  1. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness. (United States)

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda


    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The United States Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: A Critical Look (United States)


    Psychoanalysis Professor Stephen Soldz, stated “ the problems identified with CSF are legion. It is time for the Army to step back from uncritically...Frederick J. Gellert Department of Command, Leadership and Management Project Adviser This manuscript is submitted in partial fulfillment of the ...organization and at every level within the Army, MRTs serve as the principal advisor to the leadership regarding CSF and as a resource for Soldiers

  3. Soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard


    War, armies and soldiers were omnipresent in the ancient Greek society, and thus these phenomena are equally present in the worlds of ancient Greek comedy. However, the comic outlook on war differs from Old to New Comedy. While the citizen soldier remains the norm, but mainly at periphery of Old...... comedy, the independent mercenary becomes a central character of New Comedy. Thus the comic view on soldiers reflects the martial attitudes and ideologies of contemporary society....

  4. Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers. (United States)

    Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B


    We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank.

  5. Sprawność fizyczna żołnierzy z województwa Zachodniopomorskiego = Physical fitness of soldiers from the province of Zachodniopomorskie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Stanisław Stankiewicz


    The study shows that the greatest level of physical fitness showed officers, who obtained the greatest number of very good grades in all four trials. In contrast, the lowest level of physical fitness showed a number. Respondents soldiers the best results obtained during the execution of the torso bends 2 minutes. While the worst performing subjects soldiers received during the slow-run 3000 meters, which indicates a low level of strength. Differentiation of ratings within each age group, present in all three bodies, proved that the age of the respondents soldiers and binding with it the standard requirements do not affect the achieved results.

  6. Health promotion research in active duty army soldiers: The road to a fit and ready force. (United States)

    McCarthy, Mary S; Elshaw, Evelyn B; Szekely, Barbara M; Pflugeisen, Bethann

    In the last decade the Military Health System has changed its paradigm to focus on health promotion and disease prevention. This paper reviews a decade of research exploring the effects of military life on nutritional status and bone health of Army soldiers. Descriptive and experimental approaches have assessed occupational demands on soldiers in variable environments that require optimal nutrition status and physical health. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the military has risen dramatically and the implications for health, readiness, productivity, and cost demands attention. The related nutritional deficits such as suboptimal vitamin D status likely contribute to musculoskeletal injuries which have a greater impact on the performance and readiness of soldiers than any other medical condition in peacetime or conflict. The greatest challenge in our system for health is optimizing the performance of all soldiers while minimizing health risks and long-term disability resulting from occupational hazards, particularly those inherent to war. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Soldier Performance and Heat Strain During Evaluation of a Combat Fitness Assessment in Northern Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cotter, James


    ...). A prototype CFA trial, conducted using 64 male soldiers of 3 Brigade, Townsville, allowed for the evaluation of both the CFA and the severity of heat strain experienced during physical training...

  8. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers. (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas


    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p < 0.001). Mean performances of soldiers with 3 risk factors were 46.7 ± 4.1 seconds (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 ± 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 ± 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers.

  9. Body mass index predicts selected physical fitness attributes but is not associated with performance on military relevant tasks in U.S. Army Soldiers. (United States)

    Pierce, Joseph R; DeGroot, David W; Grier, Tyson L; Hauret, Keith G; Nindl, Bradley C; East, Whitfield B; McGurk, Michael S; Jones, Bruce H


    Army body composition standards are based upon validated criteria; however, certain field-expedient methodologies (e.g., weight-for-height, body mass index [BMI]) may disqualify individuals from service who may otherwise excel on physical performance and military-relevant tasks. The purpose was to assess soldier physical performance and military-specific task/fitness performance stratified by BMI. Cross-sectional observational study. Male (n=275) and female (n=46) soldiers performed a wide-array of physical fitness tests and military-specific tasks, including the Army physical fitness test (APFT). Within-sex performance data were analyzed by BMI tertile stratification or by Army Body Composition Program (ABCP) weight-for-height (calculated BMI) screening standards using ANOVA/Tukey post-hoc or independent t-tests, respectively. BMI stratification (higher vs. lower BMI) was associated with significant improvements in muscular strength and power, but also with decrements in speed/agility in male and female soldiers. Within the military specific tasks, a higher BMI was associated with an increased APFT 2-Mile Run time; however, performance on a 1600-m Loaded March or a Warrior Task and Battle Drill obstacle course was not related to BMI in either sex. Male and Female soldiers who did not meet ABCP screening standards demonstrated a slower 2-Mile Run time; however, not meeting the ABCP BMI standard only affected a minimal number (∼6%) of soldiers' ability to pass the APFT. Military body composition standards require a careful balance between physical performance, health, and military readiness. Allowances should be considered where tradeoffs exist between body composition classifications and performance on physical tasks with high military relevance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. CSF smear (United States)

    ... this page: // CSF smear To use the sharing features on this ... around the spinal cord and brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protects the brain and spinal cord from injury. ...

  11. Shadow Soldiering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya

    The thesis is an inquiry into what is at stake for a surplus population of militia soldiers in the aftermaths of the civil war in Sierra Leone. The analysis takes its point of departure in how militarised networks are transformed and gradualy morph into new constellations of soldiering. The central......, or in the margins of official political economies. Rather, shadow soldiering is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly central in the context of security outsourcing and militarisation in a global economy....

  12. CSF analysis (United States)

    Cerebrospinal fluid analysis ... Analysis of CSF can help detect certain conditions and diseases. All of the following can be, but ... An abnormal CSF analysis result may be due to many different causes, ... Encephalitis (such as West Nile and Eastern Equine) Hepatic ...

  13. Correlation analysis of indicators of physical condition, health and physical fitness of soldiers involved in peacekeeping operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Fedak


    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the main physical qualities, which positively influence the physical state, health and military - professional career peacekeepers when performing tasks in different climatic conditions. Material : the study involved 98 military service under the contract the first age group (men. Analyzed contingent divided into groups according to climatic conditions of service: in the highlands - 37 person, in hot climates - 35 person, in towns and areas with limited space - 26 person. A correlation analysis between the results of running 100 meters, pulling, running 3 kilometre and indicators of the health and physical condition of the soldiers. Results : It was determined that the participation in peacekeeping missions in mountainous areas and in areas with a hot climate is the quality of the underlying physical endurance. With the participation in peacekeeping missions in populated areas and in areas with limited space - this is the strength and speed. Conclusions : on improving these physical qualities should focus during lessons in physical training of peacekeepers in the centers of immediate preparation for missions.

  14. Fitness (United States)

    ... gov home Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  15. Administrative management of the soldier with seizures. (United States)

    Gunderson, C H


    Based on improvement in our understanding of the prognosis of young adults with new onset seizures, and cumulative experience with the rules in effect for the last 30 years, a substantial change in the regulations affecting the fitness and profiling of these soldiers has been made. In general, these liberalize retention and profiling, set limits on the duration of trials of duty, provide for fitness determinations in soldiers with pseudo-seizures, and specify when neurologic consultation is required.

  16. CSF oligoclonal banding - slideshow (United States)

    ... this page: // CSF oligoclonal banding - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 5 out of 5 Overview The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves to supply nutrients to the central nervous ...

  17. CSF coccidioides complement fixation (United States)

    ... this page: // CSF coccidioides complement fixation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. CSF coccidioides complement fixation is a test that checks ...

  18. The Connected Steady State Model and the Interdependence of the CSF Proteome and CSF Flow Characteristics. (United States)

    Metzger, Fabian; Mischek, Daniel; Stoffers, Frédéric


    Here we show that the hydrodynamic radii-dependent entry of blood proteins into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can best be modeled with a diffusional system of consecutive interdependent steady states between barrier-restricted molecular flux and bulk flow of CSF. The connected steady state model fits precisely to experimental results and provides the theoretical backbone to calculate the in-vivo hydrodynamic radii of blood-derived proteins as well as individual barrier characteristics. As the experimental reference set we used a previously published large-scale patient cohort of CSF to serum quotient ratios of immunoglobulins in relation to the respective albumin quotients. We related the inter-individual variances of these quotient relationships to the individual CSF flow time and barrier characteristics. We claim that this new concept allows the diagnosis of inflammatory processes with Reibergrams derived from population-based thresholds to be shifted to individualized judgment, thereby improving diagnostic sensitivity. We further use the source-dependent gradient patterns of proteins in CSF as intrinsic tracers for CSF flow characteristics. We assume that the rostrocaudal gradient of blood-derived proteins is a consequence of CSF bulk flow, whereas the slope of the gradient is a consequence of the unidirectional bulk flow and bidirectional pulsatile flow of CSF. Unlike blood-derived proteins, the influence of CSF flow characteristics on brain-derived proteins in CSF has been insufficiently discussed to date. By critically reviewing existing experimental data and by reassessing their conformity to CSF flow assumptions we conclude that the biomarker potential of brain-derived proteins in CSF can be improved by considering individual subproteomic dynamics of the CSF system.

  19. CSF-VDRL test (United States)

    ... test - CSF; Neurosyphilis - VDRL Images CSF test for syphilis References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), test, cerebrospinal fluid – specimen. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  20. CSF total protein (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  1. Traumatic orbital CSF leak (United States)

    Borumandi, Farzad


    Compared to the cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) leak through the nose and ear, the orbital CSF leak is a rare and underreported condition following head trauma. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with oedematous eyelid swelling and ecchymosis after a seemingly trivial fall onto the right orbit. Apart from the above, she was clinically unremarkable. The CT scan revealed a minimally displaced fracture of the orbital roof with no emphysema or intracranial bleeding. The fractured orbital roof in combination with the oedematous eyelid swelling raised the suspicion for orbital CSF leak. The MRI of the neurocranium demonstrated a small-sized CSF fistula extending from the anterior cranial fossa to the right orbit. The patient was treated conservatively and the lid swelling resolved completely after 5 days. Although rare, orbital CSF leak needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of periorbital swelling following orbital trauma. PMID:24323381

  2. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn


    the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjampakuthikal Aboobekar Haris


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningitis is an infection within the subarachnoid space characterised by a CNS inflammatory reaction. It is a serious condition requiring immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to be started at the earliest to prevent mortality as well as irreversible neurological deficits. CSF lactate has been found useful in differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in many studies in the western population, but studies in Indian population are limited. The aim of the study is to study whether CSF lactate can be used to distinguish bacterial from viral meningitis and to study the levels of CSF lactate in tuberculosis meningitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. In this study, 78 cases of meningitis were selected. Cases are patients with bacterial, viral or tuberculosis meningitis admitted to the hospital under the Department of Medicine and Neurology. Cases are grouped into bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis based on clinical picture, CSF analysis and imaging characteristics. CSF lactate estimation was done by dry chemistry method. Using appropriate statistical methods and SPSS software, CSF lactate levels were compared among these groups and analysed for any association with the final outcome. RESULTS The levels of CSF lactate in bacterial meningitis were higher than viral meningitis with a statistical significance of p 35 mg/dL for bacterial meningitis in this study was 95% and 100% respectively and the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 96%. The mean CSF lactate values in bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis were 124.40 ± 35.85 mg/dL, 24.34 ± 6.05 mg/dL and 50.13 ± 9.89 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION CSF lactate level was significantly elevated in bacterial meningitis than tuberculosis or viral meningitis and can be used as a marker for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis.

  4. Soldiers Magazine | Telling the Soldier's story (United States)

    Soldier, fight in the Korean War and serve as a intelligence agent during the Cold War. 14 April 2016 professionals vying for Best Medic bragging rights. 14 October 2016 The U.S. Army's Hispanic-American Medal of possible On Women's Equality Day, learn about 19 ways U.S. Army women helped make the 19th Amendment

  5. Patents for Soldiers (United States)


    PATENTS FOR SOLDIERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment...COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUNE 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patents for Soldiers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. of an innovative idea; that is, a patent . A Soldier’s pursuit of patents provides the Army with tangible and intangible benefits. There are on

  6. Enemy recognition is linked to soldier size in a polymorphic stingless bee. (United States)

    Grüter, Christoph; Segers, Francisca H I D; Santos, Luana L G; Hammel, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Uwe; Nascimento, Fabio S


    Many ant and termite colonies are defended by soldiers with powerful mandibles or chemical weaponry. Recently, it was reported that several stingless bee species also have soldiers for colony defence. These soldiers are larger than foragers, but otherwise lack obvious morphological adaptations for defence. Thus, how these soldiers improve colony fitness is not well understood. Robbing is common in stingless bees and we hypothesized that increased body size improves the ability to recognize intruders based on chemosensory cues. We studied the Neotropical species Tetragonisca angustula and found that large soldiers were better than small soldiers at recognizing potential intruders. Larger soldiers also had more olfactory pore plates on their antennae, which is likely to increase their chemosensory sensitivity. Our results suggest that improved enemy recognition might select for increased guard size in stingless bees. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Soldier Mental Fitness Psychological Construct Development (United States)


    military data samples. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Most manuscripts should be drafted by then. 6 Narrative Progress during the past year (2016) has nudged forward, but been slow. As discussed in

  8. CSF dynamics in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Shizuo; Shose, Yoshiteru; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ijichi, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Satoshi.


    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in infants and children is still obscure. This paper aims to analyze the characteristics of CSF dynamics in the younger age group and to clarify the changes both in the acute/chronic hydrocephalic status and in the post-shunt condition on the basis of our experience with 118 cases of metrizamide CT cisternography. In order to pursue the CSF passive movements, the exact regional CT numbers were obtained by means of the ROI method in each case at 3, 6, and 24 hours after metrizamide injection. The results revealed that, in the normal CSF dynamics in both the major and minor pathways in children, it took more than 24 hours until the regional metrizamide was completely cleared up. In the acute hydrocephalic state, the ventricular reflux and stasis of the contrast was remarkable, and stagnation in the Sylvian fissure continued more than 24 hours. In the minor pathway, the contrast moved into the brain parenchyma, with there obviously being more in the subependymal layer and the adjacent white matter, and lasted more than 24 hours. On the other hand, these phenomena were very much less prominent in the chronic phase of hydrocephalus. This fact may suggest the hypothesis that a reconstituted active major or minor fluid pathway does not play an important role in the compensation of the acute high-pressure progressive hydrocephalic state. The CSF dynamics in a shunted hydrocephalus are obviously improved when in stasis or when stagnated inside or outside of the ventricular system. The timing of the metrizamide clear-up was within 24 hours after achieving a high accumulation of the contrast in the lateral ventricle where the shunt is placed. The contrast movement in the brain parenchyma as the minor pathway was significantly less in a shunted hydrocephalus, and there was almost none in cases of slit-like ventricles. (author)

  9. Technological Areas to Improve Soldier Decisiveness: Insights From the Soldier-System Design Perspective (United States)


    input several sets of words or concepts and return novel concepts or ideas. While being driven largely by the advertising industry , these base...Soldiers fitted with ballistic and laser-protective eyewear that contains or is itself a screen on which images and information can be projected. Images...visible through the eyewear would be augmented by imagery created by the UAV surveillance platforms described previously. In addition to augmenting

  10. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.; Miao, Mao-sheng; Merino, Gabriel; Hoffmann, Roald


    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2 F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  11. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.


    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2 F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  12. Rostrocaudal Dynamics of CSF Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarnaris, A.; Toma, A.K.; Chapman, M.D.; Petzold, A.F.S.; Keir, G.; Kitchen, N.D.; Watkins, L.D.


    The rostrocaudal gradient (RCG) of markers present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has not been studied adequately due to lack of appropriate control populations and ethical restrictions. The aim of this study is to understand the rostrocaudal gradient of CSF biomarkers. We contacted a study comparing

  13. Soldier Survey Data Book (United States)


    programs and policies and to increase the knowledge base needed for informed decisionmaking. Data for the soldier survey were collected in on-site...Subsequent analyses will be prepared in the form of reports and other materials designed to meet the needs of Army program and policy staff and other...743 * -C Mm C mm l W G gi’ 4.18L. 1 mmI 2In m -P 6- C-4 , 4. C14 u Cc 3 4.1 41 4.1 - C I-D 6. 1 +5 4.1 4-- C-4 RO C4 r ’ C-4, CD 0 f33 Es *i C5 W CNCD

  14. MR evaluation of CSF fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.; Goyal, M.; Mishra, N.; Gaikwad, S.; Sharma, A.


    Purpose: To evaluate the role of MR imaging in the localisation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulae. Material and Methods: A total of 36 consecutive unselected patients with either clincally proven CSF leakage (n=26) or suspected CSF fistula (n=10) were prospectively evaluated by MR. All MR examinations included fast spin-echo T2-weighted images in the 3 orthogonal planes. Thin-section CT was performed following equivocal or negative MR examination. MR and CT findings were correlated with surgical results in 33 patients. Results: CSF fistula was visualised as a dural-bone defect with hyperintense fluid signal continuous with that in the basal cisterns on T2-weighted images. MR was positive in 26 cases, in 24 of which the fistula was confirmed surgically. In 2 patients the CSF leakage was directly demonstrated on MR. MR sensitivity of 80% compared favourably with the reported 46-81% of CT cisternography (CTC). No significant difference in MR sensitivity in detecting CSF fistula was found between active and inactive leaks. (orig.)

  15. Soldier Health Habits and the Metabolically Optimized Brain. (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; Breivik, Torbjorn J; Carter, Robert; Leyk, Dieter; Opstad, Per Kristian; Taverniers, John; Trousselard, Marion


    Human performance enhancement was the subject of a NATO workshop that considered the direct benefits of individual soldier health and fitness habits to brain health and performance. Some of the important health and fitness include physical activity and purposeful exercise, nutritional intake, sleep and rest behaviors, psychological outlook and mindfulness, and other physiologically based systemic challenges such as thermal exposure. These influences were considered in an integrated framework with insights contributed by each of five participating NATO member countries using representative research to highlight relevant interrelationships. Key conclusions are that (1) understanding the neurobiological bases and consequences of personal health behaviors is a priority for soldier performance research, and this also involves long-term brain health consequences to veterans and (2) health and fitness habits have been underappreciated as reliably effective performance enhancers and these should be preferred targets in the development of scientifically based recommendations for soldier brain health and performance. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Effects of Pregnancy on the Army Physical Fitness Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usher, Stacy


    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual and perceived amount of time needed for the postpartum soldier to return to pre-pregnancy fitness condition as evidenced by APFT scores before and after pregnancy...

  17. Effects of Pregnancy on the Army Physical Fitness Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usher, Stacy


    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual and perceived amount of time needed for the postpartum soldier to return to pre-pregnancy fitness condition as evidenced by APFT scores before and after...

  18. IIH with normal CSF pressures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soh Youn Suh


    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a condition of raised intracranial pressure (ICP in the absence of space occupying lesions. ICP is usually measured by lumbar puncture and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure above 250 mm H 2 O is one of the diagnostic criteria of IIH. Recently, we have encountered two patients who complained of headaches and exhibited disc swelling without an increased ICP. We prescribed acetazolamide and followed both patients frequently; because of the definite disc swelling with IIH related symptoms. Symptoms and signs resolved in both patients after they started taking acetazolamide. It is generally known that an elevated ICP, as measured by lumbar puncture, is the most important diagnostic sign of IIH. However, these cases caution even when CSF pressure is within the normal range, that suspicion should be raised when a patient has papilledema with related symptoms, since untreated papilledema may cause progressive and irreversible visual loss.

  19. Autocrine CSF-1 and CSF-1 Receptor Co-expression Promotes Renal Cell Carcinoma Growth (United States)

    Menke, Julia; Kriegsmann, Jörg; Schimanski, Carl Christoph; Schwartz, Melvin M.; Schwarting, Andreas; Kelley, Vicki R.


    Renal cell carcinoma is increasing in incidence but the molecular mechanisms regulating its growth remain elusive. Co-expression of the monocytic growth factor CSF-1 and its receptor CSF-1R on renal tubular epithelial cells (TEC) will promote proliferation and anti-apoptosis during regeneration of renal tubules. Here we show that a CSF-1-dependent autocrine pathway is also responsible for the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CSF-1 and CSF-1R were co-expressed in RCC and TEC proximally adjacent to RCC. CSF-1 engagement of CSF-1R promoted RCC survival and proliferation and reduced apoptosis, in support of the likelihood that CSF-1R effector signals mediate RCC growth. In vivo CSF-1R blockade using a CSF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor decreased RCC proliferation and macrophage infiltration in a manner associated with a dramatic reduction in tumor mass. Further mechanistic investigations linked CSF-1 and EGF signaling in RCC. Taken together, our results suggest that budding RCC stimulates the proximal adjacent microenvironment in the kidney to release mediators of CSF-1, CSF-1R and EGF expression in RCC. Further, our findings imply that targeting CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling may be therapeutically effective in RCC. PMID:22052465

  20. Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance: Translating State-of-the-Science Soldier Research for Operational Utility. (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Sharp, Marilyn A


    The Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP) was held on August 18-21, 2014 in Boston, MA, where it had a record attendance of 374 registrants from 27 countries. The Congress included 8 invited keynote lectures, 12 symposia, 1 featured science session, more than 200 oral and poster free communication sessions, 8 thematic poster sessions, and a Warfighter Readiness Roundtable. Collectively, the presentations focused on a fundamental premise that soldiers are the center of warfighting capability, and the human service member is the prime resource and key enabler of all warfighting systems. The intent of the ICSPP series is to focus on the soldier-the individual service member. As we move forward with focus placed on the human dimension of soldiering, the key to our scientific success and what will prove to be transformative will be the extent to which we can operationalize and disseminate our scientific knowledge for the benefit of our soldiers on the ground. The Congress fostered important scientific exchange, and dialog centered on improving military physical performance and readiness. As countries around the globe respond to current and emerging threats to their national security, it is increasingly clear that we must ensure optimal human performance of our military personnel. By taking advantage of the science and applications of physical fitness and injury prevention research, we can leverage our increased understanding for the optimal application of physical readiness processes while minimizing the injury risk potential. We believe that the continued scientific and evidence-based dialog across international partners will prove to be transformative in identifying the most effective strategies for human performance optimization in the 21st century. Innovation, leveraging current state-of-the-science, and international partnerships were all key themes throughout the Congress. From the ICSPP scientific program, it was clear that there

  1. Giving Work a Rain Check: Relationship Between Soldiering and Positive Work Outcomes Within the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Baran Metin


    Full Text Available Soldiering is defined as engaging behaviourally or cognitively into non-work-related activities during working hours with no intention of harming the employer, co-workers, and/or clients. The present study will investigate this phenomenon using the Job-Demands Resources Model. The proposed model will consider the influence of job demands and resources on soldiering, as well as the relationship of soldiering with employee wellbeing and performance. The data, collected via online questionnaires across seven European countries, will be analysed using structural equation modelling in order to explore the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model as well as its potential cross cultural variations.

  2. The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War (United States)


    14 Revolution, is an excellent account of social, economic, and political factors in colonial America that influenced the concept of the citizen ...THE MYTH OF THE CITIZEN -SOLDIER: RHODE ISLAND PROVINCIAL SOLDIERS IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR A thesis presented to the...From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

  3. Training Dismounted Soldiers in Virtual Environments: Enhancing Configuration Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Witmer, Bob


    ...) has conducted research in using virtual environments (VE) to train dismounted soldiers. While showing that some dismounted soldiers skills can be trained in VE, the research has also identified problems in using VE for soldier training...

  4. Asthma and psychiatric disorders in male army recruits and soldiers. (United States)

    Lev-Tzion, Raffi; Friedman, Tal; Shochat, Tzippy; Gazala, Eliyahu; Wohl, Yonit


    Numerous studies have shown an association between asthma and mental disorders. While elevated rates of asthma have been noted among psychiatric patients with anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, several studies have found elevated rates of mental disorders among asthma patients. Such studies, however, have generally relied upon questionnaires and assessment by non-specialist physicians to diagnose mental disorders and asthma. To examine a possible association between asthma and psychiatric diagnoses in Israeli military recruits and soldiers. In this cross-sectional study we compared the prevalence of mental diagnoses in asthmatic recruits and soldiers with that in non-asthmatic recruits and soldiers. A total of 195,903 recruits and soldiers were examined by Israel Defense Forces recruiting offices and fitness boards. Diagnoses of asthma were based on a pulmonologist's diagnosis, including spirometry at rest and exercise testing as indicated; diagnoses of mental disorders were based on examination by a psychiatrist. The prevalence of asthma was found to be 7.8% (current) and 9.8% (lifetime). The prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4%. Current asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of any mental disorder (OR = 1.20, 95% Cl = 1.15-1.26), and specifically with mood and anxiety disorders (1.31, 1.19-1.46), introvert personality disorders (1.20, 1.12-1.28) and adjustment disorder (1.43, 1.26-1.62). Lifetime asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of the same disorders, but the association was not as powerful. The results validate the previously documented association between asthma and mental disorders, using a sample of unprecedented size and improved methodology. A multidisciplinary approach to asthma that incorporates mental health professionals in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma and perhaps of asthma in general is recommended.

  5. Picture Book Soldiers: Men and Messages. (United States)

    Desai, Christina M.


    Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…

  6. Biologically Fit: Using Biotechnology to Create a Better Soldier (United States)


    ideas difficult. Therefore, more education is necessary to reduce public fear of biotechnological enhancements. The board agreed that the...fictional depictions may sound familiar. That is because they are describing the popular comic book character Captain America, and Bourne Legacy of the human genome from science fiction to reality. Concepts once portrayed in movies and comic books may become the realized future of the

  7. Soldier motivation – different or similar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Recent research in military sociology has shown that in addition to their strong peer motivation modern soldiers are oriented toward contributing to society. It has not, however, been tested how soldier motivation differs from the motivation of other citizens in this respect. In this paper......, by means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...... surveys with similar questions, we find that soldiers are more normatively motivated to contribute to society than other citizens (higher commitment to the public interest), while their affectively based motivation is lower (lower compassion). This points towards a potential problem in regard...

  8. The calculation of CSF spaces in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, H.; Artmann, H.


    Objective digital determination of CSF spaces is discussed, with ventricular and subarachnoid spaces handled separately. This method avoids the difficulty of visual definition of ventricular borders in planimetric measurements. The principle is to count automatically all pixels corresponding to CSF in a given region with a Hounsfield unit and to multiply this number by the pixel size. This will give the total surface area of CSF spaces in square millimeters. The calculation of pixel values for CSF spaces and brain tissue is experimentally formulated taking the intersection of the Gaussian curves for ventricular content and brain tissue. In practice, the determination of CSF spaces is done by first calculating a histogram of the total brain in a given slice defining all CSF spaces. Next a histogram of a region including ventricles with adjoining tissue is calculated and the ventricular size is calculated. By subtraction of the ventricle value from the total CSF space value, the subarachnoid space size is obtained. The advantages of this mehtod will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. CSF-1 Receptor Signaling in Myeloid Cells (United States)

    Stanley, E. Richard; Chitu, Violeta


    The CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) is activated by the homodimeric growth factors colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34). It plays important roles in development and in innate immunity by regulating the development of most tissue macrophages and osteoclasts, of Langerhans cells of the skin, of Paneth cells of the small intestine, and of brain microglia. It also regulates the differentiation of neural progenitor cells and controls functions of oocytes and trophoblastic cells in the female reproductive tract. Owing to this broad tissue expression pattern, it plays a central role in neoplastic, inflammatory, and neurological diseases. In this review we summarize the evolution, structure, and regulation of expression of the CSF-1R gene. We review, the structures of CSF-1, IL-34, and the CSF-1R and the mechanism of ligand binding to and activation of the receptor. We further describe the pathways regulating macrophage survival, proliferation, differentiation, and chemotaxis downstream from the CSF-1R. PMID:24890514

  10. Decompressive craniectomy and CSF disorders in children. (United States)

    Manfiotto, Marie; Mottolese, Carmine; Szathmari, Alexandru; Beuriat, Pierre-Aurelien; Klein, Olivier; Vinchon, Matthieu; Gimbert, Edouard; Roujeau, Thomas; Scavarda, Didier; Zerah, Michel; Di Rocco, Federico


    Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a lifesaving procedure but is associated to several post-operative complications, namely cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics impairment. The aim of this multicentric study was to evaluate the incidence of such CSF alterations after DC and review their impact on the overall outcome. We performed a retrospective multicentric study to analyze the CSF disorders occurring in children aged from 0 to 17 years who had undergone a DC for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the major Departments of Pediatric Neurosurgery of France between January 2006 and August 2016. Out of 150 children, ranging in age between 7 months and 17 years, mean 10.75 years, who underwent a DC for TBI in 10 French pediatric neurosurgical centers. Sixteen (6 males, 10 females) (10.67%) developed CSF disorders following the surgical procedure and required an extrathecal CSF shunting. External ventricular drainage increased the risk of further complications, especially cranioplasty infection (p = 0.008). CSF disorders affect a minority of children after DC for TBI. They may develop early after the DC but they may develop several months after the cranioplasty (8 months), consequently indicating the necessity of clinical and radiological close follow-up after discharge from the neurosurgical unit. External ventricular drainage and permanent CSF shunt placement increase significantly the risk of cranioplasty infection.

  11. Calculation of CSF spaces in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, H; Artmann, H [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie


    Objective digital determination of CSF spaces is discussed, with ventricular and subarachnoid spaces handled separately. This method avoids the difficulty of visual definition of ventricular borders in planimetric measurements. The principle is to count automatically all pixels corresponding to CSF in a given region with a Hounsfield unit and to multiply this number by the pixel size. This will give the total surface area of CSF spaces in square millimeters. The calculation of pixel values for CSF spaces and brain tissue is experimentally formulated taking the intersection of the Gaussian curves for ventricular content and brain tissue. In practice, the determination of CSF spaces is done by first calculating a histogram of the total brain in a given slice defining all CSF spaces. Next a histogram of a region including ventricles with adjoining tissue is calculated and the ventricular size is calculated. By subtraction of the ventricle value from the total CSF space value, the subarachnoid space size is obtained. The advantages of this mehtod will be discussed.

  12. Whatever happened to the soldiers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Dorthe Varning; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Refshauge, Anne Dahl


    Nature-assisted therapy (NAT) has become more common and recognized in both practice and research. The literature often describes how NAT gradually emerged in the UK and the US offering rehabilitation of soldiers suffering from traumatic experiences after active service in WW I and WW II. The main...... the systematic analysis of the qualitative case studies. This review found that a large amount of projects offering NAT to veterans suffering from PTSD exist in many parts of the world and they present no adverse negative results. Recommendations for future practice and research are posed....... and status of practice and research concerning NAT for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The systematic review included a seven-step literature search. Relevant data sources were scrutinized in order to retrieve literature meeting the predefined inclusion criteria. Due to the limited...

  13. Soldier Flexible Personal Digital Assistant Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Mark; Woytowich, Jason; Carlson, Marc


    The main goal of the Soldier Flexible Personal Digital Assistant Program was to develop prototypes of a novel flexible display technology device for demonstration in a laboratory setting and use in Future Force Warrior (FFW) demonstrations...

  14. Immersive Simulation Training for the Dismounted Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W


    ... R&D organizations during the period 1997 - 2005. The major findings are organized around the topics of training effectiveness, Soldier task performance, and advantages and disadvantages of immersive...

  15. Support of USARIEM Postpartum Soldier Research Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dettori, Joseph


    It is estimated approximately 9% of Army women are pregnant at any one time. Shortly after delivery, postpartum soldiers are expected to return to full duty, meet body fat standards and pass the APFT...

  16. CSF Markers in Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available A positive 14-3-3 protein assay of CSF was observed in 29 of 38 patients with GBS and in 4 with motor neuron disease and other neuropathies studied at Universities of Milan and Verona, Italy.

  17. Cultural Adaptation of Second Language Soldiers. (United States)


    Micronesian), Operations Sergeant; SSG Willie Maxwell, Field First Sergeant; SGT Tipo Toomalatai (Western Samoan), Platoon Sergeant, and SSG Alfredo Taitague...Rican), ESL Instructor and Ms. Norma Garrett (Puerto Rican), ESL Instructor, BSEP Program, Ft Jackson, SC, 16 Jun 81. NARRATIVE Ms. Padilla and Ms...psychiatric disor- de .’s in the Puerto Rican population at large and among Puerto Rican soldiers. Compare these with the US population and Anglo soldiers. 9. Mr

  18. Could rebel child soldiers prolong civil wars?


    Haer, Roos; Böhmelt, Tobias


    While we know why rebels may recruit children for their cause, our understanding of the consequences of child soldiering by non-state armed groups remains limited. The following research contributes to addressing this by examining how rebels’ child recruitment practice affects the duration of internal armed conflicts. We advance the argument that child soldiering increases the strength of rebel organizations vis-a-vis the government. This, in turn, lowers the capability asymmetry between thes...

  19. Soldier Readiness: Insights from Qualitative Interviews (United States)


    domains interact and influence performance. From January to May 2016, the research team conducted three qualitative studies with Soldiers including... Research Questions UNCLASSIFIED 9 • From January to May 2016, the research team conducted a series of qualitative studies with Soldiers from the 82nd...that the Army’s current approach for providing these types of training is not always ideal. Specifically, the train-the-trainer method or use of

  20. CSF and plasma testosterone in attempted suicide. (United States)

    Stefansson, Jon; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi


    Very few studies have assessed testosterone levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in suicide attempters. Aggressiveness and impulsivity are common behavioural traits in suicide attempters. Dual-hormone serotonergic theory on human impulsive aggression implies high testosterone/cortisol ratio acting on the amygdala and low serotonin in the prefrontal cortex. Our aim was to examine the CSF and plasma testosterone levels in suicide attempters and in healthy volunteers. We also assessed the relationship between the testosterone/cortisol ratio, aggressiveness and impulsivity in suicide attempters. 28 medication-free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in the study. CSF and plasma testosterone sulfate and cortisol levels were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Karolinska Scales of Personality was used to assess impulsivity and aggressiveness. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up period was 21 years. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma testosterone levels than age- matched male healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences in CSF testosterone levels in female suicide attempters and healthy female volunteers. Testosterone levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. In male suicide attempters, the CSF testosterone/cortisol ratio showed a significant positive correlation with both impulsivity and aggressiveness. Higher CSF testosterone levels may be associated with attempted suicide in young men through association with both aggressiveness and impulsivity, a key endophenotype in young male suicide attempters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Variation in reproductive outcomes for captive male rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) differing in CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations. (United States)

    Gerald, Melissa S; Higley, Sue; Lussier, I sabelle D; Westergaard, Greg C; Suomi, Stephen J; Higley, J Dee


    In rhesus macaque males, lower than average cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the principle metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), have been linked to impulsivity, involvement in escalated aggression, failure to elicit consort relationships, production of fewer sperm plugs, and a relatively early age of mortality. Given these potential fitness costs, we performed two studies aimed at elucidating the effects of CSF 5-HIAA on reproduction. Study 1 retrospectively evaluated over a four-year period, the relative reproductive outcome for pairs of adult male rhesus macaques (n = 15) who lived in social groups and who differed in concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA. Study 2 examined the relationship between CSF 5-HIAA and sperm motility and density (n = 12), as a potential mechanism for maintaining variability in CSF 5-HIAA. For Study 1, an average measure from two CSF 5-HIAA samples was calculated for the two males who were present during the time when conception most likely took place (offspring birth date -165 +/- 14 days). Within-pair comparisons of CSF 5-HIAA concentrations between the sire and the non-successful male were drawn for each of the 72 offspring in the study. We found that while sires were typically the male with relatively higher CSF 5-HIAA within the pair, there were no absolute differences in CSF 5-HIAA between males who sired at least one offspring (sires) and those who failed to reproduce (non-sires). Furthermore, while absolute age was not predictive of reproductive outcome, sires with relatively high CSF 5-HIAA also tended to be also relatively older than their competitors. By contrast, for the males with relatively low CSF 5-HIAA who reproduced, sires were relatively younger than the non-sires. These differences in reproductive outcome for males differing in CSF 5-HIAA could not be explained by variability in sperm quantity or quality as we did not find evidence of a relationship between CSF 5-HIAA and either sperm

  2. Drug Use in Soldiers: Family and Peer Contextual Associations. (United States)

    Habibi, Mojtaba; Darharaj, Mohammad; Kelly, Adrian B; Shahmiri, Hasan; Malekianjabali, Mona; Kheirolomoom, Seyedeh Leili


    Given the stressful nature of military life, people in the armed forces are vulnerable to substance use. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between family and peers with drug use among military forces in Iran. Convenience sampling was used to recruit a total of 422 draftees doing military service in army units in Tehran, Iran. Measures of family and peers' risk and protective factors, alcohol use, and other drug use were administered. Findings indicated significant relationships between family (i.e., family models for risk behavior, parent sanctions, and family controls) and peers (i.e., peer modeling for risk behavior, peer controls, support from friends) with drug use. A multiple regression analysis revealed that peer modeling for risk behavior, family models for risk behavior, and parent sanctions were significant predictors of drug use in soldiers. These results were consistent with the influence of family and peer on drug use amongst soldiers. Programs designed to reduce alcohol and other drug use may benefit from tailoring to fit risk and protective files amongst peer and family networks.

  3. MR imaging of pulsatile CSF movement in hydrocephalus communicans before and after CSF shunt implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, A.; Kunz, U.; Rotermund, F.; Friedrich, J.M.; Schnarkowski, P.


    16 patients with hydrocephalus communicans and 5 healthy volunteers were examined to demonstrate the pattern of the pulsatile CSF flow. After implantation of a CSF shunt system the same patients were examined again to show the influence of the shunt on the CSF pulsations. We used a flow-sensitised, cardiac-gated 2D FLASH sequence and analysed the phase and magnitude images. It could be shown that most patients (n=12) had a hyerdynamic pulsatile flow preoperatively. After shunt implantation the pulsatile CSF motion and the clinical symptoms were improved in 8 of these patients. MRI of pulsatile CSF flow movement seems to be a helpful noninvasive tool to estimate the prognosis of a shunt implantation in patients with hydrocephalus communicans. (orig.) [de

  4. CSF free light chain identification of demyelinating disease: comparison with oligoclonal banding and other CSF indexes. (United States)

    Gurtner, Kari M; Shosha, Eslam; Bryant, Sandra C; Andreguetto, Bruna D; Murray, David L; Pittock, Sean J; Willrich, Maria Alice V


    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) used in immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) index testing and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) are common laboratory tests used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The measurement of CSF free light chains (FLC) could pose as an alternative to the labor-intensive isoelectric-focusing (IEF) gels used for OCBs. A total of 325 residual paired CSF and serum specimens were obtained after physician-ordered OCB IEF testing. CSF kappa (cKFLC) and lambda FLC (cLFLC), albumin and total IgG were measured. Calculations were performed based on combinations of analytes: CSF sum of kappa and lambda ([cKFLC+cLFLC]), kappa-index (K-index) ([cKFLC/sKFLC]/[CSF albumin/serum albumin]), kappa intrathecal fraction (KFLCIF) {([cKFLC/sKFLC]-[0.9358×CSF albumin/serum albumin]^[0.6687×sKFLC]/cKFLC)} and IgG-index ([CSF IgG/CSF albumin]/[serum IgG/serum albumin]). Patients were categorized as: demyelination (n=67), autoimmunity (n=53), non-inflammatory (n=50), inflammation (n=38), degeneration (n=28), peripheral neuropathy (n=24), infection (n=13), cancer (n=11), neuromyelitis optica (n=10) and others (n=31). cKFLC measurement used alone at a cutoff of 0.0611 mg/dL showed >90% agreement to OCBs, similar or better performance than all other calculations, reducing the number of analytes and variables. When cases of demyelinating disease were reviewed, cKFLC measurements showed 86% clinical sensitivity/77% specificity. cKFLC alone demonstrates comparable performance to OCBs along with increased sensitivity for demyelinating diseases. Replacing OCB with cKFLC would alleviate the need for serum and CSF IgG and albumin and calculated conversions. cKFLC can overcome challenges associated with performance, interpretation, and cost of traditional OCBs, reducing costs and maintaining sensitivity and specificity supporting MS diagnosis.

  5. User Evaluation of a Soldier Flexible Display Personal Digital Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampson, James B; Boynton, Angela C; Mitchell, K. B; Magnifico, Dennis S; DuPont, Frederick J


    The U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center and U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Human Research and Engineering Directorate conducted an evaluation of a Soldier Flexible Display Personal Digital Assistant...

  6. Anthropometry and Range of Motion of the Encumbered Soldier (United States)


    claims of the encumbered dismounted Soldier. Soldiers are required to wear multiple layers of clothing and protective equipment in addition to mission...depth (i.e., bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements...bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements. The

  7. Role Reversal Protest in Nigeria: Soldiers Still the Boss? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today's world is used to all sorts of inter-group violent conflicts, but definitely not the type in the post military Nigeria where soldiers and policemen fatally combat each other; soldiers claiming superiority over policemen who, in turn, want to seize every opportunity to act that in a democracy, they, no longer the soldiers, are ...

  8. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.


    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  9. A comparison between two methods of measuring total fat in the Iranian soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rahmani


    Full Text Available Background: Constant checkup and control of body fat mass is an important parameter for the health and efficiency of individuals in any society. This parameter is especially crucial in army soldiers since physical fitness is a key role in reaching high physical performance, health, and survival in war. Objective: This study was designed to compare two methods of measuring fat, the method of circumference-based military equations (CBEs to estimate body fat mass compared to the method of skinfold thickness-based equation (SBE in Iranian soldiers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 246 Iranian soldiers were recruited in Tehran (2016. Height, waist, and neck circumference were measured and the total body fat mass was calculated using CBEs. Then, the results of using Pierson’s correlation and Bland-Altman methods were compared with Jackson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness measurement. Findings: The total body fat mass of the soldiers using CBEs was 18.94±6.30% and using Jakson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness formula was 17.43±4.45%. The correlation between the two methods was r=0.984 and SEE was 1.1% (P<0.001. Conclusion: The more body fat makes the error waist circumference greater. The error is so much that don’t use this method to measure fat.

  10. Reasons for medical evacuations of soldiers serving in International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operation in Afghanistan. (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gregulski, Robert


    The article presents the results of a research study into the reasons for medical evacuations of Polish military personnel taking part in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operation in Afghanistan from 2007 to 2013. The authors have analysed medical records of 485 soldiers who were medically evacuated out of a combat zone in Afghanistan for battle injuries, non-battle injuries and diseases. Each medically evacuated Polish soldier was subjected to statistical analysis. The study population comprised 25,974 soldiers assigned to the Polish Military Contingent Afghanistan in the given period. From 2007 to 2013, 1.9% of the Polish military personnel (n = 485) participating in the ISAF operation in Afghanistan were evacuated for medical reasons before the scheduled termination of their contract. 40.6% of all medical evacuations were due to battle injuries, 32.4% due to non-battle injuries, and 27.0% due to diseases. ISAF is an example of a combat operation, in which battle injuries remain the leading health problem in mission participants. 3 of 4 Polish soldiers who were medically evacuated from Afghanistan were no longer fit for military service in the area of operations due to the traumas they had suffered.

  11. Colony-stimulating factor (CSF) radioimmunoassay: detection of a CSF subclass stimulating macrophage production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, E.R.


    Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) stimulate the differentiation of immature precursor cells to mature granulocytes and macrophages. Purified 125 I-labeled murine L cell CSF has been used to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects a subclass of CSFs that stimulates macrophage production. Murine CSF preparations that contain this subclass of CSF compete for all of the CSF binding sites on anti-L cell CSF antibody. With the exception of mouse serum, which can contain inhibitors of the bioassay, there is complete correspondence between activities determined by RIA and those determined by bioassay. The RIA is slightly more sensitive than the bioassay, detecting approximately 0.3 fmol of purified L cell CSF. It can also detect this subclass of CSF in chickens, rats, and humans. In the mouse, the subclass is distinguished from other CSFs by a murine cell bioassay dose-response curve in which 90% of the response occurs over a 10-fold (rather than a 100-fold) increase in concentration, by stimulating the formations of colonies contaning a high proportion of mononuclear (rather than granulocytic) cells, and by certain physical characteristics

  12. Stem Cell Mobilization with G-CSF versus Cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF in Mexican Children


    Meraz, Jos? Eugenio V?zquez; Arellano-Galindo, Jos?; Avalos, Armando Mart?nez; Mendoza-Garc?a, Emma; Jim?nez-Hern?ndez, Elva


    Fifty-six aphaereses were performed in 23 pediatric patients with malignant hematological and solid tumors, following three different protocols for PBPC mobilization and distributed as follows: A: seventeen mobilized with 4?g/m2 of cyclophosphamide (CFA) and 10??g/kg/day of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), B: nineteen with CFA + G-CSF, and C: twenty only with G-CSF when the WBC count exceeded 10 ? 109/L. The average number of MNC/kg body weight (BW)/aphaeresis was 0.4 ? 108 (0.1...

  13. Plasma and CSF pharmacokinetics of meropenem in neonates and young infants: results from the NeoMero studies. (United States)

    Germovsek, Eva; Lutsar, Irja; Kipper, Karin; Karlsson, Mats O; Planche, Tim; Chazallon, Corine; Meyer, Laurence; Trafojer, Ursula M T; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Fournier, Isabelle; Sharland, Mike; Heath, Paul; Standing, Joseph F


    Sepsis and bacterial meningitis are major causes of mortality and morbidity in neonates and infants. Meropenem, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is not licensed for use in neonates and infants below 3 months of age and sufficient information on its plasma and CSF disposition and dosing in neonates and infants is lacking. To determine plasma and CSF pharmacokinetics of meropenem in neonates and young infants and the link between pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes in babies with late-onset sepsis (LOS). Data were collected in two recently conducted studies, i.e. NeoMero-1 (neonatal LOS) and NeoMero-2 (neonatal meningitis). Optimally timed plasma samples (n = 401) from 167 patients and opportunistic CSF samples (n = 78) from 56 patients were analysed. A one-compartment model with allometric scaling and fixed maturation gave adequate fit to both plasma and CSF data; the CL and volume (standardized to 70 kg) were 16.7 (95% CI 14.7, 18.9) L/h and 38.6 (95% CI 34.9, 43.4) L, respectively. CSF penetration was low (8%), but rose with increasing CSF protein, with 40% penetration predicted at a protein concentration of 6 g/L. Increased infusion time improved plasma target attainment, but lowered CSF concentrations. For 24 patients with culture-proven Gram-negative LOS, pharmacodynamic target attainment was similar regardless of the test-of-cure visit outcome. Simulations showed that longer infusions increase plasma PTA but decrease CSF PTA. CSF penetration is worsened with long infusions so increasing dose frequency to achieve therapeutic targets should be considered.

  14. Intrasphenoidal encephalocele and spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea. (United States)

    Daniilidis, J; Vlachtsis, K; Ferekidis, E; Dimitriadis, A


    Intrasphenoidal encephalocele is a rare clinical entity. In the international literature only 16 cases have been reported up today, with female predominance. Clinically they manifest at middle and advanced ages (40-67 years), when spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea or recurrent meningitis occurs. We present our case, a 46 years old female, who had CSF rhinorrhoea from the right vestibule for 10 months. The diagnosis was based on the history and the high-resolution brain and skull base CT-scanning in conjunction with opaque fluid injection in the subarachnoidal space through a lumbar puncture. She was successfully treated with an operation, through an endonasal trans-ethmoid microendoscopic approach, using the Draf and Stammberger technique. We discuss the pathogenesis of the intrasphenoidal encephalocele, the existence of small occult defects in the skull base, which cause, at the middle and advanced ages, CSF fistula with spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea and/or recurrent meningitis. Finally we emphasize the advantages of the endonasal surgical approach for the treatment of this condition.

  15. The inner CSF-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whish, Sophie; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld


    outlining the inner CSF-brain interface from E16; most of these markers were not present in the adult ependyma. Claudin-5 was present in the apical-most part of radial glial cells and in endothelial cells in embryos, but only in endothelial cells including plexus endothelial cells in adults. Claudin-11...

  16. The New PTB Caesium Fountain Clock CSF2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynands, R; Bauch, A; Griebsch, D; Schroeder, R; Weyers, S


    At PTB a second caesium fountain clock, CSF2, is in the process of being set up. It differs from the first PTB caesium fountain standard CSF1 in a number of details, which are consecutively specified...

  17. CSF-1R Inhibitor Development: Current Clinical Status. (United States)

    Peyraud, Florent; Cousin, Sophie; Italiano, Antoine


    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) and its ligands, CSF-1 and interleukin 34 (IL-34), regulate the function and survival of tumor-associated macrophages, which are involved in tumorigenesis and in the suppression of antitumor immunity. Moreover, the CSF-1R/CSF-1 axis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), a benign tumor of the synovium. As advanced or metastatic malignant solid tumors and relapsed/refractory PVNS remain unresolved therapeutic problems, new approaches are needed to improve the outcome of patients with these conditions. In solid tumors, targeting CSF-1R via either small molecules or antibodies has shown interesting results in vitro but limited antitumor activity in vivo. Concerning PVNS, clinical trials assessing CSF-1R inhibitors have revealed promising initial outcomes. Blocking CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling represents a promising immunotherapy approach and several new potential combination therapies for future clinical testing.

  18. The Factors of Soldier’s Load (United States)


    turtles . My ruck weighed 120 pounds. American Airborne Soldier Grenada, 1983 One of the tenets of Army doctrine in Field Manual 100-5 QIp.r.aition•. is...from a lack of the appropriate physical conditioning in some units; and the more nebulous problem of insufficient logistical challenges built into

  19. Association of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Insulin with Cognitive Performance and CSF Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    Geijselaers, Stefan L C; Aalten, Pauline; Ramakers, Inez H G B; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Koek, Huiberdina L; OldeRikkert, Marcel G M; Papma, Janne M; Reesink, Fransje E; Smits, Lieke L; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Verhey, Frans R J; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Biessels, Geert Jan


    Abnormal insulin signaling in the brain has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). To evaluate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) insulin levels are associated with cognitive performance and CSF amyloid-β and Tau. Additionally, we explore whether any such association differs by sex or APOE ɛ4 genotype. From 258 individuals participating in the Parelsnoer Institute Neurodegenerative Diseases, a nationwide multicenter memory clinic population, we selected 138 individuals (mean age 66±9 years, 65.2% male) diagnosed with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 45), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 44), or AD (n = 49), who completed a neuropsychological assessment, including tests of global cognition and memory performance, and who underwent lumbar puncture. We measured CSF levels of insulin, amyloid-β1-42, total (t-)Tau, and phosphorylated (p-)Tau. CSF insulin levels did not differ between the diagnostic groups (p = 0.136). Across the whole study population, CSF insulin was unrelated to cognitive performance and CSF biomarkers of AD, after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes status, and clinic site (all p≥0.131). Importantly, however, we observed effect modification by sex and APOE ɛ4 genotype. Specifically, among women, higher insulin levels in the CSF were associated with worse global cognition (standardized regression coefficient -0.483; p = 0.008) and higher p-Tau levels (0.353; p = 0.040). Among non-carriers of the APOE ɛ4 allele, higher CSF insulin was associated with higher t-Tau (0.287; p = 0.008) and p-Tau (0.246; p = 0.029). Our findings provide further evidence for a relationship between brain insulin signaling and AD pathology. It also highlights the need to consider sex and APOE ɛ4 genotype when assessing the role of insulin.



    Tsutsui, Kou; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Sawaishi, Yukio; Tokunaga, Jun; Sato, Masahiro; Shimizu, Tetsuo


    Recent CSF and postmortem brain hypocretin measurements in human narcolepsy suggest that hypocretin deficiency is involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. Thus, it is important to study whether neurological disorders also have abnormal CSF hypocretin levels. We therefore measured hypocretins in the CSF of various neurological disorders and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) to identify altered hypocretin levels. CSF hypocretin levels in patients with OSAS and neurological diseases...

  1. How Satisfied are Soldiers with their Ballistic Helmets? A Comparison of Soldiers' Opinions about the Advanced Combat Helmet and the Personal Armor System for Ground Troops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivins, Brian J; Schwab, Karen; Crowley, John S; McEntire, B. J; Trumble, Christopher C; Brown, Fred H; Warden, Deborah L


    .... These factors affect Soldiers' decisions about helmet use; therefore, rigorous research about Soldiers' real-life experiences with helmets is critical to assessing a helmet's overall protective efficacy...

  2. Backache amongst soldiers: a prospective analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, S.; Rehman, A.U.; Janjua, S.H.; Tarrar, A.M.


    Objective: To investigate the occupational predispositions of low back pain in soldiers Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Bahawalpur, from June 2009 to Jan 2010. Patients and Methods: A questionnaire was developed to investigate the occupation-related issues in soldiers reporting with low backache in surgical OPD at CMH Bahawalpur. It included personal and occupational factors. The body mass index was also calculated. Of the 107 male soldiers assessed, 90 were enrolled into the study. The statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis of the data using SPSS 17.0. Results: Of all the soldiers evaluated (n=90), 32 (35.6%) were clerks/computer operators, 21 (23.1%) were drivers and 14(15.6%) were signal men. All were males (100%) and the average BMI was 24.8 kg/m2. The 69 (76.7%) patients who had backache had prolonged working hours (average 10.8 hours per day), 68 (75.6%) patients used to sleep over tape/nawar bed and only 12 (13.3%) had been sleeping on mattresses. The onset of pain was sudden in 58 (64.4%) patients. 27 (23.3%) had developed acute backache after prolonged sitting, 21 (30%) after lifting heavy objects. The pain was exaggerated by doing morning physical training 82 (91.1%), prolonged sitting 61 (67.8%) and standing with rifle 24 (26.7%). Conclusion: The prevalence of low back pain in sedentary occupation or soldiers on sitting jobs was higher 69 (76%). The number of working hours on these occupations was associated with occurrence as well as aggravation of low back pain. (author)

  3. Evidence that iron accelerates Alzheimer's pathology: a CSF biomarker study. (United States)

    Ayton, Scott; Diouf, Ibrahima; Bush, Ashley Ian


    To investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ferritin (reporting brain iron) is associated with longitudinal changes in CSF β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau. Mixed-effects models of CSF Aβ 1-42 and tau were constructed using data from 296 participants who had baseline measurement of CSF ferritin and annual measurement of CSF tau and Aβ 1-42 for up to 5 years. In subjects with biomarker-confirmed Alzheimer's pathology, high CSF ferritin (>6.2 ng/mL) was associated with accelerated depreciation of CSF Aβ 1-42 (reporting increased plaque formation; p=0.0001). CSF ferritin was neither associated with changes in CSF tau in the same subjects, nor longitudinal changes in CSF tau or Aβ 1-42 in subjects with low baseline pathology. In simulation modelling of the natural history of Aβ deposition, which we estimated to occur over 31.4 years, we predicted that it would take 12.6 years to reach the pathology threshold value of CSF Aβ from healthy normal levels, and this interval is not affected by CSF ferritin. CSF ferritin influences the fall in CSF Aβ over the next phase, where high CSF ferritin accelerated the transition from threshold preclinical Aβ levels to the average level of Alzheimer's subjects from 18.8 to 10.8 years. Iron might facilitate Aβ deposition in Alzheimer's and accelerate the disease process. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Evaluation of the Performance of Females as Light Infantry Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon S. Finestone


    Full Text Available A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161–163 cm than males (174 cm, CI 173–176, had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2–19.6 kg than males (12.6 kg, 11.3–13.8 kg, had lower V˙O2max (36.8 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 35.8–37.78 mL·min−1·kg−1 than males (50.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2–26.5% than males (2.3%, CI 0.3–8.2%, and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9–47.7% than males (24.7%, CI 16.0–35.2%. Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22–34% for females and 37% CI 26–48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transient responses induced by hypercapnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.J.


    CSF transient responses to CO 2 inhalation were measured before and after facilitated perfusate flow through subarachnoid spaces of anesthetized cats during ventriculocisternal perfusion with artificial CSF containing 14 C-dextran. Convective mixing of perfusate in subarachnoid spaces was augmented while infusion constant, either by impeding cisternal efflux of perfusate by raising the cisternal outflow cannula (high CSF pressure), or by preventing CSF outflow by clamping the cisternal outflow cannula (stopflow; S-F). CSF transients were also measured before and after systemic administration of phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) in order to evaluate the contribution of sympatho-adrenergic activity to craniospinal CSF redistribution and mixing. Results from high CSF pressure and S-F experiments indicate that unequilibrated CSF contributes significantly to the reduced tracer concentration in CSF volume (Vd) since SCF effluent tracer concentration (Cd) was decreased after subarachnoid facilitated flow. Further, results from S-F studies indicate that at least 50% of Cd is due to craniospinal fluid redistribution, a process which, along with CSF outflow transients, was unaffected by PBZ. Conversely, PBZ administration decreased steady state SCF formation and absorption through alpha-mediated cerebrovascular responses and/or through beta-adrenoceptor inhibition of metabolism of CSF secretory epithelium

  6. Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid. (United States)

    Shingleton, A W; Foster, W A


    The aphid Pseudoregma sundanica (Van der Goot) (Homoptera: Aphididae) has two defence strategies. It is obligatorily tended by various species of ant and also produces sterile soldiers. We investigated how they allocate their investment in these two strategies. We measured the size, number of soldiers, number and species of tending ant, and number and species of predators in P. sundanica populations. We found that the level of ant tending correlated negatively with soldier investment in P. sundanica. The species of tending ant also influenced soldier investment. We excluded ants from aphid populations and recorded changes in population size and structure over four weeks. Ant exclusion led to population decline and extinction. At the same time, surviving populations showed a significant increase in soldier investment. The data demonstrate that social aphids can adjust their investment in soldiers in direct response to environmental change.

  7. Specific Contributions of CSF-1 and GM-CSF to the Dynamics of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System. (United States)

    Louis, Cynthia; Cook, Andrew D; Lacey, Derek; Fleetwood, Andrew J; Vlahos, Ross; Anderson, Gary P; Hamilton, John A


    M-CSF (or CSF-1) and GM-CSF can regulate the development and function of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). To address some of the outstanding and sometimes conflicting issues surrounding this biology, we undertook a comparative analysis of the effects of neutralizing mAbs to these CSFs on murine MPS populations in the steady-state and during acute inflammatory reactions. CSF-1 neutralization, but not of GM-CSF, in normal mice rapidly reduced the numbers of more mature Ly6C(-) monocytes in blood and bone marrow, without any effect on proliferating precursors, and also the numbers of the resident peritoneal macrophages, observations consistent with CSF-1 signaling being essential only at a relatively late state in steady-state MPS development; in contrast, GM-CSF neutralization had no effect on the numbers of these particular populations. In Ag-induced peritonitis (AIP), thioglycolate-induced peritonitis, and LPS-induced lung inflammation, CSF-1 neutralization lowered inflammatory macrophage number; in the AIP model, this reduced number was not due to suppressed proliferation. More detailed studies with the convenient AIP model indicated that CSF-1 neutralization led to a relatively uniform reduction in all inflammatory cell populations; GM-CSF neutralization, in contrast, was more selective, resulting in the preferential loss among the MPS populations of a cycling, monocyte-derived inflammatory dendritic cell population. Some mechanistic options for the specific CSF-dependent biologies enumerated are discussed. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. US Army Soldiers With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. (United States)

    Choi, Y Sammy; Cucura, Jon


    US Army soldiers diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were previously considered unfit for duty. For highly motivated soldiers, current advanced technologies allow the possibility of not only retention on active duty, but military deployment. We present our experience at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, taking care of soldiers newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Through intensive diabetes education, extensive military and physical training, optimization of diabetes technology, and remote real-time monitoring, soldiers are able to continue to serve their country in the most specialized roles.

  9. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club


    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club  

  10. Timing of CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling blockade is critical to improving responses to CTLA-4 based immunotherapy (United States)

    Holmgaard, Rikke B.; Brachfeld, Alexandra; Gasmi, Billel; Jones, David R.; Mattar, Marissa; Doman, Thompson; Murphy, Mary; Schaer, David; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Merghoub, Taha


    ABSTRACT Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is produced by a variety of cancers and recruits myeloid cells that suppress antitumor immunity, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs.) Here, we show that both CSF-1 and its receptor (CSF-1R) are frequently expressed in tumors from cancer patients, and that this expression correlates with tumor-infiltration of MDSCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these tumor-infiltrating MDSCs are highly immunosuppressive but can be reprogrammed toward an antitumor phenotype in vitro upon CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling blockade. Supporting these findings, we show that inhibition of CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling using an anti-CSF-1R antibody can regulate both the number and the function of MDSCs in murine tumors in vivo. We further find that treatment with anti-CSF-1R antibody induces antitumor T-cell responses and tumor regression in multiple tumor models when combined with CTLA-4 blockade therapy. However, this occurs only when administered after or concurrent with CTLA-4 blockade, indicating that timing of each therapeutic intervention is critical for optimal antitumor responses. Importantly, MDSCs present within murine tumors after CTLA-4 blockade showed increased expression of CSF-1R and were capable of suppressing T cell proliferation, and CSF-1/CSF-1R expression in the human tumors was not reduced after treatment with CTLA-4 blockade immunotherapy. Taken together, our findings suggest that CSF-1R-expressing MDSCs can be targeted to modulate the tumor microenvironment and that timing of CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling blockade is critical to improving responses to checkpoint based immunotherapy. Significance: Infiltration by immunosuppressive myeloid cells contributes to tumor immune escape and can render patients resistant or less responsive to therapeutic intervention with checkpoint blocking antibodies. Our data demonstrate that blocking CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling using a monoclonal antibody directed to CSF-1R can regulate both the number

  11. Cine-MR imaging aqueductal CSF flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome before and after CSF shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascalchi, M.; Arnetoli, G.; Inzitari, D.; Dal Pozzo, G.; Lolli, F.; Caramella, D.; Bartolozzi, C.


    Reproducibility of the aqueductal CSF signal intensity on a gradient echo cine-MR sequence exploiting through plane inflow enhancement was tested in 11 patients with normal or dilated ventricles. Seven patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) syndrome were investigated with the sequence before and after CSF shunting. Two patients exhibiting central flow void within a hyperintense aqueductal CSF improved after surgery and the flow void disappeared after shunting. One patient with increased maximum and minimum aqueductal CSF signal as compared to 18 healthy controls also improved and the aqueductal CSF signal was considerably decreased after shunting. Three patients with aqueductal CSF values similar to those in the controls did not improve, notwithstanding their maximum aqueductal CSF signals decreasing slightly after shunting. No appreciable aqueductal CSF flow related enhancement consistent with non-communicating hydrocephalus was found in the last NPH patient who improved after surgery. Cine-MR with inflow technique yields a reproducible evaluation of flow-related aqueductal CSF signal changes which might help in identifying shunt responsive NPH patients. These are likely to be those with hyperdynamic aqueductal CSF or aqueductal obstruction. (orig.)

  12. Mental skills training with basic combat training soldiers: A group-randomized trial. (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; Pickering, Michael A; Hammermeister, Jon; Williams, Jason; Harada, Coreen; Csoka, Louis; Holliday, Bernie; Ohlson, Carl


    Cognitive skills training has been linked to greater skills, self-efficacy, and performance. Although research in a variety of organizational settings has demonstrated training efficacy, few studies have assessed cognitive skills training using rigorous, longitudinal, randomized trials with active controls. The present study examined cognitive skills training in a high-risk occupation by randomizing 48 platoons (N = 2,432 soldiers) in basic combat training to either (a) mental skills training or (b) an active comparison condition (military history). Surveys were conducted at baseline and 3 times across the 10-week course. Multilevel mixed-effects models revealed that soldiers in the mental skills training condition reported greater use of a range of cognitive skills and increased confidence relative to those in the control condition. Soldiers in the mental skills training condition also performed better on obstacle course events, rappelling, physical fitness, and initial weapons qualification scores, although effects were generally moderated by gender and previous experience. Overall, effects were small; however, given the rigor of the design, the findings clearly contribute to the broader literature by providing supporting evidence that cognitive training skills can enhance performance in occupational and sports settings. Future research should address gender and experience to determine the need for targeting such training appropriately. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Psychological characteristics of Swedish mandatory enlisted soldiers volunteering and not volunteering for international missions: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Osterberg, Johan


    The purpose of this study was to assess personality traits, psychological fitness, and hardiness among conscript soldiers volunteering for international missions (n = 146), by comparing them with conscripts from the same year class and unit who did not apply for international missions (n = 275). The sample consisted of all mandatory enlisted soldiers assigned to a supply and maintenance regiment. There were no demographic differences between the groups. The volunteers reported greater stress tolerance, concern for others, extraversion, and self-confidence than the non-volunteers. There were no differences between the groups in orderliness, temper instability, or independence. Volunteers repeatedly reported greater psychological fitness for military missions and greater hardiness over the period of military service compared to the non-volunteers.

  14. The influence of protein malnutrition on the production of GM-CSF and M-CSF by macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Cunha de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is well established that protein malnutrition (PM impairs immune defenses and increases susceptibility to infection. Macrophages are cells that play a central role in innate immunity, constituting one of the first barriers against infections. Macrophages produce several soluble factors, including cytokines and growth factors, important to the immune response. Among those growth factors, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. GM-CSF and M-CSF are important to monocyte and macrophage development and stimulation of the immune response process. Knowing the importance of GM-CSF and M-CSF, we sought to investigate the influence of PM on macrophage production of these growth factors. Two-month-old male BALB/c mice were subjected to PM with a low-protein diet (2% and compared to a control diet (12% mouse group. Nutritional status, hemogram and the number of peritoneal cells were evaluated. Additionally, peritoneal macrophages were cultured and the production of GM-CSF and M-CSF and mRNA expression were evaluated. To determine if PM altered macrophage production of GM-CSF and M-CSF, they were stimulated with TNF-α. The PM animals had anemia, leukopenia and a reduced number of peritoneal cells. The production of M-CSF was not different between groups; however, cells from PM animals, stimulated with or without TNF-α, presented reduced capability to produce GM-CSF. These data imply that PM interferes with the production of GM-CSF, and consequently would affect the production and maturation of hematopoietic cells and the immune response.

  15. Pivotal Roles of GM-CSF in Autoimmunity and Inflammation (United States)

    Shiomi, Aoi; Usui, Takashi


    Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor, which stimulates the proliferation of granulocytes and macrophages from bone marrow precursor cells. In autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, Th17 cells have been considered as strong inducers of tissue inflammation. However, recent evidence indicates that GM-CSF has prominent proinflammatory functions and that this growth factor (not IL-17) is critical for the pathogenicity of CD4+ T cells. Therefore, the mechanism of GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cell differentiation and the role of GM-CSF in the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases are gaining increasing attention. This review summarizes the latest knowledge of GM-CSF and its relationship with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The potential therapies targeting GM-CSF as well as their possible side effects have also been addressed in this review. PMID:25838639

  16. Comparison of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Toluidine Red Unheated Serum Test and the CSF Rapid Plasma Reagin Test with the CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test for Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis among HIV-Negative Syphilis Patients in China (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xin; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Cuini; Gao, Zixiao; Gao, Ying; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Seña, Arlene C.


    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commercial RPR antigen diluted 1:2 in 10% saline) test, the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Specificities, sensitivities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and kappa values were calculated to determine the performances of the tests. We compared results of the CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST among patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic neurosyphilis who had reactive CSF-Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test results. Overall, the CSF-VDRL test was reactive in 261 patients (23.1%). There were no cases in which the CSF-VDRL was nonreactive and CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, or CSF-TRUST was reactive. Agreement between the results of CSF-TRUST and CSF-RPR was almost perfect (κ = 0.861), with substantial agreement between the results of CSF-RPR and CSF-RPR-V (κ = 0.740). The sensitivities of CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST were 81.4%, 76.2%, 79.5%, and 76.2%, respectively. Compared to CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST had comparable PPVs and NPVs. However, the specificity of CSF-VDRL (90.3%) was significantly lower than those of the other tests (92.7 to 93.4%). Therefore, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST can be considered alternative tests for neurosyphilis diagnosis in HIV-negative populations, particularly when the CSF-VDRL is not available. PMID:24335955

  17. Mathematical Modelling of CSF Pulsatile Flow in Aqueduct Cerebri. (United States)

    Czosnyka, Zofia; Kim, Dong-Joo; Balédent, Olivier; Schmidt, Eric A; Smielewski, Peter; Czosnyka, Marek


    The phase-contrast MRI technique permits the non-invasive assessment of CSF movements in cerebrospinal fluid cavities of the central nervous system. Of particular interest is pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the aqueduct cerebri. It is allegedly increased in hydrocephalus, having potential diagnostic value, although not all scientific reports contain unequivocally positive conclusions. For the mathematical simulation of CSF flow, we used a computational model of cerebrospinal blood/fluid circulation designed by a former student as his PhD project. With this model, cerebral blood flow and CSF may be simulated in various vessels using a system of non-linear differential equations as time-varying signals. The amplitude of CSF flow seems to be positively related to the amplitude of pulse waveforms of intracranial pressure (ICP) in situations where mean ICP increases, such as during simulated infusion tests and following step increases of resistance to CSF outflow. An additional positive association between the pulse amplitude of ICP and CSF flow can be seen during simulated increases in the amplitude of arterial pulses (without changes in mean arterial pressure, MAP). The opposite effect can be observed during step increases in the resistance of the aqueduct cerebri and with decreasing elasticity of the system, where the CSF flow amplitude and the ICP pulse amplitude are related inversely. Vasodilatation caused by both gradual decreases in MAP and by increases in PaCO2 provokes an elevation in the observed amplitude of pulsatile CSF flow. Preliminary results indicate that the pulsations of CSF flow may carry information about both CSF-circulatory and cerebral vasogenic components. In most cases, the pulsations of CSF flow are positively related to the pulse amplitudes of both arterial pressure and ICP and to a degree of cerebrovascular dilatation.

  18. Characterization of lipoproteins in human and canine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitas, R.E.; Weisgraber, K.H.; Boyles, J.K.; Lee, S.; Mahley, R.W.


    Previously the authors demonstrated that rat brain astrocytes in vitro synthesize and secrete apo-E and possess apo-B,E(LDL) receptors. The apo-E secreted by astrocytes and apo-E in rat brain extracts differed from serum apo-E in two respects. Brain apo-E had a higher apparent molecular weight and a higher percentage of more acidic isoforms. To characterize further the apo-E within the central nervous system, apo-E in human and canine CSF was investigated. Compared to plasma apo-E, CSF apo-E had a higher apparent M/sub r/ and a higher percentage of acidic isoforms which were sialylated, as shown by neuraminidase digestion. The apo-E in human CSF was approx.5-10% of the plasma level. In CSF 60-80% of the apo-E was in lipoproteins with d = 1.09-1.15. The remainder of the apo-E was in the d > 1.21 fraction. Human CSF lipoproteins were primarily spherical (110-190 A) while canine CSF lipoproteins were a mixture of discs (205 x 65 A) while canine CSF lipoproteins were a mixture of discs (205 x 65 A) and spheres (100-150 A). The CSF also contained apo-AI in the d = 1.09-1.15 g/ml fraction. Human CSF lipoproteins containing both apo-E and apo-AI were isolated on an anti-apo-E affinity column, suggesting that apo-E and AI occurred in the same particles. The CSF apo-E-containing lipoproteins competed for binding of 125 I-LDL to the apo-B,E(LDL) receptor. There was no detectable apo-B in CSF. These data suggest that CSF lipoproteins might transport lipid and regulate lipid homeostasis within the brain

  19. Low CSF levels of both α-synuclein and the α-synuclein cleaving enzyme neurosin in patients with synucleinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Wennström

    Full Text Available Neurosin is a protease that in vitro degrades α-synuclein, the main constituent of Lewy bodies found in brains of patients with synucleinopathy including Parkinson's disease (PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. Several studies have reported reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of α-synuclein in synucleinopathy patients and recent data also proposes a significant role of α-synuclein in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD. To investigate potential links between neurosin and its substrate α-synuclein in vivo we used a commercially available sandwich ELISA and an in-house developed direct ELISA to quantify CSF levels of α-synuclein and neurosin in patients diagnosed with DLB, PD and PD dementia (PDD versus AD patients and non-demented controls. We found that patients with synucleinopathy displayed lower CSF levels of neurosin and α-synuclein compared to controls and AD patients. In contrast, AD patients demonstrated significantly increased CSF α-synuclein but similar neurosin levels compared to non-demented controls. Further, CSF neurosin and α-synuclein concentrations were positively associated in controls, PD and PDD patients and both proteins were highly correlated to CSF levels of phosphorylated tau in all investigated groups. We observed no effect of gender or presence of the apolipoprotein Eε4 allele on neither neurosin or α-synuclein CSF levels. In concordance with the current literature our study demonstrates decreased CSF levels of α-synuclein in synucleinopathy patients versus AD patients and controls. Importantly, decreased α-synuclein levels in patients with synucleinopathy appear linked to low levels of the α-synuclein cleaving enzyme neurosin. In contrast, elevated levels of α-synuclein in AD patients were not related to any altered CSF neurosin levels. Thus, altered CSF levels of α-synuclein and neurosin in patients with synucleinopathy versus AD may not only mirror disease-specific neuropathological

  20. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club


    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: For more info:

  1. Epithelial GM-CSF induction by Candida glabrata. (United States)

    Li, L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A


    The main cytokine induced by the interaction of oral epithelial cells with C. glabrata is granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); however, the mechanisms regulating this response are unknown. Based on previously published information on the interactions of C. albicans with oral epithelial cells, we hypothesized that interaction with viable C. glabrata triggers GM-CSF synthesis via NF-kappaB activation. We found that C. glabrata-induced GM-CSF synthesis was adhesion-dependent, enhanced by endocytosis, and required fungal viability. NF-kappaB activation was noted during interaction of epithelial cells with C. glabrata, and pre-treatment with an NF-kappaB inhibitor partly inhibited GM-CSF synthesis. Blocking TLR4 with anti-TLR4 antibody did not inhibit GM-CSF production. In contrast, an anti-CDw17 antibody triggered significant inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and GM-CSF synthesis. beta-glucans did not stimulate GM-CSF synthesis, suggesting that the CDw17/NF-kappaB/GM-CSF pathway may be beta-glucan-independent. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of GM-CSF induction by C. glabrata.

  2. Radiologic assessment of spinal CSF leakage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang Jin; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Jang Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Suh, Jung Ho


    To assess the usefulness of imaging modalities in the detection of spinal CSF leakage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Fifteen patients who complained of postural headache without any preceding cause showed typical brain MR findings of intracranial hypotension, including radiologically confirmed CSF leakage. All fifteen underwent brain MRI and radionuclide cisternography. CT myelography was performed in eight patients and spinal MRI in six. Medical records, imaging findings and the incidence of spinal CSF leakage during each modality were retrospectively reviewed. CSF leakage was most common at the cervicothoracic junction, where in seven of 15 cases it was seen on radionuclide cisternography as increased focal paraspinal activity. Leakage was noted at the mid-tho-racic level in three patients, at the upper thoracic level in two, and at the cervical and lumbar levels in the remaining two. In two patients multiple CSF leaks were noted, and in all, early radioactive accumulation in the bladder was visualized. CT myelography revealed extrathecal and paraspinal contrast leakage in three of eight patients, and among those who underwent spinal MRI, dural enhancement was observed at the site of CSF leakage in all six, abnormal CSF signal in the neural foramen in one, and epidural CSF collection in one. Radionuclide cisternography is a useful method for the detection of CSF leakage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. CT myelography and spinal MRI help determine the precise location of leakage

  3. Occurrence of occult CSF leaks during standard FESS procedures. (United States)

    Bucher, S; Kugler, A; Probst, E; Epprecht, L; Stadler, R S; Holzmann, D; Soyka, M B


    To determine the incidence of occult cerebrospinal fluid leaks (CSF) after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of beta2-transferrin in blood-contaminated conditions. Prospective cohort study. An analysis of 57 intraoperative samples using hydrogel 6 beta2-transferrin assay after FESS was undertaken. In case of CSF positive samples and continuing rhinorrhea, reanalysis after more than 1 year was conducted. In-vivo analysis of a primary spontaneous CSF leak sample took place to verify difficulties in detecting beta2-transferrin in blood-contaminated settings. Own titrations were performed to evaluate detection limits of CSF by beta2-transferrin and beta-trace protein assays in these settings. An incidence of 13% for occult CSF leaks after FESS was found. In blood-contaminated conditions, routine beta2-transferrin assays showed low sensitivity. In over 1 year follow-up, all samples were negative for CSF and none of them developed clinical relevant CSF leaks or meningitis. Occult and clinically irrelevant CSF leaks do occur in a significant proportion of patients during and shortly after FESS. Intra- and postoperatively, routine beta2-transferrin assays show low sensitivity. They should not be used in these settings. The clinical course of patients with occult CSF leaks indicated possibility of an uneventful follow-up.

  4. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.

  5. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Objective: To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi ... Methodology: A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling ..... gender equality and involvement of religious leaders ... unusual in Nigeria for women to use contraceptives .... United Arab Emirates.

  6. Global Deployment of Reserve Soldiers: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, Wendy; Healy-Morrow, Isabel


    ...? Is there an overlap in organizational cultures, or does military leadership need to provide special attention for these unique soldiers? The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a deeper understanding of the overlap between civilian and military organizational culture can improve the psychological preparedness of Reserve Force soldiers who are mobilized for full-time military operations.

  7. Hold Your Fire!: Preventing Fratricide in the Dismounted Soldier Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Jong, J.L. de; Hiemstra, H.; Schutte, K.; Marvelde, A. te; Norden, W. van; Spaans, M.


    Since WWI, an estimated 15% of all soldiers killed in combat are attributed to fratricide, and recent military operations show no decline. A substantial amount concerns fratricide incidents between dismounted soldiers. However, most techniques introduced to prevent fratricide focus on inter-vehicle

  8. Comparing the performance characteristics of CSF-TRUST and CSF-VDRL for syphilis: a cross-sectional study


    Gu, Weiming; Yang, Yang; Wu, Lei; Yang, Sheng; Ng, Lai-King


    Objective In this study, we aimed to determine the performance characteristics of toluidine red unheated serum test on cerebrospinal fluids (CSF-TRUST) as compared to venereal disease research laboratory test on cerebrospinal fluids (CSF-VDRL) for laboratory the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) clinics. Participants and methods CSF and serum samples were collected from 824 individual STD clinic patients who have syphili...

  9. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  10. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez


    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  11. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurman, K.O.A.; Somer, K.; Lamminen, A.


    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild. (orig.) [de

  12. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meurman, K O.A.; Somer, K; Lamminen, A


    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild.

  13. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.


    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  14. Physical training risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in female soldiers. (United States)

    Roy, Tanja C; Songer, Thomas; Ye, Feifei; LaPorte, Ronald; Grier, Tyson; Anderson, Morgan; Chervak, Michelle


    Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) result in the most medical encounters, lost duty days, and permanent disability. Women are at greater risk of injury than men and physical training is the leading cause of injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic, body composition, fitness, and physical training risk factors for injuries in female Soldiers serving in garrison Army units over the past 12 months. Self-report survey was collected from 625 women. The ankle was the most frequently injured body region, 13%. Running was the activity most often associated with injury, 34%. In univariate analysis lower rank, older age, history of deployment, no unit runs, weekly frequency of personal resistance training, and history of injury were all associated with injury. In multivariate analysis rank, history of injury, weekly frequency of unit runs, and weekly frequency of personal resistance training were the best combination of predictors of injury. Running once or twice a week with the unit protected against MSIs, whereas participating in personal resistance training sessions once or twice a week increased the risk of MSIs. With more emphasis on running and resistance training, the U.S. Army could reduce injuries and save billions of dollars in training and health care costs. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Chronic daily headache in U.S. soldiers after concussion. (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Flynn, Frederick G; Erickson, Jay C


    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of, and factors associated with, chronic daily headache (CDH) in U.S. soldiers after a deployment-related concussion. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted with a cohort of 978 U.S. soldiers who screened positive for a deployment-related concussion upon returning from Iraq or Afghanistan. All soldiers underwent a clinical evaluation at the Madigan Traumatic Brain Injury Program that included a history, physical examination, 13-item self-administered headache questionnaire, and a battery of cognitive and psychological assessments. Soldiers with CDH, defined as headaches occurring on 15 or more days per month for the previous 3 months, were compared to soldiers with episodic headaches occurring less than 15 days per month. One hundred ninety-six of 978 soldiers (20%) with a history of deployment-related concussion met criteria for CDH and 761 (78%) had episodic headache. Soldiers with CDH had a median of 27 headache days per month, and 46/196 (23%) reported headaches occurring every day. One hundred seven out of 196 (55%) soldiers with CDH had onset of headaches within 1 week of head trauma and thereby met the time criterion for posttraumatic headache (PTHA) compared to 253/761 (33%) soldiers with episodic headache. Ninety-seven out of 196 (49%) soldiers with CDH used abortive medications to treat headache on 15 or more days per month for the previous 3 months. One hundred thirty out of 196 (66%) soldiers with CDH had headaches meeting criteria for migraine compared to 49% of soldiers with episodic headache. The number of concussions, blast exposures, and concussions with loss of consciousness was not significantly different between soldiers with and without CDH. Cognitive performance was also similar for soldiers with and without CDH. Soldiers with CDH had significantly higher average scores on the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist compared to soldiers with episodic headaches. Forty

  16. Respiration and the watershed of spinal CSF flow in humans. (United States)

    Dreha-Kulaczewski, Steffi; Konopka, Mareen; Joseph, Arun A; Kollmeier, Jost; Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Ludwig, Hans-Christoph; Gärtner, Jutta; Frahm, Jens


    The dynamics of human CSF in brain and upper spinal canal are regulated by inspiration and connected to the venous system through associated pressure changes. Upward CSF flow into the head during inspiration counterbalances venous flow out of the brain. Here, we investigated CSF motion along the spinal canal by real-time phase-contrast flow MRI at high spatial and temporal resolution. Results reveal a watershed of spinal CSF dynamics which divides flow behavior at about the level of the heart. While forced inspiration prompts upward surge of CSF flow volumes in the entire spinal canal, ensuing expiration leads to pronounced downward CSF flow, but only in the lower canal. The resulting pattern of net flow volumes during forced respiration yields upward CSF motion in the upper and downward flow in the lower spinal canal. These observations most likely reflect closely coupled CSF and venous systems as both large caval veins and their anastomosing vertebral plexus react to respiration-induced pressure changes.

  17. Interpretation and value of MR CSF flow studies for paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imaging techniques may be underutilised when clinicians are unaware of the technique or do not recognise its potential. Phase-contrast MR imaging (PC-MRI) is a rapid, simple and non-invasive technique that is sensitive to CSF flow. It demonstrates a mechanical coupling between cerebral blood and CSF flow throughout ...

  18. Computed tomography in the CSF seeding of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshio; Fujimoto, Masahito; Naruse, Shoji; Ueda, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi


    In the past three years nine cases of brain tumors with CSF seeding have been revealed by computed tomography (CT). We have been analyzing the CT pattern of CSF seeding, CSF cytology, and spinal metastasis. The brain tumors were classified as follows: five medulloblastomas, two glioblastomas, one germinoma, and one meningeal carcinomatosis. Their CT patterns were divided into three groups: 1) diffuse seeding of the basal cisterns. 2) invasion of the ventricular wall. 3) solitary metastasis in the ventricle. The subarachnoid seeding included four medulloblastomas and one meningeal carcinomatosis. The second type of seeding included two glioblastomas and one germinoma. One medulloblastoma had a single metastasis in the lateral ventricle. In the medulloblastomas, the diffuse seeding of the basal cisterns was more common than the invasion of the ventricular wall or solitary metastasis in the ventricle. Medulloblastomas were also accompanied by spinal metastasis. Because there were many cases of spinal metastasis in the first type of seeding, we concluded that there was a definite correlation between the CSF seeding of the basal cisterns and spinal metastasis. Needless to say, CT was the most important method for the diagnosis of the CSF seeding of brain tumors. However, because there was a case of CSF seeding which had not been demonstrated by CT, we also emphasized the importance of neurological examination and CSF cytology in the diagnosis of the CSF seeding of brain tumors. (author)

  19. [Therapeutic use of hematopoietic growth factors. II. GM-CSF and G-CSF]. (United States)

    Royer, B; Arock, M


    The second part of this review on haematopoietic growth factors is focused on the therapeutic use of GM-CSF and G-CSF. Such therapeutic applications have raised very great hopes for clinical haematology. However, it should not be forgotten that these haematopoietic growth factors, which are very costly, are powerful two-edged weapons capable of triggering a cascade of reactions, and have a field of activity that often goes beyond the single highly specific property which it is hoped they possess. The risks and costs of their use are currently being evaluated. Waited developments concerning these molecules focus on three axes: a best use of factors already commercialized, especially concerning adaptation of posologies and new indications, the development of hybrid molecules from already known haematopoietic growth factors, possessing the advantages of respective factors, but not their disadvantages, the discovery of new haematopoietic growth factors with potential therapeutic application.

  20. Risk score for identifying adults with CSF pleocytosis and negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Bijlsma, Merijn; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Khoury, Nabil; Hadi, Christiane M.; van der Ende, Arie; Wootton, Susan H.; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hossain, Md Monir; Beilke, Mark; van de Beek, Diederik


    We aimed to derive and validate a risk score that identifies adults with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause. Patients with CSF pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain were stratified into a prospective derivation (n = 193)

  1. GM-CSF, IL-3 and G-CSF receptors on acute myeloid leukemia cells : function, regulation of expression, and ligand binding characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Budel (Leo)


    textabstractIL-3, GM-CSF and G-CSF stimulate proliferation of human acute myeloid leukemia in vitro, but patterns of response among clinical cases are diverse. As described in Chapters 2 and 3, numbers and affinity of IL-3, GM-CSF and G-CSF receptors on cells of patients with AML were assessed and

  2. Stem Cell Mobilization with G-CSF versus Cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF in Mexican Children. (United States)

    Meraz, José Eugenio Vázquez; Arellano-Galindo, José; Avalos, Armando Martínez; Mendoza-García, Emma; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva


    Fifty-six aphaereses were performed in 23 pediatric patients with malignant hematological and solid tumors, following three different protocols for PBPC mobilization and distributed as follows: A: seventeen mobilized with 4 g/m(2) of cyclophosphamide (CFA) and 10 μg/kg/day of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), B: nineteen with CFA + G-CSF, and C: twenty only with G-CSF when the WBC count exceeded 10 × 10(9)/L. The average number of MNC/kg body weight (BW)/aphaeresis was 0.4 × 10(8) (0.1-1.4), 2.25 × 10(8) (0.56-6.28), and 1.02 × 10(8) (0.34-2.5) whereas the average number of CD34+ cells/kg BW/aphaeresis was 0.18 × 10(6)/kg (0.09-0.34), 1.04 × 10(6) (0.19-9.3), and 0.59 × 10(6) (0.17-0.87) and the count of CFU/kg BW/aphaeresis was 1.11 × 10(5) (0.31-2.12), 1.16 × 10(5) (0.64-2.97), and 1.12 × 10(5) (0.3-6.63) in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The collection was better in group B versus group A (p = 0.007 and p = 0.05, resp.) and in group C versus group A (p = 0.08 and p = 0.05, resp.). The collection of PBPCs was more effective in the group mobilized with CFM + G-CSF when the WBC exceeded 10 × 10(3)/μL in terms of MNC and CD34+ cells and there was no toxicity of the chemotherapy.

  3. Stem Cell Mobilization with G-CSF versus Cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF in Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eugenio Vázquez Meraz


    Full Text Available Fifty-six aphaereses were performed in 23 pediatric patients with malignant hematological and solid tumors, following three different protocols for PBPC mobilization and distributed as follows: A: seventeen mobilized with 4 g/m2 of cyclophosphamide (CFA and 10 μg/kg/day of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, B: nineteen with CFA + G-CSF, and C: twenty only with G-CSF when the WBC count exceeded 10 × 109/L. The average number of MNC/kg body weight (BW/aphaeresis was 0.4 × 108 (0.1–1.4, 2.25 × 108 (0.56–6.28, and 1.02 × 108 (0.34–2.5 whereas the average number of CD34+ cells/kg BW/aphaeresis was 0.18 × 106/kg (0.09–0.34, 1.04 × 106 (0.19–9.3, and 0.59 × 106 (0.17–0.87 and the count of CFU/kg BW/aphaeresis was 1.11 × 105 (0.31–2.12, 1.16 × 105 (0.64–2.97, and 1.12 × 105 (0.3–6.63 in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The collection was better in group B versus group A (p=0.007 and p=0.05, resp. and in group C versus group A (p=0.08 and p=0.05, resp.. The collection of PBPCs was more effective in the group mobilized with CFM + G-CSF when the WBC exceeded 10 × 103/μL in terms of MNC and CD34+ cells and there was no toxicity of the chemotherapy.

  4. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club


    Open to All: Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  5. Variability of CSF Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: implications for clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J B Vos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers are increasingly being used for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of CSF intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability on diagnostic CSF-based AD classification of subjects and identified causes of this variation. METHODS: We measured CSF amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42, total tau (t-tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau by INNOTEST enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA in a memory clinic population (n = 126. Samples were measured twice in a single or two laboratories that served as reference labs for CSF analyses in the Netherlands. Predefined cut-offs were used to classify CSF biomarkers as normal or abnormal/AD pattern. RESULTS: CSF intralaboratory variability was higher for Aβ1-42 than for t-tau and p-tau. Reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification (normal vs. abnormal of 26% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 10% based on t-tau, and 29% based on p-tau. The changes in absolute biomarker concentrations were paralleled by a similar change in levels of internal control samples between different assay lots. CSF interlaboratory variability was higher for p-tau than for Aβ1-42 and t-tau, and reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification of 12% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 1% based on t-tau, and 22% based on p-tau. CONCLUSIONS: Intralaboratory and interlaboratory CSF variability frequently led to change in diagnostic CSF-based AD classification for Aβ1-42 and p-tau. Lot-to-lot variation was a major cause of intralaboratory variability. This will have implications for the use of these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  6. A Structural Equation Modeling of the Relationships between Depression, Drug Abuse and Social Support with Suicidal Ideation among Soldiers in Iran in 2015. (United States)

    Nosratabadi, Mehdi; Halvaiepour, Zohreh


    Military service is a crucial period in the lives of young people and during this period soldier facing with multiple psychosocial problems. The present study aimed to explore structural analysis of the relationships between depression, drug abuse, social support and the risk of suicidal ideation among Military Medical University soldiers in Iran. In the present correlational research, a sample of 176 soldiers, from three units, was selected using randomly stratified sampling. Data were collected through the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) and the Possibility of Drug Abuse Scale (LDAS). Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the model, identify direct and indirect effects of the psychosocial correlates. Data were analyzed using the SPSS and AMOS software (Verson22). out of the whole subjects, 28.4% had suicidal ideation and 65.3% had degrees of depression (mild to severe). A significant reverse relationship was observed between social support and suicidal ideation (pdrug abuse and suicidal ideation. The final structural model indicated that 74% of the variance in suicidal ideation was explained by the three examined variables of depression, social support and drug abuse. The overall results showed that the risk of suicidal ideation, depression and drug abuse are relatively significant in Military Medical University soldiers requiring taking serious actions by the authorities and other relevant organizations in order to improve the psychosocial health status of these soldiers.

  7. Functional changes in CSF volume estimated using measurement of water T2 relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piechnik, S.K.; Evans, J.; Bary, L.H.; Wise, R.G.; Jezzard, P.


    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides hydraulic suspension for the brain. The general concept of bulk CSF production, circulation, and reabsorption is well established, but the mechanisms of momentary CSF volume variation corresponding to vasoreactive changes are far less understood. Nine individuals

  8. BOOK REVIEW - International Law and Child Soldiers by Gus Waschefort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Robinson


    Full Text Available Long gone are the days that the law pertaining to children essentially dealt with the position of children within the parent-child relationship. On the contrary it has become a highly specialised legal discipline in which international and regional conventions progressively establish norms and standards to be adhered to. This book by Waschefort, the 53rd volume in the series Studies in International Law, bears ample testimony to this. It reviews all of the international instruments containing proscriptive norms to prohibit the use and recruitment of child soldiers. It commences with an analysis of the current state of child soldiering internationally, after which relevant international instruments are comprehensively discussed with a clear focus on the question of whether or not the prohibitive norms are optimally enforced – are they capable of better enforcement? The author adopts an “issues-based approach” in terms of which no specific regime of law, for instance International Humanitarian Law, is considered dominant. He assesses universal and regional human rights law together with International Human Rights Law and International Criminal Law to establish a mutually reinforcing web of protection for children. He also critically assesses the international judicial, quasi-judicial and non-judicial entities most relevant to child soldier prevention. He argues that the effective implementation of child soldier prohibitive norms does not require fundamental changes to any entity or functionary engaged in such prevention. In fact, what is required according to the author is the constant reassessment and refinement of all such entities and functionaries. The conclusions which are reached are ultimately tested against the background of a comprehensive case study on the use and recruitment of child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. International Law and Child Soldiers is to be welcomed as a timely contribution to the evaluation

  9. Cloning and expression of porcine Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) and Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) and analysis of the species specificity of stimulation by CSF-1 and Interleukin 34 (United States)

    Gow, Deborah J.; Garceau, Valerie; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Sester, David P.; Fici, Greg J.; Shelly, John A.; Wilson, Thomas L.; Hume, David A.


    Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF-1) controls the survival, differentiation and proliferation of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system. A second ligand for the CSF-1R, Interleukin 34 (IL-34), has been described, but its physiological role is not yet known. The domestic pig provides an alternative to traditional rodent models for evaluating potential therapeutic applications of CSF-1R agonists and antagonists. To enable such studies, we cloned and expressed active pig CSF-1. To provide a bioassay, pig CSF-1R was expressed in the factor-dependent Ba/F3 cell line. On this transfected cell line, recombinant porcine CSF-1 and human CSF-1 had identical activity. Mouse CSF-1 does not interact with the human CSF-1 receptor but was active on pig. By contrast, porcine CSF-1 was active on mouse, human, cat and dog cells. IL-34 was previously shown to be species-specific, with mouse and human proteins demonstrating limited cross-species activity. The pig CSF-1R was equally responsive to both mouse and human IL-34. Based upon the published crystal structures of CSF-1/CSF-1R and IL34/CSF-1R complexes, we discuss the molecular basis for the species specificity. PMID:22974529

  10. Pleocytosis is not fully responsible for low CSF glucose in meningitis. (United States)

    Baud, Maxime O; Vitt, Jeffrey R; Robbins, Nathaniel M; Wabl, Rafael; Wilson, Michael R; Chow, Felicia C; Gelfand, Jeffrey M; Josephson, S Andrew; Miller, Steve


    The mechanism of hypoglycorrhachia-low CSF glucose-in meningitis remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the relative contribution of CSF inflammation vs microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in lowering CSF glucose levels. We retrospectively categorized CSF profiles into microbial and aseptic meningitis and analyzed CSF leukocyte count, glucose, and protein concentrations. We assessed the relationship between these markers using multivariate and stratified linear regression analysis for initial and repeated CSF sampling. We also calculated the receiver operating characteristics of CSF glucose and CSF-to-serum glucose ratios to presumptively diagnose microbial meningitis. We found that increasing levels of CSF inflammation were associated with decreased CSF glucose levels in the microbial but not aseptic category. Moreover, elevated CSF protein levels correlated more strongly than the leukocyte count with low CSF glucose levels on initial ( R 2 = 36%, p CSF sampling ( R 2 = 46%, p CSF glucose and CSF-to-serum glucose ratios had similar low sensitivity and moderate-to-high specificity in diagnosing microbial meningitis at thresholds commonly used. The main driver of hypoglycorrhachia appears to be a combination of microbial meningitis with moderate to high degrees of CSF inflammation and proteins, suggesting that the presence of microorganisms capable of catabolizing glucose is a determinant of hypoglycorrhachia in meningitis. A major notable exception is neurosarcoidosis. Low CSF glucose and CSF-to-serum glucose ratios are useful markers for the diagnosis of microbial meningitis.

  11. CSF circulation in subjects with the empty sella syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brismar, K.; Bergstrand, G.


    In the present study the CSF circulation was analyzed in 48 subjects with ESS with gamma cisternography, pneumoencephalography (PEG) und computed tomography (CT). In 80% of the subjects the CSF circulation was retarded with convexity block which was combined with widened CSF transport pathways and basal cisterns. These findings were correlated with the clinical signs and symptoms. Headache, psychiatric symptoms, visual field defects and obesity, however, were not related to the impaired CSF circulation. It is concluded that impaired CSF dynamics leading to intermittent increase of ICP has a major impact on the development of the ESS and that most of the patients' complaints are related to this disturbance. Thus is is important to obtain information of the CSF dynamics concurrent with the diagnosis of ESS. For this purpose PEG or CT may be used as the first examination. Moreover, the patient should be examined at least every second year for symptoms and signs of progressive impairments of the CSF circulation. (orig./MG)

  12. Measurement of CSF volume with 3D-FASE MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Shoichi; Calderon, A.; Makita, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Yukou; Tsunoda, Akira; Sato, Kiyoshi.


    A noninvasive and fast cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume measurement method has been developed using 3D-FASE MRI and a semi-automatic segmentation process. Images with a high CSF/(gray and white matter) ratio (about 10-20) were obtained with a heavily T 2 weighted 3D-FASE sequence. The CSF region was segmented with a region growing method and the volume was calculated from the number of segmented voxels with a signal intensity weighted summation. Total measurement time was about 30 minutes for each study. The errors of the measured volumes were within 10% for the phantom experiments. Intracranial CSF volumes of normal volunteers ranged between about 100 and 200 cc and the ventricle/intracranial CSF ratio was about 10%. 3D display of the segmented intracranial and ventricle CSF regions was also carried out and proved to be useful to understand the anatomy. Increased intracranial and/or ventricle CSF volumes were obtained for a hydrocephalic patient and one patient with probable cerebral atrophy. The results suggest that the developed method could be used for the diagnosis of patients with neurological diseases. (author)

  13. CSF glial markers correlate with survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Süssmuth, S D; Sperfeld, A D; Hinz, A; Brettschneider, J; Endruhn, S; Ludolph, A C; Tumani, H


    In neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), CSF biomarkers are increasingly studied to evaluate their relevance for differential diagnosis, disease progression, and understanding of pathophysiologic processes. To identify a biomarker profile of neuronal and glial CSF proteins to discriminate ALS from other motor neuron diseases (MND) and to assess whether baseline levels of CSF measures in ALS are associated with the course of the disease. A total of 122 consecutive subjects with MND were included in this cross-sectional study (ALS, n = 75; lower motor neuron syndrome, n = 39; upper motor neuron diseases, n = 8). Clinical follow-up included 76 patients. We determined baseline levels of protein tau and astroglial S100beta in CSF and microglial sCD14 in CSF and serum in relation to diagnosis, duration of disease, and survival. CSF tau was significantly elevated in ALS and upper motor neuron diseases as compared to lower motor neuron diseases and controls. CSF S100beta levels were significantly lower in lower motor neuron diseases as compared to other MND. CSF concentrations of S100beta and sCD14 correlated with the survival time in patients with ALS. In motor neuron diseases, CSF tau elevation indicates the degeneration of upper motor neurons, while S100 beta and sCD14 may indicate the activation of CNS glial cells. Because S100beta and sCD14 concentrations correlate with survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we suppose that the combination of both markers may be useful to obtain prognostic information in patients with ALS.

  14. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany]. (United States)

    Zito, Dima


    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  15. Soldier's Expectancies, Implications for Recruitment and Job Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelooven, Renier


    .... Also expectancies about a job influence attrition and job satisfaction. This paper uses results of several studies to describe the image of the soldiers job and its effects on recruitment, early attrition and job satisfaction.

  16. Theory to Strategy: War Insight for the Strategic Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fregoso, Luis A


    .... These Strategic Soldiers and their respective leaders must not only be aware of their potential influence in a war environment, they must learn how to harness this ability in support of their nation's war strategy...

  17. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service ... school in northern Uganda with a case of mass psychotic behavior. ... Methods: Data on post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, physical ...

  18. Computer Backgrounds of Soldiers in Army Units: FY00

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fober, Gene


    .... Soldiers from four Army installations were given a survey that examined their experiences with computers, self-perceptions of their skill, and an objective test of their ability to identify Windows-based icons...

  19. The Computer Backgrounds of Soldiers in Army Units: FY01

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Harnam


    A multi-year research effort was instituted in FY99 to examine soldiers' experiences with computers, self- perceptions of their computer skill, and their ability to identify frequently used, Windows-based icons...

  20. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club


      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  1. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club


    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here:

  2. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club


    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info:  

  3. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club


      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  4. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance


    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.


    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  5. Improving Employment Prospects for Soldiers Leaving the Regular Army (United States)


    difficulties in the civilian job market . Furthermore, since 2012, the Army has been reducing its active component end strength; this has increased the number... online versions of the surveys to collect data on civilian occupations. Making the surveys available to soldiers online and integrating them into the...civilian occupation matches by MOS and pay grade. An online format could even help gen- erate job recommendations for individual soldiers based on

  6. Training Capability Data for Dismounted Soldier Training System (United States)


    Virtual Squad Training System ( VSTS ). Like some of its predecessors, VSTS included a combination of man-wearable, tethered, and desktop interfaces...Simulator Bayonet w/Omni Directional Treadmill TRAC-WSMR Soldier Station Soldier Visualization Station V-IMTS SVS2-DI, DAGGERS, ASWETS VSTS Dismounted...Simulation, VSTS – Virtual Squad Training System 4 and microphone. The VSMM utilizes radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and hand sensors to

  7. Enhancing the Physical Fitness in the Marine Corps (United States)


    34 Coordination Technique: Harmonious combination or interaction of physical movements. " Psychological Factors: Pertaining to, dealing with, or affecting the mind...sports such as soccer , volleyball, wrestling, basketball, etc. While the soldier is trained in other tasks which contribute to his physical fitness...glycogen (the form in which carbohydrates are stored in human tissue) to lactic and pyruvic acid ( carbohydrate metabolism formed from either glucose

  8. A Methodology for Measuring the Physiological Strain of Enhanced Soldiers: The 1998 Soldier Combat System Enhancement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amos, Denys


    ... or enhanced capabilities conducting routine operations in the tropics. Core temperature, mean skin temperature and heart rate are appropriate measures for evaluating the physiological burden of soldier combat system enhancements...

  9. Inhibiting the Ca2+ Influx Induced by Human CSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Drews


    Full Text Available One potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD is to use antibodies that bind to small soluble protein aggregates to reduce their toxic effects. However, these therapies are rarely tested in human CSF before clinical trials because of the lack of sensitive methods that enable the measurement of aggregate-induced toxicity at low concentrations. We have developed highly sensitive single vesicle and single-cell-based assays that detect the Ca2+ influx caused by the CSF of individuals affected with AD and healthy controls, and we have found comparable effects for both types of samples. We also show that an extracellular chaperone clusterin; a nanobody specific to the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ; and bapineuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody raised against Aβ, could all reduce the Ca2+ influx caused by synthetic Aβ oligomers but are less effective in CSF. These assays could be used to characterize potential therapeutic agents in CSF before clinical trials.

  10. Chemical meningitis related to intra-CSF liposomal cytarabine. (United States)

    Durand, Bénédicte; Zairi, Fahed; Boulanger, Thomas; Bonneterre, Jacques; Mortier, Laurent; Le Rhun, Emilie


    Therapeutic options of leptomeningeal metastases include intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemotherapy. Among intra-CSF agents, liposomal cytarabine has advantages but can induce specific toxicities. A BRAF-V600E-mutated melanoma leptomeningeal metastases patient, treated by dabrafenib and liposomal cytarabine, presented after the first injection of liposomal cytarabine with hyperthermia and headaches. Despite sterile CSF/blood analyses, extended intravenous antibiotics were given and the second injection was delayed. The diagnosis of chemical meningitis was finally made. Dose reduction and appropriate symptomatic treatment permitted the administration of 15 injections of liposomal cytarabine combined with dabrafenib. A confirmation of the diagnosis of chemical meningitis is essential in order (1) not to delay intra-CSF or systemic chemotherapy or (2) to limit the administration of unnecessary but potentially toxic antibiotics.

  11. Application of RI-counting method for posttraumatic CSF rhinorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takahiko; Terai, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Shunichiro; Kawauchi, Masamitsu.


    Numerous techniques and procedures have been reported for the evaluation of CSF fistulas. Especially metrizamide CT cisternography and radioisotope (RI) cisternography have been reported to be reliable for localizing the site of CSF leakage, however, it has been difficult to diagnose the existence and the site of CSF leakages in some cases. RI-counting method, measuring RI-count of intranasal cotton pledgets after the intrathecal injection of RI ( 111 In-DTPA) is thought to be the most reliable method for detecting the presence of CSF leakage in these cases. We used six cotton pledgets which were inserted into upper, middle, and lower meatuses on both side. Because the site of pledgets with ghest RI-count has anatomical relationship to the opening of the paranasal sinus, we can surmise the leakage of dural defect and CSF leakage. RI counting method was applied to two patients in whom it was difficult to diagnose the presence of CSF leakage with other procedures. The patients were free in position for four hours after the intrathecal injection of RI, and in the prone position for 30 minutes before RI-counting of intranasal cotton pledgets. After measuring the RI-counts of six pledgets, the counts were compared with each other. The cotton pledget inserted into left middle meatus showed the highest count in both cases. From this result and finding of conventional skull tomography we speculated the site of CSF leakage to be frontal sinus or ethmoid sinus. Operation demonstrated the opening of dura into the frontal sinus in one case, and ethmoid sinus in another case. As mentioned above, RI-counting method has the advantages of detecting the existence and the site of CSF leakage. (author)

  12. The European iNPH Multicentre Study on the predictive values of resistance to CSF outflow and the CSF Tap Test in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Carsten; Hellström, Per; Klinge, Petra Margarete


    The objective was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CSF Tap Test (CSF TT) and resistance to CSF outflow (Rout) for the outcome of shunting in a sample of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).......The objective was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CSF Tap Test (CSF TT) and resistance to CSF outflow (Rout) for the outcome of shunting in a sample of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH)....

  13. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club


    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at   Hope to see you among us! In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  14. Delivery of GM-CSF to Protect against Influenza Pneumonia (United States)

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Hillberry, Zachary; Chen, Han; Feng, Yan; Fletcher, Kalyn; Neuenschwander, Pierre; Shams, Homayoun


    Background Since adaptive immunity is thought to be central to immunity against influenza A virus (IAV) pneumonias, preventive strategies have focused primarily on vaccines. However, vaccine efficacy has been variable, in part because of antigenic shift and drift in circulating influenza viruses. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of innate immunity in protecting against influenza. Methods Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) contributes to maturation of mononuclear phagocytes, enhancing their capacity for phagocytosis and cytokine production. Results Overexpression of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the lung of transgenic mice provides remarkable protection against IAV, which depends on alveolar macrophages (AM). In this study, we report that pulmonary delivery of GM-CSF to wild type young and aged mice abrogated mortality from IAV. Conclusion We also demonstrate that protection is species specific and human GM-CSF do not protect the mice nor stimulates mouse immunity. We also show that IAV-induced lung injury is the culprit for side-effects of GM-CSF in treating mice after IAV infection, and introduce a novel strategy to deliver the GM-CSF to and retain it in the alveolar space even after IAV infection. PMID:25923215

  15. Observation of the CSF pulsatile flow on MRI, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Shigeki; Nagai, Hajime; Suzuka, Tomonao; Matsumoto, Takashi; Banno, Tatsuo


    In a retrospective study of the MR images of 289 neurosurgical patients, a loss of the signal intensity (the signal-void phenomenon =SVP) of the cerebrospinal fluid in the mesencephalic aqueduct was observed in 77 patients. The CSF in the cranial cavity flows toward the spinal sac in a to-and-fro manner in response to the pulsations of the brain. Because the intracranial compliance is lower than the intraspinal compliance, the systolic expansions and diastolic reductions in the brain volume are buffered by the spinal cavity via this to-and-fro flow of CSF. The SVP reflects the CSF pulsatile flow forced out of the intracranial space into the intraspinal space by the brain's pulsations. Intracranial abnormalities can be divided into two categories according to the craniospinal compliance (CC): normal CC (communicating hydrocephalus) and decreased CC (supratentorial tumor). We may expect those conditions which increase compliance to increase the CSF flow and yield a more prominent SVP. Conversely, conditions which decrease compliance may be expected to decrease the flow and extinguish the SVP. Both the brain's pulsations and the compliance of the craniospinal cavity are closely related to the presence of the SVP in CSF, as revealed by MRI. The SVP in CSF may reflect the pressure-buffering capacity of the cranio-spinal cavity. If further investigation supports our hypothesis, it may be possible to estimate the intracranial pressure noninvasively. (author)

  16. Delivery of GM-CSF to Protect against Influenza Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Subramaniam

    Full Text Available Since adaptive immunity is thought to be central to immunity against influenza A virus (IAV pneumonias, preventive strategies have focused primarily on vaccines. However, vaccine efficacy has been variable, in part because of antigenic shift and drift in circulating influenza viruses. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of innate immunity in protecting against influenza.Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF contributes to maturation of mononuclear phagocytes, enhancing their capacity for phagocytosis and cytokine production.Overexpression of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in the lung of transgenic mice provides remarkable protection against IAV, which depends on alveolar macrophages (AM. In this study, we report that pulmonary delivery of GM-CSF to wild type young and aged mice abrogated mortality from IAV.We also demonstrate that protection is species specific and human GM-CSF do not protect the mice nor stimulates mouse immunity. We also show that IAV-induced lung injury is the culprit for side-effects of GM-CSF in treating mice after IAV infection, and introduce a novel strategy to deliver the GM-CSF to and retain it in the alveolar space even after IAV infection.

  17. Soldiers suicides risk factors in the Serbian Army Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedić Gordana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analyses of suicide risk factors enable to undertake appropriate preventive measures within the Suicide Prevention Program in Military Environment, which was fully applied in 2003 in the Serbian Army Forces. The aim of our study was to identify the most important suicide risk factors in soldiers within the period from 1998 to 2007. Methods. Analysis of suicide risk factors was carried out on the basis of data obtained by psychological suicide autopsy. The control group was matched with adapted soldiers by socio-demographic factors. A descriptive statistical analysis was used. Comparison of groups of soldiers was done by the t-test and Pearson's χ2-test. Results. A total of 35 soldiers aged 22-49 years (21.76 ± 1.76 years on average committed suicide within the period 1999-2007, the 2/3 within, and 1/3 out of a military compound. More than one half soldiers committed suicide after transferring to a different post. Soldiers who committed suicide had come from uncompleted, dysfunctional families (p < 0.05. In comparison with the adapted soldiers, in premilitary period they had more interpersonal problems with their comrades (p < 0.001 and problems with law (p < 0.05. During military service, alcohol consumption was less presented; they used to have fewer separation problems (p < 0.05 and to be rarely awarded (p < 0.001 in comparison with the adapted soldiers. A soldier who committed suicide was emotionally and socially immature persons. The commonest motives for suicide were: decreased capacity of adaptation to military service, actual psychic disturbance, emotional interruption, fear of environment judgment, actual family problems, but in the one fifth, motive stayed unrecognized. Conclusion. Suicide risk factors in soldiers are primary in their immature personality organization, its relation with family and military environment factors which, in coexistence with actual life accidents, result in suicide as a consequence. A

  18. CSF flow: Correlation between signal void and CSF velocity measured by gated velocity phase-encoded MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, A.S.; Feinberg, D.A.


    The direction of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the foramen of Monro (FOM) and aqueduct was determined in 15 normal volunteers (5 of whom had also been studied with gated spin-echo sequences) using a cardiac-gated Fourier transform velocity imaging technique (VMR). The VMR showed that the periodic pattern of flow void seen in the aqueduct and FOM on the gated spin-echo images was due to antegrade CSF flow from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle and aqueduct during systole and retrograde flow from the aqueduct into the third ventricle and lateral ventricles during late diastole. These findings could not be explained if the CSF pulsations originated in the third ventricle, as had been previously proposed, and suggest the lateral ventricles play an important role in the pulsatile motion of CSF

  19. Upfront plerixafor plus G-CSF versus cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF for stem cell mobilization in multiple myeloma: efficacy and cost analysis study. (United States)

    Afifi, S; Adel, N G; Devlin, S; Duck, E; Vanak, J; Landau, H; Chung, D J; Lendvai, N; Lesokhin, A; Korde, N; Reich, L; Landgren, O; Giralt, S; Hassoun, H


    Cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF (C+G-CSF) is one of the most widely used stem cell (SC) mobilization regimens for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Plerixafor plus G-CSF (P+G-CSF) has demonstrated superior SC mobilization efficacy when compared with G-CSF alone and has been shown to rescue patients who fail mobilization with G-CSF or C+G-CSF. Despite the proven efficacy of P+G-CSF in upfront SC mobilization, its use has been limited, mostly due to concerns of high price of the drug. However, a comprehensive comparison of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of SC mobilization using C+G-CSF versus P+G-CSF is not available. In this study, we compared 111 patients receiving C+G-CSF to 112 patients receiving P+G-CSF. The use of P+G-CSF was associated with a higher success rate of SC collection defined as ⩾5 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (94 versus 83%, P=0.013) and less toxicities. Thirteen patients in the C+G-CSF arm were hospitalized owing to complications while none in the P+G-CSF group. C+G-CSF was associated with higher financial burden as assessed using institutional-specific costs and charges (P<0.001) as well as using Medicare reimbursement rates (P=0.27). Higher rate of hospitalization, increased need for salvage mobilization, and increased G-CSF use account for these differences.

  20. Csf1r-mApple Transgene Expression and Ligand Binding In Vivo Reveal Dynamics of CSF1R Expression within the Mononuclear Phagocyte System. (United States)

    Hawley, Catherine A; Rojo, Rocio; Raper, Anna; Sauter, Kristin A; Lisowski, Zofia M; Grabert, Kathleen; Bain, Calum C; Davis, Gemma M; Louwe, Pieter A; Ostrowski, Michael C; Hume, David A; Pridans, Clare; Jenkins, Stephen J


    CSF1 is the primary growth factor controlling macrophage numbers, but whether expression of the CSF1 receptor differs between discrete populations of mononuclear phagocytes remains unclear. We have generated a Csf1r -mApple transgenic fluorescent reporter mouse that, in combination with lineage tracing, Alexa Fluor 647-labeled CSF1-Fc and CSF1, and a modified Δ Csf1- enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) transgene that lacks a 150 bp segment of the distal promoter, we have used to dissect the differentiation and CSF1 responsiveness of mononuclear phagocyte populations in situ. Consistent with previous Csf1r- driven reporter lines, Csf1r -mApple was expressed in blood monocytes and at higher levels in tissue macrophages, and was readily detectable in whole mounts or with multiphoton microscopy. In the liver and peritoneal cavity, uptake of labeled CSF1 largely reflected transgene expression, with greater receptor activity in mature macrophages than monocytes and tissue-specific expression in conventional dendritic cells. However, CSF1 uptake also differed between subsets of monocytes and discrete populations of tissue macrophages, which in macrophages correlated with their level of dependence on CSF1 receptor signaling for survival rather than degree of transgene expression. A double Δ Csf1r -ECFP- Csf1r -mApple transgenic mouse distinguished subpopulations of microglia in the brain, and permitted imaging of interstitial macrophages distinct from alveolar macrophages, and pulmonary monocytes and conventional dendritic cells. The Csf1r- mApple mice and fluorescently labeled CSF1 will be valuable resources for the study of macrophage and CSF1 biology, which are compatible with existing EGFP-based reporter lines. Copyright © 2018 The Authors.

  1. Intracranial CSF flow on cine-MR. 2. Qualitative analysis in CSF dynamics by MR signal ratio of CSF to fat tissue in healthy subjects and patients with aqueduct stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadowaki, Chikafusa; Hara, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Saito, Isamu


    Changes in MR signal intensities (SIs) of CSF and relative MR signal ratios (SRs) of intraventricular CSF to fat tissue were evaluated in 5 healthy adults on cine MR images during a cardiac cycle in a study of normal intracranial CSF dynamics. The altered patterns of MR SIs and SRs in 6 patients with aqueduct stenosis were compared with normal CSF flow patterns in a demonstration of CSF dynamics changes. MR SIs of CSF within the ventricles were measured on each cine image obtained by cardiac gated, multiframe, cine MR imaging. Chronological changes in MR SIs and SRs during a cardiac cycle were compared with the actual CSF flow visualized on real cine images. In normal CSF circulation, MR SIs of CSF within the ventricles were reduced quickly following an R-wave on ECG to 15% of the R-R interval, after which SIs fluctuated slightly. These changes in MR SIs of CSF could only be related to the pulsatile CSF flow through the foramen of Monro into the anterior part of the third ventricle during early cardiac systole. MR SRs of CSF to fat tissue fluctuated according to the actual CSF flow within the ventricles during a cardiac cycle. MR SRs in the third ventricle decreased to 20-30% of the R-R interval following the R-wave due to downward CSF flow during early cardiac systole, and decreased again from late cardiac systole to diastole due to caudal CSF flow in the third ventricle. In the fourth ventricle, MR SRs of CSF decreased to 60-80% of the R-R interval because of the CSF flow through the aqueduct during cardiac diastole. In patients with aqueduct stenosis, MR SRs of CSF within the ventricles fluctuated randomly, and the amplitude of MR SRs was also greater than in subjects with a patent aqueduct. These changes were identified as turbulence and stagnation due to obstruction in the CSF pathway. Analysis of chronological changes in MR signal ratios of CSF to fat is useful in demonstrating the pathophysiologic features of intracranial CSF dynamics. (author) 52 refs

  2. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club


    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at Hope to see you among us! 

  3. Association between baseline psychological attributes and mental health outcomes after soldiers returned from deployment. (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Arkes, Jeremy; Lester, Paul B


    Psychological health is vital for effective employees, especially in stressful occupations like military and public safety sectors. Yet, until recently little empirical work has made the link between requisite psychological resources and important mental health outcomes across time in those sectors. In this study we explore the association between 14 baseline psychological health attributes (such as adaptability, coping ability, optimism) and mental health outcomes following exposure to combat deployment. Retrospective analysis of all U.S. Army soldiers who enlisted between 2009 and 2012 and took the Global Assessment Tools (GAT) before their first deployment (n = 63,186). We analyze whether a soldier screened positive for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after returning from deployment using logistic regressions. Our key independent variables are 14 psychological attributes based on GAT, and we control for relevant demographic and service characteristics. In addition, we generate a composite risk score for each soldier based on the predicted probabilities from the above multivariate model using just baseline psychological attributes and demographic information. Comparing those who scored in the bottom 5 percentile of each attribute to those in the top 95 percentile, the odds ratio of post-deployment depression symptoms ranges from 1.21 (95% CI 1.06, 1.40) for organizational trust to 1.73 (CI 1.52, 1.97) for baseline depression. The odds ratio of positive screening of PTSD symptoms ranges from 1.22 for family support (CI 1.08, 1.38) to 1.51 for baseline depression (CI 1.32, 1.73). The risk profile analysis shows that 31% of those who screened positive for depression and 27% of those who screened positive for PTSD were concentrated among the top 5% high risk population. A set of validated, self-reported questions administered early in a soldier's career can predict future mental health problems, and can be used to improve workforce fit and

  4. Clinical implications of medulloblastoma subgroups: incidence of CSF diversion surgery. (United States)

    Schneider, Christian; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Rutka, James T; Remke, Marc; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Bouffet, Eric; Taylor, Michael D


    While medulloblastoma was initially thought to comprise a single homogeneous entity, it is now accepted that it in fact comprises 4 discrete subgroups, each with its own distinct demographics, clinical presentation, transcriptomics, genetics, and outcome. Hydrocephalus is a common complication of medulloblastoma and not infrequently requires CSF diversion. The authors report the incidence of CSF diversion surgery in each of the subgroups of medulloblastoma (Wnt, Shh, Group 3, and Group 4). The medical and imaging records for patients who underwent surgery for medulloblastoma at The Hospital for Sick Children were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the requirement for CSF diversion surgery either before or within 60 days of tumor resection. The modified Canadian Preoperative Prediction Rule for Hydrocephalus (mCPPRH) was compared among subgroups. Of 143 medulloblastoma patients, treated from 1991 to 2013, sufficient data were available for 130 patients (15 with Wnt, 30 with Shh, 30 with Group 3, and 55 with Group 4 medulloblastomas). Of these, 28 patients (22%) ultimately underwent CSF diversion surgery: 0% with Wnt, 29% with Shh, 29% with Group 3, and 43% with Group 4 tumors. Patients in the Wnt subgroup had a lower incidence of CSF diversion than all other patients combined (p = 0.04). Wnt patients had a lower mCPPRH score (lower risk of CSF diversion, p = 0.045), were older, had smaller ventricles at diagnosis, and had no leptomeningeal metastases. The overall rate of CSF diversion surgery for Shh, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas is around 30%, but no patients in the present series with a Wnt medulloblastoma required shunting. The low incidence of hydrocephalus in patients with Wnt medulloblastoma likely reflects both host factors (age) and disease factors (lack of metastases). The absence of hydrocephalus in patients with Wnt medulloblastomas likely contributes to their excellent rate of survival and may also contribute to a higher quality

  5. Effect of Mandatory Unit and Individual Physical Training on Fitness in Military Men and Women. (United States)

    Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Bushman, Timothy T; Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H


    The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of additional individual physical training (PT) in addition to mandatory unit PT as well as other risk factors on physical fitness. A cross-sectional design. This study was conducted on a US military installation. Participants were 6290 male and 558 female active duty US Army soldiers in 3 light infantry brigades. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires asking about individual characteristics, PT, and physical fitness. Cut points were established for soldiers scoring within the top 33% for each of the 3 Army Physical Fitness Test events (2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups) and top 50% in each of the tests combined for overall performance. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariate analyses were calculated. Variables impacting physical fitness performance of men and women included increased body mass index, leading unit PT sessions, and individual distance running mileage. Other variables impacting physical performance for men included increased age, smoking, and individual resistance training. Soldiers performing additional individual PT demonstrated a positive influence on fitness compared to unit PT participation alone. Increased age and being overweight/obese negatively influenced physical fitness. To enhance fitness performance through unit PT, running by ability groups and resistance training should be encouraged by leadership.

  6. Qualitative analysis of intracranial CSF flow on cine-MR imaging, with special reference to signal ratio of CSF to fat tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadowaki, Chikafusa; Hara, Mitsuhiro; Numoto, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Saito, Isamu


    Cine magnetic resonance images (MR) dramatically demonstrate the pulsatile flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stimulated by the pulsatile motion of the brain following cardiac pulsation. Reduced signal intensity, frequently observed especially in the aqueduct of Sylvius, the third ventricle and the fourth ventricle, is believed to reflect the pulsatile motion of the CSF. Qualitative analysis of MR signal intensity of CSF on each cine frame is compared with CSF flow within the ventricles on real-time cine MR images. While the chronological changes in signal intensities of CSF within the ventricles show only marginal changes in signal intensity in the third ventricle related to downward flow of CSF passing through the foramen of Monro during the early stage of cardiac systole, these changes are thought to have no significant correlation with the CSF flow in the CSF pathway. The chronological changes in relative signal ratios, SR [signal intensities of CSF/signal intensities of fat] can show CSF flow and turbulence within the ventricles. Under normal conditions, within the third ventricle the SR decreases due to pulsatile CSF flow through the foramen of Monro during the early stage of cardiac systole, and decreases because of the flow of CSF from the anterior to the posterior part of the third ventricle, the downward flow of CSF through the aqueduct leads to a lower SR during cardiac diastole. These changes in the fourth ventricle are stimulated by the changes in SR in the third ventricle. The new method of analyzing chronological changes in the relative MR signal ratio of CSF to fat [SR] has the distinct advantage of providing an accurate evaluation of CSF dynamics, and it provides us with important diagnostic information leading to clarification of the pathophysiology of CSF dynamics. (author)

  7. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brumley, Donald W


    .... The abdication of the monarchy in 1918 forced the professional soldier to look for a substitute sovereign who would insure the survival of the privileged role of the soldier in republican state and society...

  8. The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woguwale, Jasom


    .... The purpose of this paper titled, "The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars," is to examine the practice of using children as soldiers by various...

  9. The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child soldiers. ... applied an unvarying standard of prevention in response to every occurrence ... encourage both domestic political transition and a changed understanding of

  10. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo


    Katharin Hermenau; Tobias Hecker; Anna Maedl; Maggie Schauer; Thomas Elbert


    Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression.Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants i...

  11. 3D steady-state MR cisternography in CSF rhinorrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, P.N.; Kovoor, J.M.E.; Srikanth, S.G.; Praharaj, S.S.


    Purpose: To determine the utility of 3D steady-state MR cisternography in the demonstration and localisation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak in patients with clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea. Material and Methods: Six consecutive patients with clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea were examined with routine MR evaluation and MR cisternography (MRC). All MR examinations included fast spin-echo (SE) T1WI in axial and sagittal planes, fast SE T2WI in axial and coronal planes and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in the axial plane. 3D evaluation was done using the CISS technique with 0.7-mm thickness in the sagittal and coronal planes. The site and extent of the defect, and any brain herniation detected on MRC were correlated with surgical findings. Results: In the 6 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defect revealed by MRC in all cases. Conclusion: In clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea, MRC is highly accurate in localising the site and extent of CSF fistula and may be used as the first investigation due to its efficacy and non-invasive nature

  12. CSF N-glycoproteomics for early diagnosis in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Palmigiano, Angelo; Barone, Rita; Sturiale, Luisa; Sanfilippo, Cristina; Bua, Rosaria Ornella; Romeo, Donata Agata; Messina, Angela; Capuana, Maria Luisa; Maci, Tiziana; Le Pira, Francesco; Zappia, Mario; Garozzo, Domenico


    This work aims at exploring the human CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid) N-glycome by MALDI MS techniques, in order to assess specific glycosylation pattern(s) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n:24) and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n:11), these last as potential AD patients at a pre-dementia stage. For comparison, 21 healthy controls were studied. We identified a group of AD and MCI subjects (about 40-50% of the studied sample) showing significant alteration of CSF N-glycome profiling, consisting of a decrease in the overall sialylation degree and an increase in species bearing bisecting GlcNAc. Noteworthy, all the MCI patients that converted to AD within the clinical follow-up, had an abnormal CSF glycosylation profile. Based on the studied cohort, CSF glycosylation changes may occur before an AD clinical onset. Previous studies specifically focused on the key role of glycosyltransferase GnT-III on AD-pathogenesis, addressing the patho-mechanism to specific sugar modification of BACE-1 glycoprotein with bisecting GlcNAc. Our patients addressed protein N-glycosylation changes at an early phase of the whole biomolecular misregulation on AD, pointing to CSF N-glycome analyses as promising tool to enhance early detection of AD and also suggesting alternative therapeutics target molecules, such as specific glyco-enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Former child soldiers' problems and needs: Congolese experiences. (United States)

    Johannessen, Steinar; Holgersen, Helge


    With this article, we explore how staff working at transit centers and vocational training centers in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo experienced the problems and needs of former child soldiers. We argued that the staff's experience of the children's daily lives and their understanding of the sociocultural context of the conflict make their perspective a valuable source of information when trying to understand the phenomenon of child soldiering. Additionally, we reasoned that how the staff frame these children's problems influences how they attempt to aid the children. We conducted 11 semistructured interviews and analyzed these using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. We clustered our findings around six themes: unfavorable contextual factors, acting as if still in the army, addiction, symptoms of psychopathology, social rejection, and reintegration needs. The overarching message we observed was that the informants experienced that former child soldiers require help to be transformed into civilians who participate proactively in their society.

  14. Exoskeleton for Soldier Enhancement Systems Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.F.


    The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.

  15. Muzzle flash localization for the dismounted soldier (United States)

    Kennedy Scott, Will


    The ability to accurately and rapidly know the precise location of enemy fire would be a substantial capability enhancement to the dismounted soldier. Acoustic gun-shot detections systems can provide an approximate bearing but it is desired to precisely know the location (direction and range) of enemy fire; for example to know from `which window' the fire is coming from. Funded by the UK MOD (via Roke Manor Research) QinetiQ is developing an imaging solution built around an InGaAs camera. This paper presents work that QinetiQ has undertaken on the Muzzle Flash Locator system. Key technical challenges that have been overcome are explained and discussed in this paper. They include; the design of the optical sensor and processing hardware to meet low size, weight and power requirements; the algorithm approach required to maintain sensitivity whilst rejecting false alarms from sources such as close passing insects and sun glint from scene objects; and operation on the move. This work shows that such a sensor can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect muzzle flash events to militarily significant ranges and that such a system can be combined with an acoustic gunshot detection system to minimize the false alarm rate. The muzzle flash sensor developed in this work operates in real-time and has a field of view of approximately 29° (horizontal) by 12° (vertical) with a pixel resolution of 0.13°. The work has demonstrated that extension to a sensor with realistic angular rotation rate is feasible.

  16. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Presenting with Normal CSF Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Kiani, I. G.; Shah, F.; Rehman, R. N.; Haq, M. E.


    A 28 years old female presented with headache, fever, altered sensorium and right side weakness for one week. She was febrile and drowsy with right sided hemiplegia and papilledema. Tuberculous or bacterial meningitis, tuberculoma and abscess were at the top of the diagnosis list followed by Herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis (HSE). MRI showed abnormal signal intensity of left temporal lobe without significant post-contrast enhancement and midline shift. CSF examination was normal, gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed no micro-organism, or acid fast bacilli. CSF for MTB PCR was negative. PCR DNA for Herpes simplex 1 on CSF was detected. Acyclovir was started and the patient was discharged after full recovery. A high index of suspicion is required for HSE diagnosis in Pakistan where other infections predominantly affect the brain and HSE may be overlooked as a potential diagnosis. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Acute infections of nervous system are among the most important problems in medicine because early recognition, efficient decision making and rapid institution of therapy can be lifesaving. Making a clinical diagnosis of acute meningitis depends on the cornerstone of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination. We present a case with the above-mentioned difficulty and the approach involved in establishing the exact diagnosis and institution of appropriate treatment. CONCLUSION About findings in viral meningitis one should be careful while evaluating a CSF report so as to not make a mistaken diagnosis and delay treatment. The most important analysis in patients whose symptoms are consistent with herpes simplex meningitis is the detection of Herpes simplex Virus deoxy-ribo-nucleic acid (HSV-DNA in CSF with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.

  18. Recent Advances of Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) Kinase and Its Inhibitors. (United States)

    El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Al-Ameen, Shahad K; Al-Koumi, Dania M; Hamad, Mawadda G; Jalal, Nouran A; Oh, Chang-Hyun


    Colony stimulation factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), which is also known as FMS kinase, plays an important role in initiating inflammatory, cancer, and bone disorders when it is overstimulated by its ligand, CSF-1. Innate immunity, as well as macrophage differentiation and survival, are regulated by the stimulation of the CSF-1R. Another ligand, interlukin-34 (IL-34), was recently reported to activate the CSF-1R receptor in a different manner. The relationship between CSF-1R and microglia has been reviewed. Both CSF-1 antibodies and small molecule CSF-1R kinase inhibitors have now been tested in animal models and in humans. In this Perspective, we discuss the role of CSF-1 and IL-34 in producing cancer, bone disorders, and inflammation. We also review the newly discovered and improved small molecule kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies that have shown potent activity toward CSF-1R, reported from 2012 until 2017.

  19. Rhabdomyolysis in a Sickle Cell Trait Positive Active Duty Male Soldier. (United States)

    Saxena, Pulkit; Chavarria, Christopher; Thurlow, John


    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a complication of sickle cell trait (SCT) likely first reported in the military population over 40 years ago. Although commonly a benign condition, numerous studies and case reports have identified SCT positive patients to be at increased risk for rhabdomyolysis, compartment syndrome and sudden cardiac death. We report a recent case of an SCT positive African American active duty male Soldier who suffered exertional rhabdomyolysis following an Army Physical Fitness Test. His course was complicated by acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis, and he eventually recovered renal function. The diagnosis was significantly delayed despite a typical clinical presentation and available SCT screening results. The case highlights the importance of the recognition of SCT as a risk factor for severe rhabdomyolysis, and suggests more must be done for an effective SCT screening program for the active duty military population.

  20. Delivery of CSF-1R to the lumen of macropinosomes promotes its destruction in macrophages (United States)

    Lou, Jieqiong; Low-Nam, Shalini T.; Kerkvliet, Jason G.; Hoppe, Adam D.


    ABSTRACT Activation of the macrophage colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) by CSF-1 stimulates pronounced macropinocytosis and drives proliferation of macrophages. Although the role of macropinocytosis in CSF-1R signaling remains unknown, we show here that, despite internalizing large quantities of plasma membrane, macropinosomes contribute little to the internalization of the CSF-1–CSF-1R complex. Rather, internalization of the CSF-1R in small endocytic vesicles that are sensitive to clathrin disruption, outcompetes macropinosomes for CSF-1R endocytosis. Following internalization, small vesicles carrying the CSF-1R underwent homotypic fusion and then trafficked to newly formed macropinosomes bearing Rab5. As these macropinosomes matured, acquiring Rab7, the CSF-1R was transported into their lumen and degraded. Inhibition of macropinocytosis delayed receptor degradation despite no disruption to CSF-1R endocytosis. These data indicate that CSF-1-stimulated macropinosomes are sites of multivesicular body formation and accelerate CSF-1R degradation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that macropinocytosis and cell growth have a matching dose dependence on CSF-1, suggesting that macropinosomes might be a central mechanism coupling CSF-1R signaling and macrophage growth. PMID:25335894

  1. Contribution of isotopic data in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askienazy, S.; Ducassou, D.

    The growing interest in isotopic CSF studies is explained by the fact that the mechanism and classification of hydrocephalus cases are based not only on anatomoclinical data but also on physiological information inaccessible by static image methods. This article shows the full importance of dynamic CSF research (ideal tracer: 111 In-DTPA); the possibilities of myeloscintigraphy to study the permeability of the medullary sub-arachnoid spaces (tracers used: sup(99m)Tc-DTPA in the liquid phase or xenon bubble technique in the gas phase); ventricular morphology; existence of meningeal gaps [fr

  2. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.


    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    “This is how wars are fought now: by children, traumatized, hopped-up on drugs and wielding AK-47s. Children ... existence perceived as endless oppressive reigns of varied proportions (World War. II, Apartheid, the Berlin Wall ... UK, and what is the currency of a child soldier “a long way gone” in the streets of. South Africa?

  4. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization (United States)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared


    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  5. Child Soldiers in Africa: Solutions to a Complex Dilemma | Kalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the dilemma of using child soldiers in violent conflicts throughout Africa and on ways of resolving it in the future. The first section briefly examines some important domestic and international aspects and dimensions of the problem. Then, attention is shifted to particular individual countries on the ...

  6. Conference on soldiers, civilians and environment protection against contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The military and civil aspects of radiation protection have been discussed. The special emphasize has been done on contamination monitoring of environment, soldier radiological protection during hypothetical warfare, radiological health hazard assessment, post Chernobyl contamination control of environment and food products in Poland, dose equivalent estimation and radiometric control equipment used in military and civil service

  7. Child Soldiers - Lessons Learned on Prevention, Demobilization, and Reintegration


    Verhey, Beth


    As highlighted in the seminal UN study on the "Impact of armed conflict on children," an increased involvement of recent decades, stands as one of the most egregious child rights violations. Yet, a new study "Child soldiers: preventing, demobilizing, and reintegrating," demonstrates that children, and youth involved in armed conflict can re-engage positive social relations, and productive ...

  8. The role of silence in Burundian former child soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; de Jong, J.


    Conscription of children into the armed forces continues to be a worldwide problem. Understanding the transition from being a child soldier to becoming a civilian adult is crucial in understanding the longitudinal and social effects of childhood trauma. This study examined the community and family

  9. Czech Soldiers during the Great War (1914-1918)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Ladislav


    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0354-6497 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : first world war * Austria-Hungary * Czech soldiers * eastern (Russian) front * southwest (Italian) front * Czechoslovak legionnaries * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  10. Bacterial Isolates from Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) of Patients In a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results in the inflammation of the meninges, a condition known as meningitis. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of bacteria, which causes meningitis and their susceptibility pattern. This study, which was prospective and cross sectional involved patients ...

  11. CSF biomarker variability in the Alzheimer's Association quality control program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattsson, N.; Andreasson, U.; Persson, S.; Carrillo, M.C.; Collins, S.; Chalbot, S.; Cutler, N.; Dufour-Rainfray, D.; Fagan, A.M.; Heegaard, N.H.H.; Robin Hsiung, G.Y.; Hyman, B.; Iqbal, K.; Lachno, D.R.; Lleo, A.; Lewczuk, P.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Parchi, P.; Regeniter, A.; Rissman, R.; Rosenmann, H.; Sancesario, G.; Schroder, J.; Shaw, L.M.; Teunissen, C.E.; Trojanowski, J.Q.; Vanderstichele, H.; Vandijck, M.; Verbeek, M.M.; Zetterberg, H.; Blennow, K.; Kaser, S.A.; et al.,


    BACKGROUND: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid beta 1-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau are used increasingly for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research and patient management. However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements among and within laboratories. METHODS: Data

  12. CSF biomarker variability in the Alzheimer's Association quality control program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattsson, N.; Andreasson, U.; Persson, S.; Carrillo, M.C.; Collins, S.; Chalbot, S.; Cutler, N.; Dufour-Rainfray, D.; Fagan, A.M.; Heegaard, N.H.H.; Hsiung, G.Y.R.; Hyman, B.; Iqbal, K.; Lachno, D.R.; Lleo, A.; Lewczuk, P.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Parchi, P.; Regeniter, A.; Rissman, R.; Rosenmann, H.; Sancesario, G.; Schroder, J.; Shaw, L.M.; Teunissen, C.E.; Trojanowski, J.Q.; Vanderstichele, H.; Vandijck, M.; Verbeek, M.M.; Zetterberg, H.; Blennow, K.; Kaser, S.A.


    Background: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid beta 1-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau are used increasingly for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research and patient management. However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements among and within laboratories. Methods: Data

  13. The diagnosis of CSF fistulas with rhinorrhea by isotope cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salar, G.; Carteri, A.; Zampieri, P.


    The experience with the use of RIHSA cisternography in cases of spontaneous of post-traumatic CSF rhinorrhea is reported. The utility of this method for identifying the fistulous tract so that the neurosurgeon can, as far as he is able, carry out a direct and not solely exploratory operation is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  14. Fatal cerebral edema associated with serine deficiency in CSF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keularts, Irene M. L. W.; Leroy, Piet L. J. M.; Rubio-Gozalbo, Estela M.; Spaapen, Leo J. M.; Weber, Biene; Dorland, Bert; de Koning, Tom J.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.


    Two young girls without a notable medical history except for asthma presented with an acute toxic encephalopathy with very low serine concentrations both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) comparable to patients with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency. Clinical symptoms and

  15. G-CSF Intrauterine for Thin Endometrium, and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Tehraninejad


    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate effects ofG-CSF on a cancelled ART cycle due to thin endometrium.Materials and methods:In a nonrandomized clinical trial from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary university based hospitals fifteen patients undergoing embryo transfer and with the history of cycle cancellation due to thin endometrium were studied. Intrauterine infusion of G-CSF was done on the day of oocyte pick-up or 5 days before embryo transfer. The primary outcome to be measured was an endometrium thickened to at least 6 mm and the secondary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate and consequently take-home baby. All previous cycles were considered as control for each patient.Results:The G-CSF was infused at the day of oocyte retrieval or 5 days before embryo transfer. The endometrial thickness reached from3.593±0.251 mm to 7.120±0.84 mm. The mean age, gravidity, parity, and FSH were 35.13± 9.531 years,3, 1 and32.78± 31.10 mIU/ml, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rate was 20%, and there was one missed abortion, a mother death at 34 weeks, and a preterm labor at 30 weeks due to PROM.Conclusion:G-CSF may increase endometrial thickness in the small group of patients who had no choice except cycle cancellation or surrogacy.

  16. Increased CSF Homocysteine in Pathological Gamblers Compared with Healthy Controls (United States)

    Nordin, Conny; Sjodin, Ingemar


    Neurocognitive disturbances suggesting a frontal lobe dysfunction have been observed in pathological gamblers and alcohol dependents. Given that a high homocysteine level has been suggested to be a mediating factor in alcohol-related cognitive decline, we have determined homocysteine and cobalamine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11…

  17. Inherited biallelic CSF3R mutations in severe congenital neutropenia. (United States)

    Triot, Alexa; Järvinen, Päivi M; Arostegui, Juan I; Murugan, Dhaarini; Kohistani, Naschla; Dapena Díaz, José Luis; Racek, Tomas; Puchałka, Jacek; Gertz, E Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Kotlarz, Daniel; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Díaz de Heredia Rubio, Cristina; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Patiroglu, Turkan; Karakukcu, Musa; Sánchez de Toledo Codina, José; Yagüe, Jordi; Touw, Ivo P; Unal, Ekrem; Klein, Christoph


    Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is characterized by low numbers of peripheral neutrophil granulocytes and a predisposition to life-threatening bacterial infections. We describe a novel genetic SCN type in 2 unrelated families associated with recessively inherited loss-of-function mutations in CSF3R, encoding the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor. Family A, with 3 affected children, carried a homozygous missense mutation (NM_000760.3:c.922C>T, NP_000751.1:p.Arg308Cys), which resulted in perturbed N-glycosylation and aberrant localization to the cell surface. Family B, with 1 affected infant, carried compound heterozygous deletions provoking frameshifts and premature stop codons (NM_000760.3:c.948_963del, NP_000751.1:p.Gly316fsTer322 and NM_000760.3:c.1245del, NP_000751.1:p.Gly415fsTer432). Despite peripheral SCN, all patients had morphologic evidence of full myeloid cell maturation in bone marrow. None of the patients responded to treatment with recombinant human G-CSF. Our study highlights the genetic and morphologic SCN variability and provides evidence both for functional importance and redundancy of G-CSF receptor-mediated signaling in human granulopoiesis. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. CSF Amino Acids, Pterins and Mechanism of the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Investigators from Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain, studied the relationship between the etiology of refractory childhood epilepsy, CSF neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids, and response to a ketogenic diet in 60 patients with refractory epilepsy, 83% focal and 52% idiopathic.

  19. REVIEW Interpretation and value of MR CSF flow studies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children should be able to request this procedure from any MR imaging department, and should ... on all modern 1.5T scanners equipped with standard software and phase contrast magnetic resonance (PCMR) capabilities and analysis packages. .... Follow-up imaging demonstrates change in CSF flow to a unidirectional.

  20. Using CSF biomarkers to replicate genetic associations in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, Jonathan M.; Abdi, Hervé; Abdul Hadi, Normi; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Abdullah, Afnizanfaizal; Achuthan, Anusha; Adluru, Nagesh; Aggarwal, Namita; Aghajanian, Jania; Agyemang, Alex; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahmad, Duaa; Ahmed, Fayeza; Ahmed, Shiek; Ahmed, Fareed; Akbarifar, Roshanak; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Aksu, Yaman; Alcauter, Sarael; Alexander, Daniel; Alin, Aylin; Alshuft, Hamza; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Amin-Mansour, Ali; Anderson, Jeff; Anderson, Dallas; Andorn, Anne; Andrews, K. Abigail; Ang, Amma; Angersbach, Steve; Ansarian, Reza; Abhishek, Appaji M.; Appannah, Arti; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arif, Muhammad; Armentrout, Steven; Arrighi, Michael; Arumughababu, S. Vethanayaki; Arunagiri, Vidhya; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Ashford, Wes; Le Page, Aurelie; Avants, Brian; Aviv, Richard; Avula, Ramesh; Ayache, Nicholas; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Ayhan, Murat; Richard, Edo; Schmand, Ben


    Defining cases and controls on the basis of biomarkers rather than clinical diagnosis may reduce sample sizes required for genetic studies. The aim of this study was to assess whether characterizing case/control status on the basis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile would increase power to

  1. Assessing the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program: Measuring Startle Response and Prepulse Inhibition (United States)


    increase PPI, but dopamine agonists can have the opposite effect by reducing PPI. Fortunately, caffeine appears to have no significant effect on PPI...violent behavior, and sexual risk behavior. Landis, C., & Hunt, W.A. (1939). The Startle Pattern. New York: Farrar. An example of early research on

  2. Does Current Army Physical Fitness Training Doctrine Adequately Prepare Soldiers for War? (United States)


    longer 7 adequate to sustain the activity. Anaerobic activities include sprinting, soccer , and basketball. Balance: The ability to maintain...deep muscles, and joint articulations. The common push-up requires the interaction of 21 different muscles to execute one repetition. The overhead press...aerobically break down glycogen, carbohydrates , and fats to produce energy. The more regularly the individual conducts cardio-respiratory training

  3. Comparison of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Toluidine Red Unheated Serum Test and the CSF Rapid Plasma Reagin Test with the CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test for Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis among HIV-Negative Syphilis Patients in China


    Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xin; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Cuini; Gao, Zixiao; Zhou, Pingyu; Gao, Ying; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Seña, Arlene C.


    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commer...

  4. Biological role of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on cells of the myeloid lineage (United States)

    Ushach, Irina; Zlotnik, Albert


    M-CSF and GM-CSF are 2 important cytokines that regulate macrophage numbers and function. Here, we review their known effects on cells of the macrophage-monocyte lineage. Important clues to their function come from their expression patterns. M-CSF exhibits a mostly homeostatic expression pattern, whereas GM-CSF is a product of cells activated during inflammatory or pathologic conditions. Accordingly, M-CSF regulates the numbers of various tissue macrophage and monocyte populations without altering their "activation" status. Conversely, GM-CSF induces activation of monocytes/macrophages and also mediates differentiation to other states that participate in immune responses [i.e., dendritic cells (DCs)]. Further insights into their function have come from analyses of mice deficient in either cytokine. M-CSF signals through its receptor (CSF-1R). Interestingly, mice deficient in CSF-1R expression exhibit a more significant phenotype than mice deficient in M-CSF. This observation was explained by the discovery of a novel cytokine (IL-34) that represents a second ligand of CSF-1R. Information about the function of these ligands/receptor system is still developing, but its complexity is intriguing and strongly suggests that more interesting biology remains to be elucidated. Based on our current knowledge, several therapeutic molecules targeting either the M-CSF or the GM-CSF pathways have been developed and are currently being tested in clinical trials targeting either autoimmune diseases or cancer. It is intriguing to consider how evolution has directed these pathways to develop; their complexity likely mirrors the multiple functions in which cells of the monocyte/macrophage system are involved. PMID:27354413

  5. Emerging Roles for CSF-1 Receptor and its Ligands in the Nervous System (United States)

    Chitu, Violeta; Gokhan, Solen; Nandi, Sayan; Mehler, Mark F.; Stanley, E. Richard


    The colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) kinase regulates tissue macrophage homeostasis, osteoclastogenesis, and Paneth cell development. However, recent studies in mice have revealed that CSF-1R signaling directly controls the development and maintenance of microglia, and cell autonomously regulates neuronal differentiation and survival. While the CSF-1R-cognate ligands, CSF-1 and interleukin-34 (IL-34), compete for binding to the CSF-1R, they are expressed in a largely non-overlapping manner by mature neurons. The recent identification of a dominantly inherited, adult-onset, progressive dementia associated with inactivating mutations in the CSF-1R highlights the importance of CSF-1R signaling in the brain. We review the roles of the CSF-1R and its ligands in microglial and neural development and function, and their relevance to our understanding of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27083478

  6. IL-34 and CSF-1 display an equivalent macrophage differentiation ability but a different polarization potential


    Boulakirba, Sonia; Pfeifer, Anja; Mhaidly, Rana; Obba, Sandrine; Goulard, Michael; Schmitt, Thomas; Chaintreuil, Paul; Calleja, Anne; Furstoss, Nathan; Orange, François; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Boyer, Laurent; Marchetti, Sandrine; Verhoeyen, Els; Luciano, Frederic


    CSF-1 and IL-34 share the CSF-1 receptor and no differences have been reported in the signaling pathways triggered by both ligands in human monocytes. IL-34 promotes the differentiation and survival of monocytes, macrophages and osteoclasts, as CSF-1 does. However, IL-34 binds other receptors, suggesting that differences exist in the effect of both cytokines. In the present study, we compared the differentiation and polarization abilities of human primary monocytes in response to CSF-1 or IL-...

  7. Heterogeneous effects of M-CSF isoforms on the progression of MLL-AF9 leukemia. (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Feng, Wenli; Yang, Feifei; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Lina; Chen, Chong; Hu, Yuting; Ren, Qian; Zheng, Guoguang


    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) regulates both malignant cells and microenvironmental cells. Its splicing isoforms show functional heterogeneity. However, their roles on leukemia have not been well established. Here, the expression of total M-CSF in patients with hematopoietic malignancies was analyzed. The roles of M-CSF isoforms on the progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were studied by establishing MLL-AF9-induced mouse AML models with high level membrane-bound M-CSF (mM-CSF) or soluble M-CSF (sM-CSF). Total M-CSF was highly expressed in myeloid leukemia patients. Furthermore, mM-CSF but not sM-CSF prolonged the survival of leukemia mice. While sM-CSF was more potent to promote proliferation and self-renew, mM-CSF was more potent to promote differentiation. Moreover, isoforms had different effects on leukemia-associated macrophages (LAMs) though they both increase monocytes/macrophages by growth-promoting and recruitment effects. In addition, mM-CSF promoted specific phagocytosis of leukemia cells by LAMs. RNA-seq analysis revealed that mM-CSF enhanced phagocytosis-associated genes and activated oxidative phosphorylation and metabolism pathway. These results highlight heterogeneous effects of M-CSF isoforms on AML progression and the mechanisms of mM-CSF, that is, intrinsically promoting AML cell differentiation and extrinsically enhancing infiltration of macrophages and phagocytosis by macrophages, which may provide potential clues for clinical diagnosis and therapy. © 2017 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc.

  8. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept. (United States)

    Costa, James T


    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  9. DMPD: CSF-1 and cell cycle control in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8981359 CSF-1 and cell cycle control in macrophages. Hamilton JA. Mol Reprod Dev. 1...997 Jan;46(1):19-23. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show CSF-1 and cell cycle control in macrophages. PubmedI...D 8981359 Title CSF-1 and cell cycle control in macrophages. Authors Hamilton JA. Publication Mol Reprod Dev

  10. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers. (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf


    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  11. Therapeutic use of recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) in a canine model of sublethal and lethal whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacVittie, T.J.; Monroy, R.L.; Patchen, M.L.; Souza, L.M.


    Recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) was studied for its ability to modulate haemopoiesis in normal dogs as well as to decrease therapeutically the severity and duration of neutropenia in sublethally and lethally irradiated dogs. Data indicate that in the lethally irradiated dog, effective cytokine therapy with rhG-CSF will increase survival through the induction of earlier recovery of neutrophils and platelets. (author)

  12. GM-CSF enhances tumor invasion by elevated MMP-2, -9, and -26 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutschalk, Claudia M; Yanamandra, Archana K; Linde, Nina; Meides, Alice; Depner, Sofia; Mueller, Margareta M


    Granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes tumor progression in different tumor models in an autocrine and paracrine manner. However, at the same time GM-CSF is used in cancer therapies to ameliorate neutropenia. We have previously shown in GM-CSF and G-CSF expressing or negative skin or head and neck squamous cell carcinoma that GM-CSF expression is associated with a highly angiogenic and invasive tumor phenotype. To determine the functional contribution of GM-CSF to tumor invasion, we stably transfected a GM-CSF negative colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 with GM-CSF or treated the same cell line with exogenous GM-CSF. While GM-CSF overexpression and treatment reduced tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, respectively, it contributed to tumor progression. Together with an enhanced migratory capacity in vitro, we observed a striking increase in tumor cell invasion into the surrounding tissue concomitant with the induction of an activated tumor stroma in GM-CSF overexpressing or GM-CSF treated tumors. In a complex 3D in vitro model, enhanced GM-CSF expression was associated with a discontinued basement membrane deposition that might be mediated by the increased expression and activation of MMP-2, -9, and -26. Treatment with GM-CSF blocking antibodies reversed this effect. The increased presence and activity of these tumor cell derived proteases was confirmed in vivo. Here, expression of MMP-26 protein was predominantly located in pre- and early-invasive areas suggesting MMP-26 expression as an early event in promoting GM-CSF dependent tumor invasion

  13. Nucleolin Mediates MicroRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA Deadenylation but Increases Translation of CSF-1 mRNA* (United States)

    Woo, Ho-Hyung; Baker, Terri; Laszlo, Csaba; Chambers, Setsuko K.


    CSF-1 mRNA 3′UTR contains multiple unique motifs, including a common microRNA (miRNA) target in close proximity to a noncanonical G-quadruplex and AU-rich elements (AREs). Using a luciferase reporter system fused to CSF-1 mRNA 3′UTR, disruption of the miRNA target region, G-quadruplex, and AREs together dramatically increased reporter RNA levels, suggesting important roles for these cis-acting regulatory elements in the down-regulation of CSF-1 mRNA. We find that nucleolin, which binds both G-quadruplex and AREs, enhances deadenylation of CSF-1 mRNA, promoting CSF-1 mRNA decay, while having the capacity to increase translation of CSF-1 mRNA. Through interaction with the CSF-1 3′UTR miRNA common target, we find that miR-130a and miR-301a inhibit CSF-1 expression by enhancing mRNA decay. Silencing of nucleolin prevents the miRNA-directed mRNA decay, indicating a requirement for nucleolin in miRNA activity on CSF-1 mRNA. Downstream effects followed by miR-130a and miR-301a inhibition of directed cellular motility of ovarian cancer cells were found to be dependent on nucleolin. The paradoxical effects of nucleolin on miRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA deadenylation and on translational activation were explored further. The nucleolin protein contains four acidic stretches, four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), and nine RGG repeats. All three domains in nucleolin regulate CSF-1 mRNA and protein levels. RRMs increase CSF-1 mRNA, whereas the acidic and RGG domains decrease CSF-1 protein levels. This suggests that nucleolin has the capacity to differentially regulate both CSF-1 RNA and protein levels. Our finding that nucleolin interacts with Ago2 indirectly via RNA and with poly(A)-binding protein C (PABPC) directly suggests a nucleolin-Ago2-PABPC complex formation on mRNA. This complex is in keeping with our suggestion that nucleolin may work with PABPC as a double-edged sword on both mRNA deadenylation and translational activation. Our findings underscore the complexity of

  14. Developmental and functional significance of the CSF-1 proteoglycan chondroitin sulfate chain


    Nandi, Sayan; Akhter, Mohammed P.; Seifert, Mark F.; Dai, Xu-Ming; Stanley, E. Richard


    The primary macrophage growth factor, colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), is homodimeric and exists in 3 biologically active isoforms: a membrane-spanning, cell-surface glycoprotein (csCSF-1) and secreted glycoprotein (sgCSF-1) and proteoglycan (spCSF-1) isoforms. To investigate the in vivo role of the chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain of spCSF-1, we created mice that exclusively express, in a normal tissue-specific and developmental manner, either the secreted precursor of s...

  15. G-CSF-primed BM for allogeneic SCT: revisited. (United States)

    Pessach, I; Resnick, I; Shimoni, A; Nagler, A


    G-SCF-mobilized PBSC (GPB) grafts have a higher cell dose and somewhat more committed progenitor cells than steady-state BM (SBM), resulting in faster engraftment and faster immunological reconstitution. On the other hand, transplant related mortality (TRM), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) are similar both for PB and for BM. In contrast to SBM, G-CSF-primed BM (GBM) grafts stimulate HSC proliferation, increasing cell dose and thus resulting in faster engraftment because of higher cell dose infused, or because of treatment with G-CSF. Furthermore, GBM may induce tolerance and functional modulations in donor hematopoiesis and immunity, further reducing GVHD incidence, which is already lower with SBM compared with GPB grafts. Overall, a growing body of clinical evidence suggests that GBM transplants may share the advantages of GPB transplantations, without the associated increased risk of GVHD, and might be an attractive graft source for allogeneic SCTs.

  16. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor


    primary effect parameter was total headache burden defined as area under the curve (AUC: intensity × duration) and as secondary effect parameters we identified: intensity (VAS 0-10), frequency (days per month), duration in hours (total hours/month) and also medication days (days on medication...... of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...

  17. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor


    of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...... primary effect parameter was total headache burden defined as area under the curve (AUC: intensity × duration) and as secondary effect parameters we identified: intensity (VAS 0-10), frequency (days per month), duration in hours (total hours/month) and also medication days (days on medication...

  18. [A historical medical study of post-traumatic stress disorders in World War I soldiers]. (United States)

    Lemke, S


    The concept of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was to be verified considering World War I soldiers suffering from psychiatric and neurologic diseases. According to hypotheses, relevant circumstances of the case history and significance of the direct military action had to be examined. In 2002, medical histories dating from 1914 to 1921 of male soldiers in Jena, Germany, were analyzed. Statistical examination carried out by means of the chi2 test revealed mental illness more frequently in soldiers with relevant family anamnesis, previous psychiatric treatment, or degree of voluntariness than in soldiers not so characterized. The accumulation of mental illnesses was lower in soldiers involved in military actions or directly with firing weapons than in soldiers never involved in battles. These results are in accord with historical but not current literature on PTSD. The author is of the opinion that psychiatric anamnesis is not given enough consideration in the concept of PTSD.

  19. PET measurements of cerebral metabolism corrected for CSF contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawluk, J.; Alavi, A.; Dann, R.; Kushner, M.J.; Hurtig, H.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Reivich, M.


    Thirty-three subjects have been studied with PET and anatomic imaging (proton-NMR and/or CT) in order to determine the effect of cerebral atrophy on calculations of metabolic rates. Subgroups of neurologic disease investigated include stroke, brain tumor, epilepsy, psychosis, and dementia. Anatomic images were digitized through a Vidicon camera and analyzed volumetrically. Relative areas for ventricles, sulci, and brain tissue were calculated. Preliminary analysis suggests that ventricular volumes as determined by NMR and CT are similar, while sulcal volumes are larger on NMR scans. Metabolic rates (18F-FDG) were calculated before and after correction for CSF spaces, with initial focus upon dementia and normal aging. Correction for atrophy led to a greater increase (%) in global metabolic rates in demented individuals (18.2 +- 5.3) compared to elderly controls (8.3 +- 3.0,p < .05). A trend towards significantly lower glucose metabolism in demented subjects before CSF correction was not seen following correction for atrophy. These data suggest that volumetric analysis of NMR images may more accurately reflect the degree of cerebral atrophy, since NMR does not suffer from beam hardening artifact due to bone-parenchyma juxtapositions. Furthermore, appropriate correction for CSF spaces should be employed if current resolution PET scanners are to accurately measure residual brain tissue metabolism in various pathological states

  20. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Ronaldo; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Machado, Luis dos Ramos; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose


    Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

  1. The Bluebirds: World War I Soldiers' Experiences of Occupational Therapy. (United States)

    Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie

    More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. Mental health care use by soldiers conducting counterinsurgency operations. (United States)

    Applewhite, Larry; Keller, Nathan; Borah, Adam


    Counterinsurgency (COIN) has become the cornerstone of the military's strategy to combat terrorist threats. COIN operations are complex and often expose soldiers to unfamiliar stressors as they fight the enemy while developing and maintaining rapport with the local populace. Utilizing a retrospective record review protocol, we examined 282 mental health files of soldiers assigned to a brigade combat team that operated from a large forward operating base in Iraq during the counterinsurgency campaign. Most reported sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, irritability, and conflict with supervisors related to either operational stress, exposure to direct combat, or home front concerns. Most received brief individual supportive therapy or attended solution-focused group counseling emphasizing life skills training, post-traumatic stress treatment, women's support, or relationship skills. Psychopharmacologic treatment was an essential adjunct to the counseling program. Results indicate that supporting a COIN deployment requires a comprehensive mental health program that can respond to a wide range of mental health problems.

  3. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fanti


    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  4. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim. (United States)

    Penslar, Derek


    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  5. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells (United States)


    Fuel Cell (DMFC) (PEO Soldier) Samsung: 20W DMFC (CRADA) General Atomics & Jadoo: 50W Ammonia Borane Fueled PEMFC Current Fuel Cell Team Efforts...Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...100W Ammonia Borane fueled PEMFC Ultralife: 150W sodium borohydride fueled PEMFC Protonex: 250W RMFC and Power Manager (ARO) NanoDynamics: 250W SOFC

  6. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airbourne Soldiers (United States)


    testing results of over 400 Soldiers, the Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) was developed and validated (AUG 08-MAR 09- PHASE 3) for implementation...0.075 kg per kg body mass. Resistance often increases to 1.0 kg x body mass or higher (up to 1.3 kg) when testing power and sprint athletes. An...Arkray LactatePro blood lactate test meter Purpose: Examine cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2max) Background: The development of overuse injuries has

  7. A Review of the Soldier’s Equipment Burden (United States)


    allow heavy items to be packed close to the soldier’s natural centre of mass . The Infantryman, with such a large equipment burden, is in effect...COM Centre of Mass COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf CPL Corporal DARPA Defense Advanced Research Project Agency DMO Defence Materiel...Eighteen soldiers had customised their packs, either the issued packs or their own. The most common customisation was the addition of an external

  8. Injury patterns of soldiers in the second Lebanon war. (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor


    In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  9. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airborne Soldiers (United States)


    assessments consisting of strength, cardiorespiratory, anaerobic, and body composition tests. Isokinetic strength testing 10 was performed on the...a meter or more. Moreover, the maximum VGRF experienced during landing tasks performed in the field could be much greater than the standardized... isokinetic strength. Subjects were assigned to groups based on the DoD’s standard for body fat (Group 1: ≤18% BF; Group 2 >18% BF). Soldiers who met

  10. Distress Levels among Parents of Active Duty Soldiers during Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Bitton


    Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.

  11. Ethics and the Military Profession. Values and the Professional Soldier (United States)


    endangered? A genuine relativist would have to forego such action. And what about the egoist? Egoism is the claim that self-interest is the focus of all...may not have made a careful study of egoism and may hold other moral views inconsistent with the egoist position. This would be true of the...professional soldier who thinks he accepts egoism ; without reconciling it to his commitment to military values. Because so much of what any person routinely

  12. Watch Out for the Children: Army Policy and Child Soldiers (United States)


    Arbor, MI: Fairfax Press, 1960), 63. 17 Emmy E . Werner, Reluctant Witnesses: Children’s Voices from the Civil War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998...Soldiers: From Violence to Protection (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006), 20–21. 71 Vera Achvarina and Simon F. Reich, “No Place to Hide...Conflict: Law, Policy and Practice (Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2005), 23. 86 Tanya Zayed and Svenja Vollmer, E -Learning

  13. Non-Deployable Soldiers: Understanding the Army’s Challenge (United States)


    Effects ( MFE ) specialties. As reflected in table 3, most Soldiers opted for DEIP within 90 days of LAD or after deployment.86 Unit Type from LAD...Eligible Takers Take % BCTs ៊ / Dep 14935 5163 34.6% 91-180 6663 1246 18.7% 181+ 841 89 10.6% Total 22439 6498 29.0% MFE ៊ / Dep 8352 2232 26.7% 91...MEDPROS Medical Protection System MFE Maneuver, Fires, and Effects MILPER Military Personnel [message] MMC Medical Management

  14. Understanding and Managing the Career Continuance of Enlisted Soldiers (United States)


    presented. Although this presentation would be informative, it would use comedy and action movie clips to maintain the interest of the recruits...a history of Family members serving in the military. Additionally, Soldiers may join the Army due to a lack of alternative job options, as a way to...joining, pre-existing behavioral or emotional difficulties, physical injuries or problems, family history of service, and ability to adjust to Army

  15. Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat? (United States)


    killing child soldiers. Additional attention should also be invested into identifying interventions that would decrease the negative stigma of mental...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CHILD SOLDIERS: ARE U.S. MILITARY MEMBERS PREPARED TO DEAL WITH THE THREAT? by Judith Hughes, LtCol, USAF A...COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat? 5a. CONTRACT

  16. Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq


    Skotnicka, Justyna


    Aims. The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Methods. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. Results: A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during th...

  17. Sociality in Parasitic Flatworms: When Do Soldiers Matter? (United States)

    Garcia-Vedrenne, A. E.


    Although not traditionally recognized as such, trematode infections in molluscan first intermediate hosts comprise colonies. When two trematode species simultaneously infect a snail host, one generally kills the other. Thus, there can be strong selective pressure for established trematode colonies to protect and defend against new infections. Recent findings demonstrate that some trematode species have a reproductive division of labor involving a reproductive and a soldier caste. Reproductives are larger and filled with offspring, while soldiers lack developing embryos, and are specialized for inter-trematode antagonism. This reproductive division of labor has now been documented for intramolluscan stages of fourteen trematode species from different geographic regions and host species. Further, literature descriptions of the life history of several species suggest that this phenomenon is widespread, although there are important intra- and inter-specific differences in colony structure. It has been predicted that trematode soldier castes would most likely evolve in taxa that are typically dominant in interspecific hierarchies, in situations of invasion risk, and among trematodes that infect longer lived hosts. Here I address these hypotheses and present the extent of evidence for trematode social organization.

  18. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance. (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E


    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  19. Policing and Transgressing Borders: Soldiers, Slave Rebels, and the Early Modern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoleine Kars


    Full Text Available In 1763, a regiment of mercenary soldiers stationed on the border of Suriname and Berbice in South America, rebelled. The men had been sent to help subdue a large slave rebellion. Instead, they mutinied and joined the rebelling slaves. This paper reconstructs the mutiny from Dutch records and uses it to look at the role of soldiers as border crosser in the Atlantic world. Colonial historians have usually studied soldiers in their capacity of border enforcers, men who maintained the cultural and legal divisions that supported colonial authority. However, as I show, soldiers with great regularity crossed those same borders, threatening the very foundations of colonialism.

  20. Military Nutrition Research: Eight Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna H


    To assess, maintain, or improve a soldier's physical/physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and operational stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  1. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna


    To assess, maintain or improve a soldier's physical/ physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and emotional stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  2. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna


    To assess, maintain, or improve a soldier's physical/physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and operational stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  3. Chimeric classical swine fever (CSF)-Japanese encephalitis (JE) viral particles as a non-transmissible bivalent marker vaccine candidate against CSF and JE infections (United States)

    A trans-complemented CSF- JE chimeric viral replicon was constructed using an infectious cDNA clone of the CSF virus (CSFV) Alfort/187 strain. The E2 gene of CSFV Alfort/187 strain was deleted and the resultant plasmid pA187delE2 was inserted by a fragment containing the region coding for a truncate...

  4. Post craniotomy extra-ventricular drain (EVD) associated nosocomial meningitis: CSF diagnostic criteria. (United States)

    Muñoz-Gómez, Sigridh; Wirkowski, Elizabeth; Cunha, Burke A


    Because external ventricular drains (EVDs) provide access to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), there is potential for EVD associated acute bacterial meningitis (EVD-AM). Post-craniotomy, in patients with EVDs, one or more CSF abnormalities are commonly present making the diagnosis of EVD-AM problematic. EVD-AM was defined as elevated CSF lactic acid (>6 nmol/L), plus CSF marked pleocytosis (>50 WBCs/mm(3)), plus a positive Gram stain (same morphology as CSF isolate), plus a positive CSF culture of neuropathogen (same morphology as Gram stained organism). We reviewed 22 adults with EVDs to determine if our four CSF parameters combined accurately identified EVD-AM. No single or combination of <4 CSF parameters correctly diagnosed or ruled out EVD-AM. Combined our four CSF parameters clearly differentiated EVD-AM from one case of pseudomeningitis due to E. cloacae. We conclude that our four CSF criteria combined are useful in diagnosing EVD-AM in adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) induces Fc receptor expression on macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, D.M.; Wing, E.J.; Waheed, A.; Shadduck, R.K.


    M-CSF is a glycoprotein that stimulates bone marrow progenitor cells to proliferate and differentiate into macrophages (M theta). In addition, M-CSF can modulate the function of mature M theta. In this study, the authors determined the effect of M-CSF on expression of receptors for IgG (Fc receptors). Murine resident peritoneal M theta monolayers were incubated with either M-CSF, recombinant gamma interferon (IFN), or left untreated for 48 hrs. Expression of Fc receptors was assessed by microscopy using an antibody coated sheet erythrocytes (EA) rosette assay. The results indicated that M-CSF treated M theta had significantly higher numbers of bound EA (7.1 erythrocytes/M theta), than IFN M theta (4.4), or untreated M theta (2.5) (p 51 Cr labelled EA assay, CSF M theta (16,411 cpm), IFN M theta (10,887), untreated M theta (6897) (p < 0.001). Additionally, the maximal response was noted between 10 and 500 units M-CSF. Purified anti-M-CSF IgG, when included in the cultures, ablated the enhancement of EA binding, whereas normal rabbit IgG did not. These findings indicate that M-CSF is a potent inducer of Fc receptor expression on M theta and supports other data concerning the role of M-CSF as a biological response modifier

  6. Latent profile analyses of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms in trauma-exposed soldiers. (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Elhai, Jon D; Fine, Thomas H; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Cohen, Gregory; Shirley, Edwin; Chan, Philip K; Liberzon, Israel; Galea, Sandro; Calabrese, Joseph R


    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD; Kessler et al., 1995) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; Brown et al., 2001). We aimed to (1) assess discrete patterns of post-trauma PTSD-depression-GAD symptoms using latent profile analyses (LPAs), and (2) assess covariates (gender, income, education, age) in defining the best fitting class solution. The PTSD Checklist (assessing PTSD symptoms), GAD-7 scale (assessing GAD symptoms), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (assessing depression) were administered to 1266 trauma-exposed Ohio National Guard soldiers. Results indicated three discrete subgroups based on symptom patterns with mild (class 1), moderate (class 2) and severe (class 3) levels of symptomatology. Classes differed in symptom severity rather than symptom type. Income and education significantly predicted class 1 versus class 3 membership, and class 2 versus class 3. In conclusion, there is heterogeneity regarding severity of PTSD-depression-GAD symptomatology among trauma-exposed soldiers, with income and education predictive of class membership. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical Fitness Assessment. (United States)

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  8. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole


    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  9. Persistent CSF but not Plasma HIV RNA, is Associated with Increased Risk of New-onset Moderate-to-Severe Depressive Symptoms; A Prospective Cohort Study (United States)

    Hammond, Edward R.; Crum, Rosa M.; Treisman, Glenn J.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Clifford, David B.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.; Marra, Christina M; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; McArthur, Justin C.


    Major depressive disorder is the most common neuropsychiatric complication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. We determined if detectable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) at threshold ≥50 copies/ml is associated with increased risk of depression. The CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort is a six-center US-based prospective cohort with bi-annual follow-up 674 participants. We fit linear mixed models (N=233) and discrete-time survival models (N=154; 832 observations), to evaluate trajectories of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II scores, and the incidence of new-onset moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (BDI≥17) among participants, on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), who were free of depression at study entry, and received a minimum of three CSF examinations over 2,496 person-months follow-up. Detectable CSF HIV RNA (threshold ≥50 copies/ml) at any visit was associated with a 4.7-fold increase in new-onset depression at subsequent visits adjusted for plasma HIV RNA and treatment adherence; hazard ratio (HR)=4.76, (95% CI: 1.58–14.3); P=0.006. Depression (BDI) scores were 2.53 points higher (95% CI: 0.47–4.60; P=0.02) over 6 months if CSF HIV RNA was detectable at a prior study visit in fully adjusted models including age, sex, race, education, plasma HIV RNA, duration and adherence of cART, and lifetime depression diagnosis by DSM-IV criteria. Persistent CSF but not plasma HIV RNA, is associated with an increased risk for new-onset depression. Further research evaluating the role of immune activation and inflammatory markers may improve our understanding of this association. PMID:26727907

  10. Multi-response model for rheumatoid arthritis based on delay differential equations in collagen-induced arthritic mice treated with an anti-GM-CSF antibody. (United States)

    Koch, Gilbert; Wagner, Thomas; Plater-Zyberk, Christine; Lahu, Gezim; Schropp, Johannes


    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is an experimental model for rheumatoid arthritis, a human chronic inflammatory destructive disease. The therapeutic effect of neutralizing the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by an antibody was examined in the mouse disease in a view of deriving a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model. In CIA mice the development of disease is measured by a total arthritic score (TAS) and an ankylosis score (AKS). We present a multi-response PKPD model which describes the time course of the unperturbed and perturbed TAS and AKS. The antibody acts directly on GM-CSF by binding to it. Therefore, a compartment for the cytokine GM-CSF is an essential component of the mathematical model. This compartment drives the disease development in the PKPD model. Different known properties of arthritis development in the CIA model are included in the PKPD model. Firstly, the inflammation, driven by GM-CSF, dominates at the beginning of the disease and decreases after some time. Secondly, a destructive (ankylosis) part evolves in the TAS that is delayed in time. In order to model these two properties a delay differential equation was used. The PKPD model was applied to different experiments with doses ranging from 0.1 to 100 mg/kg. The influence of the drug was modeled by a non-linear approach. The final mathematical model consists of three differential equations representing the compartments for GM-CSF, inflammation and destruction. Our mathematical model described well all available dosing schedules by a simultaneous fit. We also present an equivalent and easy reformulation as ordinary differential equation which grants the use of standard PKPD software.

  11. Mobilizing peripheral blood stem cells with high-dose G-CSF alone is as effective as with Dexa-BEAM plus G-CSF in lymphoma patients. (United States)

    Kröger, N; Zeller, W; Fehse, N; Hassan, H T; Krüger, W; Gutensohn, K; Lölliger, C; Zander, A R


    We compared retrospectively the efficacy of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone with chemotherapy plus G-CSF in mobilizing CD34-positive cells in patients with malignant lymphoma. 35 patients underwent peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection following mobilization either with 24 microg/kg G-CSF for 4 consecutive days (n = 18) or Dexa-BEAM chemotherapy plus 5 microg/kg G-CSF (n = 17). High-dose G-CSF was well tolerated with only slight bone pain and/or myalgia. The Dexa-BEAM therapy required hospitalization with a median duration of 21 d. The median number of apheresis procedures in both groups was two (range two to four), resulting in a median of 5.3 and 5.1 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg. No patients in the G-CSF group, but one in the Dexa-BEAM group, failed to reach the target of collecting >2.0 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg. The number of CFU-GM (10.4 v 6.0 x 10(5)/kg) and of BFU-E (10.6 v 4.5 x 10(5)/kg; P = 0.04) was higher in the G-CSF group than in the Dexa-BEAM group. A subset analysis of CD34+ cells was performed in 16 patients showing a higher mean of Thy-1 (CD90w) coexpression in the G-CSF than in the Dexa-BEAM group (4.8 v 1.8%, P = 0.12). Additionally the percentage of CD34+/CD38- cells was higher in the G-CSF group (10.66% v 8.8%). However, these differences were not statistically significant. The median time to leucocyte and platelet engraftment after high-dose chemotherapy was slightly shorter in the G-CSF than in the Dexa-BEAM group (9 v 10 and 12 v 13.5 d, respectively). These results demonstrate that high-dose G-CSF is as effective as Dexa-BEAM plus G-CSF in mobilizing peripheral blood stem cells and produces prompt engraftment. The major advantages of G-CSF mobilization were the safe outpatient self-application and the fixed-day apheresis.

  12. Inhibition of CSF-1R supports T-cell mediated melanoma therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Sluijter

    Full Text Available Tumor associated macrophages (TAM can promote angiogenesis, invasiveness and immunosuppression. The cytokine CSF-1 (or M-CSF is an important factor of TAM recruitment and differentiation and several pharmacological agents targeting the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R have been developed to regulate TAM in solid cancers. We show that the kinase inhibitor PLX3397 strongly dampened the systemic and local accumulation of macrophages driven by B16F10 melanomas, without affecting Gr-1(+ myeloid derived suppressor cells. Removal of intratumoral macrophages was remarkably efficient and a modest, but statistically significant, delay in melanoma outgrowth was observed. Importantly, CSF-1R inhibition strongly enhanced tumor control by immunotherapy using tumor-specific CD8 T cells. Elevated IFNγ production by T cells was observed in mice treated with the combination of PLX3397 and immunotherapy. These results support the combined use of CSF-1R inhibition with CD8 T cell immunotherapy, especially for macrophage-stimulating tumors.

  13. The Problems of Authority and the Want of Apprenticeship in Soldiers' Character Development (United States)

    Berghaus, Paul T.


    Militaries that take a character development approach in their moral education programs but rely heavily on authority figures as subject matter experts to teach soldiers face two serious problems. First, soldiers improperly defer to their instructors and, as a result, do not understand the moral virtues taught in class. Second, instructors are in…

  14. Spontaneous cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania naiffi in two Dutch infantry soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Snoek, E. M.; Lammers, A. M.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Roelfsema, J. H.; Bart, A.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.


    We report two Dutch infantry soldiers who acquired American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) during military jungle training in Surinam. The lesions had existed for 3 and 5 months, respectively, before the soldiers presented for treatment. The lesions occurred on the head and right thigh, and were

  15. Sustaining Soldier Health and Performance in Southwest Asia: Guidance for Small Unit Leaders (United States)


    extended post - partum depression . Because of family problems, soldiers may be irritable, nervous, inattentive and have difficulty sleeping. Soldiers most, regardless of rank, shyness or distance from post . c. Keep families and friends Informed. Establish effective lines of communication with the

  16. Revolting Soldiers: The Origins of Education in the Armies of the Empire in World War I. (United States)

    Boshier, Roger


    Explores the circumstances surrounding the creation of education schemes in the armies of the British Empire. Discusses attitudes toward war and toward the soldier's role in the early 1900s, attitudes of the soldiers toward war, the University of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Khaki University, the Oatlands program, and education for the New Zealand…

  17. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.


    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  18. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War]. (United States)

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus


    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  19. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers


    Summaira Naz


    The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, ...

  20. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers (United States)

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.


    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  1. Indero: Intergenerational trauma and resilience between Burundian former child soldiers and their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; Tol, W.; de Jong, J.


    Since many former child soldiers are aging and having children of their own, this study aimed to understand how the effects of trauma are passed to the next generation. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted with 25 former child soldiers

  2. [Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq]. (United States)

    Skotnicka, Justyna


    The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during the mission in Iraq. Although the Iraq deployment did not change the level of depression and anxiety among the two groups of soldiers, disproportions were found in the range of anger level intensity, which was significantly higher among soldiers who returned from Iraq. Stabilisation mission and the experience of a traumatic event influenced the biological and psychological functioning patterns among soldiers who returned from Iraq. The manifestations of this were emotional and physiological reactions that the soldiers experienced (nightmares, excessive sweating, increased heartbeat rate, stressful reactions in situations similar to the traumatic occurrence and intensified responses to them). However, contrary to the assumptions, it was not concluded that soldiers who returned from Iraq are suffering from PTSD.

  3. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin Hermenau


    Full Text Available Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Results: Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.

  4. DefenseLink Special: U.S. Forces Help Afghan Soldiers Train for Future (United States)

    Us Afghanistan, U.S. Forces Help Afghan Soldiers Train for Future 'Forces of Freedom, Decency Will people, defend our freedom, and send a clear message to the extremists: The forces of freedom and decency will prevail," he said in a speech at Latvia University. Story U.S. Soldiers Work With Afghan Army

  5. Reintegration of National Guard Soldiers with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (United States)


    Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current wars in Iraq...veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current...returning veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). These veterans’ coping skills have

  6. Computer tomography of the brain and spectrophotometry of the CSF in cerebral concussion and contusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergvall, U.; Kjellin, K.G.; Levander, B.; Svendsen, P.; Soederstroem, C.E.


    Computer tomography (CT) and spectrophotometry of CSF were performed in 30 patients with the clinical diagnosis of cerebral concussion or contusion. The patients with concussion all had normal CT-findings. Spectrophotometry of CSF was sometimes positive for cerebral contusion with normal CT-findings, but the two methods were complementary so that the extent of the lesion was determined by CT and spectrophotometry of CSF indicated the cause. (Auth.)

  7. CSF lactate alone is not a reliable indicator of bacterial ventriculitis in patients with ventriculostomies. (United States)

    Hill, Emily; Bleck, Thomas P; Singh, Kamaljit; Ouyang, Bichun; Busl, Katharina M


    In a febrile patient with a ventriculostomy, diagnosing or excluding bacterial or microbial ventriculitis is difficult, as conventional markers in analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are not applicable due to presence of blood and inflammation. CSF lactate has been shown to be a useful indicator of bacterial meningitis in CSF obtained via lumbar puncture, but little and heterogenous data exist on patients with ventriculostomies. We reviewed all CSF analyses obtained via ventriculostomy in patients admitted to our tertiary medical center between 2008 and 2013, and constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to evaluate the accuracy of CSF lactate concentration in discriminating a positive CSF culture from a negative one in setting of ventriculostomy and prophylactic antibiosis. Among 467 CSF lactate values, there were 22 corresponding CSF cultures with bacterial growth. Sensitivities and specificities for CSF lactate at threshold values 3, 4, 5 and 6mmol/L showed sensitivity and specificity greater than 70% for CSF lactate threshold 4mmol/L. The lowest threshold value of 3mmol/L resulted in higher sensitivity of 81.8%, and the highest chosen threshold value resulted in high specificity of 94.2%, but these values had poor corresponding specificity and sensitivity, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.82 (95% CI 0.72, 0.91). Our data from a large sample of CSF studies in patients with ventriculostomy indicate that no single value of CSF lactate provided both sensitivity and specificity high enough to be regarded as reliable test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CSF findings in patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-encephalitis. (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Guan, Hong-Zhi; Ren, Hai-Tao; Wang, Wei; Hong, Zhen; Zhou, Dong


    Anti-NMDAR-encephalitis is a recently described form of autoimmune encephalitis. Here, we characterize CSF changes in Chinese patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and explore the relationship between CSF findings and disease outcome. The presence of NMDAR antibodies in serum or CSF samples was evaluated in patients diagnosed with encephalitis between October 1, 2010 and August 1, 2014 at the West China Hospital. All patients fulfilling our diagnostic criteria were included and CSF findings were analyzed. Patient outcome was assessed after 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 months using the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Out of 3000 people with encephalitis screened, 43 patients were anti-NMDAR antibody positive in CSF or serum and included in this study. 62.8% of the patients identified with positive CSFs had positive serum anti-NMDAR samples, while 100% patients with positive serum had positive CSF samples. In the CSF white cell counts were elevated in 58.1% of cases; protein was increased in 18.6%; QAlb>Qlim(Alb) of the blood-CSF barrier was found in 29.3%; intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis was detected in 17.1%, and 39.5% patients exhibited increased CSF pressures. A longer follow-up period was associated with better outcomes. There was no relationship between changes in CSF findings and outcome. The sensitivity of NMDA receptor antibody testing is higher in CSF compared to serum. Other CSF abnormalities are present in some patients with Anti-NMDAR-encephalitis, however these changes do not appear to affect prognosis. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Examination of soldier target recognition with direct view optics (United States)

    Long, Frederick H.; Larkin, Gabriella; Bisordi, Danielle; Dorsey, Shauna; Marianucci, Damien; Goss, Lashawnta; Bastawros, Michael; Misiuda, Paul; Rodgers, Glenn; Mazz, John P.


    Target recognition and identification is a problem of great military and scientific importance. To examine the correlation between target recognition and optical magnification, ten U.S. Army soldiers were tasked with identifying letters on targets at 800 and 1300 meters away. Letters were used since they are a standard method for measuring visual acuity. The letters were approximately 90 cm high, which is the size of a well-known rifle. Four direct view optics with angular magnifications of 1.5x, 4x, 6x, and 9x were used. The goal of this approach was to measure actual probabilities for correct target identification. Previous scientific literature suggests that target recognition can be modeled as a linear response problem in angular frequency space using the established values for the contrast sensitivity function for a healthy human eye and the experimentally measured modulation transfer function of the optic. At the 9x magnification, the soldiers could identify the letters with almost no errors (i.e., 97% probability of correct identification). At lower magnification, errors in letter identification were more frequent. The identification errors were not random but occurred most frequently with a few pairs of letters (e.g., O and Q), which is consistent with the literature for letter recognition. In addition, in the small subject sample of ten soldiers, there was considerable variation in the observer recognition capability at 1.5x and a range of 800 meters. This can be directly attributed to the variation in the observer visual acuity.

  10. A Low-Molecular-Weight Ferroxidase Is Increased in the CSF of sCJD Cases: CSF Ferroxidase and Transferrin as Diagnostic Biomarkers for sCJD (United States)

    Haldar, Swati; Beveridge, ’Alim J.; Wong, Joseph; Singh, Ajay; Galimberti, Daniela; Borroni, Barbara; Zhu, Xiongwei; Blevins, Janis; Greenlee, Justin; Perry, George; Mukhopadhyay, Chinmay K.; Schmotzer, Christine


    Abstract Aims: Most biomarkers used for the premortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are surrogate in nature, and provide suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Results: We report that CJD-associated brain iron dyshomeostasis is reflected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), providing disease-specific diagnostic biomarkers. Analysis of 290 premortem CSF samples from confirmed cases of CJD, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias (DMs), and 52 non-DM (ND) controls revealed a significant difference in ferroxidase (Frx) activity and transferrin (Tf) levels in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) relative to other DM and ND controls. A combination of CSF Frx and Tf discriminated sCJD from other DMs with a sensitivity of 86.8%, specificity of 92.5%, accuracy of 88.9%, and area-under-the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.94. This combination provided a similar diagnostic accuracy in discriminating CJD from rapidly progressing cases who died within 6 months of sample collection. Surprisingly, ceruloplasmin and amyloid precursor protein, the major brain Frxs, displayed minimal activity in the CSF. Most of the Frx activity was concentrated in the <3-kDa fraction in normal and diseased CSF, and resisted heat and proteinase-K treatment. Innovation: (i) A combination of CSF Frx and Tf provides disease-specific premortem diagnostic biomarkers for sCJD. (ii) A novel, nonenzymatic, nonprotein Frx predominates in human CSF that is distinct from the currently known CSF Frxs. Conclusion: The underlying cause of iron imbalance is distinct in sCJD relative to other DMs associated with the brain iron imbalance. Thus, change in the CSF levels of iron-management proteins can provide disease-specific biomarkers and insight into the cause of iron imbalance in neurodegenerative conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1662–1675. PMID:23379482

  11. Soldiers' Preferences Regarding Sperm Preservation, Posthumous Reproduction, and Attributes of a Potential "Posthumous Mother". (United States)

    Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit; Ravitsky, Vardit


    We present study results regarding soldiers' willingness to conduct posthumous reproduction. Two hundred twelve Israeli soldiers filled in a questionnaire designed to examine their willingness to cryopreserve sperm and evaluate in which familial circumstances they would consent to posthumous reproduction. They ranked the desirability of 46 attributes of a potential mother and a life partner. Findings indicate a relatively high predisposition in favor of posthumous-assisted reproduction; the wishes of soldiers' parents had much more influence on soldiers' willingness to pursue this technology than those of a partner. Soldiers preferred "feminine" jobs for a potential mother that would allow her to dedicate herself to child-rearing. The desired traits of such a mother were rated similarly to partner preferences; however, significant differences were found in attributes that are most related to the potential mother's devotion to maternity. Interpretations of these findings are contextualized in relation to ethical and bereavement considerations.

  12. Childhood maltreatment history as a risk factor for sexual harassment among U.S. Army soldiers. (United States)

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L


    Four different types of childhood maltreatment were examined as predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and acknowledged sexual harassment among male and female active duty soldiers in the United States Army. Predictor variables included childhood sexual abuse, physical-emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace were examined as outcome variables: gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and coercion. Both sexual and physical-emotional abuse during childhood were found to be predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and of acknowledged sexual harassment in the workplace. Among female soldiers, the most severe type of unwanted experience-coercion-was predicted only by childhood physical-emotional abuse. Among male soldiers childhood sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of coercion. A greater variety of types of childhood maltreatment predicted sexual harassment outcomes for male soldiers. Childhood maltreatment and adult sexual harassment were predictors of psychological well-being for soldiers of both genders.

  13. MRT measurements of the CSF spaces in HIV associated cerebral atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handwerker, M.; Krahe, T.; Klinker, H.; Schindler, R.


    The CSF volume of 45 patients with HIV infection was measured at various clinical stages and the results compared with 24 normals. 60% of all patients showed increased CSF spaces as an indication of cerebral atrophy. Serial measurements were particularly valuable during the early stages of atrophy since there is marked variation in the normal CSF volume. Conventional measurements, with the exception of the width of the third ventricle, were much less sensitive than these quantitative measurements. Classification of HIF infection according to the clinical stage was useful since CSF volume and volume increase correlated with the stage of HIV infection. (orig.) [de

  14. Quantitative and clinical evaluation of whole CSF-axis RI image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomono, Yuji; Nose, Tadao; Maki, Yutaka


    Whole CSF-axis RI scintigraphy was evaluated in 122 adult patients intending to know not only intracranial CSF flow but also the dynamics of whole CSF axis, particularly of spinal CSF flow. The change of radioactivity in several compartments was studied quantitatively with a dataprocessor on 18 cases with dilated ventricles, and more practically, clinical features and the findings of the films were comparatively studied on all the cases. The results were as follows: (1) Roughly speaking, the findings were classified into two types, i.e. a type with early RI movement to the intracranial CSF space and another with stagnation of radioactivity in spinal space till late stage, even 48 hours after RI injection (spinal stasis). (2) Although majority of the cases with spinal stasis did not show ventricular stasis, a shunt operation was not effective even when ventricular stasis was observed. (3) Spinal stasis tended to increase with aging, and was observed more frequently in cases with possible severe cerebral damage, as severe cerebrovascular disease and severe deterioration of mental activity. (4) The clearance of radioactivity of whole CSF-axis was remarkably delayed. It is considered that the spinal CSF flow is generated by intracranial CSF pulsation and, so, that spinal stasis shows the condition of lowered CSF flow by pulsation due to cerebral parenchymal damages. (author)

  15. CSF Venous Fistulas in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension: Imaging Characteristics on Dynamic and CT Myelography. (United States)

    Kranz, Peter G; Amrhein, Timothy J; Gray, Linda


    The objective of this study is to describe the anatomic and imaging features of CSF venous fistulas, which are a recently reported cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with SIH caused by CSF venous fistulas who received treatment at our institution. The anatomic details of each fistula were recorded. Attenuation of the veins involved by the fistula was compared with that of adjacent control veins on CT myelography (CTM). Visibility of the CSF venous fistula on CTM and a modified conventional myelography technique we refer to as dynamic myelography was also compared. Twenty-two cases of CSF venous fistula were identified. The fistulas were located between T4 and L1. Ninety percent occurred without a concurrent epidural CSF leak. In most cases (82%), the CSF venous fistula originated from a nerve root sleeve diverticulum. On CTM, the abnormal veins associated with the CSF venous fistula were seen in a paravertebral location in 45% of cases, centrally within the epidural venous plexus in 32%, and lateral to the spine in 23%. Differences in attenuation between the fistula veins and the control veins was highly statistically significant (p CSF venous fistulas are an important cause of SIH that can be detected on both CTM and dynamic myelograph y and may occur without an epidural CSF leak. Familiarity with the imaging characteristics of these lesions is critical to providing appropriate treatment to patients with SIH.

  16. IL-34 and CSF-1 display an equivalent macrophage differentiation ability but a different polarization potential. (United States)

    Boulakirba, Sonia; Pfeifer, Anja; Mhaidly, Rana; Obba, Sandrine; Goulard, Michael; Schmitt, Thomas; Chaintreuil, Paul; Calleja, Anne; Furstoss, Nathan; Orange, François; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Boyer, Laurent; Marchetti, Sandrine; Verhoeyen, Els; Luciano, Frederic; Robert, Guillaume; Auberger, Patrick; Jacquel, Arnaud


    CSF-1 and IL-34 share the CSF-1 receptor and no differences have been reported in the signaling pathways triggered by both ligands in human monocytes. IL-34 promotes the differentiation and survival of monocytes, macrophages and osteoclasts, as CSF-1 does. However, IL-34 binds other receptors, suggesting that differences exist in the effect of both cytokines. In the present study, we compared the differentiation and polarization abilities of human primary monocytes in response to CSF-1 or IL-34. CSF-1R engagement by one or the other ligands leads to AKT and caspase activation and autophagy induction through expression and activation of AMPK and ULK1. As no differences were detected on monocyte differentiation, we investigated the effect of CSF-1 and IL-34 on macrophage polarization into the M1 or M2 phenotype. We highlighted a striking increase in IL-10 and CCL17 secretion in M1 and M2 macrophages derived from IL-34 stimulated monocytes, respectively, compared to CSF-1 stimulated monocytes. Variations in the secretome induced by CSF-1 or IL-34 may account for their different ability to polarize naïve T cells into Th1 cells. In conclusion, our findings indicate that CSF-1 and IL-34 exhibit the same ability to induce human monocyte differentiation but may have a different ability to polarize macrophages.

  17. G-CSF loaded nanofiber/nanoparticle composite coated with collagen promotes wound healing in vivo. (United States)

    Tanha, Shima; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza; Abdollahi, Mohamad; Vakilian, Saeid; Esmaili, Zahra; Naraghi, Zahra Safaei; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Javar, Hamid Akbari


    Sustained release of functional growth factors can be considered as a beneficial methodology for wound healing. In this study, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were incorporated in Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers, followed by surface coating with collagen type I. Physical and mechanical properties of the PCL nanofibers containing G-CSF loaded chitosan nanoparticles PCL/NP(G-CSF) and in vivo performance for wound healing were investigated. G-CSF structural stability was evaluated through SDS_PAGE, reversed phase (RP) HPLC and size-exclusion chromatography, as well as circular dichroism. Nanofiber/nanoparticle composite scaffold was demonstrated to have appropriate mechanical properties as a wound dresser and a sustained release of functional G-CSF. The PCL/NP(G-CSF) scaffold showed a suitable proliferation and well-adherent morphology of stem cells. In vivo study and histopathological evaluation outcome revealed that skin regeneration was dramatically accelerated under PCL/NP(G-CSF) as compared with control groups. Superior fibroblast maturation, enhanced collagen deposition and minimum inflammatory cells were also the beneficial properties of PCL/NP(G-CSF) over the commercial dressing. The synergistic effect of extracellular matrix-mimicking nanofibrous membrane and G-CSF could develop a suitable supportive substrate in order to extensive utilization for the healing of skin wounds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2830-2842, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Attenuative effects of G-CSF in radiation induced intestinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joong Sun; Gong, Eun Ji; Kim, Sung Dae; Heo, Kyu; Ryoo, Seung Bum; Yang, Kwang Mo


    Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported to protect from radiationinduced myelosuppression. Growing evidence suggests that G-CSF also has many important non-hematopoietic functions in other tissues, including the intestine (Kim et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2011). However, little is known about the influence of G-CSF on intestinal injury. Examination 12 hours after radiation (5 Gy) revealed that the G-CSF treated mice were significantly protected from apoptosis of jejunal crypt, compared with radiation controls. G-CSF treatment attenuated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased survival crypt, the number of villi, villous shortening, crypt depth and length of basal lamina of 10 enterocytes compared with the radiation control 3.5 days after radiation (10 Gy). G-CSF attenuated the change of peripheral blood from radiation-induced myelosuppression and displayed attenuation of mortality in lethally-irradiated (10 Gy) mice. The present results support the suggestion that G-CSF administrated prior to radiation plays an important role in the survival of irradiated mice, possibly due to the protection of hematopoietic cells and intestinal stem cells against radiation. The results indicate that G-CSF protects from radiation-mediated intestinal damage and from hematopoietic injury. G-CSF treatment may be useful clinically in the prevention of injury following radiation.

  19. Unique transcriptome signatures and GM-CSF expression in lymphocytes from patients with spondyloarthritis. (United States)

    Al-Mossawi, M H; Chen, L; Fang, H; Ridley, A; de Wit, J; Yager, N; Hammitzsch, A; Pulyakhina, I; Fairfax, B P; Simone, D; Yi, Yao; Bandyopadhyay, S; Doig, K; Gundle, R; Kendrick, B; Powrie, F; Knight, J C; Bowness, P


    Spondyloarthritis encompasses a group of common inflammatory diseases thought to be driven by IL-17A-secreting type-17 lymphocytes. Here we show increased numbers of GM-CSF-producing CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes in the blood and joints of patients with spondyloarthritis, and increased numbers of IL-17A + GM-CSF + double-producing CD4, CD8, γδ and NK cells. GM-CSF production in CD4 T cells occurs both independently and in combination with classical Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells producing predominantly GM-CSF are expanded in synovial tissues from patients with spondyloarthritis. GM-CSF + CD4 + cells, isolated using a triple cytokine capture approach, have a specific transcriptional signature. Both GM-CSF + and IL-17A + GM-CSF + double-producing CD4 T cells express increased levels of GPR65, a proton-sensing receptor associated with spondyloarthritis in genome-wide association studies and pathogenicity in murine inflammatory disease models. Silencing GPR65 in primary CD4 T cells reduces GM-CSF production. GM-CSF and GPR65 may thus serve as targets for therapeutic intervention of spondyloarthritis.

  20. Model-based optimization of G-CSF treatment during cytotoxic chemotherapy. (United States)

    Schirm, Sibylle; Engel, Christoph; Loibl, Sibylle; Loeffler, Markus; Scholz, Markus


    Although G-CSF is widely used to prevent or ameliorate leukopenia during cytotoxic chemotherapies, its optimal use is still under debate and depends on many therapy parameters such as dosing and timing of cytotoxic drugs and G-CSF, G-CSF pharmaceuticals used and individual risk factors of patients. We integrate available biological knowledge and clinical data regarding cell kinetics of bone marrow granulopoiesis, the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy and pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of G-CSF applications (filgrastim or pegfilgrastim) into a comprehensive model. The model explains leukocyte time courses of more than 70 therapy scenarios comprising 10 different cytotoxic drugs. It is applied to develop optimized G-CSF schedules for a variety of clinical scenarios. Clinical trial results showed validity of model predictions regarding alternative G-CSF schedules. We propose modifications of G-CSF treatment for the chemotherapies 'BEACOPP escalated' (Hodgkin's disease), 'ETC' (breast cancer), and risk-adapted schedules for 'CHOP-14' (aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in elderly patients). We conclude that we established a model of human granulopoiesis under chemotherapy which allows predictions of yet untested G-CSF schedules, comparisons between them, and optimization of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim treatment. As a general rule of thumb, G-CSF treatment should not be started too early and patients could profit from filgrastim treatment continued until the end of the chemotherapy cycle.

  1. Positron emission tomography with 68Ga-EDTA in the diagnosis and localization of CSF fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrand, G.; Bergstroem, M.; Eriksson, L.; Edner, G.; Widen, L.


    Five patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea were investigated with computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) to localize the site of a CSF fistula. After intrathecal injection of 10 MBq of 68 Ga-EDTA, radioactivity was demonstrated in the basal cisterns. In three cases, the site of the fistula was visualized with PET. It is not always possible to demonstrate a CSF leakage with CT cisternography (CTC) using metrizamide, particularly in cases with minute fistulas or intermittent CSF rhinorrhea. With further experience and improved PET techniques, it may be possible to detect even very small fistulas

  2. Beneficial effect of bilingualism on Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers and cognition. (United States)

    Estanga, Ainara; Ecay-Torres, Mirian; Ibañez, Almudena; Izagirre, Andrea; Villanua, Jorge; Garcia-Sebastian, Maite; Iglesias Gaspar, M Teresa; Otaegui-Arrazola, Ane; Iriondo, Ane; Clerigue, Monserrat; Martinez-Lage, Pablo


    Bilingualism as a component of cognitive reserve has been claimed to delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its effect on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD-biomarkers has not been investigated. We assessed cognitive performance and CSF AD-biomarkers, and potential moderation effect of bilingualism on the association between age, CSF AD-biomarkers, and cognition. Cognitively healthy middle-aged participants classified as monolinguals (n = 100, n CSF  = 59), early (n = 81, n CSF  = 55) and late bilinguals (n = 97, n CSF  = 52) were evaluated. Models adjusted for confounders showed that bilinguals performed better than monolinguals on digits backwards (early-bilinguals p = 0.003), Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) (early-bilinguals p = 0.018; late-bilinguals p = 0.004), and Trail Making Test-B (late-bilinguals p = 0.047). Early bilingualism was associated with lower CSF total-tau (p = 0.019) and lower prevalence of preclinical AD (NIA-AA classification) (p = 0.02). Bilingualism showed a moderation effect on the relationship between age and CSF AD-biomarkers and the relationship between age and executive function. We conclude that bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve enhancing executive and visual-spatial functions. For the first time, this study reveals that early bilingualism is associated with more favorable CSF AD-biomarker profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Wastewater renovation using constructed soil filter (CSF): a novel approach. (United States)

    Nemade, P D; Kadam, A M; Shankar, H S


    Constructed soil filter (CSF) also known as Soil Biotechnology (SBT) is a process for water renovation which makes use of formulated media with culture of soil macro- and microorganisms. CSF combines sedimentation, infiltration and biodegradation processes to remove oxidizable organics and inorganics of wastewater in a single facility. Operating experience shows hydraulic loading in the range of 0.05-0.25 m(3)/m(2) h and organic loading up to 200-680 g/m(2) d. The results show increase in dissolved oxygen levels, COD removal (from 352 mg/l to 20 mg/l); BOD removal (from 211 mg/l to 7.0 mg/l); suspended solids removal (from 293 mg/l to 16 mg/l); turbidity reduction (from 145 NTU to 5.3 NTU); iron (from 5 mg/l to 0.3 mg/l); arsenic (from 500 microg/l to 10 microg/l); total coliform and fecal coliform removal (from 145 x 10(5) to 55 CFU/100 mL and 150 x 10(8) to 110 CFU/100 mL respectively), with desired pathogen levels as per WHO standards, i.e. aeration and no odor, fish compatible water quality and evergreen ambience.

  4. Next-generation vision testing: the quick CSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorr Michael


    Full Text Available The Contrast Sensitivity Function relates the spatial frequency and contrast of a spatial pattern to its visibility and thus provides a fundamental description of visual function. However, the current clinical standard of care typically restricts assessment to visual acuity, i.e. the smallest stimulus size that can be resolved at full contrast; alternatively, tests of contrast sensitivity are typically restricted to assessment of the lowest visible contrast for a fixed letter size. This restriction to one-dimensional subspaces of a two-dimensional space was necessary when stimuli were printed on paper charts and simple scoring rules were applied manually. More recently, however, computerized testing and electronic screens have enabled more flexible stimulus displays and more complex test algorithms. For example, the quick CSF method uses a Bayesian adaptive procedure and an information maximization criterion to select only informative stimuli; testing times to precisely estimate the whole contrast sensitivity function are reduced to 2-5 minutes. Here, we describe the implementation of the quick CSF method in a medical device. We make several usability enhancements to make it suitable for use in clinical settings. A first usability study shows excellent results, with a mean System Usability Scale score of 86.5.

  5. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment (United States)


    Young males, 18 or 19-year-old males; it’s like a soldier (that inhibits treatment- bullpen. They beat each other up, and don’t give seeking...forced me to go to mental health. After seeing a therapist, [they said I] someone wasn’t suicidal , wasn’t homicidal, but [they] told me I...I was given a choice to either stay at the house or go to this Uuvenile delinquency ] group home...Our therapist was good at what she did. That

  6. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.


    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in an Appendix.

  7. Family Activities for Fitness (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.


    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  8. High interpatient variability of raltegravir CSF concentrations in HIV-positive patients: a pharmacogenetic analysis. (United States)

    Calcagno, Andrea; Cusato, Jessica; Simiele, Marco; Motta, Ilaria; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Bracchi, Margherita; D'Avolio, Antonio; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano


    To analyse the determinants of raltegravir CSF penetration, including the pharmacogenetics of drug transporters located at the blood-brain barrier or blood-CSF barrier. Plasma and CSF raltegravir concentrations were determined by a validated HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry method in adults on raltegravir-based combination antiretroviral therapy undergoing a lumbar puncture. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes encoding drugs transporters (ABCB1 3435, SLCO1A2, ABCC2 and SLC22A6) and the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4α) were determined by real-time PCR. In 41 patients (73.2% male, 95.1% Caucasians), the median raltegravir plasma and CSF concentrations were 165 ng/mL (83-552) and 31 ng/mL (21-56), respectively. CSF-to-plasma ratios (CPRs) ranged from 0.005 to 1.33 (median 0.20, IQR 0.04-0.36). Raltegravir trough CSF concentrations (n = 35) correlated with raltegravir plasma levels (ρ = 0.395, P = 0.019); CPRs were higher in patients with blood-brain barrier damage (0.47 versus 0.18, P = 0.02). HNF4α 613 CG genotype carriers had lower trough CSF concentrations (20 versus 37 ng/mL, P = 0.03) and CPRs (0.12 versus 0.27, P = 0.02). Following multivariate linear regression analysis, the CSF-to-serum albumin ratio was the only independent predictor of raltegravir penetration into the CSF. Raltegravir penetration into the CSF shows a large interpatient variability, although CSF concentrations were above the wild-type IC50 in all patients (and above IC95 in 28.6%). In this cohort, blood-brain barrier permeability is the only independent predictor of raltegravir CPR. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in selected genes on raltegravir penetration warrants further studies.

  9. MafB antagonizes phenotypic alteration induced by GM-CSF in microglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, Ryusuke, E-mail:; Oishi, Hisashi, E-mail:; Hamada, Michito; Takahashi, Satoru


    Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages which are distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies suggest that microglia are a unique myeloid population distinct from peripheral macrophages in terms of origin and gene expression signature. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a pleiotropic cytokine regulating myeloid development, has been shown to stimulate proliferation and alter phenotype of microglia in vitro. However, how its signaling is modulated in microglia is poorly characterized. MafB, a bZip transcriptional factor, is highly expressed in monocyte-macrophage lineage cells including microglia, although its role in microglia is largely unknown. We investigated the crosstalk between GM-CSF signaling and MafB by analyzing primary microglia. We found that Mafb-deficient microglia grew more rapidly than wild-type microglia in response to GM-CSF. Moreover, the expression of genes associated with microglial differentiation was more downregulated in Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF. Notably, such differences between the genotypes were not observed in the presence of M-CSF. In addition, we found that Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF barely extended their membrane protrusions, probably due to abnormal activation of RhoA, a key regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling. Altogether, our study reveals that MafB is a negative regulator of GM-CSF signaling in microglia. These findings could provide new insight into the modulation of cytokine signaling by transcription factors in microglia. - Highlights: • GM-CSF alters the phenotype of microglia in vitro more potently than M-CSF. • Transcription factor MafB antagonizes the effect of GM-CSF on microglia in vitro. • MafB deficiency leads to RhoA activation in microglia in response to GM-CSF. • We show for the first time the function of MafB in microglia.

  10. Evaluation of prostaglandin D2 as a CSF leak marker: implications in safe epidural anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondabolu S


    Full Text Available Sirish Kondabolu, Rishimani Adsumelli, Joy Schabel, Peter Glass, Srinivas PentyalaDepartment of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Stony Brook Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York, USABackground: It is accepted that there is a severe risk of dural puncture in epidural anesthesia. Of major concern to anesthesiologists is unintentional spinal block. Reliable identification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from the aspirate is crucial for safe epidural anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin D2 could be clinically used as a marker for the detection of CSF traces.Methods: After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval and patient consent, CSF was obtained from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia, and blood, urine, and saliva were obtained from normal subjects and analyzed for prostaglandin D2 (PGD. CSF (n=5 samples were diluted with local anesthetic (bupivacaine, normal saline and blood in the ratios of 1:5 and 1:10. PGD levels in the CSF samples were analyzed with a PGD-Methoxime (MOX EIA Kit (Cayman Chemicals, MI. This assay is based on the conversion of PGD to a stable derivative, which is analyzed with antiserum specific for PGD-MOX. Results: Different concentrations of pure PGD-MOX conjugate were analyzed by EIA and a standard curve was derived. PGD levels in CSF and CSF with diluents were determined and the values were extrapolated onto the standard curve. Our results show a well-defined correlation for the presence of PGD both in straight CSF samples and in diluted CSF (dilution factor of 1:5 and 1:10. Conclusion: Prostaglandin D2 was reliably identified in CSF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay when diluted with local anesthetic, saline, and serum, and can be used as a marker to identify the presence of CSF in epidural aspirates.Keywords: epidural, cerebrospinal fluid, leak, marker, prostaglandin D2

  11. Parathyroid hormone related protein concentration in human serum and CSF correlates with age. (United States)

    Kushnir, Mark M; Peterson, Lisa K; Strathmann, Frederick G


    Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein (PTHrP) is involved in intracellular calcium (Ca) regulation, and has been demonstrated to participate in regulation of Ca in brain cells, activation of neurons, and modulation of pain. However, there are conflicting reports regarding the presence of PTHrP in CSF. PTHrP and Ca were quantified in paired CSF and serum samples using mass spectrometry-based methods. Associations between PTHrP and Ca concentrations with age, sex and concentrations of nine CSF diagnostic markers in a set of 140 paired serum and CSF patient samples were evaluated. The observed median PTHrP concentration in CSF was 51 times higher than in serum; the median concentration of Ca in CSF was 1.8 times lower than in serum. We observed positive correlation between concentrations of PTHrP in CSF and serum (p=0.013). Distribution of PTHrP concentrations in serum was associated with age (p=0.0068) and the concentrations were higher in women. In samples with serum calcium concentrations within the reference intervals (n=118), central 95% distribution of concentrations for Ca-CSF, PTHrP-serum and PTHrP-CSF were 5.4 (4.5-6.1) mg/dL, 1.2 (0.5-2.5) pmol/L, 62 (22-125) pmol/L, respectively. Our data demonstrate that PTHrP is a normal constituent of human CSF with median concentrations 51 fold higher than in serum. Elevated serum PTHrP concentrations were positively correlated with age and significantly higher in women. Our data suggest that CSF could be a significant source of circulating PTHrP. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter


    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  13. Relationships between soldiers' PTSD symptoms and spousal communication during deployment. (United States)

    Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard


    Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.


    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness alters the influence of a polygenic risk score on biomarkers of AD. (United States)

    Schultz, Stephanie A; Boots, Elizabeth A; Darst, Burcu F; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Edwards, Dorothy F; Koscik, Rebecca L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Gallagher, Catherine L; Bendlin, Barbara B; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Hogan, Kirk J; Hermann, Bruce P; Cook, Dane B; Johnson, Sterling C; Engelman, Corinne D; Okonkwo, Ozioma C


    To examine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) derived from APOE4, CLU, and ABCA7 is associated with CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modifies the association between the PRS and CSF biomarkers. Ninety-five individuals from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention were included in these cross-sectional analyses. They were genotyped for APOE4 , CLU , and ABCA7 , from which a PRS was calculated for each participant. The participants underwent lumbar puncture for CSF collection. β-Amyloid 42 (Aβ 42 ), Aβ 40 , total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) were quantified by immunoassays, and Aβ 42 /Aβ 40 and tau/Aβ 42 ratios were computed. CRF was estimated from a validated equation incorporating sex, age, body mass index, resting heart rate, and self-reported physical activity. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test for associations between the PRS and CSF biomarkers. In addition, by including a PRS×CRF term in the models, we examined whether these associations were modified by CRF. A higher PRS was associated with lower Aβ 42 /Aβ 40 ( p interactions for Aβ 42 /Aβ 40 ( p = 0.003), t-tau/Aβ 42 ( p = 0.003), and p-tau/Aβ 42 ( p = 0.001). Specifically, the association between the PRS and these CSF biomarkers was diminished in those with higher CRF. In a late-middle-aged cohort, CRF attenuates the adverse influence of genetic vulnerability on CSF biomarkers. These findings support the notion that increased cardiorespiratory fitness may be beneficial to those at increased genetic risk for AD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Chimeric classical swine fever (CSF)-Japanese encephalitis (JE) viral replicon as a non-transmissible vaccine candidate against CSF and JE infections. (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhua; Wu, Rui; Li, Robert W; Li, Ling; Xiong, Zhongliang; Zhao, Haizhong; Guo, Deyin; Pan, Zishu


    A trans-complemented chimeric CSF-JE virus replicon was constructed using an infectious cDNA clone of the CSF virus (CSFV) Alfort/187 strain. The CSFV E2 gene was deleted, and a fragment containing the region encoding a truncated envelope protein (tE, amino acid 292-402, domain III) of JE virus (JEV) was inserted into the resultant plasmid, pA187delE2, to generate the recombinant cDNA clone pA187delE2/JEV-tE. Porcine kidney 15 (PK15) cells that constitutively express the CSFV E2p7 proteins were then transfected with in vitro-transcribed RNA from pA187delE2/JEV-tE. As a result, the chimeric CSF-JE virus replicon particle (VRP), rv187delE2/JEV-tE, was rescued. In a mouse model, immunization with the chimeric CSF-JE VRP induced strong production of JEV-specific antibody and conferred protection against a lethal JEV challenge. Pigs immunized with CSF-JE VRP displayed strong anti-CSFV and anti-JEV antibody responses and protection against CSFV and JEV challenge infections. Our evidence suggests that E2-complemented CSF-JE VRP not only has potential as a live-attenuated non-transmissible vaccine candidate against CSF and JE but also serves as a potential DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccine for CSF in pigs. Together, our data suggest that the non-transmissible chimeric VRP expressing foreign antigenic proteins may represent a promising strategy for bivalent DIVA vaccine design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proximal Limb Weakness Reverting After CSF Diversion In Intracranial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha S


    Full Text Available We report about two young girls who developed progressive visual failure secondary to increased intracranial pressure and had significant proximal muscle weakness of limbs. Patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP may present with "false localizing signs", besides having headache, vomiting and papilledema. Radicular pain as a manifestation of raised ICP is rare and motor weakness attributable to polyradiculopathy is exceptional. Two patients with increased intracranial pressure without lateralizing signs′ had singnificant muscle weakness. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests did not disclose any other cause for weakness. Following theco-peritoneal shunt, in both patients, there was variable recovery of vision but the proximal weakness and symptoms of elevated ICP improved rapidly. Recognition of this uncommon manifestation of raised ICP may obviate the need for unnecessary investigation and reduce morbidity due to weakness by CSF diversion procedure.

  18. Csf Based Non-Ground Points Extraction from LIDAR Data (United States)

    Shen, A.; Zhang, W.; Shi, H.


    Region growing is a classical method of point cloud segmentation. Based on the idea of collecting the pixels with similar properties to form regions, region growing is widely used in many fields such as medicine, forestry and remote sensing. In this algorithm, there are two core problems. One is the selection of seed points, the other is the setting of the growth constraints, in which the selection of the seed points is the foundation. In this paper, we propose a CSF (Cloth Simulation Filtering) based method to extract the non-ground seed points effectively. The experiments have shown that this method can obtain a group of seed spots compared with the traditional methods. It is a new attempt to extract seed points

  19. Covering the CSF space: Does teaching make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.; Wynne, C.J.; Baggarley, S.


    Following a paediatric teaching course for radiation oncology registrars which specifically addressed the method for planning cranial irradiation, a lateral skull simulation film was sent to all attendees to assess the effect of the teaching. The method uses opposed lateral fields to encompass the entire clinical target volume: the brain, meninges and cerebro- spinal fluid (CSF) down to the level of the second vertebra. To assess current clinical practice in New Zealand, a copy of the same radiograph was sent to radiation oncologists who had not attended the course. Recommendations from the course were that 10-mm margins should be placed in the regions of the cribiform plate and the floor of the middle cranial fossa. However, only 6.9% of the attendees; marked the film with the recommended 10-mm margins. Dose profiles are also presented to support the use of 10-mm margins. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  20. Supplemental tests in the evaluation of occupational hand dermatitis in soldiers. (United States)

    Wolf, R; Movshowitz, M; Brenner, S


    Hand dermatitis in soldiers is a considerable problem. The purpose of the study was to evaluate appropriate screening tests to improve the diagnosis of hand dermatitis in soldiers. A group of 111 soldiers with occupational dermatitis from contact with fuels and oils underwent "tailored patch tests" with allergens relevant to their field of work and their environment. The control group consisted of 24 soldiers with various jobs similar to those of civilian life, who had not been exposed to oils and fuels. Seventy-three civilian patients, attending the clinic for patch testing, were also included. Twenty soldiers, who had a history of intensive contact with oil and fuels, but no contact dermatitis, and who were admitted because of various skin diseases (fungal infections, acne, etc.) also underwent the supplemental testing and served as an additional control group. Of the soldiers, 31 (29%) showed one or more positive skin tests of the oil series and 30 patients of this group one or more positive reactions to the standard patch tests trays. No patient of the control groups had a positive test to the oil series. Our results show the value of the supplementary tests as a first-step screening test for detection of oil allergy in soldiers and automobile-mechanics or in workers handling other gasoline- or diesel-powered engineering equipment. The test method appears to be practical, easy to perform, reliable and giving clear and accurate results, with a negligible rate of false positive reactions.

  1. Differential Child Maltreatment Risk Across Deployment Periods of US Army Soldiers. (United States)

    Taylor, Christine M; Ross, Michelle E; Wood, Joanne N; Griffis, Heather M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Rubin, David M


    We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112,325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10,000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10,000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10,000 child-months). We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level for post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang


    Conclusions: The PBM diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low, whereas the accuracy of CSF lactate level was high. Some variables that are involved in the incidence of PBM can also affect the diagnostic accuracy for PBM. Taking into account the effects of these variables significantly improves the diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level.

  3. CSF protein profiling using Multiplex Immuno-assay : A potential new diagnostic tool for leptomeningeal metastases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, D.; Voest, E.E.; Jager, W. de; Bonfrer, H.; Algra, A.; Boogerd, W.; Korse, T.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Verbeek, M.M.; Rijkers, G.; Taphoorn, M.J.B.


    OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases (LM) is based on clinical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain and spine and cytological analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The clinical picture of LM is highly variable and both cytological CSF analysis and contrast-enhanced

  4. Correlation of MRI and CSF cytology in the diagnosis of medulloblastoma spinal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, S.K.; Ditchfield, M.R.; Waters, K.


    Background. Medulloblastoma frequently spreads to involve the spinal cord, which significantly reduces patient survival and determines whether chemotherapy is utilised and the dose of irradiation to the neuraxis. Staging is usually achieved by MRI of the spine and/or cytology of CSF, both methods having their limitations. Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between CSF cytology and the demonstration of spinal metastases by MRI and whether CSF cytology is useful when spinal MRI is equivocal. Materials and methods. All cases of medulloblastoma diagnosed at our hospital between 1992 and 1997 were identified. Of 26 cases, 11 presentations (age range 4 months to 12 years) had both CSF cytology (either from the cisterna magna or lumbar puncture) and spinal MRI. The MR studies were reviewed for the presence of metastases and the CSF cytology for the presence of tumour cells. Results. We found 100 % correlation between MRI and CSF cytology for samples taken by lumbar puncture (four negative and three positive on both investigations). No correlation was demonstrated when CSF samples were taken from the cisterna magna. Conclusions. Our data suggest that lumbar CSF cytology may be useful when the MRI is equivocal for the presence of metastatic involvement of the spine by medulloblastoma. (orig.)

  5. T2-weighted vs. intrathecal contrast-enhanced MR cisternography in the evaluation of CSF rhinorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecin, Gaye; Oner, A. Yusuf; Tokgoz, Nil; Ucar, Murat; Tali, Turgut; Aykol, Sukru


    Background: Endoscopic surgical approach is being more widely used in the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. Accurate localization of CSF fistulas prior to surgery is essential in increasing the success of dural repair and in decreasing negative or recurrent explorations. Purpose: To evaluate and compare intrathecal contrast medium-enhanced magnetic resonance cisternography (CEMRC) with T2-weighted MR cisternography (T2MRC) in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea. Material and Methods: Sixty patients with suspected CSF rhinorrhea underwent MR cisternography including intrathecally enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI in three orthogonal planes and T2WI in the coronal plane. Both set of images were reviewed by two blinded radiologists for the presence and location of CSF leakage. Imaging data were compared with surgical findings and/or beta-2 transferrin testing. Results: With surgery proven CSF leakage in 20 instances as reference, CEMRC detected 18 (90%), whereas T2MRC reported only 13 (65%) correctly. Overall, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in detecting CSF fistulas were 92%, 80%, 76%, and 93% for CEMRC, and 56%, 77%, 64%, and 71% for T2MRC, respectively. Conclusion: The minimally invasive CEMRC is an effective method with higher sensitivity and specificity than T2MRC in the evaluation of CSF fistulas

  6. MDSCs are involved in the protumorigenic potentials of GM-CSF in colitis-associated cancer. (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Qilin; Hou, Lin; Wang, Yalin; Liu, Ziling


    Chronic inflammation is thought to be a major driving force for the development of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). As one member of proinflammatory cytokine family, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been identified to play a key role in CAC pathogenesis recently. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated increasingly in the lesions during the progression from colitis to cancer, which was critical for CAC formation. Importantly, this MDSC accumulation was controlled by GM-CSF. MDSC number decreased significantly in GM-CSF-deficient mice suffering from CAC induction, and transfusion of MDSCs from wild-type CAC-bearing mice into GM-CSF-deficient counterparts led to recurrence of CAC. Furthermore, the supernatants of CAC lesions or GM-CSF alone was sufficient to differentiate hematopoietic precursors into MDSCs. Addition of neutralizing anti-GM-CSF antibody impaired the MDSC-differentiating effects of the supernatants of CAC lesions. Overall, these findings shed new insights into the mechanisms of GM-CSF underlying CAC development, by inducing/recruiting CAC-promoting MDSCs. Blocking GM-CSF activity or MDSC function may represent new therapeutic strategies for CAC in clinic.

  7. The Choroid Plexus of the Lateral Ventricle As the Origin of CSF Pulsation Is Questionable. (United States)

    Takizawa, Ken; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Naokazu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Sano, Fumiya; Yatsushiro, Satoshi; Kuroda, Kagayaki


    The advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables noninvasive measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) motion, and new information about CSF motion has now been acquired. The driving force of the CSF has long been thought to be choroid plexus (CP) pulsation, but to investigate whether this phenomenon actually occurs, CSF motion was observed in the ventricular system and subarachnoid space using MRI. Eleven healthy volunteers, ranging in age from 23 to 58 years, participated in this study. The MRI sequences used were four-dimensional phase-contrast (4D-PC) and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (t-SLIP). The 4D-PC images included sagittal images in the cranial midline, coronal images focusing on the foramen of Monro (FOM), and oblique coronal images of the trigone to quantify CSF velocity and acceleration. These values were compared and analyzed as non-parametric data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Mann-Whitney U test. 4D-PC showed that the median CSF velocity was significantly lower in the posterior part of the lateral ventricle than in other regions. The quantitative analysis of velocity and acceleration showed that they were decreased around the CP in the trigone. Image analysis of both velocity mapping and t-SLIP showed suppressed CSF motion around the CP in the trigone. These findings cast doubt on CP pulsation being the driving force for CSF motion.

  8. Selected CSF biomarkers indicate no evidence of early neuroinflammation in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Börnsen, Lars Svend; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben


    Objective: To investigate CSF biomarkers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD) gene-expansion carriers compared to controls and to investigate these biomarkers in association with clinical HD rating scales and disease burden score. Methods: We collected CSF from 32...

  9. Visualization and quantitative analysis of the CSF pulsatile flow with cine MR phase imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Shinji; Itoh, Takahiko; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Asari, Shoji; Nishimoto, Akira; Tsuchida, Shohei; Ono, Atsushi; Ikezaki, Yoshikazu; Yoshitome, Eiji.


    The visualization and the quantitative analysis of the CSF pulsatile flow were performed on ten healthy volunteers with cine MR phase imaging, a combination of the phase-contrast technique and the cardiac-gating technique. The velocities appropriate for the visualization and the quantitative analysis of the CSF pulsatile flow were from 6.0 cm/sec to 15.0 cm/sec. The applicability of this method for the quantitative analysis was proven with a steady-flow phantom. Phase images clearly demonstrated a to-and-fro motion of the CSF flow in the anterior subarachnoid space and in the posterior subarachnoid space. The flow pattern of CSF on healthy volunteers depends on the cardiac cycle. In the anterior subarachnoid space, the cephalic CSF flow continued until a 70-msec delay after the R-wave of the ECG and then reversed to caudal. At 130-190 msec, the caudal CSF flow reached its maximum velocity; thereafter it reversed again to cephalic. The same turn appeared following the phase, but then the amplitude decreased. The cephalic peaked at 370-430 msec, while the caudal peaked at 490-550 msec. The flow pattern of the CSF flow in the posterior subarachnoid space was almost identical to that in the anterior subarachnoid space. Cine MR phase imaging is thus useful for the visualization and the quantitative analysis of the CSF pulsative flow. (author)

  10. CSF studies facilitate DNA diagnosis in familial Alzheimer's disease due to a presenilin-1 mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Susanne T; Kremer, H P H; Dooijes, Dennis; Verbeek, Marcel M


    In sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is becoming increasingly relevant to establish an early diagnosis. We present a case of familial AD due to a presenilin-1 mutation in which CSF studies suggested appropriate DNA diagnostics. A 38 year old Dutch man presented

  11. Sunlight triggers cutaneous lupus through a CSF-1-dependent mechanism in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. (United States)

    Menke, Julia; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Byrne, Katelyn T; Lucas, Julie A; Rabacal, Whitney A; Croker, Byron P; Zong, Xiao-Hua; Stanley, E Richard; Kelley, Vicki R


    Sunlight (UVB) triggers cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and systemic lupus through an unknown mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that UVB triggers CLE through a CSF-1-dependent, macrophage (Mø)-mediated mechanism in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. By constructing mutant MRL-Fas(lpr) strains expressing varying levels of CSF-1 (high, intermediate, none), and use of an ex vivo gene transfer to deliver CSF-1 intradermally, we determined that CSF-1 induces CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Fas(lpr) mice, but not in lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. UVB incites an increase in Møs, apoptosis in the skin, and CLE in MRL-Fas(lpr), but not in CSF-1-deficient MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. Furthermore, UVB did not induce CLE in BALB/c mice. Probing further, UVB stimulates CSF-1 expression by keratinocytes leading to recruitment and activation of Møs that, in turn, release mediators, which induce apoptosis in keratinocytes. Thus, sunlight triggers a CSF-1-dependent, Mø-mediated destructive inflammation in the skin leading to CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Fas(lpr) but not lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. Taken together, CSF-1 is envisioned as the match and lupus susceptibility as the tinder leading to CLE.

  12. Different Cholinesterase Inhibitor Effects on CSF Cholinesterases in Alzheimer Patients (United States)

    Nordberg, Agneta; Darreh-Shori, Taher; Peskind, Elaine; Soininen, Hilkka; Mousavi, Malahat; Eagle, Gina; Lane, Roger


    Background The current study aimed to compare the effects of different cholinesterase inhibitors on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities and protein levels, in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Methods and Findings AD patients aged 50–85 years were randomized to open-label treatment with oral rivastigmine, donepezil or galantamine for 13 weeks. AChE and BuChE activities were assayed by Ellman’s colorimetric method. Protein levels were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Primary analyses were based on the Completer population (randomized patients who completed Week 13 assessments). 63 patients were randomized to treatment. Rivastigmine was associated with decreased AChE activity by 42.6% and decreased AChE protein levels by 9.3%, and decreased BuChE activity by 45.6% and decreased BuChE protein levels by 21.8%. Galantamine decreased AChE activity by 2.1% and BuChE activity by 0.5%, but increased AChE protein levels by 51.2% and BuChE protein levels by10.5%. Donepezil increased AChE and BuChE activities by 11.8% and 2.8%, respectively. Donepezil caused a 215.2%increase in AChE and 0.4% increase in BuChE protein levels. Changes in mean AChE-Readthrough/Synaptic ratios, which might reflect underlying neurodegenerative processes, were 1.4, 0.6, and 0.4 for rivastigmine, donepezil and galantamine, respectively. Conclusion The findings suggest pharmacologically-induced differences between rivastigmine, donepezil and galantamine. Rivastigmine provides sustained inhibition of AChE and BuChE, while donepezil and galantamine do not inhibit BuChE and are associated with increases in CSF AChE protein levels. The clinical implications require evaluation. PMID:19199870

  13. Microdialysis Monitoring of CSF Parameters in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Novel Approach (United States)

    Thelin, Eric P.; Nelson, David W.; Ghatan, Per Hamid; Bellander, Bo-Michael


    Background: Neuro-intensive care following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is focused on preventing secondary insults that may lead to irreversible brain damage. Microdialysis (MD) is used to detect deranged cerebral metabolism. The clinical usefulness of the MD is dependent on the regional localization of the MD catheter. The aim of this study was to analyze a new method of continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monitoring using the MD technique. The method was validated using conventional laboratory analysis of CSF samples. MD-CSF and regional MD-Brain samples were correlated to patient outcome. Materials and Methods: A total of 14 patients suffering from severe TBI were analyzed. They were monitored using (1) a MD catheter (CMA64-iView, n = 7448 MD samples) located in a CSF-pump connected to the ventricular drain and (2) an intraparenchymal MD catheter (CMA70, n = 8358 MD samples). CSF-lactate and CSF-glucose levels were monitored and were compared to MD-CSF samples. MD-CSF and MD-Brain parameters were correlated to favorable (Glasgow Outcome Score extended, GOSe 6–8) and unfavorable (GOSe 1–5) outcome. Results: Levels of glucose and lactate acquired with the CSF-MD technique could be correlated to conventional levels. The median MD recovery using the CMA64 catheter in CSF was 0.98 and 0.97 for glucose and lactate, respectively. Median MD-CSF (CMA 64) lactate (p = 0.0057) and pyruvate (p = 0.0011) levels were significantly lower in the favorable outcome group compared to the unfavorable group. No significant difference in outcome was found using the lactate:pyruvate ratio (LPR), or any of the regional MD-Brain monitoring in our analyzed cohort. Conclusion: This new technique of global MD-CSF monitoring correlates with conventional CSF levels of glucose and lactate, and the MD recovery is higher than previously described. Increase in lactate and pyruvate, without any effect on the LPR, correlates to unfavorable outcome, perhaps related to the

  14. Microdialysis monitoring of CSF parameters in severe traumatic brain injury patients: A novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Peter Thelin


    Full Text Available Background: Neuro-intensive care following traumatic brain injury is focused on preventing secondary insults that may lead to irreversible brain damage. Microdialysis (MD is used to detect deranged cerebral metabolism. The clinical usefulness of the MD is dependent on the regional localization of the MD catheter. The aim of this study was to analyze a new method of continuous cerebral spinal fluid (CSF monitoring using the MD technique. The method was validated using conventional laboratory analysis of CSF samples. MD-CSF and regional MD-Brain samples were correlated to patient outcome.Materials and method: A total of 14 patients suffering from severe TBI were analyzed. They were monitored using 1. A MD catheter (CMA64-iView, n=7448 MD samples located in a CSF-pump connected to the ventricular drain and 2. An intraparenchymal MD catheter (CMA70, n=8358 MD samples. CSF-lactate and CSF-glucose levels were monitored and were compared to MD-CSF samples. MD-CSF and MD-Brain parameters were correlated to favorable (Glasgow Outcome Score extended, GOSe 6-8 and unfavorable (GOSe 1-5 outcome. Results: Levels of glucose and lactate acquired with the CSF-MD technique could be correlated to conventional levels. The median extraction ratio using the CMA64 catheter in CSF was 0.98 and 0.97 for glucose and lactate, respectively. Median MD-CSF (CMA 64 lactate- (p=0.0057 and pyruvate (p=0.0011 levels were significantly lower in the favorable outcome group compared to the unfavorable group. No significant difference in outcome was found using the lactate:pyruvate ratio (LPR, or any of the regional MD-Brain monitoring in our analyzed cohort. Conclusions: This new technique of global MD-CSF monitoring correlates with conventional CSF-levels of glucose and lactate and the extraction ratio for the MD catheter is higher than previously described. Increase in lactate and pyruvate in CSF, without any effect on the LPR, correlates to unfavorable outcome.

  15. Highlights of the Global HIV-1 CSF Escape Consortium Meeting, 9 June 2016, Bethesda, MD, USA. (United States)

    Joseph, Jeymohan; Cinque, Paola; Colosi, Deborah; Dravid, Ameet; Ene, Luminita; Fox, Howard; Gabuzda, Dana; Gisslen, Magnus; Beth Joseph, Sarah; Letendre, Scott; Mukerji, Shibani S; Nath, Avindra; Perez-Valero, Ignacio; Persaud, Deborah; Price, Richard W; Rao, Vasudev R; Sacktor, Ned; Swanstrom, Ronald; Winston, Alan; Wojna, Valerie; Wright, Edwina; Spudich, Serena


    CSF HIV escape is a recently recognised phenomenon that suggests that despite suppressive treatment, HIV RNA may be detected in the CNS compartment in some individuals. In rare cases this is associated with clinical neurological disease, while in most cases, neurological consequences are not apparent. Attempts at characterising the biological substrates of CSF escape and further investigating the neurological consequences need to be made to better understand the implications of this condition for the HIV cure agenda as well as for clinical outcomes. The Global CSF HIV-1 Escape Consortium meeting, convened by the US National Institute of Mental Health, was a first step to gather investigators from diverse sites to discuss opportunities for future collaborative work on this emerging issue. To better understand CSF HIV escape and allow cross-site data reconciliation, it will be useful to reach a consensus set of definitions of the distinct forms of CSF escape, without which concerted cross-site efforts are difficult.

  16. On the pulsatile nature of intracranial and spinal CSF-circulation demonstrated by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greitz, D.; Franck, A.; Nordell, B.


    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow was studied in 24 healthy volunteers using gated MR phase imaging. The subarachnoid space (SAS) was divided into 5 compartments depending on the magnitude of the pulsatile CSF flows: a high velocity compartment in the area of the brain stem and spinal cord, 2 slow ones at the upper and lower extremes of the SAS, and finally 2 intermediate velocity compartments in between. The main pulsatile spinal flow channel had a meandering pattern. The extraventricular CSF-circulation can be explained by pulsatile CSF flow without the necessity of assuming existence of a net flow. A successive time offset during the cardiac cycle has been found in the fronto-occipital direction of the interplay between the arterial expansion, brain expansion, volume changes of the CSF spaces and of the veins. It is proposed to name this time offset the intracranial ''volume wave'' (VoW). (orig.)

  17. Prognosis of cerebral ischemia, significance of CSF-lactate-level and computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, O.


    In patients (n = 120) with supratentorial ischemic cerebral infarction CSF lactate was determined and a CT was carried out on the 1st, 3rd and 7th day after the stroke. On the 3rd and 7th day the comparative investigation revealed a close correlation between the measure of the ischemic edema and the level of CSF-lactate. Thus the lactate-concentration can be regarded as a measure for the spread of the edema after cerebral infarction. Already on the 3rd day CT- and CSF-lactate results allow a relatively reliable prediction for the course of the stroke. An edema grade III in CT and a CSF-lactate concentration more than 4 mmol/l were prognostically critical. On the other hand good chances of survival were indicated by a CSF lactate level under 2.5 mmol/l and an edema grade I. (orig.) [de

  18. Persistent CSF Rhinorrhoea, Pneumocephalus, and Recurrent Meningitis Following Misdiagnosis of Olfactory Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Barua


    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female patient was admitted with streptococcal meningitis on a background of 5-month history of CSF rhinorrhoea. Imaging revealed an extensive skull base lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, the pituitary fossa with suprasellar extension and bony destruction. Histological examination of an endonasal transethmoidal biopsy suggested a diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma. A profuse CSF leak occurred and the patient developed coliform meningitis. A second endonasal endoscopic biopsy was undertaken which demonstrated the tumour to be a prolactinoma. Following endonasal repair of the CSF leak and lumbar drainage, she developed profound pneumocephalus. The patient underwent three further unsuccessful CSF leak repairs. Definitive control of the CSF leak was finally achieved through a transcranial approach with prolonged lumbar drainage. This case illustrates some of the potentially devastating complications which can occur as a consequence of complex skull base lesions. A multidisciplinary approach may be required to successfully manage such cases.

  19. Crystals seen on CSF microscopy in a case of suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage (United States)

    Weiand, Daniel; Hanning, Ian; Mouhamadou, Moussa; Wearmouth, Debbie


    Although crystals are rarely identified on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy, their presence can be of significant diagnostic value. We report a case of oxalate crystals seen on CSF microscopy of a 43-year-old woman. The patient presented with headaches, nausea and vomiting. CT of the head showed a small focus of hyper-density, suspicious of haemorrhage, in the right side of the pontine cistern. CSF cell count was within the normal range. Although no organisms were seen on microscopy, copious oxalate crystals were seen. The same crystals were seen on microscopy of CSF collected in a fluoride oxalate container used for glucose analysis. A follow-up contrast-enhanced CT angiogram did not demonstrate any abnormalities. It transpired that excess CSF had been collected into a fluoride oxalate container. This had subsequently been decanted into a plain container for microbiological analysis. Correct specimen collection should be emphasised when teaching lumbar puncture technique. PMID:26139652

  20. False localizing sign of cervico-thoracic CSF leak in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. (United States)

    Schievink, Wouter I; Maya, M Marcel; Chu, Ray M; Moser, Franklin G


    Spontaneous spinal CSF leaks are an important cause of new-onset headaches. Such leaks are reported to be particularly common at the cervico-thoracic junction. The authors undertook a study to determine the significance of these cervico-thoracic CSF leaks. The patient population consisted of a consecutive group of 13 patients who underwent surgery for CSF leak repair based on CT myelography showing CSF extravasation at the cervico-thoracic junction but without any evidence of an underlying structural lesion. The mean age of the 9 women and 4 men was 41.2 years. Extensive extrathecal longitudinal CSF collections were demonstrated in 11 patients. At surgery, small leaking arachnoid cysts were found in 2 patients. In the remaining 11 patients, no clear source of CSF leakage could be identified at surgery. Resolution of symptoms was achieved in both patients with leaking arachnoid cysts, but in only 3 of the 11 patients with negative intraoperative findings. Postoperative spinal imaging was performed in 9 of the 11 patients with negative intraoperative findings and showed persistence of the longitudinal intraspinal extradural CSF. Further imaging revealed the site of the CSF leak to be ventral to the thoracic spinal cord. Five of these patients underwent microsurgical repair of the ventral CSF leak with resolution of symptoms in all 5 patients. Cervico-thoracic extravasation of dye on myelography does not necessarily indicate the site of the CSF leak. Treatment directed at this site should not be expected to have a high probability of sustained improvement of symptoms. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Identification of Ambiguous Activities in Radionuclide Cisternography Using SPECT/CT: Aspirated and Ingested CSF Rhinorrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Jae Seung [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    A 2 year-old little girl underwent Tc-99m diethylenthriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) radionuclide cisternography to evaluate CSF rhinorrhea (Fig. 1). Cisternography clearly showed consecutive tracer activity in the nasal cavity and nasal tip, reflecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. However, several unexpected activities appeared on the bilateral mid- and unilateral lower thorax on delayed images, respectively. We performed additional SPECT/CT to delineate the CSF leakage tract and identify the unexpected activities. Through SPECT/CT, we could confirm that the mid-thoracic activity was in the lung parenchyma, while the lower thoracic activity was in the stomach. Thus, we speculated that these unexpected activities were the result of aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea. CSF rhinorrhea occurs when there is a fistula between the dura mater and the skull base and discharge of CSF from the nose. A spinal fluid leak from the intracranial space to the nasal respiratory tract is potentially very serious because of the risk of an ascending infection that could produce fulminant meningitis. Therefore, identification of the fistulous tract is helpful for patient management. Radionuclide cisternography is an important imaging modality to detect the site of leakage in patients with CSF rhinorrhea. The combination of radionuclide cistenography and SPECT/CT has led to a major improvement in the diagnostic accuracy for localization of CSF leakage. This case also shows an important role for SPECT/CT fusion imaging in radionuclide cisternography not only for localizing the primary CSF fistula tract, but also for evaluating ambiguous radiotracer activities in planar imaging; these ultimately turned out to be aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea.

  2. GM-CSF augments the immunosuppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, P.J.; Ireland, R.


    Addition of exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to cultures of adult murine spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) results in an augmented plaque forming cell (PFC) response. The influence of GM-CSF on the ability of neonatal spleen cells to suppress the anti-SRBC plaque forming response of adult spleen cells was tested by adding GM-CSF to cultures of neonatal and adult spleen cells. The suppressive capacity of the neonatal spleen cells was augmented by exogenous GM-CSF. The augmented suppression of the neonatal spleen cells was dependent on a G-10 adherent population since the addition of GM-CSF to cultures containing G-10 passed neonatal spleen cells resulted in an augmented PFC response and not suppression. Neonatal splenic glass adherent cells were also capable of suppressing the response. Neonatal spleen cells or purified neonatal glass adherent spleen cells cultured in the presence of GM-CSF had markedly increased levels of PGE2 in the culture supernatant. Neonatal spleen cells cultured with GM-CSF had increased numbers of morphologically identifiable macrophages after 48 hr of culture. Both irradiation and G-10 passage of the neonatal spleen diminished the numbers of macrophages formed in response to GM-CSF, and both of these manipulations resulted in reversal of suppression in response to GM-CSF. Thus, the augmented suppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in response to GM-CSF is probably mediated by its ability to drive monocyte to macrophage differentiation as well as increase the suppressive capacity of the existing neonatal splenic macrophages by increasing their production of PGE2

  3. Autocrine CSF-1R signaling drives mesothelioma chemoresistance via AKT activation (United States)

    Cioce, M; Canino, C; Goparaju, C; Yang, H; Carbone, M; Pass, H I


    Clinical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is very challenging because of the uncommon resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. We report here increased expression of macrophage colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor (M-CSF/CSF-1R) mRNA in mesothelioma versus normal tissue specimens and demonstrate that CSF-1R expression identifies chemoresistant cells of mesothelial nature in both primary cultures and mesothelioma cell lines. By using RNAi or ligand trapping, we demonstrate that the chemoresistance properties of those cells depend on autocrine CSF-1R signaling. At the single-cell level, the isolated CSF-1Rpos cells exhibit a complex repertoire of pluripotency, epithelial–mesenchymal transition and detoxifying factors, which define a clonogenic, chemoresistant, precursor-like cell sub-population. The simple activation of CSF-1R in untransformed mesothelial cells is sufficient to confer clonogenicity and resistance to pemetrexed, hallmarks of mesothelioma. In addition, this induced a gene expression profile highly mimicking that observed in the MPM cells endogenously expressing the receptor and the ligands, suggesting that CSF-1R expression is mainly responsible for the phenotype of the identified cell sub-populations. The survival of CSF1Rpos cells requires active AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) signaling, which contributed to increased levels of nuclear, transcriptionally competent β-catenin. Inhibition of AKT reduced the transcriptional activity of β-catenin-dependent reporters and sensitized the cells to senescence-induced clonogenic death after pemetrexed treatment. This work expands what is known on the non-macrophage functions of CSF-1R and its role in solid tumors, and suggests that CSF-1R signaling may have a critical pathogenic role in a prototypical, inflammation-related cancer such as MPM and therefore may represent a promising target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24722292

  4. Identification of Ambiguous Activities in Radionuclide Cisternography Using SPECT/CT: Aspirated and Ingested CSF Rhinorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Jae Seung


    A 2 year-old little girl underwent Tc-99m diethylenthriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) radionuclide cisternography to evaluate CSF rhinorrhea (Fig. 1). Cisternography clearly showed consecutive tracer activity in the nasal cavity and nasal tip, reflecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. However, several unexpected activities appeared on the bilateral mid- and unilateral lower thorax on delayed images, respectively. We performed additional SPECT/CT to delineate the CSF leakage tract and identify the unexpected activities. Through SPECT/CT, we could confirm that the mid-thoracic activity was in the lung parenchyma, while the lower thoracic activity was in the stomach. Thus, we speculated that these unexpected activities were the result of aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea. CSF rhinorrhea occurs when there is a fistula between the dura mater and the skull base and discharge of CSF from the nose. A spinal fluid leak from the intracranial space to the nasal respiratory tract is potentially very serious because of the risk of an ascending infection that could produce fulminant meningitis. Therefore, identification of the fistulous tract is helpful for patient management. Radionuclide cisternography is an important imaging modality to detect the site of leakage in patients with CSF rhinorrhea. The combination of radionuclide cistenography and SPECT/CT has led to a major improvement in the diagnostic accuracy for localization of CSF leakage. This case also shows an important role for SPECT/CT fusion imaging in radionuclide cisternography not only for localizing the primary CSF fistula tract, but also for evaluating ambiguous radiotracer activities in planar imaging; these ultimately turned out to be aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea

  5. G-CSF/anti-G-CSF antibody complexes drive the potent recovery and expansion of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells without compromising CD8+ T cell immune responses (United States)


    Background Administration of recombinant G-CSF following cytoreductive therapy enhances the recovery of myeloid cells, minimizing the risk of opportunistic infection. Free G-CSF, however, is expensive, exhibits a short half-life, and has poor biological activity in vivo. Methods We evaluated whether the biological activity of G-CSF could be improved by pre-association with anti-G-CSF mAb prior to injection into mice. Results We find that the efficacy of G-CSF therapy can be enhanced more than 100-fold by pre-association of G-CSF with an anti-G-CSF monoclonal antibody (mAb). Compared with G-CSF alone, administration of G-CSF/anti-G-CSF mAb complexes induced the potent expansion of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in mice with or without concomitant cytoreductive treatment including radiation or chemotherapy. Despite driving the dramatic expansion of myeloid cells, in vivo antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses were not compromised. Furthermore, injection of G-CSF/anti-G-CSF mAb complexes heightened protective immunity to bacterial infection. As a measure of clinical value, we also found that antibody complexes improved G-CSF biological activity much more significantly than pegylation. Conclusions Our findings provide the first evidence that antibody cytokine complexes can effectively expand myeloid cells, and furthermore, that G-CSF/anti-G-CSF mAb complexes may provide an improved method for the administration of recombinant G-CSF. PMID:24279871

  6. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.


    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in Appendix A. An example problem file and its solution is given in Appendix B.

  7. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One. (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo


    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  8. Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (United States)

    Davis, Benny; Huebner, Larry; Kuhns, Richard


    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) project was a joint project between the U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Command (SMDC) and NASA. The effort, lead by SMDC, was intended to develop a three-stage liquid bipropellant (liquid oxygen/liquid methane), pressure-fed launch vehicle capable of inserting a payload of at least 25 kg to a 750-km circular orbit. The vehicle design was driven by low cost instead of high performance. SWORDS leveraged commercial industry standards to utilize standard hardware and technologies over customized unique aerospace designs. SWORDS identified broadly based global industries that have achieved adequate levels of quality control and reliability in their products and then designed around their expertise and business motivations.

  9. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line


    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  10. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  11. Fast CSF MRI for brain segmentation; Cross-validation by comparison with 3D T1-based brain segmentation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kleij, Lisa A; de Bresser, Jeroen; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Siero, Jeroen C W; Petersen, Esben T; De Vis, Jill B


    OBJECTIVE: In previous work we have developed a fast sequence that focusses on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) based on the long T2 of CSF. By processing the data obtained with this CSF MRI sequence, brain parenchymal volume (BPV) and intracranial volume (ICV) can be automatically obtained. The aim of

  12. A Qualitative Study of Soldier Perceptions of the Relative Importance of MRE Portion Size and Variety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, R


    .... Bliss, Biggs Army Airfield, and Fort Leonard Wood during 1997 to understand how soldiers perceive Meal, Ready-to-Eat portion size and MRE variety and to begin to determine what types of trade offs...

  13. From Rampart to Chamber House: Soldiers, Statesmen and the Dialogue of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Redman, Edwin H


    .... Huntington, and Eliot Cohen. Clausewitz maintains that, because war is an extension of policy, both dialog and action must be two-way, even to the extent that the soldier become a statesman during war...

  14. The Effects of an Auditory Versus a Visual Presentation of Information on Soldier Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glumm, Monica


    This report describes a field study designed to measure the effects of an auditory versus a visual presentation of position information on soldier performance of land navigation and target acquisition tasks...

  15. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna


    .... Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM). (2) The Stable Isotope Laboratory performs analyses to measure the energy expenditure and body composition of soldiers during prolonged field exercise. (3...

  16. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna


    .... Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM). 2) The Stable Isotope Laboratory performed analyses to measure the energy expenditure and body composition of soldiers during prolonged field exercise. 3...

  17. Current Issues in the Use of Virtual Simulations for Dismounted Soldier Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W


    Research on the use of virtual simulation to train Soldiers and leaders in small dismounted units has largely focused on the use of specially developed, relatively high-fidelity PC-based simulators...

  18. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument (United States)


    ... father's military service as a Union soldier during the Civil War, and he heeded his father's advice by... appropriation; however, the monument shall be the dominant reservation. Warning is hereby given to all...

  19. U.S. Soldier Peacekeeping Experiences and Wellbeing After Returning from Deployment to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Amy


    ... (alcohol consumption, sick days, and sleep). Findings indicated that soldiers reporting high levels of exposure to peacekeeping experiences reported more post-traumatic symptoms, greater use of conflict-related tactics, more alcohol consumption...

  20. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brumley, Donald W


    This study of civil-military relations addresses the parallel development of the professional soldier and the Prussian-German Army from 1806 until 1945, as well as the rise of nationalism in central...

  1. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Soldiers Returning from Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoge, Charles W; McGurk, Dennis; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Cox, Anthony L; Engel, Charles C; Castro, Carl A


    .... Validated clinical instruments were used to compare soldiers reporting mild traumatic brain injury, defined as an injury with loss of consciousness or altered mental status (e.g., dazed or confused...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori


    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age = 27,1 ± 3,7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We have found 5 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength.

  3. Soldier Dimensions and Operational Readiness in U.S. Army Forces Deployed to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Carl


    .... In a recent study of U.S. Army units deployed to Kosovo in support of a multinational peacekeeping mission, soldier attitudes and health were surveyed on site, mid-way during a 6-month deployment...

  4. Elevated CSF Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Concentrations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Licinio, Julio; Darnell, Adam; Krystal, John H.; Owens, Michael J.; Southwick, Steven M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Charney, Dennis S.


    Objective Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and somatostatin both play important roles in mediating responses to acute and chronic stress. The purpose of this study was to measure CSF concentrations of CRF and somatostatin in patients with chronic combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comparison subjects. Method Lumbar punctures for collection of CSF were performed in Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD (N=11) and comparison subjects (N=17). CSF concentrations of CRF and somatostatin were compared between the two groups. Results CSF concentrations of CRF were higher in the PTSD patients than in the comparison subjects (mean=29.0 pg/ml, SD=7.8, versus mean=21.9 pg/ml, SD=6.0). This group difference remained significant after covariance for age. CSF somatostatin concentrations in PTSD patients were higher than those of the comparison subjects (mean=19.9 pg/ml, SD=5.4, versus mean=13.7 pg/ml, SD=8.0). However, covarying for age reduced the level of significance. Conclusions Higher CSF CRF concentrations in patients with PTSD may reflect alterations in stress-related neurotransmitter systems. The higher CSF CRF concentrations may play a role in disturbances of arousal in patients with PTSD. PMID:9137116

  5. MR cisternography: a new method for the diagnosis of CSF fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.E.W.; Tomandl, B.F.; Huk, W.J.; Hollenbach, H.P.; Deimling, M.


    The aim of this study was to compare a new MRI method for detecting the existence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulae, i. e. MR cisternography, with CT cisternography. In a prospective study, 30 patients with post-traumatic CSF fistulae were examined. The MR examinations were performed with a 1.0-T whole-body MR system, using two T2 * -weighted sequences, a 3D PSIF (time-inversed fast imaging with steady-state precession, FISP) and a 3D constructive interference steady-state (CISS) sequence. The results of MRI and CT cisternography were compared with the surgical findings. The sensitivity in detecting CSF fistulae with MR cisternography (PSIF: 89.9 %; CISS: 93.6 %) was higher than with CT cisternography (72.3 %). The sensitivity of CT cisternography at detecting CSF fistulae in patients with a size of dural lesion less than 2 mm or in patients with multiple dural lesions is significantly lower compared with the MR method. Although the localization of CSF fistulae always proved possible with MR cisternography, this could only be accomplished wih CT in 70 % of cases. The MR cisternography technique is a new examination method with a higher sensitivity for the detection of CSF fistulae than CT cisternography. The CISS technique is superior compared with PSIF and should be used in patients with high-flow CSF fistulas. (orig.)

  6. Inhibition of the CSF-1 receptor sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Jin, Hao; Jin, Congcong; Huang, Xuefeng; Lin, Jinju; Teng, Yili


    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common female malignancies, and cisplatin-based chemotherapy is routinely used in locally advanced ovarian cancer patients. Acquired or de novo cisplatin resistance remains the barrier to patient survival, and the mechanisms of cisplatin resistance are still not well understood. In the current study, we found that colony-stimulating-factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) was upregulated in cisplatin-resistant SK-OV-3 and CaoV-3 cells. Colony-stimulating-factor-1 receptor knockdown suppressed proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant SK-OV-3 and CaoV-3 cells. However, CSF-1R overexpression had inverse effects. While parental SK-OV-3 and CaoV-3 cells were more resistant to cisplatin after CSF-1R overexpression, CSF-1R knockdown in SK-OV-3 and CaoV-3 cells promoted cisplatin sensitivity. Overexpression and knockdown studies also showed that CSF-1R significantly promoted active AKT and ERK1/2 signalling pathways in cisplatin-resistant cells. Furthermore, a combination of cisplatin and CSF-1R inhibitor effectively inhibited tumour growth in xenografts. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that CSF-1R inhibition can sensitize cisplatin-refractory ovarian cancer cells. This study may help to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in tumours. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Targeting the GM-CSF receptor for the treatment of CNS autoimmunity. (United States)

    Ifergan, Igal; Davidson, Todd S; Kebir, Hania; Xu, Dan; Palacios-Macapagal, Daphne; Cann, Jennifer; Rodgers, Jane M; Hunter, Zoe N; Pittet, Camille L; Beddow, Sara; Jones, Clare A; Prat, Alexandre; Sleeman, Matthew A; Miller, Stephen D


    In multiple sclerosis (MS), there is a growing interest in inhibiting the pro-inflammatory effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We sought to evaluate the therapeutic potential and underlying mechanisms of GM-CSF receptor alpha (Rα) blockade in animal models of MS. We show that GM-CSF signaling inhibition at peak of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) results in amelioration of disease progression. Similarly, GM-CSF Rα blockade in relapsing-remitting (RR)-EAE model prevented disease relapses and inhibited T cell responses specific for both the inducing and spread myelin peptides, while reducing activation of mDCs and inflammatory monocytes. In situ immunostaining of lesions from human secondary progressive MS (SPMS), but not primary progressive MS patients shows extensive recruitment of GM-CSF Rα + myeloid cells. Collectively, this study reveals a pivotal role of GM-CSF in disease relapses and the benefit of GM-CSF Rα blockade as a potential novel therapeutic approach for treatment of RRMS and SPMS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased CSF-BACE1 activity associated with decreased hippocampus volume in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael


    The enzyme beta-secretase (BACE1) is essentially involved in the production of cerebral amyloidogenic pathology in Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD). The measurement of BACE1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported, which may render CSF measurement of BACE1 a potential biomarker candidate of AD. In order to investigate whether BACE1 protein activity is correlated with regional brain atrophy in AD, we investigated the association between CSF levels of BACE1 and MRI-assessed hippocampus volume in patients with AD (n = 30). An increase in CSF-BACE1 activity was associated with decreased left and right hippocampus volume corrected for global head volume in the AD patients. Boot-strapped regression analysis showed that increased CSF levels of BACE1 activity were associated with increased CSF concentration of total tau but not amyloid-beta1-42 in AD. White matter hyperintensities did not influence the results. BACE1 activity and protein levels were significantly increased in AD compared to 19 elderly healthy controls. Thus, the CSF biomarker candidate of BACE1 activity was associated with hippocampus atrophy in AD in a robust manner and may reflect neurotoxic amyloid-beta-related processes.

  9. CSF 5-HIAA and exposure to and expression of interpersonal violence in suicide attempters. (United States)

    Moberg, T; Nordström, P; Forslund, K; Kristiansson, M; Asberg, M; Jokinen, J


    Serotonin is implicated in impaired impulse control, aggression and suicidal behaviour. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) have been found in violent suicide attempters, suicide victims and in violent offenders. CSF 5-HIAA concentrations have both genetic and environmental determinants. Childhood trauma may have an effect on central monoamine function as an adult. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of CSF 5-HIAA and the exposure to and the expression of violence in childhood and during adult life measured with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS). 42 medication free suicide attempters underwent lumbar puncture and were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) to assess history of childhood exposure to violence and lifetime expressed violent behaviour. In women, but not in men, CSF 5-HIAA showed a significant negative correlation to exposure to violence during childhood. Furthermore, suicide attempters with low CSF 5-HIAA were more prone to commit violent acts as an adult if exposed to violence as a child compared to suicide attempters with high CSF 5-HIAA. In the non-traumatized group, CSF 5-HIAA showed a significant negative correlation to expressed violent behaviour in childhood. Although central serotonergic function has important genetic determinants, exposure to childhood trauma may also affect serotonergic function. Low serotonergic function may facilitate impaired aggression control in traumatized suicide attempters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Consensus Guidelines for CSF and Blood Biobanking for CNS Biomarker Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E. Teunissen


    Full Text Available There is a long history of research into body fluid biomarkers in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. However, only a few biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are being used in clinical practice. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in serum are currently useful for the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO, but we could expect novel CSF biomarkers that help define prognosis and response to treatment for this disease. One of the most critical factors in biomarker research is the inadequate powering of studies performed by single centers. Collaboration between investigators is needed to establish large biobanks of well-defined samples. A key issue in collaboration is to establish standardized protocols for biobanking to ensure that the statistical power gained by increasing the numbers of CSF samples is not compromised by pre-analytical factors. Here, consensus guidelines for CSF collection and biobanking are presented, based on the guidelines that have been published by the BioMS-eu network for CSF biomarker research. We focussed on CSF collection procedures, pre-analytical factors and high quality clinical and paraclinical information. Importantly, the biobanking protocols are applicable for CSF biobanks for research targeting any neurological disease.

  11. CSF and Serum Biomarkers Focusing on Cerebral Vasospasm and Ischemia after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. Jung


    Full Text Available Delayed cerebral vasospasm (CVS and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI remain severe complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Although focal changes in cerebral metabolism indicating ischemia are detectable by microdialysis, routinely used biomarkers are missing. We therefore sought to evaluate a panel of possible global markers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients after SAH. CSF and serum of SAH patients were analyzed retrospectively. In CSF, levels of inhibitory, excitatory, and structural amino acids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In serum, neuron-specific enolase (NSE and S100B level were measured and examined in conjunction with CVS and DCI. CVS was detected by arteriography, and ischemic lesions were assessed by computed tomography (CT scans. All CSF amino acids were altered after SAH. CSF glutamate, glutamine, glycine, and histidine were significantly correlated with arteriographic CVS. CSF glutamate and serum S100B were significantly correlated with ischemic events after SAH; however, NSE did not correlate neither with ischemia nor with vasospasm. Glutamate, glutamine, glycine, and histidine might be used in CSF as markers for CVS. Glutamate also indicates ischemia. Serum S100B, but not NSE, is a suitable marker for ischemia. These results need to be validated in larger prospective cohorts.

  12. Cytokine-primed bone marrow stem cells vs. peripheral blood stem cells for autologous transplantation: a randomized comparison of GM-CSF vs. G-CSF. (United States)

    Weisdorf, D; Miller, J; Verfaillie, C; Burns, L; Wagner, J; Blazar, B; Davies, S; Miller, W; Hannan, P; Steinbuch, M; Ramsay, N; McGlave, P


    Autologous transplantation for non-Hodgkins lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease is widely used as standard therapy for those with high-risk or relapsed tumor. Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections have nearly completely replaced bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) harvests because of the perceived advantages of more rapid engraftment, less tumor contamination in the inoculum, and better survival after therapy. The advantage of PBSC, however, may derive from the hematopoietic stimulating cytokines used for PBSC mobilization. Therefore, we tested a randomized comparison of GM-CSF vs. G-CSF used to prime either BMSC or PBSC before collection for use in autologous transplantation. Sixty-two patients receiving transplants (31 PBSC; 31 BMSC) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 51) or Hodgkin's disease (n = 11) were treated. All patients received 6 days of randomly assigned cytokine. Those with cellular marrow in morphologic remission underwent BMSC harvest, while those with hypocellular marrow or microscopic marrow tumor involvement had PBSC collected. Neutrophil recovery was similarly rapid in all groups (median 14 days; range 10-23 days), though two patients had delayed neutrophil recovery using GM-CSF primed PBSC (p = 0.01). Red cell and platelet recovery were significantly quicker after BMSC mobilized with GM-CSF or PBSC mobilized with G-CSF. This speedier hematologic recovery resulted in earlier hospital discharge as well. However, in multivariate analysis, neither the stem cell source nor randomly assigned G-CSF vs. GM-CSF was independently associated with earlier multilineage hematologic recovery or shorter hospital stay. Relapse-free survival was not independently affected by either the assigned stem cell source or the randomly assigned priming cytokine, though malignant relapse was more frequent in those assigned to PBSC (RR of relapse 3.15, p = 0.03). These data document that BMSC, when collected following cytokine priming, can yield a similarly rapid hematologic

  13. Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0685 TITLE: Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...individuated brain training program (cognitive training + mindfulness /stress- reduction training) with caregiver support portal and lifestyle monitor is

  14. Study of smoking habit among soldiers in Cairo Security Forces Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mahmoud Khattab


    Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is a common habit among soldiers and it starts in a relatively young age mainly due to social influence. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most frequent encountered complaints among soldiers. Main causes that led them to try quitting were health concerns and financial issues; as most of them spend a considerable percentage of their monthly income to obtain cigarettes. Unfortunately there was no organized positive support to help the quitters.

  15. Soldier Quality of Life (Operational) and Readiness at Contingency Base Camps: Insights From Qualitative Interviews (United States)


    Providing familiar foods and beverages reminds Soldiers of the world outside the AO and can provide an important bump that sustains morale. “I’m Hispanic...including fellow Soldiers, local nationals, civilians, etc. Emotional Anything having to do with managing your emotions, handling stress, and...almost removed from the group for your own mental well-being.” Back 38UNCLASSIFIED Billets Act as an Oasis Food Is More Than Fuel Top-Line: Field

  16. Family Functioning and Soldier PTSD: Correlates of Treatment Engagement and Military Job Satisfaction (United States)


    a mother with depression may be less sensitive to her child’s cues, and may feel less efficacious as a parent, decreasing her application of...functioning, spouse depression , spouse anxiety, child mental health symptoms and service use, and Soldier job satisfaction. Spouse depression was Soldiers with PTSD and their spouses, and also to describe rates of spouse depression and anxiety, as well as child mental health problems. The

  17. Prevalence and impact of short sleep duration in redeployed OIF soldiers. (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Greenburg, David; Ryan, Jenny; Niven, Alexander; Wheeler, Gary; Mysliwiec, Vincent


    Short sleep duration (SSD) is common among deployed soldiers. The prevalence of SSD during redeployment, however, is unknown. Cross-sectional study of a brigade combat team (n = 3152 US Army soldiers) surveyed 90-180 days after completing a 6-15 month deployment to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Survey items targeted sleep habits and comorbid medical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios of medical comorbidities associated with SSD. US Army Infantry Post. All soldiers from a redeploying brigade combat team participated in a health assessment between 90 and 180 days upon return to Ft. Lewis from Iraq. None. A total of 2738 (86.9%) soldiers answered questions regarding self-perceived sleep and were included in the analysis. Mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 hours. Nineteen hundred fifty-nine (72%) slept ≤ 6 h, but only 16% reported a daytime nap or felt their job performance was affected due to lack of sleep. Short sleep was more common among soldiers who reported combat exposure. After controlling for combat exposure, short sleep duration (SSD) was associated with symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic syndrome, and with high-risk health behaviors such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, and suicide attempts. SSD is common among redeployed soldiers. Soldiers who experienced combat are at increased risk for persistent SSD and comorbidities associated with SSD. Efforts to reestablish good sleep habits and aggressive evaluation of soldiers with persistent SSD following deployment may aid in the prevention and management of associated medical conditions.

  18. The voices of the invisible girls : reintegration of former female child soldiers in Burundi


    Aase, Camilla Carlsen


    Master thesis in development management - University of Agder 2013 Child soldiers are used in armed groups and forces around the word. Children as young as seven years of age have been reported to actively participate in armed conflict. The phenomenon of child soldiering has become increasingly recognized in recent decades. Females constitute between ten per cent to one third of the fighting forces worldwide. Despite this, girls and women have until recently been highly invisible in both r...

  19. A statistical campaign: Florence Nightingale and Harriet Martineau’s 'England and her Soldiers'


    Iris Veysey


    This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859) by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. Afte...

  20. Elevated body mass index and risk of postoperative CSF leak following transsphenoidal surgery (United States)

    Dlouhy, Brian J.; Madhavan, Karthik; Clinger, John D.; Reddy, Ambur; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; O’Brien, Erin K.; Chang, Eugene; Graham, Scott M.; Greenlee, Jeremy D. W.


    Object Postoperative CSF leakage can be a serious complication after a transsphenoidal surgical approach. An elevated body mass index (BMI) is a significant risk factor for spontaneous CSF leaks. However, there is no evidence correlating BMI with postoperative CSF leak after transsphenoidal surgery. The authors hypothesized that patients with elevated BMI would have a higher incidence of CSF leakage complications following transsphenoidal surgery. Methods The authors conducted a retrospective review of 121 patients who, between August 2005 and March 2010, underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgeries for resection of primarily sellar masses. Patients requiring extended transsphenoidal approaches were excluded. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed to investigate the association of BMI and other risk factors with postoperative CSF leakage. Results In 92 patients, 96 endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries were performed that met inclusion criteria. Thirteen postoperative leaks occurred and required subsequent treatment, including lumbar drainage and/or reoperation. The average BMI of patients with a postoperative CSF leak was significantly greater than that in patients with no postoperative CSF leak (39.2 vs 32.9 kg/m2, p = 0.006). Multivariate analyses indicate that for every 5-kg/m2 increase in BMI, patients undergoing a transsphenoidal approach for a primarily sellar mass have 1.61 times the odds (95% CI 1.10–2.29, p = 0.016, by multivariate logistic regression) of having a postoperative CSF leak. Conclusions Elevated BMI is an independent predictor of postoperative CSF leak after an endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. The authors recommend that patients with BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 have meticulous sellar reconstruction at surgery and close monitoring postoperatively. PMID:22443502

  1. GM-CSF ameliorates microvascular barrier integrity via pericyte-derived Ang-1 in wound healing. (United States)

    Yan, Min; Hu, Yange; Yao, Min; Bao, Shisan; Fang, Yong


    Skin wound healing involves complex coordinated interactions of cells, tissues, and mediators. Maintaining microvascular barrier integrity is one of the key events for endothelial homeostasis during wound healing. Vasodilation is observed after vasoconstriction, which causes blood vessels to become porous, facilitates leukocyte infiltration and aids angiogenesis at the wound-area, postinjury. Eventually, vessel integrity has to be reestablished for vascular maturation. Numerous studies have found that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) accelerates wound healing by inducing recruitment of repair cells into the injury area and releases of cytokines. However, whether GM-CSF is involving in the maintaining of microvascular barrier integrity and the underlying mechanism remain still unclear. Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GM-CSF on modulation of microvascular permeability in wound healing and underlying mechanisms. Wound closure and microvascular leakage was investigated using a full-thickness skin wound mouse model after GM-CSF intervention. The endothelial permeability was measured by Evans blue assay in vivo and in vitro endothelium/pericyte co-culture system using a FITC-Dextran permeability assay. To identify the source of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), double staining is used in vivo and ELISA and qPCR are used in vitro. To determine the specific effect of Ang-1 on GM-CSF maintaining microvascular stabilization, Ang-1 siRNA was applied to inhibit Ang-1 production in vivo and in vitro. Wound closure was significantly accelerated and microvascular leakage was ameliorated after GM-CSF treatment in mouse wound sites. GM-CSF decreased endothelial permeability through tightening endothelial junctions and increased Ang-1 protein level that was derived by perictye. Furthermore, applications of siRNAAng-1 inhibited GM-CSF mediated protection of microvascular barrier integrity both in vivo and in vitro. Our data indicate that GM-CSF

  2. Longitudinal CSF biomarkers in patients with early Parkinson disease and healthy controls. (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Brit; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea J; Coffey, Christopher S; Taylor, Peggy; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Singleton, Andy; Frasier, Mark; Marek, Kenneth; Galasko, Douglas


    To analyze longitudinal levels of CSF biomarkers in drug-naive patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and healthy controls (HC), examine the extent to which these biomarker changes relate to clinical measures of PD, and identify what may influence them. CSF α-synuclein (α-syn), total and phosphorylated tau (t- and p-tau), and β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42) were measured at baseline and 6 and 12 months in 173 patients with PD and 112 matched HC in the international multicenter Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative. Baseline clinical and demographic variables, PD medications, neuroimaging, and genetic variables were evaluated as potential predictors of CSF biomarker changes. CSF biomarkers were stable over 6 and 12 months, and there was a small but significant increase in CSF Aβ42 in both patients with patients with PD and HC from baseline to 12 months. The t-tau remained stable. The p-tau increased marginally more in patients with PD than in HC. α-syn remained relatively stable in patients with PD and HC. Ratios of p-tau/t-tau increased, while t-tau/Aβ42 decreased over 12 months in patients with PD. CSF biomarker changes did not correlate with changes in Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores or dopamine imaging. CSF α-syn levels at 12 months were lower in patients with PD treated with dopamine replacement therapy, especially dopamine agonists. These core CSF biomarkers remained stable over 6 and 12 months in patients with early PD and HC. PD medication use may influence CSF α-syn. Novel biomarkers are needed to better profile progressive neurodegeneration in PD. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Relationship between intracranial pressure and antifungal agents levels in the CSF of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. (United States)

    Wirth, Fernanda; de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Pilla, Carmen; Aquino, Valério Rodrigues; Neto, Gustavo Wissmann; Goldani, Luciano Zubaran


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of intracranial hypertension in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amphotericin B and fluconazole levels of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. CSF samples and intracranial pressure were obtained by means of routine punctures performed at days 1, 7, and 14 of therapy, respectively. Amphotericin B and fluconazole CSF levels were measured by HPLC method as previously described. The minimum inhibitory concentration for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5΄flucytosine, and voriconazole of each Cryptococcus isolate was performed according to CLSI. The predominant Cryptococcus species found was C. neoformans, and the major underlying condition was AIDS. Only one CSF sample had a detectable level for amphotericin B during the 14 days of therapy. Fluconazole CSF levels progressively increased from day 1 to day 14 of therapy for most cases. Fluconazole levels in the CSF were above the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Cryptococcus during the initial 14 days of antifungal therapy. Variations of intracranial pressure did not affect amphotericin B and fluconazole levels in the CSF. The generalized estimating correlation (GEE) and Spearman correlation test (SCT) showed no significant correlation between the amphotericin B or fluconazole concentrations in the CSF and intracranial pressure (P = .953 and P = .093, respectively for GEE test and P = .477 and P = .847, respectively, for SCT). Combination therapy of amphotericin B with fluconazole was effective in 60% of the patients considering CSF cultures were negative in 9 of 15 patients after 14 days of therapy. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of intracranial hypertension on the therapeutic efficacy of different antifungal agents in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  4. Ubiquitin fusion expression and tissue-dependent targeting of hG-CSF in transgenic tobacco (United States)


    Background Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is an important human cytokine which has been widely used in oncology and infection protection. To satisfy clinical needs, expression of recombinant hG-CSF has been studied in several organisms, including rice cell suspension culture and transient expression in tobacco leaves, but there was no published report on its expression in stably transformed plants which can serve as a more economical expression platform with potential industrial application. Results In this study, hG-CSF expression was investigated in transgenic tobacco leaves and seeds in which the accumulation of hG-CSF could be enhanced through fusion with ubiquitin by up to 7 fold in leaves and 2 fold in seeds, leading to an accumulation level of 2.5 mg/g total soluble protein (TSP) in leaves and 1.3 mg/g TSP in seeds, relative to hG-CSF expressed without a fusion partner. Immunoblot analysis showed that ubiquitin was processed from the final protein product, and ubiquitination was up-regulated in all transgenic plants analyzed. Driven by CaMV 35S promoter and phaseolin signal peptide, hG-CSF was observed to be secreted into apoplast in leaves but deposited in protein storage vacuole (PSV) in seeds, indicating that targeting of the hG-CSF was tissue-dependent in transgenic tobacco. Bioactivity assay showed that hG-CSF expressed in both seeds and leaves was bioactive to support the proliferation of NFS-60 cells. Conclusions In this study, the expression of bioactive hG-CSF in transgenic plants was improved through ubiquitin fusion strategy, demonstrating that protein expression can be enhanced in both plant leaves and seeds through fusion with ubiquitin and providing a typical case of tissue-dependent expression of recombinant protein in transgenic plants. PMID:21985646

  5. Beta-trace protein in ascites and pleural effusions: limits of CSF leakage detection. (United States)

    Dietzel, Joanna; Krebs, Alexander; Böttcher, Dominique; Sieb, Manuela; Glocker, Michael O; Lüdemann, Jan; Roser, Markus; Dressel, Alexander


    Rhino- and/or otoliquorrhea can be diagnosed by detecting beta-trace protein (β-TP) in nasal or ear secretions, as β-TP is found in high concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but not in serum. CSF fistulae following trauma or surgery can also occur at other anatomical sites, resulting in CSF leakage into the thoracic and abdominal cavities. By analogy, determination of ß-TP has also been used to diagnose CSF admixture in pleural effusions and ascites. However, no systematic study has yet evaluated the concentrations of β-TP in such fluids in the absence of CSF. To determine the validity of β-TP determination as a marker for the presence of CSF, we investigated β-TP concentrations in pleural effusions and ascites without CSF admixture. Patients from whom samples of ascites or pleural effusion and a paired plasma sample were available were investigated. One hundred sixty-four patients were prospectively recruited. ß-TP concentrations were determined by nephelometry. Mass spectrometric proteome analysis confirmed the presence of ß-TP in the samples. Median β-TP concentrations detected in ascites and pleural effusions (range, 0.014-26.5 mg/L, median 2.29 mg/L) exceeded the corresponding plasma concentrations 2.6-fold. According to cutoffs published to diagnose rhino- and otoliquorrhea, between 6.1% and 95.7% of the specimens would have been erroneously rated CSF-positive. Protein analysis confirmed the presence of β-TP in pleural effusion and ascites. Ascites and pleural effusion contain high concentrations of β-TP that exceed the levels in corresponding plasma. Therefore, β-TP is not a specific marker for the presence of CSF in these fluids.

  6. CSF Flow in the Brain in the Context of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. (United States)

    Bradley, W G


    CSF normally flows back and forth through the aqueduct during the cardiac cycle. During systole, the brain and intracranial vasculature expand and compress the lateral and third ventricles, forcing CSF craniocaudad. During diastole, they contract and flow through the aqueduct reverses. Hyperdynamic CSF flow through the aqueduct is seen when there is ventricular enlargement without cerebral atrophy. Therefore, patients presenting with clinical normal pressure hydrocephalus who have hyperdynamic CSF flow have been found to respond better to ventriculoperitoneal shunting than those with normal or decreased CSF flow. Patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus have also been found to have larger intracranial volumes than sex-matched controls, suggesting that they may have had benign external hydrocephalus as infants. While their arachnoidal granulations clearly have decreased CSF resorptive capacity, it now appears that this is fixed and that the arachnoidal granulations are not merely immature. Such patients appear to develop a parallel pathway for CSF to exit the ventricles through the extracellular space of the brain and the venous side of the glymphatic system. This pathway remains functional until late adulthood when the patient develops deep white matter ischemia, which is characterized histologically by myelin pallor (ie, loss of lipid). The attraction between the bare myelin protein and the CSF increases resistance to the extracellular outflow of CSF, causing it to back up, resulting in hydrocephalus. Thus idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus appears to be a "2 hit" disease: benign external hydrocephalus in infancy followed by deep white matter ischemia in late adulthood. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Electronegative L5-LDL induces the production of G-CSF and GM-CSF in human macrophages through LOX-1 involving NF-κB and ERK2 activation. (United States)

    Yang, Tzu-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Kuo, Tzu-Ling; Lu, Shao-Chun


    Circulating levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are associated with the severity of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, what causes increases in G-CSF and GM-CSF is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether L5-low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a mildly oxidized LDL from AMI, can induce G-CSF and GM-CSF production in human macrophages. L1-LDL and L5-LDL were isolated through anion-exchange chromatography from AMI plasma. Human macrophages derived from THP-1 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with L1-LDL, L5-LDL, or copper-oxidized LDL (Cu-oxLDL) and G-CSF and GM-CSF protein levels in the medium were determined. In addition, the effects of L5-LDL on G-CSF and GM-CSF production were tested in lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1, and ERK2 knockdown THP-1 macrophages. L5-LDL but not L1-LDL or Cu-oxLDL significantly induced production of G-CSF and GM-CSF in macrophages. In vitro oxidation of L1-LDL and L5-LDL altered their ability to induce G-CSF and GM-CSF, suggesting that the degree of oxidation is critical for the effects. Knockdown and antibody neutralization experiments suggested that the effects were caused by LOX-1. In addition, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and ERK1/2 inhibition resulted in marked reductions of L5-LDL-induced G-CSF and GM-CSF production. Moreover, knockdown of ERK2, but not ERK1, hindered L5-LDL-induced G-CSF and GM-CSF production. The results indicate that L5-LDL, a naturally occurring mild oxidized LDL, induced G-CSF and GM-CSF production in human macrophages through LOX-1, ERK2, and NF-κB dependent pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trends in mental health services utilization and stigma in US soldiers from 2002 to 2011. (United States)

    Quartana, Phillip J; Wilk, Joshua E; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Bray, Robert M; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L; Brown, Janice M; Williams, Jason; Kim, Paul Y; Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Hoge, Charles W


    We characterized trends in mental health services utilization and stigma over the course of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars among active-component US soldiers. We evaluated trends in mental health services utilization and stigma using US Army data from the Health-Related Behavior (HRB) surveys from 2002, 2005, and 2008 (n = 12,835) and the Land Combat Study (LCS) surveys administered to soldiers annually from 2003 to 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 22,627). HRB and LCS data suggested increased mental health services utilization and decreased stigma in US soldiers between 2002 and 2011. These trends were evident in soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or PTSD and MDD. Despite the improving trends, more than half of soldiers with mental health problems did not report seeking care. Mental health services utilization increased and stigma decreased over the course of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although promising, these findings indicate that a significant proportion of US soldiers meeting criteria for PTSD or MDD do not utilize mental health services, and stigma remains a pervasive problem requiring further attention.

  9. CSF tapping also improves mental imagery of gait in normal pressure hydrocephalus. (United States)

    Marques, Bruno; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stéphane; Assal, Frédéric; Allali, Gilles


    This study aims to compare the changes of Timed Up and Go (TUG) and its imagined version (iTUG) after CSF tapping between patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and its mimics. TUG and iTUG were performed before and 24 h after CSF tapping in 117 patients (75.8 ± 6.9 years; 35% female) with suspicion of iNPH (68 iNPH and 49 mimics). Mental imagery of locomotion was modified after CSF tapping in iNPH patients, but not in the mimics.

  10. Cataplexy with Normal Sleep Studies and Normal CSF Hypocretin: An Explanation? (United States)

    Drakatos, Panagis; Leschziner, Guy


    Patients with narcolepsy usually develop excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) before or coincide with the occurrence of cataplexy, with the latter most commonly associated with low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels. Cataplexy preceding the development of other features of narcolepsy is a rare phenomenon. We describe a case of isolated cataplexy in the context of two non-diagnostic multiple sleep latency tests and normal CSF-hypocretin-1 levels (217 pg/mL) who gradually developed EDS and low CSF-hypocretin-1 (< 110 pg/mL). © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  11. Effects on proliferation and cell cycle of irradiated KG-1 cells stimulated by CM-CSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi


    In order to explore the variety of cell proliferation and cell cycle after exposure to ionizing radiation, the responses of irradiated KG-1 cells of the human myeloid leukemia stimulated by GM-CSF, the most common used cytokine in clinic, were investigated. The results showed that GM-CSF enhance KG-1 cells proliferation, reduce G0/G1 block, increase S phase and G2/M phase. The stimulation effects of the GM-CSF are more effective in irradiated group than in control group

  12. CSF abnormalities can be predicted by VEP and MRI pathology in the examination of optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Matilda Degn; Nielsen, Signe Modvig; Larsson, Henrik B W


    be valuable in the evaluation of patients with ON. We analyzed CSF findings in patients referred with ON in the context of MRI and visual evoked potential (VEP) pathology. We assessed the possible contributory role of a lumbar puncture and weigh this against disadvantages of the procedure. Between February...... causes of their symptoms and patients with >3 months between onset and tests were excluded. All files were reviewed retrospectively. CSF leukocytes and the IgG index were elevated in 33 and 41 %, respectively, and OCBs were detected in 61 % of patients. CSF abnormalities correlated strongly with VEP...

  13. Non Invasive Microwave Sensor for the Detection of Lactic Acid in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, J H; Mason, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Field, M; Shackcloth, M; Browning, P


    This research involves the use of a low power microwave sensor for analysis of lactic acid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), an indicator of neurological impairment during aortic aneurysm surgery which could provide the basis for improved treatment regimes and better quality of care with more efficient use of resources. This paper presents initial work using standard lactate curves in water followed by lactate in s ynthetic CSF . A multi-modal spectral signature has been defined for lactate, forming the basis for subsequent development of microwave sensor platform that is able to detect concentrations of lactic acid in CSF of volumes less than 1ml.

  14. CSF neurofilament light chain is elevated in OMS (decreasing with immunotherapy) and other pediatric neuroinflammatory disorders. (United States)

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D; McGee, Nathan R; Verhulst, Steven J


    Using a panel of seven brain cell-specific biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) (n=234) was compared to pediatric non-inflammatory neurological controls (n=84) and other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) (n=44). Only CSF NFL was elevated in untreated OMS versus controls (+83%). It was 87% higher in OIND than in OMS. On combination treatment with front-loaded ACTH, IVIg, rituximab, median CSF NFL decreased by 60% to control levels. These biochemical data suggest neuronal/axonal injury in some children with OMS without indicators of astrogliosis, and reduction on sufficient immunotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: . Mayo Clinic ...

  16. Predictors of the relationships between nutritional supplement use and weight-modification goals of U.S. Army soldiers. (United States)

    Austin, Krista G; Carvey, Christina E; Farina, Emily K; Lieberman, Harris R


    U.S. Army Soldiers must meet body weight and composition standards and consequently may use nutritional supplements (NS) purported to assist in weight modification (WM). Nutritional supplements are dietary supplements (DS) and foods intended to supplement the diet. This study assessed relationships between NS use, demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and WM goals among U.S. Army personnel. Participants (N = 990) self-reported NS use, categorized as energy drinks, sport nutrition products, or DS, and WM goal (lose, gain, or maintain) was ascertained by survey. DS were subcategorized as health, weight-loss, weight-gain, or other DS. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess relationships between predictors, NS use, and WM goal. Most respondents (70.3% ± 1.7%) consumed some NS; however, overall NS use was not related to WM goal. Significant relationships were observed between predictors (tobacco use, age, body-mass index, fitness score, general health, and eating habits) and both WM goal and NS use. Respondents attempting to lose or maintain weight were less likely to consume energy drinks and weight-gain DS. WM goal is related to multiple health behaviors including tobacco use, physical fitness score, and self-perception of health and eating behavior. NS are consumed in this population regardless of WM goal.

  17. Multiple Past Concussions Are Associated with Ongoing Post-Concussive Symptoms but Not Cognitive Impairment in Active-Duty Army Soldiers. (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah D; Iverson, Grant L


    The extent to which multiple past concussions are associated with lingering symptoms or mental health problems in military service members is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between lifetime concussion history, cognitive functioning, general health, and psychological health in a large sample of fit-for-duty U.S. Army soldiers preparing for deployment. Data on 458 active-duty soldiers were collected and analyzed. A computerized cognitive screening battery (CNS-Vital Signs(®)) was used to assess complex attention (CA), reaction time (RT), processing speed (PS), cognitive flexibility (CF), and memory. Health questionnaires included the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M), Zung Depression and Anxiety Scales (ZDS; ZAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Alcohol Use and Dependency Identification Test (AUDIT). Soldiers with a history of multiple concussions (i.e., three or more concussions) had significantly greater post-concussive symptom scores compared with those with zero (d=1.83, large effect), one (d=0.64, medium effect), and two (d=0.64, medium effect) prior concussions. Although the group with three or more concussions also reported more traumatic stress symptoms, the results revealed that traumatic stress was a mediator between concussions and post-concussive symptom severity. There were no significant differences on neurocognitive testing between the number of concussions. These results add to the accumulating evidence suggesting that most individuals recover from one or two prior concussions, but there is a greater risk for ongoing symptoms if one exceeds this number of injuries.

  18. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare (United States)



  19. Stigma, barriers to care, and use of mental health services among active duty and National Guard soldiers after combat. (United States)

    Kim, Paul Y; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Wilk, Joshua E; Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W


    This study examined rates of utilization of mental health care among active duty and National Guard soldiers with mental health problems three and 12 months after they returned from combat in Iraq. Stigma and barriers to care were also reported for each component (active duty and National Guard). Cross-sectional, anonymous surveys were administered to 10,386 soldiers across both time points and components. Mean scores from 11 items measuring stigma and barriers to care were computed. Service utilization was assessed by asking soldiers whether they had received services for a mental health problem from a mental health professional, a medical doctor, or the Department of Veterans Affairs in the past month. Risk of mental problems was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, and items asking about aggressive behaviors and "stress, emotional, alcohol, or family" problems within the past month. A higher proportion of active duty soldiers than National Guard soldiers reported at least one type of mental health problem at both three months (45% versus 33%) and 12 months (44% versus 35%) postdeployment. Among soldiers with mental health problems, National Guard soldiers reported significantly higher rates of mental health care utilization 12 months after deployment, compared with active duty soldiers (27% versus 13%). Mean stigma scores were higher among active duty soldiers than among National Guard soldiers. Active duty soldiers with a mental health problem had significantly lower rates of service utilization than National Guard soldiers and significantly higher endorsements of stigma. Current and future efforts to improve care for veterans should work toward reducing the stigma of receiving mental health care.

  20. CSF inflammatory biomarkers responsive to treatment in progressive multiple sclerosis capture residual inflammation associated with axonal damage. (United States)

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Komori, Mika; von Essen, Marina Rode; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars; Bielekova, Bibi; Sellebjerg, Finn


    Development of treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is challenged by the lack of sensitive and treatment-responsive biomarkers of intrathecal inflammation. To validate the responsiveness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory biomarkers to treatment with natalizumab and methylprednisolone in progressive MS and to examine the relationship between CSF inflammatory and tissue damage biomarkers. CSF samples from two open-label phase II trials of natalizumab and methylprednisolone in primary and secondary progressive MS. CSF concentrations of 20 inflammatory biomarkers and CSF biomarkers of axonal damage (neurofilament light chain (NFL)) and demyelination were analysed using electrochemiluminescent assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In all, 17 natalizumab- and 23 methylprednisolone-treated patients had paired CSF samples. CSF sCD27 displayed superior standardised response means and highly significant decreases during both natalizumab and methylprednisolone treatment; however, post-treatment levels remained above healthy donor reference levels. Correlation analyses of CSF inflammatory biomarkers and NFL before, during and after treatment demonstrated that CSF sCD27 consistently correlates with NFL. These findings validate CSF sCD27 as a responsive and sensitive biomarker of intrathecal inflammation in progressive MS, capturing residual inflammation after treatment. Importantly, CSF sCD27 correlates with NFL, consistent with residual inflammation after anti-inflammatory treatment being associated with axonal damage.

  1. Limitations of inclusive fitness. (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O


    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  2. GM-CSF Controls Nonlymphoid Tissue Dendritic Cell Homeostasis but Is Dispensable for the Differentiation of Inflammatory Dendritic Cells (United States)

    Greter, Melanie; Helft, Julie; Chow, Andrew; Hashimoto, Daigo; Mortha, Arthur; Agudo-Cantero, Judith; Bogunovic, Milena; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Miller, Jennifer; Leboeuf, Marylene; Lu, Geming; Aloman, Costica; Brown, Brian D.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Xiong, Huabao; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Frenette, Paul S.; Merad, Miriam


    SUMMARY GM-CSF (Csf-2) is a critical cytokine for the in vitro generation of dendritic cells (DCs) and is thought to control the development of inflammatory DCs and resident CD103+ DCs in some tissues. Here we showed that in contrast to the current understanding, Csf-2 receptor acts in the steady state to promote the survival and homeostasis of nonlymphoid tissue-resident CD103+ and CD11b+ DCs. Absence of Csf-2 receptor on lung DCs abrogated the induction of CD8+ T cell immunity after immunization with particulate antigens. In contrast, Csf-2 receptor was dispensable for the differentiation and innate function of inflammatory DCs during acute injuries. Instead, inflammatory DCs required Csf-1 receptor for their development. Thus, Csf-2 is important in vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell immunity through the regulation of nonlymphoid tissue DC homeostasis rather than control of inflammatory DCs in vivo. PMID:22749353

  3. Stimulating effect of low dose radiation expression of G-CSF receptors in bone marrow cells in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Honglai; Liu Shuzheng; Zhang Ming


    The expression of G-CSF receptors in bone marrow cells (BMC) was studied by using 125 I labelled G-CSF ( 1 '2 5 I-G-CSF). The results showed that the reaction equilibrium of 125 I-G-CSF bound to BMC at 37 degree C was reached in 60 minutes, the maximum binding (Bmax) to 3 x 10 6 BMC being 15.1 pmol, the dissociation constant (Kd) being 78.6 pmol, and the estimated number of G-CSF receptors per cell being about 3100. The number of G-CSF receptors in BMC in mice 48 hours after whole body exposure to doses of 50, 75 and 100 mGy X-rays increased significantly to 161%, 169% and 342% of controls, respectively. The results suggested that the expression of G-CSF receptors in BMC was enhanced markedly following low dose radiation, which would lead to stimulation of BMC proliferation

  4. GOSSIP: SED fitting code (United States)

    Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco


    GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

  5. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club


    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club  

  6. Staphylococcus warneri ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection: failure of diagnosis by ventricular CSF sampling. (United States)

    Martínez-Lage, Juan F; Martínez-Lage Azorín, Laura; Almagro, María-José


    The definite diagnosis of hydrocephalus valve infection is generally made by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling via the valve reservoir, which is considered to be more dependable than that of the CSF obtained by lumbar puncture. We treated a 17-year-old boy with an intra-abdominal pseudocyst due to ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by Staphylococcus warneri whose ventricular CSF, obtained via the valve reservoir, was repeatedly sterile thus causing a considerable delay in the management of the complication. S. warneri constitutes an emergent contaminant of catheters and prostheses. We found only a detailed report of S. warneri infection of a ventriculoatrial shunt. If manifestations of peritoneal involvement in shunted patients would occur, the attention should be shifted to the distal component of the shunt hardware, even in the presence of a normal ventricular CSF as happened in our case to avoid unnecessary delay in diagnosis and management.

  7. Autophagy is required for stem cell mobilization by G-CSF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leveque-El Mouttie, Lucie; Vu, Therese; Lineburg, Katie E.


    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used clinically to prevent neutropenia after cytotoxic chemotherapy and to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for transplantation. Autophagy, a process of cytoplasmic component recycling, maintains cellular homeostasis and protects...... the cell during periods of metabolic stress or nutrient deprivation. We have observed that G-CSF activates autophagy in neutrophils and HSCs from both mouse and human donors. Furthermore, G-CSF-induced neutrophil and HSC mobilization is impaired in the absence of autophagy. In contrast, autophagy...... is dispensable for direct HSC mobilization in response to the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. Altogether, these data demonstrate an important role for G-CSF in invoking autophagy within hematopoietic and myeloid cells and suggest that this pathway is critical for ensuring cell survival in response to clinically...

  8. Fibronectin changes in eosinophilic meningitis with blood-CSF barrier disruption. (United States)

    Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hu, Ming-E; Chou, Chun-Hui; Chen, Ke-Min; Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan


    Fibronectin, which is present at relatively low levels in healthy central nervous systems (CNS), shows increased levels in meningitis. In this study, fibronectin processing was correlated with the increased permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as with the formation of eosinophil infiltrates in angiostrongyliasis meningitis. The immunohistochemistry results show matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is localized in the choroid plexus epithelium. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated fibronectin strongly binds MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with the MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly inhibited fibronectin processing, reduced the blood-CSF barrier permeability, and decreased the eosinophil counts. The decreased fibronectin processing in CSF implies decreased cellular invasion of the subarachnoid space across the blood-CSF barrier. Therefore, increased fibronectin processing may be associated with barrier disruption and participate in the extravasation and migration of eosinophils into the CNS during experimental parasitic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cranial encephaloceles are the herniation of intracranial meninges and brain tissue through a defect in the cranium or skull base. These are rare conditions with an incidence of approximately 1 in 35,000 people, and are more common in the anterior cranial fossa than those in the middle one . 1,2 Temporal lobe herniation through a mid dle fossa defect into the lateral recess of the Sphenoid Sinus is even rarer than its medial representation. Intrasphenoidal encephaloceles are extremely rare findings 3 . Spontaneous, or primary, CSF fistula is a separate entity with no underlying cause of the CSF leak. Spontaneous CSF leaks are usually associated with a co - existing encephalocele of variable size 4 . We present a case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea in a sphenoid sinus Anterior Medial Temporal lobe encephalocele herniating through a clinically silent lateral Craniopharyngeal canal.

  10. CSF neurofilament light concentration is increased in presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Nina; Roos, Peter; Portelius, Erik


    OBJECTIVE: A rare cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a mutation in the CHMP2B gene on chromosome 3 (FTD-3), described in a Danish family. Here we examine whether CSF biomarkers change in the preclinical phase of the disease. METHODS: In this cross-sectional explorative study, we...... analyzed CSF samples from 16 mutation carriers and 14 noncarriers from the Danish FTD-3 family. CSF biomarkers included total tau (t-tau) and neurofilament light chain (NfL) as a marker for neurodegeneration, phosphorylated tau (p-tau) as a marker for tau pathology, β-amyloid (Aβ) 38, 40, and 42 (Aβ38, Aβ......40, and Aβ42) to monitor Aβ metabolism, and YKL-40 as a marker of neuroinflammation. Aβ isoform concentrations were measured using a multiplexed immunoassay; t-tau, p-tau, NfL, and YKL-40 concentrations were measured using sandwich ELISAs. RESULTS: CSF NfL concentration was significantly increased...

  11. Proteomic investigations of the ventriculo-lumbar gradient in human CSF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Bech, Sara Brynhild Winther; Laursen, Inga


    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an ideal biological material in which to search for new biomarkers for improved diagnosis of neurological diseases. During a lumbar puncture between 5 and 15 mL of CSF are obtained. Previous studies have assessed the ventriculo-lumbar concentration gradient of a number...... of specific proteins. In the present study we took a proteomics approach to investigate the possible concentration gradient of a panel of proteins and peptides in the CSF of 16 patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Using two different mass spectrometry techniques, matrix assisted laser desorption...... ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF), we found that only one of the investigated proteins, apolipoprotein CI, was significantly decreased between the 1st and the 10th mL of CSF. Furthermore, we confirmed previous results showing...

  12. Changes in Gene Expression during G-CSF-Induced Emergency Granulopoiesis in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Corinna C.; Borup, Rehannah; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne


    Emergency granulopoiesis refers to the increased production of neutrophils in bone marrow and their release into circulation induced by severe infection. Several studies point to a critical role for G-CSF as the main mediator of emergency granulopoiesis. However, the consequences of G-CSF...... stimulation on the transcriptome of neutrophils and their precursors have not yet been investigated in humans. In this work, we examine the changes in mRNA expression induced by administration of G-CSF in vivo, as a model of emergency granulopoiesis in humans. Blood samples were collected from healthy...... individuals after 5 d of G-CSF administration. Neutrophil precursors were sorted into discrete stages of maturation by flow cytometry, and RNA was subjected to microarray analysis. mRNA levels were compared with previously published expression levels in corresponding populations of neutrophil precursors...

  13. Value of CSF gating for T2-weighted images of the temporal lobes and brain stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzmann, D.R.; O'Donohue, J.; Griffin, C.; Rubin, J.B.; Drace, J.; Wright, A.


    Ungated and CSF-gated long TR, long TE MR images of the temporal lobes, basal ganglia, and brain stem in health and disease were quantitatively compared. Twenty-five pair of images were evaluated for the following three parameters: signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), object contrast, and resolving power. Ungated sequences were performed in the same fashion as gated sequences for TR (TR = 2,000 msec, TE = 80 msec for ungated sequences; TR = 1,500-1,800 msec, TE = 80 msec for CSF-gated sequences). In both normal and pathologic brain tissue, the CSF-gated image was superior to the ungated image in object contrast and resolving power and equivalent in S/N. The major benefit of CSF gating was elimination of phase shift images arising from the basal cisterns and the third ventricle

  14. Magentic resonance imaging and characterization of normal and abnormal intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces: Initial observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Kelly, W.; Kjos, B.; Newton, T.H.; Norman, D.; Dillon, W.; Sobel, D.


    A retrospective review of twenty-five normal MRI brain studies performed with the spin-echo technique focused special attention on the ventricular and extraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and revealed unique signal intensity characteristics in the two locations. In addition, MRI studies of ten patients with abnormal extraaxial fluid collections either missed with CT or indistinguishable from CSF on CT images were also analyzed. MRI is more sensitive when compared to CT in evaluating the composition of CSF. Unique signal intensity characterizes the two major CSF compartments and presumably reflects their known but subtle difference in protein concentration (10-15 mg%). Normal variant or abnormal developmental fluid collections can be better characterized with MRI than with CT. These preliminary observations are offered in view of their implications for patient management and suggest further investigation. (orig.)

  15. Acute hydrocephalus in nonaneurysmal perimesencephalic hemorrhage: evidence of CSF block at the tentorial hiatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, G. J.; Wijdicks, E. F.; Vermeulen, M.; Tans, J. T.; Hasan, D.; van Gijn, J.


    The acute hydrocephalus in patients with nonaneurysmal perimesencephalic hemorrhage suggests an extraventricular obstruction of CSF flow. We studied the occurrence of acute hydrocephalus and the site of cisternal blood in 40 consecutive patients with perimesencephalic hemorrhage. In all 11 patients

  16. Evaluation of CSF flow in patients after endoscopic ventriculostomy of 3th ventricle with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, R.


    Full text: Phase-contrast MR imaging is wide used for qualitative assessment and quantification of the CSF flow under normal and pathologic conditions. The increasing popularity of minimally invasive liquor derivation procedures - namely endoscopic ventriculostomy of 3-th ventricle - in neurosurgery raises the question of their actual effect on CSF flow in various types of hydrocephalus. We present our experience with 2D and 3D PC MRI in qualitative assessment and quantification of the CSF flow in 23 patients after endoscopic ventriculostomy of the 3-th ventricle for hyper- or normotensive hydrocephalus of various origins. We compare parameters of the CSF flow (direction, rate and net volume for one cardiac cycle) before and after the ventriculostomy

  17. Efficient CsF interlayer for high and low bandgap polymer solar cell (United States)

    Mitul, Abu Farzan; Sarker, Jith; Adhikari, Nirmal; Mohammad, Lal; Wang, Qi; Khatiwada, Devendra; Qiao, Qiquan


    Low bandgap polymer solar cells have a great deal of importance in flexible photovoltaic market to absorb sun light more efficiently. Efficient wide bandgap solar cells are always available in nature to absorb visible photons. The development and incorporation of infrared photovoltaics (IR PV) with wide bandgap solar cells can improve overall solar device performance. Here, we have developed an efficient low bandgap polymer solar cell with CsF as interfacial layer in regular structure. Polymer solar cell devices with CsF shows enhanced performance than Ca as interfacial layer. The power conversion efficiency of 4.5% has been obtained for PDPP3T based polymer solar cell with CsF as interlayer. Finally, an optimal thickness with CsF as interfacial layer has been found to improve the efficiency in low bandgap polymer solar cells.

  18. Which clinical parameters predict a CSF diagnosis of meningitis in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 2, 2014 ... Methods. Setting. Stanger Provincial Hospital is a regional centre located in ... terminal neck stiffness, photophobia, focal neurological signs, seizures, ..... As TB CSF culture was excluded from this study, direct comparisons.

  19. Effects of a Nutrient Enriched Beverage on Host Defense Mechanisms of Soldiers Completing the Special Forces Assessment and Selection School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Jeffrey


    We evaluated a liquid supplement containing anti-oxidants, indigestible carbohydrate, structured lipid, and vitamins and minerals for its effects upon the immune responses of soldiers participating...

  20. Psychological effects of sexual harassment, appraisal of harassment, and organizational climate among U.S. Army soldiers. (United States)

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L


    This study examines the effects of three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace on the psychological well-being of male and female U.S. Army soldiers, and the mediating or moderating roles of appraisal of sexual harassment, organizational climate, and the sociodemographic profile of victims. A survey was administered to 1,060 male soldiers and 305 female soldiers between May and July, 1995, at three Army posts in the United States. Unwanted sexual experiences were found to be significant predictors of psychological symptoms for male and female soldiers. Certain aspects of organizational climate and appraisal of sexual harassment were also significant predictors of psychological symptoms.

  1. Relationship Between Job Burnout and Neuroendocrine Indicators in Soldiers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tao


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between job burnout and neuroendocrine indicators in soldiers living in a harsh environment. Three hundred soldiers stationed in the arid desert and 600 in an urban area were recruited. They filled in the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred soldiers were randomly selected from each group to measure their levels of noradrenaline, serotonin, heat shock protein (HSP-70, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and serum cortisol. Job burnout was more common in soldiers from urban areas than those from rural areas. Job burnout was significantly higher among soldiers stationed in the arid desert than those in urban areas. For soldiers in the arid desert, the levels of HSP-70, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly higher than in soldiers in urban areas. Correlation analyses showed that the degree of job burnout was weakly negatively correlated with the level of HSP-70. Being an only child, HSP-70 levels, cortisol levels, and ACTH levels were independently associated with job burnout in soldiers stationed in the arid desert. A higher level of job burnout in soldiers stationed in arid desert and a corresponding change in neuroendocrine indicators indicated a correlation between occupational stress and neurotransmitters.

  2. CSF lactate level: a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate acute bacterial and viral meningitis. (United States)

    Abro, Ali Hassan; Abdou, Ahmed Saheh; Ustadi, Abdulla M; Saleh, Ahmed Alhaj; Younis, Nadeem Javeed; Doleh, Wafa F


    To evaluate the potential role of CSF lactate level in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and in the differentiation between viral and bacterial meningitis. This was a hospital based observational study, conducted at Infectious Diseases Unit, Rashid Hospital Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from July 2004 to June 2007. The patients with clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and who had CSF Gram stain/culture positive, CSF analysis suggestive of bacterial meningitis with negative Gram stain and culture but blood culture positive for bacteria and patients with clinical diagnosis suggestive of viral meningitis supported by CSF chemical analysis with negative Gram stain and culture as well as negative blood culture for bacteria were included in the study. CT scan brain was done for all patients before lumber puncture and CSF and blood samples were collected immediately after admission. CSF chemical analysis including lactate level was done on first spinal tap. The CSF lactate level was tested by Enzymatic Colorimetric method. A total 95 adult patients of acute meningitis (53 bacterial and 42 viral) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among 53 bacterial meningitis patients, Neisseria meningitides were isolated in 29 (54.7%), Strept. Pneumoniae in 18 (33.96%), Staph. Aureus in 2 (3.77%), Klebsiell Pneumoniae in 2 (3.77%), Strept. Agalactiae in 1 (1.8%) and E. Coli in 1 (1.8%). All the patients with bacterial meningitis had CSF lactate > 3.8 mmol/l except one, whereas none of the patients with viral meningitis had lactate level > 3.8 mmol/l. The mean CSF lactate level in bacterial meningitis cases amounted to 16.51 +/- 6.14 mmol/l, whereas it was significantly lower in viral group 2.36 +/- 0.6 mmol/l, p < .0001. CSF lactate level was significantly high in bacterial than viral meningitis and it can provide pertinent, rapid and reliable diagnostic information. Furthermore, CSF lactate level can also differentiate bacterial meningitis from viral one in a quick

  3. GM-CSF-Producing Th Cells in Rats Sensitive and Resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. (United States)

    Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Pilipović, Ivan; Vujnović, Ivana; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana


    Given that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is identified as the key factor to endow auto-reactive Th cells with the potential to induce neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, the frequency and phenotype of GM-CSF-producing (GM-CSF+) Th cells in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spinal cord (SC) of Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats immunized for EAE were examined. The generation of neuroantigen-specific GM-CSF+ Th lymphocytes was impaired in dLNs of AO rats (relatively resistant to EAE induction) compared with their DA counterparts (susceptible to EAE) reflecting impaired CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation and less supportive of GM-CSF+ Th cell differentiation dLN cytokine microenvironment. Immunophenotyping of GM-CSF+ Th cells showed their phenotypic heterogeneity in both strains and revealed lower frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ+, IL-17+IFN-γ-, and IL-17-IFN-γ+ cells accompanied by higher frequency of IL-17-IFN-γ- cells among them in AO than in DA rats. Compared with DA, in AO rats was also found (i) slightly lower surface density of CCR2 (drives accumulation of highly pathogenic GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cells in SC) on GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 lymphocytes from dLNs, and (ii) diminished CCL2 mRNA expression in SC tissue, suggesting their impaired migration into the SC. Moreover, dLN and SC cytokine environments in AO rats were shown to be less supportive of GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cell differentiation (judging by lower expression of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23/p19). In accordance with the (i) lower frequency of GM-CSF+ Th cells in dLNs and SC of AO rats and their lower GM-CSF production, and (ii) impaired CCL2 expression in the SC tissue, the proportion of proinflammatory monocytes among peripheral blood cells and their progeny (CD45hi cells) among the SC CD11b+ cells were reduced in AO compared with DA rats. Collectively, the results indicate that the strain specificities in efficacy of several mechanisms

  4. One-carbon metabolism, cognitive impairment and CSF measures of Alzheimer pathology: homocysteine and beyond. (United States)

    Dayon, Loïc; Guiraud, Seu Ping; Corthésy, John; Da Silva, Laeticia; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Tautvydaitė, Domilė; Oikonomidi, Aikaterini; Moullet, Barbara; Henry, Hugues; Métairon, Sylviane; Marquis, Julien; Descombes, Patrick; Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre J; Montoliu, Ivan; Kussmann, Martin; Wojcik, Jérôme; Bowman, Gene L; Popp, Julius


    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD). Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing amino acid and metabolite of the methionine pathway. The interrelated methionine, purine, and thymidylate cycles constitute the one-carbon metabolism that plays a critical role in the synthesis of DNA, neurotransmitters, phospholipids, and myelin. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that one-carbon metabolites beyond Hcy are relevant to cognitive function and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures of AD pathology in older adults. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on matched CSF and plasma collected from 120 older community-dwelling adults with (n = 72) or without (n = 48) cognitive impairment. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed to quantify one-carbon metabolites and their cofactors. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was initially applied to clinical and biomarker measures that generate the highest diagnostic accuracy of a priori-defined cognitive impairment (Clinical Dementia Rating-based) and AD pathology (i.e., CSF tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 [p-tau181]/β-Amyloid 1-42 peptide chain [Aβ 1-42 ] >0.0779) to establish a reference benchmark. Two other LASSO-determined models were generated that included the one-carbon metabolites in CSF and then plasma. Correlations of CSF and plasma one-carbon metabolites with CSF amyloid and tau were explored. LASSO-determined models were stratified by apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carrier status. The diagnostic accuracy of cognitive impairment for the reference model was 80.8% and included age, years of education, Aβ 1-42 , tau, and p-tau181. A model including CSF cystathionine, methionine, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), serine, cysteine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) improved the diagnostic accuracy to 87.4%. A second model derived from plasma included cystathionine

  5. Chimeric HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins with Potent Intrinsic Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Activity* (United States)

    Boot, Maikel; Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Sanders, Rogier W.


    HIV-1 acquisition can be prevented by broadly neutralizing antibodies (BrNAbs) that target the envelope glycoprotein complex (Env). An ideal vaccine should therefore be able to induce BrNAbs that can provide immunity over a prolonged period of time, but the low intrinsic immunogenicity of HIV-1 Env makes the elicitation of such BrNAbs challenging. Co-stimulatory molecules can increase the immunogenicity of Env and we have engineered a soluble chimeric Env trimer with an embedded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) domain. This chimeric molecule induced enhanced B and helper T cell responses in mice compared to Env without GM-CSF. We studied whether we could optimize the activity of the embedded GM-CSF as well as the antigenic structure of the Env component of the chimeric molecule. We assessed the effect of truncating GM-CSF, removing glycosylation-sites in GM-CSF, and adjusting the linker length between GM-CSF and Env. One of our designed EnvGM-CSF chimeras improved GM-CSF-dependent cell proliferation by 6-fold, reaching the same activity as soluble recombinant GM-CSF. In addition, we incorporated GM-CSF into a cleavable Env trimer and found that insertion of GM-CSF did not compromise Env cleavage, while Env cleavage did not compromise GM-CSF activity. Importantly, these optimized EnvGM-CSF proteins were able to differentiate human monocytes into cells with a macrophage-like phenotype. Chimeric EnvGM-CSF should be useful for improving humoral immunity against HIV-1 and these studies should inform the design of other chimeric proteins. PMID:23565193

  6. Chimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins with potent intrinsic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Isik

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acquisition can be prevented by broadly neutralizing antibodies (BrNAbs that target the envelope glycoprotein complex (Env. An ideal vaccine should therefore be able to induce BrNAbs that can provide immunity over a prolonged period of time, but the low intrinsic immunogenicity of HIV-1 Env makes the elicitation of such BrNAbs challenging. Co-stimulatory molecules can increase the immunogenicity of Env and we have engineered a soluble chimeric Env trimer with an embedded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF domain. This chimeric molecule induced enhanced B and helper T cell responses in mice compared to Env without GM-CSF. We studied whether we could optimize the activity of the embedded GM-CSF as well as the antigenic structure of the Env component of the chimeric molecule. We assessed the effect of truncating GM-CSF, removing glycosylation-sites in GM-CSF, and adjusting the linker length between GM-CSF and Env. One of our designed Env(GM-CSF chimeras improved GM-CSF-dependent cell proliferation by 6-fold, reaching the same activity as soluble recombinant GM-CSF. In addition, we incorporated GM-CSF into a cleavable Env trimer and found that insertion of GM-CSF did not compromise Env cleavage, while Env cleavage did not compromise GM-CSF activity. Importantly, these optimized Env(GM-CSF proteins were able to differentiate human monocytes into cells with a macrophage-like phenotype. Chimeric Env(GM-CSF should be useful for improving humoral immunity against HIV-1 and these studies should inform the design of other chimeric proteins.

  7. [Treatment of Chemotherapy Related Leukocytopenia by Oral Administration of Multiple Leucogenic Drugs Combined with G-CSF: an Experimental Study]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-ping; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Hong-jian; Zou, De-hong; He, Xiang-ming; Yu, Xing-fei; Li, Yong-feng


    To evaluate efficacies of three commonly used oral drugs including Berbamine Hydrochloride Tablet (B), Qijiao Shengbai Capsule (Q), and Leucogen Tablet (L) (by single drug, two drugs or three drugs) combined with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for treat ment of chemotherapy related leukocytopenia in mice. Totally 156 Kunming male mice were divided into the normal control group (A, n=24), the model group (B, n=24), the G-CSF group (C, n =24), the G-CSF+Q group (D, n=12), G-CSF+ B (E, n=12), the G-CSF+L group (F, n=12), the G-CSF + Q + B group (G, n=12), the G-CSF + Q + L group (H, n=12), the G-CSF + L + B group (I, n=12), and the G-CSF + L + Q + B (J, n=12). Mouse models of chemotherapy related leukocytopenia were established by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CTX). A G-CSF group was set up as a positive control. Mice were treated by a single oral drug, a single oral drug combined with G-CSF, and two or three drugs combined with G-CSF respectively, and the death rate calculated. Hemocytes [such as white blood cells (WBC) and its classification, red blood cells (RBC), platelet (PLT), hemoglobin (Hb)] were calculated by hematology analyzer. Mice were anatomized and important organs weighed. Organ indices were calculated. There was no statistical difference in the mortality rate among all groups (P > 0.05). Compared with Group B, WBC was elevated in all other groups (P drug B and L (P chemotherapy related leukopenia or decreased three blood series was to administrate three commonly oral drugs combined with G-CSF. Authors speculated that G-CSF and Q might have a certain effect on CTX induced immune inhibition.

  8. Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (hG-CSF) Expression in Plastids of Lactuca sativa


    Sharifi Tabar, Mehdi; Habashi, Ali Akbar; Rajabi Memari, Hamid


    Background: Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) can serve as valuable biopharmaceutical for research and treatment of the human blood cancer. Transplastomic plants have been emerged as a new and high potential candidate for production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins in comparison with transgenic plants due to extremely high level expression, biosafety and many other advantages. Methods: hG-CSF gene was cloned into pCL vector between prrn16S promoter and TpsbA ter...

  9. Temporal T807 binding correlates with CSF tau and phospho-tau in normal elderly. (United States)

    Chhatwal, Jasmeer P; Schultz, Aaron P; Marshall, Gad A; Boot, Brendon; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Dumurgier, Julien; LaPoint, Molly; Scherzer, Clemens; Roe, Allyson D; Hyman, Bradley T; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A


    To better understand cross-sectional relationships between CSF and PET measures of tau pathology, we compared regional and global measures of (18)F-T807 (AV-1451) PET to CSF protein levels of total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42). T-tau, p-tau, and Aβ42 levels were assessed using INNOTEST xMAP immunoassays. Linear regression was used to compare regional and global measures of (18)F-T807 standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) to CSF protein levels using data from 31 cognitively unimpaired elderly participants in the Harvard Aging Brain study. After controlling for sex and age, total cortical (18)F-T807 binding was significantly correlated with p-tau (partial r = 0.48; p < 0.01) and at trend level with t-tau (partial r = 0.30; p = 0.12). Regional (18)F-T807 measures were more strongly correlated with CSF protein levels than the global measure, with both t-tau and p-tau significantly correlated with (18)F-T807 SUVR in entorhinal, parahippocampal, and inferior temporal cortical regions (partial r = 0.53-0.73). Peak correlations between CSF and PET measures of tau were similar to those between CSF and PET measures of amyloid burden. Finally, we observed significantly higher temporal T807 SUVR in individuals with high amyloid burden. These data support the link between (18)F-T807 PET and CSF measures of tau pathology. In these cognitively normal individuals with (18)F-T807 binding largely restricted to the temporal lobe, (18)F-T807 SUVR in temporal regions appeared more reflective of CSF t-tau and p-tau than a total cortical measure. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Demonstration of conjugated dopamine in monkey CSF by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elchisak, M A; Powers, K H; Ebert, M H


    A method for measuring unconjugated and conjugated dopamine in body tissues and fluids is described. Conjugated dopamine was hydrolyzed in acid to unconjugated dopamine, separated from the sample matrix by alumina chromatography, and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Conjugated dopamine was detected in greater concentrations than unconjugated dopamine in CSF taken from lateral ventricle or thecal sac of the Rhesus monkey. Haloperidol administration did not increase the levels of conjugated dopamine in lumbar CSF.

  11. Variable impact of CSF flow suppression on quantitative 3.0T intracranial vessel wall measurements. (United States)

    Cogswell, Petrice M; Siero, Jeroen C W; Lants, Sarah K; Waddle, Spencer; Davis, L Taylor; Gilbert, Guillaume; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Donahue, Manus J


    Flow suppression techniques have been developed for intracranial (IC) vessel wall imaging (VWI) and optimized using simulations; however, simulation results may not translate in vivo. To evaluate experimentally how IC vessel wall and lumen measurements change in identical subjects when evaluated using the most commonly available blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow suppression modules and VWI sequences. Prospective. Healthy adults (n = 13; age = 37 ± 15 years) were enrolled. A 3.0T 3D T 1 /proton density (PD)-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) acquisition with post-readout anti-driven equilibrium module, with and without Delay-Alternating-with-Nutation-for-Tailored-Excitation (DANTE) was applied. DANTE flip angle (8-12°) and TSE refocusing angle (sweep = 40-120° or 50-120°) were varied. Basilar artery and internal carotid artery (ICA) wall thicknesses, CSF signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and signal ratio (SR) were assessed. Measurements were made by two readers (radiology resident and board-certified neuroradiologist). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied with corrected two-sided P CSF suppression. Addition of the DANTE preparation reduced CSF SNR from 17.4 to 6.7, thereby providing significant (P CSF suppression. The DANTE preparation also resulted in a significant (P CSF CNR improvement (P = 0.87). There was a trend for a difference in blood SNR with vs. without DANTE (P = 0.05). The outer vessel wall diameter and wall thickness values were lower (P CSF suppression and CNR of the approaches evaluated. However, improvements are heterogeneous, likely owing to intersubject vessel pulsatility and CSF flow variations, which can lead to variable flow suppression efficacy in these velocity-dependent modules. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Are Patients with Spontaneous CSF Otorrhea and Superior Canal Dehiscence Congenitally Predisposed to Their Disorders? (United States)

    Stevens, Shawn M; Hock, Kiefer; Samy, Ravi N; Pensak, Myles L


    Objectives (1) Compare lateral skull base (LSB) height/thickness in patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea (CSF), superior canal dehiscence (SCD), acoustic neuromas (AN), and otosclerosis (OTO). (2) Perform correlations between age, body mass index (BMI), sex, and LSB height/thickness. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods Patients with CSF, SCD, AN, and OTO diagnosed from 2006 to 2016 were included if they had high-definition temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and absence of trauma, radiation, chronic ear disease, and/or congenital anomaly. CT-based measurements included LSB height/thickness and pneumatization rates overlaying the external auditory canal (EAC), tegmen tympani (TgT), perigeniculate region (PG), and internal auditory canal (IAC). LSB height/thickness, age, sex, and BMI were statistically correlated. In total, 256 patients and 493 ears (109 CSF, 115 SCD, 269 AN/OTO) were measured. Results Patients with CSF had significantly higher BMIs than the other groups ( P CSF and SCD had similar radiographic LSB phenotypes at most measured locations. Both groups exhibited a significantly lower LSB height compared to the AN and OTO groups (mean, 3.9-4.2 mm vs 4.9-5.6 mm; P CSF and SCD also demonstrated significantly lower pneumatization rates, as low as 17% to 23% overlaying the PG and IAC ( P CSF and SCD exhibit similar radiographic LSB phenotypes. Age, sex, and BMI do not significantly correlate with LSB height/thickness. These data support the theory that CSF and SCD arise via similar congenital pathoetiologic mechanisms.

  13. CSF neurofilament light chain and phosphorylated tau 181 predict disease progression in PSP. (United States)

    Rojas, Julio C; Bang, Jee; Lobach, Iryna V; Tsai, Richard M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Miller, Bruce L; Boxer, Adam L


    To determine the ability of CSF biomarkers to predict disease progression in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We compared the ability of baseline CSF β-amyloid 1-42 , tau, phosphorylated tau 181 (p-tau), and neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations, measured by INNO-BIA AlzBio3 or ELISA, to predict 52-week changes in clinical (PSP Rating Scale [PSPRS] and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living [SEADL]), neuropsychological, and regional brain volumes on MRI using linear mixed effects models controlled for age, sex, and baseline disease severity, and Fisher F density curves to compare effect sizes in 50 patients with PSP. Similar analyses were done using plasma NfL measured by single molecule arrays in 141 patients. Higher CSF NfL concentration predicted more rapid decline (biomarker × time interaction) over 52 weeks in PSPRS ( p = 0.004, false discovery rate-corrected) and SEADL ( p = 0.008), whereas lower baseline CSF p-tau predicted faster decline on PSPRS ( p = 0.004). Higher CSF tau concentrations predicted faster decline by SEADL ( p = 0.004). The CSF NfL/p-tau ratio was superior for predicting change in PSPRS, compared to p-tau ( p = 0.003) or NfL ( p = 0.001) alone. Higher NfL concentrations in CSF or blood were associated with greater superior cerebellar peduncle atrophy (fixed effect, p ≤ 0.029 and 0.008, respectively). Both CSF p-tau and NfL correlate with disease severity and rate of disease progression in PSP. The inverse correlation of p-tau with disease severity suggests a potentially different mechanism of tau pathology in PSP as compared to Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. CSF flow image using phase-contrast cine MR technique : preliminary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyae Young; Choi, Hye Young; Baek, Seung Yeon; Lee, Sun Wha; Ko, Eun Joo; Lee, Myung Sook


    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of 2-D Cine PC (phase contrast) technique in visualizing the pattern and the site of abnormal CSF flow and to assess the effect of a third ventriculostomy in patients with hydrocephalus. The study group consisted of three normal controls and 13 patients with hydrocephalus, as shown on CT or MRI, and two patients who had undergone their third ventriculostomy. The technique was EKG-gated 2-D Cine PC MRI with velocity encoding 5cm/sec, TR 80msec, TE 12.3-15msec, and flip angle 15-60 degrees. Image quality was analyzed for variable sequences, and CSF flow was observed along the CSF flow pathway. We analyzed continuity and intensity of the CSF flow signal, and obstruction site and flow velocity degree were then defined. Systolic high and diastolic low signal intensity along the CSF flow-pathway, with normal asynchronicity and continuation, were clearly seen in normal controls. In three patients, there was obstruction at the ventricular level while others were either normal or showed a normal pattern with a weak signal. 'Normal' was defined as noncommunicating hydrocephalus and the latter as communicating hydrocephalus. In the two patients who had undergone ventriculostomy, a signal was in one case detected at the site of the third operation. A 2-D Cine PC CSF flow study enables us to see CSF flow signals noninvasively and to detect the site of obstruction of a CSF flow-pathway. It can therefore it can be useful for determining the application of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and assessing the effect of a third ventriculostomy

  15. CXCL13 is the major determinant for B cell recruitment to the CSF during neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowarik Markus C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chemokines and cytokines CXCL13, CXCL12, CCL19, CCL21, BAFF and APRIL are believed to play a role in the recruitment of B cells to the central nervous system (CNS compartment during neuroinflammation. To determine which chemokines/cytokines show the strongest association with a humoral immune response in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, we measured their concentrations in the CSF and correlated them with immune cell subsets and antibody levels. Methods Cytokine/chemokine concentrations were measured in CSF and serum by ELISA in patients with non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 20, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 30, multiple sclerosis (MS, n = 20, Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB, n = 8 and patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 30. Albumin, IgG, IgA and IgM were measured by nephelometry. CSF immune cell subsets were determined by seven-color flow cytometry. Results CXCL13 was significantly elevated in the CSF of all patient groups with inflammatory diseases. BAFF levels were significantly increased in patients with LNB and OIND. CXCL12 was significantly elevated in patients with LNB. B cells and plasmablasts were significantly elevated in the CSF of all patients with inflammatory diseases. CXCL13 showed the most consistent correlation with CSF B cells, plasmablasts and intrathecal Ig synthesis. Conclusions CXCL13 seems to be the major determinant for B cell recruitment to the CNS compartment in different neuroinflammatory diseases. Thus, elevated CSF CXCL13 levels rather reflect a strong humoral immune response in the CNS compartment than being specific for a particular disease entity.

  16. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache: a pilot study


    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor


    Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate th...

  17. Proliferation and Differentiation of Murine Myeloid Precursor 32D/G-CSF-R Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zjablovskaja, Polina; Daněk, Petr; Kardošová, Miroslava; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell

    č. 132 (2018), č. článku e57033. ISSN 1940-087X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03796S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : 32D/G-CSF-R cells * murine myeloid precursor cells * liquid culture * differentiation * neutrophils * proliferation * cytokines * IL-3 * G-CSF Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.232, year: 2016

  18. Measuring Your Fitness Level (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  19. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.


    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  20. ACSM Fit Society Page (United States)

    ... fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for maintaining ... Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- ... Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  1. Driver fitness medical guidelines. (United States)


    This guide provides guidance to assist licensing agencies in making decisions about an individuals fitness for driving. This is the first attempt to produce a consolidated document covering medical conditions included in the task agreement between...

  2. Gait in normal pressure hydrocephalus: characteristics and effects of the CSF tap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Krause Martinez de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH, described by Hakim and Adams in 1965, is characterized by gait apraxia, urinary incontinence, and dementia. It is associated with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and ventricular dilation that cannot be attributed to cerebral atrophy. Objectives: To evaluate gait characteristics in patients with idiopathic NPH and investigate the effect of the CSF tap test (CSF-TT on gait. Methods: Twenty-five patients diagnosed with probable idiopathic NPH were submitted to the CSF-TT. The procedure aimed to achieve changes in gait parameters. Results: Fifteen gait parameters were assessed before and after the CSF-TT. Five showed a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05: walking speed (p < 0.001, cadence (p < 0.001, step length (p < 0.001, en bloc turning (p = 0.001, and step height (p = 0.004. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that gait speed was the most responsive parameter to the CSF-TT, followed by cadence, step length, en bloc turning, and step height.

  3. Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) expression in plastids of Lactuca sativa. (United States)

    Sharifi Tabar, Mehdi; Habashi, Ali Akbar; Rajabi Memari, Hamid


    Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) can serve as valuable biopharmaceutical for research and treatment of the human blood cancer. Transplastomic plants have been emerged as a new and high potential candidate for production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins in comparison with transgenic plants due to extremely high level expression, biosafety and many other advantages. hG-CSF gene was cloned into pCL vector between prrn16S promoter and TpsbA terminator. The recombinant vector was coated on nanogold particles and transformed to lettuce chloroplasts through biolistic method. Callogenesis and regeneration of cotyledonary explants were obtained by Murashige and Skoog media containing 6-benzylaminopurine and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid hormones. The presence of hG-CSF gene in plastome was studied with four specific PCR primers and expression by Western immunoblotting. hG-CSF gene cloning was confirmed by digestion and sequencing. Transplastomic lettuce lines were regenerated and subjected to molecular analysis. The presence of hG-CSF in plastome was confirmed by PCR using specific primers designed from the plastid genome. Western immunoblotting of extracted protein from transplastomic plants showed a 20-kDa band, which verified the expression of recombinant protein in lettuce chloroplasts. This study is the first report that successfully express hG-CSF gene in lettuce chloroplast. The lettuce plastome can provide a cheap and safe expression platform for producing valuable biopharmaceuticals for research and treatment.

  4. Targeting Beta-Amyloid at the CSF: A New Therapeutic Strategy in Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    Menendez-Gonzalez, Manuel; Padilla-Zambrano, Huber S; Alvarez, Gabriel; Capetillo-Zarate, Estibaliz; Tomas-Zapico, Cristina; Costa, Agustin


    Although immunotherapies against the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide tried so date failed to prove sufficient clinical benefit, Aβ still remains the main target in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This article aims to show the rationale of a new therapeutic strategy: clearing Aβ from the CSF continuously (the "CSF-sink" therapeutic strategy). First, we describe the physiologic mechanisms of Aβ clearance and the resulting AD pathology when these mechanisms are altered. Then, we review the experiences with peripheral Aβ-immunotherapy and discuss the related hypothesis of the mechanism of action of "peripheral sink." We also present Aβ-immunotherapies acting on the CNS directly. Finally, we introduce alternative methods of removing Aβ including the "CSF-sink" therapeutic strategy. As soluble peptides are in constant equilibrium between the ISF and the CSF, altering the levels of Aβ oligomers in the CSF would also alter the levels of such proteins in the brain parenchyma. We conclude that interventions based in a "CSF-sink" of Aβ will probably produce a steady clearance of Aβ in the ISF and therefore it may represent a new therapeutic strategy in AD.

  5. CSF and blood oxytocin concentration changes following intranasal delivery in macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Dal Monte

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT in the central nervous system (CNS influences social cognition and behavior, making it a candidate for treating clinical disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Intranasal administration has been proposed as a possible route of delivery to the CNS for molecules like OT. While intranasal administration of OT influences social cognition and behavior, it is not well established whether this is an effective means for delivering OT to CNS targets. We administered OT or its vehicle (saline to 15 primates (Macaca mulatta, using either intranasal spray or a nebulizer, and measured OT concentration changes in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF and in blood. All subjects received both delivery methods and both drug conditions. Baseline samples of blood and CSF were taken immediately before drug administration. Blood was collected every 10 minutes after administration for 40 minutes and CSF was collected once post-delivery, at the 40 minutes time point. We found that intranasal administration of exogenous OT increased concentrations in both CSF and plasma compared to saline. Both delivery methods resulted in similar elevations of OT concentration in CSF, while the changes in plasma OT concentration were greater after nasal spray compared to nebulizer. In conclusion our study provides evidence that both nebulizer and nasal spray OT administration can elevate CSF OT levels.

  6. CSF protein changes associated with hippocampal sclerosis risk gene variants highlight impact of GRN/PGRN. (United States)

    Fardo, David W; Katsumata, Yuriko; Kauwe, John S K; Deming, Yuetiva; Harari, Oscar; Cruchaga, Carlos; Nelson, Peter T


    Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a common cause of dementia in older adults. We tested the variability in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins associated with previously identified HS-Aging risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort (ADNI; n=237) data, combining both multiplexed proteomics CSF and genotype data, were used to assess the association between CSF analytes and risk SNPs in four genes (SNPs): GRN (rs5848), TMEM106B (rs1990622), ABCC9 (rs704180), and KCNMB2 (rs9637454). For controls, non-HS-Aging SNPs in APOE (rs429358/rs7412) and MAPT (rs8070723) were also analyzed against Aβ1-42 and total tau CSF analytes. The GRN risk SNP (rs5848) status correlated with variation in CSF proteins, with the risk allele (T) associated with increased levels of AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (AXL), TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Receptor 3 (TRAIL-R3), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and clusterin (CLU) (all p<0.05 after Bonferroni correction). The TRAIL-R3 correlation was significant in meta-analysis with an additional dataset (p=5.05×10 -5 ). Further, the rs5848 SNP status was associated with increased CSF tau protein - a marker of neurodegeneration (p=0.015). These data are remarkable since this GRN SNP has been found to be a risk factor for multiple types of dementia-related brain pathologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle by CSF cinema MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lianqing; Liu Lianxiang; Wu Jie; Wu Jing; Zhang Renshu; Wu Yujin


    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle by CSF cinema MRI. Materials and methods: Nine patients with intraventricular cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle were studied. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery in all cases. All of these patients were examined systematically before the operation and studied with CSF cinema MRI in mid sagittal section and finger-gated scan technique. Results: (1) The path of CSF flow was directly displayed. All cysticercosis presented as a filling defect, and a cyst with a smooth wall. (2) The ventricular compliance was normal in cysticercosis. (3) The cysticercosis in active stage was free in the fourth ventricle and could be rolled over, its shape might change slightly within a cardiac cycle. In the degenerative stage, its wall could adhere to the ependyma and obstruct the CSF flow. Conclusion: CSF cinema MRI can demonstrate the degree of obstruction and pattern of CSF flow in cysticercosis of the fourth ventricle, thereby providing useful information for proper management

  8. Chloride flux from blood to CSF: inhibition by furosemide and bumetanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.C.; Singer, S.; Hoop, B.; Kazemi, H.


    Movement of chloride from blood to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the factors that may be involved in regulation of CSF [Cl-], which is important to CSF acid-base balance. We made quantitative measurements of the unidirectional flux of radiolabeled chloride between blood and CSF in anesthetized dogs, using 38 Cl, a short-lived isotope (half-life 37.3 min). This allowed multiple studies to be performed in a given animal. A three-compartment model for the blood, CSF, brain extracellular fluid, and ventriculocisternal perfusion system was used to determine the flux rate. With normocapnia, the flux was 0.01.1 min-1. The influx could be reproducibly measured for three separate determinations in the same animal over a period of 6 h, being 98 +/- 6% of the control first run on the second run and 113 +/- 6% on the third. Furosemide and bumetanide, inhibitors of sodium-coupled chloride movement, lowered the flux to 43 +/- 3% and 55 +/- 6% of control, respectively. The combination of hypercapnia and furosemide lowered the influx to 63 +/- 9% of control. These results indicate that a major mechanism of chloride entry into CSF is sodium-coupled chloride transport

  9. CSF/serum albumin ratio in dementias: a cross-sectional study on 1861 patients. (United States)

    Skillbäck, Tobias; Delsing, Louise; Synnergren, Jane; Mattsson, Niklas; Janelidze, Shorena; Nägga, Katarina; Kilander, Lena; Hicks, Ryan; Wimo, Anders; Winblad, Bengt; Hansson, Oskar; Blennow, Kaj; Eriksdotter, Maria; Zetterberg, Henrik


    A connection between dementias and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction has been suggested, but previous studies have yielded conflicting results. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum albumin ratio in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD, early onset [EAD, n = 130], late onset AD [LAD, n = 666]), vascular dementia (VaD, n = 255), mixed AD and VaD (MIX, n = 362), Lewy body dementia (DLB, n = 50), frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n = 56), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD, n = 23), other dementias (other, n = 48), and dementia not otherwise specified (NOS, n = 271). We compared CSF/serum albumin ratio to 2 healthy control groups (n = 292, n = 20), between dementia diagnoses, and tested biomarker associations. Patients in DLB, LAD, VaD, MIX, other, and NOS groups had higher CSF/serum albumin ratio than controls. CSF/serum albumin ratio correlated with CSF neurofilament light in LAD, MIX, VaD, and other groups but not with AD biomarkers. Our data show that BBB leakage is common in dementias. The lack of association between CSF/serum albumin ratio and AD biomarkers suggests that BBB dysfunction is not inherent to AD but might represent concomitant cerebrovascular pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. GM-CSF: An Immune Modulatory Cytokine that can Suppress Autoimmunity (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Palash; Thiruppathi, Muthusamy; Elshabrawy, Hatem A.; Alharshawi, Khaled; Kumar, Prabhakaran; Prabhakar, Bellur S.


    GM-CSF was originally identified as a colony stimulating factor (CSF) because of its ability to induce granulocyte and macrophage populations from precursor cells. Multiple studies have demonstrated that GM-CSF is also an immune-modulatory cytokine, capable of affecting not only the phenotype of myeloid lineage cells, but also T-cell activation through various myeloid intermediaries. This property has been implicated in the sustenance of several autoimmune diseases like arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In contrast, several studies using animal models have shown that GM-CSF is also capable of suppressing many autoimmune diseases like Crohn's disease, Type-1 diabetes, Myasthenia gravis and experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Knockout mouse studies have suggested that the role of GM-CSF in maintaining granulocyte and macrophage populations in the physiological steady state is largely redundant. Instead, its immune-modulatory role plays a significant role in the development or resolution of autoimmune diseases. This is mediated either through the differentiation of precursor cells into specialized non-steady state granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, or through the modulation of the phenotype of mature myeloid cells. Thus, outside of myelopoiesis, GM-CSF has a profound role in regulating the immune response and maintaining immunological tolerance. PMID:26113402

  11. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs. (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Songqin; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F


    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs.

  12. Frequency analyses of CSF flow on cine MRI in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyati, Tosiaki; Kasuga, Toshio; Koshida, Kichiro; Sanada, Shigeru; Onoguchi, Masahisa [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80, Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Mase, Mitsuhito; Yamada, Kazuo [Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya City University Medical School, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8602 (Japan); Banno, Tatsuo [Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8602 (Japan); Fujita, Hiroshi [Department of Information Science, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)


    Our objective was to clarify intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics in normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Frequency analyses of CSF flow measured with phase-contrast cine MRI were performed. The CSF flow spectra in the aqueduct were determined in patients (n=51) with NPH, brain atrophy or asymptomatic ventricular dilation (VD), and in healthy volunteers (control group; n=25). The changes in CSF flow spectra were also analyzed after intravenous injection of acetazolamide. Moreover, a phase transfer function (PTF) calculated from the spectra of the driving vascular pulsation and CSF flow in the aqueduct were assessed. These values were compared with the pressure volume response (PVR). The amplitude in the NPH group was significantly larger than that in the VD or control group because of a decrease in compliance. The phase in the NPH group was significantly different from that in either the VD or the control group, but no difference was found between the VD and control groups. The amplitude increased in all groups after acetazolamide injection. The PTF in the NPH group was significantly larger than in the control group, and a positive correlation was noted between PTF and PVR. Frequency analyses of CSF flow measured by cine MRI make it possible to noninvasively obtain a more detailed picture of the pathophysiology of NPH. (orig.)

  13. The effect of G-CSF on infertile women undergoing IVF treatment: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Mo, Sien; Chen, Yang


    Evidence for the effect of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) remains inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of G-CSF on infertile women undergoing IVF. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched before August 2016. Comparing the transvaginal perfusion of G-CSF and placebo or no treatment, the available studies were considered. The pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used in the analysis and six studies were included. Transvaginal perfusion of G-CSF was significantly associated with a higher clinical pregnancy rate versus the placebo (RR=1.563, 95%CI: 1.122, 2.176), especially for the Asian population. Among patients with a thin endometrium or repeated IVF failure, the implantation and biochemical pregnancy rates were also significantly increased in patients with the use of G-CSF (implantation rate: RR = 1.887, 95% CI: 1.256, 2.833; biochemical pregnancy rate: RR = 2.385, 95% CI: 1.414, 4.023). However, no statistical significance in increasing endometrial thickness was detected. Transvaginal perfusion of G-CSF for infertile women may play a critical role in assisting human reproduction, especially for patients with a thin endometrium or repeated IVF failure in the Asian population.

  14. The Langley Fitness Center (United States)


    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  15. dftools: Distribution function fitting (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail


    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  16. Rules, culture, and fitness. (United States)

    Baum, W M


    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  17. A novel method to calculate the extent and amount of drug transported into CSF after intranasal administration. (United States)

    Shi, Zhenqi; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo


    The aim of this paper is to establish a novel method to calculate the extent and amount of drug transported to brain after administration. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was chosen as the target region. The intranasal administration of meptazinol hydrochloride (MEP) was chosen as the model administration and intravenous administration was selected as reference. According to formula transform, the extent was measured by the equation of X(A)CSF, infinity/X0 = Cl(CSF) AUC(0-->infinity)CSF/X0 and the drug amount was calculated by multiplying the dose with the extent. The drug clearance in CSF (Cl(CSF)) was calculated by a method, in which a certain volume of MEP solution was injected directly into rat cistern magna and then clearance was assessed as the reciprocal of the zeroth moment of a CSF level-time curve normalized for dose. In order to testify the accurateness of the method, 14C-sucrose was chosen as reference because of its impermeable characteristic across blood-brain barrier (BBB). It was found out that the MEP concentrations in plasma and CSF after intranasal administration did not show significant difference with those after intravenous administration. However, the extent and amount of MEP transported to CSF was significantly lower compared with those to plasma after these two administrations. In conclusion, the method can be applied to measure the extent and amount of drug transported to CSF, which would be useful to evaluate brain-targeting drug delivery.

  18. Distribution of HIV RNA in CSF and Blood is linked to CD4/CD8 Ratio During Acute HIV. (United States)

    Chan, Phillip; Patel, Payal; Hellmuth, Joanna; Colby, Donn J; Kroon, Eugène; Sacdalan, Carlo; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Jagodzinski, Linda; Krebs, Shelly; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor; Spudich, Serena


    HIV RNA levels in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are correlated in chronic HIV infection but their dynamics have not been characterized during acute infection. This study analyzed predictors of CSF HIV RNA and relative degree of CNS viral transmigration expressed as plasma minus CSF HIV log10 RNA (PCratio) during untreated acute HIV infection. CSF immune markers were compared between groups with different PCratio. 117 mostly male (97%) participants in the RV254 cohort in Bangkok, Thailand, had median age 28 years and an estimated median 18 days duration of infection; forty-three (37%) were Fiebig stages I/II. Twenty-seven (23%) had CSF HIV RNA CSF HIV RNA and PCratio of 3.76 and 2.36 Log10 copies/mL, respectively. HIV RNA peaked at Fiebig III in plasma and Fiebig IV in CSF. In multivariable analyses, plasma HIV RNA and CD4/CD8 ratio independently correlated with CSF HIV RNA (pCSF neopterin, sCD163, IL-6 and sCD14 levels (all pCSF HIV RNA and PCratio, suggesting that immune responses modulate CNS viral entry at early infection.

  19. Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) signaling in spinal microglia drives visceral sensitization following colitis. (United States)

    Basso, Lilian; Lapointe, Tamia K; Iftinca, Mircea; Marsters, Candace; Hollenberg, Morley D; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Altier, Christophe


    Pain is a main symptom of inflammatory diseases and often persists beyond clinical remission. Although we have a good understanding of the mechanisms of sensitization at the periphery during inflammation, little is known about the mediators that drive central sensitization. Recent reports have identified hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors as important regulators of tumor- and nerve injury-associated pain. Using a mouse model of colitis, we identify the proinflammatory cytokine granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF or Csf-3) as a key mediator of visceral sensitization. We report that G-CSF is specifically up-regulated in the thoracolumbar spinal cord of colitis-affected mice. Our results show that resident spinal microglia express the G-CSF receptor and that G-CSF signaling mediates microglial activation following colitis. Furthermore, healthy mice subjected to intrathecal injection of G-CSF exhibit pronounced visceral hypersensitivity, an effect that is abolished by microglial depletion. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that G-CSF injection increases Cathepsin S activity in spinal cord tissues. When cocultured with microglia BV-2 cells exposed to G-CSF, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) nociceptors become hyperexcitable. Blocking CX3CR1 or nitric oxide production during G-CSF treatment reduces excitability and G-CSF-induced visceral pain in vivo. Finally, administration of G-CSF-neutralizing antibody can prevent the establishment of persistent visceral pain postcolitis. Overall, our work uncovers a DRG neuron-microglia interaction that responds to G-CSF by engaging Cathepsin S-CX3CR1-inducible NOS signaling. This interaction represents a central step in visceral sensitization following colonic inflammation, thereby identifying spinal G-CSF as a target for treating chronic abdominal pain.

  20. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States. (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E


    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  1. Documented family violence and risk of suicide attempt among U.S. Army soldiers. (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Stein, Murray B; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Naifeh, James A; Fullerton, Carol S; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Kessler, Ronald C


    Suicide attempt (SA) rates in the U.S. Army increased substantially during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This study examined associations of family violence (FV) history with SA risk among soldiers. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records of active duty, Regular Army, enlisted soldiers with medically documented SAs from 2004 to 2009 (n = 9650) and a sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined associations of FV with SA, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. Odds of SA were higher in soldiers with a FV history and increased as the number of FV events increased. Soldiers experiencing past-month FV were almost five times as likely to attempt suicide as those with no FV history. Odds of SA were elevated for both perpetrators and those who were exclusively victims. Male perpetrators had higher odds of SA than male victims, whereas female perpetrators and female victims did not differ in SA risk. A discrete-time hazard function indicated that SA risk was highest in the initial months following the first FV event. FV is an important consideration in understanding risk of SA among soldiers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Interpersonal conflict and referrals to counseling among married soldiers following return from deployment. (United States)

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Johnson, Ruby E


    Deployment represents a significant potential strain on military families. The impact of postdeployment stresses may be increased if family coping resources are diminished by returning service members' physical injuries, mental health issues, or substance abuse. This article examines the health and mental health correlates of self-reported concerns regarding interpersonal conflict among married soldiers following return from deployment and the likelihood that soldiers acknowledging such concerns are referred to counseling services. Among 20,166 married Army soldiers completing Post-Deployment Health Reassessments, 18% reported having experienced serious interpersonal conflict with their spouse, family members, close friends, or coworkers. Results indicate that interpersonal conflict was more common among those who reported health problems, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol abuse. Among soldiers reporting interpersonal conflict and not already receiving services, 11% were referred to service. Findings support the need to communicate with soldiers and their spouses about the availability of services following return from deployment and to continue efforts to reduce stigma associated with seeking treatment.

  3. The reality of war: wounded and fallen Norwegian soldiers in Afghanistan. (United States)

    Bjerkan, Geir; Iversen, Petter; Asak, Håkon; Pillgram-Larsen, Johan; Rolandsen, Bent-Åge


    Norway has been contributing military forces to Afghanistan since 2001. The following is an overview of all combat-related injuries and deaths among Norwegian soldiers in the period from 2002 to 2010. All medical records for Norwegian military personnel in Afghanistan in the period to January 2011 were reviewed and those who fell or were injured during combat were identified. The mechanism and anatomical region of the injury were registered and an injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS) and probability of survival score were calculated. Deaths were classified according to military trauma terminology and were additionally assessed as either "non-survivable" or "potentially survivable". There were 45 injury incidents with nine deaths among 42 soldiers. The injury mechanism behind seven of the deaths was an improvised explosive device (IED). All injuries resulting in deaths were "non-survivable". Seven soldiers were severely injured. The mechanisms were bullet wounds, IED, splinters from grenades and landmine explosions. Twenty nine incidents involving 28 soldiers resulted in minor injuries. The most frequent mechanism was ricochet or splinter injury from shooting or an exploding grenade. The majority of conflict-related injuries in Afghanistan were due to explosions. The mechanism and anatomical distribution of the injuries was the same among Norwegian soldiers as among allies. The deaths were due to extensive injuries that were non-survivable.

  4. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines. (United States)

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Associations of childhood bullying victimization with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new U.S. Army soldiers. (United States)

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Kessler, Ronald C; Ursano, Robert J; Rosellini, Anthony J; Afifi, Tracie O; Colpe, Lisa J; Heeringa, Steven G; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Sareen, Jitender; Schoenbaum, Michael; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Stein, Murray B


    Prior studies have documented associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors. However, many failed to adjust for concomitant risk factors and none investigated this relationship in military personnel. This study aimed to estimate independent associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors among U.S. Army soldiers. Soldiers reporting for basic training completed a cross-sectional survey assessing mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and childhood adversities including two types of bullying victimization: (1) Physical Assault/Theft and (2) Bullying Comments/Behaviors. Associations of childhood bullying experiences with suicidal behaviors were estimated using discrete-time survival analysis of person-year data from 30,436 soldiers. Models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, childhood maltreatment by adults, and mental disorders. After comprehensive adjustment for other risk factors, more frequent Physical Assault/Theft by peers during childhood was associated with increased odds of lifetime suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11-1.26, P Bullying Comments/Behaviors were associated with increased risk of ideation (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.35, P bullying victimization, exposure to the most persistent bullying was associated with two- to fourfold increase in risk for suicidal behaviors. Childhood bullying victimization is associated with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers. Exposure to Bullying Comments/Behaviors during childhood is associated with progression from suicidal ideation to plan. Improved recognition of these relationships may inform risk mitigation interventions for soldiers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mozambique child soldier life outcome study: lessons learned in rehabilitation and reintegration efforts. (United States)

    Boothby, N; Crawford, J; Halperin, J


    As the use of child soldiers continues to proliferate throughout the world, effective psychosocial interventions must be developed and evaluated. Our research shows that former child soldiers who are provided rehabilitative services and accepted back into their families and communities are able to become productive, responsible and caring adults. In 1988, 39 captured or escaped child soldiers were brought by the Mozambican government to the Lhanguene Rehabilitation Center in Maputo, Mozambique's capital city. Interventions that focused on rehabilitating the children both psychologically and physically were initiated during their 6-month stay at the Lhanguene centre, and reintegration assistance was provided for 2 years thereafter to support their return to families and communities. Our research continued to follow these former child soldiers for 16 years, and focused on their psychological, social and economic functioning. The study included qualitative and quantitative data collection methods to obtain adult well-being outcomes and was also designed to identify interventions that enabled these child soldiers to re-enter civilian life and lead relatively productive lives. Efficacious rehabilitation activities included those that strengthened individuals' coping skills for anticipated trauma and grief, instilled a sense of social responsibility and promoted self-regulation and security (versus survival) seeking behaviour. Activities that supported long term reintegration and self-sufficiency included community acceptance and forgiveness, traditional cleansing and healing rituals, livelihoods and apprenticeships.

  7. Associations of age, aerobic fitness, and body mass index with injury in an operational Army brigade. (United States)

    Rappole, Catherine; Grier, Tyson; Anderson, Morgan K; Hauschild, Veronique; Jones, Bruce H


    To investigate the effects of age, aerobic fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on injury risk in operational Army soldiers. Retrospective cohort study. Male soldiers from an operational Army brigade were administered electronic surveys regarding personal characteristics, physical fitness, and injuries occurring over the last 12 months. Injury risks were stratified by age, 2-mile run time, and BMI. Analyses included descriptive incidence, a Mantel-Haenszel χ 2 test to determine trends, a multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with injury, and a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Forty-seventy percent of 1099 respondents reported at least one injury. A linear trend showed that as age, 2-mile run time, and BMI increased, so did injury risk (p<0.01). When controlling for BMI, the most significant independent injury risk factors were older age (odd ratio (OR) 30years-35years/≤24years=1.25, 95%CI: 1.08-2.32), (OR≥36years/≤24years=2.05, 95%CI: 1.36-3.10), and slow run times (OR≥15.9min/≤13.9min=1.91, 95%CI: 1.28-2.85). An ANOVA showed that both run times and BMI increased with age. The stratified analysis and the multivariable logistic regression suggested that older age and poor aerobic fitness are stronger predictors of injury than BMI. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  8. Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae). (United States)

    Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K


    Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effects of Burn Injuries on Thermoregulatory and Cardiovascular Responses in Soldiers: Implications for the Standards of Medical Fitness (United States)


    greater elevation in core temperature during exercise. In exercise-based rehabilitation or physically demanding occupational settings, activities...Military Health System Research 2 Symposium. We have initiated data collection for Aim 1B (assessment of the impact of large/small statue on...resulting in exacerbated elevations in core temperature and greater risk of heat illness during physical activities. Since the capacity for

  10. The Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness Program Evaluation. Report 4. Evaluation of Resilience Training and Mental and Behavioral Health Outcomes (United States)


    Corporation. Meyer, G. J., Finn, S. E., Eyde , L. D., Kay, G. G., Moreland, K. L., Dies, R. R.,…Reed, G. M. (2001). Psychological testing and...reduce Naval basic training attrition rates by improving psychological functioning. BOOT STRAP was tested among recruits undergoing a stressful... psychological health problems has been taken in previous research (Wilk et al., 2010 ). Analytic Strategy: Mediation Analyses The indirect effect

  11. Thermodynamic studies of (RbF + RbCl + H2O) and (CsF + CsCl + H2O) ternary systems from potentiometric measurements at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaoting; Li, Shu’ni; Zhai, Quanguo; Jiang, Yucheng; Hu, Mancheng


    Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties, such as mean activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies, of the RbF + RbCl + H 2 O and CsF + CsCl + H 2 O ternary systems were determined from potentiometric measurement at 298.2 K. The Pitzer model and the Harned rule were used to fit the experimental data. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of RbF + RbCl + H 2 O and CsF + CsCl + H 2 O ternary systems were determined. • The Pitzer model and the Harned rule were used to correlate the experimental data. • The mean activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients, and the excess Gibbs free energy were also obtained. - Abstract: Thermodynamic properties of (RbF + RbCl + H 2 O) and (CsF + CsCl + H 2 O) systems were determined by the potentiometric method for different ionic strength fractions y B of RbCl/CsCl at 298.2 K. The Pitzer model and the Harned rule were used to fit the experimental values. The Pitzer mixing parameters and the Harned coefficients were evaluated. In addition, the mean ionic activity coefficients of RbF/CsF and RbCl/CsCl, the osmotic coefficients, and the excess Gibbs energies of the systems studied were calculated.

  12. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers, Phase 2 (United States)


    achieving healthy management of body weight, healthy nutrition, physical fitness, and combat readiness. The H.E.A.L.T.H. study is a cluster (group...of nutrition, fitness, sleep and mind / body health. During Year 7, final analyses for the LANG study will be conducted and further dissemination of...entry – start weight)/start weight 21 Key Lessons Key Lessons to date indicate: • Novel interventions are needed to promote healthy body weight

  13. Validation of α-Synuclein as a CSF Biomarker for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. (United States)

    Llorens, Franc; Kruse, Niels; Karch, André; Schmitz, Matthias; Zafar, Saima; Gotzmann, Nadine; Sun, Ting; Köchy, Silja; Knipper, Tobias; Cramm, Maria; Golanska, Ewa; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Pawel P; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Fischer, Andre; Mollenhauer, Brit; Zerr, Inga


    The analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers gains importance in the differential diagnosis of prion diseases. However, no single diagnostic tool or combination of them can unequivocally confirm prion disease diagnosis. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based immunoassays have demonstrated to achieve high diagnostic accuracy in a variety of sample types due to their high sensitivity and dynamic range. Quantification of CSF α-synuclein (a-syn) by an in-house ECL-based ELISA assay has been recently reported as an excellent approach for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the most prevalent form of human prion disease. In the present study, we validated a commercially available ECL-based a-syn ELISA platform as a diagnostic test for correct classification of sCJD cases. CSF a-syn was analysed in 203 sCJD cases with definite diagnosis and in 445 non-CJD cases. We investigated reproducibility and stability of CSF a-syn and made recommendations for its analysis in the sCJD diagnostic workup. A sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 97% were achieved when using an optimal cut-off of 820 pg/mL a-syn. Moreover, we were able to show a negative correlation between a-syn levels and disease duration suggesting that CSF a-syn may be a good prognostic marker for sCJD patients. The present study validates the use of a-syn as a CSF biomarker of sCJD and establishes the clinical and pre-analytical parameters for its use in differential diagnosis in clinical routine. Additionally, the current test presents some advantages compared to other diagnostic approaches: it is fast, economic, requires minimal amount of CSF and a-syn levels are stable along disease progression.

  14. Fibronectin induces macrophage migration through a SFK-FAK/CSF-1R pathway. (United States)

    Digiacomo, Graziana; Tusa, Ignazia; Bacci, Marina; Cipolleschi, Maria Grazia; Dello Sbarba, Persio; Rovida, Elisabetta


    Integrins, following binding to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagen, laminin and fibronectin (FN), are able to transduce molecular signals inside the cells and to regulate several biological functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Besides activation of adaptor molecules and kinases, integrins transactivate Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK). In particular, adhesion to the ECM may promote RTK activation in the absence of growth factors. The Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) is a RTK that supports the survival, proliferation, and motility of monocytes/macrophages, which are essential components of innate immunity and cancer development. Macrophage interaction with FN is recognized as an important aspect of host defense and wound repair. The aim of the present study was to investigate on a possible cross-talk between FN-elicited signals and CSF-1R in macrophages. FN induced migration in BAC1.2F5 and J774 murine macrophage cell lines and in human primary macrophages. Adhesion to FN determined phosphorylation of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Src Family Kinases (SFK) and activation of the SFK/FAK complex, as witnessed by paxillin phosphorylation. SFK activity was necessary for FAK activation and macrophage migration. Moreover, FN-induced migration was dependent on FAK in either murine macrophage cell lines or human primary macrophages. FN also induced FAK-dependent/ligand-independent CSF-1R phosphorylation, as well as the interaction between CSF-1R and β1. CSF-1R activity was necessary for FN-induced macrophage migration. Indeed, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CSF-1R prevented FN-induced macrophage migration. Our results identified a new SFK-FAK/CSF-1R signaling pathway that mediates FN-induced migration of macrophages.

  15. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF biological actions on human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Montagnani


    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are involved in all pathologies characterized by increased ExtraCellularMatrix synthesis, from wound healing to fibrosis. Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF is a cytokine isolated as an hemopoietic growth factor but recently indicated as a differentiative agent on endothelial cells. In this work we demonstrated the expression of the receptor for GM-CSF (GMCSFR on human normal skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects (NFPC and on a human normal fibroblast cell line (NHDF and we try to investigate the biological effects of this cytokine. Human normal fibroblasts were cultured with different doses of GM-CSF to study the effects of this factor on GMCSFR expression, on cell proliferation and adhesion structures. In addition we studied the production of some Extra-Cellular Matrix (ECM components such as Fibronectin, Tenascin and Collagen I. The growth rate of fibroblasts from healthy donors (NFPC is not augmented by GM-CSF stimulation in spite of increased expression of the GM-CSFR. On the contrary, the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF cell line seems more influenced by high concentration of GM-CSF in the culture medium. The adhesion structures and the ECM components appear variously influenced by GM-CSF treatment as compared to fibroblasts cultured in basal condition, but newly only NHDF cells are really induced to increase their synthesis activity. We suggest that the in vitro treatment with GM-CSF can shift human normal fibroblasts towards a more differentiated state, due or accompanied by an increased expression of GM-CSFR and that such “differentiation” is an important event induced by such cytokine.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level for post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis. (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Xiong; Zhang, Junting; Gao, Zhixian; Ji, Nan; Zhang, Liwei


    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) lactate level for Post-neurosurgical Bacterial Meningitis (PBM) at a large sample-size of post-neurosurgical patients. The diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level to distinguish between PAM and PBM were evaluated with the values of the Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC -ROC ) by retrospectively analyzing the datasets of post-neurosurgical patients in the clinical information databases. The diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low (AUC -ROC CSF lactate level achieved rather high diagnostic accuracy (AUC -ROC =0.891; CI 95%, 0.852-0.922). The variables of patient age, operation duration, surgical diagnosis and postoperative days (the interval days between the neurosurgery and examinations) were shown to affect the diagnostic accuracy of these examinations. The variables were integrated with routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level by Fisher discriminant analysis to improve their diagnostic accuracy. As a result, the diagnostic accuracy of blood examinations and CSF lactate level was significantly improved with an AUC -ROC value=0.760 (CI 95%, 0.737-0.782) and 0.921 (CI 95%, 0.887-0.948) respectively. The PBM diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low, whereas the accuracy of CSF lactate level was high. Some variables that are involved in the incidence of PBM can also affect the diagnostic accuracy for PBM. Taking into account the effects of these variables significantly improves the diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellular specificity of the blood-CSF barrier for albumin transfer across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane A Liddelow

    Full Text Available To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse and exogenous (human albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA, and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood-CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood-CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub

  18. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1, and its proto-oncogene-encoded receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, C.J.; Rettenmier, C.W.; Roussel, M.F.


    The macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1, or M-CSF, is one of a family of hematopoietic growth factors that stimulates the proliferation of monocytes, macrophages, and their committed bone marrow progenitors. Unlike pluripotent hemopoietins such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3 or multi-CSF), which affect the growth of myeloid cells of several different hematopoietic lineages, CSF-1 acts only on cells of the mononuclear phagocyte series to stimulate their growth and enhance their survival. Retroviral transduction of the feline c-fms gene in the Susan McDonough and Hardy Zuckerman-5 (HZ-5) strains of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) led to genetic alterations that endowed the recombined viral oncogene (v-fms) with the ability to transform cells in culture morphologically and to induce firbrosarcomas and hematopoietic neoplasms in susceptible animals. The v-fms oncogene product differs from the normal CSF-1 receptor in certain of its cardinal biochemical properties, most notably in exhibiting constitutively high basal levels of tyrosine kinase activity in the absence of its ligand. Comparative studies of the c-fms and v-fms genes coupled with analyses of engineered mutants and receptor chimeras have begun to pinpoint pertinent genetic alterations in the normal receptor gene that unmask its latent oncogenic potential. In addition, the availability of biologically active c-fms, v-fms, and CSF-1 cDNAs has allowed these genes to be mobilized and expressed in naive cells, thereby facilitating assays for receptor coupling with downstream components of the mitogenic pathway in diverse cell types

  19. Effect of simvastatin on CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers in cognitively normal adults. (United States)

    Li, Ge; Mayer, Cynthia L; Morelli, Daniel; Millard, Steven P; Raskind, Wendy H; Petrie, Eric C; Cherrier, Monique; Fagan, Anne M; Raskind, Murray A; Peskind, Elaine R


    To examine potential disease-modifying effects of statin drugs, we conducted a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of simvastatin in cognitively normal adults using change in CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers as primary outcome measure. Participants were 45-64 years old and statin-naive with normal cognition and normal or mildly elevated cholesterol. Forty-six participants completed the 1-year study per protocol (25 in the simvastatin and 21 in the placebo group). Simvastatin was titrated to 40 mg/d. CSF Aβ 42 , total tau, and p-tau 181 were measured at baseline and after 12 months of treatment using the INNO-BIA AlzBio3 assay. We used analysis of covariance to assess differences in biomarker change from baseline between treatment groups, adjusting for age, sex, and APOE ε4 status. Changes from baseline did not differ significantly between treatment groups for any CSF biomarker, with p values of 0.53, 0.36, and 0.25 for CSF Aβ 42 , total tau, and p-tau 181 , respectively. There was no significant modifying effect of sex, APOE ε4, or baseline high-density lipoprotein or triglycerides on treatment group for any of the biomarkers (all p > 0.18). However, a significant interaction between treatment group and baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was observed for p-tau 181 ( p = 0.003), where greater decreases from baseline in CSF p-tau 181 concentrations were associated with higher baseline LDL level for the simvastatin group. Simvastatin-related reductions in CSF p-tau 181 concentrations may be modulated by LDL cholesterol. The potential disease-modifying effects of simvastatin on CSF phospho-tau should be further investigated in persons with hypercholesterolemia. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Use of rhu-GM-CSF in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: results of a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Brasil Pedral-Sampaio

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that deficient or incomplete clinical and/or microbiological response to tuberculosis treatment is associated with cell-mediated immunological dysfunction involving monocytes and macrophages. A phase 2 safety trial was conducted by treating patients with either recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhu-GM-CSF or a placebo, both in combination with anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Thirty-one patients with documented pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with rifampin/isoniazid for six months, plus pyrazinamide for the first two months. At the beginning of treatment, rhu-GM-CSF (125µg/M² was randomly assigned to 16 patients and injected subcutaneously twice weekly for four weeks; the other 15 patients received a placebo. The patients were accompanied in the hospital for two weeks, then monthly on an out patient basis, for 12 months. Clinical outcomes were similar in both groups, with no difference in acid-fast bacilli (AFB clearance in sputum at the end of the fourth week of treatment. Nevertheless, a trend to faster conversion to negative was observed in the rhu-GM-CSF group until the eighth week of treatment (p=0.07, after which all patients converted to AFB negative. Adverse events in the rhu-GM-CSF group were local skin inflammation and an increase in the leukocyte count after each injection, returning to normal 72 hours after rhu-GM-CSF injection. Three patients developed SGOP and SGPT > 2.5 times the normal values. All patients included in the GM-CSF group were culture negative at six months, except one who had primary TB resistance. None of the patients had to discontinue the treatment in either group. We conclude that rhu-GM-CSF adjuvant immunotherapy could be safely explored in a phase 3 trial with patients who have active tuberculosis.

  1. Use of rhu-GM-CSF in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: results of a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedral-Sampaio Diana Brasil


    Full Text Available It has been postulated that deficient or incomplete clinical and/or microbiological response to tuberculosis treatment is associated with cell-mediated immunological dysfunction involving monocytes and macrophages. A phase 2 safety trial was conducted by treating patients with either recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhu-GM-CSF or a placebo, both in combination with anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Thirty-one patients with documented pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with rifampin/isoniazid for six months, plus pyrazinamide for the first two months. At the beginning of treatment, rhu-GM-CSF (125µg/M² was randomly assigned to 16 patients and injected subcutaneously twice weekly for four weeks; the other 15 patients received a placebo. The patients were accompanied in the hospital for two weeks, then monthly on an out patient basis, for 12 months. Clinical outcomes were similar in both groups, with no difference in acid-fast bacilli (AFB clearance in sputum at the end of the fourth week of treatment. Nevertheless, a trend to faster conversion to negative was observed in the rhu-GM-CSF group until the eighth week of treatment (p=0.07, after which all patients converted to AFB negative. Adverse events in the rhu-GM-CSF group were local skin inflammation and an increase in the leukocyte count after each injection, returning to normal 72 hours after rhu-GM-CSF injection. Three patients developed SGOP and SGPT > 2.5 times the normal values. All patients included in the GM-CSF group were culture negative at six months, except one who had primary TB resistance. None of the patients had to discontinue the treatment in either group. We conclude that rhu-GM-CSF adjuvant immunotherapy could be safely explored in a phase 3 trial with patients who have active tuberculosis.

  2. Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M


    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  3. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  4. A structural model of burnout syndrome, coping behavior and personality traits in professional soldiers of the Slovene armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Serec


    Conclusions: To reduce burnout in the Slovenian Army, it may be of great benefit to provide training of effective stress-coping mechanisms, and create peer support groups among soldiers. Such intervention should be especially beneficial for soldiers with a vulnerable personality structure (high neuroticism and psychoticism and low extraversion.

  5. Action of granulopoiesis-stimulating cytokines rhG-CSF, rhGM-CSF, and rmGM-CSF on murine hematopoietic progenitor cells for granulocytes and macrophages (GM-CFC)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Vacek, Antonín; Weiterová, Lenka


    Roč. 54, - (2005), s. 207-213 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5004009; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK5011112; GA ČR(CZ) GP305/03/D050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : murine hematopoiesis * GM-CFC * rhG- CSF Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  6. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates the Influence of Amyloid on Cognition. (United States)

    Schultz, Stephanie A; Boots, Elizabeth A; Almeida, Rodrigo P; Oh, Jennifer M; Einerson, Jean; Korcarz, Claudia E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Bendlin, Barbara B; Christian, Bradley T; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Stein, James H; Okonkwo, Ozioma C


    The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD.

  7. Antibodies against oligodendrocytes in serum and CSF in multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases: 125I-protein A studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, A.J.; Link, H.


    Antibodies against oligodendrocytes were determined in pairs of unconcentrated CSF serum from 12 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 25 control patients including 10 with aseptic meningoencephalitis (AM), using a 125 I-protein A microassay. Antibody levels in serum and in CSF did not differ between MS and controls. Calculating the antibody index equal to (CSF/serum antibodies against oligodendrocytes):(CSF/serum albumin) in analogy to the CSF IgG index, thereby compensating for influence of serum antibody concentration as well as altered blood-brain barrier, no evidence was obtained for intrathecal antibody production in the patients with MS. Those with AM had higher antibody index values, probably reflecting intrathecal synthesis. Antibodies against oligodendrocytes seem to be regular component of CSF and serum in neurological diseases; intrathecal antibody production is less frequent in MS than in AM. (author)

  8. Transthyretin as a potential CSF biomarker for Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies: effects of treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, K; Nilsson, K; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik


    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that transthyretin (TTR) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are altered in depression and dementia. The present study aimed to investigate whether CSF TTR can be used to discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and patients...... with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with or without medication, as well as to reveal whether CSF TTR correlates with depression in dementia. METHODS: CSF samples from 59 patients with AD, 13 patients with DLB and 13 healthy controls were collected, and biochemical analysis was performed. Subjects were assessed...... for the presence of depression. RESULTS: No significant differences in CSF TTR were found between AD, DLB, and control subjects or between depressed and non-depressed dementia patients. Interestingly, we found a significant reduction in CSF TTR (14%) in AD patients who were medicated with cholinesterase inhibitors...

  9. Does political ideology moderate stress: the special case of soldiers conducting forced evacuation. (United States)

    Shechner, Tomer; Slone, Michelle; Bialik, Gadi


    This study examined the moderating role of political ideology on psychological outcomes for Israeli soldiers participating in the forced evacuation of Jewish settlements from Gaza. Change in psychopathology and well-being was assessed for 3 concurrent mission groups differing in their political ideological contentiousness--forced evacuation, Gaza security, and Northern border security. After soldiers in each mission group were classified on the basis of relatively left- or right-wing political ideological tendencies, the authors examined differential impact of each mission on soldiers of differing political ideology. Results confirmed strong moderation effects of political ideology on psychological outcomes in these extreme contexts. Implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zimmermann


    Full Text Available Background: After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Method: Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11 were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated. Results: Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (−, power (−, tradition (+, and universalism (+ were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Conclusions: Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  11. [Mental disorders in German soldiers after deployment - impact of personal values and resilience]. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens; Backus, Johannes; Alliger-Horn, Christina; Willmund, Gerd; Hellenthal, Andrea; Bauer, Amanda; Petermann, Franz; Maercker, Andreas


    Soldiers are at increased risk of developing mental health disorders after military deployment. The impact of personal values on psychological symptomatology based on an empirical working model has not yet been studied in a military environment. 117 German Armed Forces soldiers completed the Portrait-Values-Questionnaire (PVQ), the Patient-Health-Questionnaire (PHQ) and the Resilience-Scale (RS-11) after their deployment to Afghanistan. In the regression analyses the values hedonism, benevolence, tradition, self-direction and universalism had a differential significant impact on depression, anxiety and somatoform symptoms of the PHQ. The RS-11 sum scale values were negatively correlated with symptomatology. Personal values and resilience seem to be associated with psychological symptomatology in soldiers after military deployment. The results can contribute to the further development of both preventive and therapeutic approaches. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens T; Backus, Johannes; Siegel, Stefan; Willmund, Gerd; Maercker, Andreas


    After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated). Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (-), power (-), tradition (+), and universalism (+) were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  13. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly. (United States)

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin


    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summaira Naz


    Full Text Available The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997 and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, et al., 1985; were administered to a sample (N=400 along with a demographic sheet. The results of the study revealed a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction of Pakistani army soldiers. The findings of the study also showed a significant age, education, salary, and marital status differences in job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Age, marital status, and salary variables had positive correlation with job satisfaction and life satisfaction but education had a negative association with job satisfaction and life satisfaction

  15. Prevalence of Pain Diagnoses and Burden of Pain Among Active Duty Soldiers, FY2012. (United States)

    Reif, Sharon; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Ritter, Grant A; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo


    Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations. Data are from the MHS Data Repository including outpatient MHS direct care encounters, claims for outpatient purchased care from civilian providers, and vital records, for all soldiers continuously enrolled in TRICARE and not deployed in FY 2012. Ten pain-related diagnostic categories were conceptually derived for this analysis and identified using ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. We report the FY 2012 prevalence at the soldier-level (N = 297,120) for each pain category as a primary diagnosis, as well as in any diagnostic position, and at the soldier-level for reported pain level, duration, and military duty limitations. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained prior to analyses. Overall, 63% of soldiers had at least one pain diagnosis and 59% had a primary pain diagnosis during FY 2012. Back and neck pain (22%), non-traumatic joint disorders (28%), and other musculoskeletal pain (30%) were the most frequent categories for primary diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of soldiers had a primary pain diagnosis in more than one category, and 23% in four or more categories. Moderate or severe pain levels were reported at least once during the year by 55% of soldiers who had a primary pain diagnosis. In the subsample of soldiers with primary pain in the first quarter, duration and chronicity of pain diagnoses varied by pain category: the back and neck pain category was the most common for both persistent

  16. Serum concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF correlate with the Th1/Th2 cytokine response in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Claus; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Pressler, Tacjana


    mobilizing monocytes and PMNs from the bone marrow, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 select subsets of dendritic cells, which subsequently induce distinct Th responses. Therefore, the present study examines the correlation between the mobilizing cytokines in serum and the Th responses. The IFN-gamma and IL-4...... production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF in serum as well as lung function, were determined in 37 CF patients with and 6 CF patients without chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. The GM-CSF/G-CSF ratio correlated both with the IFN-gamma production and good...... lung function. In addition, an inverse correlation between IL-3 and IFN-gamma was observed. The results indicate involvement of endogenous GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 in the skewed Th response in CF, and change to a Th1-dominated response might be achieved with GM-CSF treatment....

  17. Utility of CSF biomarkers in psychiatric disorders: a national multicentre prospective study. (United States)

    Paquet, Claire; Magnin, Eloi; Wallon, David; Troussière, Anne-Cécile; Dumurgier, Julien; Jager, Alain; Bellivier, Frank; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Blanc, Frédéric; Beaufils, Emilie; Miguet-Alfonsi, Carole; Quillard, Muriel; Schraen, Susanna; Pasquier, Florence; Hannequin, Didier; Robert, Philippe; Hugon, Jacques; Mouton-Liger, François


    Affective and psychotic disorders are mental or behavioural patterns resulting in an inability to cope with life's ordinary demands and routines. These conditions can be a prodromal event of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prevalence of underlying AD lesions in psychiatric diseases is unknown, and it would be helpful to determine them in patients. AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (amyloid β, tau and phosphorylated tau) have high diagnostic accuracy, both for AD with dementia and to predict incipient AD (mild cognitive impairment due to AD), and they are sometimes used to discriminate psychiatric diseases from AD. Our objective in the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of CSF biomarkers in a group of patients with psychiatric disease as the main diagnosis. In a multicentre prospective study, clinicians filled out an anonymous questionnaire about all of their patients who had undergone CSF biomarker evaluation. Before and after CSF biomarker results were obtained, clinicians provided a diagnosis with their level of confidence and information about the treatment. We included patients with a psychiatric disorder as the initial diagnosis. In a second part of the study conducted retrospectively in a followed subgroup, clinicians detailed the psychiatric history and we classified patients into three categories: (1) psychiatric symptoms associated with AD, (2) dual diagnosis and (3) cognitive decline not linked to a neurodegenerative disorder. Of 957 patients, 69 had an initial diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Among these 69 patients, 14 (20.2 %) had a CSF AD profile, 5 (7.2 %) presented with an intermediate CSF profile and 50 (72.4 %) had a non-AD CSF profile. Ultimately, 13 (18.8 %) patients were diagnosed with AD. We show that in the AD group psychiatric symptoms occurred later and the delay between the first psychiatric symptoms and the cognitive decline was shorter. This study revealed that about 20 % of patients with a primary

  18. CSF tau and β-amyloid predict cerebral synucleinopathy in autopsied Lewy body disorders. (United States)

    Irwin, David J; Xie, Sharon X; Coughlin, David; Nevler, Naomi; Akhtar, Rizwan S; McMillan, Corey T; Lee, Edward B; Wolk, David A; Weintraub, Daniel; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Duda, John E; Spindler, Meredith; Siderowf, Andrew; Hurtig, Howard I; Shaw, Leslie M; Grossman, Murray; Trojanowski, John Q


    To test the association of antemortem CSF biomarkers with postmortem pathology in Lewy body disorders (LBD). Patients with autopsy-confirmed LBD (n = 24) and autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD) (n = 23) and cognitively normal (n = 36) controls were studied. In LBD, neuropathologic criteria defined Lewy body α-synuclein (SYN) stages with medium/high AD copathology (SYN + AD = 10) and low/no AD copathology (SYN - AD = 14). Ordinal pathology scores for tau, β-amyloid (Aβ), and SYN pathology were averaged across 7 cortical regions to obtain a global cerebral score for each pathology. CSF total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau at threonine 181 , and Aβ 1-42 levels were compared between LBD and control groups and correlated with global cerebral pathology scores in LBD with linear regression. Diagnostic accuracy for postmortem categorization of LBD into SYN + AD vs SYN - AD or neocortical vs brainstem/limbic SYN stage was tested with receiver operating curves. SYN + AD had higher CSF t-tau (mean difference 27.0 ± 8.6 pg/mL) and lower Aβ 1-42 (mean difference -84.0 ± 22.9 g/mL) compared to SYN - AD ( p CSF t-tau ( R 2 = 0.15-0.16, p CSF Aβ 1-42 ( R 2 = 0.31, p CSF t-tau/Aβ 1-42 ratio ( R 2 = 0.27, p = 0.01). CSF t-tau/Aβ 1-42 ratio had 100% specificity and 90% sensitivity for SYN + AD, and CSF Aβ 1-42 had 77% specificity and 82% sensitivity for neocortical SYN stage. Higher antemortem CSF t-tau/Aβ 1-42 and lower Aβ 1-42 levels are predictive of increasing cerebral AD and SYN pathology. These biomarkers may identify patients with LBD vulnerable to cortical SYN pathology who may benefit from both SYN and AD-targeted disease-modifying therapies. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Risk factors for disability discharge in enlisted active duty Army soldiers. (United States)

    Piccirillo, Amanda L; Packnett, Elizabeth R; Cowan, David N; Boivin, Michael R


    The rate of permanent disability retirement in U.S. Army soldiers and the prevalence of combat-related disabilities have significantly increased over time. Prior research on risk factors associated with disability retirement included soldiers retired prior to conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. To identify risk factors for disability discharge among soldiers enlisted in the U.S. Army during military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In this case-control study, cases included active duty soldiers evaluated for disability discharge. Controls, randomly selected from soldiers with no history of disability evaluation, were matched to cases based on enlistment year and sex. Conditional logistic regression models calculated odds of disability discharge. Attributable fractions estimated burden of disability for specific pre-existing condition categories. Poisson regression models compared risk of disability discharge related to common disability types by deployment and combat status. Characteristics at military enlistment with increased odds of disability discharge included a pre-existing condition, increased age or body mass index, white race, and being divorced. Musculoskeletal conditions and overweight contributed the largest proportion of disabilities. Deployment was protective against disability discharge or receiving a musculoskeletal-related disability, but significantly increased the risk of disability related to a psychiatric or neurological condition. Soldiers with a pre-existing condition at enlistment, particularly a musculoskeletal condition, had increased odds of disability discharge. Risk of disability was dependent on condition category when stratified by deployment and combat status. Additional research examining conditions during pre-disability hospitalizations could provide insight on specific conditions that commonly lead to disability discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jacqueline F; Erickson, Jay C


    To determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on headache characteristics and headache prognosis in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache. PTSD and post-concussive headache are common conditions among U.S. Army personnel returning from deployment. The impact of comorbid PTSD on the characteristics and outcomes of post-traumatic headache has not been determined in U.S. Army soldiers. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 270 consecutive U.S. Army soldiers diagnosed with post-traumatic headache at a single Army neurology clinic. All subjects were screened for PTSD at baseline using the PTSD symptom checklist. Headache frequency and characteristics were determined for post-traumatic headache subjects with and without PTSD at baseline. Headache measures were reassessed 3 months after the baseline visit, and were compared between groups with and without PTSD. Of 270 soldiers with post-traumatic headache, 105 (39%) met screening criteria for PTSD. There was no significant difference between subjects with PTSD and those without PTSD with regard to headache frequency (17.2 vs 15.7 headache days per month; P = .15) or chronic daily headache (58.1% vs 52.1%; P = .34). Comorbid PTSD was associated with higher headache-related disability as measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment Score. Three months after the baseline neurology clinic visit, the number of subjects with at least 50% reduction in headache frequency was similar among post-traumatic headache cases with and without PTSD (25.9% vs 26.8%). PTSD is prevalent among U.S. Army soldiers with post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD is not associated with more frequent headaches or chronic daily headache in soldiers evaluated at a military neurology clinic for chronic post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD does not adversely affect short-term headache outcomes, although prospective controlled trials are needed to better assess this relationship. © 2013 American Headache

  1. Improving NEC Fit (United States)


    TAD Temporary Additional Duty TFMMS Total Force Manpower Management System UIC Unit Identification Code USFFC United States Fleet Forces Command...not include sailors on temporary additional duty ( TAD ). In addition, for class average Fit, we excluded units that had billets but no onboard

  2. Reliability and Model Fit (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.


    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  3. G-CSF regulates macrophage phenotype and associates with poor overall survival in human triple-negative breast cancer (United States)

    Hollmén, Maija; Karaman, Sinem; Schwager, Simon; Lisibach, Angela; Christiansen, Ailsa J.; Maksimow, Mikael; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Detmar, Michael


    ABSTRACT Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated in the promotion of breast cancer growth and metastasis, and a strong infiltration by TAMs has been associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these observations are unclear. We investigated macrophage activation in response to co-culture with several breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, BT-474, SKBR-3, Cal-51 and MDA-MB-231) and found that high granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion by the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 gave rise to immunosuppressive HLA-DRlo macrophages that promoted migration of breast cancer cells via secretion of TGF-α. In human breast cancer samples (n = 548), G-CSF was highly expressed in TNBC (p CSF blockade in the 4T1 mammary tumor model promoted maturation of MHCIIhi blood monocytes and TAMs and significantly reduced lung metastasis, anti-CSF-1R treatment promoted MHCIIloF4/80hiMRhi anti-inflammatory TAMs and enhanced lung metastasis in the presence of high G-CSF levels. Combined anti-G-CSF and anti-CSF-1R therapy significantly increased lymph node metastases, possibly via depletion of the so-called “gate-keeper” subcapsular sinus macrophages. These results indicate that G-CSF promotes the anti-inflammatory phenotype of tumor-induced macrophages when CSF-1R is inhibited and therefore caution against the use of M-CSF/CSF-1R targeting agents in tumors with high G-CSF expression. PMID:27141367

  4. Observation of the CSF pulsatile flow in the aqueduct using cine MRI with presaturation bolus tracking, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Satoshi


    The to-and-fro motion patterns of the CSF flow in the aqueduct in ten normal adults, ten patients with secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), and fourteen patients with idiopathic ventriculomegaly were analyzed using cine MRI with presaturation bolus tracking. The to-and-fro motion patterns of the CSF flow in the aqueduct were thus classified into four types according to their maximum velocity and the relative time duration of their flow in the rostral and caudal directions. The correlation between the clinical symptoms, the CT findings, the RI-cisternography findings, the results of the ICP monitorings, and the CSF pulsatile-flow patterns were then analyzed. In secondary NPH disclosing frequent B waves on ICP monitoring, the maximum velocity of the CSF flow in the aqueduct was over 15 mm/sec, and the duration of the CSF flow was longer in the caudal direction than in the rostral direction. Furthermore, the faster the maximum velocity of the CSF flow, the larger the ventricular size on CT and the more severe the CSF malabsorption on cisternography. In idiopathic ventriculomegaly, only two cases demonstrated the same CSF flow pattern as was shown in secondary NPH; the other cases demonstrated other CSF flow patterns, which were considered to indicate hydrocephalus ex vacuo or arrested hydrocephalus. The CSF pulsatile-flow pattern was assumed to change according to the degree of the CSF circulatory disorder, its compensatory process, and the plasticity of the brain. The investigation of the CSF pulsatile flow gives important information for the evaluation of various hydrocephalic conditions. (author)

  5. Biosimilar G-CSF based mobilization of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells for autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Publicover, Amy; Orchard, Kim H; Görlach, Matthias; Wang, Lei; Schmitt, Anita; Mani, Jiju; Tsirigotis, Panagiotis; Kuriakose, Reeba; Nagler, Arnon


    The use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) biosimilars for peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (PBSC) mobilization has stimulated an ongoing debate regarding their efficacy and safety. However, the use of biosimilar G-CSF was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for all the registered indications of the originator G-CSF (Neupogen (®) ) including mobilization of stem cells. Here, we performed a comprehensive review of published reports on the use of biosimilar G-CSF covering patients with hematological malignancies as well as healthy donors that underwent stem cell mobilization at multiple centers using site-specific non-randomized regimens with a biosimilar G-CSF in the autologous and allogeneic setting. A total of 904 patients mostly with hematological malignancies as well as healthy donors underwent successful autologous or allogeneic stem cell mobilization, respectively, using a biosimilar G-CSF (520 with Ratiograstim®/Tevagrastim, 384 with Zarzio®). The indication for stem cell mobilization in hematology patients included 326 patients with multiple myeloma, 273 with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 79 with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), and other disease. 156 sibling or volunteer unrelated donors were mobilized using biosimilar G-CSF. Mobilization resulted in good mobilization of CD34+ stem cells with side effects similar to originator G-CSF. Post transplantation engraftment did not significantly differ from results previously documented with the originator G-CSF. The side effects experienced by the patients or donors mobilized by biosimilar G-CSF were minimal and were comparable to those of originator G-CSF. In summary, the efficacy of biosimilar G-CSFs in terms of PBSC yield as well as their toxicity profile are equivalent to historical data with the reference G-CSF.

  6. Mobilizing stem cells from normal donors: is it possible to improve upon G-CSF? (United States)

    Cashen, A F; Lazarus, H M; Devine, S M


    Currently, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) remains the standard mobilizing agent for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donors, allowing the safe collection of adequate PBSCs from the vast majority of donors. However, G-CSF mobilization can be associated with some significant side effects and requires a multi-day dosing regimen. The other cytokine approved for stem cell mobilization, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), alters graft composition and may reduce the development of graft-versus-host disease, but a significant minority of donors fails to provide sufficient CD34+ cells with GM-CSF and some experience unacceptable toxicity. AMD3100 is a promising new mobilizing agent, which may have several advantages over G-CSF for donor mobilization. As it is a direct antagonist of the interaction between the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 and its receptor CXCR4, AMD3100 mobilizes PBSCs within hours rather than days. It is also well tolerated, with no significant side effects reported in any of the clinical trials to date. Studies of autologous and allogeneic transplantation of AMD3100 mobilized grafts have demonstrated prompt and stable engraftment. Here, we review the current state of stem cell mobilization in normal donors and discuss novel strategies for donor stem cell mobilization.

  7. [Intracranial pressure monitoring and CSF dynamics in patients with neurological disorders: indications and practical considerations]. (United States)

    Poca, M; Sahuquillo, J


    The study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics is central to the diagnosis of adult chronic hydrocephalus (ACH). At present, many neurology and neurosurgery departments use one or more tests to guide diagnosis of this syndrome and to predict patient response to shunting. In specialised centres, the study of CSF dynamics is combined with continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. Determination of several variables of CSF dynamics and definitions of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of ICP can be used to establish whether the hydrocephalus is active, compensated or arrested. CSF dynamics and ICP monitoring can also be used to check the correct functioning of the shunt and can be of use in the clinical management of patients with pseudotumor cerebri. Moreover, ICP monitoring is used to guide the treatment of several acute neurological processes. The aim of this review is to describe the fundamentals of CSF dynamics studies and the bases of continuous ICP monitoring. The advantages and disadvantages of several hydrodynamic tests that can be performed by lumbar puncture, as well as the normal and abnormal characteristics of an ICP recording, are discussed.

  8. Cerebral blood flow, glucose use, and CSF ionic regulation in potassium-depleted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroek, H.; Kuschinsky, W.


    Rats were kept on a low-K + diet for 25 or 70 days. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) were measured in 31 different structures of the brain by means of the [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine and [ 14 C]2-deoxy-D-glucose method. After 25 and 70 days of K + depletion LCBF was decreased significantly in 27 and 30 structures, respectively, the average decrease being 19 and 25%. In contrast, average LCGU was not changed. Cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) K + concentration decreased significantly from 2.65 ± 0.02 mM in controls to 2.55 ± 0.02 mM and 2.47 ± 0.02 mM in the two treated groups. CSF [HCO 3 - ], pH, and Pco 2 were increased in K + -depleted animals. These data show that K + depletion induces an increase in CSF pH and a decrease in CSF K + concentration, both of which cause a reduction in cerebral blood flow. The increased CSF Pco 2 is secondary to the reduction of blood flow, since brain metabolism and arterial Pco 2 remained constant

  9. Soluble sortilin is present in excess and positively correlates with progranulin in CSF of aging individuals. (United States)

    Molgaard, Simon; Demontis, Ditte; Nicholson, Alexandra M; Finch, Nicole A; Petersen, Ronald C; Petersen, Claus M; Rademakers, Rosa; Nykjaer, Anders; Glerup, Simon


    Mutations in progranulin are a major cause of frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD). Hence, plasma progranulin is an attractive biomarker in FTLD but poorly reflects levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), suggesting tissue-specific regulation of progranulin levels. Sortilin was recently identified as a progranulin scavenger receptor that destines it for lysosomal degradation. Proteolysis or alternative splicing generates soluble sortilin variants that retain progranulin binding and potentially functions as a decoy receptor. In the present study, we analyzed soluble sortilin and progranulin in plasma and CSF in 341 aging individuals. We found that soluble sortilin exists in CSF in ten-fold molar excess compared to progranulin and observed a highly significant positive correlation between soluble sortilin and progranulin levels in CSF but not in plasma. However, carriers of the minor allele of SNP rs646776 in SORT1 encoding sortilin displayed significantly increased soluble sortilin and reduced progranulin specifically in plasma but not in CSF. Taken together, our findings suggest that soluble sortilin may affect progranulin levels in both a tissue-specific and genotype-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between FDG uptake, CSF biomarkers and cognitive performance in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Soenke; Jahn, Holger; Eichenlaub, Martin; Brassen, Stefanie; Wilke, Florian; Apostolova, Ivayla; Buchert, Ralph; Wenzel, Fabian; Young, Stewart; Thiele, Frank


    Brain imaging of FDG uptake and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ 1-42 ) or tau proteins are promising biomarkers in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is still uncertainty regarding any association between decreased FDG uptake and alterations in CSF markers. The relationship between FDG uptake, CSF Aβ 1-42 and total tau (T-tau), as well as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was investigated in 34 subjects with probable AD using step-wise linear regression. FDG uptake was scaled to the pons. Scaled FDG uptake was significantly reduced in the probable AD subjects compared to 17 controls bilaterally in the precuneus/posterior cingulate area, angular gyrus/inferior parietal cortex, inferior temporal/midtemporal cortex, midfrontal cortex, and left caudate. Voxel-based single-subject analysis of the probable AD subjects at p 1-42 . Scaled FDG uptake in the caudate was positively correlated with CSF T-tau. The extent and local severity of the reduction in FDG uptake in probable AD subjects are associated with cognitive impairment. In addition, there appears to be a relationship between local FDG uptake and CSF biomarkers which differs between different brain regions. (orig.)

  11. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma with leukocytosis and elevation of serum G-CSF. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oda Yoshinao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background G-CSF is known to function as a hematopoietic growth factor and it is known to be responsible for leukocytosis. G-CSF-producing tumors associated with leukocytosis include various types of malignancies. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-old man with dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma characterized by dedifferentiated components of malignant fibrous histiocytoma- or osteosarcoma-like features in addition to conventional chondrosarcoma, arising from his pelvic bone. After hemipelvectomy, when local recurrence and metastasis were identified, leukocytosis appeared and an elevated level of serum granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF was also recognized. The patient died of multiple organ failure 2 months after surgery. Autopsy specimens showed that the histological specimens of the recurrence and metastasis were dedifferentiated components, without any conventional chondrosarcoma components. G-CSF was expressed only in the dedifferentiated components, not in the chondrosarcoma components, immunohistochemically. Conclusion This is the first report of chondrosarcoma, or any other primary bone tumor, with leukocytosis, probably stimulated by tumor-produced G-CSF from the dedifferentiated components.

  12. Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in neurodegenerative, neurovascular and neuroinflammatory disease. (United States)

    Simon, Matthew J; Iliff, Jeffrey J


    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation and turnover provides a sink for the elimination of solutes from the brain interstitium, serving an important homeostatic role for the function of the central nervous system. Disruption of normal CSF circulation and turnover is believed to contribute to the development of many diseases, including neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, ischemic and traumatic brain injury, and neuroinflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Recent insights into CSF biology suggesting that CSF and interstitial fluid exchange along a brain-wide network of perivascular spaces termed the 'glymphatic' system suggest that CSF circulation may interact intimately with glial and vascular function to regulate basic aspects of brain function. Dysfunction within this glial vascular network, which is a feature of the aging and injured brain, is a potentially critical link between brain injury, neuroinflammation and the development of chronic neurodegeneration. Ongoing research within this field may provide a powerful new framework for understanding the common links between neurodegenerative, neurovascular and neuroinflammatory disease, in addition to providing potentially novel therapeutic targets for these conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuro Inflammation edited by Helga E. de Vries and Markus Schwaninger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CSF Hypocretin-1 Levels and Clinical Profiles in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic CNS Hypersomnia in Norway (United States)

    Heier, Mona Skard; Evsiukova, Tatiana; Vilming, Steinar; Gjerstad, Michaela D.; Schrader, Harald; Gautvik, Kaare


    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between CSF hypocretin-1 levels and clinical profiles in narcolepsy and CNS hypersomnia in Norwegian patients. Method: CSF hypocretin-1 was measured by a sensitive radioimmunoassay in 47 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy, 7 with narcolepsy without cataplexy, 10 with idiopathic CNS hypersomnia, and a control group. Results: Low hypocretin-1 values were found in 72% of the HLA DQB1*0602 positive patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy. Patients with low CSF hypocretin-1 levels reported more extensive muscular involvement during cataplectic attacks than patients with normal levels. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis occurred more frequently in patients with cataplexy than in the other patient groups, but with no correlation to hypocretin-1 levels. Conclusion: About three quarters of the HLA DQB1*0602 positive patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy had low CSF hypocretin-1 values, and appear to form a distinct clinical entity. Narcolepsy without cataplexy could not be distinguished from idiopathic CNS hypersomnia by clinical symptoms or biochemical findings. Citation: Heier MS; Evsiukova T; Vilming S; Gjerstad MD; Schrader H; Gautvik K. CSF hypocretin-1 levels and clinical profiles in narcolepsy and idiopathic CNS hypersomnia in norway. SLEEP 2007;30(8):969-973. PMID:17702265

  14. Promising Metabolite Profiles in the Plasma and CSF of Early Clinical Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stoessel


    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD shows high heterogeneity with regard to the underlying molecular pathogenesis involving multiple pathways and mechanisms. Diagnosis is still challenging and rests entirely on clinical features. Thus, there is an urgent need for robust diagnostic biofluid markers. Untargeted metabolomics allows establishing low-molecular compound biomarkers in a wide range of complex diseases by the measurement of various molecular classes in biofluids such as blood plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Here, we applied untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine plasma and CSF metabolite profiles. We semiquantitatively determined small-molecule levels (≤1.5 kDa in the plasma and CSF from early PD patients (disease duration 0–4 years; n = 80 and 40, respectively, and sex- and age-matched controls (n = 76 and 38, respectively. We performed statistical analyses utilizing partial least square and random forest analysis with a 70/30 training and testing split approach, leading to the identification of 20 promising plasma and 14 CSF metabolites. These metabolites differentiated the test set with an AUC of 0.8 (plasma and 0.9 (CSF. Characteristics of the metabolites indicate perturbations in the glycerophospholipid, sphingolipid, and amino acid metabolism in PD, which underscores the high power of metabolomic approaches. Further studies will enable to develop a potential metabolite-based biomarker panel specific for PD.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice MOMPEYSSIN


    Full Text Available In all countries around the world, the duties of the soldier are codified in detail, but in very different ways, according to the various histories, and cultural backgrounds of the respective Nations. As this soldier has the right to legally use a powerful lethal force, a lot is required from him, which is normal. He is now most often a professional. He has mainly to master perfectly his weapons, to respect the Law of Armed Conflicts and to apply the principle of humanity. But his leaders have to guide him and his Nation to understand and support him.

  16. Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 and 3 (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-2-0165 TITLE: “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 & 3”.” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...27Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0165 “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2...Virginia Tech – Wake Forest University, Center for Injury Biomechanics and the U.S. Army entitled “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury

  17. M-CSF improves protection against bacterial and fungal infections after hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell transplantation (United States)

    Sarrazin, Sandrine; Redelberger, David


    Myeloablative treatment preceding hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and progenitor cell (HS/PC) transplantation results in severe myeloid cytopenia and susceptibility to infections in the lag period before hematopoietic recovery. We have previously shown that macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1; M-CSF) directly instructed myeloid commitment in HSCs. In this study, we tested whether this effect had therapeutic benefit in improving protection against pathogens after HS/PC transplantation. M-CSF treatment resulted in an increased production of mature myeloid donor cells and an increased survival of recipient mice infected with lethal doses of clinically relevant opportunistic pathogens, namely the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. M-CSF treatment during engraftment or after infection efficiently protected from these pathogens as early as 3 days after transplantation and was effective as a single dose. It was more efficient than granulocyte CSF (G-CSF), a common treatment of severe neutropenia, which showed no protective effect under the tested conditions. M-CSF treatment showed no adverse effect on long-term lineage contribution or stem cell activity and, unlike G-CSF, did not impede recovery of HS/PCs, thrombocyte numbers, or glucose metabolism. These results encourage potential clinical applications of M-CSF to prevent severe infections after HS/PC transplantation. PMID:27811055

  18. High diagnostic value of second generation CSF RT-QuIC across the wide spectrum of CJD prions. (United States)

    Franceschini, Alessia; Baiardi, Simone; Hughson, Andrew G; McKenzie, Neil; Moda, Fabio; Rossi, Marcello; Capellari, Sabina; Green, Alison; Giaccone, Giorgio; Caughey, Byron; Parchi, Piero


    An early and accurate in vivo diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia remains challenging, despite its critical importance for the outcome of treatable forms, and the formulation of prognosis. Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) is an in vitro assay that, for the first time, specifically discriminates patients with prion disease. Here, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 239 patients with definite or probable prion disease and 100 patients with a definite alternative diagnosis, we compared the performance of the first (PQ-CSF) and second generation (IQ-CSF) RT-QuIC assays, and investigated the diagnostic value of IQ-CSF across the broad spectrum of human prions. Our results confirm the high sensitivity of IQ-CSF for detecting human prions with a sub-optimal sensitivity for the sporadic CJD subtypes MM2C and MM2T, and a low sensitivity limited to variant CJD, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. While we found no difference in specificity between PQ-CSF and IQ-CSF, the latter showed a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing prion detection in about 80% of PQ-CSF negative CJD samples. Our results strongly support the implementation of IQ-CSF in clinical practice. By rapidly confirming or excluding CJD with high accuracy the assay is expected to improve the outcome for patients and their enrollment in therapeutic trials.

  19. Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, College of Science and Health (United States); Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)


    PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

  20. Interpretation and value of MR CSF flow studies for paediatric neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samukelisiwe Sithembile Mbonane


    Full Text Available Imaging techniques may be underutilised when clinicians are unaware of the technique or do not recognise its potential. Phase-contrast MR imaging (PC-MRI is a rapid, simple and non-invasive technique that is sensitive to CSF flow. It demonstrates a mechanical coupling between cerebral blood and CSF flow throughout the cardiac cycle. Neurosurgeons should be able to request this procedure routinely as part of an MRI request. This paper gives an overview of the indications, technical requirements, technique and interpretation, using image examples. Indications for CSF flow studies include assessment and functionality of shunt treatment in patients with hydrocephalus; hydrocephalus associated with achondroplasia; Chiari I malformation; confirmation of aqueductal stenosis; and determining patency of a third ventriculostomy.