WorldWideScience

Sample records for solder meniscus rise

  1. Inertial rise of a meniscus on a vertical cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    O’ Kiely, Doireann; Whiteley, Jonathan P.; Oliver, James M.; Vella, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    © © 2015 Cambridge University PressA. We consider the inertia-dominated rise of a meniscus around a vertical circular cylinder. Previous experiments and scaling analysis suggest that the height of the meniscus, h-{m}, grows with the time following

  2. Thermodynamics of Capillary Rise: Why Is the Meniscus Curved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Ulf; Eriksson, Jan Christer

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamics of capillary rise is explained as the gravitational elevation of the whole column of liquid caused by the positive connection between the liquid, and the solid wall of the capillary tube. The curvature of the meniscus is ascribed to the maintenance of a physiochemical balance throughout the gravitational column of liquid.

  3. Inertial rise of a meniscus on a vertical cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    O’Kiely, Doireann

    2015-03-03

    © © 2015 Cambridge University PressA. We consider the inertia-dominated rise of a meniscus around a vertical circular cylinder. Previous experiments and scaling analysis suggest that the height of the meniscus, h-{m}, grows with the time following the initiation of rise, t, like h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2}. This is in contrast to the rise on a vertical plate, which obeys the classic capillary-inertia scaling h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. We highlight a subtlety in the scaling analysis that yielded h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2} and investigate the consequences of this subtlety. We develop a potential flow model of the dynamic problem, which we solve using the finite element method. Our numerical results agree well with previous experiments but suggest that the correct early time behaviour is, in fact, h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. Furthermore, we show that at intermediate times the dynamic rise of the meniscus is governed by two parameters: the contact angle and the cylinder radius measured relative to the capillary length scale, t^{2/3}. This result allows us to collapse previous experimental results with different cylinder radii (but similar static contact angles) onto a single master curve.

  4. Modeling meniscus rise in capillary tubes using fluid in rigid-body motion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Mohammad O.; Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a new term representing net flux rate of linear momentum is introduced to Lucas-Washburn equation. Following a fluid in rigid-body motion in modeling the meniscus rise in vertical capillary tubes transforms the nonlinear Lucas-Washburn equation to a linear mass-spring-damper system. The linear nature of mass-spring-damper system with constant coefficients offers a nondimensional analytical solution where meniscus dynamics are dictated by two parameters, namely the system damping ratio and its natural frequency. This connects the numerous fluid-surface interaction physical and geometrical properties to rather two nondimensional parameters, which capture the underlying physics of meniscus dynamics in three distinct cases, namely overdamped, critically damped, and underdamped systems. Based on experimental data available in the literature and the understanding meniscus dynamics, the proposed model brings a new approach of understanding the system initial conditions. Accordingly, a closed form relation is produced for the imbibition velocity, which equals half of the Bosanquet velocity divided by the damping ratio. The proposed general analytical model is ideal for overdamped and critically damped systems. While for underdamped systems, the solution shows fair agreement with experimental measurements once the effective viscosity is determined. Moreover, the presented model shows meniscus oscillations around equilibrium height occur if the damping ratio is less than one.

  5. Spontaneous soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percacci, R.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that the soldering form of general relativity be treated as a dynamical variable. This gives rise to the possibility of treating the linear connection on (n-dimensional) spacetime and an internal O(k)-Yang-Mills field as different components of the same O(N) gauge field (N= n+k). The distinction between gravitational and Yang-Mills interactions is due to a kind of Higgs mechanism driven by the vacuum expectation value of the soldering form. (orig.)

  6. Soldering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vianco, Paul T

    1999-01-01

    Contains information related to soldering processes, and solder joint performance and reliability. Covers soldering fundamentals, technology, materials, substrate materials, fluxes, pastes, assembly processes, inspection, and environment. Covers today's advanced joining applications and emphasizes new materials, including higher strength alloys; predictive performance; computer modeling; advanced inspection techniques; new processing concepts, including laser heating; and the resurgence in ultrasonic soldering.

  7. Meniscus Tears (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Meniscus Tears KidsHealth / For Teens / Meniscus Tears What's in this ... surgery to fix it. What Is a Meniscus Tear? Your knee is made up of three bones: ...

  8. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  9. The meniscus ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1982-01-01

    Normal dimensions of the meniscus quoted in the literature vary somewhat; measurements were therefore carried out on the height and width on standardised arthrograms. This made it possible to evaluate changes in the height of the meniscus objectively and to diagnose degeneration with a ganglion at an earlier stage. Taking into account other, secondary, signs, 261 meniscus ganglia were diagnosed amongst 3133 meniscus lesions (8.3%) in the course of 5650 knee arthrograms. These were confirmed at operation and histologically. For the first time it has been possible to provide an estimate of the frequency of meniscus ganglion in the radiological literature. (orig.) [de

  10. SMT soldering handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strauss, Rudolf

    1998-01-01

    ... 3.2.1 Constituents, melting behaviour and mechanical properties 3.2.2 Composition of solders for use in electronics 3.2.3 Lead-free solders 3.2.4 Solder impurities The soldered joint 3.3.1 Solde...

  11. Meniscus tear surgery and meniscus replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Javier; Forriol, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective the menisci are easily injured and difficult to repair. The aim of this study was to analyze the current state of meniscal surgery aimed at preserving morphology and conserving the biomechanics of the knee to prevent joint degeneration. Methodology a search of the electronic medical literature database Medline was conducted, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. The search was not limited by language. Candidate articles were identified by searching for those that included the keywords meniscus, surgery, suture, implant, allograft. The limits were included for clinical research and clinical trials. Basic research was not included. The studies selected were evaluated and classified in three different categories: basic science, reconstruction (suture and meniscectomy) and implants (scaffolds and allograft). Results the consequences of meniscectomy performed at a young age can lead to a joint cartilage degeneration twenty years later. There are few surgical options for the repair of meniscal injuries in order both to preserve the meniscus and to ensure the long term survival of the knee joint, meniscectomy, repair, suturing the tear, or reconstruction, when a meniscal allograft or synthetic substitute is used to replace the meniscus, but the biomechanical properties of the native meniscus are not reproduced entirely by the scaffolds that exist today. Conclusion therapies that successfully repair or replace the meniscus are therefore likely to prevent or delay osteoarthritis progression. PMID:27331034

  12. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  13. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  14. Photothermal effects of laser tissue soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, K.M.; Sorg, B.S.; Welch, A.J.; Dawes, J.M.; Owen, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Low-strength anastomoses and thermal damage of tissue are major concerns in laser tissue welding techniques where laser energy is used to induce thermal changes in the molecular structure of the tissues being joined, hence allowing them to bond together. Laser tissue soldering, on the other hand, is a bonding technique in which a protein solder is applied to the tissue surfaces to be joined, and laser energy is used to bond the solder to the tissue surfaces. The addition of protein solders to augment tissue repair procedures significantly reduces the problems of low strength and thermal damage associated with laser tissue welding techniques. Investigations were conducted to determine optimal solder and laser parameters for tissue repair in terms of tensile strength, temperature rise and damage and the microscopic nature of the bonds formed. An in vitro study was performed using an 808 nm diode laser in conjunction with indocyanine green (ICG)-doped albumin protein solders to repair bovine aorta specimens. Liquid and solid protein solders prepared from 25% and 60% bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively, were compared. The efficacy of temperature feedback control in enhancing the soldering process was also investigated. Increasing the BSA concentration from 25% to 60% greatly increased the tensile strength of the repairs. A reduction in dye concentration from 2.5mgml -1 to 0.25mgml -1 was also found to result in an increase in tensile strength. Increasing the laser irradiance and thus surface temperature resulted in an increased severity of histological injury. Thermal denaturation of tissue collagen and necrosis of the intimal layer smooth muscle cells increased laterally and in depth with higher temperatures. The strongest repairs were produced with an irradiance of 6.4Wcm -2 using a solid protein solder composed of 60% BSA and 0.25mgml -1 ICG. Using this combination of laser and solder parameters, surface temperatures were observed to reach 85±5 deg. C with a

  15. Optimal parameters for laser tissue soldering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chan, Eric K.; Welch, Ashley J.; Dawes, Judith M.; Owen, Earl R.

    1998-07-01

    Variations in laser irradiance, exposure time, solder composition, chromophore type and concentration have led to inconsistencies in published results of laser-solder repair of tissue. To determine optimal parameters for laser tissue soldering, an in vitro study was performed using an 808-nm diode laser in conjunction with an indocyanine green (ICG)- doped albumin protein solder to weld bovine aorta specimens. Liquid and solid protein solders prepared from 25% and 60% bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively, were compared. The effects of laser irradiance and exposure time on tensile strength of the weld and temperature rise as well as the effect of hydration on bond stability were investigated. Optimum irradiance and exposure times were identified for each solder type. Increasing the BSA concentration from 25% to 60% greatly increased the tensile strength of the weld. A reduction in dye concentration from 2.5 mg/ml to 0.25 mg/ml was also found to result in an increase in tensile strength. The strongest welds were produced with an irradiance of 6.4 W/cm2 for 50 s using a solid protein solder composed of 60% BSA and 0.25 mg/ml ICG. Steady-state solder surface temperatures were observed to reach 85 plus or minus 5 degrees Celsius with a temperature gradient across the solid protein solder strips of between 15 and 20 degrees Celsius. Finally, tensile strength was observed to decrease significantly (20 to 25%) after the first hour of hydration in phosphate-buffered saline. No appreciable change was observed in the strength of the tissue bonds with further hydration.

  16. Mechanobiology of the Meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Amy L.; Guilak, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus plays a critical biomechanical role in the knee, providing load support, joint stability, and congruity. Importantly, growing evidence indicates that the mechanobiologic response of meniscal cells plays a critical role in the physiologic, pathologic, and repair responses of the meniscus. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies that have begun to directly measure the biomechanical effects of joint loading on the meniscus under physiologic and pathologic conditions, showing that the menisci are exposed to high contact stresses, resulting in a complex and nonuniform stress-strain environment within the tissue. By combining microscale measurements of the mechanical properties of meniscal cells and their pericellular and extracellular matrix regions, theoretical and experimental models indicate that the cells in the meniscus are exposed to a complex and inhomogeneous environment of stress, strain, fluid pressure, fluid flow, and a variety of physicochemical factors. Studies across a range of culture systems from isolated cells to tissues have revealed that the biological response of meniscal cells is directly influenced by physical factors, such as tension, compression, and hydrostatic pressure. In addition, these studies have provided new insights into the mechanotransduction mechanisms by which physical signals are converted into metabolic or pro/anti-inflammatory responses. Taken together, these in vivo and in vitro studies show that mechanical factors play an important role in the health, degeneration, and regeneration of the meniscus. A more thorough understanding of the mechanobiologic responses of the meniscus will hopefully lead to therapeutic approaches to prevent degeneration and enhance repair of the meniscus. PMID:25731738

  17. Smectic meniscus and dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geminard, J.C.; Oswald, P.; Holyst, R.

    1998-01-01

    In ordinary liquids the size of a meniscus and its shape is set by a competition between surface tension and gravity. The thermodynamical process of its creation can be reversible. On the contrary, in smectic liquid crystals the formation of the meniscus is always an irreversible thermodynamic process since it involves the creation of dislocations (therefore it involves friction). Also the meniscus is usually small in experiments with smectics in comparison to the capillary length and therefore the gravity does not play any role in determining the meniscus shape. Here we discuss the relation between dislocations and meniscus in smectics. The theoretical predictions are supported by a recent experiment performed on freely suspended films of smectic liquid crystals. In this experiment the measurement of the meniscus radius of curvature gives the pressure difference, Δp, according to the Laplace law. From the measurements of the growth dynamics of a dislocation loop (governed by Δp) we find the line tension (∼8 x 10 -8 dyn) and the mobility of an elementary edge dislocation (∼4 x 10 - 7 cm 2 s/g). (author)

  18. Ipsilateral Medial and Lateral Discoid Meniscus with Medial Meniscus Tear

    OpenAIRE

    Shimozaki, Kengo; Nakase, Junsuke; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Discoid meniscus is a well-documented knee pathology, and there are many cases of medial or lateral discoid meniscus reported in the literature. However, ipsilateral concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus. Case Report: A 27-year-old Japanese man complained of pain on medial joint space in his right knee that was diagnosed as a complete medial ...

  19. Prevalence of Discoid Meniscus During Arthroscopy for Isolated Lateral Meniscal Pathology in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Henry B; Wise, Kelsey; LaMont, Lauren; Copley, Lawson; Wilson, Philip

    2017-06-01

    Meniscus tears in the young patient are becoming more prevalent. Knowledge of presenting characteristics and morphology can affect treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to review and evaluate all the isolated lateral meniscus pathology that required arthroscopic treatment in a pediatric sports medicine practice and compare presenting characteristics between those with a discoid meniscus and those with normal meniscal morphology. We performed a retrospective review of all isolated lateral meniscus arthroscopic procedures from 2003 to 2012 in a high-volume pediatric sports practice. Presentation, radiographs, and intraoperative findings were reviewed. The prevalence and clinical findings of a discoid meniscus in this population and among all age groups were compared with those with a meniscus tear occurring in a normal meniscus. Two hundred and sixty-one arthroscopies were performed for symptomatic isolated lateral menisci pathology. Of these, 75% were discoid in nature; the remainder was tears occurring in normal menisci. Ninety-six of 99 patients (97%) with lateral meniscus pathology under the age of 13 had a discoid meniscus and 66% presented with no injury. There was a transition within the population at 14 years of age, with a rise in the incidence of normal meniscal body tears. Even after this transition point, meniscal pathology incidence remained notable; 59% of isolated lateral meniscus pathology in patients between the ages of 14 and 16 years old were a discoid meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging criteria for discoid meniscus (3 consecutive sagittal cuts or coronal mid-compartment measure) were unreliable after the age of 13 years old. The ratio of complete to incomplete discoids in all age groups was 4 to 3. In conclusion, discoid menisci have a high prevalence in isolated lateral meniscus pathology requiring knee arthroscopy. Clinical presentation, imaging, characteristics, and treatment may be different among different age groups. In the

  20. Characteristics of meniscus progenitor cells migrated from injured meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Dongrim; Zhou, Cheng; Brouillette, Marc J; Song, Ino; Yu, Yin; Choe, Hyeong Hun; Lehman, Abigail D; Jang, Kee W; Fredericks, Douglas C; Laughlin, Barbara J; Martin, James A

    2017-09-01

    Serious meniscus injuries seldom heal and increase the risk for knee osteoarthritis; thus, there is a need to develop new reparative therapies. In that regard, stimulating tissue regeneration by autologous stem/progenitor cells has emerged as a promising new strategy. We showed previously that migratory chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) were recruited to injured cartilage, where they showed a capability in situ tissue repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the meniscus contains a similar population of regenerative cells. Explant studies revealed that migrating cells were mainly confined to the red zone in normal menisci: However, these cells were capable of repopulating defects made in the white zone. In vivo, migrating cell numbers increased dramatically in damaged meniscus. Relative to non-migrating meniscus cells, migrating cells were more clonogenic, overexpressed progenitor cell markers, and included a larger side population. Gene expression profiling showed that the migrating population was more similar to CPCs than other meniscus cells. Finally, migrating cells equaled CPCs in chondrogenic potential, indicating a capacity for repair of the cartilaginous white zone of the meniscus. These findings demonstrate that, much as in articular cartilage, injuries to the meniscus mobilize an intrinsic progenitor cell population with strong reparative potential. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1966-1972, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Jurin's law revisited: Exact meniscus shape and column height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sai; Li, Shanpeng; Liu, Jianlin

    2018-03-30

    Capillary rise of a liquid column is a historical problem, which has normally been formulated by Jurin's law. In the present study, we investigate the exact solutions of the column height, considering the real shape of the meniscus according to the Young-Laplace equation. The analytical solution in the planar model and the numerical solution in the axisymmetric model on the meniscus shape are both given, which are compared with the results from Jurin's law, modified Jurin's law and Surface Evolver simulation. The results quantitatively show that when the distance between the two plates or the diameter of the tube becomes bigger, Jurin's law and modified Jurin's law would cause serious errors, and the profile morphology of the meniscus must be calculated according to the Young-Laplace equation. These findings are beneficial for us to better understand the mechanism of capillarity and wetting, which are promising for such areas as oil displacement, ore floatation, building materials, fabrics, etc.

  2. MRI of discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yutaka; Ootani, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Tadatsuka; Tomoda, Kaname; Tsukaguchi, Isao; Mitomo, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the MR examinations of 10 patients (17 knees) with surgically documented discoid lateral meniscus of the knee joint. As MRI of the knee is being used more often, the criteria for diagnosis of this entity with MRI need to be established. We tried to define MRI criteria for the detection of discoid menisci by performing numerical measurements of MR images on a display screen. The transverse diameter of the midbody of a discoid lateral meniscus averaged 21.9 mm (normal control: 8.6 mm), and its proportion to the transverse width of the tibia averaged 29.4% (normal control: 12.0%). The measurable difference in height between the discoid and the medial meniscus was negligible. The number of sagittal sections on which the anterior and posterior horns connected varied from two to five in cases of discoid lateral meniscus, and from zero to two in normal controls. Among these parameters, the transverse diameter and its proportion of the transverse width of the tibia proved to be the most reliable. We concluded that a discoid meniscus is indicated if a transverse diameter of a lateral meniscus exceeds 15 mm (proportion to the tibia: 20%). (author)

  3. Soldering of Nanotubes onto Microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Mølhave, Kristian; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2003-01-01

    Suspended bridges of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes were fabricated inside a scanning electron microscope by soldering the nanotube onto microelectrodes with highly conducting gold-carbon material. By the decomposition of organometallic vapor with the electron beam, metal-containing sold...... bonds were consistently found to be mechanically stronger than the carbon nanotubes.......Suspended bridges of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes were fabricated inside a scanning electron microscope by soldering the nanotube onto microelectrodes with highly conducting gold-carbon material. By the decomposition of organometallic vapor with the electron beam, metal-containing solder...... bonds were formed at the intersection of the nanotube and the electrodes. Current-voltage curves indicated metallic conduction of the nanotubes, with resistances in the range of 9-29 kOmega. Bridges made entirely of the soldering material exhibited resistances on the order of 100 Omega, and the solder...

  4. Effect of the meniscus contact angle during early regimes of spontaneous imbibition in nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karna, Nabin Kumar; Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    study, large scale atomistic simulations are conducted to investigate capillary imbibition of water in slit silica nanochannels with heights between 4 and 18 nm. We find that the meniscus contact angle remains constant during the inertial regime and its value depends on the height of the channel. We...... also find that the meniscus velocity computed at the channel entrance is related to the particular value of the meniscus contact angle. Moreover, during the subsequent visco-inertial regime, as the influence of viscosity increases, the meniscus contact angle is found to be time dependent for all...... the channels under study. Furthermore, we propose an expression for the time evolution of the dynamic contact angle in nanochannels which, when incorporated into Bosanquet's equation, satisfactorily explains the initial capillary rise....

  5. Discoid Meniscus Associated With Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoernschemeyer, Daniel G; Atanda, Alfred; Dean-Davis, Ellen; Gupta, Sumit K

    2016-05-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. This form of dwarfism is caused by a point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, leading to inhibition of endochondral ossification for these patients. This results in a normal trunk height but shortened limbs. The discoid meniscus may be an important associated finding to better understand the common complaints of leg pain for these patients. Although the incidence for a discoid meniscus is between 3% and 5% for the general population, it is unknown with achondroplasia. This case series includes 4 patients, with ages ranging from adolescence to early adulthood, with symptoms of knee pain that were not attributable to some of the more common findings seen in this patient population. Typically, patients with achondroplasia who experience knee pain are evaluated for more common and well-known etiologies such as genu varum, ligamentous instability, and neurogenic claudication. However, the authors propose that symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus should be added to the differential diagnosis for lower-extremity pain in the achondroplasia population. A thorough history and physical examination, in combination with magnetic resonance imaging, can aid in making the diagnosis. Treatment with arthroscopic debridement, saucerization of the meniscus, and repair for unstable injuries has yielded good outcomes for this patient population. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e498-e503.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. On the problem of soldering refractory metals with silver-containing solders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, E.F.; Andryushchenko, V.I.; Chepelenko, V.N.; Batov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The processes of wetting, spreading and interphase interactions of copper-silver liquid alloys alloyed with Ni and Si, with niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, 12Kh18N10T steel and nickel are studied. It has been determined that Ni or Si additions into the copper-silver solder improve the wetting and adhesion. When soldering with the alloy containing Ni additions, the strength of a soldered Joint grows with the increase of soldering duration while soldering with the alloy containing Si additions, the strength decreases. That is why Ni-containing solders are preferable for soldering thick-walled structures, and Si-containing solders - for thin-walled structures [ru

  7. Building an Anisotropic Meniscus with Zonal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashioka, Michael M.; Chen, Justin A.; Hu, Jerry C.

    2014-01-01

    Toward addressing the difficult problems of knee meniscus regeneration, a self-assembling process has been used to re-create the native morphology and matrix properties. A significant problem in such attempts is the recapitulation of the distinct zones of the meniscus, the inner, more cartilaginous and the outer, more fibrocartilaginous zones. In this study, an anisotropic and zonally variant meniscus was produced by self-assembly of the inner meniscus (100% chondrocytes) followed by cell seeding the outer meniscus (coculture of chondrocytes and meniscus cells). After 4 weeks in culture, the engineered, inner meniscus exhibited a 42% increase in both instantaneous and relaxation moduli and a 62% increase in GAG/DW, as compared to the outer meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential tensile modulus and collagen/DW of the outer zone was 101% and 129% higher, respectively, than the values measured for the inner zone. Furthermore, there was no difference in the radial tensile modulus between the control and zonal engineered menisci, suggesting that the inner and outer zones of the engineered zonal menisci successfully integrated. These data demonstrate that not only can biomechanical and biochemical properties be engineered to differ by the zone, but they can also recapitulate the anisotropic behavior of the knee meniscus. PMID:23931258

  8. Solder joint technology materials, properties, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, King-Ning

    2007-01-01

    Solder joints are ubiquitous in electronic consumer products. The European Union has a directive to ban the use of Pb-based solders in these products on July 1st, 2006. There is an urgent need for an increase in the research and development of Pb-free solders in electronic manufacturing. For example, spontaneous Sn whisker growth and electromigration induced failure in solder joints are serious issues. These reliability issues are quite complicated due to the combined effect of electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal forces on solder joints. To improve solder joint reliability, the science of solder joint behavior under various driving forces must be understood. In this book, the advanced materials reliability issues related to copper-tin reaction and electromigration in solder joints are emphasized and methods to prevent these reliability problems are discussed.

  9. Handbook of machine soldering SMT and TH

    CERN Document Server

    Woodgate, Ralph W

    1996-01-01

    A shop-floor guide to the machine soldering of electronics Sound electrical connections are the operational backbone of every piece of electronic equipment-and the key to success in electronics manufacturing. The Handbook of Machine Soldering is dedicated to excellence in the machine soldering of electrical connections. Self-contained, comprehensive, and down-to-earth, it cuts through jargon, peels away outdated notions, and presents all the information needed to select, install, and operate machine soldering equipment. This fully updated and revised volume covers all of the new technologies and processes that have emerged in recent years, most notably the use of surface mount technology (SMT). Supplemented with 200 illustrations, this thoroughly accessible text Describes reflow and wave soldering in detail, including reflow soldering of SMT boards and the use of nitrogen blankets * Explains the setup, operation, and maintenance of a variety of soldering machines * Discusses theory, selection, and control met...

  10. Discoid meniscus of the knee: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Moon; Kang, Heung Sik; Ahn, Joong Mo; Seong, Sang Cheol

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of the discoid meniscus, the authors reviewed 31 cases of discoid menisci diagnosed by MR imaging among which 16 cases received arthroscopy. Using knee surface coil, sagittal T1, T2 and proton density images and coronal T1 weighted images were obtained with 18 cm FOV and 4 mm/ 1 mm thickness/gap. A discoid meniscus was considered if three or more contiguous sagittal images demonstrated continuity of the meniscus between the anterior and posterior horns or the diameter of the mid-portion of the meniscus exceeded 15 mm on the coronal image. The authors also observed the associated abnormalities including tears of meniscus and ligament, meniscal cyst, and osteochondral defects. All discoid menisci were lateral menisci and torn discoid lateral menisci were present in 26 cases (83%). In two cases, tears of the contralateral medial meniscus were present. The tears of anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, meniscal cyst, and osteochondral defects were present in 4, 2, 4, and 5 cases respectively. All collateral ligaments were intact. In conclusion MR imaging was useful for the detection of discoid meniscus and associated abnormalities

  11. Meniscus Shapes in Detached Bridgman Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K

    2010-01-01

    In detached Bridgman crystal growth, most of the melt is in contact with the ampoule wall, but the crystal is separated from the wall by a small gap, typically 1-100 micrometers. A liquid free surface, or meniscus, bridges across this gap at the position of the melt-crystal interface. Meniscus shapes have been calculated for the case of detached Bridgman growth in cylindrical ampoules by solving the Young-Laplace equation. Key parameters affecting meniscus shapes are the growth angle, contact angle of the meniscus to the ampoule wall, the pressure differential across the meniscus, and the Bond number, a measure of the ratio of gravitational to capillary forces. In general, for specified values of growth and contact angles, solutions exist only over a finite range of pressure differentials. For intermediate values of the Bond number, there are multiple solutions to the Young-Laplace equations. There are also cases where, as a function of pressure differential, existence intervals alternate with intervals where no solutions exist. The implications of the meniscus shape calculations on meniscus stability are discussed.

  12. Effect of the meniscus contact angle during early regimes of spontaneous imbibition in nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Nabin Kumar; Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens H; Zambrano, Harvey A

    2016-11-30

    Nanoscale capillarity has been extensively investigated; nevertheless, many fundamental questions remain open. In spontaneous imbibition, the classical Lucas-Washburn equation predicts a singularity as the fluid enters the channel consisting of an anomalous infinite velocity of the capillary meniscus. Bosanquet's equation overcomes this problem by taking into account fluid inertia predicting an initial imbibition regime with constant velocity. Nevertheless, the initial constant velocity as predicted by Bosanquet's equation is much greater than those observed experimentally. In the present study, large scale atomistic simulations are conducted to investigate capillary imbibition of water in slit silica nanochannels with heights between 4 and 18 nm. We find that the meniscus contact angle remains constant during the inertial regime and its value depends on the height of the channel. We also find that the meniscus velocity computed at the channel entrance is related to the particular value of the meniscus contact angle. Moreover, during the subsequent visco-inertial regime, as the influence of viscosity increases, the meniscus contact angle is found to be time dependent for all the channels under study. Furthermore, we propose an expression for the time evolution of the dynamic contact angle in nanochannels which, when incorporated into Bosanquet's equation, satisfactorily explains the initial capillary rise.

  13. A physical model of the evaporating meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzamoghadam, A.; Catton, I.

    1985-01-01

    Transport phenomena associated with the heating of a saturated stationary fluid near saturation by an inclined, partially submerged copper plate was studied analytically. Under steady state evaporation, the meniscus profile was derived using an appropriate liquid film velocity and temperature distribution in an integral approach. The solution was then back-substituted in order to identify regions of influence of various physical phenomena given the fluid properties, wall superheat and plate tilt. The degree of superheat and wall tilt were seen to control instability in the meniscus. This instability, connected to the experimental observation of meniscus oscillation, was credited to contributions by liquid inertia and Marangoni convection

  14. Wall-slip effects in SnAgCu solder pastes used in electronics assembly applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, S.; Ekere, N.N.; Durairaj, R.; Marks, A.E.; Seman, A.

    2009-01-01

    Solder paste is the most important strategic bonding material used in the assembly of surface mount components in electronics manufacturing. As the trend towards miniaturisation of electronic products continues, there is an increasing demand for better understanding of the flow and deformation that is, the rheological behaviour of solder paste formulations. Wall slip plays an important role in characterising the flow behaviour of solder paste materials. The problem of wall slip arises due to the various attractive and repulsive forces acting between the solder particles and the walls of the measuring geometry. These interactions could lead to the presence of a thin solvent layer adjacent to the wall, which gives rise to slippage. In rheological measurements, slip effects can generally be avoided by using roughened surfaces for measuring geometries. In this paper, a novel technique is developed to study the effect of wall slip in the rheological measurements of lead-free solder paste. The viscosity and oscillatory data obtained for three different solder paste samples (from measuring geometries of different surface roughness) have been analysed and compared. In viscosity measurements, slip effects were dominant at low shear rates and the use of serrated surfaces was found to be quite effective in minimizing slip effects. Oscillatory measurements were also affected by roughening the surfaces of measuring geometries.

  15. Spectroscopic investigation of oxidized solder surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jenn-Ming; Chang-Chien, Yu-Chien; Huang, Bo-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ting; Shie, Chi-Rung; Hsu, Chuang-Yao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → UV-visible spectroscopy is successfully used to evaluate the degree of discoloring of solders. → The surface oxides of solders can also be identified by UV-visible absorption spectra. → The discoloration of solder surface can be correlated with optical characterization of oxides. → A strategy against discoloring by alloying was also suggested. - Abstract: For further understanding of the discoloration of solder surfaces due to oxidation during the assembly and operation of electronic devices, UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses were applied to evaluate the degree of discoloring and identify the surface oxides. The decrease in reflectance of the oxidized solder surface is related to SnO whose absorption band is located within the visible region. A trace of P can effectively depress the discoloration of solders under both solid and semi-solid states through the suppression of SnO.

  16. Soldering of Mg Joints Using Zn-Al Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Berent, Katarzyna; Skuza, Wojciech; Janik, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium has applications in the automotive and aerospace industries that can significantly contribute to greater fuel economy and environmental conservation. The Mg alloys used in the automotive industry could reduce mass by up to 70 pct, providing energy savings. However, alongside the advantages there are limitations and technological barriers to use Mg alloys. One of the advantages concerns phenomena occurring at the interface when joining materials investigated in this study, in regard to the effect of temperature and soldering time for pure Mg joints. Eutectic Zn-Al and Zn-Al alloys with 0.05 (wt pct) Li and 0.2 (wt pct) Na were used in the soldering process. The process was performed for 3, 5, and 8 minutes of contact, at temperatures of 425 °C, 450 °C, 475 °C, and 500 °C. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned, and their interfacial microstructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of time, temperature, and the addition of Li and Na on the kinetics of the dissolving Mg substrate. The addition of Li and Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused to improve mechanical properties. Higher temperatures led to reduced joint strength, which is caused by increased interfacial reaction.

  17. Optical spectroscopic determination of human meniscus composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Myllymäki, Juho; Honkanen, Juuso T J; Töyräs, Juha; Afara, Isaac O

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the correlation between the composition of human meniscus and its absorption spectrum in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectral range. Meniscus samples (n = 24) were obtained from nonarthritic knees of human cadavers with no history of joint diseases. Specimens (n = 72) were obtained from three distinct sections of the meniscus, namely; anterior, center, posterior. Absorption spectra were acquired from each specimen in the VIS and NIR spectral range (400-1,100 nm). Following spectroscopic probing, the specimens were subjected to biochemical analyses to determine the matrix composition, that is water, hydroxyproline, and uronic acid contents. Multivariate analytical techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression, were then used to investigate the correlation between the matrix composition and it spectral response. Our results indicate that the optical absorption of meniscus matrix is related to its composition, and this relationship is optimal in the NIR spectral range (750-1,100 nm). High correlations (R(2) (uronic)  = 86.9%, R(2) (water)  = 83.8%, R(2) (hydroxyproline)  = 81.7%, p meniscus composition, thus suggesting that spectral data in the NIR range can be utilized for estimating the matrix composition of human meniscus. In conclusion, optical spectroscopy, particularly in the NIR spectral range, is a potential method for evaluating the composition of human meniscus. This presents a promising technique for rapid and nondestructive evaluation of meniscus integrity in real-time during arthroscopic surgery. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Lead free solder mechanics and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, John Hock Lye

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free solders are used extensively as interconnection materials in electronic assemblies and play a critical role in the global semiconductor packaging and electronics manufacturing industry. Electronic products such as smart phones, notebooks and high performance computers rely on lead-free solder joints to connect IC chip components to printed circuit boards. Lead Free Solder: Mechanics and Reliability provides in-depth design knowledge on lead-free solder elastic-plastic-creep and strain-rate dependent deformation behavior and its application in failure assessment of solder joint reliability. It includes coverage of advanced mechanics of materials theory and experiments, mechanical properties of solder and solder joint specimens, constitutive models for solder deformation behavior; numerical modeling and simulation of solder joint failure subject to thermal cycling, mechanical bending fatigue, vibration fatigue and board-level drop impact tests. This book also: Discusses the mechanical prope...

  19. Nano-soldering to single atomic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girit, Caglar O [Berkeley, CA; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, CA

    2011-10-11

    A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

  20. Safer Soldering Guidelines and Instructional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Tomlinson, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Soldering is a useful and necessary process for many classroom, makerspace, Fab Lab, technology and engineering lab, and science lab activities. As described in this article, soldering can pose many safety risks without proper engineering controls, standard operating procedures, and direct instructor supervision. There are many safety hazards…

  1. Meniscus Stability in Rotating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Yvonne; Dreyer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the stability of free surfaces of fluid between two rotating coaxial, circular disks is examined. Radially mounted baffles are used to form menisci of equal size. To the center of the upper disk, a tube is connected in which a separate meniscus is formed. Assuming solid-body rotation and ignoring dynamic effects, it is observed that the free surfaces between the disks fail to remain stable once the rotation speed exceeds a critical value. In other words, Rayleigh-Taylor instability ensues when the capillary forces fail to balance centrifugal forces. Dimensionless critical rotation speeds are studied by means of the Surface Evolver via SE-FIT for varied number of baffles, the normalized distance between the disks, and the normalized central tube radius. Drop tower tests are performed to confirm some of the numerical results. The computation also reveals that there are different modes of instability as a function of the relevant parameters. This study was funded by the space agency of the German Aerospace Center with resources of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology on the basis of a resolution of the German Bundestag under grant number 50 RL 1320.

  2. Features of soldering of molybdenum a lols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.L.; Rybkin, B.V.; Cherkasov, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Soldering features of complex-alloy molybdenum alloys were investigated in comparison with alloys based on solid solutions. Soldering features of heterogeneous molybdenum base alloys were investigated using samples of 0.5-1.O mm sheets with the strain of about 95% made of ingots which had been smelted in arc vacuum furnaces. The soldering of samples was carried out in 5x1O -5 mm Hg vacuum using different sources of heating: radiation, electron-ray and contact. It was shown that heat-resisting soldered joints of heterogeneous molybdenum alloys could be produced using zirconium and niobium base solders containing the most effective hardeners of the parent material (titanum, vanadium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten). To preserve high mechanical properties of heterogeneous alloys it was expedient to use for welding local heating sources which permitted to decrease considerably temperature- time conditions of the process

  3. Prosthetic replacement of the medial meniscus in cadaveric knees - Does the prosthesis mimic the functional behavior of the native meniscus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienen, TG; Verdonschot, N; Heijkants, RGJC; Buma, R; Scholten, JGF; van Kampen, A; Veth, RPH

    2004-01-01

    Meniscus replacement by a polymer meniscus prosthesis in dogs resulted in generation of new meniscal tissue. Hypothesis: Optimal functioning of the prosthesis would involve realistic deformation and motion patterns of the prosthesis during knee joint motion. Study Design: Controlled laboratory

  4. Analysis of Multigrid Extraction Plasma Meniscus Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Cavenago, Marco; Sattin, Fabio; Tanga, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Effects of plasma meniscus on the emittance in negative ion source proposed for spallation sources or neutral beam injectors (NBI) for tokamaks are particularly interesting to study with fluid models because: 1) at least three different charged fluid can be recognised: the thermalized and fully magnetized electrons; the slightly magnetized and roughly thermalized positive ions; the negative ions, typically formed within few cm from meniscus; 2) different implementation of the magnetic filter system need to be compared; 3) optimization of electron dump and outlet electrode strongly depends on plasma meniscus contact point. With reasonable assumption on system geometry, 2D and 3D charged fluid quation for the selfconsistent electrostatic field can be written and effect of grid aperture is investigated. Moreover, these equations are easily implemented into a multiphysics general purpose program. Preliminary results are described, and compared to existing codes.

  5. Societal and Economic Effect of Meniscus Scaffold Procedures for Irreparable Meniscus Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Jan J; Govers, Tim M; Buma, Pieter; Grutters, Janneke P C; Hannink, Gerjon

    2016-07-01

    Meniscus scaffolds are currently evaluated clinically for their efficacy in preventing the development of osteoarthritis as well as for their efficacy in treating patients with chronic symptoms. Procedural costs, therapeutic consequences, clinical efficacy, and future events should all be considered to maximize the monetary value of this intervention. To examine the socioeconomic effect of treating patients with irreparable medial meniscus injuries with a meniscus scaffold. Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2. Two Markov simulation models for patients with an irreparable medial meniscus injury were developed. Model 1 was used to investigate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of a meniscus scaffold compared with standard partial meniscectomy by the possibility of preventing the development of osteoarthritis. Model 2 was used to investigate the short-term (5-year) cost-effectiveness of a meniscus scaffold compared with standard partial meniscectomy by alleviating clinical symptoms, specifically in chronic patients with previous meniscus surgery. For both models, probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations were applied. Treatment effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), while costs (estimated in euros) were assessed from a societal perspective. We assumed €20,000 as a reference value for the willingness to pay per QALY. Next, comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the most influential variables on the cost-effectiveness of meniscus scaffolds. Model 1 demonstrated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a meniscus scaffold treatment of €54,463 per QALY (€5991/0.112). A threshold analysis demonstrated that a meniscus scaffold should offer a relative risk reduction of at least 0.34 to become cost-effective, assuming a willingness to pay of €20,000. Decreasing the costs of the meniscus scaffold procedure by 33% (€10,160 instead of €15,233; an absolute change of €5073) resulted in an incremental

  6. Effect of ionic transport and separation on the meniscus in molten carbonate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, P.H.; Chen, C.C.; Selman, J.R. [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Migrational separation due to differences in cationic mobility is commonly observed during current passage in molten carbonate mixtures, and this might be responsible for the improved wetting observed upon polarization, as found experimentally according to the literature. To check this, a 2D transport model based on concentrated-solution theory was applied to analyze the movement of ions in and near the meniscus. The effect of differences in cationic mobility and of ionic transport in general on current distribution, reaction rate, and electrolyte composition in the meniscus region was quantified, and corresponding surface tension gradients over the meniscus surface predicted. The resulting surface tension gradients were found to be too small to account for the experimentally observed meniscus rise. It is, therefore, concluded that the polarization effect on electrode wetting is not due to the gradient of surface tension caused by cationic separation. A plausible alternative explanation is that a gradient of the S/L interfacial tension exists but that this is due to specifically adsorbed intermediate reaction products, in particular oxides. Such a current density dependent adsorption layer would be in dynamic equilibrium with the local melt composition, and, thereby, drive the wetting/dewetting of the electrode surface that is experimentally observed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. The effect of meniscus on the permeability of micro-post arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byon, Chan; Kim, Sung Jin

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of meniscus curvature on the permeability of the micro-post arrays, which are widely used for applications of microfluidics. An analytical model that accounts for the meniscus curvature is developed. The model considers two common array types: quadratic and hexagonal arrays. The permeability of micro-post arrays is estimated using the capillary rate of rise experiment and numerical simulation. The results obtained from the analytical model match the experimental and numerical results within the error of 5% over the range of parameters commonly found in microfluidic applications (0.06 0.2), where d * and H * are the post-diameter and the post-height, respectively, which are normalized by the pitch. Based on the analytic results, the effects of the post-diameter, post-height and the contact angle on the permeability of post-arrays are investigated. It is shown that the previous permeability models based on the flat meniscus assumption overestimate the experimental value by 26% for the quadratic array and 24% for the hexagonal array when cos θ = 1, d * = 0.5 and H *=1. The effect of the meniscus curvature is shown to become more pronounced as the contact angle or the post-height decreases.

  8. Solderability study of RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yifei; Duckworth, Robert C.; Ha, Tam T.; Gouge, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Study examines the implication of solder and flux selection in YBCO splice joints. Focus is on commercially available RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors. Solderability varied with solder and flux for three different stabilizations tested. Resistivity of stabilizer was dominant factor in splice joint resistance. Solder materials affected splice joint resistance when solderability was poor. The solderability of commercially available YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) coated conductors that were made from Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS)-based templates was studied. The coated conductors, also known as second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires (in the geometry of flat tapes about 4 mm wide), were laminated with copper, brass, or stainless steel strips as stabilizers. To understand the factors that influence their solderability, surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the wire surfaces. The solderability of three solders, 52In48Sn, 67Bi33In, and 100In (wt.%), was evaluated using a standard test (IPC/ECA J-STD-002) and with two different commercial fluxes. It was found that the solderability varied with the solder and flux but the three different wires showed similar solderability for a fixed combination of solder and flux. Solder joints of the 2G wires were fabricated using the tools and the procedures recommended by the HTS wire manufacturer. The solder joints were made in a lap-joint geometry and with the superconducting sides of the two wires face-to-face. The electrical resistances of the solder joints were measured at 77 K, and the results were analyzed to qualify the soldering materials and evaluate the soldering process. It was concluded that although the selection of soldering materials affected the resistance of a solder joint, the resistivity of the stabilizer was the dominant factor.

  9. Laser reflectometry of submegahertz liquid meniscus ringing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahi, R H; Passian, A; Jones, Y K; Tetard, L; Lereu, A L; Thundat, T G

    2009-10-15

    Optical techniques that permit nondestructive probing of interfacial dynamics of various media are of key importance in numerous applications such as ellipsometry, mirage effect, and all-optical switching. Characterization of the various phases of microjet droplet formation yields important information for volume control, uniformity, velocity, and rate. The ringing of the meniscus and the associated relaxation time that occurs after droplet breakoff affect subsequent drop formation and is an indicator of the physical properties of the fluid. Using laser reflectometry, we present an analysis of the meniscus oscillations in an orifice of a piezoelectric microjet.

  10. Meniscus transplantation in skeletally immature patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Mininder S; Tepolt, Frances A; Vavken, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Meniscal pathology in skeletally immature patients includes meniscal tears and discoid lateral meniscus. Total or subtotal meniscectomy may occur in patients with discoid lateral meniscus or severe meniscal tears. Meniscal transplantation may be an option in skeletally immature patients status after total or subtotal meniscectomy with knee symptoms or dysfunction. This study focuses on the surgical technique and short-term outcomes of meniscus transplantation in skeletally immature patients. We reviewed our clinical database for skeletally immature patients who had undergone meniscus transplantation with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Patients were contacted, invited for a physical exam, and asked to complete a Pedi-IKDC, Lysholm, and Tegner outcomes questionnaire. The study protocol was approved by the responsible institutional review board. Three patients (two females/one male) were eligible for the study, each of whom responded to our invitation indicating availability for physical exam and questionnaire. Two patients had undergone subtotal discoid meniscus resection, leading to early lateral compartment degeneration. One patient developed advanced degeneration after a delay in treatment for a medial bucket-handle tear associated with anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 12.6±2.3 years. At a mean follow-up of 31±20 months, the mean Pedi-IKDC score was 68.3±4, the mean Lysholm was 55.7±22.3, and the median Tegner was 7 points. There were no indications of growth deformity during the regular postoperative radiological assessments. One patient required subsequent lysis of adhesions along the lateral mini arthrotomy and mobilization under anesthesia. The other two patients were able to return to sports at the same level as before meniscus transplantation and were able to do so within 9 months postoperatively. Over-resection of discoid menisci as well as untreated meniscus injury, the latter typically in

  11. The constitutive response of three solder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G.; Cao Fang; Perez-Bergquist, Sara J.; Lopez, Mike F.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Gray, George T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The full constitutive response of three solder materials. ► Test temperatures from −196 °C to 60 °C and strain rates from 10 −3 to >10 3 s −1 . ► Substitutes for leaded solders from a mechanical/microstructural properties view. - Abstract: As increasing worldwide demand for portable consumer electronics drives development of smaller, faster, more powerful electronic devices, components in these devices must become smaller, more precise, and more robust. Often, failure of these devices comes as a result of failure of the package (i.e. when a mobile phone is dropped) and specifically comes as a result of failure of solder interconnects. As a result, stronger more reliable solder materials are needed. In this paper, the constitutive responses of three solder materials (Sn63Pb37, Sn62Pb36Ag2, and Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5) are analyzed as a function of temperature (−196 °C to 60 °C) and strain rate (10 −3 to >10 3 s −1 ). The lead-free Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5 possessed the highest yield stress of the three solders at all tested strain rates and temperatures, and all solder microstructures which displayed a mechanical response that was sensitive to temperature exhibited grain coarsening with increasing plastic strain, even at room temperature.

  12. The constitutive response of three solder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G., E-mail: alexpb@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cao Fang [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering Company, Annadale, NJ 08801 (United States); Perez-Bergquist, Sara J.; Lopez, Mike F.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Gray, George T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The full constitutive response of three solder materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test temperatures from -196 Degree-Sign C to 60 Degree-Sign C and strain rates from 10{sup -3} to >10{sup 3} s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substitutes for leaded solders from a mechanical/microstructural properties view. - Abstract: As increasing worldwide demand for portable consumer electronics drives development of smaller, faster, more powerful electronic devices, components in these devices must become smaller, more precise, and more robust. Often, failure of these devices comes as a result of failure of the package (i.e. when a mobile phone is dropped) and specifically comes as a result of failure of solder interconnects. As a result, stronger more reliable solder materials are needed. In this paper, the constitutive responses of three solder materials (Sn63Pb37, Sn62Pb36Ag2, and Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5) are analyzed as a function of temperature (-196 Degree-Sign C to 60 Degree-Sign C) and strain rate (10{sup -3} to >10{sup 3} s{sup -1}). The lead-free Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5 possessed the highest yield stress of the three solders at all tested strain rates and temperatures, and all solder microstructures which displayed a mechanical response that was sensitive to temperature exhibited grain coarsening with increasing plastic strain, even at room temperature.

  13. Double-Layered Lateral Meniscus in an 8-Year-Old Child: Report of a Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, Susumu; Kubo, Mitsuhiko; Kumagai, Kosuke; Imai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Reports of congenital abnormalities of the lateral meniscus include discoid meniscus, accessory meniscus, double-layered meniscus, and ring-shaped meniscus. Particularly, only a few cases of double-layered meniscus have been reported. We report a case of double-layered lateral meniscus, in which an additional semicircular meniscus was observed under the normal lateral meniscus. The accessory hemimeniscus was resected by means of arthroscopic surgery. This case demonstrates an interesting and ...

  14. Surgical techniques and radiological findings of meniscus allograft transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoseok; Lee, Sang Yub; Na, Young Gon; Kim, Sung Kwan; Yi, Jae Hyuck; Lim, Jae Kwang; Lee, So Mi

    2016-08-01

    Meniscus allograft transplantation has been performed over the past 25 years to relieve knee pain and improve knee function in patients with an irreparable meniscus injury. The efficacy and safety of meniscus allograft transplantation have been established in numerous experimental and clinical researches. However, there is a lack of reviews to aid radiologists who are routinely interpreting images and evaluating the outcome of the procedures, and also meniscus allograft transplantation is not widely performed in most hospitals. This review focuses on the indications of the procedure, the different surgical techniques used for meniscus allograft transplantation according to the involvement of the lateral and medial meniscus, and the associated procedures. The postoperative radiological findings and surgical complications of the meniscus allograft transplantation are also described in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermomechanical Behavior of Monolithic SN-AG-CU Solder and Copper Fiber Reinforced Solders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reuse, Rolando

    2005-01-01

    .... The thermomechanical cycling in the solder causes numerous reliability challenges, mostly because of the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the silicon chip and the substrate...

  16. Radiologic Study of Meniscus Perforations in the Temporomandibular Joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kee Duck; Park, Chang Seo

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients (forty-four joints) who had been diagnosed as having meniscus perforation of the temporomandibular joint by inferior joint space arthrography and had been treated by surgical procedures were evaluated retrospectively. Information of clinical findings, arthrotomographic findings and surgical findings was collected on a standardized form and evaluated. The results were as follows: 1. On the 34 patients of 38 joints which were surgically confirmed perforation of meniscus or its attachments of the temporomandibular joint, there were 29 females and 5 males (5.8:1). The average age was 36 years (range 17 to 70). 2. The common clinical findings of group that had meniscus displacement without reduction and with perforation were pain on the affected joint and limitation of mouth opening. In the group showing meniscus displacement with reduction and with perforation the common clinical findings were pain and clicking on the affected joint. 3. 32 joints (84.2%) were arthrotomographically anterior meniscus displacement without reduction and with perforation, 6 joints (15.8%) showed anterior meniscus displacement with reduction and with perforation. 4. Joints categorized arthrotomographically as having meniscus displacement without reduction and with perforation were less likely to have full translation of the condyle in comparison with the normal or meniscus displacement with reduction and with perforation groups (p<0.05) 5. The arthrographic findings of 44 joints having meniscus perforation were compared with surgical findings, there were 6 false positive findings of meniscus perforation, the reliability of arthrographic findings of meniscus perforation was a 86.4% correlation with surgical findings. 6. On the site of perforations of 38 joints which were surgically confirmed perforation of meniscus or its attachments, twenty-three of perforations (60.5%) were in location at the junction of the meniscus and posterior attachment, fourteen (36.9%) were

  17. Meniscus Imaging for Crystal-Growth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon crystal growth monitored by new video system reduces operator stress and improves conditions for observation and control of growing process. System optics produce greater magnification vertically than horizontally, so entire meniscus and melt is viewed with high resolution in both width and height dimensions.

  18. Formation and maturation of the murine meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Laura W; Xiang, Lin; Rosen, Vicki

    2017-08-01

    Meniscal injuries are commonplace, but current surgical repair procedures do not prevent degenerative joint changes that occur after meniscal injury and often lead to osteoarthritis. Successful tissue regeneration in adults often recapitulates events that occur during embryogenesis, suggesting that understanding the regulatory pathways controlling these early processes may provide clues for developing strategies for tissue repair. While the mouse is now widely used to study joint diseases, detailed knowledge of the basic biology of murine meniscus is not readily available. Here, we examine meniscal morphogenesis in mice from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) to 6 months of age using histology, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. We find that the meniscus is a morphologically distinct structure at E16 when it begins to regionalize. At birth, the meniscus has a distinguishable inner, avascular, round chondrocyte cell region, an outer, vascularized, fibroblast cell region, and a surface superficial zone. Maturation begins at 2 weeks of age when the meniscus expresses type I collagen, type II collagen, type X collagen, and MMP-13 in specific patterns. By 4 weeks of age, small areas of ossification are detected in the anterior meniscal horn, a common feature seen in rodents. Maturation appears complete at 8 weeks of age, when the meniscus resembles the adult structure complete with ossifying tissue that contains bone marrow like areas. Our results provide, the first systematic study of mouse meniscal development and will be a valuable tool for analyzing murine models of knee joint formation and disease. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1683-1689, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Structure-function relationships of human meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, Elvis K; Oinas, Joonas M T; Saarakkala, Simo; Mikkonen, Santtu; Töyräs, Juha; Korhonen, Rami K

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical properties of human meniscus have been shown to be site-specific. However, it is not known which meniscus constituents at different depths and locations contribute to biomechanical properties obtained from indentation testing. Therefore, we investigated the composition and structure of human meniscus in a site- and depth-dependent manner and their relationships with tissue site-specific biomechanical properties. Elastic and poroelastic properties were analyzed from experimental stress-relaxation and sinusoidal indentation measurements with fibril reinforced poroelastic finite element modeling. Proteoglycan (PG) and collagen contents, as well as the collagen orientation angle, were determined as a function of tissue depth using microscopic and spectroscopic methods, and they were compared with biomechanical properties. For all the measurement sites (anterior, middle and posterior) of lateral and medial menisci (n=26), PG content and collagen orientation angle increased as a function of tissue depth while the collagen content had an initial sharp increase followed by a decrease across tissue depth. The highest values (pmeniscus. This location had also higher (pmeniscus, higher (pmeniscus) significantly higher (pmeniscus modulus and/or nonlinear permeability. This study suggests that nonlinear biomechanical properties of meniscus, caused by the collagen network and fluid, may be strongly influenced by tissue osmotic swelling from the deep meniscus caused by the increased PG content, leading to increased collagen fibril tension. These nonlinear biomechanical properties are suggested to be further amplified by higher collagen content at all tissue depths and superficial collagen fibril orientation. However, these structure-function relationships are suggested to be highly site-specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapidly dissociated autologous meniscus tissue enhances meniscus healing: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numpaisal, Piya-On; Rothrauff, Benjamin B; Gottardi, Riccardo; Chien, Chung-Liang; Tuan, Rocky S

    Treatment of meniscus tears is a persistent challenge in orthopedics. Although cell therapies have shown promise in promoting fibrocartilage formation in in vitro and preclinical studies, clinical application has been limited by the paucity of autologous tissue and the need for ex vivo cell expansion. Rapid dissociation of the free edges of the anterior and posterior meniscus with subsequent implantation in a meniscus lesion may overcome these limitations. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of rapidly dissociated meniscus tissue in enhancing neotissue formation in a radial meniscus tear, as simulated in an in vitro explant model. All experiments in this study, performed at minimum with biological triplicates, utilized meniscal tissues from hind limbs of young cows. The effect of varying collagenase concentration (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% w/v) and treatment duration (overnight and 30 minutes) on meniscus cell viability, organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and gene expression was assessed through a cell metabolism assay, microscopic examination, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Thereafter, an explant model of a radial meniscus tear was used to evaluate the effect of a fibrin gel seeded with one of the following: (1) fibrin alone, (2) isolated and passaged (P2) meniscus cells, (3) overnight digested tissue, and (4) rapidly dissociated tissue. The quality of in vitro healing was determined through histological analysis and derivation of an adhesion index. Rapid dissociation in 0.2% collagenase yielded cells with higher levels of metabolism than either 0.1% or 0.5% collagenase. When seeded in a three-dimensional fibrin hydrogel, both overnight digested and rapidly dissociated cells expressed greater levels of collagens type I and II than P2 meniscal cells at 1 week. At 4 and 8 weeks, collagen type II expression remained elevated only in the rapid dissociation group. Histological

  1. Laser soldering of Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn-Bi lead-free solder pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junichi; Nakahara, Sumio; Hisada, Shigeyoshi; Fujita, Takeyoshi

    2004-10-01

    It has reported that a waste of an electronics substrate including lead and its compound such as 63Sn-37Pb has polluted the environment with acid rain. For that environment problem the development of lead-free solder alloys has been promoted in order to find out the substitute for Sn-Pb solders in the United States, Europe, and Japan. In a present electronics industry, typical alloys have narrowed down to Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn lead-free solder. In this study, solderability of Pb-free solder that are Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn-Bi alloy was studied on soldering using YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser and diode laser. Experiments were peformed in order to determine the range of soldering parameters for obtaining an appropriate wettability based on a visual inspection. Joining strength of surface mounting chip components soldered on PCB (printed circuit board) was tested on application thickness of solder paste (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mm). In addition, joining strength characteristics of eutectic Sn-Pb alloy and under different power density were examined. As a result, solderability of Sn-Ag-Cu (Pb-free) solder paste are equivalent to that of coventional Sn-Pb solder paste, and are superior to that of Sn-Zn-Bi solder paste in the laser soldering method.

  2. Cell-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Guo, Weimin; Han, Shufeng; Zhu, Yun; Liu, Shuyun; Guo, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    Meniscus injuries remain a significant challenge due to the poor healing potential of the inner avascular zone. Following a series of studies and clinical trials, tissue engineering is considered a promising prospect for meniscus repair and regeneration. As one of the key factors in tissue engineering, cells are believed to be highly beneficial in generating bionic meniscus structures to replace injured ones in patients. Therefore, cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering play a fundamental role in meniscal regeneration. According to current studies, the main cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering are single cell type strategies; cell coculture strategies also were applied to meniscus tissue engineering. Likewise, on the one side, the zonal recapitulation strategies based on mimicking meniscal differing cells and internal architectures have received wide attentions. On the other side, cell self-assembling strategies without any scaffolds may be a better way to build a bionic meniscus. In this review, we primarily discuss cell seeds for meniscus tissue engineering and their application strategies. We also discuss recent advances and achievements in meniscus repair experiments that further improve our understanding of meniscus tissue engineering. PMID:27274735

  3. In-vitro Investigations of Skin Closure using Diode Laser and Protein Solder Containing Gold Nanoshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Nourbakhsh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laser tissue soldering is a new technique for repair of various tissues including the skin, liver, articular cartilage and nerves and is a promising alternative to suture. To overcome the problems of thermal damage to surrounding tissues and low laser penetration depth, some exogenous chromophores such as gold nanoshells, a new class of nanoparticles consisting of a dielectric core surrounded by a thin metal shell, are used. The aims of this study were to use two different concentrations of gold nanoshells as the exogenous material for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effects of laser soldering parameters on the properties of the repaired skin. Material and Methods: Two mixtures of albumin solder and different concentrations of gold nanoshells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2×20 mm2 was made on the surface and after placing 50 μl of the solder mixture on the incision, an 810 nm diode laser was used to irradiate it at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength, σt, due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns, and scan velocity (Vs were investigated. Results: The results showed that the tensile strength of the repaired skin increased with increasing irradiance for both gold nanoshell concentrations. In addition, at constant laser irradiance (I, the tensile strength of the repaired incision increased with increasing Ns and decreasing Vs. In our case, this corresponded to st = 1610 g/cm2 at I ~ 60 Wcm-2, T ~ 65ºC, Ns = 10 and Vs = 0.2 mms-1. Discussion and Conclusion: Gold nanoshells can be used as an indocyanine green dye (ICG alterative for laser tissue soldering.  Although by increasing the laser power density, the tensile strength of the repaired skin increases, an optimum power density must be considered due to the resulting increase in tissue temperature.

  4. Thermomechanical fatigue life prediction for several solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shengmin

    Since solder connections operate at high homologous temperature, solders are high temperature materials. This feature makes their mechanical behavior and fatigue phenomena unique. Based on experimental findings, a physical damage mechanism is introduced for solders. The mechanism views the damage process as a series of independent local damage events characterized by the failure of individual grains, while the structural damage is the eventual percolation result of such local events. Fine's dislocation energy density concept and Mura's microcrack initiation theory are adopted to derive the fatigue formula for an individual grain. A physical damage metric is introduced to describe the material with damage. A unified creep and plasticity constitutive model is adopted to simulate the mechanical behavior of solders. The model is cast into a continuum damage mechanics framework to simulate material with damage. The model gives good agreement with the experimental results of 96.5Pb-3.5Sn and 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solders under uniaxial strain-controlled cyclic loading. The model is convenient for implementation into commercial computational packages. Also presented is a fatigue theory with its failure criterion for solders based on physical damage mechanism. By introducing grain orientation into the fatigue formula, an m-N curve (m is Schmid factor) at constant loading condition is suggested for fatigue of grains with different orientations. A solder structure is defined as fatigued when the damage metric reaches a critical threshold, since at this threshold the failed grains may form a cluster and percolate through the structure according to percolation theory. Fatigue data of 96.5Pb-3.5Sn solder bulk specimens under various uniaxial tension tests were analyzed. Results show that the theory gives consistent predictions under broad conditions, while inelastic strain theory does not. The theory is anisotropic with no size limitation to its application, which could be suitable for

  5. Analysis of Meniscus Fluctuation in a Continuous Casting Slab Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaitian; Liu, Jianhua; Cui, Heng; Xiao, Chao

    2018-03-01

    A water model of slab mold was established to analyze the microscopic and macroscopic fluctuation of meniscus. The fast Fourier transform and wavelet entropy were adopted to analyze the wave amplitude, frequency, and components of fluctuation. The flow patterns under the meniscus were measured by using particle image velocimetry measurement and then the mechanisms of meniscus fluctuation were discussed. The results reflected that wavelet entropy had multi-scale and statistical properties, and it was suitable for the study of meniscus fluctuation details both in time and frequency domain. The basic wave, frequency of which exceeding 1 Hz in the condition of no mold oscillation, was demonstrated in this work. In fact, three basic waves were found: long-wave with low frequency, middle-wave with middle frequency, and short-wave with high frequency. In addition, the upper roll flow in mold had significant effect on meniscus fluctuation. When the position of flow impinged was far from the meniscus, long-wave dominated the fluctuation and the stability of meniscus was enhanced. However, when the velocity of flow was increased, the short-wave dominated the meniscus fluctuation and the meniscus stability was decreased.

  6. The MR diagnosis of discoid lateral meniscus of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yutaka; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Ohtani, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamamoto, Tadasi; Tsukaguchi, Isao; Nakamura, Hitonobu.

    1992-01-01

    To establish the criteria for the diagnosis of discoid lateral meniscus, we introduced a discriminant analysis to our statistical study. Materials included surgically proved 38 discoid lateral menisci and 36 normal menisci imaged by means of MR. Numerical measurements were performed interactively on the MR monitor with eight possible parameters of these parameters, a discriminant analysis revealed that the transverse width of the lateral meniscus on the coronal image was the best parameter. Our study showed that discoid lateral meniscus should be present if the transverse width of the lateral meniscus exceeded 14.3 mm. (author)

  7. Ferrofluid meniscus in a horizontal or vertical magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Elborai, S.; Lee, S.-H.; Zahn, M.

    2005-01-01

    An optical system using reflections of a narrow laser beam to measure the height and shape of a ferrofluid meniscus in response to uniform applied magnetic fields finds that meniscus height on a vertical flat wall decreases in horizontal applied field and increases in vertical applied field. An approximate energy minimization analysis predicts meniscus height in directional agreement with measurements. This study is a first step in calculating the tangential surface force acting in flows where magnetization magnitude and direction lag a changing magnetic field direction, and the meniscus shape is magnetically perturbed

  8. MRI evaluation of the posterior meniscus root tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianjun; Zheng Zhuozhao; Li Xuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of MRI for diagnosing the posterior meniscus root tear. Methods: MR examinations of 30 patients with tear of the posterior meniscus root confirmed by knee arthroscopies were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 30 patients, 17 with posterior medial meniscus root tear (MMRT) and 13 with posterior lateral meniscus root tear (LMRT). The diagnostic sensitivity of' MRI for the posterior meniscus root tear was analyzed. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the detection rate of MRI for MMRT with that for LMRT. Results: All 17 cases with MMRT and 9 cases out of 13 with LMRT were correctly diagnosed by MRI and the diagnostic sensitivity of MRI for the posterior meniscus root tear was 86.7% (26/30). The main MR appearance of the posterior meniscus root tear was distortion of the meniscal root, with its low signal replaced by abnormal high signal. The detection rate of MRI for MMRT (17/17) was significantly greater than that for LMRT (9/13) (P=0.026). The prevalence of MMRT associated with meniscus extrusion (15/17) was significantly greater than that of LMRT (6/13) (P=0.020), but the prevalence of MMRT associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury (5/17) was significantly lower than that of LMRT (11/13) (P=0.004). Conclusion: MRI is a relatively good method for detection of posterior meniscus root tears and associated injuries. (authors)

  9. High temperature soldering of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, L.T.; Kravetskij, G.A.; Dergunova, V.S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect is studied of the brazing temperature on the strength of the brazed joint of graphite materials. In one case, iron and nickel are used as solder, and in another, molybdenum. The contact heating of the iron and nickel with the graphite has been studied in the temperature range of 1400-2400 ged C, and molybdenum, 2200-2600 deg C. The quality of the joints has been judged by the tensile strength at temperatures of 2500-2800 deg C and by the microstructure. An investigation into the kinetics of carbon dissolution in molten iron has shown that the failure of the graphite in contact with the iron melt is due to the incorporation of iron atoms in the interbase planes. The strength of a joint formed with the participation of the vapour-gas phase is 2.5 times higher than that of a joint obtained by graphite recrystallization through the carbon-containing metal melt. The critical temperatures are determined of graphite brazing with nickel, iron, and molybdenum interlayers, which sharply increase the strength of the brazed joint as a result of the formation of a vapour-gas phase and deposition of fine-crystal carbon

  10. Microstructure evolution and thermomechanical fatigue of solder materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matin, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The microelectronics industry is confronted with the new challenge to produce joints with lead-free solder materials replacing classical tin-lead solders in devices used in many fields (e.g. consumer electronics, road transport, aviation, space-crafts, telecommunication). In service, solder

  11. Efforts to Develop a 300°C Solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC

    2015-01-25

    This paper covers the efforts made to find a 300°C electrical solder solution for geothermal well monitoring and logging tools by Perma Works LLC. This paper covers: why a high temperature solder is needed, what makes for a good solder, testing flux, testing conductive epoxy and testing intermetallic bonds. Future areas of research are suggested.

  12. A novel method for direct solder bump pull testing using lead-free solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory Alan

    This thesis focuses on the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a new method for testing the adhesion strength of lead-free solders, named the Isotraction Bump Pull method (IBP). In order to develop a direct solder joint-strength testing method that did not require customization for different solder types, bump sizes, specific equipment, or trial-and-error, a combination of two widely used and accepted standards was created. First, solder bumps were made from three types of lead free solder were generated on untreated copper PCB substrates using an in-house fabricated solder bump-on-demand generator, Following this, the newly developed method made use of a polymer epoxy to encapsulate the solder bumps that could then be tested under tension using a high precision universal vertical load machine. The tests produced repeatable and predictable results for each of the three alloys tested that were in agreement with the relative behavior of the same alloys using other testing methods in the literature. The median peak stress at failure for the three solders tested were 2020.52 psi, 940.57 psi, and 2781.0 psi, and were within one standard deviation of the of all data collected for each solder. The assumptions in this work that brittle fracture occurred through the Intermetallic Compound layer (IMC) were validated with the use of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and high magnification of the fractured surface of both newly exposed sides of the test specimens. Following this, an examination of the process to apply the results from the tensile tests into standard material science equations for the fracture of the systems was performed..

  13. Smoking increases the risk of early meniscus repair failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Ryan; Schmitt, Laura C; Flanigan, David C; Magnussen, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study is to determine whether patients who smoke cigarettes at the time of surgery are at significantly increased risk of early meniscus repair failure relative to non-smokers. Retrospective chart review identified 64 current smokers within a series of 444 consecutive patients who underwent meniscus repair during a 7 years period. Fifty-two of these 64 smokers were available for follow-up and were matched by age, sex, and ACL status with non-smokers from the same cohort. Records of these 104 patients with a total of 120 meniscus repairs were reviewed to identify meniscus repair failure (defined as repeat surgery on the index meniscus) during the median 13-month (range: 3-79 months) follow-up period. The smoking and non-smoking groups were similar in age, sex, ACL status, BMI, meniscus repair technique, and meniscus involved. Meniscus repair failure occurred in 19 of the 112 menisci in 104 patients, for an overall failure risk of 17 %. Of the 19 failures, 14 occurred in 79 repaired medial menisci (18 % failure risk) and 5 occurred in 33 repaired lateral menisci (15 % failure risk). Meniscus repair failure occurred in significantly more smokers (15 failures in 56 menisci in 52 patients -27 % failure risk) than non-smokers (4 failures in 56 menisci in 52 patients -7 % failure risk) (p = 0.0076). Smoking is associated with significantly increased risk of early meniscus repair failure as defined by the incidence of repeat surgery on the index meniscus. III.

  14. Interface between Sn-Sb-Cu solder and copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebo, P., E-mail: Pavel.Sebo@savba.sk [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3 (Slovakia); Svec, P. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava 45 (Slovakia); Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, J. Bottu 25, 917 24 Trnava (Slovakia); Janickovic, D.; Illekova, E. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava 45 (Slovakia); Plevachuk, Yu. [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} New lead-free solder materials based on Sn-Sb-Cu were designed and prepared. {yields} Melting and solidification temperatures of the solders have been determined. {yields} Cu-substrate/solder interaction has been analyzed and quantified. {yields} Phases formed at the solder-substrate interface have been identified. {yields} Composition and soldering atmospheres were correlated with joint strength. - Abstract: Influence of antimony and copper in Sn-Sb-Cu solder on the melting and solidification temperatures and on the microstructure of the interface between the solder and copper substrate after wetting the substrate at 623 K for 1800 s were studied. Microstructure of the interface between the solder and copper substrates in Cu-solder-Cu joints prepared at the same temperature for 1800 s was observed and shear strength of the joints was measured. Influence of the atmosphere - air with the flux and deoxidising N{sub 2} + 10H{sub 2} gas - was taken into account. Thermal stability and microstructure were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Melting and solidification temperatures of the solders were determined. An interfacial transition zone was formed by diffusion reaction between solid copper and liquid solder. At the interface Cu{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phases arise. Cu{sub 3}Sn is adjacent to the Cu substrate and its thickness decreases with increasing the amount of copper in solder. Scallop Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase is formed also inside the solder drop. The solid solution Sn(Sb) and SbSn phase compose the interior of the solder drop. Shear strength of the joints measured by push-off method decreases with increasing Sb concentration. Copper in the solder shows even bigger negative effect on the strength.

  15. A Hodge dual for soldered bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Tiago Gribl; Pereira, J G

    2009-01-01

    In order to account for all possible contractions allowed by the presence of the solder form, a generalized Hodge dual is defined for the case of soldered bundles. Although for curvature the generalized dual coincides with the usual one, for torsion it gives a completely new dual definition. Starting from the standard form of a gauge Lagrangian for the translation group, the generalized Hodge dual yields precisely the Lagrangian of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, and consequently also the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian of general relativity

  16. Visual detection of defects in solder joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaignan, V. B.; Bourbakis, Nikolaos G.; Moghaddamzadeh, Ali; Yfantis, Evangelos A.

    1995-03-01

    The automatic, real-time visual acquisition and inspection of VLSI boards requires the use of machine vision and artificial intelligence methodologies in a new `frame' for the achievement of better results regarding efficiency, products quality and automated service. In this paper the visual detection and classification of different types of defects on solder joints in PC boards is presented by combining several image processing methods, such as smoothing, segmentation, edge detection, contour extraction and shape analysis. The results of this paper are based on simulated solder defects and a real one.

  17. Repair of the meniscus. An experimental investigation in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veth, R. P.; den Heeten, G. J.; Jansen, H. W.; Nielsen, H. K.

    1983-01-01

    The healing process of wedge-shaped and longitudinal lesions in the meniscus of the knee was investigated in 74 menisci in 24 Chinchilla rabbits. In four cases the whole meniscus was removed and reimplanted. healing was most evident in the wedge-shaped lesions, which were repaired by fibrocartilage.

  18. Hydrogels for precision meniscus tissue engineering: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Rico, Ana; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    The meniscus plays a pivotal role to preserve the knee joint homeostasis. Lesions to the meniscus are frequent, have a reduced ability to heal, and may induce tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. Current reconstructive therapeutic options mainly focus on the treatment of lesions in the peripheral vascularized region. In contrast, few approaches are capable of stimulating repair of damaged meniscal tissue in the central, avascular portion. Tissue engineering approaches are of high interest to repair or replace damaged meniscus tissue in this area. Hydrogel-based biomaterials are of special interest for meniscus repair as its inner part contains relatively high proportions of proteoglycans which are responsible for the viscoelastic compressive properties and hydration grade. Hydrogels exhibiting high water content and providing a specific three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment may be engineered to precisely resemble this topographical composition of the meniscal tissue. Different polymers of both natural and synthetic origins have been manipulated to produce hydrogels hosting relevant cell populations for meniscus regeneration and provide platforms for meniscus tissue replacement. So far, these compounds have been employed to design controlled delivery systems of bioactive molecules involved in meniscal reparative processes or to host genetically modified cells as a means to enhance meniscus repair. This review describes the most recent advances on the use of hydrogels as platforms for precision meniscus tissue engineering.

  19. Silicon Sheet Quality is Improved By Meniscus Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. A.; Hatch, A. E.; Goldsmith, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Better quality silicon crystals for solar cells are possible with instrument that monitors position of meniscus as sheet of solid silicon is drawn from melt. Using information on meniscus height, instrument generates feedback signal to control melt temperature. Automatic control ensures more uniform silicon sheets.

  20. Laser assisted soldering: microdroplet accumulation with a microjet device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, E K; Lu, Q; Bell, B; Motamedi, M; Frederickson, C; Brown, D T; Kovach, I S; Welch, A J

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of a microjet to dispense protein solder for laser assisted soldering. Successive micro solder droplets were deposited on rat dermis and bovine intima specimens. Fixed laser exposure was synchronized with the jetting of each droplet. After photocoagulation, each specimen was cut into two halves at the center of solder coagulum. One half was fixed immediately, while the other half was soaked in phosphate-buffered saline for a designated hydration period before fixation (1 hour, 1, 2, and 7 days). After each hydration period, all tissue specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stable solder coagulum was created by successive photocoagulation of microdroplets even after the soldered tissue exposed to 1 week of hydration. This preliminary study suggested that tissue soldering with successive microdroplets is feasible even with fixed laser parameters without active feedback control.

  1. Thermocapillary flow about an evaporating meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G. R.; Chung, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The steady motion and thermal behavior of an evaporating superheated liquid in a small cavity bounded by isothermal sidewalls is examined. Scaling analyses and a two-dimensional finite element model are used to investigate the influence of thermocapillarity, buoyancy, and temperature-dependent mass flux on flowfield, interfacial heat transfer, and meniscus morphology. Numerical investigations indicate the existence of two counter-rotating cells symmetric about the cavity center. Results also show that evaporation tends to counteract this circulation by directing flow toward the hotter sidewalls. Although thermocapillarity and evaporation yield different flowfield distributions, both effects tend to increase interfacial temperature and heat transfer.

  2. Centralization of extruded medial meniscus delays cartilage degeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Nobutake; Muneta, Takeshi; Kawabata, Kenichi; Koga, Hideyuki; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Saito, Ryusuke; Udo, Mio; Yanagisawa, Katsuaki; Ohara, Toshiyuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-05-01

    Meniscus extrusion often observed in knee osteoarthritis has a strong correlation with the progression of cartilage degeneration and symptom in the patients. We recently reported a novel procedure "arthroscopic centralization" in which the capsule was sutured to the edge of the tibial plateau to reduce meniscus extrusion in the human knee. However, there is no animal model to study the efficacy of this procedure. The purposes of this study were [1] to establish a model of centralization for the extruded medial meniscus in a rat model; and [2] to investigate the chondroprotective effect of this procedure. Medial meniscus extrusion was induced by the release of the anterior synovial capsule and the transection of the meniscotibial ligament. Centralization was performed by the pulled-out suture technique. Alternatively, control rats had only the medial meniscus extrusion surgery. Medial meniscus extrusion was evaluated by micro-CT and macroscopic findings. Cartilage degeneration of the medial tibial plateau was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. By micro-CT analysis, the medial meniscus extrusion was significantly improved in the centralization group in comparison to the extrusion group throughout the study. Both macroscopically and histologically, the cartilage lesion of the medial tibial plateau was prevented in the centralization group but was apparent in the control group. We developed medial meniscus extrusion in a rat model, and centralization of the extruded medial meniscus by the pull-out suture technique improved the medial meniscus extrusion and delayed cartilage degeneration, though the effect was limited. Centralization is a promising treatment to prevent the progression of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An in vitro study of cartilage-meniscus tribology to understand the changes caused by a meniscus implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majd, Sara Ehsani; Rizqy, Aditya Iman; Kaper, Hans J; Schmidt, Tannin A; Kuijer, Roel; Sharma, Prashant K

    2017-07-01

    Active lifestyles increase the risk of meniscal injury. A permanent meniscus implant of polycarbonate urethane (PCU) is a promising treatment to postpone/prevent total knee arthroplasty. Study of the changes in articular cartilage tribology in the presence of PCU is essential in developing the optimum meniscus implant. Therefore, a cartilage-meniscus reciprocating, sliding model was developed in vitro, mimicking the stance and swing phases of the gait cycle. The meniscus was further replaced with PCU and surface-modified PCUs (with C18 chains, mono-functional polydimethylsiloxane groups and mono-functional polytetrafluoroethylene groups) to study the changes. The coefficient of friction (COF) was calculated, and cartilage wear was determined and quantified histologically. The cartilage-meniscus sliding resulted in low COF during both stance and swing (0.01tribological performance. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ARTHROSCOPIC MENISCUS REPAIR WITH BIOABSORBABLE ARROWS IN LOCAL ANESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Senekovič

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The menisci have important function in the knee joint. Because of this it is universally accepted that we have to preserve them as much as possible. After open and partially arthroscopic suture techniques new methods of all-inside meniscus repair with bioabsorbable arrows have been developed in the last decade. The meniscus repair using these arrows represents an easy task for a skilled surgeon. In addition, it can be performed in local anesthesia. We have evaluated the results of the first group of patients who were treated by this method.Methods. From February 2001 to August 2002 15 patients with torn meniscuses have been treated at the Clinical Department for Traumatology, University Medical centre, Ljubljana. We repaired their torn menisci arthroscopically with bioabsorbable arrows in local anesthesia. We divided patients in three groups: a group with isolated meniscus injury, a group with meniscus injury and anterior cruciate ligament injury and a group with associated pathology. Four patients had incarcerated meniscuses. Preoperative Lysholm score in the first group was 38, in the second 42 and in the third group 48. We repaired 12 medial and 3 lateral meniscuses. On average we need 45 minutes for therapeutic arthroscopy. Torn meniscus was fixated with minimum of 1 and maximum of 5 bioabsorbable arrows. All patients except one had the affected knee immobilized with cylinder plaster for 15 days on average.Results. At least three months after the arthroscopic fixation of the torn meniscus in local anesthesia another clinical evaluation was made. In all groups significant improvement was observed regarding the range of motions and absence of pain. Postoperative Lysholm score in the first group was 89, in the second 75 and in the third 71. Average deficit of flexion was 3 degrees while extension was full. One patient complained about the same pain in the joint, he underwent another arthroscopy which showed that the meniscus was

  5. Weightbearing Versus Nonweightbearing After Meniscus Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderHave, Kelly L; Perkins, Crystal; Le, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Optimal rehabilitation after meniscal repair remains controversial. To review the current literature on weightbearing status after meniscal repairs and to provide evidence-based recommendations for postoperative rehabilitation. MEDLINE (January 1, 1993 to July 1, 2014) and Embase (January 1, 1993 to July 1, 2014) were queried with use of the terms meniscus OR/AND repair AND rehabilitation. Included studies were those with levels of evidence 1 through 4, with minimum 2 years follow-up and in an English publication. Systematic review. Level 4. Demographics and clinical and radiographic outcomes of meniscus repair at a minimum of 2 years follow-up were extracted. Successful clinical outcomes ranged from 70% to 94% with conservative rehabilitation. More recent studies using an accelerated rehabilitation protocol with full weightbearing and early range of motion reported 64% to 96% good results. Outcomes after both conservative (restricted weightbearing) protocols and accelerated rehabilitation (immediate weightbearing) yielded similar good to excellent results; however, lack of similar objective criteria and consistency among surgical techniques and existing studies makes direct comparison difficult. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Surgical Management of Degenerative Meniscus Lesions: The 2016 ESSKA Meniscus Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, P; Becker, R; Kopf, S; Englund, M; Verdonk, R; Ollivier, M; Seil, R

    2017-06-01

    Purpose  A degenerative meniscus lesion is a slowly developing process typically involving a horizontal cleavage in a middle-aged or older person. When the knee is symptomatic, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy has been practised for a long time with many case series reporting improved patient outcomes. Since 2002, several randomised clinical trials demonstrated no additional benefit of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy compared to non-operative treatment, sham surgery or sham arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. These results introduced controversy in the medical community and made clinical decision-making challenging in the daily clinical practice. To facilitate the clinical decision-making process, a consensus was developed. This initiative was endorsed by ESSKA. Methods  A degenerative meniscus lesion was defined as a lesion occurring without any history of significant acute trauma in a patient older than 35 years. Congenital lesions, traumatic meniscus tears and degenerative lesions occurring in young patients, especially in athletes, were excluded. The project followed the so-called formal consensus process, involving a steering group, a rating group and a peer-review group. A total of 84 surgeons and scientists from 22 European countries were included in the process. Twenty questions, their associated answers and an algorithm based on extensive literature review and clinical expertise, were proposed. Each question and answer set was graded according to the scientific level of the corresponding literature. Results  The main finding was that arthroscopic partial meniscectomy should not be proposed as a first line of treatment for degenerative meniscus lesions. Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy should only be considered after a proper standardised clinical and radiological evaluation and when the response to non-operative management has not been satisfactory. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee is typically not indicated in the first-line work-up, but

  7. Surgical management of degenerative meniscus lesions: the 2016 ESSKA meniscus consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Ph; Becker, R; Kopf, S; Englund, M; Verdonk, R; Ollivier, M; Seil, R

    2017-02-01

    A degenerative meniscus lesion is a slowly developing process typically involving a horizontal cleavage in a middle-aged or older person. When the knee is symptomatic, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy has been practised for a long time with many case series reporting improved patient outcomes. Since 2002, several randomised clinical trials demonstrated no additional benefit of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy compared to non-operative treatment, sham surgery or sham arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. These results introduced controversy in the medical community and made clinical decision-making challenging in the daily clinical practice. To facilitate the clinical decision-making process, a consensus was developed. This initiative was endorsed by ESSKA. A degenerative meniscus lesion was defined as a lesion occurring without any history of significant acute trauma in a patient older than 35 years. Congenital lesions, traumatic meniscus tears and degenerative lesions occurring in young patients, especially in athletes, were excluded. The project followed the so-called formal consensus process, involving a steering group, a rating group and a peer-review group. A total of 84 surgeons and scientists from 22 European countries were included in the process. Twenty questions, their associated answers and an algorithm based on extensive literature review and clinical expertise, were proposed. Each question and answer set was graded according to the scientific level of the corresponding literature. The main finding was that arthroscopic partial meniscectomy should not be proposed as a first line of treatment for degenerative meniscus lesions. Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy should only be considered after a proper standardised clinical and radiological evaluation and when the response to non-operative management has not been satisfactory. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee is typically not indicated in the first-line work-up, but knee radiography should be used as

  8. Cationic Contrast Agent Diffusion Differs Between Cartilage and Meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Juuso T J; Turunen, Mikael J; Freedman, Jonathan D; Saarakkala, Simo; Grinstaff, Mark W; Ylärinne, Janne H; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-10-01

    Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is a non-destructive imaging technique used for the assessment of composition and structure of articular cartilage and meniscus. Due to structural and compositional differences between these tissues, diffusion and distribution of contrast agents may differ in cartilage and meniscus. The aim of this study is to determine the diffusion kinematics of a novel iodine based cationic contrast agent (CA(2+)) in cartilage and meniscus. Cylindrical cartilage and meniscus samples (d = 6 mm, h ≈ 2 mm) were harvested from healthy bovine knee joints (n = 10), immersed in isotonic cationic contrast agent (20 mgI/mL), and imaged using a micro-CT scanner at 26 time points up to 48 h. Subsequently, normalized X-ray attenuation and contrast agent diffusion flux, as well as water, collagen and proteoglycan (PG) contents in the tissues were determined. The contrast agent distributions within cartilage and meniscus were different. In addition, the normalized attenuation and diffusion flux were higher (p < 0.05) in cartilage. Based on these results, diffusion kinematics vary between cartilage and meniscus. These tissue specific variations can affect the interpretation of CECT images and should be considered when cartilage and meniscus are assessed simultaneously.

  9. Augmentation of the Pullout Repair of a Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear by Arthroscopic Centralization

    OpenAIRE

    Koga, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Horie, Masafumi; Katagiri, Hiroki; Otabe, Koji; Ohara, Toshiyuki; Katakura, Mai; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    The meniscus roots are critical for meniscus function in preserving correct knee kinematics and avoiding meniscus extrusion and, consequently, in the progression of osteoarthritis. Several techniques exist for medial meniscus posterior root tear repair; however, current surgical techniques have been proved to fail to reduce meniscus extrusion, which has been shown to be associated with development of osteoarthritis, although significant improvements in the postoperative clinical findings have...

  10. Biomechanics of Meniscus Cells: Regional Variation and Comparison to Articular Chondrocytes and Ligament Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    Central to understanding mechanotransduction in the knee meniscus is the characterization of meniscus cell mechanics. In addition to biochemical and geometric differences, the inner and outer regions of the meniscus contain cells that are distinct in morphology and phenotype. This study investigated the regional variation in meniscus cell mechanics in comparison to articular chondrocytes and ligament cells. It was found that the meniscus contains two biomechanically distinct cell populations,...

  11. Processing and Characterization of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Particle Reinforced Sn-In Solders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Kohn C

    2006-01-01

    .... In previous work, it was proposed that reinforcement of solder by NiTi shape memory alloy particles to form smart composite solder reduces the inelastic strain of the solder and hence, may enhance...

  12. In-vitro investigations of skin closure using diode laser and protein solder containing gold nano shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, M. S.; Etrati Khosroshahi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Laser tissue soldering is a new technique for repair of various tissues including the skin, liver, articular cartilage and nerves and is a promising alternative to suture. To overcome the problems of thermal damage to surrounding tissues and low laser penetration depth, some exogenous chromophores such as gold nano shells, a new class of nanoparticles consisting of a dielectric core surrounded by a thin metal shell, are used. The aims of this study were to use two different concentrations of gold nano shells as the exogenous material for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effects of laser soldering parameters on the properties of the repaired skin. Material and Methods: Two mixtures of albumin solder and different concentrations of gold nano shells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2*20 mm 2 was made on the surface and after placing 50 μ1 of the solder mixture on the incision, an 810 nm diode laser was used to irradiate it at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength, σt, due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns), and scan velocity (Vs) were investigated. Results: The results showed that the tensile strength of the repaired skin increased with increasing irradiance for both gold nano shell concentrations. In addition, at constant laser irradiance (I), the tensile strength of the repaired incision increased with increasing Ns and decreasing Vs. In our case, this corresponded to σt = 1610 g/cm 2 at I ∼ 60 W cm-2, T ∼ 65 d egree C , Ns = 10 and Vs = 0.2 mms-1. Discussion and Conclusion: Gold nano shells can be used as an indocyanine green dye alterative for laser tissue soldering. Although by increasing the laser power density, the tensile strength of the repaired skin increases, an optimum power density must be considered due to the resulting increase in tissue temperature.

  13. Effect of Solder Flux Residues on Corrosion of Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Stentoft; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Flux from ‘No Clean’ solder processes can cause reliability problems in the field due to aggressive residues, which may be electrical conducting or corrosive in humid environments. The solder temperature during a wave solder process is of great importance to the amount of residues left on a PCBA...... testing and use in the field, consequences and recommendations are given. Failures, caused by harsh[1] customer environments, are not covered in this paper....

  14. Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.L.

    1980-01-01

    Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium alloys widely distributed in industry: VN3, VN4, VN5A, VN5AE, VN5AEP etc., 0.6-1.2 mm thick are investigated. It is found out that the usage of zirconium-vanadium, titanium-tantalum solders for welding niobium base alloys permits to obtain soldered joints with satisfactory mechanical properties at elevated temperatures

  15. Biomaterials in search of a meniscus substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Jan J; van Tienen, Tony G; van Bochove, Bas; Grijpma, Dirk W; Buma, Pieter

    2014-04-01

    The menisci fulfill key biomechanical functions in the tibiofemoral (knee) joint. Unfortunately meniscal injuries are quite common and most often treated by (partial) meniscectomy. However, some patients experience enduring symptoms, and, more importantly, it leads to an increased risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis. Over the past decades, researchers have put effort in developing a meniscal substitute able to prevent osteoarthritis and treat enduring clinical symptoms. Grossly, two categories of substitutes are observed: First, a resorbable scaffold mimicking biomechanical function which slowly degrades while tissue regeneration and organization is promoted. Second, a non resorbable, permanent implant which mimics the biomechanical function of the native meniscus. Numerous biomaterials with different (material) properties have been used in order to provide such a substitute. Nevertheless, a clinically applicable cartilage protecting material is not yet emerged. In the current review we provide an overview, and discuss, these different materials and extract recommendations regarding material properties for future developmental research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Meniscus effect in microgravity materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    While the microgravity environment of orbit eliminates a number of effects that impede the formation of materials on Earth, the change can also cause new, unwanted effects. A mysterious phenomenon, known as detached solidification, apparently stems from a small hydrostatic force that turns out to be pervasive. The contact of the solid with the ampoule transfers stress to the growing crystal and causing unwanted dislocations and twins. William Wilcox and Liya Regel of Clarkson University theorize that the melt is in contact with the ampoule wall, while the solid is not, and the melt and solid are cornected by a meniscus. Their work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Researcxh, and builds on earlier work by Dr. David Larson of the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

  17. Evaluation on the characteristics of tin-silver-bismuth solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z.; Shi, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2002-02-01

    Tin-silver-bismuth solder is characterized by its lower melting point, good wetting behavior, and good mechanical property for which it is expected to be a new lead-free solder to replace tin-lead solder. In this article, Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi solder was investigated concerning its physical, spreading, and mechanical properties under specific conditions. Cooling curves and DSC results showed that it was close to eutectic composition (m.p. 210° 212 °C). Coefficiency of thermal expansion (CTE) of this solder, between that of PCBs and copper substrates, was beneficial to alleviate the thermal mismatch of the substrates. It was also a good electrical and thermal conductor. Using a rosin-based, mildly activated (RMA) flux, a spreading test indicated that SnAgBi solder paste had good solderability. Meanwhile, the solder had high tensile strength and fracture energy. Its fracture mechanism was a mixture of ductile and brittle fracture morphology. The metallographic and EDAX analyses indicated that it was composed of a tin-based solid solution and some intermetallic compound (IMC) that could strengthen the substrate. However, these large needle-like IMCs would cut the substrate and this resulted in the decreasing of the toughness of the solder.

  18. Review: Modelling of meniscus of knee joint during soccer kicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib, Mohd; Firdaus Jaafar, Mohd

    2013-12-01

    Knee is a part of the body that located between thigh and shank is one of the most complicated and largest joints in the human body. The common injuries that occur are ligaments, meniscus or bone fracture. During soccer games, the knee is the most critical part that will easily injure due to the shock from an external impact. Torn meniscus is one of the effects. This study will investigate the effect towards the meniscus within the knee joint during soccer ball kicking. We conduct a literary review of 14 journals that discuss the general view of meniscus and also soccer kicking. The selected topics for this review paper are meniscal function, meniscal movement, meniscal tears and also instep kick. As a finding, statistics show that most meniscal tears (73%) occurred in athletes who were soccer players, basketball players or skiers. The tear is frequently happening at the medial side rather than lateral side with a percentage of 70%.

  19. Polymer composite microtube array produced by meniscus-guided approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Hwang Won

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Single freestanding microtubes of poly(methyl methacrylate/polypyrrole (PMMA/PPy are produced based on a meniscus-guided approach. A ring-deposit of nanoparticles is first formed in a meniscus solution of PMMA/PPy nanoparticles by outward liquid flow in fast solvent evaporation. Continuous accumulation of nanoparticles on the ring-deposit is then made by guiding the meniscus upward under the outward flow, thereby forming single composite microtube with controlled outer diameter and wall thickness. The meniscus-guiding enables us to produce an array of freestanding microtubes that are individually controlled in size at the desired positions. We demonstrate individually addressable gas sensors by integrating PMMA/PPy microtubes on electrodes.

  20. Propagative modes along a superfluid helium-4 meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poujade, M.; Guthmann, C.; Rolley, E.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the dynamics of a superfluid helium-4 meniscus on a solid substrate. In a pseudo-non-wetting situation, there is no hysteresis of the contact angle. We show that distortions of a liquid meniscus do propagate along the contact line. We have analyzed the propagation of pulses. We find a good agreement with theoretical predictions by Brochard for the dispersion relation of oscillation modes of the contact line. (authors)

  1. Reliability Study of Solder Paste Alloy for the Improvement of Solder Joint at Surface Mount Fine-Pitch Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in metal costs has forced the electronics industry to provide new materials and methods to reduce costs, while maintaining customers’ high-quality expectations. This paper considers the problem of most electronic industries in reducing costly materials, by introducing a solder paste with alloy composition tin 98.3%, silver 0.3%, and copper 0.7%, used for the construction of the surface mount fine-pitch component on a Printing Wiring Board (PWB. The reliability of the solder joint between electronic components and PWB is evaluated through the dynamic characteristic test, thermal shock test, and Taguchi method after the printing process. After experimenting with the dynamic characteristic test and thermal shock test with 20 boards, the solder paste was still able to provide a high-quality solder joint. In particular, the Taguchi method is used to determine the optimal control parameters and noise factors of the Solder Printer (SP machine, that affects solder volume and solder height. The control parameters include table separation distance, squeegee speed, squeegee pressure, and table speed of the SP machine. The result shows that the most significant parameter for the solder volume is squeegee pressure (2.0 mm, and the solder height is the table speed of the SP machine (2.5 mm/s.

  2. MRI diagnosis of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaofeng; Zhou Chengtao; Mu Renqi; Zhang Guanghui; Xu Yongzhong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MR imaging of reverse and separation of meniscal articular capsule. Methods: MR imaging of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule confirmed by surgery and arthroscope were analyzed retrospectively in 8 cases. Results: The 'Butterfly knot sign' disappeared and was replaced with fluid signal on the sagittal slice of meniscal body in 8 cases. Part of back angle remained in 3 cases. 'Double anterior cruciate ligament sign' was showed on one side of middle sagittal slice in 7 cases. 'Reverse meniscus sign' was revealed in intercondylar fossa on the coronary view in 8 cases. Abnormal high signal was showed in the injured meniscus in 6 cases. Abnormal high signal was detected in the opposite meniscus in 5 cases. Conclusion: The MR findings of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule include disappearance of 'butterfly knot sign', appearance of 'reverse meniscus sign' and 'double anterior cruciate ligament sign'. The diagnosis would be established if the former 2 signs were present or all the 3 signs were present simultaneously. (authors)

  3. The Influence of Articular Cartilage Thickness Reduction on Meniscus Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczkiewicz, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Karol; Chróścielewski, Jacek; Witkowski, Wojciech; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the biomechanical interaction between meniscus and cartilage in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. The finite element method was used to simulate knee joint contact mechanics. Three knee models were created on the basis of knee geometry from the Open Knee project. We reduced the thickness of medial cartilages in the intact knee model by approximately 50% to obtain a medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) model. Two variants of medial knee OA model with congruent and incongruent contact surfaces were analysed to investigate the influence of congruency. A nonlinear static analysis for one compressive load case was performed. The focus of the study was the influence of cartilage degeneration on meniscal extrusion and the values of the contact forces and contact areas. In the model with incongruent contact surfaces, we observed maximal compressive stress on the tibial plateau. In this model, the value of medial meniscus external shift was 95.3% greater, while the contact area between the tibial cartilage and medial meniscus was 50% lower than in the congruent contact surfaces model. After the non-uniform reduction of cartilage thickness, the medial meniscus carried only 48.4% of load in the medial compartment in comparison to 71.2% in the healthy knee model. We have shown that the change in articular cartilage geometry may significantly reduce the role of meniscus in load transmission and the contact area between the meniscus and cartilage. Additionally, medial knee OA may increase the risk of meniscal extrusion in the medial compartment of the knee joint.

  4. Laser-activated protein solder for peripheral nerve repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Rodney I.; Lauto, Antonio; Dawes, Judith M.; Owen, Earl R.

    1995-05-01

    A 100 micrometers core optical fiber-coupled 75 mW diode laser operating at a wavelength of 800 nm has been used in conjunction with a protein solder to stripe weld severed rat tibial nerves, reducing the long operating time required for microsurgical nerve repair. Welding is produced by selective laser denaturation of the albumin based solder which contains the dye indocyanine green. Operating time for laser soldering was 10 +/- 5 min. (n equals 20) compared to 23 +/- 9 min. (n equals 10) for microsuturing. The laser solder technique resulted in patent welds with a tensile strength of 15 +/- 5 g, while microsutured nerves had a tensile strength of 40 +/- 10 g. Histopathology of the laser soldered nerves, conducted immediately after surgery, displayed solder adhesion to the outer membrane with minimal damage to the inner axons of the nerves. An in vivo study is under way comparing laser solder repaired tibial nerves to conventional microsuture repair. At the time of submission 15 laser soldered nerves and 7 sutured nerves were characterized at 3 months and showed successful regeneration with compound muscle action potentials of 27 +/- 8 mV and 29 +/- 8 mW respectively. A faster, less damaging and long lasting laser based anastomotic technique is presented.

  5. Soldering of copper-clad niobium--titanium superconductor composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, A.J.; Woodhouse, J.J.; Easton, D.S.

    1977-04-01

    When superconductivity is applied to various electrical devices, the joining of the superconducting material and the performance of the joints are generally crucial to the successful operation of the system. Although many techniques are being considered for joining composite superconductors, soldering is the most common. We determined the wetting and flow behavior of various solder and flux combinations on a copper-clad Nb-Ti composite, developed equipment and techniques for soldering and inspection of lap joints, and determined the shear strength of joints at temperatures down to -269 0 C (4 0 K). We studied 15 solders and 17 commercial and experimental fluxes in the wettability and flow tests. A resistance unit was built for soldering test specimens. A series of samples soldered with 80 Pb-20 Sn, 83 Pb-15 Sn-2 Sb, 97.5 Pb-1.5 Ag-1 Sn, 80 In-15 Pb-5 Ag, or 25 In-37.5 Pb-37.5 Sn (wt percent) was inspected by three nondestructive techniques. Through-transmission ultrasound gave the best correlation with nonbond areas revealed in peel tests. Single-lap shear specimens soldered with 97.5 Pb-1.5 Ag-1 Sn had the highest strength (10.44 ksi, 72 MPa) and total elongation (0.074 in., 1.88 mm) at -269 0 C (4 0 K) of four solders tested

  6. The accuracy of musculoskeletal ultrasound examination for the exploration of meniscus injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureşan, Simona; Mureşan, Mircea; Voidăzan, Septimiu; Neagoe, Radu

    2017-05-01

    Meniscus injuries represent a frequently occurring pathology in athletes and require an optimum diagnosis protocol. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound examination for the identification of meniscus injuries, in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using the arthroscopy as reference. This prospective longitudinal comparative study included 45 athletes who were clinically examined by MRI and further, by arthroscopy, in a medical center dedicated to sport traumatology. The conventional ultrasound exploration of the knee allowed the identification of a diverse pathology, presenting a sensitivity of 88.8% for the diagnosis of medial meniscus injuries and 70.0% for the lateral meniscus. The specificity was 77.7% for the medial meniscus and 96.0% for the identification of lateral meniscus injuries. Using MRI, a sensitivity of 69.4% was obtained for the medial meniscus and 75.0% for the lateral meniscus, with a specificity of 76.6% for the pathology of medial meniscus and 80.0% for the lateral meniscus. Statistical analysis, based on the comparison of ROC curves, did not show any significant difference between the two applied diagnostic techniques (P=0.061 for the medial meniscus and P=0.534 for the lateral meniscus). The musculoskeletal ultrasound exploration of the knee joint, performed in a medical center with high addressability, by an experienced examiner, was able to identify the medial and lateral meniscus injuries with an accuracy comparable to that of MRI examination.

  7. Transport of Iodine Is Different in Cartilage and Meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, J T J; Turunen, M J; Tiitu, V; Jurvelin, J S; Töyräs, J

    2016-07-01

    Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) has been proposed for diagnostics of cartilage and meniscus injuries and degeneration. As both tissues may be imaged simultaneously, CECT could provide a method for comprehensive evaluation of knee joint health. Since the composition and structure of cartilage and meniscus are different, we hypothesize that transport characteristics of anionic contrast agents also differ between the tissues. This would affect interpretation of CECT images and warrants investigation. To clarify this, we aimed to determine the transport kinematics of anionic iodine (q = -1, M = 126.9 g/mol), assumed to not be significantly affected by the steric hindrance, thus providing faster transport than large molecule contrast agents (e.g., ioxaglate). Cylindrical samples (d = 6 mm, h = 2 mm) were prepared from healthy bovine (n = 10) patella and meniscus, immersed in isotonic phosphate-buffered NaI solution (20 mgI/mL), and subsequently imaged with a micro-CT at 20 time points up to 23 h. Subsequently, normalized attenuation and contrast agent flux, as well as water, collagen, and proteoglycan (PG) contents in the tissues were determined. Normalized attenuation at equilibrium was higher (p = 0.005) in meniscus. Contrast agent flux was lower (p = 0.005) in the meniscus at 10 min, but higher (p meniscus was different, especially between the first 2 hours after the immersion. This is an important finding which should be considered during simultaneous CECT of cartilage and meniscus.

  8. Micromechanical anisotropy and heterogeneity of the meniscus extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qu, Feini; Han, Biao; Wang, Chao; Li, Hao; Mauck, Robert L; Han, Lin

    2017-05-01

    To understand how the complex biomechanical functions of the meniscus are endowed by the nanostructure of its extracellular matrix (ECM), we studied the anisotropy and heterogeneity in the micromechanical properties of the meniscus ECM. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the time-dependent mechanical properties of juvenile bovine meniscus at deformation length scales corresponding to the diameters of collagen fibrils. At this scale, anisotropy in the elastic modulus of the circumferential fibers, the major ECM structural unit, can be attributed to differences in fibril deformation modes: uncrimping when normal to the fiber axis, and laterally constrained compression when parallel to the fiber axis. Heterogeneity among different structural units is mainly associated with their variations in microscale fiber orientation, while heterogeneity across anatomical zones is due to alterations in collagen fibril diameter and alignment at the nanoscale. Unlike the elastic modulus, the time-dependent properties are more homogeneous and isotropic throughout the ECM. These results enable a detailed understanding of the meniscus structure-mechanics at the nanoscale, and can serve as a benchmark for understanding meniscus biomechanical functions, documenting disease progression and designing tissue repair strategies. Meniscal damage is a common cause of joint injury, which can lead to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis among young adults. Restoration of meniscus function requires repairing its highly heterogeneous and complex extracellular matrix. Employing AFM, this study quantifies the anisotropic and heterogeneous features of the meniscus ECM structure and mechanics. The micromechanical properties are interpreted within the context of the collagen fibril nanostructure and its variation with tissue anatomical locations. These results provide a fundamental structure-mechanics knowledge benchmark, against which, repair and regeneration strategies can

  9. Region-Specific Effect of the Decellularized Meniscus Extracellular Matrix on Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Meniscus Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Kazunori; Rothrauff, Benjamin B; Tuan, Rocky S

    2017-03-01

    The meniscus is the most commonly injured knee structure, and surgical repair is often ineffective. Tissue engineering-based repair or regeneration may provide a needed solution. Decellularized, tissue-derived extracellular matrices (ECMs) have received attention for their potential use as tissue-engineered scaffolds. In considering meniscus-derived ECMs (mECMs) for meniscus tissue engineering, it is noteworthy that the inner and outer regions of the meniscus have different structural and biochemical features, potentially directing the differentiation of cells toward region-specific phenotypes. To investigate the applicability of mECMs for meniscus tissue engineering by specifically comparing region-dependent effects of mECMs on 3-dimensional constructs seeded with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Controlled laboratory study. Bovine menisci were divided into inner and outer halves and were minced, treated with Triton X-100 and DNase, and extracted with urea. Then, hBMSCs (1 × 10 6 cells/mL) were encapsulated in a photo-cross-linked 10% polyethylene glycol diacrylate scaffold containing mECMs (60 μg/mL) derived from either the inner or outer meniscus, with an ECM-free scaffold as a control. The cell-seeded constructs were cultured with chondrogenic medium containing recombinant human transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3) and were analyzed for expression of meniscus-associated genes as well as for the collagen (hydroxyproline) and glycosaminoglycan content as a function of time. Decellularization was verified by the absence of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained cell nuclei and a reduction in the DNA content. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that collagen type I expression was significantly higher in the outer mECM group than in the other groups, while collagen type II and aggrecan expression was highest in the inner mECM group. The collagen (hydroxyproline) content was highest in the outer mECM group, while the

  10. Integration of environmentally compatible soldering technologies for waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosking, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    There has been a concentrated effort throughout the international microelectronics industry to phase out chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) materials and alleviate the serious problem of ozone depletion created by the release of CFCS. The development of more environmentally compatible manufacturing technologies is the cornerstone of this effort. Alternative materials and processes for cleaning and soldering have received special attention. Electronic. soldering typically utilizes rosin-based fluxes to promote solder wettability. Flux residues must be removed from the soldered parts when high product reliability is essential. Halogenated or CFC solvents have been the principle chemicals used to clean the residues. With the accelerated push to eliminate CFCs in the US by 1995, CFC-free solvents, aqueous-based cleaning, water soluble or ''no clean'' fluxes, and fluxless soldering technologies are being developed and quickly integrated into manufacturing practice. Sandia's Center for Solder Science and Technology has been ch g a variety of fluxless and alternative soldering technologies for DOE's waste minimization program. The work has focused on controlled atmosphere, laser, and ultrasonic fluxless soldering, protective metallic and organic coatings, and fluxes which have water soluble or low solids-based chemistries. With the increasing concern that Pb will also be banned from electronic soldering, Sandia has been characterizing the wetting, aging, and mechanical properties of Pb-fire solder alloys. The progress of these integrated studies will be discussed. Their impact on environmentally compatible manufacturing will be emphasized. Since there is no universal solution to the various environmental, safety, and health issues which currently face industry, the proposed technologies offer several complementary materials and processing options from which one can choose

  11. Microstructurally Adaptive Constitutive Relations and Reliability Assessment Protocols for Lead Free Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-05

    under bump metallurgy and solder joint geometry on Sn grain morphology in Pb free solder joints were examined. SnAgCu solder joints were examined for...free solder interconnects”, Sci. Technol. Weld . Join. 13, 732 (2008). [3.25] Terashima, S., Takahama, K., Nozaki, M., and Tanaka, M. Recrystallization

  12. Impact of Partial and complete rupture of anterior cruciate ligament on medial meniscus: A cadavaric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Similar to complete rupture, partial rupture of ACL can also trigger strain concentration on medial meniscus, especially posterior horn, which may be a more critical reason for meniscus injury associated with chronic ACL deficiency.

  13. MRI of radial displacement of the meniscus in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Lv Houshan; Lao Shan; Guan Zhenpeng; Hong Nan; Liang Hao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenomenon of radial displacement of the meniscus of the knees in the study population with MR imaging, and to establish MRI diagnostic criteria for radial displacement of the meniscus and displacement index. Methods: MR signs of radial displacement of the meniscus were evaluated retrospectively in 398 patients with knee symptoms who were examined with non- weight bearing MR images from Jan. 2000 to Feb. 2004. The patients younger than 18 years old, with joint effusion or serious arthropathy were excluded and 312 patients were eligible to be enrolled in this study. The criterion for radial displacement of the meniscus was defined as the location of the edge of meniscal body beyond the femoral and tibial outer border line. A displacement index, defined as the ratio of meniscal overhang to meniscal width, was used to quantify meniscal displacement. Results: The prevalence of radial displacement of the meniscus was 16.7% (52/312) and 13.9% (21/151) in right knee and 19.3% (31/161 )in left knee, respectively. There was no significant difference between left and right knee (χ 2 =1.60, P>0.05) and the ratio between medial and lateral meniscus was 7.8:1. The average displacement index was 0.54±0.24. The displacement indices were significant higher in older group (F=3.63, P<0.05). The incidence and indices of radial displacement of the meniscus for patients under or above 50 year older were 12.0%(17/142), 0.46±0.22 and 20.6% (35/170), 0.64±0.20, respectively. Difference was highly significant (t=0.84, P<0.01). Conclusion: It was concluded that radial displacement of the meniscus in knees was not a rare finding with MR imaging in patients with knee symptoms. The incidence increased in older age group. Further investigations were recommended to understand the etiology and clinical significance of the phenomenon of radial displacement of the meniscus. (authors)

  14. Biological augmentation and tissue engineering approaches in meniscus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Cathal J; Busilacchi, Alberto; Lee, Cassandra A; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Verdonk, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate the role of biological augmentation and tissue engineering strategies in meniscus surgery. Although clinical (human), preclinical (animal), and in vitro tissue engineering studies are included here, we have placed additional focus on addressing preclinical and clinical studies reported during the 5-year period used in this review in a systematic fashion while also providing a summary review of some important in vitro tissue engineering findings in the field over the past decade. A search was performed on PubMed for original works published from 2009 to March 31, 2014 using the term "meniscus" with all the following terms: "scaffolds," "constructs," "cells," "growth factors," "implant," "tissue engineering," and "regenerative medicine." Inclusion criteria were the following: English-language articles and original clinical, preclinical (in vivo), and in vitro studies of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine application in knee meniscus lesions published from 2009 to March 31, 2014. Three clinical studies and 18 preclinical studies were identified along with 68 tissue engineering in vitro studies. These reports show the increasing promise of biological augmentation and tissue engineering strategies in meniscus surgery. The role of stem cell and growth factor therapy appears to be particularly useful. A review of in vitro tissue engineering studies found a large number of scaffold types to be of promise for meniscus replacement. Limitations include a relatively low number of clinical or preclinical in vivo studies, in addition to the fact there is as yet no report in the literature of a tissue-engineered meniscus construct used clinically. Neither does the literature provide clarity on the optimal meniscus scaffold type or biological augmentation with which meniscus repair or replacement would be best addressed in the future. There is increasing focus on the role of mechanobiology and biomechanical and

  15. Influence of the liquid helium meniscus on neutron reflectometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinane, C.J.; Kirichek, O.; Charlton, T.R.; McClintock, P.V.E.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry offers a unique opportunity for the direct observation of nanostratification in 3 He- 4 He mixtures in the ultra-low temperature limit. Unfortunately the results of recent experiments could not be well-modelled on account of a seemingly anomalous variation of reflectivity with momentum transfer. We now hypothesize that this effect is attributable to an optical distortion caused by the liquid meniscus near the container wall. The validity of this idea is tested and confirmed through a subsidiary experiment on a D 2 O sample, showing that the meniscus can significantly distort results if the beam size in the horizontal plane is comparable with, or bigger than, the diameter of the container. The meniscus problem can be eliminated if the beam size is substantially smaller than the diameter of the container, such that reflection takes place only from the flat region of the liquid surface thus excluding the meniscus tails. Practical measures for minimizing the meniscus distortion effect are discussed.

  16. Characterization of lead-free solders for electronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongtao

    The characterization of lead-free solders, especially after isothermal aging, is very important in order to accurately predict the reliability of solder joints. However, due to lack of experimental testing standards and the high homologous temperature of solder alloys (Th > 0.5T m even at room temperature), there are very large discrepancies in both the tensile and creep properties provided in current databases for both lead-free and Sn-Pb solder alloys. In this research, mechanical measurements of isothermal aging effects and the resulting changes in the materials behavior of lead-free solders were performed. A novel specimen preparation procedure was developed where the solder uniaxial test specimens are formed in high precision rectangular cross-section glass tubes using a vacuum suction process. Using specimens fabricated with the developed procedure, isothermal aging effects and viscoplastic material behavior evolution have been characterized for 95.5Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405) and 96.5Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) lead-free solders, which are commonly used as the solder ball alloy in lead-free BGAs and other components. Analogous tests were performed with 63Sn-37Pb eutectic solder samples for comparison purposes. Up to 40% reduction in tensile strength was observed for water quenched specimens after two months of aging at room temperature. Creep deformation also increased dramatically with increasing aging durations. Microstructural changes during room temperature aging were also observed and recorded for the solder alloys and correlated with the observed mechanical behavior changes. Aging effects at elevated temperatures for up to 6 months were also investigated. Thermal aging caused significant tensile strength loss and deterioration of creep deformation. The thermal aging results also showed that after an initial tensile strength drop, the Sn-Pb eutectic solder reached a relatively stable stage after 200 hours of aging. However, for SAC alloy, both the tensile and

  17. Effects of dwell time of excitation waveform on meniscus movements for a tubular piezoelectric print-head: experiments and model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiaqing; Liu, Yaxin; Huang, Bo

    2017-07-01

    In inkjet applications, it is normal to search for an optimal drive waveform when dispensing a fresh fluid or adjusting a newly fabricated print-head. To test trial waveforms with different dwell times, a camera and a strobe light were used to image the protruding or retracting liquid tongues without ejecting any droplets. An edge detection method was used to calculate the lengths of the liquid tongues to draw the meniscus movement curves. The meniscus movement is determined by the time-domain response of the acoustic pressure at the nozzle of the print-head. Starting at the inverse piezoelectric effect, a mathematical model which considers the liquid viscosity in acoustic propagation is constructed to study the acoustic pressure response at the nozzle of the print-head. The liquid viscosity retards the propagation speed and dampens the harmonic amplitude. The pressure response, which is the combined effect of the acoustic pressures generated during the rising time and the falling time and after their propagations and reflections, explains the meniscus movements well. Finally, the optimal dwell time for droplet ejections is discussed.

  18. Effects of dwell time of excitation waveform on meniscus movements for a tubular piezoelectric print-head: experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiaqing; Liu, Yaxin; Huang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    In inkjet applications, it is normal to search for an optimal drive waveform when dispensing a fresh fluid or adjusting a newly fabricated print-head. To test trial waveforms with different dwell times, a camera and a strobe light were used to image the protruding or retracting liquid tongues without ejecting any droplets. An edge detection method was used to calculate the lengths of the liquid tongues to draw the meniscus movement curves. The meniscus movement is determined by the time-domain response of the acoustic pressure at the nozzle of the print-head. Starting at the inverse piezoelectric effect, a mathematical model which considers the liquid viscosity in acoustic propagation is constructed to study the acoustic pressure response at the nozzle of the print-head. The liquid viscosity retards the propagation speed and dampens the harmonic amplitude. The pressure response, which is the combined effect of the acoustic pressures generated during the rising time and the falling time and after their propagations and reflections, explains the meniscus movements well. Finally, the optimal dwell time for droplet ejections is discussed. (paper)

  19. Effect of solder bump size on interfacial reactions during soldering between Pb-free solder and Cu and Ni/ Pd/ Au surface finishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NorAkmal, F.; Ourdjini, A.; Azmah Hanim, M.A.; Siti Aisha, I.; Chin, Y.T.

    2007-01-01

    Flip chip technology provides the ultimate in high I/ O-density and count with superior electrical performance for interconnecting electronic components. Therefore, the study of the intermetallic compounds was conducted to investigate the effect of solder bumps sizes on several surface finishes which are copper and Electroless Nickel/ Electroless Palladium/ Immersion Gold (ENEPIG) which is widely used in electronics packaging as surface finish for flip-chip application nowadays. In this research, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis was conducted to analyze the morphology and composition of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interface between the solder and UBM. The IMCs between the SAC lead-free solder with Cu surface finish after reflow were mainly (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 and Cu 6 Sn 5 . While the main IMCs formed between lead-free solder on ENEPIG surface finish are (Ni, Cu) 3 Sn 4 and Ni 3 Sn 4 . The results from FESEM with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) have revealed that isothermal aging at 150 degree Celsius has caused the thickening and coarsening of IMCs as well as changing them into more spherical shape. The thickness of the intermetallic compounds in both finishes investigated was found to be higher in solders with smaller bump size. From the experimental results, it also appears that the growth rate of IMCs is higher when soldering on copper compared to ENEPIG finish. Besides that, the results also showed that the thickness of intermetallic compounds was found to be proportional to isothermal aging duration. (author)

  20. MR appearance of anomalous insertion of the medial meniscus. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjun, S.; Takahashi, S.; Nakane, N.; Yonemitsu, H.; Tang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    We report on the MR imaging of an anomalous medial meniscus with a tear in a 41-year-old man. Anomaly of the medial meniscus is rare and difficult to diagnose clinically. The MR images contributed to the pre-arthroscopic diagnosis and arthroscopy confirmed the lesion. The anomalous meniscus was not related to the symptoms. (orig.)

  1. Soldering formalism in noncommutative field theory: a brief note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subir

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, I develop the soldering formalism in a new domain--the noncommutative planar field theories. The soldering mechanism fuses two distinct theories showing opposite or complimentary properties of some symmetry, taking into account the interference effects. The above mentioned symmetry is hidden in the composite (or soldered) theory. In the present work it is shown that a pair of noncommutative Maxwell-Chern-Simons theories, having opposite signs in their respective topological terms, can be consistently soldered to yield the Proca model (Maxwell theory with a mass term) with corrections that are at least quadratic in the noncommutativity parameter. We further argue that this model can be thought of as the noncommutative generalization of the Proca theory of ordinary spacetime. It is well known that abelian noncommutative gauge theory bears a close structural similarity with non-abelian gauge theory. This fact is manifested in a non-trivial way if the present Letter is compared with existing literature, where soldering of non-abelian models are discussed. Thus the present work further establishes the robustness of the soldering programme. The subtle role played by gauge invariance (or the lack of it), in the above soldering process, is revealed in an interesting way

  2. Utilization of Pb-free solders in MEMS packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    2003-01-01

    Soldering of components within a package plays an important role in providing electrical interconnection, mechanical integrity and thermal dissipation. MEMS packages present challenges that are more complex than microelectronic packages because they are far more sensitive to shock and vibration and also require precision alignment. Soldering is used at two major levels within a MEMS package: at the die attach level and at the component attach level. Emerging environmental regulations worldwide, notably in Europe and Japan, have targeted the elimination of Pb usage in electronic assemblies, due to the inherent toxicity of Pb. This has provided the driving force for development and deployment of Pb-free solder alloys. A relatively large number of Pb-free solder alloys have been proposed by various researchers and companies. Some of these alloys have also been patented. After several years of research, the solder alloy system that has emerged is based on Sn as a major component. The electronics industry has identified different compositions for different specific uses, such as wave soldering, surface mount reflow, etc. The factors that affect choice of an appropriate Pb-free solder can be divided into two major categories, those related to manufacturing, and those related to long term reliability and performance.

  3. Fatigue and thermal fatigue of Pb-Sn solder joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frear, D.; Grivas, D.; McCormack, M.; Tribula, D.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental investigation of the fatigue and thermal fatigue characteristics, with an emphasis on the microstructural development during fatigue, of Sn-Pb solder joints. Fatigue tests were performed in simple shear on both 60Sn-40Pb and 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Isothermal fatigue tests show increasing fatigue life of 60Sn-40Pb solder joints with decreasing strain and temperature. In contrast, such behavior was not observed in the isothermal fatigue of 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Thermal fatigue results on 60Sn-40Pb solder cycled between -55 0 C and 125 0 C show that a coarsened region develops in the center of the joint. Both Pb-rich and Sn-rich phases coarsen, and cracks form within these coarsened regions. The failure mode 60Sn-40Pb solder joints in thermal and isothermal fatigue is similar: cracks form intergranularly through the Sn-rich phase or along Sn/Pb interphase boundaries. Extensive cracking is found throughout the 5Sn-95Pb joint for both thermal and isothermal fatigue. In thermal fatigue the 5Sn-95Pb solder joints failed after fewer cycles than 60Sn-40Pb

  4. Clinical Application of Scaffolds for Partial Meniscus Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Cathal J; Withers, Daniel P; Kurzweil, Peter R; Verdonk, Peter C

    2015-09-01

    Meniscal tears are common injuries often treated by partial meniscectomy. This may result in altered joint contact mechanics which in turn may lead to worsening symptoms and an increased risk of osteoarthritis. Meniscal scaffolds have been proposed as a treatment option aimed at reducing symptoms while also potentially reducing progression of degenerative change. There are 2 scaffolds available for clinical use at the present time; Collagen Meniscus Implant and Actifit. Medium-term to long-term data (4.9 to 11.3 y) demonstrate efficacy of partial meniscus replacement. The patients who seem to benefit most are chronic postmeniscectomy rather than acute meniscal injuries. Herein we report on available clinical data for Collagen Meniscus Implant and Actifit while describing our preferred surgical technique and postoperative rehabilitation program.

  5. Negative pressure characteristics of an evaporating meniscus at nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroo Shalabh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims at understanding the characteristics of negative liquid pressures at the nanoscale using molecular dynamics simulation. A nano-meniscus is formed by placing liquid argon on a platinum wall between two nano-channels filled with the same liquid. Evaporation is simulated in the meniscus by increasing the temperature of the platinum wall for two different cases. Non-evaporating films are obtained at the center of the meniscus. The liquid film in the non-evaporating and adjacent regions is found to be under high absolute negative pressures. Cavitation cannot occur in these regions as the capillary height is smaller than the critical cavitation radius. Factors which determine the critical film thickness for rupture are discussed. Thus, high negative liquid pressures can be stable at the nanoscale, and utilized to create passive pumping devices as well as significantly enhance heat transfer rates.

  6. Ex vivo quantitative multiparametric MRI mapping of human meniscus degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebelung, Sven; Kuhl, Christiane; Truhn, Daniel; Tingart, Markus; Jahr, Holger; Pufe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of T1, T1ρ, T2, T2*, and UTE-T2* (ultrashort-echo time-enhanced T2*) mapping in the refined graduation of human meniscus degeneration with histology serving as standard-of-reference. This IRB-approved intra-individual comparative ex vivo study was performed on 24 lateral meniscus body samples obtained from 24 patients undergoing total knee replacement. Samples were assessed on a 3.0-T MRI scanner using inversion-recovery (T1), spin-lock multi-gradient-echo (T1ρ), multi-spin-echo (T2) and multi-gradient-echo (T2* and UTE-T2*) sequences to determine relaxation times of quantitative MRI (qMRI) parameters. Relaxation times were calculated on the respective maps, averaged to the entire meniscus and to its zones. Histologically, samples were analyzed on a four-point score according to Williams (0-III). QMRI results and Williams (sub)scores were correlated using Spearman's ρ, while Williams grade-dependent differences were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Sensitivities and specificities in the detection of intact (Williams grade [WG]-0) and severely degenerate meniscus (WG-II-III) were calculated. Except for T2*, significant increases in qMRI parameters with increasing Williams grades were observed. T1, T1ρ, T2, and UTE-T2* exhibited high sensitivity and variable specificity rates. Significant marked-to-strong correlations were observed for these parameters with each other, with histological WGs and the subscores tissue integrity and cellularity. QMRI mapping holds promise in the objective evaluation of human meniscus. Although sufficient discriminatory power of T1, T1ρ, T2, and UTE-T2* was only demonstrated for the histological extremes, these data may aid in the future MRI-based parameterization and quantification of human meniscus degeneration. (orig.)

  7. Ex vivo quantitative multiparametric MRI mapping of human meniscus degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebelung, Sven; Kuhl, Christiane; Truhn, Daniel [Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Tingart, Markus; Jahr, Holger [Aachen University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Aachen (Germany); Pufe, Thomas [RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of T1, T1ρ, T2, T2*, and UTE-T2* (ultrashort-echo time-enhanced T2*) mapping in the refined graduation of human meniscus degeneration with histology serving as standard-of-reference. This IRB-approved intra-individual comparative ex vivo study was performed on 24 lateral meniscus body samples obtained from 24 patients undergoing total knee replacement. Samples were assessed on a 3.0-T MRI scanner using inversion-recovery (T1), spin-lock multi-gradient-echo (T1ρ), multi-spin-echo (T2) and multi-gradient-echo (T2* and UTE-T2*) sequences to determine relaxation times of quantitative MRI (qMRI) parameters. Relaxation times were calculated on the respective maps, averaged to the entire meniscus and to its zones. Histologically, samples were analyzed on a four-point score according to Williams (0-III). QMRI results and Williams (sub)scores were correlated using Spearman's ρ, while Williams grade-dependent differences were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Sensitivities and specificities in the detection of intact (Williams grade [WG]-0) and severely degenerate meniscus (WG-II-III) were calculated. Except for T2*, significant increases in qMRI parameters with increasing Williams grades were observed. T1, T1ρ, T2, and UTE-T2* exhibited high sensitivity and variable specificity rates. Significant marked-to-strong correlations were observed for these parameters with each other, with histological WGs and the subscores tissue integrity and cellularity. QMRI mapping holds promise in the objective evaluation of human meniscus. Although sufficient discriminatory power of T1, T1ρ, T2, and UTE-T2* was only demonstrated for the histological extremes, these data may aid in the future MRI-based parameterization and quantification of human meniscus degeneration. (orig.)

  8. Ex vivo quantitative multiparametric MRI mapping of human meniscus degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebelung, Sven; Tingart, Markus; Pufe, Thomas; Kuhl, Christiane; Jahr, Holger; Truhn, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of T1, T1ρ, T2, T2*, and UTE-T2* (ultrashort-echo time-enhanced T2*) mapping in the refined graduation of human meniscus degeneration with histology serving as standard-of-reference. This IRB-approved intra-individual comparative ex vivo study was performed on 24 lateral meniscus body samples obtained from 24 patients undergoing total knee replacement. Samples were assessed on a 3.0-T MRI scanner using inversion-recovery (T1), spin-lock multi-gradient-echo (T1ρ), multi-spin-echo (T2) and multi-gradient-echo (T2* and UTE-T2*) sequences to determine relaxation times of quantitative MRI (qMRI) parameters. Relaxation times were calculated on the respective maps, averaged to the entire meniscus and to its zones. Histologically, samples were analyzed on a four-point score according to Williams (0-III). QMRI results and Williams (sub)scores were correlated using Spearman's ρ, while Williams grade-dependent differences were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Sensitivities and specificities in the detection of intact (Williams grade [WG]-0) and severely degenerate meniscus (WG-II-III) were calculated. Except for T2*, significant increases in qMRI parameters with increasing Williams grades were observed. T1, T1ρ, T2, and UTE-T2* exhibited high sensitivity and variable specificity rates. Significant marked-to-strong correlations were observed for these parameters with each other, with histological WGs and the subscores tissue integrity and cellularity. QMRI mapping holds promise in the objective evaluation of human meniscus. Although sufficient discriminatory power of T1, T1ρ, T2, and UTE-T2* was only demonstrated for the histological extremes, these data may aid in the future MRI-based parameterization and quantification of human meniscus degeneration.

  9. Assessment of potential solder candidates for high temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    pressure to eliminate lead containing materials despite the fact that materials for high Pb containing alloys are currently not affected by any legislations. A tentative assessment was carried out to determine the potential solder candidates for high temperature applications based on the solidification...... criterion, phases predicted in the bulk solder and the thermodynamic stability of chlorides. These promising solder candidates were precisely produced using the hot stage microscope and its respective anodic and cathodic polarization curves were investigated using a micro-electrochemical set up...

  10. Manipulation and soldering of carbon nanotubes using atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwase, Yuta; Ikeda, Takayuki; Oya, Takahide; Ogino, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Manipulation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and soldering of CNTs using Fe oxide nanoparticles are described. We succeeded to separate a CNT bundle into two CNTs or CNT bundles, to move the separated CNT to a desirable position, and to bind it to another bundle. For the accurate manipulation, load of the AFM cantilever and frequency of the scan were carefully selected. We soldered two CNTs using an Fe oxide nanoparticle prepared from a ferritin molecule. The adhesion forces between the soldered CNTs were examined by an AFM and it was found that the CNTs were bound, though the binding force was not strong

  11. Role of scaffold mean pore size in meniscus regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Jiang, Dong; Ding, Jian-Xun; Wang, Shao-Jie; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Qi, Yan-Song; Chen, Xue-Si; Yu, Jia-Kuo

    2016-10-01

    Recently, meniscus tissue engineering offers a promising management for meniscus regeneration. Although rarely reported, the microarchitectures of scaffolds can deeply influence the behaviors of endogenous or exogenous stem/progenitor cells and subsequent tissue formation in meniscus tissue engineering. Herein, a series of three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with three distinct mean pore sizes (i.e., 215, 320, and 515μm) were fabricated via fused deposition modeling. The scaffold with the mean pore size of 215μm significantly improved both the proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production/deposition of mesenchymal stem cells compared to all other groups in vitro. Moreover, scaffolds with mean pore size of 215μm exhibited the greatest tensile and compressive moduli in all the acellular and cellular studies. In addition, the relatively better results of fibrocartilaginous tissue formation and chondroprotection were observed in the 215μm scaffold group after substituting the rabbit medial meniscectomy for 12weeks. Overall, the mean pore size of 3D-printed PCL scaffold could affect cell behavior, ECM production, biomechanics, and repair effect significantly. The PCL scaffold with mean pore size of 215μm presented superior results both in vitro and in vivo, which could be an alternative for meniscus tissue engineering. Meniscus tissue engineering provides a promising strategy for meniscus regeneration. In this regard, the microarchitectures (e.g., mean pore size) of scaffolds remarkably impact the behaviors of cells and subsequent tissue formation, which has been rarely reported. Herein, three three-dimensional poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with different mean pore sizes (i.e., 215, 320, and 515μm) were fabricated via fused deposition modeling. The results suggested that the mean pore size significantly affected the behaviors of endogenous or exogenous stem/progenitor cells and subsequent tissue formation. This study furthers

  12. The micro-droplet behavior of a molten lead-free solder in an inkjet printing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M H; Chou, H H; Hwang, W S

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the droplet formation of molten Sn3.0 wt%Ag0.5 wt%Cu alloy by an inkjet printing process was conducted. The printing process used a piezoelectric print head with a nozzle orifice diameter of 50 µm. Micro-droplets of a molten lead-free solder were ejected at 230 °C. The print head was driven by a bipolar pulse 40 V in amplitude. The major variables for this study were two pulse times; t rise /t finalrise and t fall , as well as N 2 back-pressure in the molten solder reservoir. Under various printing conditions, extrusion of the liquid column, contraction of liquid thread and pinch-off of liquid thread at nozzle exit were observed by monitoring the dynamics of the molten solder droplet ejection process. The droplet formation was found to be insensitive to t rise and t finalrise in the range of 250–1000 µs. The behavior of droplet formation was, however, significantly affected by the transfer rate, t fall , in the range of 30–60 µs and t fall of 50 µs yielded the most desirable condition of single droplet formation. The N 2 back-pressure was also found to be critical, where a back pressure between 10 and 21 kPa could give the desirable single-droplet formation condition

  13. Effect of soldering techniques and gap distance on tensile strength of soldered Ni-Cr alloy joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Yeob; Lee, Jong-Hyuk

    2010-12-01

    The present study was intended to evaluate the effect of soldering techniques with infrared ray and gas torch under different gap distances (0.3 mm and 0.5 mm) on the tensile strength and surface porosity formation in Ni-Cr base metal alloy. Thirty five dumbbell shaped Ni-Cr alloy specimens were prepared and assigned to 5 groups according to the soldering method and the gap distance. For the soldering methods, gas torch (G group) and infrared ray (IR group) were compared and each group was subdivided by corresponding gap distance (0.3 mm: G3 and IR3, 0.5 mm: G5, IR5). Specimens of the experimental groups were sectioned in the middle with a diamond disk and embedded in solder blocks according to the predetermined distance. As a control group, 7 specimens were prepared without sectioning or soldering. After the soldering procedure, a tensile strength test was performed using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed 1 mm/min. The proportions of porosity on the fractured surface were calculated on the images acquired through the scanning electronic microscope. Every specimen of G3, G5, IR3 and IR5 was fractured on the solder joint area. However, there was no significant difference between the test groups (P > .05). There was a negative correlation between porosity formation and tensile strength in all the specimens in the test groups (P tensile strength of joints and porosity formations between the gas-oxygen torch soldering and infrared ray soldering technique or between the gap distance of 0.3 mm and 0.5 mm.

  14. Case report 483: Discoid lateral meniscus (DLM), medially displaced, with complex tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, M.A.; Buckwalter, K.A.; Braunstein, E.M.; Wojtys, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    A case of a 9-year-old girl who presented with persistent pain in the left knee was demonstrated to have a discoid lateral meniscus (DLM). The sagittal MR images demonstrated the oval shape of the meniscus, consistent with the typical arthrographic appearance. The coronal images showed that the main substance of the meniscus was displaced medially, with overgrowth of the articular cartilage at the lateral aspect of the joint. The medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle was concave to accommodate the abnormal meniscus. These findings are consistent with long-standing, medial displacement of the torn meniscus. The literature concerning DLM, an uncommon variant, was reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of the biomechanical tensile and compressive properties of decellularised and natural porcine meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgaied, A; Stanley, M; Galfe, M; Berry, H; Ingham, E; Fisher, J

    2015-06-01

    Meniscal repair is widely used as a treatment for meniscus injury. However, where meniscal damage has progressed such that repair is not possible, approaches for partial meniscus replacement are now being developed which have the potential to restore the functional role of the meniscus, in stabilising the knee joint, absorbing and distributing stress during loading, and prevent early degenerative joint disease. One attractive potential solution to the current lack of meniscal replacements is the use of decellularised natural biological scaffolds, derived from xenogeneic tissues, which are produced by treating the native tissue to remove the immunogenic cells. The current study investigated the effect of decellularisation on the biomechanical tensile and compressive (indentation and unconfined) properties of the porcine medial meniscus through an experimental-computational approach. The results showed that decellularised medial porcine meniscus maintained the tensile biomechanical properties of the native meniscus, but had lower tensile initial elastic modulus. In compression, decellularised medial porcine meniscus generally showed lower elastic modulus and higher permeability compared to that of the native meniscus. These changes in the biomechanical properties, which ranged from less than 1% to 40%, may be due to the reduction of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) content during the decellularisation process. The predicted biomechanical properties for the decellularised medial porcine meniscus were within the reported range for the human meniscus, making it an appropriate biological scaffold for consideration as a partial meniscus replacement. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Interfacial Reaction of Sn-Ag-Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloy on Cu: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Mei Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the function and importance of Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys in electronics industry and the interfacial reaction of Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joint at various solder forms and solder reflow conditions. The Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys are examined in bulk and in thin film. It then examines the effect of soldering conditions to the formation of intermetallic compounds such as Cu substrate selection, structural phases, morphology evolution, the growth kinetics, temperature and time is also discussed. Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder alloys are the most promising candidate for the replacement of Sn-Pb solders in modern microelectronic technology. Sn-Ag-Cu solders could possibly be considered and adapted in miniaturization technologies. Therefore, this paper should be of great interest to a large selection of electronics interconnect materials, reliability, processes, and assembly community.

  17. Development of a soft-soldering system for aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, W. L.; Lee, A. Y.; Neumeier, L. A.

    1983-03-01

    The method employs application of a thin nickel copper alloy coating to the substrate, which enables the tin lead solders to wet readily and spread over the areas to be joined. The aluminum substrate is mechanically or chemically cleaned to facilitate bonding to a minute layer of zinc that is subsequently applied, with an electroless zincate solution. The nickel copper alloy (30 to 70 pct Ni) coating is then applied electrolytically over the zinc, using immersion cell or brush coating techniques. Development of acetate electrolytes has permitted deposition of the proper alloys coatings. The coated areas can then be readily joined with conventional tin lead solders and fluxs. The joints so formed are ductile, strong, and relatively corrosion resistant, and exhibit strengths equivalent to those formed on copper and brass when the same solders and fluxes are used. The method has also been employed to soft solder magnesium alloys.

  18. Development of gold based solder candidates for flip chip assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Flip chip technology is now rapidly replacing the traditional wire bonding interconnection technology in the first level packaging applications due to the miniaturization drive in the microelectronics industry. Flip chip assembly currently involves the use of high lead containing solders...

  19. Familial Discoid Medial Meniscus Tear in Three Members of a Family: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Ali, Raheel; McKay, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background. A discoid meniscus is a thickened variant of the normal C-shaped meniscus prone to injury. Discoid medial meniscal tears have rarely been reported within families and may suggest familial or developmental origins. Methods. We report the cases of two Caucasian brothers with symptomatic discoid medial meniscus tears. A literature review was conducted addressing discoid medial meniscus and cases of familial meniscus tears. Case Presentation. Physically active brothers presented with ...

  20. Strength of joints brazed with two-phase solders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shnyakin, N.S.; Parfenova, L.V.; Ekatova, A.S.; Prilepskaya, I.V.

    1976-01-01

    Dependence of the structure and strength of soldered joints upon a gap size in case of 1Kh18N10T stainless steel soldering with a double-phase solder of Ni-Zn-Cu system is described. Butt and lap joints have been subjected to soldering with gas-flame and induction heating. The optimum conditions of the solder crystallization are determined with wedge-gap samples. The studies show that the character of distribution of a fusible β-phase in metal depends upon a gap size. With gaps up to 0.1 mm the β-phase enriched with a fusible component (zinc) runs as a continuous thin interlayer in the middle of the seam. As a result of zinc evaporation from the β-phase this interlayer becomes internally oxidized. After the sample is broken an oxidized fracture gives one the impression of a poor fusion in the middle part of the joint. The ultimate strength of butt joints is 15-20 kgf/sq.mm. A value of thermal expansion of 1Kh18N10T steel samples, 1-5 mm thick, has been experimentally determined for butt soldering. The elongation of two halves of the sample is measured by an indicator and proved to be 0.89 mm for a 50x50x2 mm sample at a soldering temperature of 1.100 deg C. The paper presents methods for the calculation of an optimal gap value for butt soldering with a local gas-flame and induction heating

  1. Gas-Jet Meniscus Control in Ribbon Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Vonroos, O.

    1983-01-01

    Gas jet used to control shape of meniscus and thus to regulate ribbon thickness in vertical silicon-ribbon growth. Gas jet also cools ribbon, increasing maximum possible pull speed for silicon, contact angle of 11 degrees plus or minus 1 degree required for constant thickness ribbon growth. Cooling effect of gas jet increases maximum possible pull speed.

  2. Geometry Effects of Capillary on the Evaporation from the Meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Choong Hyo; Jin, Song Wan; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2007-01-01

    The effect of capillary cross-section geometry on evaporation is investigated in terms of the meniscus shape, evaporation rate and evaporation-induced flow for circular, square and rectangular cross-sectional capillaries. The shapes of water and ethanol menisci are not much different from each other in square and rectangular capillaries even though the surface tension of water is much larger than that of ethanol. On the other hand, the shapes of water and ethanol menisci are very different from each other in circular capillary. The averaged evaporation fluxes in circular and rectangular capillaries are measured by tracking the meniscus position. At a given position, the averaged evaporation flux in rectangular capillaries in much larger than that in circular capillary with comparable hydraulic diameter. The flow near the evaporating meniscus is also measured using micro-PIV, so that the rotating vortex motion is observed near the evaporating ethanol and methanol menisci except for the case of methanol meniscus in rectangular capillary. This difference is considered to be due to the existence of corner menisci at the four corners

  3. Anisotropy in the viscoelastic response of knee meniscus cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccino, Luca; Peres, Chiara; Gottardi, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Ceseracciu, Luca

    2017-01-26

    The knee meniscus is instrumental to stability, shock absorption, load transmission and stress distribution within the knee joint. Such functions are mechanically demanding, and replacement constructs used in meniscus repair often fail because of a poor match with the surrounding tissue. This study focused on the native structure-mechanics relationships and on their anisotropic behavior in meniscus, to define the target biomechanical viscoelastic properties required by scaffolds upon loading. To show regional orientation of the collagen fibers and their viscoelastic behavior, bovine lateral menisci were characterized by second harmonic generation microscopy and through time-dependent mechanical tests. Furthermore, their dynamic viscoelastic response was analyzed over a wide range of frequencies. Multilevel characterization aims to expand the biomimetic approach from the structure itself, to include the mechanical characteristics that give the meniscus its peculiar properties, thus providing tools for the design of novel, effective scaffolds. An example of modeling of anisotropic open-cell porous material tailored to fulfill the measured requirements is presented, leading to a definition of additional parameters for a better understanding of the load transmission mechanism and for better scaffold functionality.

  4. Characteristics of solder joints under fatigue loads using piezomechanical actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Dong-Jin; Spearing, S. Mark

    2003-07-01

    Crack initiation and growth characteristics of solder joints under fatigue loads are investigated using piezomechanical actuation. Cracks in solder joints, which can cause failure in microelectronics components, are induced via piezoelectricity in piezo-ceramic bonded joints. Lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic plates and eutectic Sn-Pb solder bonded in a double-lap shear configuration are used in the investigation. Electric field across each piezo-ceramic plate is applied such that shear stresses/strains are induced in the solder joints. The experiments show that cracks initiate in the solder joints around defects such as voids and grow in length until they coalesce with other cracks from adjacent voids. These observations are compared with the similar thermal cycling tests from the literature to show feasibility and validity of the current method in investigating the fatigue characteristics of solder joints. In some specimens, cracks in the piezo-ceramic plates are observed, and failure in the specimens generally occurred due to piezo-ceramic plate fracture. The issues encountered in implementing this methodology such as low actuation and high processing temperatures are further discussed.

  5. Laser Soldering of Rat Skin Using a Controlled Feedback System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Nourbakhsh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laser tissue soldering using albumin and indocyanine green dye (ICG is an effective technique utilized in various surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to perform laser soldering of rat skin under a feedback control system and compare the results with those obtained using standard sutures. Material and Methods: Skin incisions were made over eight rats’ dorsa, which were subsequently closed using different wound closure interventions in two groups: (a using a temperature controlled infrared detector or (b by suture. Tensile strengths were measured at 2, 5, 7 and 10 days post-incision. Histological examination was performed at the time of sacrifice. Results: Tensile strength results showed that during the initial days following the incisions, the tensile strengths of the sutured samples were greater than the laser samples. However, 10 days after the incisions, the tensile strengths of the laser soldered incisions were higher than the sutured cuts. Histopathological examination showed a preferred wound healing response in the soldered skin compared with the control samples. The healing indices of the laser soldered repairs (426 were significantly better than the control samples (340.5. Conclusion: Tissue feedback control of temperature and optical changes in laser soldering of skin leads to a higher tensile strength and better histological results and hence this method may be considered as an alternative to standard suturing.

  6. Tensile strength of two soldered alloys (Minalux and Verabond2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Rezaee S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently. Minalux alloy, a base metal free from Be, has been presented on the market while no special soldering has been recommended for it. On the other hand, based on the manufacturer's claim, this alloy is similar to Verabond2. The aim of this study was to investigate the tensile strength of Minalux and Verabond2, soldered by Verasolder. Twelve standard dambble shape samples, with the length of 18 mm and the diameter of 3mm, were prepared from each alloy. Six samples of each alloy were divided into two pieces with carboradom disk. Soldering gap distance was 0.3mm, measured by a special jig and they were soldered by Verasolder alloy. Six other samples, of both Iranian and foreign unsoldered alloys were considered as control group. Then samples were examined under tensile force and their tensile strength was recorded. Two- way variance analysis showed that the tensile strength of Minalux alloy and Verabond2 were not statistically significant (Verasoler 686, Minalux 723, but after soldering, such difference became significant (Minalux 308, Verabond2 432. Verabond2 showed higher tensile strength after soldering.

  7. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  8. Features of Pd-Ni-Fe solder system for vacuum brazing of low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzievskij, V.N.; Kurochko, R.S.; Lotsmanov, S.N.; Rymar', V.I.

    1975-01-01

    The brazing solder of the Pd-Ni-Fe alloyed with copper and lithium, in order to decrease the melting point and provide for a better spreading, when soldered in vacuum ensures a uniform strength of soldered joints with the base metal of low-alloyed steels of 34KHNIM-type. The properties of low-alloyed steel joints brazed with the Pd-Ni-Fe-system solder little depend on the changes in the soldering parameters. The soldered joint keeps a homogeneous structure after all the stages of heat treatment (annealing, quenching and tempering)

  9. Lead-free solder technology transfer from ASE Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    1999-10-19

    To safeguard the environmental friendliness of photovoltaics, the PV industry follows a proactive, long-term environmental strategy involving a life-of-cycle approach to prevent environmental damage by its processes and products from cradle to grave. Part of this strategy is to examine substituting lead-based solder on PV modules with other solder alloys. Lead is a toxic metal that, if ingested, can damage the brain, nervous system, liver and kidneys. Lead from solder in electronic products has been found to leach out from municipal waste landfills and municipal incinerator ash was found to be high in lead also because of disposed consumer electronics and batteries. Consequently, there is a movement in Europe and Japan to ban lead altogether from use in electronic products and to restrict the movement across geographical boundaries of waste containing lead. Photovoltaic modules may contain small amounts of regulated materials, which vary from one technology to another. Environmental regulations impact the cost and complexity of dealing with end-of-life PV modules. If they were classified as hazardous according to Federal or State criteria, then special requirements for material handling, disposal, record-keeping and reporting would escalate the cost of decommissioning the modules. Fthenakis showed that several of today's x-Si modules failed the US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for potential leaching of Pb in landfills and also California's standard on Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) for Pb. Consequently, such modules may be classified as hazardous waste. He highlighted potential legislation in Europe and Japan which could ban or restrict the use of lead and the efforts of the printed-circuit industries in developing Pb-free solder technologies in response to such expected legislation. Japanese firms already have introduced electronic products with Pb-free solder, and one PV manufacturer in the US, ASE Americas has used a

  10. The Degeneration of Meniscus Roots Is Accompanied by Fibrocartilage Formation, Which May Precede Meniscus Root Tears in Osteoarthritic Knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do Young; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Choi, Byung Hyune; Kim, Young Jick; Kim, Mijin; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Joon Ho

    2015-12-01

    Fibrocartilage metaplasia in tendons and ligaments is an adaptation to compression as well as a pathological feature during degeneration. Medial meniscus posterior roots are unique ligaments that resist multidirectional forces, including compression. To characterize the degeneration of medial meniscus posterior root tears in osteoarthritic knees, with an emphasis on fibrocartilage and calcification. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Samples of medial meniscus posterior roots were harvested from cadaveric specimens and patients during knee replacement surgery and grouped as follows: normal reference, no tear, partial tear, and complete tear. Degeneration was analyzed with histology, immunohistochemistry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on specimens with and without fibrocartilage. Quantifiable data were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with the Dunn comparison test. Thirty, 28, and 42 samples harvested from 99 patients were allocated into the no tear, partial tear, and complete tear groups, respectively. Mean modified Bonar tendinopathy scores for each group were 3.97, 9.31, and 14.15, respectively, showing a higher degree of degeneration associated with the extent of the tear (P fibrocartilage according to the extent of the tear. Tear margins revealed fibrocartilage in 59.3% of partial tear samples and 76.2% of complete tear samples, with a distinctive cleavage-like shape. Root tears with a similar shape were induced within fibrocartilaginous areas during uniaxial tensile testing. Even in the no tear group, 56.7% of samples showed fibrocartilage in the anterior margin of the root, adjacent to the meniscus. An increased stained area of calcification and expression of the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 gene were observed in the complete tear group compared with the no tear group (P Fibrocartilage and calcification increased in medial meniscus posterior roots, associated

  11. Characterizing the Soldering Alloy Type In–Ag–Ti and the Study of Direct Soldering of SiC Ceramics and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koleňák

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to characterize the soldering alloy In–Ag–Ti type, and to study the direct soldering of SiC ceramics and copper. The In10Ag4Ti solder has a broad melting interval, which mainly depends on its silver content. The liquid point of the solder is 256.5 °C. The solder microstructure is composed of a matrix with solid solution (In, in which the phases of titanium (Ti3In4 and silver (AgIn2 are mainly segregated. The tensile strength of the solder is approximately 13 MPa. The strength of the solder increased with the addition of Ag and Ti. The solder bonds with SiC ceramics, owing to the interaction between active In metal and silicon infiltrated in the ceramics. XRD analysis has proven the interaction of titanium with ceramic material during the formation of the new minority phases of titanium silicide—SiTi and titanium carbide—C5Ti8. In and Ag also affect bond formation with the copper substrate. Two new phases were also observed in the bond interphase—(CuAg6In5 and (AgCuIn2. The average shear strength of a combined joint of SiC–Cu, fabricated with In10Ag4Ti solder, was 14.5 MPa. The In–Ag–Ti solder type studied possesses excellent solderability with several metallic and ceramic materials.

  12. Modeling study on axial wetting length of meniscus in vertical rectangular microgrooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Xuelei; Hu, Xuegong; Tang, Dawei

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the traditional model for predicting axial wetting length of meniscus in vertical microgrooves is introduced firstly. The traditional model may cause inaccurate results in predicting wetting length in vertical microgrooves because of the assumption of round meniscus in cross sections of microgrooves and the way of calculating curvature. In order to develop this model and make it more accurate, a revised micro-PIV system is built to test the meniscus shapes in cross sections of vertical and horizontal microgrooves, and the experimental results prove that the real shapes of meniscus are parabolic other than round. The fitting formulas of meniscus shapes are obtained with software Origin 7.5. Based on experimental results and fitting formulas, the traditional model is revised by changing the way to calculate curvature. In the modified model, the curvature for calculating axial wetting length of meniscus equals average curvature of meniscus in cross section of vertical microgrooves minus the average curvature of meniscus in cross section of horizontal microgrooves. It is proved that the modified model can predict the wetting length in vertical microgrooves better than the original model. The average difference between experiment and modified model is 2.5% while that between experiment and traditional model is 174.2%. The disadvantage of the modified model is that using the new model to predict wetting length needs to know the real shapes of meniscus in vertical and horizontal microgrooves. -- Highlights: ► An experimental system is designed to test the shapes of meniscus in microgrooves. ► The real shapes of meniscus in microgrooves are obtained for first time. ► The shapes of meniscus in microgrooves is compared and analyzed. ► The model for predicting wetting length of meniscus in microgrooves is developed

  13. Thermal decomposition of solder flux activators under simulated wave soldering conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    /methodology/approach: Changes in the chemical structure of the activators were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique and were correlated to the exposure temperatures within the range of wave soldering process. The amount of residue left on the surface was estimated using standardized acid-base...... titration method as a function of temperature, time of exposure and the substrate material used. Findings: The study shows that there is a possibility of anhydride-like species formation during the thermal treatment of fluxes containing weak organic acids (WOAs) as activators (succinic and DL...

  14. Evaluation of posterior lateral femoral condylar hypoplasia using axial MRI images in patients with complete discoid meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Dongyang; Shi, Dongquan; Dai, Jin; Yao, Yao; Jiang, Qing

    2016-03-01

    Hypoplasia of the lateral femoral condyle has been reported in discoid lateral meniscus patients, but associated imaging findings in the axial plane have not been characterized. In this study, we aimed to identify differences in the lateral femoral condyle between patients with discoid lateral meniscus and those with normal menisci using axial MRI images. Twenty-three patients (24 knees) with complete discoid lateral meniscus, 43 (45 knees) with incomplete discoid lateral meniscus, and 50 with normal menisci (50 knees) were enrolled and distributed into three groups. Two new angles, posterior lateral condylar angle (PLCA) and posterior medial condylar angle (PMCA), were measured on axial MRI images; the posterior condylar angle (PCA) was also measured. Differences between the three groups in the PLCA, PMCA, PCA, and PLCA/PMCA were analysed. The predictive value of PLCA and PLCA/PMCA for complete discoid lateral meniscus was assessed. In the complete discoid lateral meniscus group, PLCA and PLCA/PMCA were significantly smaller compared with the normal meniscus group and the incomplete discoid lateral meniscus group (P meniscus group compared with the incomplete discoid lateral meniscus group (P meniscus group (P meniscus. Hypoplasia of the posterior lateral femoral condyle is typically seen in patients with complete discoid lateral meniscus. PLCA and PLCA/PMCA can be measured from axial MRI images and used as excellent predictive parameters for complete discoid lateral meniscus. Diagnostic study, Level III.

  15. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Koo

    Full Text Available The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients' ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs. Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8 in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4 in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29-71 years and 30 years (range: 14-62 years in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001, and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001. A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001. LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001. Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001. Meniscal extrusion is

  16. Yoga is found hazardous to the meniscus for Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Jun-kun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Yoga is becoming more and more popular in the female society while the concomitant sports injury is seldom mentioned. Many clinicians have noted that yoga may result in knee problems, which though requires more researches to corroborate. This investigation was conducted to ascertain the relationship between yoga and meniscus injury as well as the extent of impairment ac-cording to variant yoga practice periods. Methods: Totally 819 women aged 20-49 years who practiced yoga or other popular sports including badminton, jogging, climbing hills, etc for at least one hour per day were selected to participate in this research. These subjects were required to complete a questionnaire and receive relevant physical examination. Magnetic resonance (MR scan of the knee was recommended for the suspicious subjects for ultimate diagnosis. The subject with abnormal meniscus MR signals was defined as a case and matched with two con-trols in terms of age and body mass index (BMI. Altogether there were 273 cases and 546 controls. The nested case-control model was adopted to assess the risk of meniscus injury between variant exposures in practicing yoga and several other popular sports. Moreover, the 181 yoga sub-jects were subdivided into three groups according to differ-ent exercise durations, followed by further analysis with the variables of age, BMI and Lysholm score. Results: Yoga was found associated with a higher risk (P=0.008, OR=1.621 of meniscus injury compared with badminton, jogging and climbing hills. The three yoga sub-groups showed statistical difference between each other in terms of Lysholm score (P=0.027 and BMI (P=0.003. The subjects with longer-term yoga practice had lighter weight but lower Lysholm scores. Conclusions: Yoga perhaps exerts destructive impact on the meniscus for Chinese women, yet it needs further verifications. Furthermore, the female yoga players with longer exercise duration are more susceptible to

  17. Mechanical properties of Bi-In-Zn/ Cu solder joint system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervina Efzan Mohd Noor; Mohammed Noori Ridha; Ahmad Badri Ismail; Nurulakmal Mohd Sharif; Kuan Yew Cheong; Tadashi Ariga; Zuhailawati Hussain

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, the pollution of environment from lead (Pb) and Pb-containing compounds in microelectronic devices attracts more and more attentions in academia and industry; the lead-free solder alloys begin to replace the lead-based solders in packaging process of some devices and components. In this works, microstructure and mechanical properties of different reflow temperature (80, 100, 120 and 140 degree Celsius) for solder joints on shear strength of Bi-In-Zn lead free solder with low melting temperature of 60 degree Celsius on Cu solder joint has been investigated. This paper will compared the mechanical properties of the Bi-In-Zn lead-free solder alloys with current lead-free solder, Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy. The fracture surface analyses have been observed by Optical Microscope and were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and proved it by X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  18. Correlation Between Pin Misalignment and Crack Length in THT Solder Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnar A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, correlations were searched for between pin misalignments relative to PCB bores and crack propagation after cyclic thermal shock tests in THT solder joints produced from lead-free solder alloys. In total, 7 compositions were examined including SAC solders with varying Ag, Cu and Ni contents. The crack propagation was initiated by cyclic thermal shock tests with 40°C / +125°C temperature profiles. Pin misalignments relative to the bores were characterized with three attributes obtained from one section of the examined solder joints. Cracks typically originated at the solder/pin or solder/bore interfaces and propagated within the solder. It was shown that pin misalignments did not have an effect on crack propagation, thus, the solder joints’ lifetime.

  19. A meniscus causing painful snapping of the elbow joint: MR imaging with arthroscopic and histologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Guo-Shu; Chen, Cheng-Yu [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Lee, Chian-Her [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Lee, Herng-Sheng [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-12-01

    Snapping of the elbow joint can cause pain. We report a case of painful snapping elbow produced by an interposed meniscus in the radiohumeral joint in a 20-year-old man. The MR arthrogram demonstrated a meniscus-like tissue interposed between the radial head and humeral capitellum. The MR-arthrographic findings were well correlated with surgical findings. The location and appearance of the meniscus-like tissue was similar to that of meniscus in the knee joint. Histologic findings of the excised meniscus-like tissue showed a typical presentation of fibrocartilage. A meniscus may exist in the elbow joint and can be a rare cause of painful snapping elbow. MR arthrography is helpful for identifying the snapping tissue in the elbow joint. (orig.)

  20. Commentary: Photothermal effects of laser tissue soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menovsky, T.; Beek, J.F.; Gemert, M.J.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Laser tissue welding is the process of using laser energy to join tissues without sutures or with a reduced number of sutures. Recently, diode lasers have been added to the list of fusion lasers (Lewis and Uribe 1993, Reali et al 1993). Typically, for tissue welding, deep penetrating diode lasers emitting at 800-810 nm are used, in combination with a strong absorbing protein solder containing the dye indocyanine green. Indocyanine green has a maximum absorption coefficient at 805 nm and binds preferentially with proteins (Sauda et al 1986). The greatest advantage of diode lasers is their compact size, easy use and low cost. In this issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology (pp 983-1002, 'Photothermal effects of laser tissue soldering'), in an in vitro study, McNally et al investigate the optimal laser settings and welding temperatures in relation to the tensile strength and thermal damage of bovine aorta specimens. An interesting statement in their introduction is that the low strength of laser produced anastomoses can lead to aneurysm formation. The increased chance of aneurysm formation may merely be due to the thermal effect of the laser on the vascular wall, especially on the adventitia and media layers, which become necrotic after thermal injury. Subsequent haemodynamic stress exerted on a damaged vascular wall is a significant contributing factor for aneurysmal initiation. Also interesting is the remark that 'by the application of wavelength-specific chromophores in tissue welding ... the requirement for precise focusing and aiming of the laser beam may be removed'. Though perhaps not yet fully justified, this statement, if true, would facilitate surgical procedures. While the experiments are conducted in a proper manner, the use of bovine aorta specimens, which were stored at -70 deg. C and subsequently thawed for the tissue welding experiments, may not be the most appropriate for studying tissue effects or tensile strength measurements, as the

  1. 30 CFR 77.1112 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1112 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards. (a) When welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame near combustible...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1106 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... Protection § 75.1106 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground. [Statutory Provisions] All welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame in all underground areas of a coal mine shall, whenever...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering with...

  4. A Corrosion Investigation of Solder Candidates for High-Temperature Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Ambat, Rajan

    2009-01-01

    The step soldering approach is being employed in the Multi-Chip module (MCM) technology. High lead containing alloys is one of the solders currently being used in this approach. Au-Sn and Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as alternative solders for this application. In this work...

  5. A three-dimensional gradient refocused 3D volume imaging of discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yutaka; Ootani, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Tadatsuka; Tomoda, Kaname; Tsukaguchi, Isao; Mitomo, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    An axial 3D volume scan with MRI was applied to the evaluation of discoid lateral meniscus of the knee. By 0.7 mm-thick thin sliced and gapless images with volume scan, characteristically elongated appearance of discoid lateral meniscus was clearly depicted. These MR findings completely accorded with those on arthroscopy. Our conclusion is that an axial 3D volume scan was essential to the diagnosis of discoid lateral meniscus. (author)

  6. Electrochemical renewal of stationary mercury drop or meniscus electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polášková, P.; Novotný, L.; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, 3-5 (2009), s. 625-630 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : mercury electrode electrochemical renewal * meniscus electrode * 2-aminoanthraquinone Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2009

  7. Meniscus Dynamics in Bubble Formation. Part I: Experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Marek; Bunganič, Radovan; Drahoš, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 10 (2009), s. 1349-1356 ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200720801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bubble formation * perforated plate * meniscus oscillations Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.223, year: 2009

  8. Meniscus Dynamics in Bubble Formation. Part II: Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Marek; Bunganič, Radovan; Drahoš, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 10 (2009), s. 1357-1365 ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200720801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bubble formation * periodic bubbling * meniscus oscillations Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.223, year: 2009

  9. PLDLA/PCL-T Scaffold for Meniscus Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Andrea Rodrigues; Moda, Marlon; Cattani, Silvia Mara de Melo; de Santana, Gracy Mara; Barbieri, Juliana Abreu; Munhoz, Monique Moron; Cardoso, Túlio Pereira; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

    2013-04-01

    The inability of the avascular region of the meniscus to regenerate has led to the use of tissue engineering to treat meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes preseeded on PLDLA/PCL-T [poly(L-co-D,L-lactic acid)/poly(caprolactone-triol)] scaffolds to stimulate regeneration of the whole meniscus. Porous PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10) scaffolds were obtained by solvent casting and particulate leaching. Compressive modulus of 9.5±1.0 MPa and maximum stress of 4.7±0.9 MPa were evaluated. Fibrochondrocytes from rabbit menisci were isolated, seeded directly on the scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days. New Zealand rabbits underwent total meniscectomy, after which implants consisting of cell-free scaffolds or cell-seeded scaffolds were introduced into the medial knee meniscus; the negative control group consisted of rabbits that received no implant. Macroscopic and histological evaluations of the neomeniscus were performed 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The polymer scaffold implants adapted well to surrounding tissues, without apparent rejection, infection, or chronic inflammatory response. Fibrocartilaginous tissue with mature collagen fibers was observed predominantly in implants with seeded scaffolds compared to cell-free implants after 24 weeks. Similar results were not observed in the control group. Articular cartilage was preserved in the polymeric implants and showed higher chondrocyte cell number than the control group. These findings show that the PLDLA/PCL-T 90/10 scaffold has potential for orthopedic applications since this material allowed the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, a structure of crucial importance for repairing injuries to joints, including replacement of the meniscus and the protection of articular cartilage from degeneration.

  10. Two-Tunnel Transtibial Repair of Radial Meniscus Tears Produces Comparable Results to Inside-Out Repair of Vertical Meniscus Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Mark E; Geeslin, Andrew G; Chahla, Jorge; Dornan, Grant J; LaPrade, Robert F

    2017-08-01

    Radial meniscus tears disrupt the circumferential fibers and thereby compromise meniscus integrity. Historically, radial tears were often treated with meniscectomy because of an incomplete understanding of the biomechanical consequences of these tears, limited information regarding the biomechanical performance of repair, and the technical difficulty associated with repair. There is a paucity of studies on the outcomes of the repair of radial meniscus tears. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to determine the outcomes of 2-tunnel transtibial repair of radial meniscus tears and compare these results to the outcomes of patients who underwent the repair of vertical meniscus tears with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. The hypothesis was that radial and vertical meniscus tear repair outcomes were comparable. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients who underwent 2-tunnel transtibial pullout repair for a radial meniscus tear were included in this study and compared with patients who underwent inside-out repair for a vertical meniscus tear. Subjective questionnaires were administered preoperatively and at a minimum of 2-year follow-up, including the Lysholm score, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Short Form-12 (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS), the Tegner activity scale, and patient satisfaction. Analysis of covariance was used to compare postoperative outcome scores between the meniscus repair groups while accounting for baseline scores. Adjusted mean effects relative to the radial repair group were reported with 95% CIs. Twenty-seven patients who underwent 2-tunnel transtibial pullout repair for radial meniscus tears and 33 patients who underwent inside-out repair for vertical meniscus tears were available for follow-up at a mean of 3.5 years (range, 2.0-5.4 years). No preoperative outcome score significantly differed between the groups. There were no significant group differences for any of the 2-year

  11. Meniscus and beam halo formation in a tandem-type negative ion source with surface production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2012-01-01

    A meniscus of plasma-beam boundary in H - ion sources largely affects the extracted H - ion beam optics. Although it is hypothesized that the shape of the meniscus is one of the main reasons for the beam halo observed in experiments, a physical mechanism of the beam halo formation is not yet fully understood. In this letter, it is first shown by the 2D particle in cell simulation that the H - ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus cause a beam halo since the surface produced H - ions penetrate into the bulk plasma, and, thus, the resultant meniscus has a relatively large curvature.

  12. UTE-T2* mapping detects sub-clinical meniscus injury after anterior cruciate ligament tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A.; Qian, Y.; Golla, S.; Chu, C.R.

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Meniscus tear is a known risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative assessment of meniscus degeneration, prior to surface break-down, is important to identification of early disease potentially amenable to therapeutic interventions. This work examines the diagnostic potential of ultrashort echo time-enhanced T2* (UTE-T2*) mapping to detect human meniscus degeneration in vitro and in vivo in subjects at risk of developing OA. Design UTE-T2* maps of 16 human cadaver menisci were compared to histological evaluations of meniscal structural integrity and clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment by a musculoskeletal radiologist. In vivo UTE-T2* maps were compared in 10 asymptomatic subjects and 25 ACL-injured patients with and without concomitant meniscal tear. Results In vitro, UTE-T2* values tended to be lower in histologically and clinically normal meniscus tissue and higher in torn or degenerate tissue. UTE-T2* map heterogeneity reflected collagen disorganization. In vivo, asymptomatic meniscus UTE-T2* values were repeatable within 9% (root-mean-square average coefficient of variation). Posteromedial meniscus UTE-T2* values in ACL-injured subjects with clinically diagnosed medial meniscus tear (n = 10) were 87% higher than asymptomatics (n = 10, P meniscus degeneration. Further study is needed to determine whether elevated subsurface meniscus UTE-T2* values predict progression of meniscal degeneration and development of OA. PMID:22306000

  13. Influence of Co and W powders on viscosity of composite solders during soldering of specially shaped diamond-abrasive tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, E. G.; Aref’eva, S. A.; Svistun, L. I.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of Co and W powders on the structure and the viscosity of composite solders Sn-Cu-Co-W used for the manufacture of the specially shaped diamond tools has been studied. The solders were obtained by mixing the metallic powders with an organic binder. The mixtures with and without diamonds were applied to steel rollers and shaped substrates. The sintering was carried out in a vacuum at 820 ° C with time-exposure of 40 minutes. The influence of Co and W powders on the viscosity solders was evaluated on the basis of the study of structures and according to the results of sintering specially shaped diamond tools. It was found that to provide the necessary viscosity and to obtain the uniform diamond-containing layers on the complex shaped surfaces, Sn-Cu-Co-W solder should contain 27–35 vol % of solid phase. This is achieved with a total solder content of 24–32 wt % of cobalt powder and 7 wt % of tungsten powder.

  14. An Overview of Surface Finishes and Their Role in Printed Circuit Board Solderability and Solder Joint Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.

    1998-10-15

    A overview has been presented on the topic of alternative surface finishes for package I/Os and circuit board features. Aspects of processability and solder joint reliability were described for the following coatings: baseline hot-dipped, plated, and plated-and-fused 100Sn and Sn-Pb coatings; Ni/Au; Pd, Ni/Pd, and Ni/Pd/Au finishes; and the recently marketed immersion Ag coatings. The Ni/Au coatings appear to provide the all-around best option in terms of solderability protection and wire bondability. Nickel/Pal ftishes offer a slightly reduced level of performance in these areas that is most likely due to variable Pd surface conditions. It is necessmy to minimize dissolved Au or Pd contents in the solder material to prevent solder joint embrittlement. Ancillary aspects that included thickness measurement techniques; the importance of finish compatibility with conformal coatings and conductive adhesives; and the need for alternative finishes for the processing of non-Pb bearing solders were discussed.

  15. Automation of experimental research of waveguide paths induction soldering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynchenko, V. S.; Petrenko, V. E.; Kukartsev, V. V.; Tynchenko, V. V.; Antamoshkin, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents an automated system of experimental studies of the waveguide paths induction soldering process. The system is a part of additional software for a complex of automated control of the technological process of induction soldering of thin-walled waveguide paths from aluminum alloys, expanding its capabilities. The structure of the software product, the general appearance of the controls and the potential application possibilities are presented. The utility of the developed application by approbation in a series of field experiments was considered and justified. The application of the experimental research system makes it possible to improve the process under consideration, providing the possibility of fine-tuning the control regulators, as well as keeping the statistics of the soldering process in a convenient form for analysis.

  16. Optimization of the soldering process by the DMAIC methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Zasadzień

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chapter presents the use of the DMAIC method for the analysis and improvement of the process of soldering pins in a plug connecting a bundle of wires to the board of a controller; a part of the steering system of a car. The main problem in the soldering process, that is an unsatisfactory share of bad soldered connections between the board and the plug and the instability of that number, was identified by means of a five-phase improvement process. Key points and main causes of the defect were pointed out, and process improvement measures were suggested. Due to the analysis conducted and the correct implementation of improvement measures the share of defective connections has been decreased twofold.

  17. Drinking Water Contamination Due To Lead-based Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, N.; Bartelt, E.; Cuff, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    The presence of lead in drinking water creates many health hazards. Exposure to lead-contaminated water can affect the brain, the central nervous system, blood cells, and kidneys, causing such problems as mental retardation, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke, and death. One way in which lead can contaminate our water supply is through the use of lead solder to join pipes. Lead solder was widely used in the past because of its ease of application as well as its low cost. Lead contamination in residential areas has previously been found to be a particularly serious problem in first-draw samples, of water that has sat stagnant in pipes overnight. To investigate the time-dependence of drinking water lead contamination, we analyzed samples taken hourly of water exposed to lead solder. While our preliminary data was insufficient to show more than a rough correlation between time of exposure and lead concentration over short periods (1-3 hours), we were able to confirm that overnight exposure of water to lead-based solder results in the presence high levels of lead. We also investigated other, external factors that previous research has indicated contribute to increased concentrations of lead. Our analysis of samples of lead-exposed water at various pH and temperatures suggests that these factors can be equally significant in terms of their contribution to elevated lead concentration levels. In particular, water that is slightly corrosive appears to severely impact the solubility of lead. As this type of water is common in much of the Northeast United States, the presence of lead-based solder in residential areas there is especially problematic. Although lead-based solder has been banned since the 1980s, it remains a serious concern, and a practical solution still requires further research.

  18. Bottom-up nanoarchitecture of semiconductor nano-building blocks by controllable in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuan

    2017-08-10

    Here we demonstrate that the building blocks of semiconductor WO3 nanowires can be controllably soldered together by a novel nano-soldering technique of in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering, in which the soldering temperature can precisely remain in an optimal range to avoid a strong thermal diffusion.

  19. Bottom-up nanoarchitecture of semiconductor nano-building blocks by controllable in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Xiujun; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Junli; Fu, Jiecai; Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Chaoyi; Bai, Feiming; Zhang, Xixiang; Peng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that the building blocks of semiconductor WO3 nanowires can be controllably soldered together by a novel nano-soldering technique of in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering, in which the soldering temperature can precisely remain in an optimal range to avoid a strong thermal diffusion.

  20. Thermomechanical behavior of tin-rich (lead-free) solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Rajen Singh

    In order to adequately characterize the behavior of ball-grid-array (BGA) Pb-free solder spheres in electronic devices, the microstructure and thermomechanical behavior need to be studied. Microstructure characterization of pure Sn, Sn-0.7Cu, Sn-3.5Ag, and Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu alloys was conducted using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, image analysis, and a novel serial sectioning 3D reconstruction process. Microstructure-based finite-element method (FEM) modeling of deformation in Sn-3.5Ag alloy was conducted, and it will be shown that this technique is more accurate when compared to traditional unit cell models for simulating and understanding material behavior. The effect of cooling rate on microstructure and creep behavior of bulk Sn-rich solders was studied. The creep behavior was evaluated at 25, 95, and 120°C. Faster cooling rates were found to increase the creep strength of the solders due to refinement of the solder microstructure. The creep behavior of Sn-rich single solder spheres reflowed on Cu substrates was studied at 25, 60, 95, and 130°C. Testing was conducted using a microforce testing system, with lap-shear geometry samples. The solder joints displayed two distinct creep behaviors: (a) precipitation-strengthening (Sn-3.5Ag and Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu) and (b) power law creep accommodated by grain boundary sliding (GBS) (Sn and Sn-0.7Cu). The relationship between microstructural features (i.e. intermetallic particle size and spacing), stress exponents, threshold stress, and activation energies are discussed. The relationship between small-length scale creep behavior and bulk behavior is also addressed. To better understand the damage evolution in Sn-rich solder joints during thermal fatigue, the local damage will be correlated to the cyclic hysteresis behavior and crystal orientations present in the Sn phase of solder joints. FEM modeling will also be utilized to better understand the macroscopic and local

  1. Creep deformation behavior in eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints using a novel mapping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, J.P.; Guo, F.; McDougall, J.; Bieler, T.R.; Subramanian, K.N.; Park, J.K.

    1999-11-01

    Creep deformation behavior was measured for 60--100 {micro}m thick solder joints. The solder joints investigated consisted of: (1) non-composite solder joints made with eutectic Sn-Ag solder, and (2) composite solder joints with eutectic Sn-Ag solder containing 20 vol.%, 5 {micro}m diameter in-situ Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic reinforcements. All creep testing in this study was carried out at room temperature. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of creep deformation was characterized on the solder joints. Creep deformation was analyzed using a novel mapping technique where a geometrical-regular line pattern was etched over the entire solder joint using excimer laser ablation. During creep, the laser-ablation (LA) pattern becomes distorted due to deformation in the solder joint. By imaging the distortion of laser-ablation patterns using the SEM, actual deformation mapping for the entire solder joint is revealed. The technique involves sequential optical/digital imaging of the deformation versus time history during creep. By tracing and recording the deformation of the LA patterns on the solder over intervals of time, local creep data are obtained in many locations in the joint. This analysis enables global and localized creep shear strains and strain rate to be determined.

  2. Influence of solder joint length to the mechanical aspect during the thermal stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. S.; Khor, C. Y.; Rahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Abd; Ishak, Muhammad Ikman; Rosli, M. U.; Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan; Zakaria, M. S.; Nawi, M. A. M.; Aziz, M. S. Abdul; Ani, F. Che

    2017-09-01

    Solder joint is an important interconnector in surface mount technology (SMT) assembly process. The real time stress, strain and displacement of the solder joint is difficult to observe and assess the experiment. To tackle these problems, simulation analysis was employed to study the von Mises stress, strain and displacement in the thermal stress analysis by using Finite element based software. In this study, a model of leadless electronic package was considered. The thermal stress analysis was performed to investigate the effect of the solder length to those mechanical aspects. The simulation results revealed that solder length gives significant effect to the maximum von Mises stress to the solder joint. Besides, changes in solder length also influence the displacement of the solder joint in the thermal environment. The increment of the solder length significantly reduces the von Mises stress and strain on the solder joint. Thus, the understanding of the physical parameter for solder joint is important for engineer prior to designing the solder joint of the electronic component.

  3. High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives: Possibilities and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-temperature solders have been widely used as joining materials to provide stable interconnections that resist a severe thermal environment and also to facilitate the drive for miniaturization. High-lead containing solders have been commonly used as high-temperature solders. The development...... of high-temperature lead-free solders has become an important issue for both the electronics and automobile industries because of the health and environmental concerns associated with lead usage. Unfortunately, limited choices are available as high-temperature lead-free solders. This work outlines...... the criteria for the evaluation of a new high-temperature lead-free solder material. A list of potential ternary high-temperature lead-free solder alternatives based on the Au-Sn and Au-Ge systems is proposed. Furthermore, a comprehensive comparison of the high-temperature stability of microstructures...

  4. Reliability of lead-free solder joints with different PCB surface finishes under thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yanghua [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail: xia_yanghua@hotmail.com; Xie Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2008-04-24

    The reliability of lead-free electronic assemblies under thermal cycling was investigated. Thin small outline package (TSOP) devices with FeNi leads were reflow soldered on FR4 PCB (printed circuit board) with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (wt%) solder. The effects of different PCB finishes (organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG)) were studied. The results show that OSP finish reveals better performance than its ENIG counterparts. The crack originates at the fringe of heel fillet in both cases. The propagation of crack in the ENIG case is along the device/solder interface, while in the case of OSP, the crack extends parallel to the solder/PCB interface. When the OSP finishes are employed, many Cu6Sn5 precipitates form inside the bulk solder and have a strengthening effect on the solder joint, resulting in better reliability performance as compared to those with ENIG finishes.

  5. Soldering and brazing safety guide: A handbook on space practice for those involved in soldering and brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual provides those involved in welding and brazing with effective safety procedures for use in performance of their jobs. Hazards exist in four types of general soldering and brazing processes: (1) cleaning; (2) application of flux; (3) application of heat and filler metal; and (4) residue cleaning. Most hazards during those operations can be avoided by using care, proper ventilation, protective clothing and equipment. Specific process hazards for various methods of brazing and soldering are treated. Methods to check ventilation are presented as well as a check of personal hygiene and good maintenance practices are stressed. Several emergency first aid treatments are described.

  6. Development of biodegradable hyper-branched tissue adhesives for the repair of meniscus tears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochynska, A. I.; Van Tienen, T. G.; Hannink, G.; Buma, P.; Grijpma, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscus tears are one of the most commonly occurring injuries of the knee joint. Current meniscus repair techniques are challenging and do not bring fully satisfactory results. Tissue adhesives are a promising alternative, since they are easy to apply and cause minimal tissue trauma. In this study,

  7. Tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Krogsgaard, Michael Rindom

    2012-01-01

    of displaced avulsion fractures of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in children are presented along with a concise report of the literature regarding avulsion fractures of the posterior root of the medial meniscus. Both avulsions were reattached arthroscopically by trans-tibial pull-out sutures...

  8. Meniscus and viscous forces during normal separation of liquid-mediated contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Shaobiao; Bhushan, Bharat

    2007-01-01

    Menisci form between two solid surfaces with the presence of an ultra-thin liquid film. Meniscus and viscous forces contribute to an adhesive force when two surfaces are separated. The adhesive force can be very large and can result in high friction, stiction and possibly high wear. The situation may become more pronounced when the contacting surfaces are ultra-smooth and the normal load is small, as is common for micro-/nanodevices. In this study, equations for meniscus and viscous forces during separation of two flat surfaces, and a sphere and a flat surface, are developed, and the corresponding adhesive forces contributed by these two types of forces are examined. The geometric meniscus curvatures and break point are theoretically determined, and the role of meniscus and viscous forces is evaluated during separation. The influence of separation distance, liquid thickness, meniscus area, separation time, liquid properties and contact angles are analyzed. Critical meniscus areas at which transition in the dominance of meniscus to viscous forces occurs for different given conditions, i.e. various initial liquid thicknesses, contact angles and designated separation time, are identified. The analysis provides a fundamental understanding of the physics of separation process, and insights into the relationships between meniscus and viscous forces. It is also valuable for the design of the interface for various devices

  9. Diagnosis of radial tear of posterior horn of medial meniscus by MR imaging. Prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyama, Tatsuo; Ihara, Hidetoshi; Kawashima, Mahito

    2002-01-01

    It is not easy to detect radial tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (torn posterior horn) under arthroscopy if the surgeon does not notice the tear before arthroscopy. Occasionally the tear goes undetected or is missed during arthroscopy. The sagittal view of MR imaging is very useful for diagnosing torn posterior horns. The normal posterior horn of the medial meniscus appears as an image of low intensity triangle of the sagittal MRI medial slice next to the PCL. On the contrary, the image of the torn posterior horn shows a high intensity triangle, so we refer to the feature as a white meniscus sign. We prospectively examined the accuracy of white meniscus sign of MRI. Forty-two knees in 41 patients were studied. They were over 40 years of age, diagnosed with medial meniscus tear and had undergone MRI before arthroscopy. Before arthroscopy, we predicted the existence of torn posterior horn by the white meniscus sign and examined the accuracy of the MRI after arthroscopy. Total accuracy rate was 90.5%, sensitivity was 94.1%, and specificity was 88.0%. We concluded that the white meniscus sign on MRI is very useful for defecting torn posterior horn of the medial meniscus. (author)

  10. Horizon shells and BMS-like soldering transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics,Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); O’Loughlin, Martin [University of Nova Gorica,Vipavska 13, 5000 Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

    2016-03-07

    We revisit the theory of null shells in general relativity, with a particular emphasis on null shells placed at horizons of black holes. We study in detail the considerable freedom that is available in the case that one solders two metrics together across null hypersurfaces (such as Killing horizons) for which the induced metric is invariant under translations along the null generators. In this case the group of soldering transformations turns out to be infinite dimensional, and these solderings create non-trivial horizon shells containing both massless matter and impulsive gravitational wave components. We also rephrase this result in the language of Carrollian symmetry groups. To illustrate this phenomenon we discuss in detail the example of shells on the horizon of the Schwarzschild black hole (with equal interior and exterior mass), uncovering a rich classical structure at the horizon and deriving an explicit expression for the general horizon shell energy-momentum tensor. In the special case of BMS-like soldering supertranslations we find a conserved shell-energy that is strikingly similar to the standard expression for asymptotic BMS supertranslation charges, suggesting a direct relation between the physical properties of these horizon shells and the recently proposed BMS supertranslation hair of a black hole.

  11. Thermomechanical fatigue of Sn-37 wt.% Pb model solder joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.W.; Plumbridge, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue of Sn-37 wt.% Pb model solder joints has been investigated under thermomechanical and thermal cycling. Based upon an analysis of displacements during thermomechancial cycling, a model solder joint has been designed to simulate actual joints in electronic packages. The strain-stress relationship, characterised by hysteresis loops, was determined during cycling from 30 to 125 deg. C, and the stress-range monitored throughout. The number of cycles to failure, as defined by the fall in stress range, was correlated to strain range and strain energy. The strain hardening exponent, k, varied with the definition of failure and, when a stress-range drop of 50% was used, it was 0.46. Cracks were produced during pure thermal cycling without external strains applied. These arose due to the local strains caused by thermal expansion mismatches between the solder and Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallic layer, between the phases of solder, and due to the anisotropy of the materials. The fatigue life under thermomechanical cycling was significantly inferior to that obtained in isothermal mechanical cycling. A factor contributing to this inferiority is the internal damage produced during temperature cycling

  12. Soluble Lead and Bismuth Chalcogenidometallates: Versatile Solders for Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [Department; Son, Jae Sung [Department; School; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S. [Department; Filatov, Alexander S. [Department; Hazarika, Abhijit [Department; Wang, Yuanyuan [Department; Hudson, Margaret H. [Department; Sun, Cheng-Jun [Advanced; Chattopadhyay, Soma [Physical; Talapin, Dmitri V. [Department; Center

    2017-07-27

    Here we report the syntheses of largely unexplored lead and bismuth chalcogenidometallates in the solution phase. Using N2H4 as the solvent, new compounds such as K6Pb3Te6·7N2H4 were obtained. These soluble molecular compounds underwent cation exchange processes using resin chemistry, replacing Na+ or K+ by decomposable N2H5+ or tetraethylammonium cations. They also transformed into stoichiometric lead and bismuth chalcogenide nanomaterials with the addition of metal salts. Such a versatile chemistry led to a variety of composition-matched solders to join lead and bismuth chalcogenides and tune their charge transport properties at the grain boundaries. Solution-processed thin films composed of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 microparticles soldered by (N2H5)6Bi0.5Sb1.5Te6 exhibited thermoelectric power factors (~28 μW/cm K2) comparable to those in vacuum-deposited Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 films. The soldering effect can also be integrated with attractive fabrication techniques for thermoelectric modules, such as screen printing, suggesting the potential of these solders in the rational design of printable and moldable thermoelectrics.

  13. Effects of PCB thickness on adjustable fountain wave soldering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hybrid circuit assembly, component lead tinning, and wire tinning. .... The mesh model was built and optimized with 599920 hybrid nodes as shown in figure 9. ... conducted to track the fluid motions of the two phases (i.e., molten solder and air).

  14. The Inverted Discoid Meniscus Segment: Clinical, Radiographic, and Arthroscopic Description of a Hidden Tear Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMont, Lauren; Ellis, Henry; Wise, Kelsey; Wilson, Philip

    2016-06-01

    A flipped, or inverted, meniscus segment is easily visualized in the normal meniscus. However, an inverted discoid meniscus segment may be difficult to appreciate because the tear occurs more centrally and leaves more meniscal rim; thus, it may be undertreated if not addressed during arthroscopy. To describe findings on clinical history, radiographs, MRI, and arthroscopy of a lateral discoid meniscus with an inverted segment and compare them with characteristics of a lateral discoid meniscus without an inverted segment. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Between 2009 and 2012, a retrospective series of 121 consecutive knee arthroscopies for symptomatic lateral discoid meniscus were reviewed for the presence of an inverted fragment. Chart review of clinical presentation, operative reports, radiographic images, and arthroscopic images was performed. Comparative analysis of the clinical presentation between lateral discoid menisci with an inverted segment and noninverted lateral discoid menisci was performed by use of Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney test. Nineteen patients with an inverted discoid meniscus segment (14 males, 5 females; average age, 15.0 years; range, 9.5-17.0 years) were compared with 102 patients with a noninverted discoid meniscus (53 males, 49 females; average age, 12.3 years; range, 5-17.0 years) (P = .011 for sex and P meniscus patients with an inverted segment had activity-related knee pain. Only 4 patients (21.0%) reported mechanical symptoms. Patients with an inverted discoid segment, compared with patients with discoid menisci without inverted segments, were more likely to have instability and effusion (P = .012 and P meniscus patients with an inverted segment (94.7%) had an injury, while only 41.2% of patients with noninverted symptomatic discoid menisci had an injury (P meniscus. During arthroscopy, the inverted discoid segment appeared normal, without a tear; upon probing, however, the inverted segment could be exposed. An

  15. Dislocation of the temporomandibular joint meniscus: contrast arthrography vs. computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Christiansen, E.; Sauser, D.; Hasso, A.N.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A prospective study to determine the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of dislocation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) meniscus was made by performing both CT and contrast arthrography on 18 joints suspected of meniscus dislocation. Arthography rather than surgery was chosen as the quality standard for comparing CT findings, as not all patients undergoing the studies underwent surgery. The results of each test were reported independently by the radiologist who obtained either all of the arthograms or all of the CT scans. For dislocation of the meniscus, there were excellent agreement between the two methods. CT seems to be nearly as accurate as arthrography for showing meniscus dislocation, is performed with lower x-ray exposure, and is noninvasive. Arthrograpy discloses more detailed information about the joint meniscus, such as perforation and maceration, and should continue to be used when this kind of information is clinically important

  16. Human Migratory Meniscus Progenitor Cells Are Controlled via the TGF-β Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Hayat; Schminke, Boris; Bode, Christa; Roth, Moritz; Albert, Julius; von der Heyde, Silvia; Rosen, Vicki; Miosge, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Summary Degeneration of the knee joint during osteoarthritis often begins with meniscal lesions. Meniscectomy, previously performed extensively after meniscal injury, is now obsolete because of the inevitable osteoarthritis that occurs following this procedure. Clinically, meniscus self-renewal is well documented as long as the outer, vascularized meniscal ring remains intact. In contrast, regeneration of the inner, avascular meniscus does not occur. Here, we show that cartilage tissue harvested from the avascular inner human meniscus during the late stages of osteoarthritis harbors a unique progenitor cell population. These meniscus progenitor cells (MPCs) are clonogenic and multipotent and exhibit migratory activity. We also determined that MPCs are likely to be controlled by canonical transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling that leads to an increase in SOX9 and a decrease in RUNX2, thereby enhancing the chondrogenic potential of MPC. Therefore, our work is relevant for the development of novel cell biological, regenerative therapies for meniscus repair. PMID:25418724

  17. Cartilage Delamination Flap Mimicking a Torn Medial Meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Zhi-Wei Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a chondral delamination lesion due to medial parapatellar plica friction syndrome involving the medial femoral condyle. This mimicked a torn medial meniscus in clinical and radiological presentation. Arthroscopy revealed a chondral delamination flap, which was debrided. Diagnosis of chondral lesions in the knee can be challenging. Clinical examination and MRI have good accuracy for diagnosis and should be used in tandem. Early diagnosis and treatment of chondral lesions are important to prevent progression to early osteoarthritis.

  18. Meniscus Dynamics in Bubble Formation: A Parametric Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stanovský, Petr; Růžička, Marek; Martins, A.; Teixeira, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 14 (2011), s. 3258-3267 ISSN 0009-2509. [International Conference on Gas–Liquid and Gas–Liquid–Solid Reactor Engineering /10./. Braga, 26.06.2011-29.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA AV ČR KJB200720901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bubble formation * transparent perforated plate * meniscus oscillations Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.431, year: 2011

  19. Transplantation of autologous synovial mesenchymal stem cells promotes meniscus regeneration in aged primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shimpei; Muneta, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Koga, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Sotome, Shinichi; Okawa, Atsushi; Kiuchi, Shinji; Ono, Hideo; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Transplantation of aggregates of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) enhanced meniscus regeneration in rats. Anatomy and biological properties of the meniscus depend on animal species. To apply this technique clinically, it is valuable to investigate the use of animals genetically close to humans. We investigated whether transplantation of aggregates of autologous synovial MSCs promoted meniscal regeneration in aged primates. Chynomolgus primates between 12 and 13 years old were used. After the anterior halves of the medial menisci in both knees were removed, an average of 14 aggregates consisting of 250,000 synovial MSCs were transplanted onto the meniscus defect. No aggregates were transplanted to the opposite knee for the control. Meniscus and articular cartilage were analyzed macroscopically, histologically, and by MRI T1rho mapping at 8 (n = 3) and 16 weeks (n = 4). The medial meniscus was larger and the modified Pauli's histological score for the regenerated meniscus was better in the MSC group than in the control group in each primate at 8 and 16 weeks. Mankin's score for the medial femoral condyle cartilage was better in the MSC group than in the control group in all primates at 16 weeks. T1rho value for both the regenerated meniscus and adjacent articular cartilage in the MSC group was closer to the normal meniscus than in the control group in all primates at 16 weeks. Transplantation of aggregates of autologous synovial MSCs promoted meniscus regeneration and delayed progression of degeneration of articular cartilage in aged primates. This is the first report dealing with meniscus regeneration in primates. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1274-1282, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Soldering Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder with Minor Aluminum Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Mei Leong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the trends towards miniaturization in lead free electronic products, researchers are putting immense efforts to improve the properties and reliabilities of Sn based solders. Recently, much interest has been shown on low silver (Ag content solder SAC105 (Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu because of economic reasons and improvement of impact resistance as compared to SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu. The present work investigates the effect of minor aluminum (Al addition (0.1–0.5 wt.% to SAC105 on the interfacial structure between solder and copper substrate during reflow. The addition of minor Al promoted formation of small, equiaxed Cu-Al particle, which are identified as Cu3Al2. Cu3Al2 resided at the near surface/edges of the solder and exhibited higher hardness and modulus. Results show that the minor addition of Al does not alter the morphology of the interfacial intermetallic compounds, but they substantially suppress the growth of the interfacial Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC after reflow. During isothermal aging, minor alloying Al has reduced the thickness of interfacial Cu6Sn5 IMC but has no significant effect on the thickness of Cu3Sn. It is suggested that of atoms of Al exert their influence by hindering the flow of reacting species at the interface.

  1. Soldering Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder with Minor Aluminum Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yee Mei; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the trends towards miniaturization in lead free electronic products, researchers are putting immense efforts to improve the properties and reliabilities of Sn based solders. Recently, much interest has been shown on low silver (Ag) content solder SAC105 (Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu) because of economic reasons and improvement of impact resistance as compared to SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu. The present work investigates the effect of minor aluminum (Al) addition (0.1–0.5 wt.%) to SAC105 on the interfacial structure between solder and copper substrate during reflow. The addition of minor Al promoted formation of small, equiaxed Cu-Al particle, which are identified as Cu3Al2. Cu3Al2 resided at the near surface/edges of the solder and exhibited higher hardness and modulus. Results show that the minor addition of Al does not alter the morphology of the interfacial intermetallic compounds, but they substantially suppress the growth of the interfacial Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC) after reflow. During isothermal aging, minor alloying Al has reduced the thickness of interfacial Cu6Sn5 IMC but has no significant effect on the thickness of Cu3Sn. It is suggested that of atoms of Al exert their influence by hindering the flow of reacting species at the interface. PMID:28773645

  2. Solder wetting behavior enhancement via laser-textured surface microcosmic topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiyan [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Peng, Jianke [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, Li, E-mail: fuli@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Wang, Xincheng [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Xie, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The wetting angle of lead free solder on Cu was reduced by surface microstructure. • The wetting form of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on Cu was “non-composite surface”. • The experimental results had a sound fit with the theoretical calculation. - Abstract: In order to reduce or even replace the use of Sn-Pb solder in electronics industry, the laser-textured surface microstructures were used to enhance the wetting behavior of lead free solder during soldering. According to wetting theory and Sn-Ag-Cu lead free solder performance, we calculated and designed four microcosmic structures with the similar shape and different sizes to control the wetting behavior of lead free solder. The micro-structured surfaces with different dimensions were processed on copper plates by fiber femtosecond laser, and the effect of microstructures on wetting behavior was verified experimentally. The results showed that the wetting angle of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on the copper plate with microstructures decreased effectively compared with that on the smooth copper plate. The wetting angles had a sound fit with the theoretical values calculated by wetting model. The novel method provided a feasible route for adjusting the wetting behavior of solders and optimizing solders system.

  3. Effects of soldering methods on tensile strength of a gold-palladium metal ceramic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadhanfari, Husain A; Khajah, Hasan M; Monaco, Edward A; Kim, Hyeongil

    2014-10-01

    The tensile strength obtained by conventional postceramic application soldering and laser postceramic welding may require more energy than microwave postceramic soldering, which could provide similar tensile strength values. The purpose of the study was to compare the tensile strength obtained by microwave postceramic soldering, conventional postceramic soldering, and laser postceramic welding. A gold-palladium metal ceramic alloy and gold-based solder were used in this study. Twenty-seven wax specimens were cast in gold-palladium noble metal and divided into 4 groups: laser welding with a specific postfiller noble metal, microwave soldering with a postceramic solder, conventional soldering with the same postceramic solder used in the microwave soldering group, and a nonsectioned control group. All the specimens were heat treated to simulate a normal porcelain sintering sequence. An Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to measure the tensile strength for the 4 groups. The means were analyzed statistically with 1-way ANOVA. The surface and fracture sites of the specimens were subjectively evaluated for fracture type and porosities by using a scanning electron microscope. The mean (standard deviation) ultimate tensile strength values were as follows: nonsectioned control 818 ±30 MPa, microwave 516 ±34 MPa, conventional 454 ±37 MPa, and laser weld 191 ±39 MPa. A 1-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in ultimate tensile strength among the groups (F3,23=334.5; Ptensile strength for gold and palladium noble metals than either conventional soldering or laser welding. Conventional soldering resulted in a higher tensile strength than laser welding. Under the experimental conditions described, either microwave or conventional postceramic soldering would appear to satisfy clinical requirements related to tensile strength. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Metallic Nanoparticles on Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Tin-Based Solders for Microelectronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Arafat, M. M.; Tay, S. L.; Leong, Y. M.

    2017-10-01

    Tin (Sn)-based solders have established themselves as the main alternative to the traditional lead (Pb)-based solders in many applications. However, the reliability of the Sn-based solders continues to be a concern. In order to make Sn-based solders microstructurally more stable and hence more reliable, researchers are showing great interest in investigating the effects of the incorporation of different nanoparticles into them. This paper gives an overview of the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the characteristics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Sn-based solder joints on copper substrates during reflow and thermal aging. Nanocomposite solders were prepared by mechanically blending nanoparticles of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn) and titanium (Ti) with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-3.5Ag solder pastes. The composite solders were then reflowed and their wetting characteristics and interfacial microstructural evolution were investigated. Through the paste mixing route, Ni, Co, Zn and Mo nanoparticles alter the morphology and thickness of the IMCs in beneficial ways for the performance of solder joints. The thickness of Cu3Sn IMC is decreased with the addition of Ni, Co and Zn nanoparticles. The thickness of total IMC layer is decreased with the addition of Zn and Mo nanoparticles in the solder. The metallic nanoparticles can be divided into two groups. Ni, Co, and Zn nanoparticles undergo reactive dissolution during solder reflow, causing in situ alloying and therefore offering an alternative route of alloy additions to solders. Mo nanoparticles remain intact during reflow and impart their influence as discrete particles. Mechanisms of interactions between different types of metallic nanoparticles and solder are discussed.

  5. A new arthroscopic classification of degenerative medial meniscus root tear that correlates with meniscus extrusion on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Seong-Il; Jeong, Tae-Wan; Kim, Su-Jin; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-03-01

    To determine a new classification system for medial meniscus root tears (MMRT) based on arthroscopic findings. 24 knees (55%) belonged to the nondisplaced or overlapped group, and 20 knees (45%) to the widely displaced group. Absolute meniscal extrusion was defined as distance between outer edge of the articular cartilage of tibial plateau and meniscal outer edge. Relative extrusion was defined as extruded meniscus width divided by entire meniscal width, multiplied by 100. The proportion of knees with major (>3 mm) extrusion were compared in two groups, as were the severity of chondral wear and osteoarthritic change. Absolute (4.6 mm vs. 3.7 mm, P=0.006) and relative (46% vs. 39%, P=0.042) extrusion of the medial meniscus were greater in widely displaced than in nondisplaced or overlapped group. Medial joint space width was significantly narrower in the widely displaced than in the nondisplaced or overlapped group (3.0 mm vs. 4.0 mm, P=0.007). The widely displaced group had a 4° greater varus deformity, and higher rates of major extrusion (>3 mm), grade III or IV chondral wear in the medial femoral condyle (60% vs. 29%, P=0.039) and medial compartment osteoarthritis (75% vs. 21%, P=0.001) than did the nondisplaced or overlapped group. Widely displaced MMRT had greater meniscal extrusion and more severe chondral wear and osteoarthritis than did nondisplaced or overlapped MMRT. In this novel classification system, the stage of MMRT severity was associated with tear site displacement. Case series (level IV). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Soldering-induced Cu diffusion and intermetallic compound formation between Ni/Cu under bump metallization and SnPb flip-chip solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Sheng; Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2004-04-01

    Nickel-based under bump metallization (UBM) has been widely used as a diffusion barrier to prevent the rapid reaction between the Cu conductor and Sn-based solders. In this study, joints with and without solder after heat treatments were employed to evaluate the diffusion behavior of Cu in the 63Sn-37Pb/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structure. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated from the concentration profiles of Cu in solder joints. During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1015-1016 atoms/cm2s. However, in the assembly without solder, no Cu was detected on the surface of Ni even after ten cycles of reflow. The diffusion behavior of Cu during heat treatments was studied, and the soldering-process-induced Cu diffusion through Ni metallization was characterized. In addition, the effect of Cu content in the solder near the solder/intermetallic compound (IMC) interface on interfacial reactions between the solder and the Ni/Cu UBM was also discussed. It is evident that the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC might form as the concentration of Cu in the Sn-Cu-Ni alloy exceeds 0.6 wt.%.

  7. Optical spectroscopic characterization of human meniscus biomechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Myllymäki, Juho; Danso, Elvis K.; Honkanen, Juuso T. J.; Korhonen, Rami K.; Töyräs, Juha; Afara, Isaac O.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the capacity of optical spectroscopy in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectral ranges for estimating the biomechanical properties of human meniscus. Seventy-two samples obtained from the anterior, central, and posterior locations of the medial and lateral menisci of 12 human cadaver joints were used. The samples were subjected to mechanical indentation, then traditional biomechanical parameters (equilibrium and dynamic moduli) were calculated. In addition, strain-dependent fibril network modulus and permeability strain-dependency coefficient were determined via finite-element modeling. Subsequently, absorption spectra were acquired from each location in the VIS (400 to 750 nm) and NIR (750 to 1100 nm) spectral ranges. Partial least squares regression, combined with spectral preprocessing and transformation, was then used to investigate the relationship between the biomechanical properties and spectral response. The NIR spectral region was observed to be optimal for model development (83.0%≤R2≤90.8%). The percentage error of the models are: Eeq (7.1%), Edyn (9.6%), Eɛ (8.4%), and Mk (8.9%). Thus, we conclude that optical spectroscopy in the NIR range is a potential method for rapid and nondestructive evaluation of human meniscus functional integrity and health in real time during arthroscopic surgery.

  8. Effect of interference of capillary length on evaporation at meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Shu; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Yokomine, Takehiko; Kawara, Zensaku

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the experimental results on the evaporation characteristics of meniscus in various geometrical configurations which enable to vary a perimeter of liquid-vapor interface and a meniscus curvature were obtained, and the main factor in evaporation process was clarified. As the experimental conditions, the perimeter was adjusted from 1mm to 100mm order, and the curvature from the inverse of capillary length, κ( 0.4mm-1) , to about 10mm-1 . Measuring devices for evaporation rate, which consisted of a test section on an electric balance, was set to a reduced pressure environment for making the purified water in the test section evaporate. There is no heater in the test section and system was set to be isolated from outside environment. It was found that the evaporation rate and flux could be organized by the perimeter if the curvature is constant at κ. On the other hand, when the curvature is larger than κ, it was found that the curvature is the dominant factor in the evaporation process. It can be considered that an interference of capillary length is a key to understand these results.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase activity and prostaglandin E2 are elevated in the synovial fluid of meniscus tear patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Betty; Goode, Adam P; Carter, Teralyn E; Utturkar, Gangadhar M; Huebner, Janet L; Taylor, Dean C; Moorman, Claude T; Garrett, William E; Kraus, Virginia B; Guilak, Farshid; DeFrate, Louis E; McNulty, Amy L

    Meniscus tears are a common knee injury and are associated with the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study is to evaluate potential OA mediators in the synovial fluid and serum of meniscus tear subjects compared to those in the synovial fluid of radiographic non-OA control knees. Sixteen subjects with an isolated unilateral meniscus injury and six subjects who served as reference controls (knee Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0-1) were recruited. Twenty-one biomarkers were measured in serum from meniscus tear subjects and in synovial fluid from both groups. Meniscus tear subjects were further stratified by tear type to assess differences in biomarker levels. Synovial fluid total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were increased 25-fold and 290-fold, respectively, in meniscus tear subjects as compared to reference controls (p meniscus tear subjects (R = 0.83, p meniscus tear subjects, synovial fluid levels of MMP activity, MMP-2, MMP-3, sGAG, COMP, IL-6, and PGE2 were higher than serum levels (p meniscus tears had higher synovial fluid MMP-10 (p meniscus injury may be targets to promote meniscus repair and prevent OA development.

  10. Quantitative analysis of the difference between an intact complete discoid lateral meniscus and a torn complete discoid meniscus on MR imaging: a feasibility study for a new classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Hee; Choi, Sang-Hee; Woo, Sook Young

    2010-01-01

    To determine the quantitative difference between an intact complete discoid lateral meniscus (CDLM) and a torn CDLM on MR imaging. Between May 2005 to November 2009, 137 patients with a CDLM (107 intact CDLM and 30 torn CDLM) and 92 patients with a normal meniscus were included in this study. The evaluated parameters were the height of the posterior horn of the lateral and medial menisci on the sagittal images and their ratio as assessed by two observers twice at an interval of 1 month. Each parameter was analyzed based on the Kruskal Wallis test, and the analysis using the mixed model. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the interobserver reliabilities at session 2. The mean heights of the posterior horn of the lateral and medial menisci on the sagittal images for an intact CDLM, a torn CLDM, and a normal meniscus were 6.5, 7.3, 5.7 and 6.6, 6.4, 6.7 mm at session 1, respectively. The mean heights of the posterior horn of the lateral and medial menisci on the sagittal images for an intact CDLM, a torn CDLM, and a normal meniscus for both observers were 6.5, 7.2, 5.7 and 6.6, 6.3, 6.8 mm at session 2, respectively. The ratio of the height of the lateral to the height of the medial meniscus for an intact CDLM at both sessions for both observers was 1.0. The ratios were 1.2 and 0.8 for a torn CDLM and for a normal meniscus, respectively, at both sessions for observer 1. The ratios were 1.2 and 0.9 for a torn CDLM and for a normal meniscus, respectively, at session 2 for observer 2. The heights of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus on the sagittal images and the ratios of the heights of the lateral to the medial menisci in all three groups were statistically significantly different for both sessions (p < 0.0001). The interobserver ICCs for each parameter of both an intact CDLM and a torn CDLM at session 2 showed high correlations (p < 0.0001). The height of the lateral meniscus and the ratio of the height of the lateral to the height

  11. The metallurgical approach on the solder voids behaviour in surface mount devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohabattul Zaman Bukhari

    1996-01-01

    Solder voids are believed to cause poor heat dissiption in the Surface Mount devices and reduce the reliability of the devices at higher operating services. There are a lot of factors involved in creating voids such as gas/flux entrapment, wettability, outgasseous, air bubbles in the solder paste, inconsistency of solder coverage and improper metal scheme selection. This study was done to observe the behaviour of the solder voids in term of flux entrapmentt and wettability. It is believed that flux entrapment and wettability are verify this hypothesis. Two types of metal scheme were chosen which are Nickel (Ni) plated and Tin (Sn) plated heatsink. X-ray techniques such as Radiographic Inspection Analysis and EDAX were used to detect the minute solder voids. The solder voids observed on the heatsinks and Copper shims after the reflow process are believed to be a non contact voids that resulted from some portion of the surface not wetting properly

  12. Corrosive microenvironments at lead solder surfaces arising from galvanic corrosion with copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Caroline K; Stone, Kendall R; Dudi, Abhijeet; Edwards, Marc A

    2010-09-15

    As stagnant water contacts copper pipe and lead solder (simulated soldered joints), a corrosion cell is formed between the metals in solder (Pb, Sn) and the copper. If the resulting galvanic current exceeds about 2 μA/cm(2), a highly corrosive microenvironment can form at the solder surface, with pH chloride concentrations at least 11 times higher than bulk water levels. Waters with relatively high chloride tend to sustain high galvanic currents, preventing passivation of the solder surface, and contributing to lead contamination of potable water supplies. The total mass of lead corroded was consistent with predictions based on the galvanic current, and lead leaching to water was correlated with galvanic current. If the concentration of sulfate in the water increased relative to chloride, galvanic currents and associated lead contamination could be greatly reduced, and solder surfaces were readily passivated.

  13. Tendon and ligament as novel cell sources for engineering the knee meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, P; Paschos, N K; Huang, B J; Aryaei, A; Hu, J C; Athanasiou, K A

    2016-12-01

    The application of cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine is hindered by the difficulty of acquiring adequate numbers of competent cells. For the knee meniscus in particular, this may be solved by harvesting tissue from neighboring tendons and ligaments. In this study, we have investigated the potential of cells from tendon and ligament, as compared to meniscus cells, to engineer scaffold-free self-assembling fibrocartilage. Self-assembling meniscus-shaped constructs engineered from a co-culture of articular chondrocytes and either meniscus, tendon, or ligament cells were cultured for 4 weeks with TGF-β1 in serum-free media. After culture, constructs were assessed for their mechanical properties, histological staining, gross appearance, and biochemical composition including cross-link content. Correlations were performed to evaluate relationships between biochemical content and mechanical properties. In terms of mechanical properties as well as biochemical content, constructs engineered using tenocytes and ligament fibrocytes were found to be equivalent or superior to constructs engineered using meniscus cells. Furthermore, cross-link content was found to be correlated with engineered tissue tensile properties. Tenocytes and ligament fibrocytes represent viable cell sources for engineering meniscus fibrocartilage using the self-assembling process. Due to greater cross-link content, fibrocartilage engineered with tenocytes and ligament fibrocytes may maintain greater tensile properties than fibrocartilage engineered with meniscus cells. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal change in quantitative meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis - data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloecker, Katja; Wirth, W.; Eckstein, F.; Guermazi, A.; Hitzl, W.; Hunter, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to apply 3D MRI-based measurement technology to studying 2-year change in quantitative measurements of meniscus size and position. Forty-seven knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with medial radiographic joint space narrowing had baseline and 2-year follow-up MRIs. Quantitative measures were obtained from manual segmentation of the menisci and tibia using coronal DESSwe images. The standardized response mean (SRM = mean/SD change) was used as measure of sensitivity to longitudinal change. Medial tibial plateau coverage decreased from 34.8 % to 29.9 % (SRM -0.82; p < 0.001). Change in medial meniscus extrusion in a central image (SRM 0.18) and in the central five slices (SRM 0.22) did not reach significance, but change in extrusion across the entire meniscus (SRM 0.32; p = 0.03) and in the relative area of meniscus extrusion (SRM 0.56; p < 0.001) did. There was a reduction in medial meniscus volume (10 %; p < 0.001), width (7 %; p < 0.001), and height (2 %; p = 0.08); meniscus substance loss was strongest in the posterior (SRM -0.51; p = 0.001) and weakest in the anterior horn (SRM -0.15; p = 0.31). This pilot study reports, for the first time, longitudinal change in quantitative 3D meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis. It provides evidence of improved sensitivity to change of 3D measurements compared with single slice analysis. (orig.)

  15. Longitudinal change in quantitative meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis - data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloecker, Katja [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg (Austria); Salzburg, Institute of Anatomy, Salzburg (Austria); BHS Linz, Department of Orthopaedics, Linz (Austria); Wirth, W.; Eckstein, F. [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg (Austria); Salzburg, Institute of Anatomy, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ainring (Germany); Guermazi, A. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Imaging Core Lab (BICL), Boston, MA (United States); Hitzl, W. [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg, Research Office, Salzburg (Austria); Hunter, D.J. [University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital and Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, Sydney (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    We aimed to apply 3D MRI-based measurement technology to studying 2-year change in quantitative measurements of meniscus size and position. Forty-seven knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with medial radiographic joint space narrowing had baseline and 2-year follow-up MRIs. Quantitative measures were obtained from manual segmentation of the menisci and tibia using coronal DESSwe images. The standardized response mean (SRM = mean/SD change) was used as measure of sensitivity to longitudinal change. Medial tibial plateau coverage decreased from 34.8 % to 29.9 % (SRM -0.82; p < 0.001). Change in medial meniscus extrusion in a central image (SRM 0.18) and in the central five slices (SRM 0.22) did not reach significance, but change in extrusion across the entire meniscus (SRM 0.32; p = 0.03) and in the relative area of meniscus extrusion (SRM 0.56; p < 0.001) did. There was a reduction in medial meniscus volume (10 %; p < 0.001), width (7 %; p < 0.001), and height (2 %; p = 0.08); meniscus substance loss was strongest in the posterior (SRM -0.51; p = 0.001) and weakest in the anterior horn (SRM -0.15; p = 0.31). This pilot study reports, for the first time, longitudinal change in quantitative 3D meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis. It provides evidence of improved sensitivity to change of 3D measurements compared with single slice analysis. (orig.)

  16. Changes of rabbit meniscus influenced by hyaline cartilage injury of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiajun; Huang, Suizhu; Zheng, Jia; Zhong, Chunan; Tang, Chao; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease in the elderly population. Most of the previous OA-related researches focused on articular cartilage degeneration, osteophyte formation and synovitis etc. However, the role of the meniscus in these pathological changes has not been given enough attention. The goal of our study was to find the pathological changes of the meniscus in OA knee and determine their relationship. 20 months old female Chinese rabbits received either knee damaging operations with articular cartilage scratch method or sham operation randomly on one of their knees. They were sacrificed after 1-6 weeks post-operation. Medial Displacement Index (MDI) for meniscus dislocation, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for routine histological evaluation, Toluidine blue (TB) stains for evaluating proteoglycans were carried out. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed with a two-step detection kit. Histological analysis showed chondrocyte clusters around cartilage lesions and moderate loss of proteoglycans in the operation model, as well as MDI increase and all characteristics of OA. High expression of MMP-3 and TIMP-1 also were found in both hyaline cartilage and meniscus. Biomechanical and biochemistry environment around the meniscus is altered when OA occur. If meniscus showed degeneration, subluxation and dysfunction, OA would be more severe. Prompt repair or reconstruction of hyaline cartilage in weight bearing area when it injured could prevent meniscus degeneration and subluxation, then prevent the development of OA.

  17. Do cell based tissue engineering products for meniscus regeneration influence vascularization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Matthias; Ehrenreich, Tobias; Koehl, Gudrun; Pattappa, Girish; Pfeifer, Christian; Loibl, Markus; Müller, Michael; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Zellner, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Meniscus regeneration is observed within the peripheral, vascularized zone but decreases in the inner two thirds alongside the vascularization. Within this avascular area, cell-based tissue-engineering-approaches appear to be a promising strategy for the treatment of meniscal defects. Evaluation of the angiogenic potential of cell-based tissue-engineering-products for meniscus healing. Evaluation of angiogenesis induced by rabbit meniscus-pellets, meniscus-cells (MC) or mesenchymal stem-cells (MSC) in cell-based tissue-engineering-products within a rabbit meniscus-ring was performed using a transparent dorsal skin fold chamber in nude mice. Observations were undertaken during a 14 days period. Cell preconditioning differed between experimental groups. Immunohistochemical analysis of the regenerated tissue in the meniscus-ring induced by cell loaded composite scaffolds for differentiation and anti-angiogenic factors were performed. Meniscus-pellets and MSC-/MC-based tissue-engineering-products induced angiogenesis. An accelerated vascularization was detected in the group of meniscus-pellets derived from the vascularized zone compared to avascular meniscus-pellets. In terms of cell-based tissue-engineering-products, chondrogenic preconditioning resulted in significantly increased vessel growth. MSC-constructs showed an accelerated angiogenesis. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed a progressive differentiation and lower content for anti-angiogenic endostatin in the precultured group. Preconditioning of MC-/MSC-based tissue-engineering-products is a promising tool to influence the angiogenic potential of tissue-engineering-products and to adapt these properties according to the aimed tissue qualities.

  18. Synovial Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Meniscus Regeneration Augmented by an Autologous Achilles Tendon Graft in a Rat Partial Meniscus Defect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Nobutake; Muneta, Takeshi; Matsuta, Seiya; Koga, Hideyuki; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Mabuchi, Yo; Akazawa, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Eiji; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Although meniscus defects and degeneration are strongly correlated with the later development of osteoarthritis, the promise of regenerative medicine strategies is to prevent and/or delay the disease's progression. Meniscal reconstruction has been shown in animal models with tendon grafting and transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); however, these procedures have not shown the same efficacy in clinical studies. Here, our aim was to investigate the ability of tendon grafts pretreated with exogenous synovial-derived MSCs to prevent cartilage degeneration in a rat partial meniscus defect model. We removed the anterior half of the medial meniscus and grafted autologous Achilles tendons with or without a 10-minute pretreatment of the tendon with synovial MSCs. The meniscus and surrounding cartilage were evaluated at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (n = 5). Tendon grafts increased meniscus size irrespective of synovial MSCs. Histological scores for regenerated menisci were better in the tendon + MSC group than in the other two groups at 4 and 8 weeks. Both macroscopic and histological scores for articular cartilage were significantly better in the tendon + MSC group at 8 weeks. Implanted synovial MSCs survived around the grafted tendon and native meniscus integration site by cell tracking assays with luciferase+, LacZ+, DiI+, and/or GFP+ synovial MSCs and/or GFP+ tendons. Flow cytometric analysis showed that transplanted synovial MSCs retained their MSC properties at 7 days and host synovial tissue also contained cells with MSC characteristics. Synovial MSCs promoted meniscus regeneration augmented by autologous Achilles tendon grafts and prevented cartilage degeneration in rats. Stem Cells 2015;33:1927–1938 PMID:25993981

  19. Interfacial reaction of Sn-based solder joint in the package system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huandi

    In this thesis, I report a study on the effect of the solder size on intermetallic layer formation by comparing the morphology change and growth rate of two different size solder joint aged at a same temperature for different aging time. The layer thickness and microstructure were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Photoshop was used to measure the thickness of intermetallic compound. Two different size of solder joints with composition of Sn-Ag-Cu (305) were used.

  20. A new method for soldering particle-reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jinbin; Mu, Yunchao [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Luo, Xiangwei [Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Niu, Jitai, E-mail: niujitai@163.com [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soldering of 55% SiCp/Al composite and Kovar is first achieved in the world. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nickel plating is required on the surface of the composites before soldering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low welding temperature is set to avoid overheating of the matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical and metallurgical bonding of composites and Kovar is carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High tension strength of 225 MPa in soldering seam has been obtained. - Abstract: Soldering of aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-SiC) to other structural materials, or even to themselves, has proved unsuccessful mainly due to the poor wetting of these composites by conventional soldering alloys. This paper reports a new approach, which improves the wetting properties of these composites by molting solder alloys to promote stronger bonds. The new approach relies on nickel-plating of the composite's faying surface prior to application of a solder alloy. Based on this approach, an aluminum metal matrix composite containing 55 vol.% SiC particles is successfully soldered to a Fe-Ni-Co alloy (commercially known as Kovar 4J29). The solder material is a zinc-based alloy (Zn-Cd-Ag-Cu) with a melting point of about 400 Degree-Sign C. Microscopic examinations of the aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs)-Kovar interfaces show that the nickel-plating, prior to soldering, could noticeably enhance the reaction between the molten solder and composites. The fractography of the shear-tested samples revealed that fracture occurs within the composite (i.e. cohesive failure), indicating a good adhesion between the solder alloy and the Al-SiC composite.

  1. A new method for soldering particle-reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jinbin; Mu, Yunchao; Luo, Xiangwei; Niu, Jitai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soldering of 55% SiCp/Al composite and Kovar is first achieved in the world. ► The nickel plating is required on the surface of the composites before soldering. ► Low welding temperature is set to avoid overheating of the matrix. ► Chemical and metallurgical bonding of composites and Kovar is carried out. ► High tension strength of 225 MPa in soldering seam has been obtained. - Abstract: Soldering of aluminum metal matrix composites (Al–SiC) to other structural materials, or even to themselves, has proved unsuccessful mainly due to the poor wetting of these composites by conventional soldering alloys. This paper reports a new approach, which improves the wetting properties of these composites by molting solder alloys to promote stronger bonds. The new approach relies on nickel-plating of the composite's faying surface prior to application of a solder alloy. Based on this approach, an aluminum metal matrix composite containing 55 vol.% SiC particles is successfully soldered to a Fe–Ni–Co alloy (commercially known as Kovar 4J29). The solder material is a zinc-based alloy (Zn–Cd–Ag–Cu) with a melting point of about 400 °C. Microscopic examinations of the aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs)–Kovar interfaces show that the nickel-plating, prior to soldering, could noticeably enhance the reaction between the molten solder and composites. The fractography of the shear-tested samples revealed that fracture occurs within the composite (i.e. cohesive failure), indicating a good adhesion between the solder alloy and the Al–SiC composite.

  2. Effect of meniscus constact angle during early regimes of spontaneous capillarity in nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karna, N.K.; Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    4 and 18 nm. We alsofind that the meniscus contact angle remains constant during the inertial regime and its value depends upon the height of the channel. We also find that the meniscus velocity computed at the channel entrance is related to the particular value of themeniscus contact angle....... Moreover, after the inertial regime, the meniscus contactangle is found to be time dependent for all the channels under study. We propose an expression for the time evolution of the dynamic contact angle in nanochannels which, when incorporated in Bosanquets equation, satisfactorily explains the initial...

  3. Meniscal pathology in children: differences and similarities with the adult meniscus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francavilla, Michael L.; Restrepo, Ricardo; Zamora, Kathryn W.; Sarode, Vijaya [Department of Radiology, Miami Children' s Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Swirsky, Stephen M. [Department of Orthopedics, Miami Children' s Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Mintz, Douglas [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The normal meniscus undergoes typical developmental changes during childhood, reaching a mature adult appearance by approximately 10 years of age. In addition to recognizing normal meniscal appearances in children, identifying abnormalities - such as tears and the different types of discoid meniscus and meniscal cysts, as well as the surgical implications of these abnormalities - is vital in pediatric imaging. The reported incidence of meniscal tears in adolescents and young adults has increased because of increased sports participation and more widespread use of MRI. This review discusses the normal appearance of the pediatric meniscus, meniscal abnormalities, associated injuries, and prognostic indicators for repair. (orig.)

  4. Meniscal pathology in children: differences and similarities with the adult meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francavilla, Michael L.; Restrepo, Ricardo; Zamora, Kathryn W.; Sarode, Vijaya; Swirsky, Stephen M.; Mintz, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The normal meniscus undergoes typical developmental changes during childhood, reaching a mature adult appearance by approximately 10 years of age. In addition to recognizing normal meniscal appearances in children, identifying abnormalities - such as tears and the different types of discoid meniscus and meniscal cysts, as well as the surgical implications of these abnormalities - is vital in pediatric imaging. The reported incidence of meniscal tears in adolescents and young adults has increased because of increased sports participation and more widespread use of MRI. This review discusses the normal appearance of the pediatric meniscus, meniscal abnormalities, associated injuries, and prognostic indicators for repair. (orig.)

  5. [Correlation between morphogical factor of lateral plateau fracture and meniscus injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L; Zhou, W; Zhang, W T; Huang, W; You, T; Chen, P; Zhang, H L

    2016-04-18

    To analyze morphological character of lateral tibial plateau fracture fragment, and its correlation to the presence of a meniscus injury in tibial plateau fractures. A total of 79 consecutive patients of the simple lateral tibial plateau fractures from July 2011 to July 2015 were included in this study, with 65 males and 14 females with an average age of (34.3±7.2) years and 22-61 years. According to Schatzker classification, 21 cases were of Type I, 41 cases Type II, and 17 cases Type III. The characteristics of lateral tibial plateau fractures were evaluated by plain X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The type and severity of meniscus injury were diagnosed by MRI scan. Three-dimensional measurements of the lateral fragment width (LFW), the lateral plateau depression (LPD), the coronal angulation of lateral fragment (CALF), and tibial plateau widening (TPW) were measured with Picture Archiving and Communication Systems(PACS) software. The patients with and without meniscus injuries were divided into different groups and analyzed respectively. Comparison of the above measurements between the two groups was analyzed by independent t test. In all the 79 lateral tibial plateau fracture patients, 26 cases (32.9%) of meniscus injuries were detected by MRI. Among all the meniscus injury cases, 3 were of Schatzker I, 16 Schatzker II, and 7 Schatzker III. In meniscus intact group, the average LFW was (22.0±2.8) mm while in meniscus injury group it was (21.3± 3.3) mm (t=-1.008, P=0.317).The average LPD of non meniscus injury group was (5.4±2.8) mm, while in meniscus injury group was (8.7±2.8) mm (t=4.98, P=0.001). The average CALF of the two groups were 9.1°±6.1°and 10.6°± 7.1°, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (t=0.38, P=0.831). The average TPW was (3.0± 1.1) mm, and (4.8±1.7) mm of the two groups. There were significant differences between the two groups (t=5.216, P=0.001). There was no obvious correlation between the

  6. Laser tissue welding mediated with a protein solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ward, IV; Heredia, Nicholas J.; Celliers, Peter M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Eder, David C.; Glinsky, Michael E.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Soltz, Barbara A.

    1996-05-01

    A study of laser tissue welding mediated with an indocyanine green dye-enhanced protein solder was performed. Freshly obtained sections of porcine artery were used for the experiments. Sample arterial wall thickness ranged from two to three millimeters. Incisions approximately four millimeters in length were treated using an 805 nanometer continuous- wave diode laser coupled to a one millimeter diameter fiber. Controlled parameters included the power delivered by the laser, the duration of the welding process, and the concentration of dye in the solder. A two-color infrared detection system was constructed to monitor the surface temperatures achieved at the weld site. Burst pressure measurements were made to quantify the strengths of the welds immediately following completion of the welding procedure.

  7. Quality Analysis of Welded and Soldered Joints of Cu-Nb Microcomposite Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj VIŠNIAKOV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality analysis of welded and soldered joints of Cu-Nb microcomposite wires has been performed. Quality and mechanical characteristics of joints as ultimate tensile stress limit and elongation at break were measured with an universal testing machine and controlled visually using an optical microscope. Two wires joints were soldered with silver and copper solders and put into steel and copper sleeve respectively. Another two wires joints were soldered with silver solder and welded without any reinforcement. Joints soldered with the silver solder and steel sleeve have demonstrated the best mechanical characteristics: ultimate tensile stress limit of 650 MPa and elongation at break of 0.85 %. Joints soldered with the copper sleeve have no advantages comparing with the soldered butt joint. Ultimate tensile stress limit and elongation at break were in 300 MPa - 350 MPa and in 0.35 % - 0.45 % ranges respectively. Two welded joints had ultimate tensile stress limit of 470 MPa and elongation at break of 0.71 %. In all joints the microstructure of Nb filaments was destroyed and mechanical properties have been specified by mechanical strength of copper and sleeve materials only.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.242

  8. Reliability of soldered joints for automotive electronic devices; Denso buhin ni okeru handa setsugo no shinraisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, T; Mukaibo, N; Ando, K; Moriyama, M [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Concerning the tin and lead eutectic solder, we have evaluated the reliability of three factors of intermetallic compound layer, creep and vibration which cause solder degradation. First, the stress factor was extracted from investigating the mechanism of degradation, and the best acceleration test method was fixed. Next, the acceleration test was executed to find the stress dependency and the tendency of solder degradation was modeled numerically. While the environmental stress frequency was obtained and they were put together by using a minor method, which enabled us to predict the life span of solder on the market with precision. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  9. The effect of graphene on the intermetallic and joint strength of Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayappan, R.; Salleh, A.; Andas, J.

    2017-09-01

    Solder has been widely used in electronic industry as interconnection for electronic packaging. European Union and Japan have restricted the use of Sn-Pb solder as it contains lead which can harmful to human health and environment. Due to this, many researches have been done in order to find a suitable replacement for the lead solder. Although many lead-free solders are available, the Sn-3.5Ag solder with the addition of graphene seem to be a suitable candidate. In this study, a 0.07 wt% graphene nanosheet was added into the Sn-3.5Ag solder and this composite solder was prepared under powder metallurgy method. The solder was reacted with copper substrate at 250 °C for one minute. For joint strength analysis, two copper strips were soldered together. The solder joint was aged at temperature 100 °C for 500 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to observe the interfacial reaction and Instron machine was used to determine the joint strength. Cu6Sn5 intermetallic layer was formed at the interface between the Cu substrate and the solders. Composite solder showed the retardation of the intermetallic growth compared to the plain solder. The thickness value of the intermetallic was used to calculate the growth rate the IMC. The graphene nanosheets added solder has lower growth rate which is 3.86 × 10-15 cm2/s compared to the plain solder 7.15 × 10-15 cm2/s. Shear strength analysis show that the composite solder has higher joint compared to the plain solder.

  10. Influence of Difference Solders Volume on Intermetallic Growth of Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu/ENEPIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliza Azlina O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, portable electronic packaging products such as smart phones, tablets, notebooks and other gadgets have been developed with reduced size of component packaging, light weight, high speed and with enhanced performance. Thus, flip chip technology with smaller solder sphere sizes that would produce fine solder joint interconnections have become essential in order to fulfill these miniaturization requirements. This study investigates the interfacial reactions and intermetallics formation during reflow soldering and isothermal aging between Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405 and electroless nickel/immersion palladium/immersion gold (EN(PEPIG. Solder diameters of 300 μm and 700 μm were used to compare the effect of solder volume on the solder joint microstructure. The solid state isothermal aging was performed at 125°C starting from 250 hours until 2000 hours. The results revealed that only (Cu,Ni6Sn5 IMC was found at the interface during reflow soldering while both (Cu,Ni6Sn5 and (Ni,Cu3Sn4 IMC have been observed after aging process. Smaller solder sizes produced thinner IMC than larger solder joints investigated after reflow soldering, whereas the larger solders produced thinner IMC than the smaller solders after isothermal aging. Aging duration of solder joints has been found to be increase the IMC’s thickness and changed the IMC morphologies to spherical-shaped, compacted and larger grain size.

  11. Laser beam soldering of micro-optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R.

    2003-05-01

    MOTIVATION Ongoing miniaturisation and higher requirements within optical assemblies and the processing of temperature sensitive components demands for innovative selective joining techniques. So far adhesive bonding has primarily been used to assemble and adjust hybrid micro optical systems. However, the properties of the organic polymers used for the adhesives limit the application of these systems. In fields of telecommunication and lithography, an enhancement of existing joining techniques is necessary to improve properties like humidity resistance, laserstability, UV-stability, thermal cycle reliability and life time reliability. Against this background laser beam soldering of optical components is a reasonable joining technology alternative. Properties like: - time and area restricted energy input - energy input can be controlled by the process temperature - direct and indirect heating of the components is possible - no mechanical contact between joining tool and components give good conditions to meet the requirements on a joining technology for sensitive optical components. Additionally to the laser soldering head, for the assembly of optical components it is necessary to include positioning units to adjust the position of the components with high accuracy before joining. Furthermore, suitable measurement methods to characterize the soldered assemblies (for instance in terms of position tolerances) need to be developed.

  12. Scalable Manufacturing of Solderable and Stretchable Physiologic Sensing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Soung; Lu, Jesse; Shih, Benjamin; Gharibans, Armen; Zou, Zhanan; Matsuno, Kristen; Aguilera, Roman; Han, Yoonjae; Meek, Ann; Xiao, Jianliang; Tolley, Michael T; Coleman, Todd P

    2017-10-01

    Methods for microfabrication of solderable and stretchable sensing systems (S4s) and a scaled production of adhesive-integrated active S4s for health monitoring are presented. S4s' excellent solderability is achieved by the sputter-deposited nickel-vanadium and gold pad metal layers and copper interconnection. The donor substrate, which is modified with "PI islands" to become selectively adhesive for the S4s, allows the heterogeneous devices to be integrated with large-area adhesives for packaging. The feasibility for S4-based health monitoring is demonstrated by developing an S4 integrated with a strain gauge and an onboard optical indication circuit. Owing to S4s' compatibility with the standard printed circuit board assembly processes, a variety of commercially available surface mount chip components, such as the wafer level chip scale packages, chip resistors, and light-emitting diodes, can be reflow-soldered onto S4s without modifications, demonstrating the versatile and modular nature of S4s. Tegaderm-integrated S4 respiration sensors are tested for robustness for cyclic deformation, maximum stretchability, durability, and biocompatibility for multiday wear time. The results of the tests and demonstration of the respiration sensing indicate that the adhesive-integrated S4s can provide end users a way for unobtrusive health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Intra-Articular Injection of Human Meniscus Stem/Progenitor Cells Promotes Meniscus Regeneration and Ameliorates Osteoarthritis Through Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1/CXCR4-Mediated Homing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weiliang; Chen, Jialin; Zhu, Ting; Chen, Longkun; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Zhi; Heng, Boon Chin; Yin, Zi; Chen, Xiao; Ji, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    Meniscus injury is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Current surgical therapy involving partial or complete meniscectomy relieves pain in the short-term but often leads to osteoarthritis (OA) in the long-term. In this study, we report a new strategy of articular cartilage protection by intra-articular injection of novel human meniscus stem/progenitor cells (hMeSPCs). We found that hMeSPCs displayed both mesenchymal stem cell characteristics and high expression levels of collagen II. In the rat meniscus injury model, hMeSPC transplantation not only led to more neo-tissue formation and better-defined shape but also resulted in more rounded cells and matured extracellular matrix. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) enhanced the migration of hMeSPCs, whereas AMD3100 abolished the chemotactic effects of SDF-1 on hMeSPCs, both in vitro and in vivo. In an experimental OA model, transplantation of hMeSPCs effectively protected articular cartilage, as evidenced by reduced expression of OA markers such as collagen I, collagen X, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α but increased expression of collagen II. Our study demonstrated for the first time that intra-articular injection of hMeSPCs enhanced meniscus regeneration through the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Our study highlights a new strategy of intra-articular injection of hMeSPCs for meniscus regeneration. PMID:24448516

  14. Physical Therapy to Treat Torn Meniscus Comparable to Surgery for Many Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Surgery for Many Patients Spotlight on Research Physical Therapy to Treat Torn Meniscus Comparable to Surgery ... to avoid surgery and achieve comparable relief from physical therapy, according to a recent, multisite study funded ...

  15. Meniscus and beam halo formation in a tandem-type negative ion source with surface production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2012-06-04

    A meniscus of plasma-beam boundary in H{sup -} ion sources largely affects the extracted H{sup -} ion beam optics. Although it is hypothesized that the shape of the meniscus is one of the main reasons for the beam halo observed in experiments, a physical mechanism of the beam halo formation is not yet fully understood. In this letter, it is first shown by the 2D particle in cell simulation that the H{sup -} ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus cause a beam halo since the surface produced H{sup -} ions penetrate into the bulk plasma, and, thus, the resultant meniscus has a relatively large curvature.

  16. Over-optimistic patient expectations of recovery and leisure activities after arthroscopic meniscus surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kenneth; Roos, Ewa M; Nissen, Nis

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Patients' expectations of outcomes following arthroscopic meniscus surgery are largely unknown. We investigated patients' expectations concerning recovery and participation in leisure-time activities after arthroscopic meniscus surgery and the postoperative fulfillment...... of these. Patients and methods - The study sample consisted of 491 consecutively recruited patients (mean age 50 (SD 13) years, 55% men) who were assigned for arthroscopy on suspicion of meniscus injury and later verified by arthroscopy. Before surgery, patients completed questionnaires regarding...... meniscus surgery were too optimistic regarding their recovery time and postoperative participation in leisure activities. This highlights the need for shared decision making which should include giving the patient information on realistic expectations of recovery time and regarding participation in leisure...

  17. Diagnostic value of MRI in meniscus injury. Comparison of MRI and arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iso, Yoshinori; Nozaki, Hiroyuki; Emoto, Mari; Miyairi, Taro; Hirata, Aya; Hirasawa, Seiichi; Suguro, Toru; Igata, Atsuomi; Kudo, Yukihiko.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthrography were performed on 90 knees to compare the diagnostic value for meniscus injury with these techniques. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI and arthrography was 89.1% and 87.1%, respectively. Imaging of the medial meniscus was somewhat better with arthrography, and delineation of the lateral meniscus was somewhat better with MRI. MRI was superior in diagnoses of horizontal and degenerative lacerations, but showed the shape of the injuries less clearly than arthrography. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI decreased with the age of the patients and was inferior to arthrography for patients in their forties or older. In conclusion, MRI is a less invasive approach with high diagnostic accuracy for meniscus injury and is a promising substitute for arthrography. (author)

  18. Damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints subjected to thermomechanical cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, H., E-mail: xiaohui2013@yahoo.com.cn; Li, X.Y.; Hu, Y.; Guo, F.; Shi, Y.W.

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •A creep–fatigue damage model based on CDM was proposed. •Designed system includes load frame, strain measure device and damage test device. •Damage evolution of solder joints was a function of accumulated inelastic strain. •Damage of solder joints is an interaction between creep and low-cycle fatigue. -- Abstract: Thermomechanical fatigue damage is a progressive process of material degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints under thermomechanical cycling. A damage model was proposed based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM). Based upon an analysis of displacements for flip-chip solder joints subjected to thermal cycling, a special bimetallic loading frame with single-solder joint samples was designed to simulate the service conditions of actual joints in electronic packages. The assembly, which allowed for strain measurements of an individual solder joint during temperature cycling, was used to investigate the impact of stress–strain cycling on the damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints. The characteristic parameters of the damage model were determined through thermomechanical cycling and strain measurement tests. The damage variable D = 1 − R{sub 0}/R was selected, and values for it were obtained using a four-probe method for the single-solder joint samples every dozen cycles during thermomechanical cycling tests to verify the model. The results showed that the predicted damage was in good agreement with the experimental results. The damage evolution law proposed here is a function of inelastic strain, and the results showed that the damage rate of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints increased as the range of the applied strain increased. In addition, the microstructure evolution of the solder joints was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, which provided the microscopic explanation for the damage evolution law of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints.

  19. Damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints subjected to thermomechanical cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, H.; Li, X.Y.; Hu, Y.; Guo, F.; Shi, Y.W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A creep–fatigue damage model based on CDM was proposed. •Designed system includes load frame, strain measure device and damage test device. •Damage evolution of solder joints was a function of accumulated inelastic strain. •Damage of solder joints is an interaction between creep and low-cycle fatigue. -- Abstract: Thermomechanical fatigue damage is a progressive process of material degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints under thermomechanical cycling. A damage model was proposed based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM). Based upon an analysis of displacements for flip-chip solder joints subjected to thermal cycling, a special bimetallic loading frame with single-solder joint samples was designed to simulate the service conditions of actual joints in electronic packages. The assembly, which allowed for strain measurements of an individual solder joint during temperature cycling, was used to investigate the impact of stress–strain cycling on the damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints. The characteristic parameters of the damage model were determined through thermomechanical cycling and strain measurement tests. The damage variable D = 1 − R 0 /R was selected, and values for it were obtained using a four-probe method for the single-solder joint samples every dozen cycles during thermomechanical cycling tests to verify the model. The results showed that the predicted damage was in good agreement with the experimental results. The damage evolution law proposed here is a function of inelastic strain, and the results showed that the damage rate of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints increased as the range of the applied strain increased. In addition, the microstructure evolution of the solder joints was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, which provided the microscopic explanation for the damage evolution law of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints

  20. Optimization strategies on the structural modeling of gelatin/chitosan scaffolds to mimic human meniscus tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarem, Melika; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Mozafari, Masoud; Shastri, V. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Meniscus lesions are frequently occurring injuries with poor ability to heal. Typical treatment procedure includes removal of damaged regions, which can lead to sub-optimal knee biomechanics and early onset of osteoarthritis. Some of the drawbacks of current treatment approach present an opportunity for a tissue engineering solution. In this study, gelatin (G)/chitosan (Cs) scaffolds were synthesized via gel casting method and cross-linked with naturally derived cross-linker, genipin, through scaffold cross-linking method. Based on the characteristics of native meniscus tissue microstructure and function, three different layers were chosen to design the macroporous multilayered scaffolds. The multi-layered scaffolds were investigated for their ability to support human-derived meniscus cells by evaluating their morphology and proliferation using MTT assay at various time points. Based on structural, mechanical and cell compatibility considerations, laminated scaffolds composed of G60/Cs40, G80/Cs20 and G40/Cs60 samples, for the first, second and third layers, respectively, could be an appropriate combination for meniscus tissue engineering applications. - Graphical abstract: The wedge shaped multilayer/multiporous G/Cs meniscus scaffolds were mimicked by MR images of anatomical knee meniscus. The layers were chosen as G60/Cs40, G80/Cs20 and G40/Cs60, according to their characteristics similar to meniscus natural tissue, as the first, second and third layers, respectively. - Highlights: • Different gelatin/chitosan systems were chosen to engineer a multilayered scaffold. • The compressive modulus increased gradually by increasing the gelatin concentration. • Further addition of gelatin showed a meaningful decrease in the water uptake degree. • The layers supported cell growth and mimicked the meniscus fibrocartilage structure

  1. Optimization strategies on the structural modeling of gelatin/chitosan scaffolds to mimic human meniscus tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarem, Melika [Sports Engineering Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Hermann Staudinger Haus, Freiburg D-79104 (Germany); Helmholtz Virtual Institute: Multifunctional Biomaterials for Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Moztarzadeh, Fathollah [Sports Engineering Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mozafari, Masoud, E-mail: mozafari.masoud@gmail.com [Sports Engineering Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, School of Material Science and Engineering, Oklahoma State University, OK 74106 (United States); Shastri, V. Prasad [Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Hermann Staudinger Haus, Freiburg D-79104 (Germany); Helmholtz Virtual Institute: Multifunctional Biomaterials for Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Meniscus lesions are frequently occurring injuries with poor ability to heal. Typical treatment procedure includes removal of damaged regions, which can lead to sub-optimal knee biomechanics and early onset of osteoarthritis. Some of the drawbacks of current treatment approach present an opportunity for a tissue engineering solution. In this study, gelatin (G)/chitosan (Cs) scaffolds were synthesized via gel casting method and cross-linked with naturally derived cross-linker, genipin, through scaffold cross-linking method. Based on the characteristics of native meniscus tissue microstructure and function, three different layers were chosen to design the macroporous multilayered scaffolds. The multi-layered scaffolds were investigated for their ability to support human-derived meniscus cells by evaluating their morphology and proliferation using MTT assay at various time points. Based on structural, mechanical and cell compatibility considerations, laminated scaffolds composed of G60/Cs40, G80/Cs20 and G40/Cs60 samples, for the first, second and third layers, respectively, could be an appropriate combination for meniscus tissue engineering applications. - Graphical abstract: The wedge shaped multilayer/multiporous G/Cs meniscus scaffolds were mimicked by MR images of anatomical knee meniscus. The layers were chosen as G60/Cs40, G80/Cs20 and G40/Cs60, according to their characteristics similar to meniscus natural tissue, as the first, second and third layers, respectively. - Highlights: • Different gelatin/chitosan systems were chosen to engineer a multilayered scaffold. • The compressive modulus increased gradually by increasing the gelatin concentration. • Further addition of gelatin showed a meaningful decrease in the water uptake degree. • The layers supported cell growth and mimicked the meniscus fibrocartilage structure.

  2. Determination of the meniscus shape of a negative ion beam from an experimentally obtained beam profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, M.; Kojima, A.; Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Baltador, C.; Barbisan, M.; Delogu, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Marconato, N.; Nishikiori, R.; Pimazzoni, A.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Tobari, H.; Umeda, N.; Veltri, P.; Watanabe, K.; Yoshida, M.; Antoni, V.; Kashiwagi, M.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the physics mechanism of a negative ion extraction in negative ion sources, an emission surface of the negative ions around an aperture at a plasma grid, so-called a meniscus, has been analyzed by an inverse calculation of the negative ion trajectory in a two dimensional beam analysis code. In this method, the meniscus is defined as the final position of the negative ion trajectories which are inversely calculated from the measured beam profile to the plasma grid. In a case of the volume-produced negative ions, the calculated meniscus by the inverse calculation was similar to that obtained in conventional beam simulation codes for positive ion extractions such as BEAMORBT and SLACCAD. The negative ion current density was uniform along the meniscus. This indicates that the negative ions produced in the plasma are transported to the plasma grid uniformly as considered in the transportation of the positive ions. However, in a surface production case of negative ions, where the negative ions are generated near the plasma grid with lower work function by seeding cesium, the current density in the peripheral region of the meniscus close to the plasma grid surface was estimated to be 2 times larger than the center region, which suggested that the extraction process of the surface-produced negative ions was much different with that for the positive ions. Because this non-uniform profile of the current density made the meniscus shape strongly concave, the beam extracted from the peripheral region could have a large divergence angle, which might be one of origins of so-called beam halo. This is the first results of the determination of the meniscus based on the experiment, which is useful to improve the prediction of the meniscus shape and heat loads based on the beam trajectories including beam halo.

  3. Evidence that meniscus damage may be a component of osteoarthritis: the Framingham study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, M; Haugen, I K; Guermazi, A; Roemer, F W; Niu, J; Neogi, T; Aliabadi, P; Felson, D T

    2016-02-01

    The etiology of degenerative meniscus tear is unclear but could be related to a generalized osteoarthritic disease process. We studied whether radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with meniscus damage. We examined 974 persons aged 50-90 years drawn via census tract data and random-digit dialing from Framingham, Massachusetts, United States. One reader assessed bilateral hand radiographs (30 joints) and another read frontal knee radiographs, all according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. A third reader assessed right knee 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for meniscus damage. We calculated the prevalence of medial and/or lateral meniscus damage in those with one to two and three or more finger joints with radiographic OA (KL grade ≥2) compared to those without radiographic hand OA with adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. We also evaluated the above association in persons without evidence of radiographic OA (KL grade 0) in their knee (n = 748). The prevalence of meniscus damage in the knee of subjects with no, one to two, and three or more finger joints with OA was 24.9%, 31.7%, and 47.2%, respectively. The adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of having meniscus damage was significantly increased in those who had three or more finger joints with OA (1.40 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.77]). The estimate remained similar in persons without evidence of radiographic OA in their knee (PR, 1.42 [95% CI 1.03-1.97]). The association was more robust for medial meniscus damage. Results suggest a common non-age related etiologic pathway for both radiographic hand OA and meniscus damage. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radial tear of posterior horn of the medial meniscus and osteonecrosis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyama, Tatsuo; Ihara, Hidetoshi; Kawashima, Mahito

    2003-01-01

    We studied the relation between a radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus and osteonecrosis of the knee. Thirty-eight knees of 37 patients were diagnosed as medial meniscus tear and received arthroscopic knee surgery. We divided them into two groups: knees having radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (posterior horn group) and knees containing radial tear except for posterior horn, horizontal tear, degenerative tear, and flap tear of the medial meniscus (non-posterior horn group). The posterior horn group consisted of 14 knees (average age: 65.1 years old) and the non-posterior horn group consisted of 24 knees (average age: 59.6 years old). All cases underwent MRI before arthroscopy. MRI findings were classified into three types (typical osteonecrosis, small osteonecrosis, and non-osteonecrosis). In the posterior horn group, typical osteonecrosis were five knees and small osteonecrosis were five knees, while in the non-posterior horn group only three knees were small osteonecrosis. These findings suggest the relevance between radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus and osteonecrosis of the knee (Mann-Whitney test p<0.01). The etiology of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee joint is unknown, however one etiology could be the radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. (author)

  5. Growth Factor Supplementation Improves Native and Engineered Meniscus Repair in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Lara C.; Lee, Gregory C.; Huang, Kevin L.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Few therapeutic options exist for meniscus repair after injury. Local delivery of growth factors may stimulate repair and create a favorable environment for engineered replacement materials. In this study, we assessed the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (a pro-mitotic agent) and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) (a pro-matrix formation agent) on meniscus repair and the integration/maturation of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds for meniscus tissue engineering. Circular meniscus repair constructs were formed and refilled with either native tissue or scaffolds. Repair constructs were cultured in serum-containing media for 4 and 8 weeks with various growth factor formulations, and assessed for mechanical strength, biochemical content, and histological appearance. Results showed that either short-term delivery of bFGF or sustained delivery of TGF-β3 increased integration strength for both juvenile and adult bovine tissue, with similar findings for engineered materials. While TGF-β3 increased proteoglycan content in the explants, bFGF did not increase DNA content after 8 weeks. This work suggests that in vivo delivery of bFGF or TGF-β3 may stimulate meniscus repair, but that the time course of delivery will strongly influence success. Further, this study demonstrates that electrospun scaffolds are a promising material for meniscus tissue engineering, achieving comparable or superior integration compared to native tissue. PMID:22698946

  6. Is there crosstalk between subchondral bone, cartilage, and meniscus in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, O Şahap; Erdoğan, Deniz; Seymen, Cemile Merve; Bozkurt, Hasan Hüseyin; Kaplanoğlu, Gülnur Take

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to investigate if there is any crosstalk between subchondral bone, cartilage, and meniscus in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Twelve female patients (mean age 64 years; range 59 to 71 years) with osteoarthritis in medial compartment were included in the study. The samples of subchondral bone, cartilage and meniscus were obtained during total knee arthroplasty. Degenerated tissue samples obtained from medial compartment were used as the experimental group (12 samples of subchondral bone and cartilage, 1x1 cm each; and 12 samples of meniscus, 1x1 cm each). Healthy tissue samples obtained from lateral compartment were used as the control group (12 samples of subchondral bone and cartilage; 1x1 cm each; and 12 samples of meniscus, 1x1 cm each). After decalcification, tissue samples were evaluated with light and transmission electron microscopy. In the experimental group, light microscopic evaluation of subchondral bone samples demonstrated that the cartilage-to-bone transition region had an irregular structure. Degenerated cartilage cells were observed in the transition region and bone cells were significantly corrupted. In the experimental group, light microscopic evaluation of the meniscus samples demonstrated that the intercellular tissue was partly corrupted. Separation and concentration of the collagen fibers were evident. All findings were supported with ultra structural evaluations. Our findings indicate that degeneration of subchondral bone, cartilage, and meniscus probably plays a role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis with crosstalk.

  7. Biochemical Stimulus-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxue; Guo, Weimin; Gao, Shunag; Hao, Chunxiang; Shen, Shi; Zhang, Zengzeng; Wang, Zhenyong; Wang, Zehao; Li, Xu; Jing, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xueliang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Wang, Mingjie; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Aiyuan; Wang, Yu; Sui, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Meniscus injuries are very common and still pose a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon. Meniscus injuries in the inner two-thirds of the meniscus remain incurable. Tissue-engineered meniscus strategies seem to offer a new approach for treating meniscus injuries with a combination of seed cells, scaffolds, and biochemical or biomechanical stimulation. Cell- or scaffold-based strategies play a pivotal role in meniscus regeneration. Similarly, biochemical and biomechanical stimulation are also important. Seed cells and scaffolds can be used to construct a tissue-engineered tissue; however, stimulation to enhance tissue maturation and remodeling is still needed. Such stimulation can be biomechanical or biochemical, but this review focuses only on biochemical stimulation. Growth factors (GFs) are one of the most important forms of biochemical stimulation. Frequently used GFs always play a critical role in normal limb development and growth. Further understanding of the functional mechanism of GFs will help scientists to design the best therapy strategies. In this review, we summarize some of the most important GFs in tissue-engineered menisci, as well as other types of biological stimulation. PMID:29581987

  8. A model for capillary rise in micro-tube restrained by a sticky layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Anqi; Xu, Yun; Liu, Yikun; Cai, Bo; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Fengjiao

    2018-06-01

    Fluid transport in a microscopic capillary under the effects of a sticky layer was theoretically investigated. A model based on the classical Lucas-Washburn (LW) model is proposed for the meniscus rise with the sticky layer present. The sticky layer consists of two parts: a fixed (located at the wall) and a movable part (located on the inside of the capillary), affecting the micro-capillary flow in different ways. Within our model, the movable layer is defined by the capillary radius and pressure gradient. From the model it follows that the fixed sticky layer leads to a decrease of capillary radius, while the movable sticky layer increases flow resistance. The movable layer thickness varies with the pressure gradient, which in turn varies with the rising of the meniscus. The results of our theoretical calculation also prove that the capillary radius has a greater effect on the meniscus height, rather than the additional resistance caused by the movable layer. Moreover, the fixed sticky layer, which affects the capillary radius, has a greater influence than the movable sticky layer. We conclude that the sticky layer causes a lower imbibition height than the LW model predicts.

  9. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting, or...

  10. Tissue soldering with biodegradable polymer films: in-vitro investigation of hydration effects on weld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Brian S.; Welch, Ashley J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous work demonstrated increased breaking strengths of tissue repaired with liquid albumin solder reinforced with a biodegradable polymer film compared to unreinforced control specimens. It was hypothesized that the breaking strength increase was due to reinforcement of the liquid solder cohesive strength. Immersion in a moist environment can decrease the adhesion of solder to tissue and negate any strength benefits gained from reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to determine if hydrated specimens repaired with reinforced solder would still be stronger than unreinforced controls. A 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder with 0.5 mg/mL Indocyanine Green dye was used to repair an incision in bovine aorta. The solder was coagulated with 806-nm diode laser light. A poly(DL-lactic- co-glycolic acid) film was used to reinforce the solder (the controls had no reinforcement). The repaired tissues were immersed in phosphate buffered saline for time periods of 1 and 2 days. The breaking strengths of all of the hydrated specimens decreased compared to the acute breaking strengths. However, the reinforced specimens still had larger breaking strengths than the unreinforced controls. These results indicate that reinforcement of a liquid albumin solder may have the potential to improve the breaking strength in a clinical setting.

  11. Current Problems and Possible Solutions in High-Temperature Lead-Free Soldering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Aleš; Andersson, D.; Hoo, N.; Pearce, J.; Watson, A.; Dinsdale, A.; Mucklejohn, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2012), s. 629-637 ISSN 1059-9495 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : lead-free soldering, * materials for high-temperature LF * new technologies for HT lead-free soldering Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2012

  12. Effect of Strain Rate on Joint Strength and Failure Mode of Lead-Free Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Lei, Yongping; Fu, Hanguang; Guo, Fu

    2018-03-01

    In surface mount technology, the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint has a shorter impact lifetime than a traditional lead-tin solder joint. In order to improve the impact property of SnAgCu lead-free solder joints and identify the effect of silver content on tensile strength and impact property, impact experiments were conducted at various strain rates on three selected SnAgCu based solder joints. It was found that joint failure mainly occurred in the solder material with large plastic deformation under low strain rate, while joint failure occurred at the brittle intermetallic compound layer without any plastic deformation at a high strain rate. Joint strength increased with the silver content in SnAgCu alloys in static tensile tests, while the impact property of the solder joint decreased with increasing silver content. When the strain rate was low, plastic deformation occurred with failure and the tensile strength of the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint was higher than that of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu; when the strain rate was high, joint failure mainly occurred at the brittle interface layer and the Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu solder joint had a better impact resistance with a thinner intermetallic compound layer.

  13. Development of technique for laser welding of biological tissues using laser welding device and nanocomposite solder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, A; Ichcitidze, L; Podgaetsky, V; Ryabkin, D; Pyankov, E; Saveliev, M; Selishchev, S

    2015-08-01

    The laser device for welding of biological tissues has been developed involving quality control and temperature stabilization of weld seam. Laser nanocomposite solder applied onto a wound to be weld has been used. Physicochemical properties of the nanocomposite solder have been elucidated. The nature of the tissue-organizing nanoscaffold has been analyzed at the site of biotissue welding.

  14. Failure Mechanisms of SAC/Fe-Ni Solder Joints During Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Yin; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Li, Cai-Fu

    2017-08-01

    Thermal cycling tests have been conducted on Sn-Ag-Cu/Fe- xNi ( x = 73 wt.% or 45 wt.%) and Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joints according to the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council industrial standard to study their interfacial reliability under thermal stress. The interfacial intermetallic compounds formed for solder joints on Cu, Fe-73Ni, and Fe-45Ni were 4.5 μm, 1.7 μm, and 1.4 μm thick, respectively, after 3000 cycles, demonstrating excellent diffusion barrier effect of Fe-Ni under bump metallization (UBM). Also, two deformation modes, viz. solder extrusion and fatigue crack formation, were observed by scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional x-ray microscopy. Solder extrusion dominated for solder joints on Cu, while fatigue cracks dominated for solder joints on Fe-45Ni and both modes were detected for those on Fe-73Ni. Solder joints on Fe-Ni presented inferior reliability during thermal cycling compared with those on Cu, with characteristic lifetime of 3441 h, 3190 h, and 1247 h for Cu, Fe-73Ni, and Fe-45Ni UBM, respectively. This degradation of the interfacial reliability for solder joints on Fe-Ni is attributed to the mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at interconnection level. The CTE mismatch at microstructure level was also analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction for clearer identification of recrystallization-related deformation mechanisms.

  15. Corrosion Reliability of Lead-free Solder Systems Used in Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Feng; Verdingovas, Vadimas; Medgyes, Balint

    2017-01-01

    humidity/temperature cycling tests on soldered surface insulation resistance (SIR) comb pattern. Complimentary microstructural and phase analysis of solder alloys has been carried out using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods...

  16. Reliability and microstructure of lead-free solder joints in industrial electronics after accelerated thermal aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaltro, F.; Biglari, M.H.; Kodentsov, A.; Yakovleva, O.; Brom, E.

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of lead-free (LF) solder joints in surface-mounted device components (SMD) has been investigated after thermo-cycle testing. Kirkendall voids have been observed at the interface component/solder together with the formation of fractures. The evolution, the morphology and the elemental

  17. Investigation of moisture uptake into printed circuit board laminate and solder mask materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Borgaonkar, Shruti

    2017-01-01

    with different solder mask materials and exposed to saturated water vapour and liquid water. The solder masks are characterised for their microstructure and constituent phases using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The observations are correlated with themoisture absorption characteristic...

  18. Properties and Microstructures of Sn-Bi-X Lead-Free Solders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sn-Bi base lead-free solders are proposed as one of the most popular alloys due to the low melting temperature (eutectic point: 139°C and low cost. However, they are not widely used because of the lower wettability, fatigue resistance, and elongation compared to traditional Sn-Pb solders. So the alloying is considered as an effective way to improve the properties of Sn-Bi solders with the addition of elements (Al, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, In, Sb, and rare earth and nanoparticles. In this paper, the development of Sn-Bi lead-free solders bearing elements and nanoparticles was reviewed. The variation of wettability, melting characteristic, electromigration, mechanical properties, microstructures, intermetallic compounds reaction, and creep behaviors was analyzed systematically, which can provide a reference for investigation of Sn-Bi base solders.

  19. Posterior meniscus root tears: associated pathologies to assist as diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Lauren M; Ockuly, Andrew C; Steadman, J Richard; LaPrade, Robert F

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associated pathologies identified at arthroscopy in patients with meniscus root tears. This study was Institutional Review Board approved. All patients who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery where a complete meniscus root tear was identified were included in this study. Concurrent ligament tears and articular cartilage changes ≥Outerbridge grade 2 were recorded and stored in a data registry. Fifty patients (28 males, 22 females) [mean age = 36.5 years (range 17.1-68.1 years)] who were diagnosed with a medial or lateral meniscus root tear at arthroscopy were included in this study out of 673 arthroscopic surgeries (prevalence 7.4 %). Twenty-three (46 %) patients had a medial meniscus root tear, 26 (52 %) patients had a lateral meniscus root tear and one (2 %) patient had both. Thirty-four per cent of patients (n = 17) underwent partial meniscectomy, while 60 % (n = 31) underwent suture repair. During arthroscopy, 60 % (n = 30) of patients were diagnosed with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Patients with lateral meniscus root tears were 10.3 times (95 % CI 2.6-42.5) more likely to have ACL tears than patients with medial meniscus root tears (p = 0.012). Patients who had medial meniscus root tears were 5.8 times (95 % CI 1.6-20.5) more likely to have chondral defects than patients who had lateral meniscus root tears (p = 0.044). In this study, patients' preoperative functional scores and activity levels were low. Patients with lateral meniscal root tears were more likely to have an ACL tear. Patients with medial meniscal root tears were more likely to have an knee articular cartilage defect with an Outerbridge grade 2 or higher chondral defect. This study confirms the importance of comprehensive assessment of concurrent injuries to properly diagnose meniscus root tears. IV.

  20. Effect of phosphorus element on the comprehensive properties of Sn-Cu lead-free solder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangdong; Shi Yaowu; Hao Hu; Xia Zhidong; Lei Yongping; Guo Fu

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of phosphorus on the creep fatigue properties of Sn-Cu eutectic lead-free solder was carried out. The experimental results show that the melting temperature was almost not changed with adding small amount of P element. However, the addition of trace P element led to the decrease in the property of creep fatigue. The fractography analysis by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that ductile fracture was the dominant failure behavior in the process of creep fatigue test of Sn0.7Cu and Sn0.7Cu0.005P specimens. It should be pointed out that there is significant difference in the fractographs between the joints of Sn0.7Cu solder and Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder. In the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu solder joint, the microstructure is prolonged along testing direction, and the dimples were more than the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint. In addition, the voids could be found on the Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint, and trace P addition may increase the rate of forming void of Sn0.7Cu solder joint. The voids can potentially lead to crack initiation or propagation sites in the solder joint. As a result, the creep fatigue of solder joint containing P such as Sn0.7Cu0.005P offers worse property compared to Sn0.7Cu solder joint.

  1. Physical properties of lead free solders in liquid and solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhiaoui, Souad

    2007-04-17

    The European legislation prohibits the use of lead containing solders in Europe. However, lead free solders have a higher melting point (typical 20%) and their mechanical characteristics are worse. Additional problems are aging and adhesion of the solder on the electronic circuits. Thus, research activities must focus on the optimization of the properties of Sn-Ag-Cu based lead free solders chosen by the industry. Two main objectives are treated in this work. In the center of the first one is the study of curious hysteresis effects of metallic cadmium-antimony alloys after thermal cycles by measuring electronic transport phenomena (thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity). The second objective, within the framework of ''cotutelle'' between the universities of Metz and of Chemnitz and supported by COST531, is to study more specifically lead free solders. A welding must well conduct electricity and well conduct and dissipate heat. In Metz, we determined the electrical conductivity, the thermoelectric power and the thermal conductivity of various lead free solders (Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, Sn-Ag, Sn-Sb) as well in the liquid as well in the solid state. The results have been compared to classical lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders. In Chemnitz we measured the surface tension, the interfacial tension and the density of lead free solders. We also measured the viscosity of these solders without and with additives, in particular nickel. These properties were related to the industrial problems of wettability and spreadability. Lastly, we solidified alloys under various conditions. We observed undercooling. We developed a technique of mixture of nanocrystalline powder with lead free solders ''to sow'' the liquid bath in order to obtain ''different'' solids which were examined using optical and electron microscopy. (orig.)

  2. Effect of phosphorus element on the comprehensive properties of Sn-Cu lead-free solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Guangdong, E-mail: liguangdong@emails.bjut.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Ping Le Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124 (China); Shi Yaowu; Hao Hu; Xia Zhidong; Lei Yongping; Guo Fu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Ping Le Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2010-02-18

    In the present work, the effect of phosphorus on the creep fatigue properties of Sn-Cu eutectic lead-free solder was carried out. The experimental results show that the melting temperature was almost not changed with adding small amount of P element. However, the addition of trace P element led to the decrease in the property of creep fatigue. The fractography analysis by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that ductile fracture was the dominant failure behavior in the process of creep fatigue test of Sn0.7Cu and Sn0.7Cu0.005P specimens. It should be pointed out that there is significant difference in the fractographs between the joints of Sn0.7Cu solder and Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder. In the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu solder joint, the microstructure is prolonged along testing direction, and the dimples were more than the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint. In addition, the voids could be found on the Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint, and trace P addition may increase the rate of forming void of Sn0.7Cu solder joint. The voids can potentially lead to crack initiation or propagation sites in the solder joint. As a result, the creep fatigue of solder joint containing P such as Sn0.7Cu0.005P offers worse property compared to Sn0.7Cu solder joint.

  3. An Approach for Impression Creep of Lead Free Microelectronic Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Onofrio A.

    2002-06-01

    Currently, the microelectronics industry is transitioning from lead-containing to lead-free solders in response to legislation in the EU and Japan. Before an alternative alloy can be designated as a replacement for current Pb-Sn extensive testing must be accomplished. One major characteristic of the alloy that must be considered is creep. Traditionally, creep testing requires numerous samples and a long tin, which thwarts the generation of comprehensive creep databases for difficult to prepare samples such as microelectronic solder joints. However, a relatively new technique, impression creep enables us to rapidly generate creep data. This test uses a cylindrical punch with a flat end to make an impression on the surface of a specimen under constant load. The steady state velocity of the indenter is found to have the same stress and temperature dependence as the conventional unidirectional creep test using bulk specimens. This thesis examines impression creep tests of eutectic Sn-Ag. A testing program and apparatus was developed constructed based on a servo hydraulic test frame. The apparatus is capable of a load resolution of 0.01N with a stability of plus/minus 0.1N, and a displacement resolution of 0.05 microns with a stability of plus/minus 0.1 microns. Samples of eutectic Sn-Ag solder were reflowed to develop the microstructure used in microelectronic packaging. Creep tests were conducted at various stresses and temperatures and showed that coarse microstructures creep more rapidly than the microstructures in the tested regime.

  4. Transected sciatic nerve repair by diode laser protein soldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Mortezai, Omid; Pedram, MirSepehr; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Joharchi, Khojasteh; Mansoori, Korosh; Ebrahimi, Roja; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh

    2017-08-01

    Despite advances in microsurgical techniques, repair of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) is still a major challenge in regenerative medicine. The standard treatment for PNI includes suturing and anasthomosis of the transected nerve. The objective of this study was to compare neurorraphy (nerve repair) using standard suturingto diode laser protein soldering on the functional recovery of transected sciatic nerves. Thirty adult male Fischer-344 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 1. The control group, no repair, 2. the standard of care suture group, and 3. The laser/protein solder group. For all three groups, the sciatic nerve was transected and the repair was done immediately. For the suture repair group, 10.0 prolene suture was used and for the laser/protein solder group a diode laser (500mW output power) in combination with bovine serum albumen and indocyanine green dye was used. Behavioral assessment by sciatic functional index was done on all rats biweekly. At 12weeks post-surgery, EMG recordings were done on all the rats and the rats were euthanized for histological evaluation of the sciatic nerves. The one-way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. The average time required to perform the surgery was significantly shorter for the laser-assisted nerve repair group compared to the suture group. The EMG evaluation revealed no difference between the two groups. Based on the sciatic function index the laser group was significantly better than the suture group after 12weeks (pneurorraphy using standard suturing methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability of Wind Turbine Components-Solder Elements Fatigue Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    on the temperature mean and temperature range. Constant terms and model errors are estimated. The proposed methods are useful to predict damage values for solder joint in power electrical components. Based on the proposed methods it is described how to find the damage level for a given temperature loading profile....... The proposed methods are discussed for application in reliability assessment of Wind Turbine’s electrical components considering physical, model and measurement uncertainties. For further research it is proposed to evaluate damage criteria for electrical components due to the operational temperature...

  6. Pressure brazing of ceramics to metals with copper solder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, M.A.; Metelkin, I.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect on the quality of joints brazed with copper of different non metallized aluminooxide dielectrics with metals and alloys of a series of technological parameters (temperature, pressure, holding, and medium) in the course of pressure brazing is investigated. It is shown that in case of brazing with kovar and nickel the character of dependences is identical, however in all cases the joints with nickel are more durable. For the ceramics - molybdenum system characterized by weak interaction with copper solder kinetic dependences have no maximum and only under holding of more than 20 min the constant strength of 150-190 MPa is attained

  7. The protective effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage: a systematic review of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, J J; Hannink, G; van Tienen, T G; van Luijk, J; Hooijmans, C R

    2015-08-01

    Despite widespread reporting on clinical results, the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on the development of osteoarthritis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review all studies on the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage in animals. Pubmed and Embase were searched for original articles concerning the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage compared with both its positive (meniscectomy) and negative (either sham or non-operated) control in healthy animals. Outcome measures related to assessment of damage to articular cartilage were divided in five principal outcome categories. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated and pooled to obtain an overall SMD and 95% confidence interval. 17 articles were identified, representing 14 original animal cohorts with an average timing of data collection of 24 weeks [range 4 weeks; 30 months]. Compared to a negative control, meniscus allograft transplantation caused gross macroscopic (1.45 [0.95; 1.95]), histological (3.43 [2.25; 4.61]) damage to articular cartilage, and osteoarthritic changes on radiographs (3.12 [1.42; 4.82]). Moreover, results on histomorphometrics and cartilage biomechanics are supportive of this detrimental effect on cartilage. On the other hand, meniscus allograft transplantation caused significantly less gross macroscopic (-1.19 [-1.84; -0.54]) and histological (-1.70 [-2.67; -0.74]) damage to articular cartilage when compared to meniscectomy. However, there was no difference in osteoarthritic changes on plain radiographs (0.04 [-0.48; 0.57]), and results on histomorphometrics and biomechanics did neither show a difference in effect between meniscus allograft transplantation and meniscectomy. In conclusion, although meniscus allograft transplantation does not protect articular cartilage from damage, it reduces the extent of it when compared with meniscectomy. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis

  8. Quantitative measures of meniscus extrusion predict incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis – data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, K.; Quinn, E.; Niu, J.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.; Wirth, W.; Eckstein, F.; Felson, D.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of meniscus extrusion predict incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (KOA), prior to the advent of radiographic disease. Methods 206 knees with incident radiographic KOA (Kellgren Lawrence Grade (KLG) 0 or 1 at baseline, developing KLG 2 or greater with a definite osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) grade ≥1 by year 4) were matched to 232 control knees not developing incident KOA. Manual segmentation of the central five slices of the medial and lateral meniscus was performed on coronal 3T DESS MRI and quantitative meniscus position was determined. Cases and controls were compared using conditional logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, BMI, race and clinical site. Sensitivity analyses of early (year [Y] 1/2) and late (Y3/4) incidence was performed. Results Mean medial extrusion distance was significantly greater for incident compared to non-incident knees (1.56 mean ± 1.12 mm SD vs 1.29 ± 0.99 mm; +21%, P meniscus (25.8 ± 15.8% vs 22.0 ± 13.5%; +17%, P meniscus in incident medial KOA, or for the tibial plateau coverage between incident and non-incident knees. Restricting the analysis to medial incident KOA at Y1/2 differences were attenuated, but reached significance for extrusion distance, whereas no significant differences were observed at incident KOA in Y3/4. Conclusion Greater medial meniscus extrusion predicts incident radiographic KOA. Early onset KOA showed greater differences for meniscus position between incident and non-incident knees than late onset KOA. PMID:26318658

  9. Quantitative measures of meniscus extrusion predict incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, K; Quinn, E; Niu, J; Guermazi, A; Roemer, F; Wirth, W; Eckstein, F; Felson, D

    2016-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of meniscus extrusion predict incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (KOA), prior to the advent of radiographic disease. 206 knees with incident radiographic KOA (Kellgren Lawrence Grade (KLG) 0 or 1 at baseline, developing KLG 2 or greater with a definite osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) grade ≥1 by year 4) were matched to 232 control knees not developing incident KOA. Manual segmentation of the central five slices of the medial and lateral meniscus was performed on coronal 3T DESS MRI and quantitative meniscus position was determined. Cases and controls were compared using conditional logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, BMI, race and clinical site. Sensitivity analyses of early (year [Y] 1/2) and late (Y3/4) incidence was performed. Mean medial extrusion distance was significantly greater for incident compared to non-incident knees (1.56 mean ± 1.12 mm SD vs 1.29 ± 0.99 mm; +21%, P meniscus (25.8 ± 15.8% vs 22.0 ± 13.5%; +17%, P meniscus in incident medial KOA, or for the tibial plateau coverage between incident and non-incident knees. Restricting the analysis to medial incident KOA at Y1/2 differences were attenuated, but reached significance for extrusion distance, whereas no significant differences were observed at incident KOA in Y3/4. Greater medial meniscus extrusion predicts incident radiographic KOA. Early onset KOA showed greater differences for meniscus position between incident and non-incident knees than late onset KOA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Free fatty acid palmitate activates unfolded protein response pathway and promotes apoptosis in meniscus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, J; Yammani, R R

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis (OA); however, the mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. Obesity is associated with increased production of adipokine and elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA). A recent study has shown that saturated fatty acid palmitate induced pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic pathways in chondrocytes. Meniscus has been shown to be more susceptible than articular cartilage to catabolic stimuli. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of FFA (specifically, palmitate) on meniscus cells. Cultured primary porcine meniscus cells were stimulated with 500 μM FFA (palmitate and oleate) for 24 h to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. After treatment, cell lysates were prepared and immunoblotted for C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). To determine the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling, cell lysates were probed for cJun n-terminal kinase (JNK), cleaved caspase -3 and Xbp-1s, an alternative mRNA splicing product generated due to Ire1α activation. Treatment of isolated primary meniscus cells with palmitate but not oleate induced expression of CHOP and Xbp-1s. Palmitate treatment of meniscus cells also activated JNK and increased expression of caspase-3, thus promoting apoptosis in meniscus cells. Palmitate induces ER stress and promotes apoptotic pathways in meniscus cells. This is the first study to establish ER stress as a key metabolic mechanistic link between obesity and OA, in addition to (or operating with) biomechanical factors. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Albumin solder covalently bound to a polymer membrane: New approach to improve binding strength in laser tissue soldering in-vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebl, B; Ascher, L; Luetzow, K; Kratz, K; Gruber, C; Mrowietz, C; Nehring, M E; Lendlein, A; Franke, R-P; Jung, F

    2018-01-01

    Laser tissue soldering (LTS) based on indocyanine green (ICG)-mediated heat-denaturation of proteins might be a promising alternative technique for micro-suturing, but up to now the problem of too weak shear strength of the solder welds in comparison to sutures is not solved. Earlier reports gave promising results showing that solder supported by carrier materials can enhance the cohesive strength of the liquid solder. In these studies, the solder was applied to the carriers by dip coating. Higher reliability of the connection between the solder and the carrier material is expected when the solder is bound covalently to the carrier material. In the present study a poly(ether imide) (PEI) membrane served as carrier material and ICG-supplemented albumin as solder substrate. The latter was covalently coupled to the carrier membrane under physiological conditions to prevent structural protein changes. As laser source a diode continuous-wave laser emitting at 808 nm with intensities between 250 mW and 1500 mW was utilized. The albumin functionalized carrier membrane was placed onto the tunica media of explanted pig thoracic aortae forming an overlapping area of approximately 0.5×0.5 cm2. All tests were performed in a dry state to prevent laser light absorption by water. Infrared spectroscopy, spectro-photometrical determination of the secondary and primary amine groups after acid orange II staining, contact angle measurements, and atomic force microscopy proved the successful functionalization of the PEI membrane with albumin. A laser power of 450 mW LTS could generate a membrane-blood vessel connection which was characterized by a shear strength of 0.08±0.002 MPa, corresponding to 15% of the tensile strength of the native blood vessel. Theoretically, an overlapping zone of 4.1 mm around the entire circumference of the blood vessel could have provided shear strength of the PEI membrane-blood vessel compound identical to the tensile strength of the native

  12. Development of Pb-Free Nanocomposite Solder Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh K. Basak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to conventional Pb-containing solder material, Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC based alloys are at the forefront despite limitations associated with relatively poor strength and coarsening of grains/intermetallic compounds (IMCs during aging/reflow. Accordingly, this study examines the improvement of properties of SAC alloys by incorporating nanoparticles in it. Two different types of nanoparticles were added in monolithic SAC alloy: (1 Al2O3 or (2 Fe and their effect on microstructure and thermal properties were investigated. Addition of Fe nanoparticles leads to the formation of FeSn2 IMCs alongside Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 from monolithic SAC alloy. Addition of Al2O3 nano-particles do not contribute to phase formation, however, remains dispersed along primary β-Sn grain boundaries and act as a grain refiner. As the addition of either Fe or Al2O3 nano-particles do not make any significant effect on thermal behavior, these reinforced nanocomposites are foreseen to provide better mechanical characteristics with respect to conventional monolithic SAC solder alloys.

  13. Impurity Effects in Electroplated-Copper Solder Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu electroplating is a mature technology, and has been extensively applied in microelectronic industry. With the development of advanced microelectronic packaging, Cu electroplating encounters new challenges for atomic deposition on a non-planar substrate and to deliver good throwing power and uniform deposit properties in a high-aspect-ratio trench. The use of organic additives plays an important role in modulating the atomic deposition to achieve successful metallic coverage and filling, which strongly relies on the adsorptive and chemical interactions among additives on the surface of growing film. However, the adsorptive characteristic of organic additives inevitably results in an incorporation of additive-derived impurities in the electroplated Cu film. The incorporation of high-level impurities originating from the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG and chlorine ions significantly affects the microstructural evolution of the electroplated Cu film, and the electroplated-Cu solder joints, leading to the formation of undesired voids at the joint interface. However, the addition of bis(3-sulfopropyl disulfide (SPS with a critical concentration suppresses the impurity incorporation and the void formation. In this article, relevant studies were reviewed, and the focus was placed on the effects of additive formula and plating parameters on the impurity incorporation in the electroplated Cu film, and the void formation in the solder joints.

  14. A flip chip process based on electroplated solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, J.; Salmi, J.

    1994-01-01

    Compared to wire bonding and TAB, flip chip technology using solder joints offers the highest pin count and packaging density and superior electrical performance. The chips are mounted upside down on the substrate, which can be made of silicon, ceramic, glass or - in some cases - even PCB. The extra processing steps required for chips are the deposition of a suitable thin film metal layer(s) on the standard Al pad and the formation of bumps. Also, the development of new fine line substrate technologies is required to utilize the full potential of the technology. In our bumping process, bump deposition is done by electroplating, which was chosen for its simplicity and economy. Sputter deposited molybdenum and copper are used as thin film layers between the aluminum pads and the solder bumps. A reason for this choice is that the metals can be selectively etched after bumping using the bumps as a mask, thus circumventing the need for a separate mask for etching the thin film metals. The bumps are electroplated from a binary Pb-Sn bath using a thick liquid photoresist. An extensively modified commercial flip chip bonder is used for alignment and bonding. Heat assisted tack bonding is used to attach the chips to the substrate, and final reflow joining is done without flux in a vacuum furnace.

  15. Development of biodegradable hyper-branched tissue adhesives for the repair of meniscus tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochyńska, A I; Van Tienen, T G; Hannink, G; Buma, P; Grijpma, D W

    2016-03-01

    Meniscus tears are one of the most commonly occurring injuries of the knee joint. Current meniscus repair techniques are challenging and do not bring fully satisfactory results. Tissue adhesives are a promising alternative, since they are easy to apply and cause minimal tissue trauma. In this study, a series of amphiphilic copolymers based on polyethylene glycol, trimethylene carbonate and citric acid were synthesized and subsequently end-functionalized with hexamethylene diisocyanate to form reactive adhesive materials. The shear adhesive strength of the networks to bovine meniscus tissue measured in a lap-shear adhesion test ranged between 20 and 80 kPa, which was better than for fibrin glue (10 kPa). The elastic modulus of the networks depended on composition and was in the same range as that of human meniscus. Cell compatibility was assessed using Alamar Blue staining after incubation of the bovine meniscus cells with different concentrations of the glues for 7 days. Cell viability was not affected after adding up to 3mg of the adhesive/mL of medium. The proposed materials are suitable candidates to be used as resorbable tissue adhesives for meniscus repair. They have excellent mechanical and adhesive properties that can be adjusted by varying the composition of the copolymers. Meniscal tears often occur and current treatment strategies do not bring fully satisfactory results. Use of biodegradable tissue adhesives would be an interesting option, but currently available adhesives are not suited due to toxicity or poor mechanical properties. Here, we describe the development of novel biodegradable, hyper-branched, adhesive copolymers. These adhesives cure upon contact with water forming flexible networks. Their adhesion to bovine meniscus tissue was significantly better than that of clinically used fibrin glue. The tensile properties of the cured networks were in the same range of values of the human meniscus. When physiologically relevant amounts were added to

  16. Temperature-controlled laser-soldering system and its clinical application for bonding skin incisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhon, David; Gabay, Ilan; Shpolyansky, Gregory; Vasilyev, Tamar; Nur, Israel; Meidler, Roberto; Hatoum, Ossama Abu; Katzir, Abraham; Hashmonai, Moshe; Kopelman, Doron

    2015-12-01

    Laser tissue soldering is a method of repairing incisions. It involves the application of a biological solder to the approximated edges of the incision and heating it with a laser beam. A pilot clinical study was carried out on 10 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Of the four abdominal incisions in each patient, two were sutured and two were laser soldered. Cicatrization, esthetical appearance, degree of pain, and pruritus in the incisions were examined on postoperative days 1, 7, and 30. The soldered wounds were watertight and healed well, with no discharge from these wounds or infection. The total closure time was equal in both methods, but the net soldering time was much shorter than suturing. There was no difference between the two types of wound closure with respect to the pain and pruritus on a follow-up of one month. Esthetically, the soldered incisions were estimated as good as the sutured ones. The present study confirmed that temperature-controlled laser soldering of human skin incisions is clinically feasible, and the results obtained were at least equivalent to those of standard suturing.

  17. "Meniscus Sign" to Identify the Lenticule Edge in Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Kaur, Manpreet; Brar, Anand S; Falera, Ruchita

    2018-06-01

    To describe our technique of lenticule edge identification in small-incision lenticule extraction using the "meniscus sign" to prevent lenticule misdissection. Femtosecond laser application for small-incision lenticule extraction was performed. A "double ring" was visible, signifying the edge of the cap cut (outer ring) and lenticule cut (inner ring). The anterior and posterior lamellar planes were delineated in 2 different directions. During creation of the posterior lamellar channel, the lenticule edge was slightly pushed away from the surgeon to create a gap between the inner ring (diameter of the lenticule cut) and the lenticule edge. The lenticule edge assumed a frilled wavy appearance, and the meniscus sign was observed as a gap between the lenticule edge and the inner ring. The meniscus-shaped gap served as a landmark to identify the lenticule edge, and the relationship between the frilled lenticule edge and surgical instruments further acted as a guide to identify the correct plane of dissection. This technique was successfully undertaken in 50 eyes of 25 patients. The meniscus sign was observed in all cases, and no case had cap lenticular adhesions. The meniscus sign helps to identify the lenticule edge and correct dissection planes and provides a visual landmark during the entire surgical procedure.

  18. Bonding and fusion of meniscus fibrocartilage using a novel chondroitin sulfate bone marrow tissue adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, Jacob A; Strehin, Iossif A; Allen, Brian W; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2013-08-01

    The weak intrinsic meniscus healing response and technical challenges associated with meniscus repair contribute to a high rate of repair failures and meniscectomies. Given this limited healing response, the development of biologically active adjuncts to meniscal repair may hold the key to improving meniscal repair success rates. This study demonstrates the development of a bone marrow (BM) adhesive that binds, stabilizes, and stimulates fusion at the interface of meniscus tissues. Hydrogels containing several chondroitin sulfate (CS) adhesive levels (30, 50, and 70 mg/mL) and BM levels (30%, 50%, and 70%) were formed to investigate the effects of these components on hydrogel mechanics, bovine meniscal fibrochondrocyte viability, proliferation, matrix production, and migration ability in vitro. The BM content positively and significantly affected fibrochondrocyte viability, proliferation, and migration, while the CS content positively and significantly affected adhesive strength (ranged from 60±17 kPa to 335±88 kPa) and matrix production. Selected material formulations were translated to a subcutaneous model of meniscal fusion using adhered bovine meniscus explants implanted in athymic rats and evaluated over a 3-month time course. Fusion of adhered meniscus occurred in only the material containing the highest BM content. The technology can serve to mechanically stabilize the tissue repair interface and stimulate tissue regeneration across the injury site.

  19. Meniscus repair and regeneration: review on current methods and research potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Scotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meniscus regeneration is an unsolved clinical challenge. Despite the wide acceptance of the degenerative consequences of meniscectomy, no surgical procedure has succeeded to date in regenerating a functional and long-lasting meniscal fibrocartilage. Research proposed a number of experimental approaches encompassing all the typical strategies of regenerative medicine: cell-free scaffolds, gene therapy, intra-articular delivery of progenitor cells, biological glues for enhanced bonding of reparable tears, partial and total tissue engineered meniscus replacement. None of these approaches has been completely successful and can be considered suitable for all patients, as meniscal tears require specific and patient-related treatments depending on the size and type of lesion. Recent advances in cell biology, biomaterial science and bioengineering (e.g., bioreactors have now the potential to drive meniscus regeneration into a series of clinically relevant strategies. In this tutorial paper, the clinical need for meniscus regeneration strategies will be explained, and past and current experimental studies on meniscus regeneration will be reported.

  20. The Pathobiology of the Meniscus: A Comparison Between the Human and Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Krupkova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Serious knee pain and related disability have an annual prevalence of approximately 25% on those over the age of 55 years. As curative treatments for the common knee problems are not available to date, knee pathologies typically progress and often lead to osteoarthritis (OA. While the roles that the meniscus plays in knee biomechanics are well characterized, biological mechanisms underlying meniscus pathophysiology and roles in knee pain and OA progression are not fully clear. Experimental treatments for knee disorders that are successful in animal models often produce unsatisfactory results in humans due to species differences or the inability to fully replicate disease progression in experimental animals. The use of animals with spontaneous knee pathologies, such as dogs, can significantly help addressing this issue. As microscopic and macroscopic anatomy of the canine and human menisci are similar, spontaneous meniscal pathologies in canine patients are thought to be highly relevant for translational medicine. However, it is not clear whether the biomolecular mechanisms of pain, degradation of extracellular matrix, and inflammatory responses are species dependent. The aims of this review are (1 to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the human and canine meniscus, (2 to compare the known signaling pathways involved in spontaneous meniscus pathology between both species, and (3 to assess the relevance of dogs with spontaneous meniscal pathology as a translational model. Understanding these mechanisms in human and canine meniscus can help to advance diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for painful knee disorders and improve clinical decision making.

  1. Electrical stimulation enhances cell migration and integrative repair in the meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoning; Arkonac, Derya E.; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Electrical signals have been applied towards the repair of articular tissues in the laboratory and clinical settings for over seventy years. We focus on healing of the meniscus, a tissue essential to knee function with limited innate repair potential, which has been largely unexplored in the context of electrical stimulation. Here we demonstrate for the first time that electrical stimulation enhances meniscus cell migration and integrative tissue repair. We optimize pulsatile direct current electrical stimulation parameters on cells at the micro-scale, and apply these to healing of full-thickness defects in explants at the macro-scale. We report increased expression of the adenosine A2b receptor in meniscus cells after stimulation at the micro- and macro-scale, and propose a role for A2bR in meniscus electrotransduction. Taken together, these findings advance our understanding of the effects of electrical signals and their mechanisms of action, and contribute to developing electrotherapeutic strategies for meniscus repair. PMID:24419206

  2. Repair of Avascular Meniscus Tears with Electrospun Collagen Scaffolds Seeded with Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jihye; Sovani, Sujata; Glembotski, Nicholas E; Du, Jiang; Jin, Sungho; Grogan, Shawn P; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2016-03-01

    The self-healing capacity of an injured meniscus is limited to the vascularized regions and is especially challenging in the inner avascular regions. As such, we investigated the use of human meniscus cell-seeded electrospun (ES) collagen type I scaffolds to produce meniscal tissue and explored whether these cell-seeded scaffolds can be implanted to repair defects created in meniscal avascular tissue explants. Human meniscal cells (derived from vascular and avascular meniscal tissue) were seeded on ES scaffolds and cultured. Constructs were evaluated for cell viability, gene expression, and mechanical properties. To determine potential for repair of meniscal defects, human meniscus avascular cells were seeded and cultured on aligned ES collagen scaffolds for 4 weeks before implantation. Surgical defects resembling "longitudinal tears" were created in the avascular zone of bovine meniscus and implanted with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds and cultured for 3 weeks. Tissue regeneration and integration were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, mechanical testing, and magentic resonance imaging. Ex vivo implantation with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds resulted in neotissue that was significantly better integrated with the native tissue than acellular collagen scaffolds or untreated defects. Human meniscal cell-seeded ES collagen scaffolds may therefore be useful in facilitating meniscal repair of avascular meniscus tears.

  3. Symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus: a clinical and arthroscopic study in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Jian

    2016-08-05

    Discoid lateral meniscus (DLM) is relatively common in East Asia..Symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus (SDLM) is an important indication for knee arthroscopic surgery. However, studies investigating SDLM are rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and intra-articular variants of SDLM in a Chinese population. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with SDLM from January 2005 to December 2014 in our hospital. Clinical variables included gender, age, duration, age of onset, affected side, symptoms and trauma history as well as arthroscopic findings: DLM types, tear patterns and concomitant medial meniscus tear, which were evaluated and compared statistically. Of the 496 consecutive participants with SDLM, females outnumbered males (69.6 % vs. 30.4 %). The age of onset ranged from 3 to 80 years (median, 31 years), and was significantly higher in females than in males (p meniscus tear (11, 2.2 %), at a significantly higher age compared with patients without tear (median, 57 years vs. 33 years, p meniscus.

  4. An Overview of Scaffold Design and Fabrication Technology for Engineered Knee Meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current surgical treatments for meniscal tears suffer from subsequent degeneration of knee joints, limited donor organs and inconsistent post-treatment results. Three clinical scaffolds (Menaflex CMI, Actifit® scaffold and NUsurface® Meniscus Implant are available on the market, but additional data are needed to properly evaluate their safety and effectiveness. Thus, many scaffold-based research activities have been done to develop new materials, structures and fabrication technologies to mimic native meniscus for cell attachment and subsequent tissue development, and restore functionalities of injured meniscus for long-term effects. This study begins with a synopsis of relevant structural features of meniscus and goes on to describe the critical considerations. Promising advances made in the field of meniscal scaffolding technology, in terms of biocompatible materials, fabrication methods, structure design and their impact on mechanical and biological properties are discussed in detail. Among all the scaffolding technologies, additive manufacturing (AM is very promising because of its ability to precisely control fiber diameter, orientation, and pore network micro-architecture to mimic the native meniscus microenvironment.

  5. Laser-tissue soldering with biodegradable polymer films in vitro: film surface morphology and hydration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, B S; Welch, A J

    2001-01-01

    Previous research introduced the concept of using biodegradable polymer film reinforcement of a liquid albumin solder for improvement of the tensile strength of repaired incisions in vitro. In this study, the effect of creating small pores in the PLGA films on the weld breaking strength is studied. Additionally, the effect of hydration on the strength of the reinforced welds is investigated. A 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder with 0.5 mg/mL Indocyanine Green dye was used to repair an incision in bovine aorta. The solder was coagulated with an 806-nm CW diode laser. A poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film was used to reinforce the solder (the controls had solder but no reinforcement). Breaking strengths were measured acutely and after hydration in saline for 1 and 2 days. The data were analyzed by ANOVA (P < 0.05) and multiple comparisons of means were performed using the Newman-Keuls test. The creation of pores in the PLGA films qualitatively improved the film flexibility without having an apparent adverse effect on the breaking strength, while the actual technique of applying the film and solder had more of an effect. The acute maximum average breaking strengths of some of the film reinforced specimens (114.7 g-134.4 g) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the acute maximum average breaking strength of the unreinforced control specimens (68.3 g). Film reinforced specimens were shown to have a statistically significantly higher breaking strength than unreinforced controls after 1- and 2-day hydration. Reinforcement of liquid albumin solders in laser-assisted incision repair appears to have advantages over conventional methods that do not reinforce the cohesive strength of the solder in terms of acute breaking strength and after immersion in moist environments for short periods of time. Using a film with the solder applied to one surface only may be advantageous over other techniques.

  6. The influence of silver content on structure and properties of Sn–Bi–Ag solder and Cu/solder/Cu joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šebo, P. [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3 (Slovakia); Švec, P. Sr., E-mail: Peter.Svec@savba.sk [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava 45 (Slovakia); Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, J. Bottu 25, 917 24 Trnava (Slovakia); Janičkovič, D.; Illeková, E. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava 45 (Slovakia); Zemánková, M. [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3 (Slovakia); Plevachuk, Yu. [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Sidorov, V. [Ural State Pedagogical University, Cosmonavtov 26, 620017 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Švec, P. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava 45 (Slovakia)

    2013-06-01

    The effect of silver content on structure and properties of Sn{sub 100−x}Bi{sub 10}Ag{sub x} (x=3–10 at%) lead-free solder and Cu–solder–Cu joints was investigated. The microstructure of the solder in both bulk and rapidly solidified ribbon forms was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The peculiarities in melting kinetic, studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and silver influence on it are described and discussed. The wetting of a copper substrate was examined by the sessile drop method in the temperature range of 553–673 K in air and deoxidizing gas (N{sub 2}+10%H{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure. Cu–solder–Cu joints were also prepared in both atmospheres, and their shear strength was measured by the push-off method. The produced solders consisted of tin, bismuth and Ag{sub 3}Sn phases. The product of the interaction between the solder and the copper substrate consists of two phases: Cu{sub 3}Sn, which is adjacent to the substrate, and a Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. The wetting angle in air increased slightly as the silver concentration in the solder increased. Wetting of the copper substrate in N{sub 2}+10H{sub 2} gas shows the opposite tendency: the wetting angle slightly decreased as the silver content in the solder increased. The shear strength of the joints prepared in air (using flux) tends to decrease with increasing production temperature and increasing silver content in the solder. The equivalent decrease in the shear strength of the joints prepared in N{sub 2}+10H{sub 2} is more apparent.

  7. Research on Defects Inspection of Solder Balls Based on Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve tiny defect detection for solder balls in high-density flip-chip, this paper proposed feasibility study on the effect of detectability as well as classification based on eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT. Specifically, numerical analysis of 3D finite element inductive heat model is generated to investigate disturbance on the temperature field for different kind of defects such as cracks, voids, etc. The temperature variation between defective and non-defective solder balls is monitored for defects identification and classification. Finally, experimental study is carried on the diameter 1mm tiny solder balls by using ECPT and verify the efficacy of the technique.

  8. Contamination profile on typical printed circuit board assemblies vs soldering process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to analyse typical printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) processed by reflow, wave or selective wave soldering for typical levels of process-related residues, resulting from a specific or combination of soldering processes. Typical solder flux residue...... structure was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while the concentration was measured using ion chromatography, and the electrical properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the leak current using a twin platinum electrode set-up. Localized extraction of residue was carried...

  9. Contamination profile of Printed Circuit Board Assemblies in relation to soldering types and conformal coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Typical printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) processed by reflow, wave, or selective wave soldering were analysed for typical levels of process related residues, resulting from a specific or combination of soldering process. Typical solder flux residue distribution pattern, composition......, and concentration are profiled and reported. Presence of localized flux residues were visualized using a commercial Residue RAT gel test and chemical structure was identified by FT-IR, while the concentration was measured using ion chromatography, and the electrical properties of the extracts were determined...

  10. Modeling of high temperature- and diffusion-controlled die soldering in aluminum high pressure die casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domkin, Konstantin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    of the die lifetime based on a quantitative analysis of die soldering in the framework of the numerical simulations of the die-casting process. Full 3D simulations of the process, including the filling. solidification, and the die cooling, are carried out using the casting simulation software MAGMAsoft....... The resulting transient temperature fields on the die surface and in the casting are then post-processed to estimate the die soldering. The present work deals only with the metallurgical/chemical kind of soldering which occurs at high temperatures and involves formation and growth of intermetallic layers...

  11. Eddy current quality control of soldered current-carrying busbar splices of superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Kogan, L; Savary, F; Principe, R; Datskov, V; Rozenfel'd, E; Khudjakov, B

    2015-01-01

    The eddy current technique associated with a U-shaped transducer is studied for the quality control of soldered joints between superconducting busbars ('splices'). Two other quality control techniques, based on X-rays and direct measurement of the electrical resistance, are also studied for comparison. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these three methods in relation to the quality control of soldered superconducting busbar cables enclosed in copper shells is used for benchmarking. The results of inspections with the U-shaped eddy current transducer carried out on several sample joints presenting different types of soldering defects show the potential of this type of nondestructive (ND) quality control technique.

  12. Development of meniscus substitutes using a mixture of biocompatible polymers and extra cellular matrix components by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calzada, G; Hernandez-Martínez, A R; Cruz-Soto, M; Ramírez-Cardona, M; Rangel, D; Molina, G A; Luna-Barcenas, G; Estevez, M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the significant advances in the meniscus tissue engineering field, it is difficult to recreate the complex structure and organization of the collagenous matrix of the meniscus. In this work, we developed a meniscus prototype to be used as substitute or scaffold for the regeneration of the meniscal matrix, recreating the differential morphology of the meniscus by electrospinning. Synthetic biocompatible polymers were combined with the extracellular matrix component, collagen and used to replicate the meniscus. We studied the correlation between mechanical and structural properties of the polymer blend as a function of collagen concentration. Fibers were collected on a surface of a rapidly rotating precast mold, to accurately replicate each sectional morphology of the meniscus; different electro-tissues were produced. Detailed XRD analyses exhibited structural changes developed by electrospinning. We achieved to integrate all these electro-tissues to form a complete synthetic meniscus. Vascularization tests were performed to assess the potential use of our novel polymeric blend for promising meniscus regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A very thin light sheet technique used to investigate meniscus shapes by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a light sheet technique is described to accurately (50 μm) measure meniscus profiles in film formation problems. The use of a slit to create the thin (0.1 mm) laser sheet makes the technique easy to implement, and allows tunable sheet thickness. The low light intensity obtained through the slit is compensated by the induced fluorescence of the tested fluid, which provides good picture contrast. After video recording through a microscope, the actual meniscus is recovered by image processing and proper calibration. The efficiency of the technique is demonstrated on a coating flow experiment. Due to its good accuracy and ease of use, this technique is expected to provide useful quantitative information about meniscus problems, in particular for the validation of computational fluid dynamics CFD solutions of coating flows. (author)

  14. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasmana, Renu; Nagpal, Ramesh Chander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dry eye is one of the most common ocular diseases in this cyber era. Despite availability of multiple tests, no single test is accurate for the diagnosis of dry eye. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography is the recent tool which can be added in the armentarium of dry eye tests. Aim To evaluate tear meniscus with anterior segment optical coherence tomography and its correlation with other tear variables in normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods In this prospective cross-sectional observational study, right eye of 203 consecutive patients were studied. All the patients were divided into three groups Group 1, 2 and 3 according to their age ≤20 years, 21-40 years and >40 years respectively. All patients underwent routine ophthalmologic examinations along with slit-lamp bio-microscopy for tear meniscus height measurement, tear film break up time, Schirmer’s I test (with anaesthesia) and optical coherence tomography imaging of inferior tear meniscus height. After focusing of the instrument with a Cross Line (CL) centered on lower tear meniscus at 6’0 clock of cornea, a 6 mm long scan was obtained. The tear meniscus height (μm) and tear meniscus area (mm2) were measured manually with help of callipers by joining upper corneo-meniscus junction to the lower lid-meniscus junction and tear meniscus height and area within the plotted line respectively and calculated by using the integrated analysis available in the custom software. Results There was significant decrease in the all tear variables with the increase in the age. According to age groups in group 1, the mean Schirmer’s (24.0±4.9)mm, tear film break up time (11.1±1.9) sec, tear meniscus height on slit lamp (600.2±167.3)mm were higher but decreased in group 2 (21.5±5.4,10.8±1.4, 597.5±186.3) and group 3 (19.8 ± 5.1, 10.2 ± 1.6, 485.6 ± 157.7) respectively. Schirmer’s test values and tear film break up time were similar in both sexes (p=0.1 and p= 0.9). Tear meniscus

  15. Whole meniscus regeneration using polymer scaffolds loaded with fibrochondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Hua-ding

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To study the feasibility of regenerating a whole menisci using poly- (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV scaffolds loaded with meniscal cells in rabbits undergoing total meniscectomy, and to explore its protective effect on cartilage degeneration. Methods: A solvent casting and particulate leaching technique was employed to fabricate biodegradable PHBV scaffolds into a meniscal shape. The proliferated meniscal cells were seeded onto the polymer scaffolds, transplanted into rabbit knee joints whose lateral menisci had been removed. Eight to 18 weeks after transplantation, the regenerated neomenisci were evaluated by gross and histological observations. Cartilage degeneration was assessed by Mankin score. Results: Eighteen weeks after transplantation, the implants formed neomenisci. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining of the neomenisci sections revealed regeneration of fibrocartilage. Type I collagen in the neomenisci was also proved similar to normal meniscal tissue by immunohistochemical analysis and Sirius scarlet trinitrophenol staining. Articular cartilage degeneration was observed 8 weeks after implantation. It was less severe as compared with that in total meniscectomy controls and no further degeneration was observed at 18 weeks. At that time, the regenerated neomenisci strongly resembled normal meniscal fibrocartilage in gross and histological appearance, and its mechani- cal property was also close to that of normal meniscus. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the feasibility of tissue-engineering a whole meniscal structure in total meniscectomy rabbit models using biodegradable PHBV scaffolds together with cultured allogeneic meniscal cells. Cartilage degeneration is decreased. But long-term in vivo investigations on the histological structure and cartilage degeneration of the neomenisci regenerated by this method are still necessary to determine the clinical potential of this tissue

  16. Three-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the meniscus of the knee: What about equivocal errors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, Pieter van; Vanhoenacker, Filip M.; Gielen, Jan L.; Parizel, Paul M.; Dossche, Lieven; Weyler, Joost

    2010-01-01

    Background: The significance of borderline magnetic resonance (MR) findings that are equivocal for a tear of the knee meniscus remains uncertain. Given their higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and greater spatial resolution, these equivocal meniscal tears could be expected to be less frequent using a 3.0T MR system. Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of equivocal meniscal tears using 3.0T MR, and to study their impact on MR accuracy compared with arthroscopy in the detection of meniscal tears. Material and Methods: The medical records of 100 patients who underwent 3.0T MR imaging and subsequent arthroscopy of the knee were retrospectively reviewed. Two observers interpreted MR images in consensus, and menisci were diagnosed as torn (abnormality on two or more images), equivocal for a tear (abnormality on one image), or intact, using arthroscopy as the standard of reference. The prevalence of equivocal meniscal tears was assessed, and MR accuracy was calculated as follows: first, considering both torn menisci and equivocal diagnoses as positive for a tear; and second, considering only torn menisci as positive for a tear. Results: Evidence of meniscal tears on MR images was equivocal in 12 medial (12%) and three lateral (3%) menisci. Of these equivocal MR diagnoses, tears were found at arthroscopy in eight medial and one lateral meniscus. In our study, the specificity and positive predictive value increased for both the medial and lateral meniscus when only menisci with two or more abnormal images were considered to be torn: from 80% and 89% to 91% and 94% for the medial meniscus, and from 91% and 73% to 93% and 78% for the lateral meniscus, respectively. Conclusion: Subtle findings that are equivocal for a tear of the knee meniscus still make MR diagnosis difficult, even at 3.0T. We recommend that radiologists should rather be descriptive in reporting subtle or equivocal MR findings, alerting the clinician of possible meniscal tear

  17. Three-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the meniscus of the knee: What about equivocal errors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, Pieter van; Vanhoenacker, Filip M.; Gielen, Jan L.; Parizel, Paul M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Antwerp and Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Edegem) (Belgium)), e-mail: pieter.van.dyck@uza.be; Dossche, Lieven (Dept. of Orthopedics, Univ. Hospital Antwerp and Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Edegem) (Belgium)); Weyler, Joost (Dept. of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Wilrijk) (Belgium))

    2010-04-15

    Background: The significance of borderline magnetic resonance (MR) findings that are equivocal for a tear of the knee meniscus remains uncertain. Given their higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and greater spatial resolution, these equivocal meniscal tears could be expected to be less frequent using a 3.0T MR system. Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of equivocal meniscal tears using 3.0T MR, and to study their impact on MR accuracy compared with arthroscopy in the detection of meniscal tears. Material and Methods: The medical records of 100 patients who underwent 3.0T MR imaging and subsequent arthroscopy of the knee were retrospectively reviewed. Two observers interpreted MR images in consensus, and menisci were diagnosed as torn (abnormality on two or more images), equivocal for a tear (abnormality on one image), or intact, using arthroscopy as the standard of reference. The prevalence of equivocal meniscal tears was assessed, and MR accuracy was calculated as follows: first, considering both torn menisci and equivocal diagnoses as positive for a tear; and second, considering only torn menisci as positive for a tear. Results: Evidence of meniscal tears on MR images was equivocal in 12 medial (12%) and three lateral (3%) menisci. Of these equivocal MR diagnoses, tears were found at arthroscopy in eight medial and one lateral meniscus. In our study, the specificity and positive predictive value increased for both the medial and lateral meniscus when only menisci with two or more abnormal images were considered to be torn: from 80% and 89% to 91% and 94% for the medial meniscus, and from 91% and 73% to 93% and 78% for the lateral meniscus, respectively. Conclusion: Subtle findings that are equivocal for a tear of the knee meniscus still make MR diagnosis difficult, even at 3.0T. We recommend that radiologists should rather be descriptive in reporting subtle or equivocal MR findings, alerting the clinician of possible meniscal tear

  18. Mechanical modeling and characterization of meniscus tissue using flat punch indentation and inverse finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfi, Behzad; Fatouraee, Nasser; Imeni, Milad

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, to characterize the mechanical properties of meniscus by considering its local microstructure, a novel nonlinear poroviscoelastic Finite Element (FE) model has been developed. To obtain the mechanical response of meniscus, indentation experiments were performed on bovine meniscus samples. The ramp-relaxation test scenario with different depths and preloads was designed to capture the mechanical characteristics of the tissue in different regions of the medial and lateral menisci. Thereafter, a FE simulation was performed considering experimental conditions. Constitutive parameters were optimized by solving a FE-based inverse problem using the heuristic Simulated Annealing (SA) optimization algorithm. These parameters were ranged according to previously reported data to improve the optimization procedure. Based on the results, the mechanical properties of meniscus were highly influenced by both superficial and main layers. At low indentation depths, a high percentage relaxation (p < 0.01) with a high relaxation rate (p < 0.05) was obtained, due to the poroelastic and viscoelastic nature of the superficial layer. Increasing both penetration depth and preload level involved the main layer response and caused alterations in hyperelastic and viscoelastic parameters of the tissue, such that for both layers, the shear modulus was increased (p < 0.01) while the rate and percentage of relaxation were decreased (p < 0.01). Results reflect that, shear modulus of the main layer in anterior region is higher than central and posterior sites in medial meniscus. In contrast, in lateral meniscus, posterior side is stiffer than central and anterior sides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomechanical Properties of Murine Meniscus Surface via AFM-based Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Doyran, Basak; Gamer, Laura W.; Lu, X. Lucas; Qin, Ling; Ortiz, Christine; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Rosen, Vicki; Han, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the biomechanical properties of murine meniscus surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation was performed on the central region, proximal side of menisci from 6- to 24-week old male C57BL/6 mice using microspherical tips (Rtip ≈ 5 μm) in PBS. A unique, linear correlation between indentation depth, D, and response force, F, was found on menisci from all age groups. This non-Hertzian behavior is likely due to the dominance of tensile resistance by the collagen fibril bundles on meniscus surface that are mostly aligned along the circumferential direction observed on 12-week old menisci. The indentation resistance was calculated as both the effective stiffness, Sind = dF/dD, and the effective modulus, Eind, via the isotropic Hertz model. Values of Sind and Eind were found to depend on indentation rate, suggesting the existence of poro-viscoelasticity. These values do not significantly vary with anatomical sites, lateral versus medial compartments, or mouse age. In addition, Eind of meniscus surface (e.g., 6.1 ± 0.8 MPa for 12 weeks of age, mean ± SEM, n = 13) was found to be significantly higher than those of meniscus surfaces in other species, and of murine articular cartilage surface (1.4 ± 0.1 MPa, n = 6). In summary, these results provided the first direct mechanical knowledge of murine knee meniscus tissues. We expect this understanding to serve as a mechanics-based benchmark for further probing the developmental biology and osteoarthritis symptoms of meniscus in various murine models. PMID:25817332

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Symptomatic Patients After Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy for Torn Discoid Lateral Meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Rack; Bin, Seong-Il; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Nam-Ki

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the change in the thickness and width of the residual meniscus using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients who underwent arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for discoid lateral meniscus (DLM), to assess whether the degeneration of the articular cartilage in the lateral compartment of the knee progressed, and to evaluate clinical results. Among the patients who underwent arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for DLM between January 1997 and December 2011, those who were aged 40 or below at surgery were followed up for at least 3 years, and received at least 2 follow-up MRIs that were retrospectively reviewed. MRIs were done in symptomatic knees. Using MRI, the relative thickness and width were measured in the anterior horn, midportion, and posterior horn. To determine whether the degeneration of the lateral compartment would progress, the articular cartilage was graded based on the Outerbridge classification in MRIs. The clinical results were evaluated using the Lysholm score. A total of 20 patients (21 knees) were included. The average follow-up period was 6.8 years. In residual meniscus, the relative thickness of the midportion decreased from 9.0% ± 2.4% to 7.3% ± 2.3% (P meniscus. A progression of degeneration in the lateral compartment was observed. However, the clinical results did not present significant changes. In symptomatic patients after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for DLM, the thickness and width of the residual meniscus decreases over time. The arthritic change of the lateral compartment of the knee progressed. However, the change in the size of the residual meniscus was of unknown clinical significance. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and characterization of adult mouse meniscus stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Laura W; Shi, Rui Rui; Gendelman, Ashira; Mathewson, Dylan; Gamer, Jackson; Rosen, Vicki

    Meniscal damage is a common problem that accelerates the onset of knee osteoarthritis. Stem cell-based tissue engineering treatment approaches have shown promise in preserving meniscal tissue and restoring meniscal function. The purpose of our study was to identify meniscus-derived stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) from mouse, a model system that allows for in vivo analysis of the mechanisms underlying meniscal injury and healing. MSPCs were isolated from murine menisci grown in explant culture and characterized for stem cell properties. Flow cytometry was used to detect the presence of surface antigens related to stem cells, and qRT-PCR was used to examine the gene expression profile of MSPCs. Major proteins associated with MSPCs were localized in the adult mouse knee using immunohistochemistry. Our data show that MSPCs have universal stem cell-like properties including clonogenicity and multi-potentiality. MSPCs expressed the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD44, Sca-1, CD90, and CD73 and when cultured had elevated levels of biglycan and collagen type I, important extracellular matrix components of adult meniscus. MSPC also expressed significant levels of Lox and Igf-1, genes associated with the embryonic meniscus. Localization studies showed staining for these same proteins in the superficial and outer zones of the adult mouse meniscus, regions thought to harbor endogenous repair cells. MSPCs represent a novel resident stem cell population in the murine meniscus. Analysis of MSPCs in mice will allow for a greater understanding of the cell biology of the meniscus, essential information for enhancing therapeutic strategies for treating knee joint injury and disease.

  2. Cost effectiveness of meniscal allograft for torn discoid lateral meniscus in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith; Gold, Heather T

    2016-09-01

    A discoid meniscus is more prone to tears than a normal meniscus. Patients with a torn discoid lateral meniscus are at increased risk for early onset osteoarthritis requiring total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Optimal management for this condition is controversial given the up-front cost difference between the two treatment options: the more expensive meniscal allograft transplantation compared with standard partial meniscectomy. We hypothesize that meniscal allograft transplantation following excision of a torn discoid lateral meniscus is more cost-effective compared with partial meniscectomy alone because allografts will extend the time to TKA. A decision analytic Markov model was created to compare the cost effectiveness of two treatments for symptomatic, torn discoid lateral meniscus: meniscal allograft and partial meniscectomy. Probability estimates and event rates were derived from the scientific literature, and costs and benefits were discounted by 3%. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to test model robustness. Over 25 years, the partial meniscectomy strategy cost $10,430, whereas meniscal allograft cost on average $4040 more, at $14,470. Partial meniscectomy postponed TKA an average of 12.5 years, compared with 17.30 years for meniscal allograft, an increase of 4.8 years. Allograft cost $842 per-year-gained in time to TKA. Meniscal allografts have been shown to reduce pain and improve function in patients with discoid lateral meniscus tears. Though more costly, meniscal allografts may be more effective than partial meniscectomy in delaying TKA in this model. Additional future long term clinical studies will provide more insight into optimal surgical options.

  3. The nutrition of the human meniscus: A computational analysis investigating the effect of vascular recession on tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travascio, Francesco; Jackson, Alicia R

    2017-08-16

    The meniscus is essential to the functioning of the knee, offering load support, congruency, lubrication, and protection to the underlying cartilage. Meniscus degeneration affects ∼35% of the population, and potentially leads to knee osteoarthritis. The etiology of meniscal degeneration remains to be elucidated, although many factors have been considered. However, the role of nutritional supply to meniscus cells in the pathogenesis of meniscus degeneration has been so far overlooked. Nutrients are delivered to meniscal cells through the surrounding synovial fluid and the blood vessels present in the outer region of the meniscus. During maturation, vascularization progressively recedes up to the outer 10% of the tissue, leaving the majority avascular. It has been hypothesized that vascular recession might significantly reduce the nutrient supply to cells, thus contributing to meniscus degeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular recession on nutrient levels available to meniscus cells. This was done by developing a novel computational model for meniscus homeostasis based on mixture theory. It was found that transvascular transport of nutrients in the vascularized region of the meniscus contributes to more than 40% of the glucose content in the core of the tissue. However, vascular recession does not significantly alter nutrient levels in the meniscus, reducing at most 5% of the nutrient content in the central portion of the tissue. Therefore, our analysis suggests that reduced vascularity is not likely a primary initiating source in tissue degeneration. However, it does feasibly play a key role in inability for self-repair, as seen clinically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Outside-In Deep Medial Collateral Ligament Release During Arthroscopic Medial Meniscus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Adrian; Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel

    2016-08-01

    Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy is a very common orthopaedic procedure performed for symptomatic, irreparable meniscus tears. It is usually associated with a very good outcome and minimal complications. In some patients with tight medial compartment, the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can be difficult to visualize, and access in this area with instruments may be challenging. To increase the opening of the medial compartment, after valgus-extension stress position of the knee, different techniques of deep medial collateral ligament release have been described. The outside-in pie-crusting technique shown in this technical note has documented effectiveness and good outcomes with minimal or no morbidity.

  5. Kinematic characteristics of anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees with concomitant meniscus deficiency during ascending stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Wenhan; Ma, Limin; Lin, Zefeng; Huang, Huayang; Xia, Hong

    2017-02-01

    It is commonly believed that a torn ACL or a damaged meniscus may be associated with altered knee joint movements. The purpose of this study was to measure the tibiofemoral kinematics of ACL deficiency with concomitant meniscus deficiency. Unilateral knees of 28 ACL deficient participants were studied while ascending stairs. Among these patients, 6 had isolated ACL injuries (group I), 8 had combined ACL and medial meniscus injuries (group II), 8 had combined ACL and lateral meniscus injuries (group III) and 6 had combined ACL and medial-lateral meniscus injuries (group IV). Both knees were then scanned during a stair climb activity using single fluoroscopic image system. Knee kinematics were measured at 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 30° and 60° of flexion during ascending stairs. At 0°, 15° and 30° flexion of the knee, the tibia rotated externally by 13.9 ± 6.1°,13.8 ± 9.5° and 15.9 ± 9.8° in Group I. Group II and III exhibited decreased external rotation from 60° to full extension. Statistical differences were found in 0°, 15°and 30° of flexion for the 2 groups compared with Group I. In general, the tibia showed anterior translation with respect to the femur during ascending stairs. It was further determined that Group III had larger anterior translation compared with Group IV at 0° and 5° of flexion (-6.9 ± 1.7 mm vs. 6.2 ± 11.3 mm, P = 0.041; -9.0 ± 1.8 mm vs. 8.1 ± 13.4 mm, P = 0.044). During ascending stairs the ACL deficient knee with different deficiencies in the meniscus will show significantly different kinematics compared with that of uninjured contralateral knee. Considering the varying effect of meniscus injuries on knee joint kinematics, future studies should concentrate on specific treatment of patients with combined ACL and meniscus injuries to protect the joint from abnormal kinematics and subsequent postoperative degeneration.

  6. Relationship Between Preoperative Extrusion of the Medial Meniscus and Surgical Outcomes After Partial Meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Choi, Chong Hyuk; Chun, Yong-Min; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Su-Keon; Jang, Jinyoung; Jeong, Howon; Jung, Min

    2017-07-01

    No previous study has examined arthritic change after meniscectomy with regard to extrusion of the medial meniscus. (1) To determine the factors related to preoperative meniscal extrusion; (2) to investigate the relationship between medial meniscal extrusion and postoperative outcomes of partial meniscectomy, and to identify a cutoff point of meniscal extrusion that contributes to arthritic change after partial meniscectomy in nonosteoarthritic knees. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 208 patients who underwent partial meniscectomy of the medial meniscus between January 2000 and September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The extent of extrusion and severity of degeneration of the medial meniscus as shown on preoperative MRI were evaluated. The minimum follow-up duration was 7 years. Clinical function was assessed with the Lysholm knee scoring scale, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee evaluation form, and the Tapper and Hoover grading system. Radiological evaluation was conducted by use of the IKDC radiographic assessment scale. Regression analysis was performed to identify factors affecting preoperative extrusion of the medial meniscus and factors influencing follow-up results after partial meniscectomy. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to identify a cutoff point for the extent of meniscal extrusion that was associated with arthritic change. The mean ± SD preoperative Lysholm knee score was 65.0 ± 6.3 and the mean IKDC subjective score was 60.1 ± 7.5. The mean follow-up functional scores were 93.2 ± 5.1 ( P meniscus showed a tendency to increase as the extent of intrameniscal degeneration increased, and the medial meniscus was extruded more in patients with horizontal, horizontal flap, and complex tears. The preoperative extent of meniscal extrusion had a statistically significant correlation with follow-up Lysholm knee score (coefficient = -0.10, P = .002), IKDC subjective score (coefficient

  7. Effect of Solder-Joint Geometry on the Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Sn- xAg-0.7Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Teng; Huang, Kuo-Chen

    2016-12-01

    Low-cycle fatigue tests of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) Pb-free solder joints under fixed displacement were performed to evaluate the influence of Ag content (0-3 wt.%) and solder-joint geometry (barrel and hourglass types) on solder-joint fatigue behavior and reliability. The solder joints were composed of fine particles of Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5, which aggregated as an eutectic constituent at grain boundaries of the primary β-Sn phase and formed a dense network structure. A decrease in the Ag content resulted in coarsening of the β-Sn and eutectic phases, which, in turn, decreased the strength of the joint and caused earlier failure. Solder joints in the hourglass form exhibited better fatigue performance with longer life than barrel-type joints. The sharp contact angle formed between the solder and the Cu substrate by the barrel-type joints concentrated stress, which compromised fatigue reliability. The addition of Ag to the solder, however, enhanced fatigue performance because of strengthening caused by Ag3Sn formation. The cracks of the barrel-type SAC solder joints originated mostly at the contact corner and propagated along the interfacial layer between the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) and solder matrix. Hourglass-type solder joints, however, demonstrated both crack initiation and propagation in the solder matrix (solder mode). The addition of 1.5-2.0 wt.% Ag to SAC solder appears to enhance the fatigue performance of solder joints while maintaining sufficient strength.

  8. A review on solder reflow and flux application for flip chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Sarveshvaran; Ong, Nestor Rubio; Sauli, Zaliman; Sarukunaselan, Karunavani; Alcain, Jesselyn Barro; Visvanathan, Susthitha Menon; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan

    2017-09-01

    This paper encompassed of the evolution and key findings, critical technical challenges, solutions and bonding equipment of solder reflow in flip chip bonding. Upon scrutinizing researches done by others, it can be deduced that peak temperature, time above liquidus, soak temperature, soak time, cooling rate and reflow environment played a vital role in achieving the desired bonding profile. In addition, flux is also needed with the purpose of removing oxides/contaminations on bump surface as well as to promote wetting of solder balls. Electromigration and warpage are the two main challenges faced by solder reflow process which can be overcome by the advancement in under bump metallization (UBM) and substrate technology. The review is ended with a brief description of the current equipment used in solder reflow process.

  9. Long-Term Effects of Soldering By-Products on Nickel-Coated Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, T. D.; Hodge, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of thirty-year-old, down graded flight cables was conducted to determine the makeup of a green material on the surface of the shielded wire near soldered areas and to ascertain if the green material had corroded the nickel-coated copper wire. Two likely candidates were possible due to the handling and environments to which these cables were exposed. The flux used to solder the cables is known to contain abietic acid, a carboxylic acid found in many pine rosins used for the soldering process. The resulting material copper abietate is green in color and is formed during the application of heat during soldering operations. Copper (II) chloride, which is also green in color is known to contaminate flight parts and is corrosive. Data is presented that shows the material is copper abietate, not copper (II) chloride, and more importantly that the abietate does not aggressively attack nickel-plated copper wire.

  10. Laser welding of vas deferens in rodents: initial experience with fluid solders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, R I; Wang, D; Maitz, P; Lanzetta, M; Owen, E R

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of sutureless laser welding for vasovasostomy. In 14 rodents, the left vas deferens underwent vasovasostomy using an albumin-based solder applied to the adventitia of the vas deferens. The solder contained the dye, indocyanine green, to allow selective absorption and denaturation by a fiber-coupled 800-nm diode laser. The right vas deferens served as a control, receiving conventional layered microsurgical repair. We used a removable 4/0 nylon stent and microclamps to appose the vas deferens during repair, with no need for stay sutures. The mean time to perform laser solder repair (23.5 min) and conventional repair (23.3 min) were not significantly different (P=0.91). However, examination after 8 weeks showed that granuloma formation (G) and patency (P) rates for the conventional suture technique (G, 14%; P, 93%) were significantly better than observed for the laser solder technique (G, 57%; P, 50%).

  11. Effects of rework on adhesion of Pb-In soldered gold thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehman, R.W.; Becka, G.A.; Losure, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    The feasibility of repeatedly reworking Pb-In soldered joints on gold thick films was evaluated. Nailhead adhesion tests on soldered thick films typically resulted in failure within the bulk solder (50 In-50 Pb). Average strengths increased with each rework, and the failure mode changed. An increase in metalization lift-off occurred with successive reworks. An investigation was initiated to determine why these changes occurred. Based on this work, the thick film adhesion to the substrate appeared to be lowered by indium reduction of cadmium oxide and by formation of a weak, brittle intermetallic compound, Au 9 In 4 . It was concluded that two solder reworks could be conducted without significant amounts of metallization lift-off during nailhead testing

  12. Nanoscale Soldering of Positioned Carbon Nanotubes using Highly Conductive Electron Beam Induced Gold Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Mølhave, Kristian; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ method for controlled positioning of carbon nanotubes followed by highly conductive contacting of the nanotubes, using electron beam assisted deposition of gold. The positioning and soldering process takes place inside an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E...... in a carbon matrix. Nanoscale soldering of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) onto microelectrodes was achieved by deposition of a conducting gold line across a contact point between nanotube and electrode. The solderings were found to be mechanically stronger than the carbon nanotubes. We have positioned...... MWNTs to bridge the gap between two electrodes, and formed soldering bonds between the tube and each of the electrodes. All nanotube bridges showed ohmic resistances in the range 10-30 kΩ. We observed no increase in resistance after exposing the MWNT bridge to air for days....

  13. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of High Temperature Solders: Effects of High Temperature Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnine, M.; Tolla, B.; Vahora, N.

    2018-04-01

    This paper explores the effects of aging on the mechanical behavior, microstructure evolution and IMC formation on different surface finishes of two high temperature solders, Sn-5 wt.% Ag and Sn-5 wt.% Sb. High temperature aging showed significant degradation of Sn-5 wt.% Ag solder hardness (34%) while aging has little effect on Sn-5 wt.% Sb solder. Sn-5 wt.% Ag experienced rapid grain growth as well as the coarsening of particles during aging. Sn-5 wt.% Sb showed a stable microstructure due to solid solution strengthening and the stable nature of SnSb precipitates. The increase of intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness during aging follows a parabolic relationship with time. Regression analysis (time exponent, n) indicated that IMC growth kinetics is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. The results have important implications in the selection of high temperature solders used in high temperature applications.

  14. The creep behavior of In-Ag eutectic solder joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, H.L.; Kang, S.H.; Morris, J.W. Jr.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA

    1999-01-01

    The addition of 3 wt.% Ag to In results in a eutectic composition with improved mechanical properties while only slightly lowering the melting temperature. Steady-state creep properties of In-Ag eutectic solder joints have been measured using constant load tests at 0, 30, 60, and 90 C. Constitutive equations are derived to describe the creep behavior. The data are well represented by an equation of the form proposed by Dorn: a power-law equation applies to each independent creep mechanism. Two parallel mechanisms were observed for the In-Ag eutectic joints. The high-stress mechanism is a bulk mechanism with a thermal dependence dominated by the thermal dependence of creep in the In-rich matrix. The low-stress mechanism is a grain boundary mechanism. Results of this work are discussed with regard to creep behavior of typical eutectic systems

  15. Nanoconstruction by welding individual metallic nanowires together using nanoscale solder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y; Inkson, B J; Cullis, A G

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new bottom-up nanowelding technique enabling building blocks to be assembled and welded together into complex 3D nanostructures using nanovolumes of metal solder. The building blocks of gold nanowires, (Co 72 Pt 28 /Pt) n multilayer nanowires, and nanosolder Sn 99 Au 1 alloy nanowires were successfully fabricated by a template technique. Individual metallic nanowires were picked up and assembled together. Conductive nanocircuits were then welded together using similar or dissimilar nanosolder material. At the weld sites, nanoscale volumes of a chosen metal are deposited using nanosolder of a sacrificial nanowire, which ensures that the nanoobjects to be bonded retain their structural integrity. The whole nanowelding process is clean, controllable and reliable, and ensures both mechanically strong and electrically conductive contacts.

  16. Soldered Contact and Current Risetime Effects on Negative Polarity Wire Array Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalenski, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Greenly, J. B.; Blesener, I. C.; McBride, R. D.; Hammer, D. A.; Knapp, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    The Cornell University COBRA pulser is a nominal 1 MA machine, capable of driving up to 32 wire cylindrical Z-pinch arrays. COBRA can operate with variable current risetimes ranging from 100 ns to 200 ns (short and long pulse, respectively). Wires are typically strung with a ''press'' contact to the electrode hardware, where the wire is loosely pulled against the hardware and held there to establish electrical contact. The machine is normally negative, but a bolt-on convolute can be used to modify the current path and effectively produce positive polarity operation at the load.Previous research with single wires on a 1-5 kA pulser has shown that soldering the wire, thereby improving the wire/electrode contact, and operating in positive polarity can improve the energy deposition into the wire and enhance wire core expansion. Negative polarity showed no difference. Previous experiments on the negative polarity, 20 MA, 100 ns Z accelerator have shown that improving the contact improved the x-ray yield.Cornell data were collected on 16-wire Aluminum Z-pinch arrays in negative polarity. Experiments were conducted with both short and long current pulses with soldered and no-soldered wire/electrode contacts. The initiation, ablation, implosion and stagnation phases were compared for these four conditions. Time dependent x-ray signals were measured using diodes and diamond detectors. An inductive voltage monitor was used to infer minimum current radius achieved, as defined by a uniform shell of current moving radially inward, producing a time dependent inductance. Total energy data were collected with a metal-strip bolometer. Self-emission data were collected by an XUV 4-frame camera and an optical streak camera.In negative polarity and with short pulses, soldering appeared to produce a smaller radius pinch and decrease variations in the x-ray pulse shape. The bolometer, laser backlighter, 4-frame and streak cameras showed negligible differences in the initiation ablation

  17. Capillary Rise: Validity of the Dynamic Contact Angle Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingkeng; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh T

    2017-08-15

    The classical Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR) equation, using the equilibrium contact angle, predicts a faster capillary rise process than experiments in many cases. The major contributor to the faster prediction is believed to be the velocity dependent dynamic contact angle. In this work, we investigated the dynamic contact angle models for their ability to correct the dynamic contact angle effect in the capillary rise process. We conducted capillary rise experiments of various wetting liquids in borosilicate glass capillaries and compared the model predictions with our experimental data. The results show that the LWR equations modified by the molecular kinetic theory and hydrodynamic model provide good predictions on the capillary rise of all the testing liquids with fitting parameters, while the one modified by Joos' empirical equation works for specific liquids, such as silicone oils. The LWR equation modified by molecular self-layering model predicts well the capillary rise of carbon tetrachloride, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, and n-alkanes with the molecular diameter or measured solvation force data. The molecular self-layering model modified LWR equation also has good predictions on the capillary rise of silicone oils covering a wide range of bulk viscosities with the same key parameter W(0), which results from the molecular self-layering. The advantage of the molecular self-layering model over the other models reveals the importance of the layered molecularly thin wetting film ahead of the main meniscus in the energy dissipation associated with dynamic contact angle. The analysis of the capillary rise of silicone oils with a wide range of bulk viscosities provides new insights into the capillary dynamics of polymer melts.

  18. Effects of voids on thermal-mechanical reliability of lead-free solder joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benabou Lahouari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of electronic packages has become a major issue, particularly in systems used in electrical or hybrid cars where severe operating conditions must be met. Many studies have shown that solder interconnects are critical elements since many failure mechanisms originate from their typical response under thermal cycles. In this study, effects of voids in solder interconnects on the electronic assembly lifetime are estimated based on finite element simulations.

  19. Investigation into mechanical properties of joints of heterogeneous materials brazed with high-temperature solders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenko, V.I.; Merkushev, V.P.; Borodina, L.M.; Sycheva, T.S.; Tokhtina, O.A.; Frolov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanical properties of copper joints with copper, 12Kh18M10T steel and KhD50 composite obtained by vacuum brazing by copper-titanium solder as compared with properties of joints brazed by PSr 72 and PMFOTsr 6-4-0.03 solders in hydrogen are studied. Dependences of joints strength on temperature of contact - reactive vacuum brazing are obtained. Possible applications of joints of dissimilar materials in electrovacuum devices subjected to the effect of dynamic loadings are established

  20. Dye-enhanced protein solders and patches in laser-assisted tissue welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W; Heredia, N J; Maitland, D J; Da Silva, L B; Matthews, D L

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the use of dye-enhanced protein bonding agents in 805 nm diode laser-assisted tissue welding. A comparison of an albumin liquid solder and collagen solid-matrix patches used to repair arteriotomies in an in vitro porcine model is presented. Extrinsic bonding media in the form of solders and patches have been used to enhance the practice of laser tissue welding. Preferential absorption of the laser wavelength has been achieved by the incorporation of chromophores. Both the solder and the patch included indocyanine green dye (ICG) to absorb the 805 nm continuous-wave diode laser light used to perform the welds. Solder-mediated welds were divided into two groups (high power/short exposure and low power/long exposure), and the patches were divided into three thickness groups ranging from 0.1 to 1.3 mm. The power used to activate the patches was constant, but the exposure time was increased with patch thickness. Burst pressure results indicated that solder-mediated and patched welds yielded similar average burst strengths in most cases, but the patches provided a higher success rate (i.e., more often exceeded 150 mmHg) and were more consistent (i.e., smaller standard deviation) than the solder. The strongest welds were obtained using 1.0-1.3 mm thick patches, while the high power/short exposure solder group was the weakest. Though the solder and patches yielded similar acute weld strengths, the solid-matrix patches facilitated the welding process and provided consistently strong welds. The material properties of the extrinsic agents influenced their performance.

  1. Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burress, R.V. [SEHO (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

  2. ROCK inhibition stimulates SOX9/Smad3-dependent COL2A1 expression in inner meniscus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Maehara, Ami; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-07-01

    Proper functioning of the meniscus depends on the composition and organization of its fibrocartilaginous extracellular matrix. We previously demonstrated that the avascular inner meniscus has a more chondrocytic phenotype compared with the outer meniscus. Inhibition of the Rho family GTPase ROCK, the major regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, stimulates the chondrogenic transcription factor Sry-type HMG box (SOX) 9-dependent α1(II) collagen (COL2A1) expression in inner meniscus cells. However, the crosstalk between ROCK inhibition, SOX9, and other transcription modulators on COL2A1 upregulation remains unclear in meniscus cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of SOX9-related transcriptional complex on COL2A1 expression under the inhibition of ROCK in human meniscus cells. Human inner and outer meniscus cells were prepared from macroscopically intact lateral menisci. Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi, Y27632). Gene expression, collagen synthesis, and nuclear translocation of SOX9 and Smad2/3 were analyzed. Treatment of ROCKi increased the ratio of type I/II collagen double positive cells derived from the inner meniscus. In real-time PCR analyses, expression of SOX9 and COL2A1 genes was stimulated by ROCKi treatment in inner meniscus cells. ROCKi treatment also induced nuclear translocation of SOX9 and phosphorylated Smad2/3 in immunohistological analyses. Complex formation between SOX9 and Smad3 was increased by ROCKi treatment in inner meniscus cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that association between SOX9/Smad3 transcriptional complex with the COL2A1 enhancer region was increased by ROCKi treatment. This study demonstrated that ROCK inhibition stimulated SOX9/Smad3-dependent COL2A1 expression through the immediate nuclear translocation of Smad3 in inner meniscus cells. Our results suggest that ROCK inhibition can stimulates type II collagen synthesis through the cooperative activation

  3. Meniscus suture repair: minimum 10-year outcomes in patients younger than 40 years compared with patients 40 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, J Richard; Matheny, Lauren M; Singleton, Steven B; Johnson, Nicholas S; Rodkey, William G; Crespo, Bernardo; Briggs, Karen K

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have compared outcomes after meniscus suture repair in patients younger than 40 years versus patients 40 years and older. To document failure rates and long-term outcomes after meniscus suture repair by a single surgeon, using the inside-out technique, at a minimum 10-year follow-up in patients younger than 40 years versus those 40 years and older. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included all patients 18 years or older who underwent meniscus suture repair with the inside-out technique by a single surgeon between January 1992 and December 2003. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts according to age: meniscus as repaired in the index surgery. Patients completed a subjective questionnaire at minimum of 10 years after arthroscopy. Outcomes measures included Lysholm, Tegner, and patient satisfaction with outcome. All data were collected prospectively. The surgeon performed 339 meniscus repairs between 1992 and 2003. The study included 181 knees in 178 patients, who had a mean age of 33 years (range, 18-70 years). Cohort 1 contained 136 knees; 16 patients (12%) were lost to follow-up and 47 (35%) underwent a subsequent knee arthroscopy. Cohort 2 contained 45 knees; 2 patients (4.4%) were lost to follow-up, 3 patients had a total knee arthroplasty, and 12 patients (28%) underwent a subsequent knee arthroscopy. In cohort 1, the meniscus repair failure rate was 5.5% (6/110), and in cohort 2 it was 5.3% (2/38) (P = .927). There was no significant difference in failure rate based on which meniscus was repaired (P = .257), concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (P = .092), or microfracture (P = .674). Average follow-up time for cohort 1 was 16.1 years (range, 10.0-21.9 years), with 82% follow-up (n = 73/89); average follow-up time for cohort 2 was 16.2 years (range, 10.1-21.0 years), with 93% follow-up (n = 28/30). There were no significant differences in outcomes scores after meniscus suture repair based on age cohort or meniscus

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on micromechanical hardness of lead-free solder joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Wilfred [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, Irman Abdul; Jalar, Azman; Kamil, Insan; Bakar, Maria Abu [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusoff, Wan Yusmawati Wan [Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sg. Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Lead-free solders are important material in nano and microelectronic surface mounting technology for various applications in bio medicine, environmental monitoring, spacecraft and satellite instrumentation. Nevertheless solder joint in radiation environment needs higher reliability and resistance to any damage caused by ionizing radiations. In this study a lead-free 99.0Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu wt.% (SAC) solder joint was developed and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation to investigate the effects of the ionizing radiation to micromechanical hardness of the solder. Averaged hardness of the SAC joint was obtained from nanoindentation test. The results show a relationship between hardness values of indentations and the increment of radiation dose. Highest mean hardness, 0.2290 ± 0.0270 GPa was calculated on solder joint which was exposed to 5 Gray dose of gamma radiation. This value indicates possible radiation hardening effect on irradiated solder. The hardness gradually decreased to 0.1933 ± 0.0210 GPa and 0.1631 ± 0.0173 GPa when exposed to doses 50 and 500 gray respectively. These values are also lower than the hardness of non irradiated sample which was calculated as 0.2084 ± 0.0.3633 GPa indicating possible radiation damage and needs further related atomic dislocation study.

  5. Characterization of the microstructure of tin-silver lead free solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtony, Tamás, E-mail: hurtony@ett.bme.hu [Department of Electronics Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Egry József utca 18, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Szakál, Alex; Almásy, László [Neutron Spectroscopy Department, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Len, Adél [Neutron Spectroscopy Department, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs (Hungary); Kugler, Sándor [Department of Theoretical Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Hungary); Bonyár, Attila; Gordon, Péter [Department of Electronics Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Egry József utca 18, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2016-07-05

    Reliability and lifetime are the two most relevant design considerations in the production of safety critical assemblies. For example in a modern automobile dozens of electronic assemblies are integrated in which thousands of solder joints are mounting the electronic components to the printed circuit boards. There exists no standardised and universal observation method for characterising the fine microstructure of such solder joints. Previously we have developed a new method for the quantitative characterization of lead-free solder alloys and in present study the validity of the proposed method is demonstrated. Microstructure of Sn-3.5Ag lead free solder alloy was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Solder samples were solidified with different cooling rates in order to induce differences in the microstructure. Microstructure of the ingots was revealed by selective electrochemical etching. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were measured before and after the selective etching process. The complex impedance spectra contain information about microstructure of the solder alloys. Comparison and modelling of two EIS spectra allowed obtaining a characteristic parameter of surface structure of the etched specimens. The EIS measurements were complemented with small angle neutron scattering measurements and scanning electron microscopy, in order to correlate the EIS parameter with the magnitude of the interface of the β-Sn and Ag{sub 3}Sn phases.

  6. A Probabilistic Approach to Predict Thermal Fatigue Life for Ball Grid Array Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Helin; Wang, Kuisheng

    2011-11-01

    Numerous studies of the reliability of solder joints have been performed. Most life prediction models are limited to a deterministic approach. However, manufacturing induces uncertainty in the geometry parameters of solder joints, and the environmental temperature varies widely due to end-user diversity, creating uncertainties in the reliability of solder joints. In this study, a methodology for accounting for variation in the lifetime prediction for lead-free solder joints of ball grid array packages (PBGA) is demonstrated. The key aspects of the solder joint parameters and the cyclic temperature range related to reliability are involved. Probabilistic solutions of the inelastic strain range and thermal fatigue life based on the Engelmaier model are developed to determine the probability of solder joint failure. The results indicate that the standard deviation increases significantly when more random variations are involved. Using the probabilistic method, the influence of each variable on the thermal fatigue life is quantified. This information can be used to optimize product design and process validation acceptance criteria. The probabilistic approach creates the opportunity to identify the root causes of failed samples from product fatigue tests and field returns. The method can be applied to better understand how variation affects parameters of interest in an electronic package design with area array interconnections.

  7. A Novel Technique for the Connection of Ceramic and Titanium Implant Components Using Glass Solder Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Mick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Both titanium and ceramic materials provide specific advantages in dental implant technology. However, some problems, like hypersensitivity reactions, corrosion and mechanical failure, have been reported. Therefore, the combining of both materials to take advantage of their pros, while eliminating their respective cons, would be desirable. Hence, we introduced a new technique to bond titanium and ceramic materials by means of a silica-based glass ceramic solder. Cylindrical compound samples (Ø10 mm × 56 mm made of alumina toughened zirconia (ATZ, as well as titanium grade 5, were bonded by glass solder on their end faces. As a control, a two-component adhesive glue was utilized. The samples were investigated without further treatment, after 30 and 90 days of storage in distilled water at room temperature, and after aging. All samples were subjected to quasi-static four-point-bending tests. We found that the glass solder bonding provided significantly higher bending strength than adhesive glue bonding. In contrast to the glued samples, the bending strength of the soldered samples remained unaltered by the storage and aging treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analyses confirmed the presence of a stable solder-ceramic interface. Therefore, the glass solder technique represents a promising method for optimizing dental and orthopedic implant bondings.

  8. The Effect of Gap Angle on Tensile Strength of Preceramic Base Metal Solder Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Hashemi Ardakani, Zahra; Hashemi Ardakani, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    Soldering is a process commonly used in fabricating dental prosthesis. Since most soldered prosthesis fail at the solder joints; the joint strength is of utmost importance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap angle on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. A total number of 40 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated according to ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test. Samples were cut at the midpoint of the bar, and were placed at the considered angles by employing an explicitly designed device. They were divided into 4 groups regarding the gap angle; Group C (control group) with parallel gap on steady distance of 0.2mm, Group 1: 10°, Group 2: 20°, and Group3: 30° gap angles. When soldered, the specimens were all tested for tensile strength using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min with a preload of 10N. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare tensile strength among the groups (ptensile strength values obtained from the study groups were respectively 307.84, 391.50, 365.18, and 368.86 MPa. The tensile strength was not statistically different among the four groups in general (p≤ 0.490). Making the gap angular at the solder joints and the subsequent unsteady increase of the gap distance would not change the tensile strength of the joint.

  9. Rheological characterisation and printing performance of Sn/Ag/Cu solder pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durairaj, R.; Ramesh, S.; Mallik, S.; Seman, A.; Ekere, N.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-free solder paste printing process accounts for majority of the assembly defects in the electronic manufacturing industry. The study investigates rheological behaviour and stencil printing performance of the lead-free solder pastes (Sn/Ag/Cu). Oscillatory stress sweep test was carried out to study the visco-elastic behaviour of the lead-free solder pastes. The visco-elastic behaviour of the paste encompasses solid and liquid characteristic of the paste, which could be used to study the flow behaviour experienced by the pastes during the stencil printing process. From this study, it was found that the solid characteristics (G') is higher than the liquid characteristic (G'') for the pastes material. In addition, the results from the study showed that the solder paste with a large G' = G'' has a higher cohesiveness resulting in poor withdrawal of the paste during the stencil printing process. The phase angles (δ) was used to correlate the quality of the dense suspensions to the formulation of solder paste materials. This study has revealed the value of having a rheological measurement for explaining and characterising solder pastes for stencil printing. As the demand for lead free pastes increases rheological measurements can assist with the formulation or development of new pastes.

  10. Study on interfacial reaction between lead-free solders and alternative surface finishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Rabiatul Aisha; Ourdjini, A.; Saliza Osman

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the interfacial reactions occurring during reflow soldering between Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder and two surface finishes: electroless nickel/ immersion gold (ENIG) and immersion silver (IAg). The study focuses on interfacial reactions evolution and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds (IMC) formed during soldering and isothermal ageing at 150 degree Celsius for up to 2000 hours. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure IMC thickness and examine the morphology of IMC respectively, whereas the IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results showed that the IMC formed on ENIG finish is thinner compared to that formed on IAg finish. For IAg surface finish, Cu 6 Sn 5 IMCs with scallop morphology are formed at the solder/ surface finish interface after reflow while a second IMC, Cu 3 Sn was formed between the copper and Cu 6 Sn 5 IMC after the isothermal ageing treatment. For ENIG surface finish both (Cu,Ni) 6 Sn 5 and (Ni,Cu) 3 Sn 4 are formed after soldering. Isothermal aging of the solder joints formed on ENIG finish was found to have a significant effect on the morphology of the intermetallics by transforming to more spherical and denser morphology in addition to increase i their thickness with increased ageing time. (author)

  11. Comparative shear tests of some low temperature lead-free solder pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzei, Mihai; Plotog, Ioan; Varzaru, Gaudentiu; Cucu, Traian C.

    2016-12-01

    The range of electronic components and as a consequence, all parts of automotive electronic equipment operating temperatures in a vehicle is given by the location of that equipment, so the maximum temperature can vary between 358K and 478K1. The solder joints could be defined as passive parts of the interconnection structure of automotive electronic equipment, at a different level, from boards of electronic modules to systems. The manufacturing costs reduction necessity and the RoHS EU Directive3, 7 consequences generate the trend to create new Low-Temperature Lead-Free (LTLF) solder pastes family9. In the paper, the mechanical strength of solder joints and samples having the same transversal section as resistor 1206 case type made using the same LTLF alloys into Vapour Phase Soldering (VPS) process characterized by different cooling rates (slow and rapid) and two types of test PCBs pads finish, were benchmarked at room temperature. The presented work extends the theoretical studies and experiments upon heat transfer in VPSP in order to optimize the technology for soldering process (SP) of automotive electronic modules and could be extended for home and modern agriculture appliances industry. The shear forces (SF) values of the LTLF alloy samples having the same transversal section as resistor 1206 case type will be considered as references values of a database useful in the new solder alloy creation processes and their qualification for automotive electronics domain.

  12. Investigation on solder joint strength of nickel tin-plated and CRS tabs with PCB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luay Hussain

    2002-01-01

    Failure analysis on easily peels off Nickel and CRS steel tabs from PCB was carried out. Nickel Tin plated tabs, CRS steel tabs and tube were joined to the PCB using reflow/ convection soldering, in an oven. The solder paste composition is Sn36/Pb35/Ag2. Peel test was conducted and it was found that many tabs could be easily peeled off with low force. Porosities which varies from 0.4 mm to < 0.01mm in diameter, developed during soldering process and solidification was noted. It was found, the number, size and position of these porosities inside the solder layer on both parts of the tabs affect the peel strength. Scanning Electron Microscopy study and EDX analysis were carried out. It was found that the low peel strength values were due to the combination of generation and development of porosities during soldering process which act as stress concentrators and the evolution (growth) of eutectic Sn/Pb and Sn/Ni/Cu brittle grainy phase. Large eutectic microstructure with brittle Sn-Ni-Cu grainy phase enhances the failure with low peeling forces. Sample showing no feature of Sn/Ni/Cu grain gave high peeling strength value. Solder reflow, an important process, can result in strength enhancement (if it was controlled for example in a furnace). (Author)

  13. Properties and Microstructures of Sn-Ag-Cu-X Lead-Free Solder Joints in Electronic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SnAgCu solder alloys were considered as one of the most popular lead-free solders because of its good reliability and mechanical properties. However, there are also many problems that need to be solved for the SnAgCu solders, such as high melting point and poor wettability. In order to overcome these shortcomings, and further enhance the properties of SnAgCu solders, many researchers choose to add a series of alloying elements (In, Ti, Fe, Zn, Bi, Ni, Sb, Ga, Al, and rare earth and nanoparticles to the SnAgCu solders. In this paper, the work of SnAgCu lead-free solders containing alloying elements and nanoparticles was reviewed, and the effects of alloying elements and nanoparticles on the melting temperature, wettability, mechanical properties, hardness properties, microstructures, intermetallic compounds, and whiskers were discussed.

  14. An Analysis of Pathological Activities of CCN Proteins in Joint Disorders: Mechanical Stretch-Mediated CCN2 Expression in Cultured Meniscus Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-01-01

    The multifunctional growth factor CYR61/CTGF/NOV (CCN) 2, also known as connective tissue growth factor, regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, and tissue regeneration. Recent literatures have described important roles of CCN2 in the meniscus metabolism. However, the mechanical stress-mediated transcriptional regulation of CCN2 in the meniscus remains unclear. The meniscus is a fibrocartilaginous tissue that controls complex biomechanics of the knee joint. Therefore, the injured unstable meniscus has a poor healing potential especially in the avascular inner region. In addition, dysfunction of the meniscus correlates with the progression of degenerative knee joint disorders and joint space narrowing. Here, we describe an experimental approach that investigates the distinct cellular behavior of inner and outer meniscus cells in response to mechanical stretch. Our experimental model can analyze the relationships between stretch-induced CCN2 expression and its functional role in the meniscus homeostasis.

  15. Meniscus formation in a capillary and the role of contact line friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrukh, Taras; Monaenkova, Daria; Rubin, Binyamin; Lee, Wah-Keat; Kornev, Konstantin G

    2014-01-28

    We studied spontaneous formation of an internal meniscus by dipping glass capillaries of 25 μm to 350 μm radii into low volatile hexadecane and tributyl phosphate. X-ray phase contrast and high speed optical microscopy imaging were employed. We showed that the meniscus completes its formation when the liquid column is still shorter than the capillary radius. After that, the meniscus travels about ten capillary radii at a constant velocity. We demonstrated that the experimental observations can be explained by introducing a friction force linearly proportional to the meniscus velocity with a friction coefficient depending on the air/liquid/solid triplet. It was demonstrated that the friction coefficient does not depend on the capillary radius. Numerical solution of the force balance equation revealed four different uptake regimes that can be specified in a phase portrait. This phase portrait was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results and can be used as a guide for the design of thin porous absorbers.

  16. Natural history of minimal anterior displacements of the temporomandibular joint meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drace, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) often provides more precise localization of the meniscus than other imaging modalities. Previous study of the distribution of meniscus position in a control population showed that anterior displacements of more than 10 0 were more than 2 standard deviations from the mean, but the clinical significance and natural history of minimal displacements remained uncertain. Twenty follow-up MR studies were performed after 1-2 years in subjects with minimal meniscus displacements drawn from an original series of 125 symptomatic patients and 50 asymptomatic volunteers. These were correlated with repeated clinical histories and clinical examinations. A significant increase in the amount of anterior displacement was found in 55% of the originally asymptomatic volunteers with minimal displacements, which was accompanied by new symptoms in 40%. This was seen exclusively among those with a history of orthodontia. Worsening anterior displacements were seen in 50% of the patient population, and 25% had associated worsening symptoms. These findings indicate that detection of even minimal displacements of the TMJ meniscus is necessary and warrants follow-up MR examinations. Routine follow-up MR images should be obtained following malocclusion treatment and after major dental procedures

  17. Platelet-rich plasma can replace fetal bovine serum in human meniscus cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, V.K.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Boer, T. den; Hannink, G.; Tienen, T.G. van; Heerde, W.L. van; Buma, P.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns over fetal bovine serum (FBS) limit the clinical application of cultured tissue-engineered constructs. Therefore, we investigated if platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can fully replace FBS for meniscus tissue engineering purposes. Human PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were isolated from three

  18. A 12-Week Exercise Therapy Program in Middle-Aged Patients With Degenerative Meniscus Tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Roos, Ewa M.; Risberg, May Arna

    2012-01-01

    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 STUDY DESIGN: Case Series. BACKGROUND: Exercise is a viable treatment alternative to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in patients with degenerative meniscus tears. No study has reported in detail type of exercises, progres......Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 STUDY DESIGN: Case Series. BACKGROUND: Exercise is a viable treatment alternative to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in patients with degenerative meniscus tears. No study has reported in detail type of exercises......, progression, tolerance, and potential benefit from an exercise therapy program in these patients who have not had surgery. This study describes a progressive exercise therapy program aiming at improving neuromuscular function and muscle strength in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscus tears...... had undergone surgery. DISCUSSION: The described neuromuscular- and strength-training program should be considered for rehabilitation of middle-aged individuals with degenerative meniscus tears. Head-to-head comparison of programs in a randomized design is however needed to be able to answer...

  19. Arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming or repair under nerve blocks: Which nerves should be blocked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, AM; Abd-Elmaksoud, AM

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the role of the sciatic and obturator nerve blocks (in addition to femoral block) in providing painless arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming/repair. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with medial meniscus tear, who had been scheduled to knee arthroscopy, were planned to be included in this controlled prospective double-blind study. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups; FSO, FS, and FO. The femoral, sciatic, and obturator nerves were blocked in FSO groups. The femoral and sciatic nerves were blocked in FS group, while the femoral and obturator nerves were blocked in FO group. Intraoperative pain and its causative surgical maneuver were recorded. Results: All the patients (n = 7, 100%) in FO group had intraoperative pain. The research was terminated in this group but completed in FS and FSO groups (40 patients each). During valgus positioning of the knee for surgical management of the medial meniscus tear, the patients in FS group experienced pain more frequently than those in FSO group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Adding a sciatic nerve block to the femoral nerve block is important for painless knee arthroscopy. Further adding of an obturator nerve block may be needed when a valgus knee position is required to manage the medial meniscus tear. PMID:27375382

  20. Porous polymers for repair and replacement of the knee joint meniscus and articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klompmaker, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The studies presented here were initiated to answer a variety of questions concerning firstly the repair and replacement of the knee joint meniscus and, secondly, the repair of full-thickness defects of articular cartilage. AIMS OF THE STUDIES I To assess the effect of implantation of a porous

  1. Apparent dynamic contact angle of an advancing gas--liquid meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliadasis, S.; Chang, H.

    1994-01-01

    The steady motion of an advancing meniscus in a gas-filled capillary tube involves a delicate balance of capillary, viscous, and intermolecular forces. The limit of small capillary numbers Ca (dimensionless speeds) is analyzed here with a matched asymptotic analysis that links the outer capillary region to the precursor film in front of the meniscus through a lubricating film. The meniscus shape in the outer region is constructed and the apparent dynamic contact angle Θ that the meniscus forms with the solid surface is derived as a function of the capillary number, the capillary radius, and the Hamaker's constant for intermolecular forces, under conditions of weak gas--solid interaction, which lead to fast spreading of the precursor film and weak intermolecular forces relative to viscous forces within the lubricating film. The dependence on intermolecular forces is very weak and the contact angle expression has a tight upper bound tan Θ=7.48 Ca 1/3 for thick films, which is independent of the Hamaker constant. This upper bound is in very good agreement with existing experimental data for wetting fluids in any capillary and for partially wetting fluids in a prewetted capillary. Significant correction to the Ca 1/3 dependence occurs only at very low Ca, where the intermolecular forces become more important and tan Θ diverges slightly from the above asymptotic behavior toward lower values

  2. Electrical conductivity and ion diffusion in porcine meniscus: effects of strain, anisotropy, and tissue region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Kelsey L; McMahan, Jeffrey B; Jackson, Alicia R

    2016-09-06

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain, anisotropy, and tissue region on electrical conductivity and ion diffusivity in meniscus fibrocartilage. A one-dimensional, 4-wire conductivity experiment was employed to measure the electrical conductivity in porcine meniscus tissues from two tissue regions (horn and central), for two tissue orientations (axial and circumferential), and for three levels of compressive strain (0%, 10%, and 20%). Conductivity values were then used to estimate the relative ion diffusivity in meniscus. The water volume fraction of tissue specimens was determined using a buoyancy method. A total of 135 meniscus samples were measured; electrical conductivity values ranged from 2.47mS/cm to 4.84mS/cm, while relative ion diffusivity was in the range of 0.235 to 0.409. Results show that electrical conductivity and ion diffusion are significantly anisotropic (pmeniscus fibrocartilage, which is essential in developing new strategies to treat and/or prevent tissue degeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Light emitting diode package element with internal meniscus for bubble free lens placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsa, Eric; Yuan, Thomas C.; Becerra, Maryanne; Yadev, Praveen

    2010-09-28

    A method for fabricating a light emitting diode (LED) package comprising providing an LED chip and covering at least part of the LED chip with a liquid encapsulant having a radius of curvature. An optical element is provided having a bottom surface with at least a portion having a radius of curvature larger than the liquid encapsulant. The larger radius of curvature portion of the optical element is brought into contact with the liquid encapsulant. The optical element is then moved closer to the LED chip, growing the contact area between said optical element and said liquid encapsulant. The liquid encapsulant is then cured. A light emitting diode comprising a substrate with an LED chip mounted to it. A meniscus ring is on the substrate around the LED chip with the meniscus ring having a meniscus holding feature. An inner encapsulant is provided over the LED chip with the inner encapsulant having a contacting surface on the substrate, with the meniscus holding feature which defines the edge of the contacting surface. An optical element is included having a bottom surface with at least a portion that is concave. The optical element is arranged on the substrate with the concave portion over the LED chip. A contacting encapsulant is included between the inner encapsulant and optical element.

  4. Simulation of the Plasma Meniscus with and without Space Charge using Triode Extraction System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman, M.M.; EI-Khabeary, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this work simulation of the singly charged argon ion trajectories for a variable plasma meniscus is studied with and without space charge for the triode extraction system by using SIMION 3D (Simulation of Ion Optics in Three Dimensions) version 7 personal computer program. Tbe influence of acceleration voltage applied to tbe acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system on the shape of the plasma meniscus has been determined. The plasma electrode is set at +5000 volt and the acceleration voltage applied to the acceleration electrode is varied from -5000 volt to +5000 volt. In the most of the concave and convex plasma shapes ion beam emittance can be calculated by using separate standard deviations of positions and elevations angles. Ion beam emittance as a function of the curvature of the plasma meniscus for different plasma shapes ( flat concave and convex ) without space change at acceleration voltage varied from -5000 volt to +5000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system has been investigated. Tbe influence of the extraction gap on ion beam emittance for a plasma concave shape of 3.75 mm without space charge at acceleration voltage, V a cc = -2000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system has been determined. Also the influence of space charge on ion beam emittance for variable plasma meniscus at acceleration voltage, V a cc = - 2000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of. the triode extraction system has been studied

  5. Simulation of the plasma meniscus with and without space charge using triode extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.Abdel; El-Khabeary, H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, simulation of the singly charged argon ion trajectories for a variable plasma meniscus is studied with and without space charge for the triode extraction system by using SIMION 3D (Simulation of Ion Optics in Three Dimensions) version 7 personal computer program. The influence of acceleration voltage applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system on the shape of the plasma meniscus has been determined. The plasma electrode is set at +5000 volt and the acceleration voltage applied to the acceleration electrode is varied from -5000 volt to +5000 volt. In the most of the concave and convex plasma shapes, ion beam emittance can be calculated by using separate standard deviations of positions and elevations angles. Ion beam emittance as a function of the curvature of the plasma meniscus for different plasma shapes ( flat, concave and convex ) without space charge at acceleration voltage varied from -5000 volt to +5000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system has been investigated. The influence of the extraction gap on ion beam emittance for a plasma concave shape of 3.75 mm without space charge at acceleration voltage, V acc = -2000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system has been determined. Also the influence of space charge on ion beam emittance for variable plasma meniscus at acceleration voltage, V acc = -2000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system has been studied. (author)

  6. Modeling of liquid–gas meniscus for textured surfaces: effects of curvature and local slip length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaddam, Anvesh; Garg, Mayank; Agrawal, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S

    2015-01-01

    Surface texturing at the micro/nanolevel allows air to be trapped in sufficiently small cavities, thereby reducing the flow resistance over the surface in the laminar regime. The nature of the liquid–gas meniscus plays an important role in defining the boundary condition and it depends on the flow conditions and geometrical properties of textures. In the present work, we employ the unsteady volume of fluid model to investigate the behavior of the liquid–gas meniscus for ridges arranged normal to the flow direction to substantiate the frictional resistance of flow in a microchannel. It is found that the assumption of ‘zero shear stress’ at the liquid–gas interface grossly overpredicts the effective slip length with meniscus curvature and local partial slip length playing the dominant role. Numerical simulations performed in the laminar regime (20  <  Re  <  120) over single layered ridges normal to the flow direction revealed the effect of texture geometry on the reduction in pressure drop. In single layered structures, lotus-like geometries exhibited a greater reduction in drag (more than 30%) when compared to all other texture geometries. It is recognized that the flow experiences expansion and contraction cycles as it flows over the transverse ridges increasing the frictional resistance. Our findings will help to modify the boundary condition at the liquid–gas meniscus for accurate modeling in the laminar regime and to optimize the texture geometry to improve drag reduction. (paper)

  7. An evaluation of the lap-shear test for Sn-rich solder/Cu couples: Experiments and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, N.; Shen, Y.-L.; Deng, X.; Ege, E. S.

    2004-12-01

    The lap-shear technique is commonly used to evaluate the shear, creep, and thermal fatigue behavior of solder joints. We have conducted a parametric experimental and modeling study, on the effect of testing and geometrical parameters on solder/copper joint response in lap-shear. It was shown that the farfield applied strain is quite different from the actual solder strain (measured optically). Subtraction of the deformation of the Cu substrate provides a reasonable approximation of the solder strain in the elastic regime, but not in the plastic regime. Solder joint thickness has a profound effect on joint response. The solder response moves progressively closer to “true” shear response with increasing joint thickness. Numerical modeling using finite-element analyses were performed to rationalize the experimental findings. The same lap-shear configuration was used in the simulation. The input response for solder was based on the experimental tensile test result on bulk specimens. The calculated shear response, using both the commonly adopted far-field measure and the actual shear strain in solder, was found to be consistent with the trends observed in the lap-shear experiments. The geometric features were further explored to provide physical insight into the problem. Deformation of the substrate was found to greatly influence the shear behavior of the solder.

  8. Properties and Microstructures of Sn-Ag-Cu-X Lead-Free Solder Joints in Electronic Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    SnAgCu solder alloys were considered as one of the most popular lead-free solders because of its good reliability and mechanical properties. However, there are also many problems that need to be solved for the SnAgCu solders, such as high melting point and poor wettability. In order to overcome these shortcomings, and further enhance the properties of SnAgCu solders, many researchers choose to add a series of alloying elements (In, Ti, Fe, Zn, Bi, Ni, Sb, Ga, Al, and rare earth) and nanoparti...

  9. Co-culture with infrapatellar fat pad differentially stimulates proteoglycan synthesis and accumulation in cartilage and meniscus tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimuta, James F; Bendernagel, Monica F; Levenston, Marc E

    2017-09-01

    Although osteoarthritis is widely viewed as a disease of the whole joint, relatively few studies have focused on interactions among joint tissues in joint homeostasis and degeneration. In particular, few studies have examined the effects of the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) on cartilaginous tissues. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that co-culture with healthy IFP would induce degradation of cartilage and meniscus tissues. Bovine articular cartilage, meniscus, and IFP were cultured isolated or as cartilage-fat or meniscus-fat co-cultures for up to 14 days. Conditioned media were assayed for sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content, nitrite content, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and explants were assayed for sGAG and DNA contents. Co-cultures exhibited increased cumulative sGAG release and sGAG release rates for both cartilage and meniscus, and the cartilage (but not meniscus) exhibited a substantial synergistic effect of co-culture (sGAG release in co-culture was significantly greater than the summed release from isolated cartilage and fat). Fat co-culture did not significantly alter the sGAG content of either cartilage or meniscus explants, indicating that IFP co-culture stimulated net sGAG production by cartilage. Nitrite release was increased relative to isolated tissue controls in co-cultured meniscus, but not the cartilage, with no synergistic effect of co-culture. Interestingly, MMP-2 production was decreased by co-culture for both cartilage and meniscus. This study demonstrates that healthy IFP may modulate joint homeostasis by stimulating sGAG production in cartilage. Counter to our hypothesis, healthy IFP did not promote degradation of either cartilage or meniscus tissues.

  10. AMECM/DCB scaffold prompts successful total meniscus reconstruction in a rabbit total meniscectomy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhiguo; Liu, Shuyun; Hao, Chunxiang; Guo, Weimin; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Mingjie; Chen, Mingxue; Sun, Zhen; Xu, Yichi; Wang, Yu; Peng, Jiang; Yuan, Mei; Guo, Quan-Yi

    2016-12-01

    Tissue-engineered meniscus regeneration is a very promising treatment strategy for meniscus lesions. However, generating the scaffold presents a huge challenge for meniscus engineering as this has to meet particular biomechanical and biocompatibility requirements. In this study, we utilized acellular meniscus extracellular matrix (AMECM) and demineralized cancellous bone (DCB) to construct three different types of three-dimensional porous meniscus scaffold: AMECM, DCB, and AMECM/DCB, respectively. We tested the scaffolds' physicochemical characteristics and observed their interactions with meniscus fibrochondrocytes to evaluate their cytocompatibility. We implanted the three different types of scaffold into the medial knee menisci of New Zealand rabbits that had undergone total meniscectomy; negative control rabbits received no implants. The reconstructed menisci and corresponding femoral condyle and tibial plateau cartilage were all evaluated at 3 and 6 months (n = 8). The in vitro study demonstrated that the AMECM/DCB scaffold had the most suitable biomechanical properties, as this produced the greatest compressive and tensile strength scores. The AMECM/DCB and AMECM scaffolds facilitated fibrochondrocyte proliferation and the secretion of collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) more effectively than did the DCB scaffold. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that both the AMECM/DCB and DCB groups had generated neomeniscus at both 3 and 6 months post-implantation, but there was no obvious meniscus regeneration in the AMECM or control groups, so the neomeniscus analysis could not perform on AMECM and control group. At both 3 and 6 months, histological scores were better for regenerated menisci in the AMECM/DCB than in the DCB group, and significantly better for articular cartilage in the AMECM/DCB group compared with the other three groups. Knee MRI scores (Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scores (WORMS)) were better in the AMECM/DCB group than in the

  11. Cell-Based Meniscus Repair and Regeneration: At the Brink of Clinical Translation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpershoek, Jasmijn V.; de Windt, Tommy S.; Hagmeijer, Michella H.; Vonk, Lucienne A.; Saris, Daniel B. F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Meniscus damage can be caused by trauma or degeneration and is therefore common among patients of all ages. Repair or regeneration of the menisci could be of great importance not only for pain relief or regaining function but also to prevent degenerative disease and osteoarthritis. Current treatment does not offer consistent long-term improvement. Although preclinical research focusing on augmentation of meniscal tear repair and regeneration after meniscectomy is encouraging, clinical translation remains difficult. Purpose: To systematically evaluate the literature on in vivo meniscus regeneration and explore the optimal cell sources and conditions for clinical translation. We aimed at thorough evaluation of current evidence as well as clarifying the challenges for future preclinical and clinical studies. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: A search was conducted using the electronic databases of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Collaboration. Search terms included meniscus, regeneration, and cell-based. Results: After screening 81 articles based on title and abstract, 51 articles on in vivo meniscus regeneration could be included; 2 additional articles were identified from the references. Repair and regeneration of the meniscus has been described by intra-articular injection of multipotent mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells from adipose tissue, bone marrow, synovium, or meniscus or the use of these cell types in combination with implantable or injectable scaffolds. The use of fibrochondrocytes, chondrocytes, and transfected myoblasts for meniscus repair and regeneration is limited to the combination with different scaffolds. The comparative in vitro and in vivo studies mentioned in this review indicate that the use of allogeneic cells is as successful as the use of autologous cells. In addition, the implantation or injection of cell-seeded scaffolds increased tissue regeneration and led to better structural organization compared with scaffold

  12. Adipokines induce catabolism of newly synthesized matrix in cartilage and meniscus tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimuta, James F; Levenston, Marc E

    Altered synovial levels of various adipokines (factors secreted by fat as well as other tissues) have been associated with osteoarthritis (OA) onset and progression. However, the metabolic effects of adipokines on joint tissues, in particular the fibrocartilaginous menisci, are not well understood. This study investigated effects of several adipokines on release of recently synthesized extracellular matrix in bovine cartilage and meniscus tissue explants. After labeling newly synthesized proteins and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) with 3 H-proline and 35 S-sulfate, respectively; bovine cartilage and meniscus tissue explants were cultured for 6 days in basal medium (control) or media supplemented with adipokines (1 µg/ml of leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, or resistin) or 20 ng/ml interleukin-1 (IL-1). Release of radiolabel and sGAG to the media during culture and the final explant water, DNA, sGAG, and retained radiolabel were measured. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and MMP-3 activities were assessed using gelatin and casein zymography, respectively. Water and DNA contents were not significantly altered by any treatment. Visfatin, adiponectin, resistin, and IL-1 stimulated sGAG release from meniscus, whereas only IL-1 stimulated sGAG release from cartilage. Release of 3 H and 35 S was stimulated not only by resistin and IL-1 in meniscus but also by IL-1 in cartilage. Retained 3 H was unaltered by any treatment, while retained 35 S was reduced by visfatin, resistin, and IL-1 in meniscus and by only IL-1 in cartilage. Resistin and IL-1 elevated active MMP-2 and total MMP-3 in meniscus, whereas cartilage MMP-3 activity was elevated by only IL-1. Resistin stimulated rapid and extensive catabolism of meniscus tissue, similar to IL-1, whereas adipokines minimally affected cartilage. Release of newly synthesized matrix was similar to overall release in both tissues. These observations provide further indications that meniscal tissue is more sensitive to pro

  13. Effect of Multiple Reflow Cycles and Al2O3 Nanoparticles Reinforcement on Performance of SAC305 Lead-Free Solder Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikale, Sanjay; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2018-05-01

    The effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles reinforcement on melting behavior, microstructure evolution at the interface and joint shear strength of 96.5Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) lead-free solder alloy subjected to multiple reflow cycles was investigated. The reinforced SAC305 solder alloy compositions were prepared by adding Al2O3 nanoparticles in different weight fractions (0.05, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt.%) through mechanical dispersion. Cu/solder/Cu micro-lap-shear solder joint specimens were used to assess the shear strength of the solder joint. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the melting behavior of SAC305 solder nanocomposites. The solder joint interfacial microstructure was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the increase in melting temperature (T L) and melting temperature range of the SAC305 solder alloy by addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles were not significant. In comparison with unreinforced SAC305 solder alloy, the reinforcement of 0.05-0.5 wt.% of Al2O3 nanoparticles improved the solder wettability. The addition of nanoparticles in minor quantity effectively suppressed the Cu6Sn5 IMC growth, improved the solder joint shear strength and ductility under multiple reflow cycles. However, the improvement in solder properties was less pronounced on increasing the nanoparticle content above 0.1 wt.% of the solder alloy.

  14. An observational study on MR images of the effect of the discoid meniscus on articular cartilage thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, David Babajide; Jeyapalan, K; Oni, Olusola O A

    2011-06-01

    The discoid meniscus is known to affect the morphology and mechanics of the knee compartment in which it is housed. To determine whether it also is determinative of the articular cartilage thickness, measurements were made on MR images. There was no statistically significant difference in femoral or tibial articular cartilage thickness between compartments with normal meniscus and compartments with discoid meniscus. These findings suggest that mechanical disturbances wrought by the discoid shape do not have a 'Wolff law' effect. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Hemi-bucket-handle tears of the meniscus: appearance on MRI and potential surgical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, Bjorn I.; Vinson, Emily N.; Helms, Clyde A. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States); Taylor, Dean C.; Garrett, William E. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Box 3810, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-08-15

    To describe a type of meniscus flap tear resembling a bucket-handle tear, named a ''hemi-bucket-handle'' tear; to compare its imaging features with those of a typical bucket-handle tear; and to discuss the potential therapeutic implications of distinguishing these two types of tears. Five knee MR examinations were encountered with a type of meniscus tear consisting of a flap of tissue from the undersurface of the meniscus displaced toward the intercondylar notch. A retrospective analysis of 100 MR examinations prospectively interpreted as having bucket-handle type tears yielded 10 additional cases with this type of tear. Cases of hemi-bucket-handle tears were reviewed for tear location and orientation, appearance of the superior articular surface of the meniscus, presence and location of displaced meniscal tissue, and presence of several classic signs of bucket-handle tears. A total of 15/15 tears involved the medial meniscus, had tissue displaced toward the notch, and were mainly horizontal in orientation. The superior surface was intact in 11/15 (73.3%). In 1/15 (6.7%) there was an absent-bow-tie sign; 6/15 (40%) had a double-PCL sign; 14/15 (93.3%) had a double-anterior horn sign. We describe a type of undersurface flap tear, named a hemi-bucket-handle tear, which resembles a bucket-handle tear. Surgeons at our institution feel this tear would likely not heal if repaired given its predominantly horizontal orientation, and additionally speculate the tear could be overlooked at arthroscopy. Thus, we feel it is important to distinguish this type of tear from the typical bucket-handle tear. (orig.)

  16. PET/CT manifestation of the meniscus sign of ulcerating gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee

    2007-01-01

    Meniscus-like presentation of ulcerating gastric carcinoma on upper gastrointestinal series radiograph was first described in 1921 by Carman and has since been known as a useful differential diagnostic sign in radiology. In 1982 using then newly introduced computed tomography (CT) Widder and Mueller revisited the meniscus sign. Their study was primarily focused on a dynamic assessment of the demonstrability of the meniscus sign that largely depends on the judgment and technical skill of examiner, especially graded compression and patient positioning. One year earlier Balfe et al. assessed the diagnostic reliability of gastric wall thickening as observed on CT scan in adenocarcinoma, lymphoma and leiomyosarcoma and concluded that it is not a reliable finding. In contrast, however, Lee et al. recently emphasized that the wall thickness measurement on CT of exophytic carcinoma, myoma and ulcers was a useful diagnostic means. Thus, it appears that gastric wall thickening or mucosal heave-up is by itself not as reliable as the meniscus sign. The electronic search of world literature failed to disclose earlier report of this sign demonstrated by 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT). The present communication documents 18 F-FDG PET/CT finding of the meniscus sign as encountered in a case of ulcerating gastric carcinoma, the histological diagnosis of which was moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. Unlike most gastric tumors without ulceration that tend to unimpressively accumulate 18 F-FDG the present case of Borrmann type III gastric carcinoma demonstrated markedly increased 18 F-FDG uptake

  17. IL-10 ameliorates TNF-α induced meniscus degeneration in mature meniscal tissue in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, P; Häfelein, K; Preusse-Prange, A; Bayer, A; Seekamp, A; Kurz, B

    2017-05-16

    Joint inflammation causes meniscus degeneration and can exacerbate post-traumatic meniscus injuries by extracellular matrix degradation, cellular de-differentiation and cell death. The aim of this study was to examine whether anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 exerts protective effects in an in vitro model of TNF-α-induced meniscus degeneration. Meniscus tissue was harvested from the knees of adult cows. After 24 h of equilibrium explants were simultaneously treated with bovine TNF-α and IL-10. After an incubation time of 72 h cell death was measured histomorphometrically (nuclear blebbing, NB) and release of glycosaminoglycans (GAG, DMMB assay) and nitric oxide (NO, Griess-reagent) were analysed. Transcription levels (mRNA) of matrix degrading enzymes, collagen type X (COL10A1) and nitric oxide synthetase 2 (NOS2) were measured by quantitative real time PCR. TNF-α-dependent formation of the aggrecanase-specific aggrecan neoepitope NITEGE was visualised by immunostaining. Differences between groups were calculated using a one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test. Administration of IL-10 significantly prevented the TNF-α-related cell death (P .001), release of NO (P .003) and NOS2 expression (P .04). Release of GAG fragments (P .001), NITEGE formation and expression of MMP3 (P .007), -13 (P .02) and ADAMTS4 (P .001) were significantly reduced. The TNF-α-dependent increase in COL10A1 expression was also antagonized by IL-10 (P .02). IL-10 prevented crucial mechanisms of meniscal degeneration induced by a key cytokine of OA, TNF-α. Administration of IL-10 might improve the biological regeneration and provide a treatment approach in degenerative meniscus injuries and in conditions of post-traumatic sports injuries.

  18. Complex Medial Meniscus Tears Are Associated With a Biconcave Medial Tibial Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H; Berry, Kathy L

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether an association exists between a biconcave medial tibial plateau and complex medial meniscus tears. A consecutive series of stable knees undergoing arthroscopy were evaluated retrospectively with the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and arthroscopy documented by intraoperative videos. Investigators independently performed blinded reviews of the MRI or videos. Based on the arthroscopy findings, medial tibial plateaus were classified as either biconcave or not biconcave. A transverse coronal plane ridge, separating the front of the tibial plateau from the back near the inner margin of the posterior body of the medial meniscus, was defined as biconcave. The medial plateau slope was calculated with MRI sagittal views. General demographic information, body mass index, and arthroscopically confirmed knee pathology were recorded. A total of 179 consecutive knees were studied from July 2014 through August 2015; 49 (27.2%) biconcave medial tibial plateaus and 130 (72.8%) controls were identified at arthroscopy. Complex medial meniscus tears were found in 103. Patients with a biconcave medial tibial plateau were found to have more complex medial meniscus tears (69.4%) than those without a biconcavity (53.1%) (P = .049) despite having lower body mass index (P = .020). No difference in medial tibial plateau slope was observed for biconcavities involving both cartilage and bone, bone only, or an indeterminate group (P = .47). Biconcave medial tibial plateaus were present in 27.4% of a consecutive series of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. A biconcave medial tibial plateau was more frequently associated with a complex medial meniscus tear. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  19. Rupture of posterior cruciate ligament leads to radial displacement of the medial meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Deng, Zhenhan; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Wenfeng; Hu, Yihe; Liao, Zhan; Li, Kanghua; He, Hongbo

    2017-07-11

    To explore the association between the rupture of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the radial displacement of medial meniscus under the conditions of different flexion and various axial loads. The radial displacement value of medial meniscus was measured for the specimens of normal adult knee joints, including 12 intact PCLs, 6 ruptures of the anterolateral bundle (ALB), 6 ruptures of the postmedial bundle (PMB), and 12 complete ruptures. The measurement was conducted at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion angles under 200 N, 400 N, 600 N, 800 N and 1000 N of axial loads respectively. The displacement values of medial meniscus of the ALB rupture group increased at 0° flexion under 800 N and 1000 N, and at 30°, 60° and 90° flexion under all loads in comparison with the PCL intact group. The displacement values of the PMB rupture group was higher at 0° and 90° flexion under all loads, and at 30° and 60° flexion under 800 N and 1000 N loads. The displacement of the PCL complete rupture group increased at all flexion angles under all loads. Either partial or complete rupture of the PCL can increase in the radial displacement of the medial meniscus, which may explain the degenerative changes that occuring in the medial meniscus due to PCL injury. Therefore, early reestablishment of the PCL is necessarily required in order to maintain stability of the knee joint after PCL injury.

  20. Segmental and regional quantification of 3D cellular density of human meniscus from osteoarthritic knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Ibrahim Fatih; Pereira, Hélder; Pêgo, José Miguel; Sousa, Nuno; Espregueira-Mendes, João; Oliveira, Joaquim Miguel; Reis, Rui Luís

    2017-06-01

    The knee menisci have important roles in the knee joint. Complete healing of the meniscus remains a challenge in the clinics. Cellularity is one of the most important biological parameters that must be taken into account in regenerative strategies. However, knowledge on the 3D cellularity of the human meniscus is lacking in the literature. The aim of this study was to quantify the 3D cellular density of human meniscus from the osteoarthritic knee in a segmental and regional manner with respect to laterality. Human lateral menisci were histologically processed and stained with Giemsa for histomorphometric analysis. The cells were counted in an in-depth fashion. 3D cellular density in the vascular region (27 199 cells/mm 3 ) was significantly higher than in the avascular region (12 820 cells/mm 3 ). The cells were observed to possess two distinct morphologies, roundish or flattened. The 3D density of cells with fibrochondrocyte morphology (14 705 cells/mm 3 ) was significantly greater than the 3D density of the cells with fibroblast-like cell morphology (5539 cells/mm 3 ). The best-fit equation for prediction of the 3D density of cells with fibrochondrocyte morphology was found to be: Density of cells with fibrochondrocyte morphology = 1.22 × density of cells withfibroblast-like cell morphology + 7750. The present study revealed the segmental and regional 3D cellular density of human lateral meniscus from osteoarthritic knee with respect to laterality. This crucial but so far missing information will empower cellular strategies aiming at meniscus tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Hemi-bucket-handle tears of the meniscus: appearance on MRI and potential surgical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrom, Bjorn I.; Vinson, Emily N.; Helms, Clyde A.; Taylor, Dean C.; Garrett, William E.

    2012-01-01

    To describe a type of meniscus flap tear resembling a bucket-handle tear, named a ''hemi-bucket-handle'' tear; to compare its imaging features with those of a typical bucket-handle tear; and to discuss the potential therapeutic implications of distinguishing these two types of tears. Five knee MR examinations were encountered with a type of meniscus tear consisting of a flap of tissue from the undersurface of the meniscus displaced toward the intercondylar notch. A retrospective analysis of 100 MR examinations prospectively interpreted as having bucket-handle type tears yielded 10 additional cases with this type of tear. Cases of hemi-bucket-handle tears were reviewed for tear location and orientation, appearance of the superior articular surface of the meniscus, presence and location of displaced meniscal tissue, and presence of several classic signs of bucket-handle tears. A total of 15/15 tears involved the medial meniscus, had tissue displaced toward the notch, and were mainly horizontal in orientation. The superior surface was intact in 11/15 (73.3%). In 1/15 (6.7%) there was an absent-bow-tie sign; 6/15 (40%) had a double-PCL sign; 14/15 (93.3%) had a double-anterior horn sign. We describe a type of undersurface flap tear, named a hemi-bucket-handle tear, which resembles a bucket-handle tear. Surgeons at our institution feel this tear would likely not heal if repaired given its predominantly horizontal orientation, and additionally speculate the tear could be overlooked at arthroscopy. Thus, we feel it is important to distinguish this type of tear from the typical bucket-handle tear. (orig.)

  2. Squat Winnowing: Cause of Meniscus Injuries in Non-Athletic Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Younis; Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Ahmad Latoo, Irfan; Gani, Naseemul; Farooq, Munir; Gul, Snobar

    2016-02-01

    Sports activities were thought to be the major cause of meniscus injury in both men and woman, but our observations of non-athletic females show that the cause of meniscus injury was unrelated to any type of sports activity. This study revealed squat winnowing to be a major cause of meniscus injury in non-athletic females. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care orthopaedic hospital which caters to a population of 10 million people. We assessed 120 non-athletic females who had received treatment in our hospital over a period of 2 years. The most probable cause of knee injury, per initial patient history, was recorded for all non-athletic females who presented clinical signs and symptoms of meniscus injury. The diagnoses were confirmed by relevant MRI and arthroscopy of patients' knees. All females who engaged in athletic activity and other females with unrelated, non-traumatic knee pathologies were excluded from the study. Through our study, we found that 42% (n = 50) of females suffered an injury during squat winnowing of rice, either at home or at work. Another 29% (n = 35) of females cited a history of slipping and spraining their knee as a cause of knee injury, while 19% (n = 16) of females suffered a knee injury during complex accidents such as a traffic accident. Finally, 13% (n = 16) of the females had no definite history of knee injury. Our observations add to the knowledge base of the various causes of meniscus tears; this study also revealed that socio-cultural factors influence and contribute to the mechanism of various types of knee injury.

  3. An analysis of the pull strength behaviors of fine-pitch, flip chip solder interconnections using a Au-Pt-Pd thick film conductor on Low-Temperature, Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, Fernando R.; Kilgo, Alice C.; Grazier, John Mark; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Zender, Gary L.; Hlava, Paul Frank; Rejent, Jerome Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The assembly of the BDYE detector requires the attachment of sixteen silicon (Si) processor dice (eight on the top side; eight on the bottom side) onto a low-temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate using 63Sn-37Pb (wt.%, Sn-Pb) in a double-reflow soldering process (nitrogen). There are 132 solder joints per die. The bond pads were gold-platinum-palladium (71Au-26Pt-3Pd, wt.%) thick film layers fired onto the LTCC in a post-process sequence. The pull strength and failure modes provided the quality metrics for the Sn-Pb solder joints. Pull strengths were measured in both the as-fabricated condition and after exposure to thermal cycling (-55/125 C; 15 min hold times; 20 cycles). Extremely low pull strengths--referred to as the low pull strength phenomenon--were observed intermittently throughout the product build, resulting in added program costs, schedule delays, and a long-term reliability concern for the detector. There was no statistically significant correlation between the low pull strength phenomenon and (1) the LTCC 'sub-floor' lot; (2) grit blasting the LTCC surfaces prior to the post-process steps; (3) the post-process parameters; (4) the conductor pad height (thickness); (5) the dice soldering assembly sequence; or (5) the dice pull test sequence. Formation of an intermetallic compound (IMC)/LTCC interface caused by thick film consumption during either the soldering process or by solid-state IMC formation was not directly responsible for the low-strength phenomenon. Metallographic cross sections of solder joints from dice that exhibited the low pull strength behavior, revealed the presence of a reaction layer resulting from an interaction between Sn from the molten Sn-Pb and the glassy phase at the TKN/LTCC interface. The thick film porosity did not contribute, explicitly, to the occurrence of reaction layer. Rather, the process of printing the very thin conductor pads was too sensitive to minor thixotropic changes to ink, which resulted in

  4. An analysis of the pull strength behaviors of fine-pitch, flip chip solder interconnections using a Au-Pt-Pd thick film conductor on Low-Temperature, Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, Fernando R.; Kilgo, Alice C.; Grazier, John Mark; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Zender, Gary L.; Hlava, Paul Frank; Rejent, Jerome Andrew

    2008-09-01

    The assembly of the BDYE detector requires the attachment of sixteen silicon (Si) processor dice (eight on the top side; eight on the bottom side) onto a low-temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate using 63Sn-37Pb (wt.%, Sn-Pb) in a double-reflow soldering process (nitrogen). There are 132 solder joints per die. The bond pads were gold-platinum-palladium (71Au-26Pt-3Pd, wt.%) thick film layers fired onto the LTCC in a post-process sequence. The pull strength and failure modes provided the quality metrics for the Sn-Pb solder joints. Pull strengths were measured in both the as-fabricated condition and after exposure to thermal cycling (-55/125 C; 15 min hold times; 20 cycles). Extremely low pull strengths--referred to as the low pull strength phenomenon--were observed intermittently throughout the product build, resulting in added program costs, schedule delays, and a long-term reliability concern for the detector. There was no statistically significant correlation between the low pull strength phenomenon and (1) the LTCC 'sub-floor' lot; (2) grit blasting the LTCC surfaces prior to the post-process steps; (3) the post-process parameters; (4) the conductor pad height (thickness); (5) the dice soldering assembly sequence; or (5) the dice pull test sequence. Formation of an intermetallic compound (IMC)/LTCC interface caused by thick film consumption during either the soldering process or by solid-state IMC formation was not directly responsible for the low-strength phenomenon. Metallographic cross sections of solder joints from dice that exhibited the low pull strength behavior, revealed the presence of a reaction layer resulting from an interaction between Sn from the molten Sn-Pb and the glassy phase at the TKN/LTCC interface. The thick film porosity did not contribute, explicitly, to the occurrence of reaction layer. Rather, the process of printing the very thin conductor pads was too sensitive to minor thixotropic changes to ink, which resulted in

  5. How Many Peripheral Solder Joints in a Surface Mounted Design Experience Inelastic Strains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, E.; Yi, S.; Ghaffarian, R.

    2017-03-01

    It has been established that it is the peripheral solder joints that are the most vulnerable in the ball-grid-array (BGA) and column-grid-array (CGA) designs and most often fail. As far as the long-term reliability of a soldered microelectronics assembly as a whole is concerned, it makes a difference, if just one or more peripheral joints experience inelastic strains. It is clear that the low cycle fatigue lifetime of the solder system is inversely proportional to the number of joints that simultaneously experience inelastic strains. A simple and physically meaningful analytical expression (formula) is obtained for the prediction, at the design stage, of the number of such joints, if any, for the given effective thermal expansion (contraction) mismatch of the package and PCB; materials and geometrical characteristics of the package/PCB assembly; package size; and, of course, the level of the yield stress in the solder material. The suggested formula can be used to determine if the inelastic strains in the solder material could be avoided by the proper selection of the above characteristics and, if not, how many peripheral joints are expected to simultaneously experience inelastic strains. The general concept is illustrated by a numerical example carried out for a typical BGA package. The suggested analytical model (formula) is applicable to any soldered microelectronics assembly. The roles of other important factors, such as, e.g., solder material anisotropy, grain size, and their random orientation within a joint, are viewed in this analysis as less important factors than the level of the interfacial stress. The roles of these factors will be accounted for in future work and considered, in addition to the location of the joint, in a more complicated, more sophisticated, and more comprehensive reliability/fatigue model.

  6. Effect of gap distance on tensile strength of preceramic base metal solder joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Motamedi, Milad

    2011-01-01

    In order to fabricate prostheses with high accuracy and durability, soldering techniques have been introduced to clinical dentistry. However, these prostheses always fail at their solder joints. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap distance on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. Based on ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test, 40 specimens were fabricated from a Ni-Cr alloy and cut at the midpoint of 3-mm diameter bar and placed at desired positions by a specially designed device. The specimens were divided into four groups of 10 samples according to the desired solder gap distance: Group1: 0.1mm; Group2: 0.25mm; Group3: 0.5mm; and Group4: 0.75mm. After soldering, specimens were tested for tensile strength by a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5mm/min with a preload of 10N. The mean tensile strength values of the groups were 162, 307.8, 206.1 and 336.7 MPa, respectively. The group with 0.75-mm gap had the highest and the group with 0.1-mm gap had the lowest tensile strength. Bonferroni test showed that Group1 and Group4 had statistically different values (P=0.023), but the differences between other groups were not sig-nificant at a significance level of 0.05. There was no direct relationship between increasing soldering gap distance and tensile strength of the solder joints.

  7. The critical oxide thickness for Pb-free reflow soldering on Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, C. Key [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Assembly Test Global Materials, Intel Microelectronics Asia Ltd, B1, No. 205, Tun-Hwa North Road, 10595 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.J.; Li, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.R., E-mail: crkao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-01

    Oxidation is an undesirable effect of reflow soldering. Non-wetting occurs when the oxide layer grows above the critical thickness. Characterizing the critical oxide thickness for soldering is challenging due to oxide's nano-scale thickness and irregular topographic surface. In this paper, the critical copper oxide thickness was characterized by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Copper substrates were coated with an Organic-Solderable-Preservative (OSP) layer and baked at 150 Degree-Sign C and 85% Relative Humidity for different amounts of time. The onset of the non-wetting phenomenon occurred when the oxide thickness reached 18 {+-} 5 nm. As the oxide grew beyond this critical thickness, the percentage of non-wetting solder joint increased exponentially. The growth of the oxide thickness followed a parabolic rate law. The rate constant of oxidation was 0.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1}. Oxidation resulted from interdiffusion of copper and oxygen atoms through the OSP and oxide layers. The oxidation mechanism will be presented and discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical oxide thickness for Pb free solder on Cu substrate is 18 {+-} 5 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Above the critical oxide, non-wet solder joint increases exponentially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum 13-nm oxide thickness is suggested for good solder joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial growth of oxide thickness is logarithmic and then parabolic after 12 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick oxide (360-560 nm) is formed as pores shorten the oxidation path.

  8. Al and Si Alloying Effect on Solder Joint Reliability in Sn-0.5Cu for Automotive Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Won Sik; Oh, Chulmin; Kim, Mi-Song; Lee, Young Woo; Kim, Hui Joong; Hong, Sung Jae; Moon, Jeong Tak

    2016-12-01

    To suppress the bonding strength degradation of solder joints in automotive electronics, we proposed a mid-temperature quaternary Pb-free Sn-0.5Cu solder alloy with minor Pd, Al, Si and Ge alloying elements. We manufactured powders and solder pastes of Sn-0.5Cu-(0.01,0.03)Al-0.005Si-(0.006-0.007)Ge alloys ( T m = 230°C), and vehicle electronic control units used for a flame-retardant-4 printed circuit board with an organic solderability preservative finish were assembled by a reflow soldering process. To investigate the degradation properties of solder joints used in engine compartments, thermal cycling tests were conducted from -40°C to 125°C (10 min dwell) for 1500 cycles. We also measured the shear strength of the solder joints in various components and observed the microstructural evolution of the solder joints. Based on these results, intermetallic compound (IMC) growth at the solder joints was suppressed by minor Pd, Al and Si additions to the Sn-0.5Cu alloy. After 1500 thermal cycles, IMC layers thicknesses for 100 parts per million (ppm) and 300 ppm Al alloy additions were 6.7 μm and 10 μm, compared to the as-reflowed bonding thicknesses of 6 μm and 7 μm, respectively. Furthermore, shear strength degradation rates for 100 ppm and 300 ppm Al(Si) alloy additions were at least 19.5%-26.2%. The cause of the improvement in thermal cycling reliability was analyzed using the (Al,Cu)-Sn, Si-Sn and Al-Sn phases dispersed around the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic at the solder matrix and bonding interfaces. From these results, we propose the possibility of a mid-temperature Sn-0.5Cu(Pd)-Al(Si)-Ge Pb-free solder for automotive engine compartment electronics.

  9. Micrograph evidence of meniscus solidification and sub-surface microstructure evolution in continuous-cast ultralow-carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, J.; Shin, H.-J.; Thomas, B.G.; Kim, S.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Hooks and other sub-surface features in continuous-cast ultralow-carbon steel samples were examined using optical microscopy, electron backscattering diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis techniques. Special etching reagents revealed dendrites growing from both sides of the line of hook origin. This line was found to represent the frozen meniscus and persisted into the final microstructure, as revealed by grain orientation measurements. A broken hook tip was observed in one micrograph, which explains the characteristic truncated shape of most hooks. Mold powder was found entrapped along the frozen meniscus. These results provide evidence of both solidification and subsequent overflow of the liquid steel meniscus. Thus, the instantaneous meniscus shape governs the shape and microstructure of the final hook, and the extent of the liquid steel overflow determines the shape of oscillation marks. This mechanism has important implications for the entrapment of inclusions and other surface defects

  10. Abnormal Mechanical Loading Induces Cartilage Degeneration by Accelerating Meniscus Hypertrophy and Mineralization After ACL Injuries In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guoqing; Zhan, Hongsheng; Ding, Daofang; Wang, Shaowei; Wei, Xiaochun; Wei, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Bilgen, Bahar; Reginato, Anthony M; Fleming, Braden C; Deng, Jin; Wei, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Although patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have a high risk of developing posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), the role of meniscus hypertrophy and mineralization in PTOA after an ACL injury remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if menisci respond to abnormal loading and if an ACL injury results in meniscus hypertrophy and calcification. The hypotheses were that (1) abnormal mechanical loading after an ACL injury induces meniscus hypertrophy and mineralization, which correlates to articular cartilage damage in vivo, and (2) abnormal mechanical loading on bovine meniscus explants induces the overexpression of hypertrophic and mineralization markers in vitro. Controlled laboratory study. In vivo guinea pig study (hypothesis 1): Three-month-old male Hartley guinea pigs (n = 9) underwent ACL transection (ACLT) on the right knee; the left knee served as the control. Calcification in the menisci was evaluated by calcein labeling 1 and 5 days before knee harvesting at 5.5 months. Cartilage and meniscus damage and mineralization were quantified by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International score and meniscus grade, respectively. Indian hedgehog (Ihh), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), collagen type X (Col X), progressive ankylosis homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro bovine meniscus explant study (hypothesis 2): Bovine meniscus explants were subjected to 25% strain at 0.3 Hz for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Cell viability was determined using live/dead staining. The levels of mRNA expression and protein levels were measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot after 24, 48, and 72 hours in culture. The conditioned medium was collected for sulfated

  11. Evaluation of medial and lateral meniscus thicknesses in early osteoarthritis of the knee with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamac, B.; Ozdemir, S.; Colak, T.; Ozbek, A.; Sarisoy, Hasan T.; Akansel, G.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate early changes occurring in both medial and lateral meniscus thickness from the knees of patients with osteoarthritis (Oa). We conducted this study in the Department of Anatomy and Division of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Klucel University, Klucel, Turkey during the period 2004 to 2005. In this study, we measured the thickness of the medial and lateral meniscus in a group of 36 (50 knees) consecutive patients with chronic knee pain, and clinical findings of early Oa, and 10 (20 knees) control subjects using MRI. The thickness of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus and anterior horn of the lateral meniscus were significantly higher in the Oa patients compared with the control subjects. This study showed that meniscal degeneration in early stage Oa is not evenly distributed in the knee. Thickening of the menisci in some areas may occur due to their own localization and biomechanics. (author)

  12. Chemical wiring and soldering toward all-molecule electronic circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Yuji; Mandal, Swapan K; Hu, Chunping; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Goedecker, Stefan; Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Gimzewski, James K; Aono, Masakazu

    2011-06-01

    Key to single-molecule electronics is connecting functional molecules to each other using conductive nanowires. This involves two issues: how to create conductive nanowires at designated positions, and how to ensure chemical bonding between the nanowires and functional molecules. Here, we present a novel method that solves both issues. Relevant functional molecules are placed on a self-assembled monolayer of diacetylene compound. A probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is then positioned on the molecular row of the diacetylene compound to which the functional molecule is adsorbed, and a conductive polydiacetylene nanowire is fabricated by initiating chain polymerization by stimulation with the tip. Since the front edge of chain polymerization necessarily has a reactive chemical species, the created polymer nanowire forms chemical bonding with an encountered molecular element. We name this spontaneous reaction "chemical soldering". First-principles theoretical calculations are used to investigate the structures and electronic properties of the connection. We demonstrate that two conductive polymer nanowires are connected to a single phthalocyanine molecule. A resonant tunneling diode formed by this method is discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Improvement of the auto wire feeder machine in a de-soldering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niramon Nonkhukhetkhong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology of the de-soldering process for rework of disk drive Head Stack Assembly (HSA units. The auto wire feeder is a machine that generates Tin (Sn on the product. This machine was determined to be one of the major sources of excess Sn on the HSA. The defect rate due to excess Sn is more than 30%, which leads to increased processing time and cost to perform additional cleaning steps. From process analysis, the major causes of excess Sn are as follows: 1 The machine cannot cut the wire all the way into the flux core area; 2 The sizes and types of soldering irons are not appropriate for the unit parts; and, 3 There are variations introduced into the de-soldering process by the workforce. This paper proposes a methodology to address all three of these causes. First, the auto wire feeder machine in the de-solder process will be adjusted in order to cut wires into flux core. Second, the types of equipment and material used in de-soldering will be optimized. Finally, a new standard method for operators, which can be controlled more easily, will be developed in order to reduce defects due to workforce related variation. After these process controls and machine adjustments were implemented, the overall Sn related problems were significantly improved. Sn contamination was reduced by 41% and cycle time was reduced by an average of 15 seconds.

  14. Electromigration-induced back stress in critical solder length for three-dimensional integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y. T.; Hsu, H. H.; Wu, Albert T., E-mail: atwu@ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli City 320, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-21

    Because of the miniaturization of electronic devices, the reliability of electromigration has become a major concern when shrinking the solder dimensions in flip-chip joints. Fast reaction between solders and electrodes causes intermetallic compounds (IMCs) to form, which grow rapidly and occupy entire joints when solder volumes decrease. In this study, U-grooves were fabricated on Si chips as test vehicles. An electrode-solder-electrode sandwich structure was fabricated by using lithography and electroplating. Gaps exhibiting well-defined dimensions were filled with Sn3.5Ag solders. The gaps between the copper electrodes in the test sample were limited to less than 15 μm to simulate microbumps. The samples were stressed at various current densities at 100 °C, 125 °C, and 150 °C. The morphological changes of the IMCs were observed, and the dimensions of the IMCs were measured to determine the kinetic growth of IMCs. Therefore, this study focused on the influence of back stress caused by microstructural evolution in microbumps.

  15. Effect of Preconditioning and Soldering on Failures of Chip Tantalum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Soldering of molded case tantalum capacitors can result in damage to Ta205 dielectric and first turn-on failures due to thermo-mechanical stresses caused by CTE mismatch between materials used in the capacitors. It is also known that presence of moisture might cause damage to plastic cases due to the pop-corning effect. However, there are only scarce literature data on the effect of moisture content on the probability of post-soldering electrical failures. In this work, that is based on a case history, different groups of similar types of CWR tantalum capacitors from two lots were prepared for soldering by bake, moisture saturation, and longterm storage at room conditions. Results of the testing showed that both factors: initial quality of the lot, and preconditioning affect the probability of failures. Baking before soldering was shown to be effective to prevent failures even in lots susceptible to pop-corning damage. Mechanism of failures is discussed and recommendations for pre-soldering bake are suggested based on analysis of moisture characteristics of materials used in the capacitors' design.

  16. In vitro conjunctival incision repair by temperature-controlled laser soldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Galia; Rabi, Yaron; Assia, Ehud; Katzir, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    The common method of closing conjunctival incisions is by suturing, which is associated with several disadvantages. It requires skill to apply and does not always provide a watertight closure, which is required in some operations (e.g., glaucoma filtration). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate laser soldering as an alternative method for closing conjunctival incisions. Conjunctival incisions of 20 ex vivo porcine eyes were laser soldered using a temperature-controlled fiberoptic laser system and an albumin mixed with indocyanine green as a solder. The control group consisted of five repaired incisions by a 10-0 nylon running suture. The leak pressure of the repaired incisions was measured. The mean leak pressure in the laser-soldered group was 132 mm Hg compared to 4 mm Hg in the sutured group. There was no statistically significant difference in both the incision's length and distance from the limbus between the groups, before and after the procedure, indicating that there was no severe thermal damage. These preliminary results clearly demonstrate that laser soldering may be a useful method for achieving an immediate watertight conjunctival wound closure. This procedure is faster and easier to apply than suturing.

  17. Fundamentals of lead-free solder interconnect technology from microstructures to reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Kim, Choong-Un; Ma, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    This unique book provides an up-to-date overview of the fundamental concepts behind lead-free solder and interconnection technology. Readers will find a description of the rapidly increasing presence of electronic systems in all aspects of modern life as well as the increasing need for predictable reliability in electronic systems. The physical and mechanical properties of lead-free solders are examined in detail, and building on fundamental science, the mechanisms responsible for damage and failure evolution, which affect reliability of lead-free solder joints are identified based on microstructure evolution.  The continuing miniaturization of electronic systems will increase the demand on the performance of solder joints, which will require new alloy and processing strategies as well as interconnection design strategies. This book provides a foundation on which improved performance and new design approaches can be based.  In summary, this book:  Provides an up-to-date overview on lead-free soldering tech...

  18. Effect of temperature and flux concentration on soldering of base metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Lin, C T; Wang, M H; Tseng, H; Huang, H M; Dong, D R; Pan, L C; Shih, Y H

    2000-12-01

    The present study used the acoustic emission (AE) technique to evaluate interactions among soldering temperature, flux treatment, and the resultant ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine fracture surfaces of the solder joints. Specimens were cast from removable partial denture alloy and then placed in a jig with a gap distance of 1.0 mm. A high-frequency soldering machine with an optical pyrometer was used for soldering at 1150 degrees C and 1200 degrees C, respectively. The flux concentrations were 67% and 75%. The soldered specimens were subjected to tensile test at a crosshead speed of 0.05 mm/min. During testing, acoustic emissions in the frequency range of 100--1200 kHz were collected, filtered, recorded, and processed by a sensing device. The results were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey LSD test. UTS at different temperatures showed no significant difference according to either mechanical or acoustic results. But in the 1200 degrees C group, the UTSs and AE counts showed significant differences (Pacoustic signals within the elastic deformation zone, while the 67% flux subgroup produced similar signals within the plastic deformation zone, either beyond the 0.2% yield point or before fracture.

  19. Nano-soldering of magnetically aligned three-dimensional nanowire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fan; Gu Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    It is extremely challenging to fabricate 3D integrated nanostructures and hybrid nanoelectronic devices. In this paper, we report a simple and efficient method to simultaneously assemble and solder nanowires into ordered 3D and electrically conductive nanowire networks. Nano-solders such as tin were fabricated onto both ends of multi-segmented nanowires by a template-assisted electrodeposition method. These nanowires were then self-assembled and soldered into large-scale 3D network structures by magnetic field assisted assembly in a liquid medium with a high boiling point. The formation of junctions/interconnects between the nanowires and the scale of the assembly were dependent on the solder reflow temperature and the strength of the magnetic field. The size of the assembled nanowire networks ranged from tens of microns to millimeters. The electrical characteristics of the 3D nanowire networks were measured by regular current-voltage (I-V) measurements using a probe station with micropositioners. Nano-solders, when combined with assembling techniques, can be used to efficiently connect and join nanowires with low contact resistance, which are very well suited for sensor integration as well as nanoelectronic device fabrication.

  20. Tibial coverage, meniscus position, size and damage in knees discordant for joint space narrowing – data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloecker, K.; Guermazi, A.; Wirth, W.; Benichou, O.; Kwoh, C.K.; Hunter, D.J.; Englund, M.; Resch, H.; Eckstein, F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Meniscal extrusion is thought to be associated with less meniscus coverage of the tibial surface, but the association of radiographic disease stage with quantitative measures of tibial plateau coverage is unknown. We therefore compared quantitative and semi-quantitative measures of meniscus position and morphology in individuals with bilateral painful knees discordant on medial joint space narrowing (mJSN). Methods A sample of 60 participants from the first half (2,678 cases) of the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort fulfilled the inclusion criteria: bilateral frequent pain, Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) mJSN grades 1–3 in one, no-JSN in the contra-lateral (CL), and no lateral JSN in either knee (43 unilateral mJSN1; 17 mJSN2/3; 22 men, 38 women, body mass index (BMI) 31.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2). Segmentation and three-dimensional quantitative analysis of the tibial plateau and meniscus, and semi-quantitative evaluation of meniscus damage (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) osteoarthritis knee score – MOAKS) was performed using coronal 3T MR images (MPR DESSwe and intermediate-weighted turbo spin echo (IW-TSE) images). CL knees were compared using paired t-tests (between-knee, within-person design). Results Medial tibial plateau coverage was 36 ± 9% in mJSN1 vs 45 ± 8% in CL no-JSN knees, and was 31 ± 9% in mJSN2/3 vs 46 ± 6% in no-JSN knees (both P meniscus extrusion and damage (MOAKS), but no significant difference in meniscus volume. No significant differences in lateral tibial coverage, lateral meniscus morphology or position were observed. Conclusions Knees with medial JSN showed substantially less medial tibial plateau coverage by the meniscus. We suggest that the less meniscal coverage, i.e., less mechanical protection may be a reason for greater rates of cartilage loss observed in JSN knees. PMID:23220556

  1. Pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus cells increases production of matrix metalloproteinases and additional catabolic factors involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Austin V.; Loeser, Richard F.; Vanderman, Kadie S.; Long, David L.; Clark, Stephanie C.; Ferguson, Cristin M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Meniscus injury increases the risk of osteoarthritis; however, the biologic mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus would increase production of matrix-degrading enzymes, cytokines and chemokines which cause joint tissue destruction and could contribute to osteoarthritis development. Design Meniscus and cartilage tissue from healthy tissue donors and total knee arthroplasties was cultured. Primary cell cultures were stimulated with pro-inflammatory factors [IL-1β, IL-6, or fibronectin fragments (FnF)] and cellular responses were analyzed by real-time PCR, protein arrays and immunoblots. To determine if NF-κB was required for MMP production, meniscus cultures were treated with inflammatory factors with and without the NF-κB inhibitor, hypoestoxide. Results Normal and osteoarthritic meniscus cells increased their MMP secretion in response to stimulation, but specific patterns emerged that were unique to each stimulus with the greatest number of MMPs expressed in response to FnF. Meniscus collagen and connective tissue growth factor gene expression was reduced. Expression of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6), chemokines (IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2, CSF1) and components of the NF-κB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family were significantly increased. Cytokine and chemokine protein production was also increased by stimulation. When primary cell cultures were treated with hypoestoxide in conjunction with pro-inflammatory stimulation, p65 activation was reduced as were MMP-1 and MMP-3 production. Conclusions Pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus cells increased matrix metalloproteinase production and catabolic gene expression. The meniscus could have an active biologic role in osteoarthritis development following joint injury through increased production of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix-degrading enzymes. PMID:24315792

  2. Effect of radial meniscal tear on in situ forces of meniscus and tibiofemoral relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yuta; Mae, Tatsuo; Fujie, Hiromichi; Shino, Konsei; Ohori, Tomoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakata, Ken

    2017-02-01

    To clarify the effect of the radial tear of the lateral meniscus on the in situ meniscus force and the tibiofemoral relationship under axial loads and valgus torques. Ten intact porcine knees were settled to a 6-degree of freedom robotic system, while the force and 3-dimensional path of the knees were recorded via Universal Force Sensor (UFS) during 3 cycles of 250-N axial load and 5-Nm valgus torque at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° of knee flexion. The same examination was performed on the following 3 meniscal states sequentially; 33, 66, and 100% width of radial tears at the middle segment of the lateral meniscus, while recording the force and path of the knees via UFS. Finally, all paths were reproduced after total lateral meniscectomy and the in situ force of the lateral meniscus were calculated with the principle of superposition. The radial tear of 100% width significantly decreased the in situ force of the lateral meniscus and caused tibial medial shift and valgus rotation at 30°-60° of knee flexion in both testing protocols. Under a 250-N axial load at 60° of knee flexion, the in situ force decreased to 36 ± 29 N with 100% width of radial tear, which was 122 ± 38 N in the intact state. Additionally, the tibia shifted medially by 2.1 ± 0.9 mm and valgusrotated by 2.5 ± 1.9° with the complete radial tear. However, the radial tear of 33 or 66% width had little effect on either the in situ force or the tibial position. A radial tear of 100% width involving the rim significantly decreased the in situ force of the lateral meniscus and caused medial shift and valgus rotation of the tibia, whereas a radial tear of up to 66% width produced only little change. The clinical relevance is that loss of meniscal functions due to complete radial tear can lead to abnormal stress concentration in a focal area of cartilage and can increase the risk of osteoarthritis in the future.

  3. Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Lower Tear Meniscus in Dry Eye after Acupuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye is highly prevalent and has a significant impact on quality of life. Acupuncture was found to be effective to treat dry eye. However, little was known about the effect of acupuncture on different subtypes of dry eye. The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of tear meniscus assessment by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of acupuncture treatment response in dry eye patients and to explore the effect of acupuncture on different subtypes of dry eye compared with artificial tear treatment. A total of 108 dry eye patients were randomized into acupuncture or artificial tear group. Each group was divided into three subgroups including lipid tear deficiency (LTD, Sjögren syndrome dry eye (SSDE, and non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye (Non-SSDE for data analysis. After 4-week treatment, the low tear meniscus parameters including tear meniscus height (TMH, tear meniscus depth (TMD, and tear meniscus area (TMA in the acupuncture group increased significantly for the LTD and Non-SSDE subgroups compared with both the baseline and the control groups (all P values < 0.05, but not for the SSDE. Acupuncture provided a measurable improvement of the tear meniscus dimensions for the Non-SSDE and LTD patients, but not for the SSDE patients.

  4. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2013-09-14

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H{sup −} extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases.

  5. Quantitative histological grading methods to assess subchondral bone and synovium changes subsequent to medial meniscus transection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloefkorn, Heidi E; Allen, Kyle D

    The importance of the medial meniscus to knee health is demonstrated by studies which show meniscus injuries significantly increase the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis (OA), and knee OA can be modeled in rodents using simulated meniscus injuries. Traditionally, histological assessments of OA in these models have focused on damage to the articular cartilage; however, OA is now viewed as a disease of the entire joint as an organ system. The aim of this study was to develop quantitative histological measures of bone and synovial changes in a rat medial meniscus injury model of knee OA. To initiate OA, a medial meniscus transection (MMT) and a medial collateral ligament transection (MCLT) were performed in 32 male Lewis rats (MMT group). MCLT alone served as the sham procedure in 32 additional rats (MCLT sham group). At weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 post-surgery, histological assessment of subchondral bone and synovium was performed (n = 8 per group per time point). Trabecular bone area and the ossification width at the osteochondral interface increased in both the MMT and MCLT groups. Subintimal synovial cell morphology also changed in MMT and MCLT groups relative to naïve animals. OA affects the joint as an organ system, and quantifying changes throughout an entire joint can improve our understanding of the relationship between joint destruction and painful OA symptoms following meniscus injury.

  6. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H − extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases

  7. Effects of Fe2NiO4 nanoparticles addition into lead free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder pastes on microstructure and mechanical properties after reflow soldering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellvarajoo, Srivalli; Abdullah, M.Z.; Samsudin, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles added into SAC 305 by mechanical mixing to form nanocomposite solder paste. • Nanoparticles in the composite solder travels with flux to the outermost surface after reflow. • The intermetallics compound reduced with the addition of nanoparticles into solder paste. • The hardness increased with the addition of limited percentage of nanoparticles into SAC 305. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of the addition of Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles into a SAC-305 lead-free solder paste. Iron, nickel, and oxide nano-elements were mixed with Pb-free solder alloying elements to produce a new form of nanocomposite solder paste, which can be a promising material in electronic packaging. The SAC-305 was mechanically added with 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 wt.% of Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles. The migration of nanoparticles in the nanocomposite solder paste to the outermost surface was clarified using the copper ‘sandwich’ method, which was performed after the reflow soldering process. Varying amounts of nanoparticles in the SAC-305 affected the IMC thickness and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite solder paste. The IMC thickness was reduced by 29.15%, 42.37%, and 59.00% after adding 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 wt.% of Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles in the SAC-305, respectively. However, via nanoindentation method, the hardness of the nanocomposite solder was improved by 44.07% and 56.82% after adding 0.5 and 1.5 wt.% of Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles, respectively. If the addition of Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticle exceeded 1.5 wt.%, the hardness increased infinitely

  8. Reliability of Pb free solder alloys. Physical and mechanical properties; Pb free handa no shinraisei. Butsuri kikaiteki shinraisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanji, M; Yoshino, M; Ishikawa, J; Takenaka, O [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Properties of 19 different Pb free solders have been evaluated in comparison with Sn-37Pb eutectic solder. Pb free solders without Bi were on the same level as Sn-37Pb in tensile strength and elongation, and those with Bi had higher strength and lower elongation than Sn-37Pb. As the Bi content increased, strength was higher, and elongation was lower. In torsion fatigue tests, fatigue life of Pb free solders without Bi was longer than Sn-37Pb. The relationships of Coffin-Manson rule and Basquin rule with fatigue life was applicable to Pb free solder. Fatigue life of those is inferred from their tensile strength. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. In-situ study of electromigration-induced grain rotation in Pb-free solder joint by synchrotron microdiffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Tu, King-Ning

    2008-01-01

    The rotation of Sn grains in Pb-free flip chip solder joints hasn't been reported in literature so far although it has been observed in Sn strips. In this letter, we report the detailed study of the grain orientation evolution induced by electromigration by synchrotron based white beam X-ray microdiffraction. It is found that the grains in solder joint rotate more slowly than in Sn strip even under higher current density. On the other hand, based on our estimation, the reorientation of the grains in solder joints also results in the reduction of electric resistivity, similar to the case of Sn strip. We will also discuss the reason why the electric resistance decreases much more in strips than in the Sn-based solders, and the different driving force for the grain growth in solder joint and in thin film interconnect lines

  10. In-situ study of electromigration-induced grain rotation in Pb-free solder joint by synchrotron microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Tu, King-Ning

    2008-10-31

    The rotation of Sn grains in Pb-free flip chip solder joints hasn't been reported in literature so far although it has been observed in Sn strips. In this letter, we report the detailed study of the grain orientation evolution induced by electromigration by synchrotron based white beam X-ray microdiffraction. It is found that the grains in solder joint rotate more slowly than in Sn strip even under higher current density. On the other hand, based on our estimation, the reorientation of the grains in solder joints also results in the reduction of electric resistivity, similar to the case of Sn strip. We will also discuss the reason why the electric resistance decreases much more in strips than in the Sn-based solders, and the different driving force for the grain growth in solder joint and in thin film interconnect lines.

  11. Design of Experiments to Determine Causes of Flex Cable Solder Wicking, Discoloration and Hole Location Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Larry

    2009-04-22

    Design of Experiments (DoE) were developed and performed in an effort to discover and resolve the causes of three different manufacturing issues; large panel voids after Hot Air Solder Leveling (HASL), cable hole locations out of tolerance after lamination and delamination/solder wicking around flat flex cable circuit lands after HASL. Results from a first DoE indicated large panel voids could be eliminated by removing the pre-HASL cleaning. It also revealed eliminating the pre-HASL bake would not be detrimental when using a hard press pad lamination stackup. A second DoE indicated a reduction in hard press pad stackup lamination pressure reduced panel stretch in the y axis approximately 70%. A third DoE illustrated increasing the pre-HASL bake temperature could reduce delamination/solder wicking when using a soft press pad lamination stackup.

  12. Corrosion Behaviour of Sn-based Lead-Free Solders in Acidic Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordarina, J.; Mohd, H. Z.; Ahmad, A. M.; Muhammad, F. M. N.

    2018-03-01

    The corrosion properties of Sn-9(5Al-Zn), Sn-Cu and SAC305 were studied via potentiodynamic polarization method in an acidic solution of 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). Sn-9(5Al-Zn) produced different polarization profile compared with Sn-Cu and SAC305. The morphological analysis showed that small, deep grooves shaped of corrosion product formed on top of Sn-9(5Al-Zn) solder while two distinctive structures of closely packed and loosely packed corrosion product formed on top of Sn-Cu and SAC305 solder alloys. Phase analysis revealed the formations of various corrosion products such as SnO and SnO2 mainly dominant on surface of solder alloys after potentiodynamic polarization in 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl).

  13. Au-Ge based Candidate Alloys for High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure and microhard......Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure...... was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The distribution of phases played a relatively more crucial role in determining the ductility of the bulk solder alloy. In the present work it was found that among the low melting point metals, the addition of Sb to the Au-Ge eutectic would...

  14. Instantaneous fluxless bonding of Au with Pb-Sn solder in ambient atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.K.; Zhang, Sam; Wong, C.C.; Tan, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A fluxless bonding technique has been developed as a method of flip-chip bonding for microelectronic packaging. The fluxless bonding technique can be achieved instantaneously in an ambient environment between metallic stud bumps and predefined molten solder. This paper describes the mechanics of the bonding action and verifies the effectiveness of this bonding method through wetting balance tests and scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. This technique has been demonstrated by using a gold stud bump to break the tin oxide layer over molten solder. This allows for a fast, solid liquid interdiffusion between gold (Au) and the fresh molten eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solder for joint formation during solidification. This bonding method has been successfully tested with 130-μm-pitch flip-chip bond pads on a joint-in-via flex substrate architecture

  15. Dissolution ad uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, B.; Bergman, M.; Soeremark, R.

    1977-01-01

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium ( 115 Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of 115 Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver. (author)

  16. SINGLE IMAGE CAMERA CALIBRATION IN CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR SOLDER JOINT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Heinemann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Printed Circuit Boards (PCB play an important role in the manufacturing of electronic devices. To ensure a correct function of the PCBs a certain amount of solder paste is needed during the placement of components. The aim of the current research is to develop an real-time, closed-loop solution for the analysis of the printing process where solder is printed onto PCBs. Close range photogrammetry allows for determination of the solder volume and a subsequent correction if necessary. Photogrammetry is an image based method for three dimensional reconstruction from two dimensional image data of an object. A precise camera calibration is indispensable for an accurate reconstruction. In our certain application it is not possible to use calibration methods with two dimensional calibration targets. Therefore a special calibration target was developed and manufactured, which allows for single image camera calibration.

  17. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  18. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  19. Retropatellar chondromalacia associated with medial osteoarthritis after meniscus injury. One year of observations in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C; Kabir, K; Mueller, M; Rangger, C; Minor, T; Tolba, R H

    2006-01-01

    In an ovine meniscal repair model, the patellofemoral (PF) osteoarthritis due to a non-sutured tear or failed repair was investigated. A radial meniscus tear was either sutured with polydioxanone (PDS), with a slow degrading polylactide long-term suture(LTS) or left without treatment. Knee joint cartilage in the PF and medial compartment was evaluated compared to normal knees (healthy controls). Retropatellar osteoarthritis in the non-sutured and sutured animals was intense in contrast to the control knees after 6 months in all groups (p < 0.001), and after 12 months in the PDS group (p < 0.001), LTS group and non-sutured animals (p < 0.05). Non-sutured meniscus tears and failed repair lead fast to intense PF osteoarthritis corresponding with tibial damage of the injured compartment.

  20. What tissue bankers should know about the use of allograft meniscus in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ian D

    2010-02-01

    The menisci of the knee are two crescent shaped cartilage shock absorbers sitting between the femur and the tibia, which act as load sharers and shock absorbers. Loss of a meniscus leads to a significant increase in the risk of developing arthritis in the knee. Replacement of a missing meniscus with allograft tissue can reduce symptoms and may potentially reduce the risk of future arthritis. Meniscal allograft transplantation is a complex surgical procedure with many outstanding issues, including 'what techniques should be used for processing and storing grafts?', 'how should the allografts be sized?' and 'what surgical implantation techniques might be most appropriate?' Further clinical research is needed and close collaboration between the users (surgeons) and the suppliers (tissue banks) is essential. This review explores the above subject in detail.

  1. The meniscus tear. State of the art of rehabilitation protocols related to surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizziero, Antonio; Ferrari, Raffaello; Giannotti, Erika; Ferroni, Costanza; Poli, Patrizia; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-10-01

    Meniscal injuries represent one of the most frequent lesions in sport practicing and in particular in soccer players and skiers. Pain, functional limitation and swelling are typical symptoms associated with meniscal tears. Epidemiological studies showed that all meniscal lesions, in different sports athletes, involves 24% of medial meniscus, while 8% of lateral meniscus and about 20-30% of meniscal lesions are associated with other ligament injuries. Meniscal tears can be treated conservatively or surgically. Surgery leads in many cases to complete resolution of symptoms and allows the return to sport activity. However many studies show that this treatment can induce more frequently the development of degenerative conditions if not correctly associated to a specific rehabilitation protocol. The aim of this article is to compare different timing in specific rehabilitation programs related to the most actual surgical options.

  2. The significance of arthrography and arthroscopy in the diagnosis of meniscus injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckel, H.; Linder, J.; Petzold, M.V.; Meyne, K.; Doerges, J.; Evangelisches Krankenhaus Goettingen

    1981-01-01

    The article reports on 364 double-contrast arthrographics and 185 arthroscopies.The results obtained in 126 patients in whom both arthrography and arthroscopy had been conducted, were compared. It became evident that arthrography is of high informative value in the diagnosis of lesions of the meniscus, so that preference may well be given to this method in non-specific knee-joint complaints where meniscopathy is suspected. Arthroscopies are indicated in cases of clinico-arthrographic coubt. Trial arthrotomy for clarifying doubtful meniscus lesions without previous exploitation of all arthrographic/arthroscopic possibilities is no longer justified and should be abandoned. Arthroscopy is definitely superior to arthrography in the diagnosis of, in particular, cartilage structures, of the synovia and of the retropatellar space. It is here where arthrography has its narrow limitations - now and in the future - for methodical reasons. (orig.) [de

  3. International Meniscus Reconstruction Experts Forum (IMREF) 2015 Consensus Statement on the Practice of Meniscal Allograft Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getgood, Alan; LaPrade, Robert F; Verdonk, Peter; Gersoff, Wayne; Cole, Brian; Spalding, Tim

    2016-08-25

    Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) has become relatively commonplace in specialized sport medicine practice for the treatment of patients with a symptomatic knee after the loss of a functional meniscus. The technique has evolved since the 1980s, and long-term results continue to improve. However, there still remains significant variation in how MAT is performed, and as such, there remains opportunity for outcome and graft survivorship to be optimized. The purpose of this article was to develop a consensus statement on the practice of MAT from key opinion leaders who are members of the International Meniscus Reconstruction Experts Forum so that a more standardized approach to the indications, surgical technique, and postoperative care could be outlined with the goal of ultimately improving patient outcomes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Investigation Of The Effects Of Reflow Profile Parameters On Lead-free Solder Bump Volumes And Joint Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalu, E. H.; Lui, Y. T.; Ekere, N. N.; Bhatti, R. S.; Takyi, G.

    2011-01-01

    The electronics manufacturing industry was quick to adopt and use the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) assembly technique on realization of its huge potentials in achieving smaller, lighter and low cost product implementations. Increasing global customer demand for miniaturized electronic products is a key driver in the design, development and wide application of high-density area array package format. Electronic components and their associated solder joints have reduced in size as the miniaturization trend in packaging continues to be challenged by printing through very small stencil apertures required for fine pitch flip-chip applications. At very narrow aperture sizes, solder paste rheology becomes crucial for consistent paste withdrawal. The deposition of consistent volume of solder from pad-to-pad is fundamental to minimizing surface mount assembly defects. This study investigates the relationship between volume of solder paste deposit (VSPD) and the volume of solder bump formed (VSBF) after reflow, and the effect of reflow profile parameters on lead-free solder bump formation and the associated solder joint integrity. The study uses a fractional factorial design (FFD) of 24-1 Ramp-Soak-Spike reflow profile, with all main effects and two-way interactions estimable to determine the optimal factorial combination. The results from the study show that the percentage change in the VSPD depends on the combination of the process parameters and reliability issues could become critical as the size of solder joints soldered on the same board assembly vary greatly. Mathematical models describe the relationships among VSPD, VSBF and theoretical volume of solder paste. Some factors have main effects across the volumes and a number of interactions exist among them. These results would be useful for R&D personnel in designing and implementing newer applications with finer-pitch interconnect.

  5. Comparison of implant-abutment interface misfits after casting and soldering procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Flávio Domingues das; Elias, Gisele Araújo; da Silva-Neto, João Paulo; de Medeiros Dantas, Lucas Costa; da Mota, Adérito Soares; Neto, Alfredo Júlio Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare vertical and horizontal adjustments of castable abutments after conducting casting and soldering procedures. Twelve external hexagonal implants (3.75 × 10 mm) and their UCLA abutments were divided according their manufacturer and abutment type: PUN (plastic UCLA, Neodent), PUC (plastic UCLA, Conexão), PU3i (plastic UCLA, Biomet 3i), and PUTN (plastic UCLA with Tilite milled base, Neodent). Three infrastructures of a fixed partial implant-supported bridge with 3 elements were produced for each group. The measurements of vertical (VM) and horizontal (HM) misfits were obtained via scanning electron microscopy after completion of casting and soldering. The corresponding values were determined to be biomechanically acceptable to the system, and the results were rated as a percentage. Statistical analysis establishes differences between groups by chi-square after procedures, and McNeman's test was applied to analyze the influence of soldering over casting (α ≤ .05). For the values of VM and HM, respectively, when the casting process was complete, it was observed that 83.25% and 100% (PUTN), 33.3% and 27.75% (PUN), 33.3% and 88.8% (PUC), 33.3% and 94.35% (PU3i) represented acceptable values. After completing the requisite soldering, acceptable values were 50% and 94.35% (PUTN), 16.6% and 77.7% (PUN), 38.55% and 77.7% (PUC), and 27.75% and 94.35% (PU3i). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the premachined abutments presented more acceptable VM values. The HM values were within acceptable limits before and after the soldering procedure for most groups. Further, the soldering procedure resulted in an increase of VM in all groups.

  6. Assessment of the Relationship between the Shape of the Lateral Meniscus and the Risk of Extrusion Based on MRI Examination of the Knee Joint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Szarmach

    Full Text Available Meniscus extrusion is a serious and relatively frequent clinical problem. For this reason the role of different risk factors for this pathology is still the subject of debate. The goal of this study was to verify the results of previous theoretical work, based on the mathematical models, regarding a relationship between the cross-section shape of the meniscus and the risk of its extrusion.Knee MRI examination was performed in 77 subjects (43 men and 34 women, mean age 34.99 years (range: 18-49 years, complaining of knee pain. Patients with osteoarthritic changes (grade 3 and 4 to Kellgren classification, varus or valgus deformity and past injuries of the knee were excluded from the study. A 3-Tesla MR device was used to study the relationship between the shape of the lateral meniscus (using slope angle, meniscus-cartilage height and meniscus-bone angle and the risk of extrusion.Analysis revealed that with values of slope angle and meniscus-bone angle increasing by one degree, the risk of meniscus extrusion raises by 1.157 and 1.078 respectively. Also, an increase in meniscus-cartilage height by 1 mm significantly elevates the risk of extrusion. At the same time it was demonstrated that for meniscus-bone angle values over 42 degrees and slope angle over 37 degrees the risk of extrusion increases significantly.This was the first study to demonstrate a tight correlation between slope angle, meniscus-bone angle and meniscus-cartilage height values in the assessment of the risk of lateral meniscus extrusion. Insertion of the above parameters to the radiological assessment of the knee joint allows identification of patients characterized by an elevated risk of development of this pathology.

  7. Assessment of the Relationship between the Shape of the Lateral Meniscus and the Risk of Extrusion Based on MRI Examination of the Knee Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarmach, Arkadiusz; Luczkiewicz, Piotr; Skotarczak, Monika; Kaszubowski, Mariusz; Winklewski, Pawel J; Dzierzanowski, Jaroslaw; Piskunowicz, Maciej; Szurowska, Edyta; Baczkowski, Bogusław

    2016-01-01

    Meniscus extrusion is a serious and relatively frequent clinical problem. For this reason the role of different risk factors for this pathology is still the subject of debate. The goal of this study was to verify the results of previous theoretical work, based on the mathematical models, regarding a relationship between the cross-section shape of the meniscus and the risk of its extrusion. Knee MRI examination was performed in 77 subjects (43 men and 34 women), mean age 34.99 years (range: 18-49 years), complaining of knee pain. Patients with osteoarthritic changes (grade 3 and 4 to Kellgren classification), varus or valgus deformity and past injuries of the knee were excluded from the study. A 3-Tesla MR device was used to study the relationship between the shape of the lateral meniscus (using slope angle, meniscus-cartilage height and meniscus-bone angle) and the risk of extrusion. Analysis revealed that with values of slope angle and meniscus-bone angle increasing by one degree, the risk of meniscus extrusion raises by 1.157 and 1.078 respectively. Also, an increase in meniscus-cartilage height by 1 mm significantly elevates the risk of extrusion. At the same time it was demonstrated that for meniscus-bone angle values over 42 degrees and slope angle over 37 degrees the risk of extrusion increases significantly. This was the first study to demonstrate a tight correlation between slope angle, meniscus-bone angle and meniscus-cartilage height values in the assessment of the risk of lateral meniscus extrusion. Insertion of the above parameters to the radiological assessment of the knee joint allows identification of patients characterized by an elevated risk of development of this pathology.

  8. The Evaluation of Changes in The Knee Meniscus in vivo at 3T MRI Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Horňáková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive imagining of the knee meniscus without the use of the contrast agents is more difficult compared to articular cartilage. Despite the lower signal intensity of the knee meniscus, MRI is considered the best non-invasive imaging method. Thanks to the lower water content in the meniscus compared to the surrounding tissues, it can be distinguished from the environment, but the determination of the boundaries is more complicated than in articular cartilage. There are many studies dealing with the MR imaging of the loaded and also unloaded knee, but they have mainly observed quantitative and geometric changes (movement or deformation of tissue, not targeted qualitative changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM. These changes can be evaluated with T2 relaxation times, which are more sensitive to the interaction of water molecules and the concentration of macromolecules and structures of the ECM, especially in the interaction based on the content, orientation and anisotropy of collagen fibers. Fluid and tissues with the higher water content level have long relaxation time T2. In the healthy meniscus these times are shorter; the reason is a highly organized structure of collagen and lower content of proteoglycans. To quantitatively detect changes, it is necessary to assure a sufficiently high resolution of images throughout choosing appropriate pulse sequences. After that, the acquired data can be processed to produce the T2 maps, to portray non-invasive collagen content, architecture of the ROI, changes in the water content (distribution of interstitial water in the solid matrix and the spatial variation in depth. The aim of this work is firstly to introduce the meaning of T2 relaxation and methods for calculating T2 relaxation times. Further, the aim of this work is to give a brief description of the current pulse sequences used to display menisci.

  9. Fatigue life of bovine meniscus under longitudinal and transverse tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creechley, Jaremy J; Krentz, Madison E; Lujan, Trevor J

    2017-05-01

    The knee meniscus is composed of a fibrous extracellular matrix that is subjected to large and repeated loads. Consequently, the meniscus is frequently torn, and a potential mechanism for failure is fatigue. The objective of this study was to measure the fatigue life of bovine meniscus when applying cyclic tensile loads either longitudinal or transverse to the principal fiber direction. Fatigue experiments consisted of cyclic loads to 60%, 70%, 80% or 90% of the predicted ultimate tensile strength until failure occurred or 20,000 cycles was reached. The fatigue data in each group was fit with a Weibull distribution to generate plots of stress level vs. cycles to failure (S-N curve). Results showed that loading transverse to the principal fiber direction gave a two-fold increase in failure strain, a three-fold increase in creep, and a nearly four-fold increase in cycles to failure (not significant), compared to loading longitudinal to the principal fiber direction. The S-N curves had strong negative correlations between the stress level and the mean cycles to failure for both loading directions, where the slope of the transverse S-N curve was 11% less than the longitudinal S-N curve (longitudinal: S=108-5.9ln(N); transverse: S=112-5.2ln(N)). Collectively, these results suggest that the non-fibrillar matrix is more resistant to fatigue failure than the collagen fibers. Results from this study are relevant to understanding the etiology of atraumatic radial and horizontal meniscal tears, and can be utilized by research groups that are working to develop meniscus implants with fatigue properties that mimic healthy tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flow near the meniscus of a pressure-driven water slug in microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Wook; Jin, Song Wan; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2006-01-01

    Micro-PIV system with a high speed CCD camera is used to measure the flow field near the advancing meniscus of a water slug in microchannels. Image shifting technique combined with meniscus detecting technique is proposed to measure the relative velocity of the liquid near the meniscus in a moving reference frame. The proposed method is applied to an advancing front of a slug in microchannels with rectangular cross section. In the case of hydrophilic channel, strong flow from the center to the side wall along the meniscus occurs, while in the case of the hydrophobic channel, the fluid flows in the opposite direction. Further, the velocity near the side wall is higher than the center region velocity, exhibiting the characteristics of a strong shear-driven flow. This phenomenon is explained to be due to the existence of small gaps between the slug and the channel wall at each capillary corner so that the gas flows through the gaps inducing high shear on the slug surface. Simulation of the shape of a static droplet inside a cubic cell obtained by using the Surface Evolver program is supportive of the existence of the gap at the rectangular capillary corners. The flow fields in the circular capillary, in which no such gap exists, are also measured. The results show that a similar flow pattern to that of the hydrophilic rectangular capillary (i.e., center-to-wall flow) is always exhibited regardless of the wettability of the channel wall, which is also indicative of the validity of the above-mentioned assertion

  11. Mechanical performances of lead-free solder joint connections with applications in the aerospace domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana PADURARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some theoretical and experimental aspects regarding the tribological performances of lead-free solder joint connections, with application in the aerospace domain. In order to highlight the mechanical and tribological properties of solder joint in correlation with different pad finishes, there were made some mechanical determinations using a dedicated Share Test System. The theoretical model highlights the link between the experimental results and the influence of gravitational acceleration on the mechanical and functional integrity of the electronic assemblies that works in vibration environment. The paper novelty is provided by the interdisciplinary experiment that offers results that can be used in the mechanical, tribological, electronical and aerospace domains.

  12. A Feasibility Study of Lead Free Solders for Level 1 Packaging Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the lead free ternary combinations that satisfied the solidification requirement for a solder used in level 1 packaging applications, using the CALPHAD approach. The segregation profiles of the promising candidates were analyzed after scrutinizing the equilib......An attempt has been made to determine the lead free ternary combinations that satisfied the solidification requirement for a solder used in level 1 packaging applications, using the CALPHAD approach. The segregation profiles of the promising candidates were analyzed after scrutinizing...

  13. A review of typical thermal fatigue failure models for solder joints of electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Ruifeng; Wang, Yongdong

    2017-09-01

    For electronic components, cyclic plastic strain makes it easier to accumulate fatigue damage than elastic strain. When the solder joints undertake thermal expansion or cold contraction, different thermal strain of the electronic component and its corresponding substrate is caused by the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the electronic component and its corresponding substrate, leading to the phenomenon of stress concentration. So repeatedly, cracks began to sprout and gradually extend [1]. In this paper, the typical thermal fatigue failure models of solder joints of electronic components are classified and the methods of obtaining the parameters in the model are summarized based on domestic and foreign literature research.

  14. Physics of Failure as a Basis for Solder Elements Reliability Assessment in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    description of the reliability. A physics of failure approach is applied. A SnAg solder component used in power electronics is used as an example. Crack propagation in the SnAg solder is modeled and a model to assess the accumulated plastic strain is proposed based on a physics of failure approach. Based...... on the proposed model it is described how to find the accumulated linear damage and reliability levels for a given temperature loading profile. Using structural reliability methods the reliability levels of the electrical components are assessed by introducing scale factors for stresses....

  15. Aging treatment characteristics of solder bump joint for high reliability optical module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Seob; Yu, Chung-Hee; Yang, Jun-Mo

    2004-01-01

    The joint strength and fracture surfaces of Sn-37 mass% Pb and Au stud bumps for photo diode packages after isothermal aging testing were studied experimentally. Al/Au stud bumps and Cu/Sn-37 mass% Pb solders were adopted, and aged for up to 900 h to analyze the effect of intermetallic compound (IMC). The joint strength decreased with aging time. The diffraction patterns of Cu 6 Sn 5 , scallop-shaped IMCs, and planar-shaped Cu 3 Sn were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The formation of Kirkendall voids and the growth of IMCs at the solder were found to be a possible mechanism for joint strength reduction

  16. Saturated fatty acid palmitate negatively regulates autophagy by promoting ATG5 protein degradation in meniscus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Aritra; Yammani, Raghunatha R

    2018-07-20

    Obesity and associated metabolic factors are major risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Previously, we have shown that the free fatty acid palmitate induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induces apoptosis in meniscus cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects are not clearly understood. In our current study, we found that palmitate inhibits autophagy by modulating the protein levels of autophagy-related genes-5 (ATG5) that is associated with decreased lipidation of LC3 and increased activation of cleaved caspase 3. Pretreatment of meniscus cells with 4-phenyl butyric acid, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress, or with MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, restored normal levels of ATG5 and autophagosome formation, and decreased expression of cleaved caspase 3. Thus, our data suggest that palmitate downregulates autophagy in meniscus cells by degrading ATG5 protein via ER-associated protein degradation, and thus promotes apoptosis. This is the first study to demonstrate that palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress negatively regulates autophagy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances and Prospects in Tissue-Engineered Meniscal Scaffolds for Meniscus Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The meniscus plays a crucial role in maintaining knee joint homoeostasis. Meniscal lesions are relatively common in the knee joint and are typically categorized into various types. However, it is difficult for inner avascular meniscal lesions to self-heal. Untreated meniscal lesions lead to meniscal extrusions in the long-term and gradually trigger the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA. The relationship between meniscal lesions and knee OA is complex. Partial meniscectomy, which is the primary method to treat a meniscal injury, only relieves short-term pain; however, it does not prevent the development of knee OA. Similarly, other current therapeutic strategies have intrinsic limitations in clinical practice. Tissue engineering technology will probably address this challenge by reconstructing a meniscus possessing an integrated configuration with competent biomechanical capacity. This review describes normal structure and biomechanical characteristics of the meniscus, discusses the relationship between meniscal lesions and knee OA, and summarizes the classifications and corresponding treatment strategies for meniscal lesions to understand meniscal regeneration from physiological and pathological perspectives. Last, we present current advances in meniscal scaffolds and provide a number of prospects that will potentially benefit the development of meniscal regeneration methods.

  18. Magnetic resonance tomography - a possibility for noninvasive meniscus diagnosis. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, F.; Koenig, H.; Sell, S.

    1989-01-01

    Meniscus tears were experimentally produced by surgery in 5 pigs. They were identified via MR tomography with the selected routine sequence (SE: TR 1600, TE 22/80msec, SD 3 mm) independent of position, orientation and severity. The best imaging was obtained between the 2nd and 8th weeks after the operation in the sagittal plane. Subsequently the contrast and with it simultaneously the delineation between intact fibrous cartilage and rupture cleft decreased; this could be observed in sequences weighted according to proton density and T2 in different degrees of intensity. Parallel to this a trial to induce degeneration in the meniscus tissue resulted 8 weeks after the operation in central, signal-intensive zones in the menisci. No success was achieved in trying to improve imaging of the pathological changes by means of intraarticular injections of Gd-DTPA; this was tried out at various points of time. Besides enabling the imaging of lesions of the fibrous cartilage as a matter of principle, MR tomography can also give limited information on the age of a meniscus tear. (orig.) [de

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the menisci of the knee. Normal images. Pitfalls. Meniscus degeneration. Anatomical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helenon, O.; Laval-Jeantet, M.; Bastian, D.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a study on 5 knees of fresh corpses explored with magnetic resonance imaging are reported, including 1 examined before and after intraarticular contrast injection, and on 15 asymptomatic subjects examined with the same procedure. A very thorough study of the menisci and of their attachment, ie. The tibial insertion of the menisceal horns, the transverse ligament, and the meniscofemoral ligament, is possible with T1-weighted MR sequences. The T2-weighted sequences, either following intraarticular contrast injection or in cases of articular effusion, allow analyzing the capsular attachments of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and its relationships with the tendon of the popliteal muscle. Five misleading images must be known for the exploration of the menisci, in order to avoid a number of interpretation problems. Images of type I and II initial meniscus degeneration are observed in 47% of all cases (control group). One case of menisceal cyst developing in the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus, with anatomical correlation, is also reported [fr

  20. A Special Tear Pattern of Anterior Horn of the Lateral Meniscus: Macerated Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiapeng; Zhai, Wenliang; Li, Qiang; Jia, Qianxin; Lin, Dasheng

    2017-01-01

    We describe a special, interesting phenomenon found in the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus (AHLM): most tear patterns in the AHLM are distinctive, with loose fibers in injured region and circumferential fiber bundles were separated. We name it as macerated tear. The goal of this study was to bring forward a new type of meniscal tear in the AHLM and investigate its clinical value. AHLM tears underwent arthroscopic surgery from January 2012 to December 2014 were included. Data regarding the integrity of AHLM were prospectively recorded in a data registry. Tear morphology and treatment received were subsequently extracted by 2 independent reviewers from operative notes and arthroscopic surgical photos. A total of 60 AHLM tears in 60 patients (mean age 27.1 years) were grouped into horizontal tears (n = 15, 25%), vertical tears (n = 14, 23%), complex tears (n = 6, 10%), and macerated tears (n = 25, 42%). There were 6 patients with AHLM cysts in macerated tear group and one patient in vertical tear group. 60 patients were performed arthroscopic meniscus repairs and were followed-up with averaged 18.7 months. Each group had significant postoperative improvement in Lysholm and IKDC scores (p 0.05). This study demonstrated that the macerated tear is common in the tear pattern of AHLM. However, feasibility of the treatment of this type of meniscal tear, especially the meniscus repairs still requires further study.

  1. A meta-analysis of clinical and radiographic outcomes of posterior horn medial meniscus root repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyu Sung; Ha, Jeong Ku; Ra, Ho Jong; Kim, Jin Goo

    2016-05-01

    Although interest in medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) repair has increased, few case series have been reported. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the clinical and radiological effects of MMPRT repair by pooling pre- and post-operative data from case-series reports. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE databases. Pre- and post-operative data were pooled to investigate the effects of MMPRT repair, including the Lysholm score improvement, meniscal extrusion (mm) reduction, progression of the Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade, and cartilage status according to the Outerbridge classification. Treatment effects included paired standardized mean differences (difference in the pre- and post-operative mean outcomes divided by the standard deviation) for the Lysholm score and meniscal extrusion, as well as the pooled event rates of progression of K-L grade and cartilage status. As treatment effects, the Lysholm score increased by as much as 3.675 (P meniscus extrusion was not reduced (n.s.). The overall pooled event rates of progression of K-L grade and cartilage status were 10.6 and 17.3 % (P meniscus extrusion was not reduced. Considering the occurrence of progression of K-L grade and cartilage status, it did not prevent the progression of arthrosis completely. Based on these results, repair results in favourable outcomes for MMPRT. Meta-analysis, Level IV.

  2. Novel technique for repairing posterior medial meniscus root tears using porcine knees and biomechanical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Lin Wu

    Full Text Available Transtibial pullout suture (TPS repair of posterior medial meniscus root (PMMR tears was shown to achieve good clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanically, a novel technique designed to repair PMMR tears using tendon graft (TG and conventional TPS repair. Twelve porcine tibiae (n = 6 each TG group: flexor digitorum profundus tendon was passed through an incision in the root area, created 5 mm postero-medially along the edge of the attachment area. TPS group: a modified Mason-Allen suture was created using no. 2 FiberWire. The tendon grafts and sutures were threaded through the bone tunnel and then fixed to the anterolateral cortex of the tibia. The two groups underwent cyclic loading followed by a load-to-failure test. Displacements of the constructs after 100, 500, and 1000 loading cycles, and the maximum load, stiffness, and elongation at failure were recorded. The TG technique had significantly lower elongation and higher stiffness compared with the TPS. The maximum load of the TG group was significantly lower than that of the TPS group. Failure modes for all specimens were caused by the suture or graft cutting through the meniscus. Lesser elongation and higher stiffness of the constructs in TG technique over those in the standard TPS technique might be beneficial for postoperative biological healing between the meniscus and tibial plateau. However, a slower rehabilitation program might be necessary due to its relatively lower maximum failure load.

  3. Riboflavin-induced photo-crosslinking of collagen hydrogel and its application in meniscus tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jiseung; Koh, Rachel H; Shim, Whuisu; Kim, Hwan D; Yim, Hyun-Gu; Hwang, Nathaniel S

    2016-04-01

    A meniscus tear is a common knee injury, but its regeneration remains a clinical challenge. Recently, collagen-based scaffolds have been applied in meniscus tissue engineering. Despite its prevalence, application of natural collagen scaffold in clinical setting is limited due to its extremely low stiffness and rapid degradation. The purpose of the present study was to increase the mechanical properties and delay degradation rate of a collagen-based scaffold by photo-crosslinking using riboflavin (RF) and UV exposure. RF is a biocompatible vitamin B2 that showed minimal cytotoxicity compared to conventionally utilized photo-initiator. Furthermore, collagen photo-crosslinking with RF improved mechanical properties and delayed enzyme-triggered degradation of collagen scaffolds. RF-induced photo-crosslinked collagen scaffolds encapsulated with fibrochondrocytes resulted in reduced scaffold contraction and enhanced gene expression levels for the collagen II and aggrecan. Additionally, hyaluronic acid (HA) incorporation into photo-crosslinked collagen scaffold showed an increase in its retention. Based on these results, we demonstrate that photo-crosslinked collagen-HA hydrogels can be potentially applied in the scaffold-based meniscus tissue engineering.

  4. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  5. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  6. Influence of nanoparticle addition on the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn–Ag–Cu/Cu solder joint during different thermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting Tan, Ai; Wen Tan, Ai; Yusof, Farazila

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite lead-free solders are gaining prominence as replacements for conventional lead-free solders such as Sn–Ag–Cu solder in the electronic packaging industry. They are fabricated by adding nanoparticles such as metallic and ceramic particles into conventional lead-free solder. It is reported that the addition of such nanoparticles could strengthen the solder matrix, refine the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed and suppress the growth of IMCs when the joint is subjected to different thermal conditions such as thermal aging and thermal cycling. In this paper, we first review the fundamental studies on the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints. Subsequently, we discuss the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on IMC formation and their growth under several thermal conditions. Finally, an outlook on the future growth of research in the fabrication of nanocomposite solder is provided. PMID:27877786

  7. Influence of nanoparticle addition on the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn–Ag–Cu/Cu solder joint during different thermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Tan, Ai; Wen Tan, Ai; Yusof, Farazila

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite lead-free solders are gaining prominence as replacements for conventional lead-free solders such as Sn–Ag–Cu solder in the electronic packaging industry. They are fabricated by adding nanoparticles such as metallic and ceramic particles into conventional lead-free solder. It is reported that the addition of such nanoparticles could strengthen the solder matrix, refine the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed and suppress the growth of IMCs when the joint is subjected to different thermal conditions such as thermal aging and thermal cycling. In this paper, we first review the fundamental studies on the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints. Subsequently, we discuss the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on IMC formation and their growth under several thermal conditions. Finally, an outlook on the future growth of research in the fabrication of nanocomposite solder is provided. (review)

  8. Effect of Human Serum and 2 Different Types of Platelet Concentrates on Human Meniscus Cell Migration, Proliferation, and Matrix Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymann, Undine; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Krüger, Jan-Philipp; Hirsh, Glen; Endres, Michaela; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of 10% human serum (HS), 5% platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and 5% autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) on migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis of human meniscus cells. Cell migration and proliferation on stimulation with HS, PRP, and ACP were assessed by chemotaxis assays and measurement of genomic DNA content. Meniscus cells were cultivated in pellets stimulated with 10% HS, 5% PRP, or 5% ACP. Meniscal ECM formation was evaluated by histochemical staining of collagen type I, type II, and proteoglycans and by analysis of fibrochondrocyte marker gene expression. Human meniscus cells were significantly attracted by all 3 blood-derived products (10% HS and 5% ACP: P = .0001, 5% PRP: P = .0002). Cell proliferation at day 9 was significantly increased on stimulation with 10% HS (P = .0001) and 5% PRP (P = .0002) compared with 5% ACP and controls. Meniscus cell pellet cultures showed the formation of a well-structured meniscal ECM with deposition of collagen type I, type II, and proteoglycans on stimulation with 10% HS, whereas 5% PRP or 5% ACP resulted in the formation of an inhomogeneous and more fibrous ECM. Stimulation with 10% HS and 5% ACP showed a significant induction of fibrochondrocyte marker genes such as aggrecan (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0147), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0005), and biglycan (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0003), whereas PRP showed no inducing effect. Among all tested blood-derived products, only stimulation with HS showed the formation of a meniscal ECM as well as positive cell proliferating and migrating effects in vitro. Regarding a potential biological repair of nonvascular meniscus lesions, our results may point toward the use of HS as a beneficial augment in regenerative meniscus repair approaches. Our findings may suggest that HS might be a beneficial augment for meniscus repair. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published

  9. Traumatic posterior root tear of the medial meniscus in patients with severe medial instability of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Ho Jong; Ha, Jeong Ku; Jang, Ho Su; Kim, Jin Goo

    2015-10-01

    To examine the incidence and diagnostic rate of traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear associated with severe medial instability and to evaluate the effectiveness of pullout repair. From 2007 to 2011, 51 patients who underwent operation due to multiple ligament injuries including medial collateral ligament rupture were reviewed retrospectively. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective and Lysholm score were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and if indicated, a second-look arthroscopic examination was conducted. Fourteen out of 51 patients were associated with severe medial instability. Seven patients were diagnosed with traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear and underwent arthroscopic pullout repair. Five of them were missed at initial diagnosis using MRI. In seven patients, the mean Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores improved from 74.6 ± 10.3 and 47.6 ± 7.3 to 93.0 ± 3.7 and 91.6 ± 2.6, respectively. All showed complete healing of meniscus root on follow-up MRI and second-look arthroscopy. Medial meniscus posterior root tear may occur in severe medial instability from trauma. It is a common mistake that surgeons may not notice on the diagnosis of those injuries using MRI. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for the diagnosis of medial meniscus posterior root tear in this type of injuries. The traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear could be healed successfully using arthroscopic pullout repair technique. The possibility of the medial meniscus posterior root tear should be considered in severe medial instability and arthroscopic pullout repair can be an effective option for treatment. Case series with no comparison group, Level IV.

  10. Protein-releasing polymeric scaffolds induce fibrochondrocytic differentiation of endogenous cells for knee meniscus regeneration in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang H.; Rodeo, Scott A.; Fortier, Lisa Ann; Lu, Chuanyong; Erisken, Cevat

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of complex tissues, such as kidney, liver, and cartilage, continues to be a scientific and translational challenge. Survival of ex vivo cultured, transplanted cells in tissue grafts is among one of the key barriers. Meniscus is a complex tissue consisting of collagen fibers and proteoglycans with gradient phenotypes of fibrocartilage and functions to provide congruence of the knee joint, without which the patient is likely to develop arthritis. Endogenous stem/progenitor cells regenerated the knee meniscus upon spatially released human connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor–β3 (TGFβ3) from a three-dimensional (3D)–printed biomaterial, enabling functional knee recovery. Sequentially applied CTGF and TGFβ3 were necessary and sufficient to propel mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells, as a heterogeneous population or as single-cell progenies, into fibrochondrocytes that concurrently synthesized procollagens I and IIα. When released from microchannels of 3D–printed, human meniscus scaffolds, CTGF and TGFβ3 induced endogenous stem/progenitor cells to differentiate and synthesize zone-specific type I and II collagens. We then replaced sheep meniscus with anatomically correct, 3D–printed scaffolds that incorporated spatially delivered CTGF and TGFβ3. Endogenous cells regenerated the meniscus with zone-specific matrix phenotypes: primarily type I collagen in the outer zone, and type II collagen in the inner zone, reminiscent of the native meniscus. Spatiotemporally delivered CTGF and TGFβ3 also restored inhomogeneous mechanical properties in the regenerated sheep meniscus. Survival and directed differentiation of endogenous cells in a tissue defect may have implications in the regeneration of complex (heterogeneous) tissues and organs. PMID:25504882

  11. Evaluating of Tear Meniscus Parameters with Optical Coherent Tomography in Dry-Eye Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülizar Soyugelen Demirok

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the changes in meniscus parameters with optical coherence tomography (OCT after treatment and consider the correlation between the OCT parameters and dry-eye tests. Material and Method: Thirty-two dry-eye patients and 30 healthy individuals were included. Visual acuities, biomicroscopic evaluation, Schirmer-I test, tear-break-up time (T-BUT, and lower-tear meniscus parameters measured with OCT were evaluated. Ocular surface disease index (OSDI was performed. The measurements were repeated on the 10th day and 1st month of the treatment. Lower tear meniscus height (LTMH, depth (LTMD, area (LTMA and α-angle were measured. The tear meniscus parameters of the dry-eye group were compared with the control group before treatment, and the correlation between the dry-eye tests and OCT measurements were evaluated. The change in the results of the dry-eye tests and OCT measurements with treatment were assessed. Results: There was statistically no significant difference between the age and gender of the patients in groups. Before treatment the mean Schirmer-I test, TBUT and OSDI scores were different. The LTMH and LTMA were higher in the control group. In the dry-eye group before treatment, there was a negative correlation between the OSDI score and OCT parameters, however, no meaningful correlation was observed between any other test and OCT parameters. Although there were no change in LTMD and α-angle with treatment, the 1st month values of LTMH and LTMA were significantly higher from the pre-treatment and 10th day values. Discussion: When diagnosing dry-eye, TBUT and OSDI scores were found to be more effective compared to Schirmer-I test for the diagnosis of dry eye. Although not adequate by itself, tear meniscus parameters measured with OCT, LTMH and LTMA, may be helpful for evaluating the efficacy of treatment, and the correlation of these two parameters with the OSDI score may increase the objectivity while questioning the

  12. Effect of meniscus replacement fixation technique on restoration of knee contact mechanics and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, D D; Chen, P C; Kessler, O; Hoenecke, H R; Colwell, C W

    2011-06-01

    The menisci are important biomechanical components of the knee. We developed and validated a finite element model of meniscal replacement to assess the effect of surgical fixation technique on contact behavior and knee stability. The geometry of femoral and tibial articular cartilage and menisci was segmented from magnetic resonance images of a normal cadaver knee using MIMICS (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). A finite element mesh was generated using HyperWorks (Altair Inc, Santa Ana, CA). A finite element solver (Abaqus v6.9, Simulia, Providence, RI) was used to compute contact area and stresses under axial loading and to assess stability (reaction force generated during anteroposterior translation of the femur). The natural and surgical attachments of the meniscal horns and peripheral rim were simulated using springs. After total meniscectomy, femoral contact area decreased by 26% with a concomitant increase in average contact stresses (36%) and peak contact stresses (33%). Replacing the meniscus without suturing the horns did little to restore femoral contact area. Suturing the horns increased contact area and reduced peak contact stresses. Increasing suture stiffness correlated with increased meniscal contact stresses as a greater proportion of tibiofemoral load was transferred to the meniscus. A small incremental benefit was seen of simulated bone plug fixation over the suture construct with the highest stiffness (50 N/mm). Suturing the rim did little to change contact conditions. The nominal anteroposterior stiffness reduced by 3.1 N/mm after meniscectomy. In contrast to contact area and stress, stiffness of the horn fixation sutures had a smaller effect on anteroposterior stability. On the other hand suturing the rim of the meniscus affected anteroposterior stability to a much larger degree. This model emphasizes the importance of the meniscus in knee biomechanics. Appropriate meniscal replacement fixation techniques are likely to be critical to the clinical

  13. The knee meniscus: structure-function, pathophysiology, current repair techniques, and prospects for regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Eleftherios A.; Hadidi, Pasha; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive scientific investigations in recent decades have established the anatomical, biomechanical, and functional importance that the meniscus holds within the knee joint. As a vital part of the joint, it acts to prevent the deterioration and degeneration of articular cartilage, and the onset and development of osteoarthritis. For this reason, research into meniscus repair has been the recipient of particular interest from the orthopedic and bioengineering communities. Current repair techniques are only effective in treating lesions located in the peripheral vascularized region of the meniscus. Healing lesions found in the inner avascular region, which functions under a highly demanding mechanical environment, is considered to be a significant challenge. An adequate treatment approach has yet to be established, though many attempts have been undertaken. The current primary method for treatment is partial meniscectomy, which commonly results in the progressive development of osteoarthritis. This drawback has shifted research interest towards the fields of biomaterials and bioengineering, where it is hoped that meniscal deterioration can be tackled with the help of tissue engineering. So far, different approaches and strategies have contributed to the in vitro generation of meniscus constructs, which are capable of restoring meniscal lesions to some extent, both functionally as well as anatomically. The selection of the appropriate cell source (autologous, allogeneic, or xenogeneic cells, or stem cells) is undoubtedly regarded as key to successful meniscal tissue engineering. Furthermore, a large variation of scaffolds for tissue engineering have been proposed and produced in experimental and clinical studies, although a few problems with these (e.g., byproducts of degradation, stress shielding) have shifted research interest towards new strategies (e.g., scaffoldless approaches, self-assembly). A large number of different chemical (e.g., TGF-β1, C-ABC) and

  14. Microstructural evolution and tensile properties of Sn-Ag-Cu mixed with Sn-Pb solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fengjiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); O' Keefe, Matthew [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States)], E-mail: mjokeefe@mst.edu; Brinkmeyer, Brandon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States)

    2009-05-27

    The effect of incorporating eutectic Sn-Pb solder with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) Pb-free solder on the microstructure and tensile properties of the mixed alloys was investigated. Alloys containing 100, 75, 50, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0 wt% SAC, with the balance being Sn-37Pb eutectic solder alloy, were prepared and characterized. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the microstructures while 'mini-tensile' test specimens were fabricated and tested to determine mechanical properties at the mm length scale, more closely matching that of the solder joints. Microstructural analysis indicated that a Pb-rich phase formed and was uniformly distributed at the boundary between the Sn-rich grains or between the Sn-rich and the intermetallic compounds in the solder. Tensile results showed that mixing of the alloys resulted in an increase in both the yield and the ultimate tensile strength compared to the original solders, with the 50% SAC-50% Sn-Pb mixture having the highest measured strength. Initial investigations indicate the formation and distribution of a Pb-rich phase in the mixed solder alloys as the source of the strengthening mechanism.

  15. Mechanical Deformation Behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu Solders with Minor Addition of 0.05 wt.% Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, A. E.; El-Taher, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a comparative evaluation of the microstructural and mechanical deformation behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solders with the minor addition of 0.05 wt.% Ni. Test results showed that, by adding 0.05Ni element into SAC solders, generated mainly small rod-shaped (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) inside the β-Sn phase. Moreover, increasing the Ag content and adding Ni could result in the change of the shape and size of the IMC precipitate. Hence, a significant improvement is observed in the mechanical properties of SAC solders with increasing Ag content and Ni addition. On the other hand, the tensile results of Ni-doped SAC solders showed that both the yield stress and ultimate tensile strengths decrease with increasing temperature and with decreasing strain rate. This behavior was attributed to the competing effects of work hardening and dynamic recovery processes. The Sn-2.0Ag-0.5Cu-0.05Ni solder displayed the highest mechanical properties due to the formation of hard (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMCs. Based on the obtained stress exponents and activation energies, it is suggested that the dominant deformation mechanism in SAC (205)-, SAC (0505)- and SAC (0505)-0.05Ni solders is pipe diffusion, and lattice self-diffusion in SAC (205)-0.05Ni solder. In view of these results, the Sn-2.0Ag-0.5Cu-0.05Ni alloy is a more reliable solder alloy with improved properties compared with other solder alloys tested in the present work.

  16. Incorporation of Interfacial Intermetallic Morphology in Fracture Mechanism Map for Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Kumar, P.; Dutta, I.; Sidhu, R.; Renavikar, M.; Mahajan, R.

    2014-01-01

    A fracture mechanism map (FMM) is a powerful tool which correlates the fracture behavior of a material to its microstructural characteristics in an explicit and convenient way. In the FMM for solder joints, an effective thickness of the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer ( t eff) and the solder yield strength ( σ ys,eff) are used as abscissa and ordinate axes, respectively, as these two predominantly affect the fracture behavior of solder joints. Earlier, a definition of t eff, based on the uniform thickness of IMC ( t u) and the average height of the IMC scallops ( t s), was proposed and shown to aptly explain the fracture behavior of solder joints on Cu. This paper presents a more general definition of t eff that is more widely applicable to a range of metallizations, including Cu and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). Using this new definition of t eff, mode I FMM for SAC387/Cu joints has been updated and its validity was confirmed. A preliminary FMM for SAC387/Cu joints with ENIG metallization is also presented.

  17. The thermodynamic database COST MP0602 for materials for high-temperature lead-free soldering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Aleš; Dinsdale, A.; Watson, A.; Vřešťál, J.; Zemanová, Adéla; Brož, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2012), s. 339-346 ISSN 1450-5339 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD11024 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : CALPHAD method * lead-free solders * thermodynamic database Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2012

  18. Circuit reliability boosted by soldering pins of disconnect plugs to sockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, W. B.

    1964-01-01

    Where disconnect pins must be used for wiring and testing a circuit, improved system reliability is obtained by making a permanent joint between pins and sockets of the disconnect plug. After the circuit has been tested, contact points may be fused through soldering, brazing, or welding.

  19. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  20. Fatigue damage modeling in solder interconnects using a cohesive zone approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul-Baqi, A.J.J.; Schreurs, P.J.G.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is to model the fatigue damage process in a solder bump subjected to cyclic loading conditions. Fatigue damage is simulated using the cohesive zone methodology. Damage is assumed to occur at interfaces modeled through cohesive zones in the material, while the bulk material

  1. Microstructural and mechanical properties analysis of extruded Sn–0.7Cu solder alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul-Aziz Bogno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties and performance of lead-free solder alloys such as fluidity and wettability are defined by the alloy composition and solidification microstructure. Rapid solidification of metallic alloys is known to result in refined microstructures with reduced microsegregation and improved mechanical properties of the final products as compared to normal castings. The rapidly solidified Sn-based solders by melt spinning were shown to be suitable for soldering with low temperature and short soldering duration. In the present study, rapidly solidified Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets generated by impulse atomization (IA were achieved as well as directional solidification under transient conditions at lower cooling rate. This paper reports on a comparative study of the rapidly solidified and the directionally solidified samples. Different but complementary characterization techniques were used to fully analyze the solidification microstructures of the samples obtained under the two cooling regimes. These include X-ray diffractometry (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In order to compare the tensile strength and elongation to fracture of the directionally solidified ingot and strip castings with the atomized droplet, compaction and extrusion of the latter were carried out. It was shown that more balanced and superior tensile mechanical properties are available for the hot extruded samples from compacted as-atomized Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets. Further, elongation-to-fracture was 2–3× higher than that obtained for the directionally solidified samples.

  2. Development of high melting point, environmentally friendly solders, using the calphad approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2008-01-01

    An attempt has been made using the CALPHAD approach via Thermo-Calc to explore the various possible chemical compositions that adhere to the melting criterion i.e. 270-350 degrees C, required to replace the traditionally used high lead content solders for first level packaging applications. Vario...... tension have also been considered. Special focus has been given to toxicity related issues since the main ideology of looking for an alternative to high lead containing solders is not related to technical issues but due to environmental concerns.......An attempt has been made using the CALPHAD approach via Thermo-Calc to explore the various possible chemical compositions that adhere to the melting criterion i.e. 270-350 degrees C, required to replace the traditionally used high lead content solders for first level packaging applications. Various...... of promising solder alloy candidates. The ternary combinations that satisfied the primary solidification requirement were scrutinized taking into account the commercial interests i.e. availability, cost-effectiveness, recyclability and toxicity issues. Technical issues like manufacturability and surface...

  3. Electrochemical migration of lead-free solder alloys in Na2SO4 environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medgyes, Balint; Ádám, Sándor; Tar, Lajos

    2017-01-01

    The effect of sulphate ion concentration on electrochemical migration of lead-free solder alloys was investigated with the use of water drop tests, by applying an in-situ optical and electrical inspection system. According to the Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF) values it was found that in the case of...

  4. Design and Experiment of a Solder Paste Jetting System Driven by a Piezoelectric Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoudong Gu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To compensate for the insufficiency and instability of solder paste dispensing and printing that are used in the SMT (Surface Mount Technology production process, a noncontact solder paste jetting system driven by a piezoelectric stack based on the principle of the nozzle-needle-system is introduced in this paper, in which a miniscule gap exists between the nozzle and needle during the jetting process. Here, the critical jet ejection velocity is discussed through theoretical analysis. The relations between ejection velocity and needle structure, needle velocity, and nozzle diameter were obtained by FLUENT software. Then, the prototype of the solder paste jetting system was fabricated, and the performance was verified by experiments. The effects of the gap between nozzle and needle, the driving voltage, and the nozzle diameter on the jetting performance and droplet diameter were obtained. Solder paste droplets 0.85 mm in diameter were produced when the gap between the nozzle and needle was adjusted to 10 μm, the driving voltage to 80 V, the nozzle diameter to 0.1 mm, and the variation of the droplet diameter was within ±3%.

  5. Characterizing performances of solder paste printing process at flexible manufacturing lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siew, Jit Ping; Low, Heng Chin; Teoh, Ping Chow

    2015-01-01

    Solder paste printing (SPP) has been a challenge on printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing, evident by the proliferation of solder paste inspection equipment, or substituted by rigorous non-value added activity of manual inspections. The objective of this study is to characterize the SPP performance of various products manufactured in flexible production lines with different equipment configurations, and determine areas for process improvement. The study began by collecting information on SPP performance relative to component placement (CP) process, and to the proportion of mixed products. Using a clustering algorithm to group similar elements together, SPP performance across all product-production line pairs are statistically modeled to discover the trend and the influential factors. The main findings are: (a) Ratio of overall dpku for CP and SPP processes are 2:1; (b) logistic regression models of SPP performance indicated that only effects of product-production line and solder paste printer configuration are significant; (c) PCB circuitry design with BGA components and single solder paste printer line configurations generated the highest monthly defects, with the highest variation in the latter

  6. Characterizing performances of solder paste printing process at flexible manufacturing lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siew, Jit Ping; Low, Heng Chin [University of Science Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Teoh, Ping Chow [Wawasan Open University, 54 Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 10050 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Solder paste printing (SPP) has been a challenge on printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing, evident by the proliferation of solder paste inspection equipment, or substituted by rigorous non-value added activity of manual inspections. The objective of this study is to characterize the SPP performance of various products manufactured in flexible production lines with different equipment configurations, and determine areas for process improvement. The study began by collecting information on SPP performance relative to component placement (CP) process, and to the proportion of mixed products. Using a clustering algorithm to group similar elements together, SPP performance across all product-production line pairs are statistically modeled to discover the trend and the influential factors. The main findings are: (a) Ratio of overall dpku for CP and SPP processes are 2:1; (b) logistic regression models of SPP performance indicated that only effects of product-production line and solder paste printer configuration are significant; (c) PCB circuitry design with BGA components and single solder paste printer line configurations generated the highest monthly defects, with the highest variation in the latter.

  7. Hypospadias repair using laser tissue soldering (LTS): preliminary results of a prospective randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Andrew J.; Cooper, Christopher S.; Canning, Douglas A.; Snyder, Howard M., III; Zderic, Stephen A.

    1998-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser tissue soldering using an 808 nm diode laser and wavelength- matched human albumin solder for urethral surgery in children. Methods: Currently, 30 boys, ages 3 months to 8 years were randomized to standard suturing (n equals 22) or 'sutureless' laser hypospadias repair (n equals 18). Laser soldering was performed with a human albumin solder doped with indocyanine green dye (2.5 mg/ml) using a laser power output of 0.5 W, pulse duration of 0.5 sec, and interval of 0.1 sec. Power density was approximately 16 W/cm2. In the laser group, sutures were used for tissue alignment only. At the time of surgery, neourethral and penile lengths, operative time for urethral repair, and number of sutures/throws were measured. Postoperatively, patients were examined for complications of wound healing, stricture, or fistula formation. Results: Mean age, severity of urethral defect, type of repair, and neourethra length were equivalent between the two groups. Operative time was significantly faster for laser soldering in both simple (1.6 plus or minus 0.21 min, p less than 0.001) and complex (5.4 plus or minus 0.28 min, p less than 0.0001) hypospadias repairs compared to controls (10.6 plus or minus 1.4 min and 27.8 plus or minus 2.9 min, respectively). The mean number of sutures used in the laser group for simple and complex repairs (3.3 plus or minus 0.3 and 8.1 plus or minus 0.64, respectively) were significantly (p less than 0.0001) less than for controls (8.2 plus or minus 0.84 and 20 plus or minus 2.3, respectively). Followup was between 3 months and 14 months. The overall complication rate in the laser group (11%) was lower than the controls (23%). However, statistical significance (p less than 0.05) was achieved only for the subgroup of patients undergoing simple repairs (LTS, 100% success versus suturing, 69% success). Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that laser tissue soldering for hypospadias repair

  8. Decomposition of no-clean solder flux systems and their effects on the corrosion reliability of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    No-clean flux systems are used today for the soldering of electronic printed circuit board assemblies assuming that all the aggressive substances of the flux will vanish during the soldering process i.e. evaporate, decompose or being enclosed safely in the residues. However this is not true in most...... that the fluxes do not decompose fully within the temperature regime of the soldering process, leaving behind significant level of weak organic acid residues. The residue depending on the type and amount can be can be very aggressive towards the corrosion on the printed circuit board assemblies. The glutaric acid...

  9. Meniscus maturation in the swine model: changes occurring along with anterior to posterior and medial to lateral aspect during growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Deponti, Daniela; Addis, Alessandro; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Peretti, Giuseppe M

    2014-01-01

    The meniscus plays important roles in knee function and mechanics and is characterized by a heterogeneous matrix composition. The changes in meniscus vascularization observed during growth suggest that the tissue-specific composition may be the result of a maturation process. This study has the aim to characterize the structural and biochemical variations that occur in the swine meniscus with age. To this purpose, menisci were collected from young and adult pigs and divided into different zones. In study 1, both lateral and medial menisci were divided into the anterior horn, the body and the posterior horn for the evaluation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), collagen 1 and 2 content. In study 2, the menisci were sectioned into the inner, the intermediate and the outer zones to determine the variations in the cell phenotype along with the inner–outer direction, through gene expression analysis. According to the results, the swine meniscus is characterized by an increasing enrichment in the cartilaginous component with age, with an increasing deposition in the anterior horn (GAGs and collagen 2; P meniscus maturation, suggesting a specific response of meniscal cells to the regional mechanical stimuli in the knee joint. PMID:25216283

  10. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  11. Laser solder welding of articular cartilage: tensile strength and chondrocyte viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züger, B J; Ott, B; Mainil-Varlet, P; Schaffner, T; Clémence, J F; Weber, H P; Frenz, M

    2001-01-01

    The surgical treatment of full-thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint remains a therapeutic challenge. Recently, new techniques for articular cartilage transplantation, such as mosaicplasty, have become available for cartilage repair. The long-term success of these techniques, however, depends not only on the chondrocyte viability but also on a lateral integration of the implant. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cartilage welding by using albumin solder that was dye-enhanced to allow coagulation with 808-nm laser diode irradiation. Conventional histology of light microscopy was compared with a viability staining to precisely determine the extent of thermal damage after laser welding. Indocyanine green (ICG) enhanced albumin solder (25% albumin, 0.5% HA, 0.1% ICG) was used for articular cartilage welding. For coagulation, the solder was irradiated through the cartilage implant by 808-nm laser light and the tensile strength of the weld was measured. Viability staining revealed a thermal damage of typically 500 m in depth at an irradiance of approximately 10 W/cm(2) for 8 seconds, whereas conventional histologies showed only half of the extent found by the viability test. Heat-bath investigations revealed a threshold temperature of minimum 54 degrees C for thermal damage of chondrocytes. Efficient cartilage bonding was obtained by using bovine albumin solder as adhesive. Maximum tensile strength of more than 10 N/cm(2) was achieved. Viability tests revealed that the thermal damage is much greater (up to twice) than expected after light microscopic characterization. This study shows the feasibility to strongly laser weld cartilage on cartilage by use of a dye-enhanced albumin solder. Possibilities to reduce the range of damage are suggested. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Fluxless flip-chip bonding using a lead-free solder bumping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Kousar, S.; Pitzl, D.; Arab, S.

    2017-09-01

    With the LHC exceeding the nominal instantaneous luminosity, the current barrel pixel detector (BPIX) of the CMS experiment at CERN will reach its performance limits and undergo significant radiation damage. In order to improve detector performance in high luminosity conditions, the entire BPIX is replaced with an upgraded version containing an additional detection layer. Half of the modules comprising this additional layer are produced at DESY using fluxless and lead-free bumping and bonding techniques. Sequential solder-jetting technique is utilized to wet 40-μm SAC305 solder spheres on the silicon-sensor pads with electroless Ni, Pd and immersion Au (ENEPIG) under-bump metallization (UBM). The bumped sensors are flip-chip assembled with readout chips (ROCs) and then reflowed using a flux-less bonding facility. The challenges for jetting low solder volume have been analyzed and will be presented in this paper. An average speed of 3.4 balls per second is obtained to jet about 67 thousand solder balls on a single chip. On average, 7 modules have been produced per week. The bump-bond quality is evaluated in terms of electrical and mechanical properties. The peak-bump resistance is about 17.5 mΩ. The cross-section study revealed different types of intermetallic compounds (IMC) as a result of interfacial reactions between UBM and solder material. The effect of crystalline phases on the mechanical properties of the joint is discussed. The mean shear strength per bump after the final module reflow is about 16 cN. The results and sources of yield loss of module production are reported. The achieved yield is 95%.

  13. Thermal Fatigue Evaluation of Pb-Free Solder Joints: Results, Lessons Learned, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Richard J.; Sweatman, Keith; Arfaei, Babak

    2015-09-01

    Thermal fatigue is a major source of failure of solder joints in surface mount electronic components and it is critically important in high reliability applications such as telecommunication, military, and aeronautics. The electronic packaging industry has seen an increase in the number of Pb-free solder alloy choices beyond the common near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu alloys first established as replacements for eutectic SnPb. This paper discusses the results from Pb-free solder joint reliability programs sponsored by two industry consortia. The characteristic life in accelerated thermal cycling is reported for 12 different Pb-free solder alloys and a SnPb control in 9 different accelerated thermal cycling test profiles in terms of the effects of component type, accelerated thermal cycling profile and dwell time. Microstructural analysis on assembled and failed samples was performed to investigate the effect of initial microstructure and its evolution during accelerated thermal cycling test. A significant finding from the study is that the beneficial effect of Ag on accelerated thermal cycling reliability (measured by characteristic lifetime) diminishes as the severity of the accelerated thermal cycling, defined by greater ΔT, higher peak temperature, and longer dwell time increases. The results also indicate that all the Pb-free solders are more reliable in accelerated thermal cycling than the SnPb alloy they have replaced. Suggestions are made for future work, particularly with respect to the continued evolution of alloy development for emerging application requirements and the value of using advanced analytical methods to provide a better understanding of the effect of microstructure and its evolution on accelerated thermal cycling performance.

  14. Is the pull-out force of the Meniscus Arrow in bone affected by the inward curling of the barbs during biodegradation? An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Diederick B.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; de Hosson, Jeff T. M.; Bos, Rudolf R. M.

    Background: Inward curling of the barbs of Meniscus Arrows during degradation was observed in a previous study, in which swelling, distention, and water uptake by Meniscus Arrows was evaluated. This change of configuration could have consequences with respect to anchorage capacity in bone.

  15. Subgrain Rotation Behavior in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu-Sn37Pb Solder Joints During Thermal Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Tan, Shihai; Guo, Fu

    2018-01-01

    Ball grid array (BGA) samples were soldered on a printed circuit board with Sn37Pb solder paste to investigate the recrystallization induced by subgrain rotation during thermal shock. The composition of the solder balls was Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu-Sn37Pb, which comprised mixed solder joints. The BGA component was cross-sectioned before thermal shock. The microstructure and grain orientations were obtained by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron back-scattered diffraction system. Two mixed solder joints at corners of the BGA component were selected as the subjects. The results showed that recrystallization occurred at the corner of the solder joints after 200 thermal shock cycles. The recrystallized subgrains had various new grain orientations. The newly generated grain orientations were closely related to the initial grain orientations, which indicated that different subgrain rotation behaviors could occur in one mixed solder joint with the same initial grain orientation. When the misorientation angles were very small, the rotation axes were about Sn [100], [010] and [001], as shown by analyzing the misorientation angles and subgrain rotation axes, while the subgrain rotation behavior with large misorientation angles in the solder joints was much more complicated. As Pb was contained in the solder joints and the stress was concentrated on the corner of the mixed solder joints, concaves and cracks were formed. When the adjacent recrystallized subgrains were separated, and the process of the continuous recrystallization was limited.

  16. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  17. Effect of rare earth Ce on the fatigue life of SnAgCu solder joints in WLCSP device using FEM and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Ji-guang; Guo, Yong-huan; He, Cheng-wen

    2014-01-01

    With the addition of 0.03 wt% rare earth Ce, in our previous works, the properties of SnAgCu solder were enhanced obviously. Based on the Garofalo–Arrhenius creep constitutive model, finite element method was used to simulate the stress–strain response during thermal cycle loading, and combined with the fatigue life prediction models, the fatigue life of SnAgCu/SnAgCuCe solder joints was calculated respectively, which can demonstrate the effect of the rare earth Ce on the fatigue life of SnAgCu solder joints. The results indicated that the maximum stress–strain can be found on the top surface of the corner solder joint, and the warpage of the PCB substrate occurred during thermal cycle loading. The trends obtained from modeling results have a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature for WLCSP devices. In addition, the stress–strain of SnAgCuCe solder joints is lower than that of SnAgCu solder joints. The thermal fatigue lives of solder joints calculated based on the creep model and creep strain energy density model show that the fatigue life of SnAgCuCe solder joints is higher than the SnAgCu solder joints. The fatigue life of SnAgCuCe solder joints can be enhanced significantly with the addition of Ce, is 30.2% higher than that of SnAgCu solder joints, which can be attributed to the CeSn 3 particles formed resisting the motion of dislocation; moreover, the refinement of microstructure and the IMC sizes also contribute to the enhancement of fatigue life, which elucidates that SnAgCuCe solder can be utilized in electronic industry with high reliability replacing the SnAgCu solder

  18. The rise of Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tamary

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Chrome’s initial release in 2008 it has grown in market share, and now controls roughly half of the desktop browsers market. In contrast with Internet Explorer, the previous dominant browser, this was not achieved by marketing practices such as bundling the browser with a pre-loaded operating system. This raises the question of how Chrome achieved this remarkable feat, while other browsers such as Firefox and Opera were left behind. We show that both the performance of Chrome and its conformance with relevant standards are typically better than those of the two main contending browsers, Internet Explorer and Firefox. In addition, based on a survey of the importance of 25 major features, Chrome product managers seem to have made somewhat better decisions in selecting where to put effort. Thus the rise of Chrome is consistent with technical superiority over the competition.

  19. Mathematical modelling of liquid meniscus shape in cylindrical micro-channel for normal and micro gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, Igor; Lyulin, Yuriy

    2017-10-01

    Mathematical model of liquid meniscus shape in cylindrical micro-channel of the separator unit of condensing/separating system is presented. Moving liquid meniscus in the 10 μm cylindrical microchannel is used as a liquid lock to recover the liquid obtained by condensation from the separators. The main goal of the liquid locks to prevent penetration of a gas phase in the liquid line at the small flow rate of the condensate and because of pressure fluctuations in the vapor-gas-liquid loop. Calculation of the meniscus shape has been performed for liquid FC-72 at different values of pressure difference gas - liquid and under normal and micro gravity conditions.

  20. Use of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging in identifying the vascular and avascular zones of human meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tan; Chen, Juan; Wu, Bing; Zheng, Dandan; Jiao, Sheng; Song, Yan; Chen, Min

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging may depict microcirculation of meniscus and the perfusion changes in meniscal disorder. Fifty patients received diffusion-weighted MRI with multiple b-values ranging from 0 to 400 s/mm 2 . The four horns of the menisci were divided into normal, degenerated, and torn groups. IVIM parameters including perfusion fraction (f), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), true diffusion coefficient (D), and the product of f and D* (f D*) of normal meniscal red zone and white zone were derived and compared for microcirculation changes of normal, degenerated, and torn posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PMM). The parameters between red and white zones among the groups were compared. Significant differences were considered when P meniscus and the perfusion changes in meniscal disorder. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:1090-1096. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Plume rise predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anyone involved with diffusion calculations becomes well aware of the strong dependence of maximum ground concentrations on the effective stack height, h/sub e/. For most conditions chi/sub max/ is approximately proportional to h/sub e/ -2 , as has been recognized at least since 1936 (Bosanquet and Pearson). Making allowance for the gradual decrease in the ratio of vertical to lateral diffusion at increasing heights, the exponent is slightly larger, say chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ - 2 . 3 . In inversion breakup fumigation, the exponent is somewhat smaller; very crudely, chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ -1 . 5 . In any case, for an elevated emission the dependence of chi/sub max/ on h/sub e/ is substantial. It is postulated that a really clever ignorant theoretician can disguise his ignorance with dimensionless constants. For most sources the effective stack height is considerably larger than the actual source height, h/sub s/. For instance, for power plants with no downwash problems, h/sub e/ is more than twice h/sub s/ whenever the wind is less than 10 m/sec, which is most of the time. This is unfortunate for anyone who has to predict ground concentrations, for he is likely to have to calculate the plume rise, Δh. Especially when using h/sub e/ = h/sub s/ + Δh instead of h/sub s/ may reduce chi/sub max/ by a factor of anywhere from 4 to infinity. Factors to be considered in making plume rise predictions are discussed

  2. Revision 1 size and position of the healthy meniscus, and its correlation with sex, height, weight, and bone area- a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloecker, Katja; Englund, Martin; Wirth, Wolfgang; Hudelmaier, Martin; Burgkart, Rainer; Frobell, Richard B; Eckstein, Felix

    2011-10-28

    Meniscus extrusion or hypertrophy may occur in knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, currently no data are available on the position and size of the meniscus in asymptomatic men and women with normal meniscus integrity. Three-dimensional coronal DESSwe MRIs were used to segment and quantitatively measure the size and position of the medial and lateral menisci, and their correlation with sex, height, weight, and tibial plateau area. 102 knees (40 male and 62 female) were drawn from the Osteoarthritis Initiative "non-exposed" reference cohort, including subjects without symptoms, radiographic signs, or risk factors for knee OA. Knees with MRI signs of meniscus lesions were excluded. The tibial plateau area was significantly larger (p sexes, and that tibial coverage by the meniscus is similar between men and women.

  3. Changes in Contact Area in Meniscus Horizontal Cleavage Tears Subjected to Repair and Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Brandon S; Walley, Kempland C; Okajima, Stephen; Manoukian, Ohan S; Perez-Viloria, Miguel; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J; Nazarian, Ara

    2017-03-01

    To assess the changes in tibiofemoral contact pressure and contact area in human knees with a horizontal cleavage tear before and after treatment. Ten human cadaveric knees were tested. Pressure sensors were placed under the medial meniscus and the knees were loaded at twice the body weight for 20 cycles at 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion. Contact area and pressure were recorded for the intact meniscus, the meniscus with a horizontal cleavage tear, after meniscal repair, after partial meniscectomy (single leaflet), and after subtotal meniscectomy (double leaflet). The presence of a horizontal cleavage tear significantly increased average peak contact pressure and reduced effective average tibiofemoral contact area at all flexion angles tested compared with the intact state (P contact pressure after creation of the horizontal cleavage tear. Repairing the horizontal cleavage tear restored peak contact pressures and areas to within 15% of baseline, statistically similar to the intact state at all angles tested (P contact pressure and reduced average contact area at all degrees of flexion compared with the intact state (P contact area and a significant elevation in contact pressure. These changes may accelerate joint degeneration. A suture-based repair of these horizontal cleavage tears returns the contact area and contact pressure to nearly normal, whereas both partial and subtotal meniscectomy lead to significant reductions in contact area and significant elevations in contact pressure within the knee. Repairing horizontal cleavage tears may lead to improved clinical outcomes by preserving meniscal tissue and the meniscal function. Understanding contact area and peak contact pressure resulting from differing strategies for treating horizontal cleavage tears will allow the surgeon to evaluate the best strategy for treating his or her patients who present with this meniscal pathology. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier

  4. Radiological classification of meniscocapsular tears of the anterolateral portion of the lateral meniscus of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.; Packya, N.; Tan, A.H.; Paul, G.

    2000-01-01

    In an arthroscopic-MRI correlation study of acute injuries to the knee it was found that anterolateral meniscocapsular separations of the lateral aspect of the knee were missed on MRI reporting. Eighty sports-related injuries of the knee were seen by experienced orthopaedic surgeons at the University of Malaya Medical Centre and at the National Sports Centre, Malaysia from January 1996 to July 1997. Fifty of the patients were suspected to have meniscal tears that were either lateral or medial on clinical examination and they were sent for MRI. Many of these patients were tertiary referrals. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations in 27 of the 50 patients were reported as not showing any intrasubstance or obvious meniscocapsular tears, but arthroscopy performed on them revealed anterolateral meniscocapsular tears of the lateral meniscus of varying degrees in nine of these patients. In retrospect the tears could be seen on MRI, and a pattern to the tears was noted and classified as follows. Type 0, normal; type 1, torn inferior or superior meniscocapsular attachment; type 2, both meniscofemoral and meniscotibial ligaments torn but with minimal separation of meniscus and capsule by fluid or synovitis; and type 3, marked separation of meniscus and capsule by fluid (> 3 mm). Ten patients who did not undergo arthroscopy for various personal and financial reasons underwent MRI which showed type 1 and type 2 tears, and were treated conservatively. These patients were all asymptomatic after 4-6 weeks with regard to clinical signs, suggesting a lateral meniscal tear. Magnetic resonance imaging therefore does reveal minor degrees of meniscocapsular tears anterolaterally when one understands the normal anatomy in this region. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Effect of Strain, Region, and Tissue Composition on Glucose Partitioning in Meniscus Fibrocartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Kelsey L; Jackson, Alicia R

    2017-03-01

    A nearly avascular tissue, the knee meniscus relies on diffusive transport for nutritional supply to cells. Nutrient transport depends on solute partitioning in the tissue, which governs the amount of nutrients that can enter a tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain, tissue region, and tissue composition on the partition coefficient of glucose in meniscus fibrocartilage. A simple partitioning experiment was employed to measure glucose partitioning in porcine meniscus tissues from two regions (horn and central), from both meniscal components (medial and lateral), and at three levels of compression (0%, 10%, and 20%). Partition coefficient values were correlated to strain level, water volume fraction, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of tissue specimens. Partition coefficient values ranged from 0.47 to 0.91 (n = 48). Results show that glucose partition coefficient is significantly (p < 0.001) affected by compression, decreasing with increasing strain. Furthermore, we did not find a statistically significant effect of tissue when comparing medial versus lateral (p = 0.181) or when comparing central and horn regions (p = 0.837). There were significant positive correlations between tissue water volume fraction and glucose partitioning for all groups. However, the correlation between GAG content and partitioning was only significant in the lateral horn group. Determining how glucose partitioning is affected by tissue composition and loading is necessary for understanding nutrient availability and related tissue health and/or degeneration. Therefore, this study is important for better understanding the transport and nutrition-related mechanisms of meniscal degeneration.

  6. Development of a fast curing tissue adhesive for meniscus tear repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochyńska, Agnieszka Izabela; Hannink, Gerjon; Janssen, Dennis; Buma, Pieter; Grijpma, Dirk W

    2017-01-01

    Isocyanate-terminated adhesive amphiphilic block copolymers are attractive materials to treat meniscus tears due to their tuneable mechanical properties and good adhesive characteristics. However, a drawback of this class of materials is their relatively long curing time. In this study, we evaluate the use of an amine cross-linker and addition of catalysts as two strategies to accelerate the curing rates of a recently developed biodegradable reactive isocyanate-terminated hyper-branched adhesive block copolymer prepared from polyethylene glycol (PEG), trimethylene carbonate, citric acid and hexamethylene diisocyanate. The curing kinetics of the hyper-branched adhesive alone and in combination with different concentrations of spermidine solutions, and after addition of 2,2-dimorpholinodiethylether (DMDEE) or 1,4-diazabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (DABCO) were determined using FTIR. Additionally, lap-shear adhesion tests using all compositions at various time points were performed. The two most promising compositions of the fast curing adhesives were evaluated in a meniscus bucket handle lesion model and their performance was compared with that of fibrin glue. The results showed that addition of both spermidine and catalysts to the adhesive copolymer can accelerate the curing rate and that firm adhesion can already be achieved after 2 h. The adhesive strength to meniscus tissue of 3.2-3.7 N was considerably higher for the newly developed compositions than for fibrin glue (0.3 N). The proposed combination of an adhesive component and a cross-linking component or catalyst is a promising way to accelerate curing rates of isocyanate-terminated tissue adhesives.

  7. The Effect of Reflow on Wettability of Sn 96.5 Ag 3 Cu 0.5 Solder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Weltsch

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface conditions on Printed Circuit Board (PCB final finishes have an important impact on the wetting behaviour with lead-free solder. The improvement of wettability in liquid Sn 96.5 Ag 3 Cu 0.5 Solder alloy on PCB substrate was measured with a sessile drop method at 523 K temperature. Wetting properties was determined in normal atmospheric air and inert atmosphere. The wetting angles increasing with the number of reflows both atmosphere. The effect of the atmosphere has a huge importance of the oxidation which manifests itself of the measured wetting angles. One of the most important factors to the wetting properties is the amount of oxygen in the soldering atmosphere. Using the inert atmosphere is crucial to Pb-free solders, particularly after reflows.

  8. Comparison of the insertion of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus: discoid versus non-discoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Yang, Bong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Young; Lee, Chae-Chul; Lee, Chang-Yk; Victoroff, Brian N

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the insertion sites of the posterior horn between discoid and non-discoid lateral meniscus using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two hundred and twenty-seven patients who had MRI scans before surgery and underwent arthroscopy were enroled in this study. A coronal view showing the narrowest width of the midbody of the lateral meniscus was chosen to measure the widths of the entire tibial plateau and the midbody of the lateral meniscus. Considering the ratio of the meniscal width to the tibial plateau width, the patients were divided into non-discoid, incomplete discoid, and complete discoid groups. On a coronal view accurately showing the insertion of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus, a distance between the peak of the lateral tibial eminence and the centre of the insertion of the posterior horn, and a width of the lateral tibial plateau between the lateral edge of the tibial plateau and the peak of the lateral tibial eminence were measured. The insertion centre of the posterior horn was located more medially in the incomplete and complete discoid groups than in the non-discoid group (p = 0.003, 0.010, respectively). When individual differences in the knee size were corrected, the insertion centre of the posterior horn in the incomplete discoid and complete discoid groups was located more medially than in the non-discoid group (p = 0.009, 0.003, respectively). The insertion centre of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus is located more medially to the apex of the lateral tibial eminence in the discoid group than in the non-discoid group. This finding needs to be considered for an accurate position of the posterior horn of lateral meniscus during the lateral meniscal allograft transplantation. IV.

  9. Magnetic Resonance of the Knee: Beyond Simple Ligament or Meniscus Ruptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano, Juan Fernando; Estrada, Mauricio; Delgado, Jorge Andres

    2008-01-01

    Knee injuries, both acute and chronic are a frequent cause of consultation in the general population and athletes. In addition to ligamentary and meniscus injuries, there is a large number of diseases that produce knee pain or functional limitation, which are treated differently or may modify the initial treatment. MRI is a very effective method for the study and diagnosis of these pathologies. We describe in this article some of these pathologies found on studies performed at Instituto de Alta Tecnologia Medica de Antioquia (IATM ).

  10. The influence of a change in the meniscus cross-sectional shape on the medio-lateral translation of the knee joint and meniscal extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Karol; Witkowski, Wojciech; Chróścielewski, Jacek; Ferenc, Tomasz; Baczkowski, Boguslaw

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a change in the meniscus cross sectional shape on its position and on the biomechanics of a knee joint. One main finite element model of a left knee joint was created on the basis of MRI images. The model consisted of bones, articular cartilages, menisci and ligaments. Eight variants of this model with an increased or decreased meniscus height were then prepared. Nonlinear static analyses with a fixed flexion/extension movement for a compressive load of 1000 N were performed. The additional analyses for those models with a constrained medio-lateral relative bone translation allowed for an evaluation of the influence of this translation on a meniscus external shift. It was observed that a decrease in the meniscus height caused a decrease in the contact area, together with a decrease in the contact force between the flattened meniscus and the cartilage. For the models with an increased meniscus height, a maximal value of force acting on the meniscus in a medio-lateral direction was obtained. The results have shown that the meniscus external shift was approximately proportional to the meniscus slope angle, but that relationship was modified by a medio-lateral relative bone translation. It was found that the translation of the femur relative to the tibia may be dependent on the geometry of the menisci. The results have suggested that a change in the meniscus geometry in the cross sectional plane can considerably affect not only the meniscal external shift, but also the medio-lateral translation of the knee joint as well as the congruency of the knee joint.

  11. The influence of a change in the meniscus cross-sectional shape on the medio-lateral translation of the knee joint and meniscal extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszkiewicz, Karol; Witkowski, Wojciech; Chróścielewski, Jacek; Ferenc, Tomasz; Baczkowski, Boguslaw

    2018-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a change in the meniscus cross sectional shape on its position and on the biomechanics of a knee joint. Methods One main finite element model of a left knee joint was created on the basis of MRI images. The model consisted of bones, articular cartilages, menisci and ligaments. Eight variants of this model with an increased or decreased meniscus height were then prepared. Nonlinear static analyses with a fixed flexion/extension movement for a compressive load of 1000 N were performed. The additional analyses for those models with a constrained medio-lateral relative bone translation allowed for an evaluation of the influence of this translation on a meniscus external shift. Results It was observed that a decrease in the meniscus height caused a decrease in the contact area, together with a decrease in the contact force between the flattened meniscus and the cartilage. For the models with an increased meniscus height, a maximal value of force acting on the meniscus in a medio-lateral direction was obtained. The results have shown that the meniscus external shift was approximately proportional to the meniscus slope angle, but that relationship was modified by a medio-lateral relative bone translation. It was found that the translation of the femur relative to the tibia may be dependent on the geometry of the menisci. Conclusions The results have suggested that a change in the meniscus geometry in the cross sectional plane can considerably affect not only the meniscal external shift, but also the medio-lateral translation of the knee joint as well as the congruency of the knee joint. PMID:29447236

  12. Effect of Surface Finish of Substrate on Mechanical Reliability of in-48SN Solder Joints in Moems Package

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Ja-Myeong; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2007-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920); International audience; Interfacial reactions and shear properties of the In-48Sn (in wt.%) ball grid array (BGA) solder joints after bonding were investigated with four different surface finishes of the substrate over an underlying Cu pad: electroplated Ni/Au (hereafter E-NG), electroless Ni/immersion Au (hereafter ENIG), immersion Ag (hereafter I-Ag) and organic solderability preservative (hereafte...

  13. Microstructural discovery of Al addition on Sn–0.5Cu-based Pb-free solder design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Changsoo; Hong, Sung Jea; Kim, Keun-Soo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2015-01-01

    It is important to develop Pb-free solder alloys suitable for automotive use instead of traditional Sn–Pb solder due to environmental regulations (e.g., Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)). Al addition has been spotlighted to enhance solder properties. In this study, we investigated the microstructural change of Sn–0.5Cu wt.% based Pb-free solder alloys with Al addition (0.01–0.05 wt.%). The small amount of Al addition caused a remarkable microstructural change. The Al was favored to form Cu–Al intermetallic compounds inside the solder matrix. We identified the Cu–Al intermetallic compound as Cu_3_3Al_1_7, which has a rhombohedral structure, using EPMA and TEM analyses. This resulted in refined Cu_6Sn_5 networks in the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloy. In addition, we conducted thermal analysis to confirm its stability at a high temperature of approximately 230 °C, which is the necessary temperature range for automotive applications. The solidification results were substantiated thermodynamically using the Scheil solidification model. We can provide criteria for the minimum aluminum content to modify the microstructure of Pb-free solder alloys. - Graphical abstract: The minor Al additions refined eutectic Cu_6Sn_5 IMC networks on the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloys. The microstructure was dramatically changed with the minor Al addition. - Highlights: • We observed dramatic microstructure-change with Al additions. • We defined Cu_3_3Al_1_7 IMC with Al additions using TEM analysis. • We investigated grain refinement with Al additions using EBSD. • We discussed the refinement based on Scheil solidification model.

  14. A FPGA implementation of solder paste deposit on printed circuit boards errors detector based in a bright and contrast algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca-Pennacchia, A.; Sánchez-Martínez, M. Á.

    2007-01-01

    Solder paste deposit on printed circuit boards (PCB) is a critical stage. It is known that about 60% of functionality defects in this type of boards are due to poor solder paste printing. These defects can be diminished by means of automatic optical inspection of this printing. Actually, this process is implemented by image processing software with its inherent high computational time cost. In this paper we propose to implement a high parallel degree image comparison algorithm suitable to be ...

  15. Microstructural discovery of Al addition on Sn–0.5Cu-based Pb-free solder design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Changsoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Jea [MK Electron Co., Ltd., Yongin Cheoin-gu 316-2 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keun-Soo, E-mail: keunsookim@hoseo.edu [Department of Display Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyuck Mo, E-mail: hmlee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-25

    It is important to develop Pb-free solder alloys suitable for automotive use instead of traditional Sn–Pb solder due to environmental regulations (e.g., Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)). Al addition has been spotlighted to enhance solder properties. In this study, we investigated the microstructural change of Sn–0.5Cu wt.% based Pb-free solder alloys with Al addition (0.01–0.05 wt.%). The small amount of Al addition caused a remarkable microstructural change. The Al was favored to form Cu–Al intermetallic compounds inside the solder matrix. We identified the Cu–Al intermetallic compound as Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 17}, which has a rhombohedral structure, using EPMA and TEM analyses. This resulted in refined Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} networks in the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloy. In addition, we conducted thermal analysis to confirm its stability at a high temperature of approximately 230 °C, which is the necessary temperature range for automotive applications. The solidification results were substantiated thermodynamically using the Scheil solidification model. We can provide criteria for the minimum aluminum content to modify the microstructure of Pb-free solder alloys. - Graphical abstract: The minor Al additions refined eutectic Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC networks on the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloys. The microstructure was dramatically changed with the minor Al addition. - Highlights: • We observed dramatic microstructure-change with Al additions. • We defined Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 17} IMC with Al additions using TEM analysis. • We investigated grain refinement with Al additions using EBSD. • We discussed the refinement based on Scheil solidification model.

  16. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING LASER-ULTRASOUND TO MONITOR THE QUALITY SOLDERED CONNECTIONS CHAMBERS OF LIQUID ROCKET ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Astredinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacturing process to the design of modern liquid rocket engines are presented important requirements, such as minimum weight, maximum stiffness and strength of nodes, maximum service life in operation, high reliability and quality of soldered and welded seams. Due to the high quality requirements soldered connections and the specific design of the nozzle, it became necessary in the development and testing of a new non-conventional non-destructive testing method – laser-ultrasound diagnosis. In accordance with regulatory guidelines, quality control soldered connections is allowed to use an acoustic kind of control methods of the reflected light, transmitted light, resonant, free vibration and acoustic emission. Attempts to use traditional methods of non-destructive testing did not lead to positive results. This is due primarily to the size of typical solder joint defects, as well as the structural features of the rocket engine, the data structure is not controllable. In connection with this, a new method that provides quality control soldered connections cameras LRE based on the thermo generation of ultrasound. Methods of ultrasonic flaw detection of photoacoustic effect, in most cases, have a number of advantages over methods that use standard (traditional piezo transducers. In the course of studies have found that the sensitivity of the laser-ultrasonic method and flaw detector UDL-2M can detect lack of adhesion in the solder joints on the upper edges of the nozzle in the sub-header area of the site.

  17. Effect of trace elements on the interface reactions between two lead-free solders and copper or nickel substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Sn-Pb solder alloys are being replaced, because of environmental and health concerns about lead toxicity. Among some alternative alloy systems, the Sn-Zn and Sn-Cu base alloy systems have been studied and reveal promising properties. The reliability of a solder joint is affected by the solder/substrate interaction and the nature of the layers formed at the interface. The solder/substrate reactions, for Sn-Zn and Sn-Cu base solder alloys, were evaluated in what concerns the morphology and chemical composition of the interface layers. The effect of the addition of P, at low levels, on the chemical composition of the layers present at the interface was studied. The phases formed at the interface between the Cu or Ni substrate and a molten lead-free solder at 250ºC, were studied for different stage times and alloy compositions. The melting temperatures, of the studied alloys, were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Identification of equilibrium phases formed at the interface layer, and the evaluation of their chemical composition were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDS. Different interface characteristics were obtained, namely for the alloys containing Zn. The obtained IML layer thickness was compared, for both types of alloy systems.

  18. Effects of Ag addition on solid–state interfacial reactions between Sn–Ag–Cu solder and Cu substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ming; Ko, Yong-Ho; Bang, Junghwan; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Chang-Woo; Li, Mingyu

    2017-01-01

    Low–Ag–content Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) solders have attracted much recent attention in electronic packaging for their low cost. To reasonably reduce the Ag content in Pb–free solders, a deep understanding of the basic influence of Ag on the SAC solder/Cu substrate interfacial reaction is essential. Previous studies have discussed the influence of Ag on the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness. However, because IMC growth is the joint result of multiple factors, such characterizations do not reveal the actual role of Ag. In this study, changes in interfacial IMCs after Ag introduction were systemically and quantitatively characterized in terms of coarsening behaviors, orientation evolution, and growth kinetics. The results show that Ag in the solder alloy affects the coarsening behavior, accelerates the orientation concentration, and inhibits the growth of interfacial IMCs during solid–state aging. The inhibition mechanism was quantitatively discussed considering the individual diffusion behaviors of Cu and Sn atoms, revealing that Ag inhibits interfacial IMC growth primarily by slowing the diffusion of Cu atoms through the interface. - Highlights: •Role of Ag in IMC formation during Sn–Ag–Cu soldering was investigated. •Ag affects coarsening, crystallographic orientation, and IMC growth. •Diffusion pathways of Sn and Cu are affected differently by Ag. •Ag slows Cu diffusion to inhibit IMC growth at solder/substrate interface.

  19. Effects of Ag addition on solid–state interfacial reactions between Sn–Ag–Cu solder and Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming [Micro-Joining Center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 21999 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Yong-Ho [Micro-Joining Center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 21999 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Junghwan [Micro-Joining Center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 21999 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taek-Soo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Woo, E-mail: cwlee@kitech.re.kr [Micro-Joining Center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 21999 (Korea, Republic of); Li, Mingyu, E-mail: myli@hit.edu.cn [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Low–Ag–content Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) solders have attracted much recent attention in electronic packaging for their low cost. To reasonably reduce the Ag content in Pb–free solders, a deep understanding of the basic influence of Ag on the SAC solder/Cu substrate interfacial reaction is essential. Previous studies have discussed the influence of Ag on the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness. However, because IMC growth is the joint result of multiple factors, such characterizations do not reveal the actual role of Ag. In this study, changes in interfacial IMCs after Ag introduction were systemically and quantitatively characterized in terms of coarsening behaviors, orientation evolution, and growth kinetics. The results show that Ag in the solder alloy affects the coarsening behavior, accelerates the orientation concentration, and inhibits the growth of interfacial IMCs during solid–state aging. The inhibition mechanism was quantitatively discussed considering the individual diffusion behaviors of Cu and Sn atoms, revealing that Ag inhibits interfacial IMC growth primarily by slowing the diffusion of Cu atoms through the interface. - Highlights: •Role of Ag in IMC formation during Sn–Ag–Cu soldering was investigated. •Ag affects coarsening, crystallographic orientation, and IMC growth. •Diffusion pathways of Sn and Cu are affected differently by Ag. •Ag slows Cu diffusion to inhibit IMC growth at solder/substrate interface.

  20. Rapid Solidification of Sn-Cu-Al Alloys for High-Reliability, Lead-Free Solder: Part II. Intermetallic Coarsening Behavior of Rapidly Solidified Solders After Multiple Reflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Choquette, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2016-12-01

    Controlling the size, dispersion, and stability of intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder alloys is vital to creating reliable solder joints regardless of how many times the solder joints are melted and resolidified (reflowed) during circuit board assembly. In this article, the coarsening behavior of Cu x Al y and Cu6Sn5 in two Sn-Cu-Al alloys, a Sn-2.59Cu-0.43Al at. pct alloy produced via drip atomization and a Sn-5.39Cu-1.69Al at. pct alloy produced via melt spinning at a 5-m/s wheel speed, was characterized after multiple (1-5) reflow cycles via differential scanning calorimetry between the temperatures of 293 K and 523 K (20 °C and 250 °C). Little-to-no coarsening of the Cu x Al y particles was observed for either composition; however, clustering of Cu x Al y particles was observed. For Cu6Sn5 particle growth, a bimodal size distribution was observed for the drip atomized alloy, with large, faceted growth of Cu6Sn5 observed, while in the melt spun alloy, Cu6Sn5 particles displayed no significant increase in the average particle size, with irregularly shaped, nonfaceted Cu6Sn5 particles observed after reflow, which is consistent with shapes observed in the as-solidified alloys. The link between original alloy composition, reflow undercooling, and subsequent intermetallic coarsening behavior was discussed by using calculated solidification paths. The reflowed microstructures suggested that the heteroepitaxial relationship previously observed between the Cu x Al y and the Cu6Sn5 was maintained for both alloys.

  1. Measuring contact angle and meniscus shape with a reflected laser beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibach, T F; Fell, D; Nguyen, H; Butt, H J; Auernhammer, G K

    2014-01-01

    Side-view imaging of the contact angle between an extended planar solid surface and a liquid is problematic. Even when aligning the view perfectly parallel to the contact line, focusing one point of the contact line is not possible. We describe a new measurement technique for determining contact angles with the reflection of a widened laser sheet on a moving contact line. We verified this new technique measuring the contact angle on a cylinder, rotating partially immersed in a liquid. A laser sheet is inclined under an angle φ to the unperturbed liquid surface and is reflected off the meniscus. Collected on a screen, the reflection image contains information to determine the contact angle. When dividing the laser sheet into an array of laser rays by placing a mesh into the beam path, the shape of the meniscus can be reconstructed from the reflection image. We verified the method by measuring the receding contact angle versus speed for aqueous cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide solutions on a smooth hydrophobized as well as on a rough polystyrene surface.

  2. A Current Review of the Meniscus Imaging: Proposition of a Useful Tool for Its Radiologic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lefevre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this review was to present a synthesis of the current literature in order to provide a useful tool to clinician in radiologic analysis of the meniscus. All anatomical descriptions were clearly illustrated by MRI, arthroscopy, and/or drawings. The value of standard radiography is extremely limited for the assessment of meniscal injuries but may be indicated to obtain a differential diagnosis such as osteoarthritis. Ultrasound is rarely used as a diagnostic tool for meniscal pathologies and its accuracy is operator-dependent. CT arthrography with multiplanar reconstructions can detect meniscus tears that are not visible on MRI. This technique is also useful in case of MRI contraindications, in postoperative assessment of meniscal sutures and the condition of cartilage covering the articular surfaces. MRI is the most accurate and less invasive method for diagnosing meniscal lesions. MRI allows confirming and characterizing the meniscal lesion, the type, the extension, its association with a cyst, the meniscal extrusion, and assessing cartilage and subchondral bone. New 3D-MRI in three dimensions with isotropic resolution allows the creation of multiplanar reformatted images to obtain from an acquisition in one sectional plane reconstructions in other spatial planes. 3D MRI should further improve the diagnosis of meniscal tears.

  3. Tissue-Derived Extracellular Matrix Bioscaffolds: Emerging Applications in Cartilage and Meniscus Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monibi, Farrah A; Cook, James L

    2017-08-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a common problem in orthopedic practice. Given the long-term consequences of unaddressed cartilage and meniscal pathology, a number of treatments have been attempted to stimulate repair or to replace the injured tissue. Despite advances in orthopedic surgery, effective treatments for cartilage and meniscus injuries remain a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering is a developing field that aims to regenerate injured tissues with a combination of cells, scaffolds, and signals. Many natural and synthetic scaffold materials have been developed and tested for the repair and restoration of a number of musculoskeletal tissues. Among these, biological scaffolds derived from cell and tissue-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) have shown great promise in tissue engineering given the critical role of the ECM for maintaining the biological and biomechanical properties, structure, and function of native tissues. This review article presents emerging applications for tissue-derived ECM scaffolds in cartilage and meniscus repair. We examine normal ECM composition and the current and future methods for potential treatment of articular cartilage and meniscal defects with decellularized scaffolds.

  4. A Current Review of the Meniscus Imaging: Proposition of a Useful Tool for Its Radiologic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Nicolas; Naouri, Jean Francois; Herman, Serge; Gerometta, Antoine; Klouche, Shahnaz; Bohu, Yoann

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to present a synthesis of the current literature in order to provide a useful tool to clinician in radiologic analysis of the meniscus. All anatomical descriptions were clearly illustrated by MRI, arthroscopy, and/or drawings. The value of standard radiography is extremely limited for the assessment of meniscal injuries but may be indicated to obtain a differential diagnosis such as osteoarthritis. Ultrasound is rarely used as a diagnostic tool for meniscal pathologies and its accuracy is operator-dependent. CT arthrography with multiplanar reconstructions can detect meniscus tears that are not visible on MRI. This technique is also useful in case of MRI contraindications, in postoperative assessment of meniscal sutures and the condition of cartilage covering the articular surfaces. MRI is the most accurate and less invasive method for diagnosing meniscal lesions. MRI allows confirming and characterizing the meniscal lesion, the type, the extension, its association with a cyst, the meniscal extrusion, and assessing cartilage and subchondral bone. New 3D-MRI in three dimensions with isotropic resolution allows the creation of multiplanar reformatted images to obtain from an acquisition in one sectional plane reconstructions in other spatial planes. 3D MRI should further improve the diagnosis of meniscal tears. PMID:27057352

  5. Effect of surface oxide on the melting behavior of lead-free solder nanowires and nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fan; Rajathurai, Karunaharan; Cui, Qingzhou; Zhou, Guangwen; NkengforAcha, Irene; Gu Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free nanosolders have shown promise in nanowire and nanoelectronics assembly. Among various important parameters, melting is the most fundamental property affecting the assembly process. Here we report that the melting behavior of tin and tin/silver nanowires and nanorods can be significantly affected by the surface oxide of nanosolders. By controlling the nanosolder reflow atmosphere using a flux, the surface oxide of the nanowires/nanorods can be effectively removed and complete nanosolder melting can be achieved. The complete melting of the nanosolders leads to the formation of nanoscale to microscale spherical solder balls, followed by Ostwald ripening phenomenon. The contact angle of the microscale solder balls formed on Si substrate was measured by direct electron microscopic imaging. These results provide new insights into micro- and nanoscale phase transition and liquid droplet coalescence from nanowires/nanorods to spheroids, and are relevant to nanoscale assembly and smaller ball grid array formation.

  6. Recovery of Tin and Nitric Acid from Spent Solder Stripping Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ryu, Seong-Hyung; Kim, Tae-young

    2015-01-01

    Spent solder-stripping solutions containing tin, copper, iron, and lead in nitric acid solution, are by-products of the manufacture of printed-circuit boards. The recovery of these metals and the nitric acid, for re-use has economic and environmental benefits. In the spent solder-stripping solution, a systematic method to determine a suitable process for recovery of valuable metals and nitric acid was developed. Initially, more than 90% of the tin was successfully recovered as high-purity SnO 2 by thermal precipitation at 80 ℃ for 3 hours. About 94% of the nitric acid was regenerated effectively from the spent solutions by diffusion dialysis, after which there remained copper, iron, and lead in solution. Leakage of tin through the anion-exchange membrane was the lowest (0.026%), whereas Pb-leakage was highest (4.26%). The concentration of the regenerated nitric acid was about 5.1 N.

  7. Solder bond requirement for large, built-up, high-performance conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willig, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Some large built-up conductors fabricated for large superconducting magnets are designed to operate above the maximum recovery current. Because the stability of t