WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar wood burning

  1. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  2. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  3. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swithenbank, Jim; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 o C and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by

  4. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  5. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new

  6. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  8. Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatano, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg -1 for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg -1 for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM 1 fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  9. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  10. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  11. Ambient air pollution associated to domestic wood burning heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friboulet, I.; Durif, M.; Malherbe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Main publications are considering effects of wood burning appliances on indoor air quality, which is a major issue in some countries. But impacts on ambient air, close environment and human exposure are rather poorly characterised so far. Besides, woods burning for domestic purpose may develop in the next years while promoting bio fuels. The aim of the ongoing study is to assess in which conditions associated air pollution and population exposure could be significant, this poster shows preliminary results of the impact of a village of 98 houses equipped with a wood burning heating system. (N.C.)

  12. Regulation of air pollution from wood-burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas Bue; Brandt, Jørgen; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    Air pollution is a major global challenge. Emissions from residential wood-burning stoves make a surprisingly large contribution to total air pollution related health costs. In Denmark, emissions from wood-burning stoves are calculated to cause almost 400 premature deaths each year within Denmark...... and additionally about 300 premature deaths in other parts of Europe. In this article, we present an integrated assessment of the net social benefit of different schemes for regulating wood-burning stoves including bans and taxes. The assessment uses high resolution air pollution emission inventory...

  13. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  14. Wood-burning stoves in low-carbon dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The European climate change strategy intends to encourage the erection of low-carbon buildings and the upgrading of existing buildings to low-carbon level. At the same time, it is an EU vision to maximise the use of renewable energy resources. In this strategy, small-scale wood......-burning is an overlooked source for heating. A wood-burning stove is considered low-carbon technology since its fuel is based on local residual biomass. A field study investigating how modern wood-burning stoves operated in modern single-family houses showed that intermittent heat supply occasionally conflicted...... combustion technology and automatics, controlling the interplay between stove and house, can make wood-burning stoves suitable for low-carbon dwellings and meet the remaining heat demand during the coldest period. It was further concluded that new guidelines need to be elaborated about how to install...

  15. Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Benoit; Allaire, Sylvain; Gauvin, Denis; Gingras, Suzanne; Rhainds, Marc; Prud' Homme, Henri; Duchesne, Jean-Francois [CHUQ-Centre de Recherche du CHUL, Unite de Recherche en Sante Publique, 2400, d' Estimauville, Beauport, G1E 7G9 Quebec (Canada); Koutrakis, Petros [Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2001-12-17

    Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among occupants of wood-heated homes. One child attending primary school (median=8 years old; range=5-14 years old) and an adult (median=37 years old; range=23-52 years old) were recruited in each eligible house. Eligible houses were without known sources of combustion products (smokers, attached garage, oil or gas furnace, gas stove, etc.) except for wood-burning appliance. Out of the 89 houses included in the study, 59 had wood-burning appliances. Formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, respirable particles (PM10) and carbon monoxide were measured in a sub-set of 49 houses (41 with a wood-burning appliance and 8 without). The frequency of respiratory symptoms and diseases among participants were documented using a daily symptom diary. Concentrations of contaminants were low in most houses, both with or without a wood-burning appliance. Globally, there was no consistent relationship between the presence of a wood-burning appliance and respiratory morbidity in residents. Nevertheless, residents who mentioned being exposed to fumes emitted by such an appliance reported more respiratory illnesses and symptoms. The presence of animals or molds, and keeping windows closed most of the time in winter were other factors associated with respiratory problems. We conclude that wood burning appears to be a respiratory health risk for occupants if the appliance is not maintained and used properly.

  16. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SMOKE FROM CAMPFIRE BURNING OF PINE WOOD (PINUS ELLIOTTII). (R823990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractAlthough campfires are typically enjoyable events, people are exposed to high concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The combustion conditions of wood burned in campfires are different from those of indoor wood burning in stoves or fireplaces. T...

  17. Inventory of usage pattern for wood burning appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David; Joeborn, Inger; Sjoedin, Aake; Munkhammar, Inger; Gustavsson, Lennart

    2005-02-01

    The Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) in co-operation with the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP) and Statistics Sweden (SCB) have investigated the use of domestic wood burning for wood stoves and open fireplaces. The results from a closer examination of existing national energy statistics for residential heating has enabled a division of the average consumption of firewood for each house by the category 'fireplace for open fire' and 'tiled stove/heating stove/fireplace for wood'. The estimation of emissions can therefore be improved by differentiating emission factors for different wood stoves and open fireplaces. Today, only one emission factor is used. An insight into general firing procedures, wood storage routines etc. was investigated using a questionnaire for the Teleborg area of the city Vaexjoe. The results of this study provide a foundation for further work, which will subsequently enable improvements for emission inventories on small-scale biomass combustion from household appliances

  18. Scaling housing interventions for wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; da Cruz Tarelho, Luís António

    2013-01-01

    The wood-burning stove is the most popular energy technology in the world since about 3 billion people rely on it for both domestic cooking and heating purposes. It is estimated that in 2030 more than 200 million people will be affected by this abundant energy source. Large-scale clean stove prog...

  19. Smoke emissions in small-scale burning of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The article is based on research carried out in Finland and Sweden on the subject of emissions of smoke in the small-scale burning of wood and the factors affecting it. Due to incomplete combustion, small-scale burning of wood is particularly typified by its emissions of solid particles, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and PAH compounds. Included among factors influencing the volume of emissions are the load imposed on the heating device, the manner in which the fuel is fed into the firebox, fuel quality, and heating device structure. Emissions have been found to be at their minimum in connection with heating systems based on accumulators. Emissions can be significantly reduced by employing state-of-the-art technology, appropriate ways of heating and by dry fuel. A six-year bioenergy research programme was launched early in 1993 in Finland. All leading research institutions and enterprises participate in this programme. Reduction of emissions has been set as the central goal in the part dealing with small-scale burning of wood. Application of catalytic combustion in Finnish-made heating devices is one of the programmes development targets. Up to this date, the emissions produced in the small-scale burning of wood are not mentioned in official regulations pertaining to approved heating devices. In Sweden tar emissions are applied as a measure of the environmental impact imposed by heating devices

  20. Burner for a wood burning furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolting, H

    1981-12-10

    The burner according to the invention consists of a horizontal tube, whose front wall is penetrated by an intake pipe, which is surrounded by a pipe duct and several divided shells, which are arranged below the pipe duct. The front wall is also provided with air openings. The intake pipe is provided with a spiral and moves chopped wood into the burner.

  1. 36 CFR 13.1110 - May I collect or burn interstadial wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interstadial wood? 13.1110 Section 13.1110 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1110 May I collect or burn interstadial wood? Collecting or burning interstadial wood (aged wood preserved in glacial deposits) is prohibited. ...

  2. Emission of dioxins from fireplaces and wood-burning stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.J.; Vikelsoee, J.; Madsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988 the Environmental Report No. 149 was published. The result of this investigation was that exceptionally large quantities of dioxin were emitted from burning of clean wood in fireplaces and wood-burning stoves. The conclusion was, however, that it was a preliminary investigation subject to great uncertainties. So it was recommended to make further investigations. The project was continued in 1990, and the present report is the result of this investigation. The fuels applied were logged and treated as an integral part of the test in order to take precautions against contamination. A new test arrangement with a dilution channel was developed in order to be able to take samples. The dilution channel made it possible to take out representative samples for the entire combustion process. Four wood-burning stoves were chosen for the experiments. Two stoves representing those sold from 1960 till 1990. One new stove approved according to DS 887 and finally a prototype stove. The dioxin analysis method was developed so that it could better handle the presence of tar in the samples taken. Danmarks Miljoe Undersoegelse (DMU) - The Danish Environmental Investigations - carried out a great work of development and documentation in this field. Before the main experiment a validation of the sampling and the analysis method was made. The conclusion was that the sampling and analysis method was satisfactory and that a continuity from Environmental Project no. 149 was ensured. During the execution of the present project a probable explanation of the high dioxin emission has been found which were reported in Environmental Project No. 149. The reason is in all probability contamination from burning of pressure-creosoted wood with burning of clean wood. The present report contains a number of appendices showing results from single experiments, references and a number of references to supplementary reports which were elaborated during the progress of the work. (EG)

  3. Fogwater chemistry in a wood-burning community, western Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, P.S. (Oregon State Univ. (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Fogwater chemistry in Corvallis, Oregon, a wood-burning community (pop. approximately 43,000) was compared with the chemistry of fogwater collected in more remote and in more highly industrialized areas. The fogwater was not acidic (median pH = 5.7) and was usually dominated by SO4=, NO3-, and NH4+ whose concentrations were generally lower than in fogwater in other urban areas but higher than in remote areas. Concentrations of formic and acetic acids (medians = 61 and 52 microN, respectively) were comparable to those in fogwater in Los Angeles, California and were typically much higher than concentrations in fogwater from more remote areas. Formate and acetate concentrations were often comparable to those of SO4= and NO3-. Formaldehyde concentrations (range = 0.4-3.0 mg L-1) were comparable to those in fogwater in some urban areas of southern California, yet lower than concentrations in highly industrialized areas of southern California. Because concentrations of organic compounds in Corvallis fogwater were often comparable to those in larger urban areas, sources in addition to motor vehicles must be important in Corvallis. Additional sources may be natural and anthropogenic, the latter including residential wood burning and wood products industries.

  4. Fogwater chemistry in a wood-burning community, western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, P S

    1991-01-01

    Fogwater chemistry in Corvallis, Oregon, a wood-burning community (pop. approximately 43,000) was compared with the chemistry of fogwater collected in more remote and in more highly industrialized areas. The fogwater was not acidic (median pH = 5.7) and was usually dominated by SO4=, NO3-, and NH4+ whose concentrations were generally lower than in fogwater in other urban areas but higher than in remote areas. Concentrations of formic and acetic acids (medians = 61 and 52 microN, respectively) were comparable to those in fogwater in Los Angeles, California and were typically much higher than concentrations in fogwater from more remote areas. Formate and acetate concentrations were often comparable to those of SO4= and NO3-. Formaldehyde concentrations (range = 0.4-3.0 mg L-1) were comparable to those in fogwater in some urban areas of southern California, yet lower than concentrations in highly industrialized areas of southern California. Because concentrations of organic compounds in Corvallis fogwater were often comparable to those in larger urban areas, sources in addition to motor vehicles must be important in Corvallis. Additional sources may be natural and anthropogenic, the latter including residential wood burning and wood products industries.

  5. Advanced wood burning furnaces. 2. rev. ed.; Moderne Holzfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    New and environment-friendly technologies meet high requirements in terms of emission reduction and comfort of operation. In the field of wood burning furnaces, there is still a lack of knowledge which results in excessive cost, environmental pollution and loss of image. This brochure shows how wood furnaces should be operated correctly and also reviews the state of the art. [German] Durch die technische Entwicklung neuer, wirkungsvoller und vor allem umweltfreundlicher Heiztechniken wird zudem den in den letzten Jahren gestiegenen Anforderungen an den Emissionsschutz und den Bedienungskomfort Rechnung getragen. Mit Holz wird jedoch z. T. nicht immer richtig geheizt. Das kostet Geld und fuehrt zu vermeidbaren Umweltbelastungen und Imageschaeden. Ziel dieser Broschuere ist es daher, mit den Techniken des Heizens mit Holz vertraut zu machen und einen Ueberblick ueber den heutigen Stand zu geben. (orig.)

  6. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within...

  7. Energy performance of Portuguese and Danish wood-burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, considerable amounts of renewable energy resources are used for residential heating with wood-burning stoves, which can cause considerable energy losses and environmental impacts. A better understanding of its operating characteristics will permit to improve the buildings energy...... carried out through the measurement of the main operating parameters: flue gas temperature and composition, combustion air flow rate, and fuel consumption rate. The results showed that the appliances emitted energy intermittently, with a mean heat flow rate into the indoors of 5 kWth, representing mean...... efficiency and indoor climate, and to reduce the emission of air pollutants to the environment. This study aimed to analyze the operating conditions of a Portuguese made stove and compare it with the most efficient Danish made stoves tested at the Technological Institute. The combustion experiments were...

  8. Particle Morphology From Wood-Burning Cook Stoves Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, O.; Carabali, G.; Castro, T.; Torres, R.; Ruiz, L. G.; Molina, L. T.; Saavedra, I.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions from three wood-burning cook stoves were sampled to collect particles. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) copper grids were placed on the last two stages of an 8-stage MOUDI cascade impactor (d50= 0.32, and 0.18 μm). Samples were obtained on two heating stages of cooking, the first is a quick heating process to boil 1 liter of water, and the second is to keep the water at 90 C. Absorption coefficient, scattering coefficients, and particles concentration (0.01 - 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter) were measured simultaneously using an absorption photometer (operated at 550 nm), a portable integrating nephelometer (at 530 nm), and a condensation particle counter connected to a chamber to dilute the wood stoves emissions. Transmission electron micrographic images of soot particles were acquired at different magnifications using a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) JEOL HRTEM 4000EX operating at 200 kV, equipped with a GATAN digital micrograph system for image acquisition. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles sampled on the first heating stage exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df, which are present as aggregates formed by carbon ceno-spheres. The presence of high numbers of carbon ceno-spheres can be attributed to pyrolysis, thermal degradation, and others processes prior to combustion. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the elemental composition of particles. EDS analysis in particles with d50= 0.18 μm showed a higher content of carbonaceous material and relevant amounts of Si, S and K.

  9. Mapping the performance of wood-burning stoves by installations worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    2016-01-01

    environmental health risk. Research stressed the need to increase the performance of conventional interplays between users, stoves and buildings. This scientific review aims to characterize the performance and environmental effects of 9 wood-burning stove categories by installations worldwide...

  10. California; Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District; Approval of Air Plan Revisions; Wood Burning Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of particulate matter (PM) from wood burning devices.

  11. Domestic Wood Burning in a Residential Area: PM2.5 Trace Elements and Black Smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, P.; Gustafson, P.; Johannesson, S.; Barregaard, L.; Saellsten, G.; Boman, J.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor levels of PM2.5 have been studied in a residential area in Hagfors, a small town in Sweden. The sampling took place during typical Swedish winter conditions with sub-zero temperatures and full snow cover between February 10th and Mars 6th, 2003. The area consists of single houses having different heating systems. Some of the houses are heated by burning wood; some use heat pumps while others use direct electrical heating. 13 houses burning wood in boilers or similar for heating and 10 houses heated by other means but situated in the same area were selected for this study. Only houses without tobacco smoke were selected since this is one of the major sources of indoor particles. The objectives of the study were to identify levels and differences in composition of aerosol particles outdoors and inside houses with boilers using wood as fuel and houses heated in other ways. For K, Ca, Mn, Zn and Rb significantly higher (p < 0.05) indoor concentration for wood burners were found. The elements most often referred to as markers for wood burning are K and Zn. In addition, Si, S, Cl, Br and Rb are also mentioned as markers (Hedberg et al., 2002, Moloi et al., 2003). Black smoke was linked to wood burning, although not fully significant (p-value 0.07), as seen in figure 1a. Within the wood-burning group, some houses have concentrations comparable to the concentrations in the houses where no wood is used, while the others have much higher concentrations. These houses also have higher concentrations of K compared to the other wood burners. The possible reasons are different types of wood burning appliances and their placement in the houses as well as possible leakage. Sulphur, although sometimes linked to wood burning, shows no relationship to wood burning in this study. In figure 1b it can be seen that the indoor concentrations of sulphur is clearly lower compared to outdoor concentrations and that the levels indoors do not differ between wood and non-wood

  12. Indoor air pollution caused by wood-burning in Brazilian and Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; da Cruz Tarelho, Luís António

    2013-01-01

    Residential wood-burning is considered by the scientific community as the 4th major cause of deaths in the developing countries due to the indoor air contamination and a cause of regional air pollution in the northern countries. In the first case, wood is being used by low income people that stil...

  13. Model development for spatial variation of PM2.5 emissions from residential wood burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Q, Tian; Peng Gong; Qian Yu; Radke, John D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary research result of spatially quantifying and allocating the potential activity of residential wood burning (RWB) by using demographic, hypsographic, climatic and topographic information as independent variables. We also introduce the method for calculating PM 2.5 emission from residential wood combustion with the potential activity as primary variable. A linear regression model was generated to describe spatial and temporal distribution of the potential activity of wood burning as primary heating source. In order to improve the estimation, the classifications of urban, suburban and rural were redefined to meet the specifications of this application. Also, a unique way of defining forest accessibility is found useful in estimating the activity potential of RWB. The results suggest that the potential activity of wood burning is mostly determined by elevation of a location, forest accessibility, urban/non-urban position, climatic conditions and several demographic variables. The analysis results were validated using survey data collected through face-to-face and telephone interviews over the study area in central California. The linear regression model can explain approximately 86% of the variation of surveyed wood burning activity potential. The total PM 2.5 emitted from woodstoves and fireplaces is analyzed for the study region at county level. (Author)

  14. Chemical composition of particles from traditional burning of Pakistani wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) emitted during burning of three types of Pakistani wood (eucalyptus camaldulensis, local name Safeeda; acacia nilotica, local name Kikar, Babul; dalbergia sissoo, Shisham, Tali) in a traditional brick stove were collected and analyzed for anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, trace metals, soluble ions and carbonaceous species. This is a first study reporting anhydrosugars in wood smoke particles emitted during traditional burning of common wood types in Pakistan. Carbonaceous species showed the highest contribution to the particulate matter. Although the total carbon (TC) contribution was similar for all burnings (64.8-70.2%), the EC/OC ratio varied significantly, from 0.2 to 0.3 for Accacia and Dalbergia to 0.7-0.8 for Eucalyptus and Wood-mix. Among inorganic constituents potassium chloride and silicon were found at levels higher than 1%. The levoglucosan concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 6.6% (average 5.6%) with the highest value for Accacia and lowest value for the wood-mix. The high levoglucosan/mannosan ratios of 20-28 were typical for hardwood. The ratio between levoglucosan and galactosan varied stronger and was found to be around 13-20 for Accacia, Eucalyptus and Wood mix, and 43 for Dalbergia. The determined levoglucosan concentrations allowed assessing the conversion factor for calculation of biomass smoke contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in Pakistan.

  15. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the...

  17. Wood is burning in capital city area's fireplaces as well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luoma, H.

    1998-01-01

    The firewood market situation in the capital city area was examined by a mail questionnaire in the spring of 1997. The questionnaire form was distributed to 800 single-family houses in Espoo, Helsinki and Vantaa. The responses to the questionnaire numbered 297 (37 %). Wood was found to be the main source of heat energy in the households of 2 % of the respondents and as an alternative source of heat energy in 58 % of the households. The most common fireplace in the respondents' homes was a wood-fired sauna stove. Heat-accumulating fireplaces were in the second place and open fireplaces in the third place. The installation of heat-accumulating fireplaces has become more popular while wood-fired sauna stoves and open fireplaces have lost some of their popularity during the past few years. Thirteen percent of the owners responding to the questionnaire intend to install new fireplaces. Half of the respondents were of the opinion that there is nothing to restrict the use of their fireplaces. Those who felt that there were restrictions stated that the high cost of firewood was the most significant restricting factor. Other restricting factors were the difficulty of getting firewood and the shortcomings of wood storage facilities. The storage problem can be dealt with by, for example, resorting to joint purchases, in which case the batch of wood for one house can be smaller in size. One quarter of the interviewers showed interest in concerted purchasing and deliveries of wood. An average of 3.6 m 3 of wood was used in the single-family houses in the capital city area in 1996. This wood was obtained either by purchasing it, from one's own forest/block of land or by some other independent means (not by purchasing). These three forms of acquiring wood were almost equally important. Typically, firewood was bought the form of logging residues. The greatest demand is for bulk batches of chopped firewood. When firewood is purchased, the customer typically prefers to have it

  18. Effects of wood smoke particles from wood-burning stoves on the respiratory health of atopic humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddervold Ingunn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that particulate air pollution derived from wood stoves causes acute inflammation in the respiratory system, increases the incidence of asthma and other allergic diseases, and increases respiratory morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate acute respiratory effects from short-term wood smoke exposure in humans. Twenty non-smoking atopic volunteers with normal lung function and without bronchial responsiveness were monitored during three different experimental exposure sessions, aiming at particle concentrations of about 200 μg/m3, 400 μg/m3, and clean air as control exposure. A balanced cross-over design was used and participants were randomly allocated to exposure orders. Particles were generated in a wood-burning facility and added to a full-scale climate chamber where the participants were exposed for 3 hours under controlled environmental conditions. Health effects were evaluated in relation to: peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, and forced vital capacity (FVC. Furthermore, the effects were assessed in relation to changes in nasal patency and from markers of airway inflammation: fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, exhaled breath condensate (EBC and nasal lavage (NAL samples were collected before, and at various intervals after exposure. Results No statistically significant effect of wood smoke exposure was found for lung function, for FENO, for NAL or for the nasal patency. Limited signs of airway inflammation were found in EBC. Conclusion In conclusion, short term exposure with wood smoke at a concentration normally found in a residential area with a high density of burning wood stoves causes only mild inflammatory response.

  19. Building solar dryer of tropical woods; Construccion de un secador solar de maderas tropicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez R, J; Flores M, F. E; Cuevas D, O [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Tolentino E, G [LABINTHAP-SEPI-ESIME-IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Quintana Roo, Mexico, several species of wood are used for handicrafts. The most commonly method used in the communities nearby Chetumal is natural drying, with the disadvantage of low quality in their products because the moisture contains in the wood. In this project studied the design of solar dryer for tropical woods in Quintana Roo. [Spanish] En este trabajo, se parte del analisis de las condiciones climatologicas existentes en el estado de Quintana Roo, Mexico, asi como de las necesidades de madera seca de una comunidad, como parametros basicos para el diseno y construccion de un secador solar de maderas tropicales.

  20. MINERGIE modules: heat pump - heat pump/solar - wood - wood/solar; Minergie-Module Waermepumpe - Waermepumpe/Solar - Holz - Holz/Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallati, J. [Seecon GmbH, Lucerne (Switzerland); Portmann, M. [Buero Markus Portmann, Kriens (Switzerland); Zurfluh, B. [Zurfluh Lottenbach, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This research report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined the feasibility of setting up 'MINERGIE' low-energy-consumption module standards for the production of heat in small residential buildings. The aims of the standards and the basic idea behind the MINERGIE-modules are discussed. The concepts of the modules for heat pumps and wood-fired heating systems and their combination with solar installations are examined, as are their areas of application. The requirements placed on the modules are listed. System concepts, including simple schematics for typical installations, are presented for wood-log, wood-chippings and pellets-fired systems as well as for ground-loop and air-water heat pump systems as well as their solar-aided counterparts. The results of cost-benefit analyses are presented and questions regarding system guarantee and liability are examined.

  1. Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 μm), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of photochemical ageing on the ice nucleation properties of diesel and wood burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A measurement campaign (IMBALANCE conducted in 2009 was aimed at characterizing the physical and chemical properties of freshly emitted and photochemically aged combustion particles emitted from a log wood burner and diesel vehicles: a EURO3 Opel Astra with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC but no particle filter and a EURO2 Volkswagen Transporter TDI Syncro without emission aftertreatment. Ice nucleation experiments in the deposition and condensation freezing modes were conducted with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC at three nominal temperatures, −30 °C, −35 °C and −40 °C. Freshly emitted diesel particles showed ice formation only at −40 °C in the deposition mode at 137% relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi and 92% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw, and photochemical ageing did not play a role in modifying their ice nucleation behaviour. Only one diesel experiment where α-pinene was added for the ageing process, showed an ice nucleation enhancement at −35 °C. Wood burning particles also act as ice nuclei (IN at −40 °C in the deposition mode at the same conditions as for diesel particles and photochemical ageing also did not alter the ice formation properties of the wood burning particles. Unlike diesel particles, wood burning particles form ice via condensation freezing at −35 °C whereas no ice nucleation was observed at −30 °C. Photochemical ageing did not affect the ice nucleation ability of the diesel and wood burning particles at the three different temperatures investigated but a broader range of temperatures below −40 °C need to be investigated in order to draw an overall conclusion on the effect of photochemical ageing on deposition/condensation ice nucleation across the entire temperature range relevant to cold clouds.

  3. INPUT DATA OF BURNING WOOD FOR CFD MODELLING USING SMALL-SCALE EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hejtmánek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an option how to acquire simplified input data for modelling of burning wood in CFD programmes. The option lies in combination of data from small- and molecular-scale experiments in order to describe the material as a one-reaction material property. Such virtual material would spread fire, develop the fire according to surrounding environment and it could be extinguished without using complex reaction molecular description. Series of experiments including elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and difference thermal analysis, and combustion analysis were performed. Then the FDS model of burning pine wood in a cone calorimeter was built. In the model where those values were used. The model was validated to HRR (Heat Release Rate from the real cone calorimeter experiment. The results show that for the purpose of CFD modelling the effective heat of combustion, which is one of the basic material property for fire modelling affecting the total intensity of burning, should be used. Using the net heat of combustion in the model leads to higher values of HRR in comparison to the real experiment data. Considering all the results shown in this paper, it was shown that it is possible to simulate burning of wood using the extrapolated data obtained in small-size experiments.

  4. Indoor Wood-Burning Stove and Fireplace Use and Breast Cancer in a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alexandra J; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-07-18

    Indoor burning of fuel for heating or cooking releases carcinogens. Little is known about the impact of indoor air pollution from wood-burning stoves or fireplaces on breast cancer risk. In a large prospective cohort study, we evaluated the risk of breast cancer in relation to indoor heating and cooking practices. Sister Study participants ( n =50,884) were recruited from 2003–2009. Breast cancer–free women in the United States or Puerto Rico, 35–74 y old, with a sister with breast cancer were eligible. Participants completed questionnaires on indoor heating and cooking practices for both their enrollment and their longest adult residence. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between indoor heating/cooking and breast cancer. A total of 2,416 breast cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up (mean=6.4 y). Having an indoor wood-burning stove/fireplace in the longest adult residence was associated with a higher breast cancer risk [HR=1.11 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.22)]; the risk increased with average frequency of use [≥once/week, HR=1.17 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.34)] (p for trend=0.01). An elevated HR was seen for women burning wood [HR=1.09 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.21)] or natural gas/propane [HR=1.15 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.32)]. No association was observed for burning artificial fire-logs [HR=0.98 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.12)] except among women from western states [HR=1.36 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.81)]. In this prospective study, using an indoor wood-burning stove/fireplace in the longest adult residence at least once a week and burning either wood or natural gas/propane was associated with a modestly higher risk of breast cancer. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP827.

  5. Environmental assessment of wood burning in independent heating devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogaume, C.; Rogaume, Y.; Zoulalian, A.; Trouve, G.

    2009-01-01

    An environmental assessment has been achieved on two domestic wood-heating devices, a closed fireplace and an open fireplace which represent 80% of the sale market of wood small-scale combustion units and around 65% of the use of wood-energy in France. Not only deals this study with the atmospheric polluting emissions produced in the exhaust stack, but also with the indoor air quality. Therefore, different pollutants were measured at the emission stage and as indoor air concentrations: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), volatile organic compounds (VOC), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen oxides (NO X ), particulate matter with different sizes (PM 10 to PM 0.1 ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxines and furans. The results concerning indoor air were compared to measurements that showed the influence of residential heating devices. without exhaust duct like an oil stove or a gas stove (space heater) on indoor air quality. Some combustion emission experiments achieved in normal conditions showed that the combustion in open fireplace pollutes more than the combustion in closed fire-place: around 10 times more of PM 2.5 (mass concentration), more than 4 times of total VOC, 1.5 times more of dioxines and furans. On the other hand, the opposite trend was shown for PAH emissions (between 2 and 3 times less depending on the regulations considered). The comparison of the impact of different heating appliances on indoor air quality shows that the rate of CO is the same for all the devices except for the open fireplace which is higher. The CO 2 rate is 10 times higher for the oil stove and 8 times higher for the gas stove than for the fireplaces, which is due to the lack of exhaust duct. The concentration of PM 2.5 is 16 times higher for the open fireplace, 1.6 times higher for the oil stove and 4.4 times higher for the gas stove than the closed fireplace. The percentage of the number distribution of nano-particles, that represents an enhanced health risk

  6. Impact of operating wood-burning stoves on indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Jensen, Ole Michael; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    A field study on the impact of operating and reloading wood-burning stoves on the indoor air quality was carried out during two consecutive winters. In contrast to the majority of recent studies, which focussed on the ambient air quality and the penetration of particles to the indoor air......, this study aims to understand to what extent the operation of a stove contributes to the generation of concentration of ultrafine particles in the indoor air. Therefore, different stoves were ignited in one session by the owner of the stove and in a subsequent session by an expert on wood-burning stoves....... The study was conducted in seven typical Danish detached houses without other indoor activities taking place. In each house the average air change rate during one week was measured (using passive tracer gas technique) and the indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded continuously...

  7. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenhaut, Willy, E-mail: willy.maenhaut@ugent.be [Ghent University (UGent), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda [University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. - Highlights: • A one-year study with 4 urban background sites and a total of 372

  8. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward

    2016-01-01

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. - Highlights: • A one-year study with 4 urban background sites and a total of 372

  9. Proper indoor climate by the adoption of advanced wood burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Skreiberg, Oeyvind

    2014-01-01

    The indoor emission of (ultra)fine particles and overheating from wood-burning stoves are crucial problems in modern houses when wood is used for heating. The main cause for indoor particle emission is the interaction between user and stove when lighting and refilling the stove. The main causes...... for overheating are a high thermal insulation level of the house and high (peak) wattage of the stove. This research aims to understand how low wattage stoves with a computer added device and water jacket will perform on the indoor air quality as proper heating appliances for low energy houses. Two field studies...... were designed to compare the influence of the auto-pilot device and water jacket on the indoor climate. The first experiments were conducted in 8 renovated detached houses using certified stoves while the following experiments were conducted in 4 low energy houses using modern and advanced stoves...

  10. An emissions audit of a biomass combustor burning treated wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.M.; Jones, H.H.; King, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the Emissions Audit carried out on a Biomass Combustor burning treated wood waste at the premises of a furniture manufacturer. The Biomass Combustor was tested in two firing modes; continuous fire and modulating fire. Combustion chamber temperatures and gas residence times were not measured. Boiler efficiencies were very good at greater than 75% in both tests. However, analysis of the flue gases indicated that improved efficiencies are possible. The average concentrations of CO (512mgm -3 ) and THC (34mgm -3 ) for Test 1 were high, indicating that combustion was poor. The combustor clearly does not meet the requirements of the Guidance Note for the Combustion of Wood Waste. CO 2 and O 2 concentrations were quite variable showing that combustion conditions were fairly unstable. Improved control of combustion should lead to acceptable emission concentrations. (Author)

  11. Burn-in Free Nonfullerene-Based Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Gasparini, Nicola

    2017-07-03

    Organic solar cells that are free of burn-in, the commonly observed rapid performance loss under light, are presented. The solar cells are based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with varying molecular weights and a nonfullerene acceptor (rhodanine-benzothiadiazole-coupled indacenodithiophene, IDTBR) and are fabricated in air. P3HT:IDTBR solar cells light-soaked over the course of 2000 h lose about 5% of power conversion efficiency (PCE), in stark contrast to [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-based solar cells whose PCE shows a burn-in that extends over several hundreds of hours and levels off at a loss of ≈34%. Replacing PCBM with IDTBR prevents short-circuit current losses due to fullerene dimerization and inhibits disorder-induced open-circuit voltage losses, indicating a very robust device operation that is insensitive to defect states. Small losses in fill factor over time are proposed to originate from polymer or interface defects. Finally, the combination of enhanced efficiency and stability in P3HT:IDTBR increases the lifetime energy yield by more than a factor of 10 when compared with the same type of devices using a fullerene-based acceptor instead.

  12. Burn-in Free Nonfullerene-Based Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Gasparini, Nicola; Salvador, Michael; Strohm, Sebastian; Heumueller, Thomas; Levchuk, Ievgen; Wadsworth, Andrew; Bannock, James H.; de Mello, John C.; Egelhaaf, Hans-Joachim; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-01-01

    Organic solar cells that are free of burn-in, the commonly observed rapid performance loss under light, are presented. The solar cells are based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with varying molecular weights and a nonfullerene acceptor (rhodanine-benzothiadiazole-coupled indacenodithiophene, IDTBR) and are fabricated in air. P3HT:IDTBR solar cells light-soaked over the course of 2000 h lose about 5% of power conversion efficiency (PCE), in stark contrast to [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-based solar cells whose PCE shows a burn-in that extends over several hundreds of hours and levels off at a loss of ≈34%. Replacing PCBM with IDTBR prevents short-circuit current losses due to fullerene dimerization and inhibits disorder-induced open-circuit voltage losses, indicating a very robust device operation that is insensitive to defect states. Small losses in fill factor over time are proposed to originate from polymer or interface defects. Finally, the combination of enhanced efficiency and stability in P3HT:IDTBR increases the lifetime energy yield by more than a factor of 10 when compared with the same type of devices using a fullerene-based acceptor instead.

  13. Wood burning stoves and small boilers - particle emissions and reduction initiatives; Braendeovne og smae kedler - partikelemissioner og reduktionstiltag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J B; Capral Henriksen, T; Lundhede, T [Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Aarhus Universitet, Aarhus (Denmark); Breugel, C van; Zoellner Jensen, N [Miljoestyrelsen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    Pollution from burning wood in private households, and the environmental and health consequences of this is determined in practice by a complicated interaction between a number of factors, including firing habits, fuel, type of stove/boiler, chimney and location of the chimney in relation to the surroundings. This report maps out the technologies used today for burning wood in private households, how these technologies contribute to particle emissions and which technologies may potentially reduce emissions of particles from burning wood in households in Denmark. Moreover, the possible emissions reductions and the financial costs incurred by consumers from different initiatives have been estimated. This report does not deal with possible initiatives for improvement of firing habits, fuel quality and chimneys. (au)

  14. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or...

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Commercial Portable Air Purifier in Homes with Wood Burning Stoves: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie F. Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM2.5 within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1 in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2 in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61–85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating.

  20. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward

    2016-08-15

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Diffusion of rural innovations: some analytical issues and the case of wood-burning stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, B

    1983-04-01

    The literature on the diffusion of rural innovations in Third World countries reveals a spectrum of approaches to the diffusion process. It is argued here that the effectiveness of a particular approach in the diffusion of particular innovations would depend on the technical, the economic, and the social characteristics of the innovations. A typology of innovations in terms of these characteristics has been drawn up. This provides the analytical framework within which the instance of wood-burning stoves is concerned. A priori, the characteristics of this innovation are seen to be such as to necessitate the close involvement of the users approach to diffusion. Available evidence relating to actual experience with promoting woodburning stoves is seen to bear this out. 62 references.

  2. Educational Materials - Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  3. Absorption cycle commercial refrigerator using wood burning cook stove; Geladeira de absorcao acionada por fogao a lenha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira; Martins, Gilberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    1991-12-31

    The current utilization of wood burning cook stoves in Brazil and the socio-economical profile of their users were surveyed. A traditional heavy-mass wood-burning cook stove was studied as a thermal equipment. Simple changes in the geometry of the combustion chamber were suggested to improve the cooking efficiency. A closed two-phase thermosyphon using water as working fluid was designed, built and connected between the combustion chamber of the cook stove and a depressurized absorption refrigeration system to determine the heat flux and the temperature level. A commercial refrigerator unit, using the absorption cycle, was coupled with the wood stove through the thermosyphon. The overall results of the coupling point to successful country-side applications. (author) 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. COMPARISON OF THE POPULATIONS OF COMMON WOOD-NYMPH BUTTERFLIES IN BURNED PRAIRIE, UNBURNED PRAIRIE AND OLD FIELD GRASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, M.; Walton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Common wood-nymph butterfl ies are found throughout the United States and Canada. However, not much is known about how they overwinter or their preferences for particular grasses and habitats. In this study, the impact of prairie management plans on the abundance of the wood-nymph population was assessed, as well as the preference of these butterfl ies for areas with native or non-native grasses. The abundance of common wood-nymph butterfl ies was determined using Pollard walks; more common wood-nymph butterfl ies were found in the European grasses than were found in the burned and unburned prairie sites. The majority of the vegetation at each of the three sites was identifi ed and documented. Using a 1 X 3 ANOVA analysis, it was determined there were signifi cantly more butterfl ies in the European grasses than in the burned and unburned prairie sites (p < 0.0005). There was no signifi cant difference between the burned and unburned treatments of the prairie on the common wood-nymph population. A multiple variable linear regression model described the effect of temperature and wind speed on the number of observed common wood-nymph butterfl ies per hour (p = 0.026). These preliminary results need to be supplemented with future studies. Quadrat analysis of the vegetation from all three sites should be done to search for a correlation between common wood-nymph butterfl y abundance per hour and the specifi c types or quantity of vegetation at each site. The effect of vegetation height and density on the observer’s visual fi eld should also be assessed.

  5. Health hazard by small-scale wood-burning may not be as big as assumed; Peiskos - sundt for kropp og sjel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelmerud, Vebjoerg

    2000-07-01

    Smoke is often associated with air pollution, but the smoke from wood burning is very different from the exhaust gases from cars, for instance. Smoke from wood burning contains metoxiphenols, which are antioxidants. Although the use of wood burning has decreased, the occurrence of asthma and allergies has increased. The interest in antioxidants is most often concentrated on those present in food, which arrive at the body tissues after going through the digestion process, while those in smoke go more directly to the cells that are exposed to the pollution.

  6. Residential space heating with wood burning stoves. Energy efficiency and indoor climate; Boligopvarmning ved braendefyring. Energieffektivitet og indeklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, A.; Bergsoee, N.C.; Carvalho, R. [Miljoestyrelsen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aalborg Univ.. Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Aalborg (Denmark))

    2012-11-01

    Two issues turn up concerning how to use wood-burning stoves in modern homes. The first is whether wood-burning stoves in future may still act as a genuine heat source, given that new and refurbished single-family houses retain the heat much better than older ones and therefore need less and less energy for space heating. The second issue is whether it will still be possible to use wood-burning stoves in modern houses where the air exchange is controlled by mechanical ventilation or possibly heat recovery. It is a question whether firing techniques can be developed that will work in airtight houses with mechanical ventilation and negative pressure, so that harmful particle emissions can be avoided. To illustrate the first issue, a field study was designed to look carefully at seven modern wood-burning stoves that were set up in six new houses and one older house and investigated, both in terms of firing and heat release. As a background for this part of the study, a heat balance calculation was made for each house. The question is, whether wood-burning stoves will also in the future have a role to play as a heating source. Modern houses grow ever tighter and only need to be supplied with a small quantity of heat. The new Danish Buildings Requirement, 2010 has resulted in a further reduction of 25 % of the energy demand, including the energy supply for heating. However, the new requirements imply that the heating season eventually become so short that a traditional central heating installation becomes superfluous. This means that by using the small amounts of wood cut in gardens and hedgerows of the neighbourhood, a wood-burning stove will, in principle, cover the heating demand. Therefore, the question is rather whether a wood-burning stove is manufactured that can successfully be adapted to new houses. As a consequence of this development, future stoves must be further scaled down in order to meet the heating demand of a modern low-energy house and the stoves must

  7. Utilization of parabolic solar collector in wood drying; Utilizacao de coletor solar parabolico na secagem de madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Mendes, Alfredo de

    1986-12-31

    This study was concerned to concept, to project and to build a parabolic solar collector as a generation source of thermic energy to the conventional drying of wood, jointed to a drying environment and to evaluate its efficiency. In this sense, prototypes of a solar collector and a conventional dry kiln were built. The collector with linear focus, was provided with a solar photoelectric tracking system. The dry kiln had semiautomatic control of temperature and a capacity to dry 0,3 m deg 3 of wood. All the steps of the construction of the system are presented with details. (author). 14 figs., 8 tabs., 73 refs

  8. Robust and Low-Cost Flame-Treated Wood for High-Performance Solar Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guobin; Liu, Kang; Chen, Qian; Yang, Peihua; Li, Jia; Ding, Tianpeng; Duan, Jiangjiang; Qi, Bei; Zhou, Jun

    2017-05-03

    Solar-enabled steam generation has attracted increasing interest in recent years because of its potential applications in power generation, desalination, and wastewater treatment, among others. Recent studies have reported many strategies for promoting the efficiency of steam generation by employing absorbers based on carbon materials or plasmonic metal nanoparticles with well-defined pores. In this work, we report that natural wood can be utilized as an ideal solar absorber after a simple flame treatment. With ultrahigh solar absorbance (∼99%), low thermal conductivity (0.33 W m -1 K -1 ), and good hydrophilicity, the flame-treated wood can localize the solar heating at the evaporation surface and enable a solar-thermal efficiency of ∼72% under a solar intensity of 1 kW m -2 , and it thus represents a renewable, scalable, low-cost, and robust material for solar steam applications.

  9. Wood burning pollution in southern Chile: PM2.5 source apportionment using CMB and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Ana M; Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Schauer, James J

    2017-06-01

    Temuco is a mid-size city representative of severe wood smoke pollution in southern Chile; i.e., ambient 24-h PM 2.5 concentrations have exceeded 150 μg/m 3 in the winter season and the top concentration reached 372 μg/m 3 in 2010. Annual mean concentrations have decreased but are still above 30 μg/m 3 . For the very first time, a molecular marker source apportionment of ambient organic carbon (OC) and PM 2.5 was conducted in Temuco. Primary resolved sources for PM 2.5 were wood smoke (37.5%), coal combustion (4.4%), diesel vehicles (3.3%), dust (2.2%) and vegetative detritus (0.7%). Secondary inorganic PM 2.5 (sulfates, nitrates and ammonium) contributed 4.8% and unresolved organic aerosols (generated from volatile emissions from incomplete wood combustion), including secondary organic aerosols, contributed 47.1%. Adding the contributions of unresolved organic aerosols to those from primary wood smoke implies that wood burning is responsible for 84.6% of the ambient PM 2.5 in Temuco. This predominance of wood smoke is ultimately due to widespread poverty and a lack of efficient household heating methods. The government has been implementing emission abatement policies but achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards for PM 2.5 in southern Chile remains a challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning

    OpenAIRE

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions we...

  11. Survey on solar dryers for drying of food and wood in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Correll Frank, F. [Danish Technological Inst., Taastrup (Denmark); Floejgaard Kristensen, E. [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    The survey was conducted as a part of the project 'Test and Research Project into the Drying of Food and Wood Products with Solar Heat'. The aim of the survey was to investigate the need for drying of food and wood in Ghana and the already existing experience on solar drying in order to form a basis for the initial decisions within the project concerning the location of three demonstration solar dryers for crops, fish and wood, which species to dry and the type of solar dryers. The project deals with transfer of knowledge in the field of drying of crops and wood and solar air heating systems from Denmark to Ghana. The aim of the survey was, therefore, also to give the Danish experts an impression of the conditions in Ghana in order to facilitate an appropriate design of the solar dryers. Three of the four Danish partners participated in the survey. The fourth Danish partner - the manufacturer of solar heating systems Aidt Miljoe - are already familiar with the conditions in Ghana due to an earlier project in Ghana. The survey was planed by the Energy Commission of Ghana, the Ghanaian partner and consultants: DENG, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi and Econkoad. The time schedules for the survey - one for crops/fish and one for wood - are found in Annex A. The schedules were very well prepared and the sites to visit were well chosen. The visits gave the Danish experts a good overview of the situation in Ghana in the field of post harvesting of crops, handling of fish, drying and manufacturing of wood and existing experience on solar drying. The schedules included a large variety of different information and impressions e.g. ranging from large sawmill to small carpenters and workshops. Despite tight schedules the consultants managed to stick very close to the time schedules shown in Annex A. (au)

  12. Development of a residential wood smoke reduction plan in a wood burning community: A case study in Libby, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.J.; Manderino, L.; Lyons, C.E.; Morris, A.L.; Anderson, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Libby, Montana depends on wood as a heating fuel. Libby exceeded the 24-hour federal PM10 ambient air quality standard every year since monitoring began in 1987. Residential wood smoke significantly contributes to its air pollution. To decrease residential wood smoke's contribution to air pollution, residents have to modify their heating habits. County officials sponsored the development of a comprehensive community-oriented plan to reduce wood smoke. This paper describes how the plan was developed and the components of the air pollution reduction strategies. The plan was developed using community input and tailored to local conditions. Four specific strategies were developed to reduce residential wood smoke pollution. Development of strategies required analysis of home heating habits and potential alternatives. Economic conditions were also considered. Expensive control strategies would be worthless unless alternative funding methods were provided. Thus, the plan included an array of funding sources to facilitate implementation. The development and implementation techniques are applicable to other communities with similar air pollution challenges

  13. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  14. Drying of Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. using a solar dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perapong Tekasakul

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An indirect, natural convection, solar cabinet dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion was designed and tested with the Thai herb, Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. Most of Thai herbs are widely used as traditional medicine and drying is an initial step in the production process. Solar dryer with a biomass backup heating system is the most feasible solution to drying in Thailand. In this work, a 4 m x 5 m solar collector was used to absorb solar radiation for heating the incoming air during the daytime, while a biomass burner was used to supply heat when solar energy was not possible. Heat from fuelwood combustion was accumulated in the thermal storage system made of bricks, and was used to heat up the incoming air. Results showed that the herb was dried uniformly and the temperature inside the drying cabinet could be maintained above 50ºC for more than 10 hours. Thermal efficiency when using solar energy was 10.5%, but the value was less than 1% when using the heat from biomass burning. This resulted from the low moisture content of the products after being dried by the solar energy. The dryer is beneficial to the operators, particularly in southern Thailand, where continuous drying is required. This dryer is by no means limited to drying of the herb. Currently, four dryers of the same model have been used by farmer groups in southern Thailand for drying bananas, several types of herbs, fish, and other products. In economic consideration, its payback period is 5.5 years when compared with the LPG-equipped dryer. When the total cost and production capacity are considered, its payback period is about 6 years.

  15. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  16. How the user can influence particulate emissions from residential wood and pellet stoves: Emission factors for different fuels and burning conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinger, Friederike; Drewnick, Frank; Gieré, Reto; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    For a common household wood stove and a pellet stove we investigated the dependence of emission factors for various gaseous and particulate pollutants on burning phase, burning condition, and fuel. Ideal and non-ideal burning conditions (dried wood, under- and overload, small logs, logs with bark, excess air) were used. We tested 11 hardwood species (apple, ash, bangkirai, birch, beech, cherry, hickory, oak, olive, plum, sugar maple), 4 softwood species (Douglas fir, pine, spruce, spruce/fir), treated softwood, beech and oak wood briquettes, paper briquettes, brown coal, wood chips, and herbaceous species (miscanthus, Chinese silver grass) as fuel. Particle composition (black carbon, non-refractory, and some semi-refractory species) was measured continuously. Repeatability was shown to be better for the pellet stove than for the wood stove. It was shown that the user has a strong influence on wood stove emission behavior both by selection of the fuel and of the burning conditions: Combustion efficiency was found to be low at both very low and very high burn rates, and influenced particle properties such as particle number, mass, and organic content in a complex way. No marked differences were found for the emissions from different wood species. For non-woody fuels, much higher emission factors could be observed (up to five-fold increase). Strongest enhancement of emission factors was found for burning of small or dried logs (up to six-fold), and usage of excess air (two- to three-fold). Real world pellet stove emissions can be expected to be much closer to laboratory-derived emission factors than wood stove emissions, due to lower dependence on user operation.

  17. Development of newly designed wood burning systems with low emissions and high efficiency; Tehokkaan ja vaehaepaeaestoeisen puulaemmitysjaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyytiaeinen, H [Tulisydaen Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The investigations in the project will focus on the combustion behaviour of wood burning systems of untreated wood fuels with batch-wise and quasi-continuous mechanical feeding. The objectives will be to minimise the pollutant release of these combustion systems during the different operational phases by a consequent optimisation of the fuel burning technique and to reduce the CO release by increasing the efficiency of the combustion. To reduce the pollutant release during the operation phases and to increase the efficiency, products of incomplete combustion i.e. carbon monoxide, toxic organic compounds like benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot have to be minimised in a further extent. For that the following goals will be attained: improvement of the mixing process of combustion gases in the reaction zones, averaging the residence time spectrum in the burnout zone reduction, of emissions during initial and burnout phase in firings with batch-wise feeding reduction of emissions under partial-load conditions in firings with quasi-continuous feeding, higher combustion stability even in case of changing fuel qualities, defining guidelines for the design of stoves and boilers with low emissions and high efficiency. By the foreseen reduction of the pollutant release and improved efficiency the environmental acceptance of wood combustion firings can be increased and for instance local restrictions can be removed. The project is funded in part by The European Commission in the framework of The Non Nuclear Energy Programme. (orig.)

  18. Wood chip drying in connection with combined heat and power or solar energy in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne Samuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 20% of the Finnish district heating (DH power plant fuels are wood-based and the share is increasing. The wood fuel demand probably exceeds the potential supply in the future. The wood fuel drying with waste heat is one profitable opportunity to gain more wood fuel. If the drying energy can be produced with lower primary energy use than combusting the fuel directly, the drying potentially improves the system efficiency. In this study, the drying feasibility in the connection of a combined heat and power (CHP system, possibly with solar collectors, is calculated. The wood fuel heating can be increased profitably by 6%, using the heat from CHP for drying only when the marginal cost of the heat is low enough, i.e. the electricity price is high enough and there is free capacity after the DH demand. Although the drying is profitable, a larger heat storage can also increase the annual result similarly. The best investment choice depends on the plant properties. Here the optimal system enables 20% DH production cost savings. Solar heat may be profitable, when the solar heat has a 2–3% share of the annual heat demand. However, the dryer or larger storage tank are more profitable investments.

  19. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  20. Impacts of two improved wood-burning stoves on the indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of forest wood is still being used in rural housing in low and mid-income countries in South America - 36% in Peru and 6% in Brazil - generating hazardous wood smoke. Interviews were conducted to the users of improved stoves in 20 rural households. In Peru, the field study was carri...

  1. Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  2. “This is not a burning issue for me”: How citizens justify their use of wood heaters in a city with a severe air pollution problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, Ian; Scott, John; Hine, Donald W.; Bhullar, Navjot

    2013-01-01

    Although wood smoke pollution has been linked to health problems, wood burning remains a popular form of domestic heating in many countries across the world. In this paper, we describe the rhetoric of resistance to wood heater regulation amongst citizens in the regional Australian town of Armidale, where wood smoke levels regularly exceed national health advisory limits. We discuss how this is related to particular sources of resistance, such as affective attachment to wood heating and socio-cultural norms. The research draws on six focus groups with participants from households with and without wood heating. With reference to practice theory, we argue that citizen discourses favouring wood burning draw upon a rich suite of justifications and present this activity as a natural and traditional activity promoting comfort and cohesion. Such discourses also emphasise the identity of the town as a rural community and the supposed gemeinschaft qualities of such places. We show that, in this domain of energy policy, it is not enough to present ‘facts’ which have little emotional association or meaning for the populace. Rather, we need understand how social scripts, often localised, inform identity and practice. - Highlights: ► The negative health effects of wood smoke from wood heaters are known by citizens. ► Continued use of wood heating is justified with a rich suite of rhetorical strategies. ► Some strategies try to negate or diminish the case for phasing out wood heaters. ► Other strategies present wood heating as a natural, traditional and social activity

  3. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  4. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  5. CFD modeling and experience of waste-to-energy plant burning waste wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajh, B.; Yin, Chungen; Samec, N.

    2013-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is being increasingly used in industry for in-depth understanding of the fundamental mixing, combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation in combustion processes and for design and optimization of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. In this paper, CFD modeling...... the conversion of the waste wood in the fuel bed on the grate, which provides the appropriate inlet boundary condition for the freeboard 3D CFD simulation. The CFD analysis reveals the detailed mixing and combustion characteristics in the waste wood-fired furnace, pinpointing how to improve the design...

  6. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    KAUST Repository

    Heumueller, Thomas; Mateker, William R.; Sachs-Quintana, I. T.; Vandewal, Koen; Bartelt, Jonathan A.; Burke, Timothy M.; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to commercialize polymer solar cells, the fast initial performance losses present in many high efficiency materials will have to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which

  7. Changes of indoor climate by the adoption of retrofitted wood-burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    2014-01-01

    More than 3 billion people in the world rely on local solid-fuels for domestic cooking and heating through inefficient combustion, causing indoor air pollution and overheating worldwide. Technological regimes were categorized in 18 popular stove models to describe how residential wood combustion ...

  8. Burn Wise Educational Materials for Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  9. Impact of wood burning on outdoor air quality: existing French data and current studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Mandin, C.; Collet, S.; Besombes, J.L.; Pissot, N.; Allemand, N.; Riberon, J.; Jaffrezo, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    French source apportionment studies of air quality including the wood combustion source become widespread. Quantify a single source contribution to air quality requires to be provided with a specific measurable data to this source. For that reason, numerous studies have focused on the determination, in the atmospheric samples, of the source-specific compounds, usually called molecular tracers. Since 2000, trend works focused on the 'wood combustion' contribution to air quality have been based on the use of some tracers such as levoglucosan and metoxyphenols. Obtained results have been compared to atmospheric particles global characteristics: organic carbon (OC), elementary carbon (EC), PM 10 , PM 2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results presented in this article show not only the interest but also the limits of such an approach, as well as the need to develop and complete the current studies in order to quantify the different sources contribution to air quality. (author)

  10. On the relationship between cardboard burning in a sunshine recorder and the direct solar irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A.; Calbó, J.; González, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the end of XIX century, the Campbell-Stokes recorder (CSR) has been the instrument used to measure the insolation (hours of sunshine during per day). Due to the large number of records that exist worldwide (some of them extending over more than 100 years), valuable climatic information can be extracted from them. There are various articles that relate the insolation with the cloudiness and the global solar irradiation (Angstrom-Prescott type formulas). Theoretically, the insolation is defined as the number of hours that direct solar irradiance (DSI) exceeds 120 W/m2, thus corresponding to the total length of the burning in the bands. The width of the burn has not been well studied, so the aim of this research is to relate this width, first with the DSI and then, with other variables. The research was carried out in Girona (NE Spain) for a period extending since February 2011. A CSR from Thies Clima and a pyrheliometer from Kipp&Zonen were used to measure insolation and the direct solar irradiance. Other meteorological variables were also stored for the study. For each band, we made two independent measurements of the width of the burn every 10 minutes: first, we measured directly the width of the perforated portion of the burn; second, we measured the width of the burn after applying a digital image process that increases the contrast of the burn. The burn in a band has a direct relationship with the DSI. Specifically, correlation coefficients of the perforation width and the burning width with DSI were 0.838 and 0.864 respectively. However, we found that there are times when despite of DSI is as high as 400 W/m2 (i.e. much greater than 120 W/m2), there is no burn in the band. Contrarily, sometimes a burn occurs with almost no DSI. Furthermore, a higher DSI does not always correspond to a wider burn of the band. Because of this, we consider that characteristics of band burns must also depend on other meteorological variables (temperature, humidity...). The

  11. Determination of wood burning and fossil fuel contribution of black carbon at Delhi, India using aerosol light absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, A K; Bisht, D S; Pandithurai, G

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive measurement program of effective black carbon (eBC), fine particle (PM2.5), and carbon monoxide (CO) was undertaken during 1 December 2011 to 31 March 2012 (winter period) in Delhi, India. The mean mass concentrations of eBC, PM2.5, and CO were recorded as 12.1 ± 8.7 μg/m(3), 182.75 ± 114.5 μg/m(3), and 3.41 ± 1.6 ppm, respectively, during the study period. Also, the absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) was estimated from eBC and varied from 0.38 to 1.29 with a mean value of 1.09 ± 0.11. The frequency of occurrence of AAE was ~17 % less than unity whereas ~83 % greater than unity was observed during the winter period in Delhi. The mass concentrations of eBC were found to be higher by ~34 % of the average value of eBC (12.1 μg/m(3)) during the study period. Sources of eBC were estimated, and they were ~94 % from fossil fuel (eBCff) combustion whereas only 6 % was from wood burning (eBCwb). The ratio between eBCff and eBCwb was 15, which indicates a higher impact from fossil fuels compared to biomass burning. When comparing eBCff during day and night, a factor of three higher concentrations was observed in nighttime than daytime, and it is due to combustion of fossil fuel (diesel vehicle emission) and shallow boundary layer conditions. The contribution of eBCwb in eBC was higher between 1800 and 2100 hours due to burning of wood/biomass. A significant correlation between eBC and PM2.5 (r = 0.78) and eBC and CO (r = 0.46) indicates the similarity in location sources. The mass concentration of eBC was highest (23.4 μg/m(3)) during the month of December when the mean visibility (VIS) was lowest (1.31 km). Regression analysis among wind speed (WS), VIS, soot particles, and CO was studied, and significant negative relationships were seen between VIS and eBC (-0.65), eBCff (-0.66), eBCwb (-0.34), and CO (-0.65); however, between WS and eBC (-0.68), eBCff (-0.67), eBCwb (-0.28), and CO (-0.53). The regression analysis indicated

  12. Soil heating during burning of forest slash piles and wood piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; Carol J. Shestak; Ken R. Hubbert

    2013-01-01

    Pile burning of conifer slash is a common fuel reduction practice in forests of the western United States that has a direct, yet poorly quantified effect on soil heating. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the heat pulse beneath hand-built piles ranging widely in fuel composition and pile size in sandy-textured soils of the Lake Tahoe Basin. The soil heat pulse...

  13. Wood drying project with solar energy and absorption plant; Proyecto de un secador de madera con energia solar termica y una planta de absorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corretger, J. M.; Lara, J.; Arnau, J.; Marquez, A.

    2004-07-01

    Wood drying processes currently are developed in tunnel dryers using an air hot flow through the wood to remove the water. These processes are interesting to dry current wood that does not require special control of the drying velocity. However, could be necessary to control drying velocity at any moment of the process in order to dry some high quality wood. This implies to combine heating processes, cooling and dehumidification processes and humidification processes. The aim of this project is to dry noble woods with a drying complex process, in order to improve the quality of the products and to increase the energy saving by free-cooling operations and advanced control strategies, increased by using solar energy to get cold and hot water. The saving of energy will produce a bill reduction and an important minimization of environmental impact. (Author)

  14. The Solar Neighborhood. XXXII. The Hydrogen Burning Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Sergio B.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Winters, Jennifer G.; Hosey, Altonio D.; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.

    2014-05-01

    We construct a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the stellar/substellar boundary based on a sample of 63 objects ranging in spectral type from M6V to L4. We report newly observed VRI photometry for all 63 objects and new trigonometric parallaxes for 37 objects. The remaining 26 objects have trigonometric parallaxes from the literature. We combine our optical photometry and trigonometric parallaxes with 2MASS and WISE photometry and employ a novel spectral energy distribution fitting algorithm to determine effective temperatures, bolometric luminosities, and radii. Our uncertainties range from ~20 K to ~150 K in temperature, ~0.01 to ~0.06 in log (L/L ⊙) and ~3% to ~10% in radius. We check our methodology by comparing our calculated radii to radii directly measured via long baseline optical interferometry. We find evidence for the local minimum in the radius-temperature and radius-luminosity trends that signals the end of the stellar main sequence and the start of the brown dwarf sequence at T eff ~ 2075 K, log (L/L ⊙) ~ -3.9, and (R/R ⊙) ~ 0.086. The existence of this local minimum is predicted by evolutionary models, but at temperatures ~400 K cooler. The minimum radius happens near the locus of 2MASS J0523-1403, an L2.5 dwarf with V - K = 9.42. We make qualitative arguments as to why the effects of the recent revision in solar abundances accounts for the discrepancy between our findings and the evolutionary models. We also report new color-absolute magnitude relations for optical and infrared colors which are useful for estimating photometric distances. We study the optical variability of all 63 targets and find an overall variability fraction of 36^{+9}_{-7}% at a threshold of 15 mmag in the I band, which is in agreement with previous studies.

  15. Household air pollution from wood burning in two reconstructed houses from the Danish Viking Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J M; Ryhl-Svendsen, M

    2015-06-01

    During 13 winter weeks, an experimental archeology project was undertaken in two Danish reconstructed Viking Age houses with indoor open fireplaces. Volunteers inhabited the houses under living conditions similar to those of the Viking Age, including cooking and heating by wood fire. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5 ) were measured at varying distances to the fireplace. Near the fireplaces CO (mean) was 16 ppm. PM2.5 (mean) was 3.40 mg/m(3) , however, measured in one house only. The CO:PM mass ratio was found to increase from 6.4 to 22 when increasing the distance to the fire. Two persons carried CO sensors. Average personal exposure was 6.9 ppm, and from this, a personal PM2.5 exposure of 0.41 mg/m(3) was estimated. The levels found here were higher than reported from modern studies conducted in dwellings using biomass for cooking and heating. While this may be due to the Viking house design, the volunteer's lack of training in attending a fire maybe also played a role. Even so, when comparing to today's issues arising from the use of open fires, it must be assumed that also during the Viking Age, the exposure to woodsmoke was a contributing factor to health problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The solar neighborhood. XXXII. The hydrogen burning limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieterich, Sergio B.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Winters, Jennifer G.; Hosey, Altonio D. [Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Riedel, Adric R. [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Subasavage, John P., E-mail: dieterich@chara.gsu.edu [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We construct a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the stellar/substellar boundary based on a sample of 63 objects ranging in spectral type from M6V to L4. We report newly observed VRI photometry for all 63 objects and new trigonometric parallaxes for 37 objects. The remaining 26 objects have trigonometric parallaxes from the literature. We combine our optical photometry and trigonometric parallaxes with 2MASS and WISE photometry and employ a novel spectral energy distribution fitting algorithm to determine effective temperatures, bolometric luminosities, and radii. Our uncertainties range from ∼20 K to ∼150 K in temperature, ∼0.01 to ∼0.06 in log (L/L {sub ☉}) and ∼3% to ∼10% in radius. We check our methodology by comparing our calculated radii to radii directly measured via long baseline optical interferometry. We find evidence for the local minimum in the radius-temperature and radius-luminosity trends that signals the end of the stellar main sequence and the start of the brown dwarf sequence at T {sub eff} ∼ 2075 K, log (L/L {sub ☉}) ∼ –3.9, and (R/R {sub ☉}) ∼ 0.086. The existence of this local minimum is predicted by evolutionary models, but at temperatures ∼400 K cooler. The minimum radius happens near the locus of 2MASS J0523–1403, an L2.5 dwarf with V – K = 9.42. We make qualitative arguments as to why the effects of the recent revision in solar abundances accounts for the discrepancy between our findings and the evolutionary models. We also report new color-absolute magnitude relations for optical and infrared colors which are useful for estimating photometric distances. We study the optical variability of all 63 targets and find an overall variability fraction of 36{sub −7}{sup +9}% at a threshold of 15 mmag in the I band, which is in agreement with previous studies.

  17. An Efficient, “Burn in” Free Organic Solar Cell Employing a Nonfullerene Electron Acceptor

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Hyojung

    2017-06-28

    A comparison of the efficiency, stability, and photophysics of organic solar cells employing poly[(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,7-diyl)-alt-(3,3\\'″-di(2-octyldodecyl)-2,2\\';5\\',2″;5″,2\\'″-quaterthiophen-5,5\\'″-diyl)] (PffBT4T-2OD) as a donor polymer blended with either the nonfullerene acceptor EH-IDTBR or the fullerene derivative, [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71 BM) as electron acceptors is reported. Inverted PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR blend solar cell fabricated without any processing additive achieves power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 9.5 ± 0.2%. The devices exhibit a high open circuit voltage of 1.08 ± 0.01 V, attributed to the high lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of EH-IDTBR. Photoluminescence quenching and transient absorption data are employed to elucidate the ultrafast kinetics and efficiencies of charge separation in both blends, with PffBT4T-2OD exciton diffusion kinetics within polymer domains, and geminate recombination losses following exciton separation being identified as key factors determining the efficiency of photocurrent generation. Remarkably, while encapsulated PffBT4T-2OD:PC71 BM solar cells show significant efficiency loss under simulated solar irradiation (“burn in” degradation) due to the trap-assisted recombination through increased photoinduced trap states, PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR solar cell shows negligible burn in efficiency loss. Furthermore, PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR solar cells are found to be substantially more stable under 85 °C thermal stress than PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM devices.

  18. An Efficient, "Burn in" Free Organic Solar Cell Employing a Nonfullerene Electron Acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyojung; Wu, Jiaying; Wadsworth, Andrew; Nagitta, Jade; Limbu, Saurav; Pont, Sebastian; Li, Zhe; Searle, Justin; Wyatt, Mark F; Baran, Derya; Kim, Ji-Seon; McCulloch, Iain; Durrant, James R

    2017-09-01

    A comparison of the efficiency, stability, and photophysics of organic solar cells employing poly[(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,7-diyl)-alt-(3,3'″-di(2-octyldodecyl)-2,2';5',2″;5″,2'″-quaterthiophen-5,5'″-diyl)] (PffBT4T-2OD) as a donor polymer blended with either the nonfullerene acceptor EH-IDTBR or the fullerene derivative, [6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) as electron acceptors is reported. Inverted PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR blend solar cell fabricated without any processing additive achieves power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 9.5 ± 0.2%. The devices exhibit a high open circuit voltage of 1.08 ± 0.01 V, attributed to the high lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of EH-IDTBR. Photoluminescence quenching and transient absorption data are employed to elucidate the ultrafast kinetics and efficiencies of charge separation in both blends, with PffBT4T-2OD exciton diffusion kinetics within polymer domains, and geminate recombination losses following exciton separation being identified as key factors determining the efficiency of photocurrent generation. Remarkably, while encapsulated PffBT4T-2OD:PC 71 BM solar cells show significant efficiency loss under simulated solar irradiation ("burn in" degradation) due to the trap-assisted recombination through increased photoinduced trap states, PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR solar cell shows negligible burn in efficiency loss. Furthermore, PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR solar cells are found to be substantially more stable under 85 °C thermal stress than PffBT4T-2OD:PC 71 BM devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nighttime residential wood burning evidenced from an indirect method for estimating real-time concentration of particulate organic matter (POM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciare, J.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Favez, O.; Cachier, H.; Aymoz, G.; Laj, P.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time analyzers of selected chemical components (sulfate, nitrate, Black Carbon) and integrative aerosol parameters (particulate matter and light scattering coefficient) were implemented for a 2-week campaign (November-December 2005) in a suburban area of Clermont-Ferrand (France) in order to document fast changes in the chemical composition of submicron aerosols. Measurements of particulate organic matter (POM) were not available in the field but were indirectly estimated from time-resolved (3-min) reconstruction of the light scattering coefficient. This methodology offered the opportunity to investigate almost real-time and artifact-free POM concentrations even at low concentrations (typically below 0.1 mu g m(-3)). The overall uncertainties associated with this POM calculation were of the order of 20%, which are comparable to those commonly referred in literature for POM calculation or measurements. A chemical mass balance (CMB) of PM1 was performed using the derived POM concentrations and showed a very good correlation (slope = 0.93; r(2) = 0.91, N = 663) with real-time PM1 measurements obtained from R and P TEOM-FDMS, demonstrating the consistency of our approach. Important diurnal variations were observed in POM concentrations, with a dominant contribution of POM from fossil fuel origin during daytime and a dominant contribution of POM from residential wood burning at night. POM was calculated to contribute as much as 70% of PM1 during our study, pointing out the major role of carbonaceous aerosols at this period of the year at our residential area. (authors)

  20. Effects of combustion and operating conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Denys; Duo, Wen Li; Vessey, Michelle

    2006-04-01

    This paper discusses the effects of combustion conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from pulp and paper power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste. We found no correlation between PCDD/PCDF emissions and carbon monoxide emissions. A good correlation was, however, observed between PCDD/PCDF emissions and the concentration of stack polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the absence of TDF addition. Thus, poor combustion conditions responsible for the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PICs), such as PAHs and PCDD/PCDF precursors, increase PCDD/PCDF emissions. PAH concentrations increased with higher boiler load and/or low oxygen concentrations at the boiler exit, probably because of lower available residence times and insufficient excess air. Our findings are consistent with the current understanding that high ash carbon content generally favours heterogeneous reactions leading to either de novo synthesis of PCDD/PCDFs or their direct formation from precursors. We also found that, in grate-fired boilers, a linear increase in the grate/lower furnace temperature produces an exponential decrease in PCDD/PCDF emissions. Although the extent of this effect appears to be mill-specific, particularly at low temperatures, the results indicate that increasing the combustion temperature may decrease PCDD/PCDF emissions. It must be noted, however, that there are other variables, such as elevated ESP and stack temperatures, a high hog salt content, the presence of large amounts of PICs and a high Cl/S ratio, which contribute to higher PCDD/PCDFs emissions. Therefore, higher combustion temperatures, by themselves, will not necessarily result in low PCDD/PCDFs emissions.

  1. Using the Two-Burn Escape Maneuver for Fast Transfers in the Solar System and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert B.; Richardson, Georgia A.

    2010-01-01

    The two-burn maneuver to escape the gravitational pull of a central body is described. The maneuver, originally suggested by Hermann Oberth, improves efficiency considerably for a wide range of missions of interest in space exploration and scientific investigation. A clear delineation of when the maneuver is more effective is given, as are methods to extract the most advantage when using the maneuver. Some examples are given of how this maneuver can enable exploration of the outer solar system, near interstellar space, and crewed missions to Mars and beyond. The maneuver has the potential to halve the required infrastructure associated with a crewed mission to Mars and achieve increased solar escape velocities with existing spacecraft technologies.

  2. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from garbage burning, wood and dung cooking fires, motorcycles and brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, T. S.; Rathnayake, C.; Stockwell, C.; Daugherty, K.; Islam, R. M.; Christian, T. J.; Bhave, P.; Praveen, P. S.; Panday, A. K.; Adhikari, S.; Rasmi, M.; Goetz, D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Saikawa, E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stone, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in-situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia by determining emission factors (EF) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. Garbage burning had the highest EF PM2.5 among the sampled sources ranging 7-124 g kg-1, with maximum EFs for garbage burned under higher moisture conditions. Garbage burning emissions contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) that are associated with acute and chronic health effects. Triphenylbenzene and antimony (Sb) were unique to garbage burning are good candidates for tracing this source. Cook stove emissions varied largely by stove technology (traditional mud stove, 3-stone cooking fire, chimney stove, etc.) and biomass fuel (dung, hardwood, twigs, and mixtures thereof). Burning dung consistently emitted more PM2.5 than burning wood and contained characteristic fecal sterols and stanols. Motorcycle emissions were evaluated before and after servicing, which decreased EF PM2.5 from 8.8 g kg-1 to 0.7 g kg-1. Organic species analysis indicated that this reduction in PM2.5­ is largely due to a decrease in emission of motor oil. For brick kilns, the forced draft zig-zag kilns had higher EF PM2.5 (12-19 g kg-1) compared to clamp kilns (8-13 g kg-1) and also exhibited chemical differences. PM2.5 emitted from the zig-zag kiln were mainly OC (7%), sulfate (32%) and uncharacterized chemical components (60%), while clamp kiln emissions were dominated by OC (64%) and ammonium sulfate (36%). The quantitative emission factors developed in this study may be used for source apportionment and to update regional emission inventories.

  3. Solar-energy-system performance-evaluation update: Wood Road School, Ballston Spa, New York, October 1982-April 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, P

    1983-01-01

    The Wood Road School Solar Project is a 216,000 square foot combined elementary and middle school in Ballston Spa, New York. The solar energy system supplies energy to the space heating and domestic hot water subsystems. Heat is collected by flat plate collector panels and stored in two storage tanks. Performance data are given for the system overall and for each of the four subsystems - energy collection, storage, space heating, and domestic hot water. Data are also provided on operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions. Design and actual system solar fraction are compared, and percentage of incident solar energy and collected solar energy utilized are given. Also given are building loads analysis, system thermal losses, and system coefficient of performance. (LEW)

  4. Solar heating, wood chips and pellets at Harpsund. An evaluation; Solvaerme, flis och pellets paa Harpsund. Utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Leif; Perers, Bengt

    2006-06-15

    Harpsund is well-known for being the representation residence for the Swedish prime minister. Besides this function, it is also a production unit for milk and meat, with a livestock of about 500 animals. At Harpsund, a new production plant for heating and domestic hot water with a new distribution net was built by the Swedish authorities. Wood chips from the forests belonging to the estate are used for the heat production, together with wood pellets and solar heat. The old heating system was based on a technique with local production in each building and was in need of modernization. The new plant has been designed very attractively - great care has been taken to make it fit into the atmosphere of the surroundings. The solar collectors are placed on the roof of a garage for farming machines. The heat central contains three burners: one for wood chips with thermal power 250 kW, one 400 kW burner for pellets and one small 25 kW burner for pellets. The smallest unit is intended to support the solar system during the summer season. From the garage with the 327 m{sup 2} Aquasol Big AR solar collectors the solar heated glycol/ water is transported to the heat central in a culvert. The distance is 150 m. At the heat central, there is also a heat accumulator with a volume of 40 m{sup 3} of water. This is used both for the burners and for the solar heat. The monitoring and analysis of the plant show that it has good reliability and it is evident that the production capacity is adequate for all conceivable climate conditions. During one year of monitoring, the heat central produced 1,494 MWh of which 86 % came from wood chips, 9 % from pellets and 5 % from solar heat. It is unfavourable that the solar heat has to work against the return temperature of the heat distribution system. Also, the collector area seems to be somewhat too large for the demand for domestic hot water. The result for the specific investment for solar heat is therefore high: 13.21 SEK/kWh,year. It might

  5. The Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia-INPA solar dryer: an economical alternative for wood drying; O secador solar do INPA: uma alternativa economica para secar madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes-Duzat, Rejane; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Vetter, Roland [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)]. E-mail: duzat@inpa.gov.br; apaula@inpa.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    As an alternative to the expensive and high energy consuming conventional dryers available at the market, INPA developed a solar wood dryer technically adequate to the climatic conditions of the Amazon region, and economically suitable to an industrial segment that could not afford large investments to dry wood. The dryer has received great acceptance by the industry due to its low cost and good operating efficiency. The prototype was dimensioned with a capacity of 5 to 8 m{sup 3} of sawn wood, which is sufficient for the needs of small sawmills or furniture shops. A total of 20 units have been installed in Brazil and other countries. Research work is underway to improve the performance of the original model, and some modifications are conducted to adapt it to dry other natural products as seeds, nuts, fruits, and herbs. (author)

  6. Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Seiffen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, L.; Iinuma, Y.; Müller, K.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Hausmann, A.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2011-12-01

    Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution, a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany). During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA). Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA), Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA) were identified and represented 20%, 17% and 62% of total OA, respectively. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured by the AMS with an average concentration of 10 ng m-3 and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration (up to 500 ng m-3) compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its low correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. An influence of the time of the week (week vs. weekend) on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening. During the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached only one maximum in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of the BBOA factor and around 62% of the total PAH concentration measured at

  7. Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Seiffen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Poulain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution, a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany. During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA. Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA, Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA were identified and represented 20%, 17% and 62% of total OA, respectively. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH were measured by the AMS with an average concentration of 10 ng m−3 and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration (up to 500 ng m−3 compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its low correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. An influence of the time of the week (week vs. weekend on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening. During the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached only one maximum in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of the BBOA factor and

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  9. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    KAUST Repository

    Heumueller, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    In order to commercialize polymer solar cells, the fast initial performance losses present in many high efficiency materials will have to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which polymer is used. We show that the light-induced traps are in the bulk of the active layer and we find a direct correlation between their presence and the open-circuit voltage loss in devices made with amorphous polymers. Solar cells made with crystalline polymers do not show characteristic open circuit voltage losses, even though light-induced traps are also present in these devices. This indicates that crystalline materials are more resistant against the influence of traps on device performance. Recent work on crystalline materials has shown there is an energetic driving force for charge carriers to leave amorphous, mixed regions of bulk heterojunctions, and charges are dominantly transported in pure, ordered phases. This energetic landscape allows efficient charge generation as well as extraction and also may benefit the stability against light-induced traps. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  10. Quantifying arthropod contributions to wood decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; Terry Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Termites carry large amounts of soil into dead wood, and this behaviour complicates efforts to measure their contributions to wood decay. A novel method for isolating termite soil by burning the wood is described, and some preliminary results are presented.

  11. Don’t get (sun) burned : exposing exterior wood to the weather prior to painting contributes to finish failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to what might be called popular myth, research shows that allowing exterior wood surfaces to weather before applying paint does not help the cause of long-term coating performance. Instead, weathering prior to painting has been shown to contribute significantly to premature failure of the finish due to loss of adhesion.

  12. Modeling of the solar radiative impact of biomass burning aerosols during the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment (DABEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, G.; Hoyle, C. R.; Berglen, T. F.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The radiative forcing associated with biomass burning aerosols has been calculated over West Africa using a chemical transport model. The model simulations focus on the period of January˜February 2006 during the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment (DABEX). All of the main aerosol components for this region are modeled including mineral dust, biomass burning (BB) aerosols, secondary organic carbon associated with BB emissions, and carbonaceous particles from the use of fossil fuel and biofuel. The optical properties of the BB aerosol are specified using aircraft data from DABEX. The modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is within 15-20% of data from the few available Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurement stations. However, the model predicts very high AOD over central Africa, which disagrees somewhat with satellite retrieved AOD from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR). This indicates that BB emissions may be too high in central Africa or that very high AOD may be incorrectly screened out of the satellite data. The aerosol single scattering albedo increases with wavelength in our model and in AERONET retrievals, which contrasts with results from a previous biomass burning aerosol campaign. The model gives a strong negative radiative forcing of the BB aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) in clear-sky conditions over most of the domain, except over the Saharan desert where surface albedos are high. The all-sky TOA radiative forcing is quite inhomogeneous with values varying from -10 to 10 W m-2. The regional mean TOA radiative forcing is close to zero for the all-sky calculation and around -1.5 W m-2 for the clear-sky calculation. Sensitivity simulations indicate a positive regional mean TOA radiative forcing of up to 3 W m-2.

  13. Field performance of wood-burning and coal-burning appliances in Crested Butte during the 1989-90 heating season. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaasma, D.R.; Champion, M.R.; Gundappa, M.

    1991-10-01

    The field performance of woodburning and coalburning appliances in and around Crested Butte, CO, has been evaluated. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rates. Woodburning appliances included conventional airtight stoves, EPA-certified catalytic stoves, and EPA-certified noncatalytic stoves. Compared to the emissions measured from conventional stoves, the certified stoves reduced PM emission factors (g/kg) by 53% and CO emission factors by 49%. Coalburning appliances included a commercial scale boiler, a residential stoker, and hand-fired coalstove. The coalburning appliances were compared to conventional woodstoves on a grams of pollutant per joule of heat output basis. The automatically stoked coal appliances reduced PM and CO emissions by roughly 84% and 85%, respectively. The hand-fired stove was cleaner than expected, reducing PM by 55% and CO by 27%

  14. Estimated health impact of a shift from light fuel to residential wood-burning in Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Kaiser, August; Moshammer, Hanns; Flandorfer, Claudia; Kundi, Michael; Neuberger, Manfred

    2012-07-01

    The dependency on carbon-based fossil energy and growing awareness of climate change issues has induced ambitious policy initiatives to promote renewable energy sources for indoor heating. Combustion of regionally available material such as wood is considered a carbon-neutral alternative for oil and gas, but unregulated revival of wood stoves may cause detrimental health effects. For the prognosis of the health impact of air pollution due to the use of wood stoves, Upper Austria served for a case study. On the basis of recent measurements of particulate matter fuel oil by either fossil gas or biomass, and for scenario 3, replacement of light fuel oil by biomass only. Compared with the current exposure from scenario 1, the increased annual mean PM10 levels are estimated to lead to 101 (95% CI 56;146) and 174 (95% CI 92;257) additional deaths among 1.4 million inhabitants per year for scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Without adequate strategies for reducing the emissions of domestic heating facilities, replacement of fossil energy sources could lead to an increased health risk.

  15. Impact of primary and secondary air supply intensity in stove on emissions of size-segregated particulate matter and carbonaceous aerosols from apple tree wood burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Qian; Lei, Yali; Cao, Junji; Huang, Yu; Liu, Suixin; Zheng, Chunli; Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Hongxia; Pan, Hua; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Renjian

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess emission factors (EF) more accurately from household biomass burning, a series of laboratory-controlled apple tree wood burning tests were conducted to measure the EFs of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous aerosols. The controlled burning experiments were conducted with designed primary air (PA) and secondary air (SA) supply intensity. An optimum value of 7 m3·h- 1 was found for SA, resulting the highest modified combustion efficiency (92.4 ± 2.5%) as well as the lowest EFs of PM2.5 (0.13 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1), OC (0.04 ± 0.03 g·MJ- 1) and EC (0.03 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1). SA values of 7 and 10 m3·h- 1 resulted the lowest EFs for all the different PM sizes. In a test with PA of 6 m3·h- 1 and SA of 7 m3·h- 1, very low EFs were observed for OC1 (8.2%), OC2 (11.2%) and especially OP (Pyrolyzed OC) (0%, not detected), indicating nearly complete combustion under this air supply condition. Besides SA, higher PA was proved to have positive effects on PM and carbonaceous fraction emission reduction. For example, with a fixed SA of 1.5 m3·h- 1, EFs of PM2.5 decreased from 0.64 to 0.27 g·MJ- 1 when PA increased from 6 to 15 m3·h- 1 (P < 0.05). Similar reductions were also observed in EFs of OC, EC and size segregated PM.

  16. Modelling winter organic aerosol at the European scale with CAMx: evaluation and source apportionment with a VBS parameterization based on novel wood burning smog chamber experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; El Haddad, Imad; Bruns, Emily A.; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Äijälä, Mikko; Carbone, Samara; Freney, Evelyn; O'Dowd, Colin; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated a modified VBS (volatility basis set) scheme to treat biomass-burning-like organic aerosol (BBOA) implemented in CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions). The updated scheme was parameterized with novel wood combustion smog chamber experiments using a hybrid VBS framework which accounts for a mixture of wood burning organic aerosol precursors and their further functionalization and fragmentation in the atmosphere. The new scheme was evaluated for one of the winter EMEP intensive campaigns (February-March 2009) against aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements performed at 11 sites in Europe. We found a considerable improvement for the modelled organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to our previous model application with the mean fractional bias (MFB) reduced from -61 to -29 %. We performed model-based source apportionment studies and compared results against positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis performed on OA AMS data. Both model and observations suggest that OA was mainly of secondary origin at almost all sites. Modelled secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contributions to total OA varied from 32 to 88 % (with an average contribution of 62 %) and absolute concentrations were generally under-predicted. Modelled primary hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and primary biomass-burning-like aerosol (BBPOA) fractions contributed to a lesser extent (HOA from 3 to 30 %, and BBPOA from 1 to 39 %) with average contributions of 13 and 25 %, respectively. Modelled BBPOA fractions were found to represent 12 to 64 % of the total residential-heating-related OA, with increasing contributions at stations located in the northern part of the domain. Source apportionment studies were performed to assess the contribution of residential and non-residential combustion precursors to the total SOA. Non-residential combustion and road transportation sector contributed about 30-40 % to SOA formation (with increasing contributions at urban and near

  17. Wood Road School, Ballston Spa, New York solar-energy-system performance evaluation, November 1981-April 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Wood Road School Solar Project of the Ballston Spa Central School District is a 216,000 square foot (136,510 square feet of solar conditioned space) combined elementary and middle school located in New York. The solar energy system was designed to supply 64% of the space heating and 88% of the hot water. The system is equipped with 15,389 square feet of one type of flat-plate collector panels and 6650 square feet of another type. Storage is in two 15,000-gallon storage tanks, and auxiliary heating is by electric resistance strip heaters. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for each type of collector, storage, domestic hot water, and space heating subsystems. Also tabulated monthly are weather conditions, energy savings, operating energy, and coefficients of performance. Also provided are graphs of collector array efficiency vs the difference between the fluid inlet temperature and ambient temperature divided by insolation. System operation is illustrated by graphs of collector array inlet/outlet temperatures and ambient temperature and typical building loop temperatures vs time for a typical day. Also graphed are the system operating sequence and the solar energy utilization and energy losses. (LEW)

  18. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  19. The use of wood burning cook stove in rural areas of Piaui-Brazil: a case study; O uso do fogao a lenha no semi-arido piauiense: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Albemerc Moura de; Martins, Gilberto; Trigoso, Federico B. Morante [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas

    2008-07-01

    The use of wood burning cook stoves is an ancient practice, still used nowadays, mainly in the rural areas of the developing countries. Despite its widespread use by millions of people around of the world, little attention has being paid to its study. In Piaui this reality is not different, since thousands of locals use this equipment as their main instrument for the preparation of their meals. The present article has the objective to study the use of wood stove in rural areas of Piaui. A questionnaire has been applied to ten homes in two villages, which permitted to obtain the main characteristics of the equipment used as well as the habits and wood consumption patterns. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the absorption Ångström exponents for traffic and wood burning in the Aethalometer-based source apportionment using radiocarbon measurements of ambient aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotter, Peter; Herich, Hanna; Gysel, Martin; El-Haddad, Imad; Zhang, Yanlin; Močnik, Griša; Hüglin, Christoph; Baltensperger, Urs; Szidat, Sönke; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-03-01

    Equivalent black carbon (EBC) measured by a multi-wavelength Aethalometer can be apportioned to traffic and wood burning. The method is based on the differences in the dependence of aerosol absorption on the wavelength of light used to investigate the sample, parameterized by the source-specific absorption Ångström exponent (α). While the spectral dependence (defined as α values) of the traffic-related EBC light absorption is low, wood smoke particles feature enhanced light absorption in the blue and near ultraviolet. Source apportionment results using this methodology are hence strongly dependent on the α values assumed for both types of emissions: traffic αTR, and wood burning αWB. Most studies use a single αTR and αWB pair in the Aethalometer model, derived from previous work. However, an accurate determination of the source specific α values is currently lacking and in some recent publications the applicability of the Aethalometer model was questioned.Here we present an indirect methodology for the determination of αWB and αTR by comparing the source apportionment of EBC using the Aethalometer model with 14C measurements of the EC fraction on 16 to 40 h filter samples from several locations and campaigns across Switzerland during 2005-2012, mainly in winter. The data obtained at eight stations with different source characteristics also enabled the evaluation of the performance and the uncertainties of the Aethalometer model in different environments. The best combination of αTR and αWB (0.9 and 1.68, respectively) was obtained by fitting the Aethalometer model outputs (calculated with the absorption coefficients at 470 and 950 nm) against the fossil fraction of EC (ECF / EC) derived from 14C measurements. Aethalometer and 14C source apportionment results are well correlated (r = 0.81) and the fitting residuals exhibit only a minor positive bias of 1.6 % and an average precision of 9.3 %. This indicates that the Aethalometer model reproduces

  1. Ventilation Heat Recovery from Wood-Burning Domestic Flues. A Theoretical Analysis Based on a Triple Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Druette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new air-heating system concept for energy-efficient dwellings. It is a system designed to heat a low-energy building by coupling a heat-recovery ventilation system with a three-fluid heat exchanger located on the chimney of a wood-pellet stove. The proposed work focuses on the heat transfer that occurs between flue gases, the ventilation air and the combustion air within a triple concentric tube heat exchanger with no insulation at its outer surface. The main objective is to predict outlet temperature for the specific geometry of the heat exchanger studied here. Thus, the governing differential equations are derived for a counter-co-current flow arrangement of the three fluids. Then analytical solutions for the steady-state temperature distribution are obtained as well as the amount of heat transferred to the outside. An expression for the effectiveness of the heat exchanger is also proposed. Based on these results, calculations are performed on a case study to predict the fluid temperature distribution along the heat exchanger. Finally, a parametric study is carried out on this case study to assess the influence of the relevant parameters on the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. In addition, computation of heat losses to the outside justifies whether insulation is needed.

  2. Using multiple continuous fine particle monitors to characterize tobacco, incense, candle, cooking, wood burning, and vehicular sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Siegmann, Hans C.

    This study employed two continuous particle monitors operating on different measurement principles to measure concentrations simultaneously from common combustion sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings. The pair of instruments use (a) photo-charging (PC) operating on the principle ionization of fine particles that responds to surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), and (b) diffusion charging (DC) calibrated to measure the active surface area of fine particles. The sources studied included: (1) secondhand smoke (cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), (2) incense (stick and cone), (3) candles used as food warmers, (4) cooking (toasting bread and frying meat), (5) fireplaces and ambient wood smoke, and (6) in-vehicle exposures traveling on California arterials and interstate highways. The ratio of the PC to the DC readings, or the PC/DC ratio, was found to be different for major categories of sources. Cooking, burning toast, and using a "canned heat" food warmer gave PC/DC ratios close to zero. Controlled experiments with 10 cigarettes averaged 0.15 ng mm -2 (ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 ng mm -2), which was similar to the PC/DC ratio for a cigar, although a pipe was slightly lower (0.09 ng mm -2). Large incense sticks had PC/DC ratios similar to those of cigarettes and cigars. The PC/DC ratios for ambient wood smoke averaged 0.29 ng mm -2 on 6 dates, or about twice those of cigarettes and cigars, reflecting a higher ratio of PAH to active surface area. The smoke from two artificial logs in a residential fireplace had a PC/DC ratio of 0.33-0.35 ng mm -2. The emissions from candles were found to vary, depending on how the candles were burned. If the candle flickered and generated soot, a higher PC/DC ratio resulted than if the candle burned uniformly in still air. Inserting piece of metal into the candle's flame caused high PPAH emissions with a record PC/DC reading of 1.8 ng mm -2. In-vehicle exposures measured on 43- and 50-min drives on a

  3. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  4. Morphology and Chemical Composition of soot particles emitted by Wood-burning Cook-Stoves: a HRTEM, XPS and Elastic backscattering Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali-Sandoval, G. A., Sr.; Castro, T.; Peralta, O.; De la Cruz, W.; Días, J.; Amelines, O.; Rivera-Hernández, M.; Varela, A.; Muñoz-Muñoz, F.; Policroniades, R.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.

    2014-12-01

    The morphology, microstructure and the chemical composition on surface of soot particles were studied by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic backscattering spectrometry. In order to obtain freshly soot particles emitted by home-made wood-burning cook stoves, copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were placed on the last two of an 8-stages MOUDI cascade impactor. The analysis of HRTEM micrographs revealed the nanostructure and the particle size of soot particles. The XPS survey spectra show a large carbon peak around 285 eV and the oxygen signal at 533 eV. Some differences observed in the carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio of the particles probably depend on the combustion process efficiency of each cook-stove analyzed. The C-1s XPS spectra show an asymmetric broad peak and other with low intensity that corresponds to sp2 and sp3hybridization, which were fitted with a convolution using Gaussian functions. Elastic backscattering technique allows a chemical elemental analysis of samples and confirms the presence of C, O and Si observed by XPS. Additionally, the morphological properties of soot aggregates were analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df. Also, real-time absorption (σabs) and scattering (σsct) coefficients of fine (with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm) soot particles were measured. The trend in σabs and σsct indicate that the cooking process has two important combustion stages which varied in its flaming strength, being vigorous in the first stage and soft in the second one.

  5. Solar cooking and wood in Chile, energetical alternatives; Cocina solares y manejo de lena en Chile, alternativas energeticas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R. P.

    2004-07-01

    Firewood in Latin America is, after petroleum, the second primary source of energy. In Chile, the statistics have shown that the total use of energy produce by firewood fluctuates between 16 and 21% from which the residential sector represents 54%. There are great social and environmental impacts produced by the use of firewood. For the near future, it will be difficult to eradicate the firewood consumption in Latin America. In looking for sustainable use of firewood to produce energy, NGOs have developed efficient systems for production, management and consume of it. For this research we will focus on the efficient use of biomass and solar energy use for cooking, both to be applied in suitable places. The paper shows Chilean experiences on both, biomass and solar energy production, and how these programs have impacted the national statistics in energy consumption. (Author)

  6. Wood as a home heating fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, K.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the development of clean-burning technology in three types of wood-burning appliances: catalytic, non-catalytic, and pellet stoves. A recent study by the Washington State Energy Extension Office concluded that in homes that use both electricity and wood, 73 megawatts of electricity/yr were saved by using wood. Since wood-burning stoves can now meet air quality standards, wood could be considered to be a greenhouse-neutral fuel if more trees are planted as they are consumed

  7. Controversy. The wood war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  8. ALS annual report 2005 - Main issue 5: 5. IVD colloquium on wood burning - systems management for the future. Fine dust reduction, condensing boiler technology, storage heaters. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains the papers presented at the 18th colloquium of the Stuttgart University WG on air pollution abatement, which was held jointly with the 5th Stuttgart wood furnaces colloquium this year. This was a good combination as wood has high relevance for air pollution abatement: On the one hand, wood as a fuel will reduce CO2 emissions, improve air quality and save resources. On the other hand, wood combustion may cause fine dust emissions, unpleasant smells and other side effects of incomplete combustion, especially in small furnaces. Fine dust emissions were characterized and future requirements on biomass combustion defined. After this, strategies for optimum design and construction, modern off-gas treatment technologies, high-efficiency combustion technologies, flameless combustion, and efficient combinations of wood furnaces and heat stores were gone into. The utilisation of pellets from cereals and straw was mentioned as well. (orig.)

  9. The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kuo; Minh, Doan Pham; Gauthier, Daniel; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Nzihou, Ange; Flamant, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Char samples were produced from pyrolysis in a lab-scale solar reactor. The pyrolysis of beech wood was carried out at temperatures ranging from 600 to 2000°C, with heating rates from 5 to 450°C/s. CHNS, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption were employed to investigate the effect of temperature and heating rate on char composition and structure. The results indicated that char structure was more and more ordered with temperature increase and heating rate decrease (higher than 50°C/s). The surface area and pore volume firstly increased with temperature and reached maximum at 1200°C then reduced significantly at 2000°C. Besides, they firstly increased with heating rate and then decreased slightly at heating rate of 450°C/s when final temperature was no lower than 1200°C. Char reactivity measured by TGA analysis was found to correlate with the evolution of char surface area and pore volume with temperature and heating rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Efficient, “Burn in” Free Organic Solar Cell Employing a Nonfullerene Electron Acceptor

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Hyojung; Wu, Jiaying; Wadsworth, Andrew; Nagitta, Jade; Limbu, Saurav; Pont, Sebastian; Li, Zhe; Searle, Justin; Wyatt, Mark F.; Baran, Derya; Kim, Ji-Seon; McCulloch, Iain; Durrant, James R.

    2017-01-01

    polymer blended with either the nonfullerene acceptor EH-IDTBR or the fullerene derivative, [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71 BM) as electron acceptors is reported. Inverted PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR blend solar cell fabricated without any

  11. The use of an atmospheric dispersion model to determine influence regions in the Prince George, B.C. airshed from the burning of open wood waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, B; Jackson, P L

    2009-06-01

    A means of determining air emission source regions adversely influencing the city of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada from potential burning of isolated piles of mountain pine beetle-killed lodge pole pine is presented. The analysis uses the CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model to identify safe burning regions based on atmospheric stability and wind direction. Model results show that the location and extent of influence regions is sensitive to wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability and a threshold used to quantify excessive concentrations. A concentration threshold based on the Canada Wide PM(2.5) Standard is used to delineate the influence regions while Environment Canada's (EC) daily ventilation index (VI) is used to quantify local atmospheric stability. Results from the analysis, to be used by air quality meteorologists in assessing daily requests for burning permits, are presented as a series of maps delineating acceptable burning locations for sources placed at various distances from the city center and under different ventilation conditions. The results show that no burning should be allowed within 10 km of the city center; under poor ventilation conditions, no burning should be allowed within 20 km of the city center; under good ventilation conditions, burning can be allowed within 10-15 km of the city center; under good to fair ventilation conditions, burning can be allowed beyond 15 km of the city center; and if the wind direction can be reliably forecast, burning can be allowed between 5 and 10 km downwind of the city center under good ventilation conditions.

  12. Radioactivity of Wood and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hus, M.; Kosutic, K.; Lulic, S.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear experiments in the atmosphere and nuclear accidents caused global deposition of artificial radionuclides in the soil of Earth's northern hemisphere, the territory of the Republic of Croatia included. Soil contamination by radionuclides resulted in their deposition in plants growing on the contaminated soil as well as in the trees. Large area of the Republic of Croatia is covered with wood, which is exploited in manufacture of industrial wood and for firewood. From approximately 3 million cubic metres of wood exploited annually, nearly one third serves for firewood. In the process of burning a smaller portion of radionuclides deposited in the wood evaporates and goes to atmosphere while a larger portion is retained in the ash. In this paper are presented the results of natural radionuclides 4 0K , 2 32T h and 2 38U as well as of artificial radionuclide 1 37C s content determination in the wood, wood briquette, charcoal and in ash remained after burning the wood, wood briquette and charcoal. The obtained results are discussed from wood radiocontamination aspect and from the aspect of potential environmental radiocontamination by the products from wood burning process. (author)

  13. The local contribution of wood burning to PM10 and PM2.5; De lokale bijdrage van houtverbranding aan PM10 en PM2,5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    In January 2009, the concentrations of wood smoke in Schoorl, the Netherlands, were established by means of levoglucosan measurements (a hydrocarbon compound that is characteristic for wood smoke). Local wood smoke contributes significantly to the concentration of particulate matter: between 9% and 27% for PM10 and between 30% and 29% for PM2.5. [Dutch] In februari 2009 zijn in Schoorl in Noord-Holland concentraties houtrook bepaald door levoglucosanmetingen (een voor houtrook kenmerkende koolwaterstofverbinding). Lokale houtrook draagt daar significant bij aan de concentratie fijn stof: tussen 9% en 27% voor PM10 en tussen 30% en 39% voor PM2,5.

  14. The Mechanism of Burn-in Loss in a High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-10-11

    Degradation in a high efficiency polymer solar cell is caused by the formation of states in the bandgap. These states increase the energetic disorder in the system. The power conversion efficiency loss does not occur when current is run through the device in the dark but occurs when the active layer is photo-excited. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Evolution of a 30 solar mass star: the interplay of nuclear burning and mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, H.J.; Mitalas, R.

    1981-01-01

    Evolutionary tracks for a 30 solar mass star with various mass loss rates (MLR) were evolved to core He exhaustion. The 'overluminosity' of mass losing (ML) stars is explained in terms of the well known mass-luminosity (M-L) law. A critical ZAMS MLR above which mass loss leads to evolution to fainter luminosities is derived. Two tracks showed reversals in their direction of evolution across the HR diagram. These have been shown to be a consequence of mass loss dominating over the effects of the shell source. An analytic criterion for this condition has been derived. (Auth.)

  16. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarniala, M.; Puhakka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  17. Strong air pollution from old wood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to this article, wood-firing is the major source of suspended dust in Norway. Old stoves emit about six times as much as new stoves. Only seven percent of the wood-firing takes place in modern, clean-burning stoves. In Oslo, where replacement of old stoves has been publicly supported, this fraction is even less. The emission of carbon dioxide from burning wood does not count as climate gas emission since the amount of CO 2 released from a burning tree equals the amount that was fixed in the growing tree, and it would have been released anyhow by the decaying tree if not burned

  18. The environmental assessment of the wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, Cristian; Badea, Adrian; Apostol, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analysed the emissions from residential boilers burning wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. Three boilers, selected with respect to age, design, connection to heat storage tank, and type of biofuel, were included in the study. The emissions captured comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAC) and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). We have used the Life Cycle Inventory method in order to identify the main stressors generated by the wood combustion stage. In this purpose, we have analysed one type of old boiler, one type of modern boiler and a multi-fuel boiler, which can burn wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. In this article, we selected only the wood combustion stage because it is the most important according to the emissions produced. (authors)

  19. Biomass burning in Africa: As assessment of annually burned biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.A.; Loudjani, P.; Podaire, A.; Menaut, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    It is now established that biomass burning is the dominant phenomenon that controls the atmospheric chemistry in the tropics. Africa is certainly the continent where biomass burning under various aspects and processes is the greatest. Three different types of burnings have to be considered-bush fires in savanna zones which mainly affect herbaceous flora, forest fires due to forestation for shifting agriculture or colonization of new lands, and the use of wood as fuel. The net release of carbon resulting from deforestation is assumed to be responsible for about 20% of the CO 2 increase in the atmosphere because the burning of forests corresponds to a destorage of carbon from the biospheric reservoir. The amount of reactive of greenhouse gases emitted by biomass burning is directly proportional, through individual emission factors, to the biomass actually burned. This chapter evaluates the biomass annually burned on the African continent as a result of the three main burning processes previously mentioned

  20. Solar cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  1. Field Measurements of Trace Gases and Aerosols Emitted by Undersampled Combustion Sources Including Wood and Dung Cooking Fires, Garbage and Crop Residue Burning, and Indonesian Peat Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, C.; Jayarathne, T. S.; Goetz, D.; Simpson, I. J.; Selimovic, V.; Bhave, P.; Blake, D. R.; Cochrane, M. A.; Ryan, K. C.; Putra, E. I.; Saharjo, B.; Stone, E. A.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Field measurements were conducted in Nepal and in the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan to improve characterization of trace gases and aerosols emitted by undersampled combustion sources. The sources targeted included cooking with a variety of stoves, garbage burning, crop residue burning, and authentic peat fires. Trace gas and aerosol emissions were studied using a land-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, whole air sampling, photoacoustic extinctiometers (405 and 870nm), and filter samples that were analyzed off-line. These measurements were used to calculate fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for up to 90 gases, PM2.5, and PM2.5 constituents. The aerosol optical data measured included EFs for the scattering and absorption coefficients, the single scattering albedo (at 870 and 405 nm), as well as the absorption Ångström exponent. The emissions varied significantly by source, although light absorption by both brown and black carbon (BrC and BC, respectively) was important for all non-peat sources. For authentic peat combustion, the emissions of BC were negligible and absorption was dominated by organic aerosol. The field results from peat burning were in reasonable agreement with recent lab measurements of smoldering Kalimantan peat and compare well to the limited data available from other field studies. The EFs can be used with estimates of fuel consumption to improve regional emissions inventories and assessments of the climate and health impacts of these undersampled sources.

  2. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Christian, Ted J.; Goetz, J. Douglas; Jayarathne, Thilina; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Saikawa, Eri; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Panday, Arnico K.

    2016-09-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) campaign took place in and around the Kathmandu Valley and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of southern Nepal during April 2015. The source characterization phase targeted numerous important but undersampled (and often inefficient) combustion sources that are widespread in the developing world such as cooking with a variety of stoves and solid fuels, brick kilns, open burning of municipal solid waste (a.k.a. trash or garbage burning), crop residue burning, generators, irrigation pumps, and motorcycles. NAMaSTE produced the first, or rare, measurements of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and detailed trace gas chemistry for the emissions from many of the sources. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, whole-air sampling (WAS), and photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX; 405 and 870 nm) based on field work with a moveable lab sampling authentic sources. The primary aerosol optical properties reported include emission factors (EFs) for scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat, EF Babs, in m2 kg-1 fuel burned), single scattering albedos (SSAs), and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs). From these data we estimate black and brown carbon (BC, BrC) emission factors (g kg-1 fuel burned). The trace gas measurements provide EFs (g kg-1) for CO2, CO, CH4, selected non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, a large suite of oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, SO2, HCl, HF, etc. (up to ˜ 80 gases in all). The emissions varied significantly by source, and light absorption by both BrC and BC was important for many sources. The AAE for dung-fuel cooking fires (4.63 ± 0.68) was significantly higher than for wood-fuel cooking fires (3.01 ± 0.10). Dung-fuel cooking fires also emitted high levels of NH3 (3.00 ± 1.33 g kg-1), organic acids (7.66 ± 6.90 g kg-1), and HCN (2.01 ± 1.25 g kg-1), where the latter could

  3. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Stockwell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE campaign took place in and around the Kathmandu Valley and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP of southern Nepal during April 2015. The source characterization phase targeted numerous important but undersampled (and often inefficient combustion sources that are widespread in the developing world such as cooking with a variety of stoves and solid fuels, brick kilns, open burning of municipal solid waste (a.k.a. trash or garbage burning, crop residue burning, generators, irrigation pumps, and motorcycles. NAMaSTE produced the first, or rare, measurements of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and detailed trace gas chemistry for the emissions from many of the sources. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, whole-air sampling (WAS, and photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX; 405 and 870 nm based on field work with a moveable lab sampling authentic sources. The primary aerosol optical properties reported include emission factors (EFs for scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat, EF Babs, in m2 kg−1 fuel burned, single scattering albedos (SSAs, and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs. From these data we estimate black and brown carbon (BC, BrC emission factors (g kg−1 fuel burned. The trace gas measurements provide EFs (g kg−1 for CO2, CO, CH4, selected non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, a large suite of oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, SO2, HCl, HF, etc. (up to ∼ 80 gases in all. The emissions varied significantly by source, and light absorption by both BrC and BC was important for many sources. The AAE for dung-fuel cooking fires (4.63 ± 0.68 was significantly higher than for wood-fuel cooking fires (3.01 ± 0.10. Dung-fuel cooking fires also emitted high levels of NH3 (3.00 ± 1.33 g kg−1, organic acids (7.66 ± 6.90 g kg−1, and HCN

  4. 'Not all that burns is wood'. A social perspective on fuel exploitation and use during the Indus urban period (2600-1900 BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancelotti, Carla

    2018-01-01

    Ancient civilisations depended heavily on natural fuel resources for a wide array of activities, and this had an impact on such resources that can be traced in the archaeological record. At its urban apex, the populations of the Indus Civilisation (2600-1900 BC) produced a wide range of objects and crafts, several of which involved highly specialised pyrotechnology. In the wake of increasing aridity and a period of weakened monsoon rainfall that affected South Asia from 2100 BC, these activities potentially put pressure on the natural resource base that may have had to be counterbalanced by differentiation in fuel use. The combined analysis of archaeobotanical and geoarchaeological remains from four Indus urban phase archaeological sites, has enable an assessment of the mechanisms through which people exploited wood, and diversified their fuel resources to adapt to the arid to semi-arid environments in which they lived. The combined use of local wood species with alternative fuels, such as dung and crop-processing leftovers, are evidence for resilient socio-ecological practices during the 700 years of Indus urbanism and perhaps beyond.

  5. Equipment for biomass. Wood burners; Materiels pour la biomasse, les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R., 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    A review of the French classification of biomass wastes (and more especially wood and wood wastes) concerning classified burning equipment, is presented: special authorization is thus needed for burning residues from wood second transformation processes. Limits for combustion product emission levels are detailed and their impact on wood burning and process equipment is examined: feeder, combustion chamber, exchanger, fume treatment device, residue disposal. Means for reducing pollutant emissions are reviewed

  6. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  7. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a...

  9. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  10. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  11. Well-to-wheel analysis of renewable transport fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification and hydrogen from concentrated solar energy[Dissertation 17437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, R.

    2007-07-01

    In order to deal with problems such as climate change, an increasing energy demand and the finiteness of fossil resources, alternative CO{sub 2}-low technologies have to be found for a sustainable growing future. Laboratories at PSI are conducting research on two pathways delivering such car fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification (SNG) and hydrogen from solar thermochemical ZnO dissociation (STD). The biofuel SNG is produced using wood in an auto-thermal gasification reactor. It can be supplied to the natural-gas grid and be used in a compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle. STD is a long-term option, using concentrated solar radiation in a thermochemical reactor, producing zinc as solar energy carrier. Zinc can be used for hydrolysis, in order to produce hydrogen as a locally low-polluting future car fuel. In the frame of the thesis, both fuels are assessed using a life cycle assessment, i.e. investigating all environmental interactions from the extraction of resources over the processing and usage steps to the final disposal. Different methodologies are applied for a rating, compared to alternatives and standard fuels of today. In addition, costs of the technologies are calculated in order to assess economic competitiveness. The thesis is structured as follows: After an introduction giving an overview (chapter A), the methodology is presented (chapter B). It includes various life cycle impact assessment methods such as greenhouse gas emissions, the cumulative energy demand or comprehensive rating approaches. Calculations of the production and supply costs of the assessed fuels are included as well as the eco-efficiency, a combination of environmental with economic indicators. In addition, external costs caused by the emissions are quantified. Sensitivity studies investigate the importance of different parameters and substantiate conclusions. In chapter C, the production, supply and use of the assessed fuels is discussed, following the well

  12. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  13. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  14. P.E.I. wood fuel survey, 1990-91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    In 1991 a wood fuel survey of 450 randomly selected households, representing 1% of the total number of households in Prince Edward Island, was conducted. The survey indicated that 49.8% of the households burned wood, up from 42.1% of households in the 1988-1989 survey. The wood burning households consumed an average of 4.92 cords of wood, consistent with the 4.90 cords in the 1989 survey. The total residential wood consumption was estimated at ca 100,377 cords, an increase from the 89,000 cords used in 1988-89. Wood cutters represented 23.4% of respondents, with buyers representing 25.4% of respondents. The wood burning appliances used by the respondents were: airtight wood stove 39.9%, wood furnace 22.5%, kitchen wood stove 15.7%, combined wood/oil furnace 8.9%, Franklin/non-airtight 4.4%, Kemac unit 4.4%, fireplace insert 3.1%, and open fireplace 1%. The most frequent response among rural wood users cited price as an advantage of wood fuel, while the most frequent response of urban users cited the quality of the heat. 9 figs., 47 tabs

  15. Functional Group Analysis of Biomass Burning Particles Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrell, K.; Lau, A.; Bond, T.; Iraci, L. T.

    2008-12-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of particulate organic carbon in the atmosphere. These particles affect the energy balance of the atmosphere directly by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, and indirectly through their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The chemical composition of biomass burning particles influences their ability to act as CCN, thus understanding the chemistry of these particles is required for understanding their effects on climate and air quality. As climate change influences the frequency and severity of boreal forest fires, the influence of biomass burning aerosols on the atmosphere may become significantly greater. Only a small portion of the organic carbon (OC) fraction of these particles has been identified at the molecular level, although several studies have explored the general chemical classes found in biomass burning smoke. To complement those studies and provide additional information about the reactive functional groups present, we are developing a method for polarity-based separation of compound classes found in the OC fraction, followed by infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis of each polarity fraction. It is our goal to find a simple, relatively low-tech method which will provide a moderate chemical understanding of the entire suite of compounds present in the OC fraction of biomass burning particles. Here we present preliminary results from pine and oak samples representative of Midwestern United States forests burned at several different temperatures. Wood type and combustion temperature are both seen to affect the composition of the particles. The latter seems to affect relative contributions of certain functional groups, while oak demonstrates at least one additional chemical class of compounds, particularly at lower burning temperatures, where gradual solid-gas phase reactions can produce relatively large amounts of incompletely oxidized products.

  16. Analysis of existing structure and emissions of wood combustion plants for the production of heat and electricity in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joa, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the detailed analysis of the existing structure of all Bavarian wood burning plants for the generation of heat and electricity as well as the determination of the resulting emission emissions in 2013. The number of wood burning plants in the single-chamber fireplaces, wood central heating and wood-fired heating plants which are in operation in the year 2013 were determined, and how many plants are existing in the various areas like pellet stoves, traditional ovens, wood-burning fireplace, pellet central heating systems, wood chips central heating systems, fire-wood central heating systems, wood combined heat and power plant (electricity and heat) and wood power plants (heat). In addition, the regional distribution of the wood burning plants in the Bavarian governmental districts is investigated as well as the type and amount of energy produced by them (heat, electricity). [de

  17. Constraining a hybrid volatility basis-set model for aging of wood-burning emissions using smog chamber experiments: a box-model study based on the VBS scheme of the CAMx model (v5.40)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarelli, Giancarlo; El Haddad, Imad; Bruns, Emily; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Möhler, Ottmar; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, novel wood combustion aging experiments performed at different temperatures (263 and 288 K) in a ˜ 7 m3 smog chamber were modelled using a hybrid volatility basis set (VBS) box model, representing the emission partitioning and their oxidation against OH. We combine aerosol-chemistry box-model simulations with unprecedented measurements of non-traditional volatile organic compounds (NTVOCs) from a high-resolution proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and with organic aerosol measurements from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Due to this, we are able to observationally constrain the amounts of different NTVOC aerosol precursors (in the model) relative to low volatility and semi-volatile primary organic material (OMsv), which is partitioned based on current published volatility distribution data. By comparing the NTVOC / OMsv ratios at different temperatures, we determine the enthalpies of vaporization of primary biomass-burning organic aerosols. Further, the developed model allows for evaluating the evolution of oxidation products of the semi-volatile and volatile precursors with aging. More than 30 000 box-model simulations were performed to retrieve the combination of parameters that best fit the observed organic aerosol mass and O : C ratios. The parameters investigated include the NTVOC reaction rates and yields as well as enthalpies of vaporization and the O : C of secondary organic aerosol surrogates. Our results suggest an average ratio of NTVOCs to the sum of non-volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds of ˜ 4.75. The mass yields of these compounds determined for a wide range of atmospherically relevant temperatures and organic aerosol (OA) concentrations were predicted to vary between 8 and 30 % after 5 h of continuous aging. Based on the reaction scheme used, reaction rates of the NTVOC mixture range from 3.0 × 10-11 to 4. 0 × 10-11 cm3 molec-1 s-1. The average enthalpy of vaporization of secondary organic aerosol

  18. Constraining a hybrid volatility basis-set model for aging of wood-burning emissions using smog chamber experiments: a box-model study based on the VBS scheme of the CAMx model (v5.40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, novel wood combustion aging experiments performed at different temperatures (263 and 288 K in a ∼ 7 m3 smog chamber were modelled using a hybrid volatility basis set (VBS box model, representing the emission partitioning and their oxidation against OH. We combine aerosol–chemistry box-model simulations with unprecedented measurements of non-traditional volatile organic compounds (NTVOCs from a high-resolution proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and with organic aerosol measurements from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. Due to this, we are able to observationally constrain the amounts of different NTVOC aerosol precursors (in the model relative to low volatility and semi-volatile primary organic material (OMsv, which is partitioned based on current published volatility distribution data. By comparing the NTVOC ∕ OMsv ratios at different temperatures, we determine the enthalpies of vaporization of primary biomass-burning organic aerosols. Further, the developed model allows for evaluating the evolution of oxidation products of the semi-volatile and volatile precursors with aging. More than 30 000 box-model simulations were performed to retrieve the combination of parameters that best fit the observed organic aerosol mass and O : C ratios. The parameters investigated include the NTVOC reaction rates and yields as well as enthalpies of vaporization and the O : C of secondary organic aerosol surrogates. Our results suggest an average ratio of NTVOCs to the sum of non-volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds of ∼ 4.75. The mass yields of these compounds determined for a wide range of atmospherically relevant temperatures and organic aerosol (OA concentrations were predicted to vary between 8 and 30 % after 5 h of continuous aging. Based on the reaction scheme used, reaction rates of the NTVOC mixture range from 3.0 × 10−11 to 4. 0 × 10−11 cm3 molec−1 s−1

  19. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  20. Introducing wood pellet fuel to the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, R A; Giffard, A

    2001-07-01

    Technical and non-technical issues affecting the introduction of wood pellet-fired heating to the UK were investigated with the aim of helping to establish a wood pellet industry in the UK. The project examined the growth and status of the industry in continental Europe and North America, reviewed relevant UK standards and legislation, identified markets for pellet heating in the UK, organised workshops and seminars to demonstrate pellet burning appliances, carried out a trial pelletisation of a range of biomass fuels, helped to set up demonstration installations of pellet-fired appliances, undertook a promotional campaign for wood pellet fuel and compiled resource directories for pellet fuel and pellet burning appliances in the UK. The work was completed in three phases - review, identification and commercialisation. Project outputs include UK voluntary standards for wood pellet fuel and combustion appliances, and a database of individuals with an interest in wood pellet fuel.

  1. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  2. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  3. Wood, the indigenous energy source. 1100 plants built in 20 years, all of them 'Swiss made'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlen, B.

    1999-01-01

    The company HOBAG Brienz, Ltd., specialised in the field of automatic wood-burning plants, continuously developed its unique system over the past 20 years and has more than 1100 satisfied clients in Switzerland as well as in foreign countries. It is equally dealing with log boilers, wood chip boilers, or pellet boilers. Nowadays, the company is seen as the market leader for modern, full automatic log-burning plants and wood conditioning equipment including containers for logs or wood chips

  4. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  5. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Zohir; Smith, Kirk R.

    2010-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM 2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored while occupied by guest families. A masonry hearth was located in the middle of each house for open cooking fires and with heating stoves. One house had a chimney leading to the outside over the hearth; in the other, a brickwork hood led the smoke into an attic and through holes in the roof. During the first week the concentration of PM 2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 μg m -3 inside the hearths and 21-160 μg m -3 in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM 2.5. However, air exchange and air distribution measurements revealed a large draw in the chimney, which ensured a fast removal of wood smoke from the hearth area. The guest families were in average exposed to no more than 0.21 ppm CO during 48 h. Based on a hypothetical time-activity pattern, however, a woman living in this type of house during the 17-19th century would be exposed to daily averages of 1.1 ppm CO and 196 μg m -3 PM 2.5, which exceeds WHO guideline for PM 2.5, and is comparable to what is today observed for women in rural areas of developing countries.

  6. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  7. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  8. Solar thermal energy / exhaust air heat pump / wood pellet furnace for a sustainable heat supply of low energy buildings in older buildings; Solarthermie / Abluft-Waermepumpe / Pelletofen. Kombisysteme zur nachhaltigen Waermeversorgung von Niedrigenergiehaeusern im Gebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, Nikolaus; Born, Rolf [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Staerz, Norbert [Ingenieurbuero inPlan, Pfungstadt (Germany)

    2009-11-13

    The research project under consideration reports on combination systems for a sustainable heat supply for low-energy buildings in older building. For this, a central and decentralized system configuration consisting of solar thermal energy, exhaust air heat pump and wood pellet furnace are presented. Solutions for an interaction of these three heat suppliers in one plant are designated regarding the control strategy. The fundamentals of the computerized simulations for the central and decentralized system are presented. A cost estimate with both variants of the combination system as well as a comparison with conventional energy-saving heat supply systems follow.

  9. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  10. Global biomass burning - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implicati ons [Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhiliang; Teuber, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    On a global scale, the total biomass consumed by annual burning is about 8680 million tons of dry material; the estimated total biomass consumed by the burning of savanna grasslands, at 3690 million tons/year, exceeds all other biomass burning (BMB) components. These components encompass agricultural wastes burning, forest burning, and fuel wood burning. BMB is not restricted to the tropics, and is largely anthropogenic. Satellite measurements indicate significantly increased tropospheric concentrations of CO and ozone associated with BMB. BMB significantly enhances the microbial production and emission of NO(x) from soils, and of methane from wetlands

  11. Pelly Crossing wood chip boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-11

    The Pelly wood chip project has demonstrated that wood chips are a successful fuel for space and domestic water heating in a northern climate. Pelly Crossing was chosen as a demonstration site for the following reasons: its extreme temperatures, an abundant local supply of resource material, the high cost of fuel oil heating and a lack of local employment. The major obstacle to the smooth operation of the boiler system was the poor quality of the chip supply. The production of poor quality chips has been caused by inadequate operation and maintenance of the chipper. Dull knives and faulty anvil adjustments produced chips and splinters far in excess of the one centimetre size specified for the system's design. Unanticipated complications have caused costs of the system to be higher than expected by approximately $15,000. The actual cost of the project was approximately $165,000. The first year of the system's operation was expected to accrue $11,600 in heating cost savings. This estimate was impossible to confirm given the system's irregular operation and incremental costs. Consistent operation of the system for a period of at least one year plus the installation of monitoring devices will allow the cost effectiveness to be calculated. The wood chip system's impact on the environment was estimated to be minimal. Wood chip burning was considered cleaner and safer than cordwood burning. 9 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Physical properties and consumer reaction to use of compressed wood bricks in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen M. Brackley; Robert Gorman; Karen. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    In late 2008, a group of business people and entrepreneurs in southeast Alaska became aware of a compressed wood brick product that could be used as an alternative fuel in existing wood-burning stoves and heating equipment. The product differed from many others on the market in that it contained no additive to promote binding and burn characteristics. In 2009, local...

  13. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  14. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  15. A burning question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Garth

    2010-01-01

    Converting unwanted biomass to fuel pellets four times denser than wood has local companies in Queensland, Australia excited. The well-tested 'old technology' of burning wood is going through a renaissance. There is a growing focus on producing high- density biomass pellets from feedstock that would otherwise be considered waste. Their uniform size reduces transport costs, the energy content varies, about 4-5MWh/tonne, compared to 2.8MWh/t for brown coal or 8.3MWh/t for black coal. The biomass estimates from sugarcane, other agricultural wastes and wood wastes suggest Australia has huge biomass resources, but whether or not Australia's political settings see the potential fulfilled is yet to be seen. Altus Renewables recently disclosed plans to build a biofuel pelletisation plant at Queensland's largest sawmill. Altus are very interested in the European market, the world's leading pellet consuming region, where according to the IEA, biomass represents 65% of the renewables. Cheap power provided by waste biomass could potentially power biomass converters, desalination plants, or even pump water inland to arid regions.

  16. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Dybdahl, M [Technical Univ. of Denmark, National Food Institute, Dept. of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Soeborg (Denmark); Larsen, Poul Bo [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The number of residential wood burning devices has increased in Denmark during the latest years and it has been estimated that there in 2005 were about 551,000 wood stoves and about 48,000 wood boilers in Denmark. This has resulted in an increased exposure of the general Danish population to pollutants associated with residential wood smoke. New Danish monitoring results on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air have shown elevated PM levels in areas with many wood stoves, particularly during wintertime when wood burning is common. Due to the size distribution of wood smoke particles essentially all will be contained in the PM{sub 2.5} fraction. It has been estimated that about 17,665 tonnes PM{sub 2.5} per year (2005) in Denmark come from residential wood combustion. Therefore, there is an increasing concern that adverse human health effects might be associated with the increased exposure to residential wood smoke. This project has been set up in order to review the scientific literature concerning adverse health effects of pollutants associated with residential wood smoke with the main focus on particulate matter and to quantify and evaluate, if possible, the impact on human health of the increased exposure to particles in residential wood smoke. (au)

  17. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  18. Wood Degradation by Thermotolerant and Thermophilic Fungi for Sustainable Heat Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caizan Juanarena, Leire; ter Heijne, Annemiek; Buisman, Cees; Van der Wal, A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of renewable biomass for production of heat and electricity plays an important role in the circular economy. Degradation of wood biomass to produce heat is a clean and novel process proposed as an alternative to wood burning, and could be used for various heating applications. So far, wood

  19. Burning Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be accompanied by a pins and needles sensation (paresthesia) or numbness, or both. Burning feet may also be referred to as tingling feet or paresthesia. While fatigue or a skin infection can cause ...

  20. Burning issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raloff, J.

    1993-01-01

    The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy

  1. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  2. The development of clean-burning, noncatalytic manufactured fireplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, F.H.

    1992-01-01

    Concern for the air quality of this country in general and the Western states in particular has brought sharp focus from regulators on the emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) from all wood-burning appliances. This concern was a driving force which led to the development of a clean-burning fireplace. Many Western areas have begun to limit installation of wood-burning appliances in new construction. Some jurisdictions allow only Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified appliances. Currently no federal test methods or standards exist for fireplaces so the Manufactured Fireplace Industry, through the Hearth Products Association (HPA), set about to develop suitable test methods and standards for manufactured fireplaces

  3. Impact of wood burning on outdoor air quality: existing French data and current studies; Contribution du chauffage au bois a la qualite de l'air exterieur: donnees existantes et etudes en cours en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Mandin, C.; Collet, S. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France); Besombes, J.L.; Pissot, N. [Universite de Savoie, Lab. de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnemental (LCME), 73 - Le Bourget du Lac (France); Allemand, N. [Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d' Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, CITEPA, 75 - Paris (France); Riberon, J. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Jaffrezo, J.L. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE UMR CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2009-03-15

    French source apportionment studies of air quality including the wood combustion source become widespread. Quantify a single source contribution to air quality requires to be provided with a specific measurable data to this source. For that reason, numerous studies have focused on the determination, in the atmospheric samples, of the source-specific compounds, usually called molecular tracers. Since 2000, trend works focused on the 'wood combustion' contribution to air quality have been based on the use of some tracers such as levoglucosan and metoxyphenols. Obtained results have been compared to atmospheric particles global characteristics: organic carbon (OC), elementary carbon (EC), PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results presented in this article show not only the interest but also the limits of such an approach, as well as the need to develop and complete the current studies in order to quantify the different sources contribution to air quality. (author)

  4. The characterisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions from burning of different firewood species in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Linda Y.; Zhang Weidong; Atkiston, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Emission levels for PAHs varied with the type of wood burned. - Four kinds of woods used for residential heating in Australia were selected and burned under two burning conditions in a domestic wood heater installed in a laboratory. The selected wood species included pine (Pinus radiata), red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), sugar gum (Eucalyptus cladocalyx) and yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora). The two different burning conditions represented fast burning and slow burning, with the air inlet of the combustion chamber respectively 'full open' and 'half open'. By sampling and analysing particulate and gaseous emissions from the burning of each load of wood under defined experimental conditions, PAHs emissions and their profiles in the particulate and gaseous phases were obtained. 16 species out of the 18 selected PAHs were detected. Of these, seven species were detected in the gaseous phase and most were lower molecular weight compounds. Similarly, more than 10 species of PAHs were detected in the particulate phase and these were mostly heavier molecular weight compounds. Under both burning conditions, emission levels for total PAHs and total genotoxic PAHs were the highest for pine and lowest for sugar gum, with red gum being the second highest, followed by yellow box. Using the specific sampling method, gaseous PAHs accounted for above 90% mass fraction of total PAHs in comparison to particulate PAHs (10%). The majority of the genotoxic PAHs were present in the particulate phase. PAHs emission levels in slow burning conditions were generally higher than those in fast burning conditions

  5. 太阳能与热泵联合干燥木材的优化匹配%OPTIMIZATION OF COMBINED DRYING SYSTEM WITH SOLAR ENERGY AND HEAT-PUMP FOR WOOD DRYING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璧光; 高建民; 伊松林; 许彩霞; 王天龙

    2009-01-01

    The best performance of the combined system was optimized by theoretical analysis and experiments. If solar energy meets the need of wood drying requirement, the heat is supplied by solar energy only; otherwise, the heat is supplied by solar energy and heat pump together; and the heat is supplied by heat-pump only during cloudy, rainy day and the night. If the temperature of air through solar energy system is higher than ambient temperature, the air from solar energy system should be sent to heat-pump, the heat-supply coefficient and voulume can be improved to heat-pump system. There is an economical temperature increasing of air through solar energy system with an ambient temperature. For example, if the ambient temperature is 24℃, the lowest theoretical and experimental temperature increasing through solar energy system were 4℃ and 6℃, respectively.%介绍了太阳能与热泵联合干燥系统的组成与工作原理.通过理论分析与实验研究探讨了太阳能与热泵联合运行的优化匹配,当太阳能供热量能满足木材干燥所需热量时,由太阳能系统供热;否则由太阳能与热采联合供热;阴雨天和夜间由热泵供热.当太阳能送风温度低,但高于环境温度时,低温太阳能向热泵送风,可以提高热泵的供热系数和供热量.对应于一定的环境温度,太阳能向热泵送风有一个相匹配的最低温差.例如当环境温度为24℃时,通过理论和实验求得太阳能向热泵送风与环境温度间的最低送风温差分别为4℃和6℃.

  6. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068...

  7. Smoke emissions from a catalytic wood stove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowburn, D.A.; Stephens, N.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The work reported here was concerned with testing a catalytic wood burning stove (roomheater) following the most applicable UK procedures. The identical stove has also been tested in several other nations to their individual procedures. The results will be submitted to the International Energy Agency (IEA) such that appropriate comparisons can be made. The results comprised: burning rate; an indicative appliance efficiency; heat output; carbon dioxide emissions; carbon monoxide emissions; and smoke emissions. These results were determined with the appliance at three nominal burning rates (high, medium and low). Comparing the results with those obtained in other countries indicates good agreement except when the appliance was operated at low burning rates, under which conditions the UK results indicate significantly worse smoke emissions than those measured by other researchers. (author)

  8. Controversy. The wood war; Polemique - la guerre du bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, O.

    2010-12-15

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  9. Finishing of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Mei-Huey

    1994-12-01

    A database for the spatial and temporal distribution of the amount of biomass burned in tropical America, Africa, and Asia during the late 1970s is presented with a resolution of 5° latitude × 5° longitude. The sources of burning in each grid cell have been quantified. Savanna fires, shifting cultivation, deforestation, fuel wood use, and burning of agricultural residues contribute about 50, 24, 10, 11, and 5%, respectively, of total biomass burned in the tropics. Savanna fires dominate in tropical Africa, and forest fires dominate in tropical Asia. A similar amount of biomass is burned from forest and savanna fires in tropical America. The distribution of biomass burned monthly during the dry season has been derived for each grid cell using the seasonal cycles of surface ozone concentrations. Land use changes during the last decade could have a profound impact on the amount of biomass burned and the amount of trace gases and aerosol particles emitted.

  11. Methoxyphenols in smoke from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaellstrand, J

    2000-07-01

    Wood and other forest plant materials were burned in laboratory experiments with the ambition to simulate the natural burning course in a fireplace or a forest fire. Smoke samples were taken and analysed with respect to methoxyphenols, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Different kinds of bio pellets, intended for residential heating were studied in the same way. The aim of a first study was to establish analytical data to facilitate further research. Thirty-six specific methoxyphenols were identified, and gas chromatographic retention and mass spectrometric data were determined for these. In a subsequent study, the methoxyphenol emissions from the burning of wood and other forest plant materials were investigated. Proportions and concentrations of specific methoxyphenols were determined. Methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, formed from the decomposition of lignin and cellulose respectively, were the most prominent semi-volatile compounds in the biomass smoke. The methoxyphenol compositions reflected the lignin structures of different plant materials. Softwood smoke contained almost only 2-methoxyphenols, while hardwood smoke contained both 2-methoxyphenols and 2,6-dimethoxyphenols. The methoxyphenols in smoke from pellets, made of sawdust, bark and lignin, reflected the source of biomass. Although smoke from incompletely burned wood contains mainly methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, there is also a smaller amount of well-known hazardous compounds present. The methoxyphenols are antioxidants. They appear mainly condensed on particles and are presumed to be inhaled together with other smoke components. As antioxidants, phenols interrupt free radical chain reactions and possibly counteract the effect of hazardous smoke components. Health hazards of small-scale wood burning should be re-evaluated considering antioxidant effects of the methoxyphenols.

  12. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  13. Emission factors from residential combustion appliances burning Portuguese biomass fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A P; Alves, C A; Gonçalves, C; Tarelho, L; Pio, C; Schimdl, C; Bauer, H

    2011-11-01

    Smoke from residential wood burning has been identified as a major contributor to air pollution, motivating detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. A series of experiments were performed to compare the emission levels from two types of wood-stoves to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: wood from seven species of trees grown in the Portuguese forest (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste. Average emission factors were in the ranges 27.5-99.2 g CO kg(-1), 552-1660 g CO(2) kg(-1), 0.66-1.34 g NO kg(-1), and 0.82-4.94 g hydrocarbons kg(-1) of biomass burned (dry basis). Average particle emission factors varied between 1.12 and 20.06 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), with higher burn rates producing significantly less particle mass per kg wood burned than the low burn rates. Particle mass emission factors from wood-stoves were lower than those from the fireplace. The average emission factors for organic and elemental carbon were in the intervals 0.24-10.1 and 0.18-0.68 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. The elemental carbon content of particles emitted from the energy-efficient "chimney type" logwood stove was substantially higher than in the conventional cast iron stove and fireplace, whereas the opposite was observed for the organic carbon fraction. Pinus pinaster, the only softwood species among all, was the biofuel with the lowest emissions of particles, CO, NO and hydrocarbons.

  14. Test of solar dryers in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S. [Teknologisk Institut. SolEnergiCentret, Taastrup (Denmark); Floejgaard Kristensen, E. [Danmarks JordbrugsForskning, Tjele (Denmark); Agyei, F. [FAGOD Ltd. (Ghana); Larsen, T. [Clipper Design Ltd. (Ghana); Nketiah, K.S. [FORIG (Ghana)

    2002-06-01

    The report describes the tests carried out in Ghana on three solar dryers as part of the project 'Test and Research Project into the Drying of Food and Wood Products with Solar Heat' financed by DANIDA. The main objective of the project was to develop and test solar dryers for crop, fish and wood in Ghana. Three dryers were erected: 1. Solar crop dryer: The solar crop dryer was erected at Silwood Farms at Pokuase about 30 km north of Accra. Silwood Farms grows primarily maize for seed and pineapples, 2. Solar fish dryer: The solar fish dryer was erected at Elite Enterprise Ltd. at Tema about 35 km east-north-east of Accra. Elite Enterprise Ltd. buys and dries fish, 3. Solar wood dryer: The solar wood dryers were erected at Clipper Design Ltd. at Mankoadze about 65 km west-south-west of Accra. Clipper Design Ltd. produces mainly doors. (BA)

  15. Preliminary correlation of organic molecular tracers in residential wood smoke with the source of fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Laurel J.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Polar cyclic di- and triterpenoids were analyzed in the extracts of residential wood combustion aerosols collected in suburban sections of Eugene, Oakridge and Corvallis, Oregon. Additional samples collected included alder wood, smoke from two wood stoves burning only alder or pine as fuel, soot from a stove burning alder and a fireplace where oak was the predominant fuel. Due to the relatively cooler temperatures present under the smoldering conditions of residential wood combustion, as compared to the active burning of forest fires and slash burns, incomplete combustion resulted in the preservation of high levels of the natural products. There were three distinct signatures which could be used to trace relative input from coniferous, alder and oak combustion products, i.e. diterpenoids, lupane-derived triterpenoids and friedelin, respectively. Conifer combustion products dominated the suburban smoke aerosols.

  16. Wood energy and air quality. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This report presents and comments some reference data about the current and prospective (2010, 2020) pollutant emissions through wood combustion as a source of energy. It indicates and compares greenhouse gas emissions by the different sources for household, collective and industrial heating (fuel, gas, electricity, pellets, logs, grinds, wood wastes), gives an overview of atmospheric emissions due to biomass combustion. It compares emissions due to wood combustion with respect to the activity sectors and to combustion equipment. It highlights the challenges of the development of the household sector in terms of improvement and renewal of the quality of the burning equipment. It comments the implemented policies which notably aim at reducing the emission of particles, and at defining quality labels

  17. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayarathne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg−1 with major contributions from OC (7 %, sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %, and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water. For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg−1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %, sulfate (23.4 %, and ammonium (16 %. Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg−1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg−1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb, making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud

  18. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  19. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  20. Characterization of metallic micro sieves for gas purification on the example of fine dedusting of exhaust gases of wood burning firing systems; Charakterisierung metallischer Mikrosiebe zur Gasreinigung am Beispiel der Feinentstaubung von Holzfeuerungsabgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Esther

    2011-07-15

    Metallic micro sieves are a promising filter media for fine particulate-removal from gas streams due to their flexible and precisely adaptable pore geometry and their material properties. A current field of application is the particle removal from exhaust gas from biomass heating appliances. The generated aerosol particles are considerably smaller than 1 {mu}m. As a consequence they pose a significant health risk. In order to promote new developments in the field of gas cleaning, this study explores the filtration characteristics of metallic micro sieves theoretically and practically. For the purpose of the design layout of micro sieve filters, the fundamental process of the filtration kinetics, that is the time-dependent development of filtration efficiency and pressure drop, were displayed in a physically based and algebraically solvable calculation model. The filtration kinetics is subdivided in three parts: The flow and the capture of particles in micro sieves (instant of time 0), the dynamic accrue of the pores due to captured particles (phase 1) and the build-up of a filter cake (phase 2). Each section was covered by the formulation of separate mathematic solutions or by further development respectively adaption of existing models. Both the section models and the total model were in good compliance with experimental results. The model as well as the experimental results were used to assess possible applications in the field of the removal of fine particulate matter from exhaust gases of wood fired heating appliances. Exemplary for a wood fired heating appliance with a heating capacity of 100 kW, the required filter surface and achievable filtration efficiencies were calculated. Due to present high particle concentrations, relatively big pore diameters between 15 and 20 {mu}m are sufficient to obtain significant filtration efficiencies above 99 % after a short operation time. Adequate micro sieve porosities of more than 5 % are available. Thus, the realization

  1. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  2. Recycling of wood products. Final report of the preliminary study project partly financed by the Finnish Wood Research Oy; Puutuotteiden kierraetys. Finnish Wood Research Oy:n osarahoittaman esiselvityshankkeen loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirhonen, I.; Heraejaervi, H.; Saukkola, P.; Raety, T.; Verkasalo, E., Email: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to clarify the present state of recycling of wood in Finland and Europe. In the work the control measures of recycling were examined. In Finland there will be a total amount of 850 000 tons of waste wood per year. Of this amount 670 000 tons is from construction and demolishing of buildings. Burning the wood to energy is technically and economically the most reasonable use of waste wood in Finland and in several other European countries where there is a long heating season. A lot of work has been done to find new ways of utilization. The objective of the European Union to increase the use of renewable natural resources in the energy production creates an additional demand to all kinds of wood, including waste wood. The waste legislation of Finland and EU is directing to recycling, not restricting it. Furthermore, the systems to try to create markets for products containing recycled materials are under development. In the future it is expected that the legislation is tightening and the burning of waste wood is no longer calculated as acceptable recycling. Other ways to utilize wood waste should then already be developed. Furthermore, the development and introduction of new recycling methods are of important significance also when marketing wood and wood products. The recycling should be taken into consideration already at the planning stage of the building

  3. Emissions from co-combustion of wood and household refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.J.; Peterson, F.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the emissions produced in a 20 kW experimental boiler burning a combination of wood and household refuse. The wood content ranged form 10 to 50%. Direct sampling with Tenax adsorbent was used to cover a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The measurements also included unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and flue gas temperature. Combustion and emission parameters were recorded continuously with a multi-point data logger. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The main emphasis was placed on the effect of wood on VOC emissions. The results showed that as the wood content increased from 10 to 50%, there was a roughly linear increase in emissions of total VOCs. Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions also increased. These results suggest that household refuse is a good substitute for wood as a boiler fuel, as it has a similar calorific value but fewer emissions. (Author)

  4. Radiocarbon Analysis to Calculate New End-Member Values for Biomass Burning Source Samples Specific to the Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), also known as black carbon or soot, is an important particulate air pollutant that contributes to climate forcing through absorption of solar radiation and to adverse human health impacts through inhalation. Both fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, via residential firewood burning, agricultural burning, wild fires, and controlled burns, are significant sources of EC. Our ability to successfully control ambient EC concentrations requires understanding the contribution of these different emission sources. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has been increasingly used as an apportionment tool to distinguish between EC from fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources. However, there are uncertainties associated with this method including: 1) uncertainty associated with the isolation of EC to be used for radiocarbon analysis (e.g., inclusion of organic carbon, blank contamination, recovery of EC, etc.) 2) uncertainty associated with the radiocarbon signature of the end member. The objective of this research project is to utilize laboratory experiments to evaluate some of these uncertainties, particularly for EC sources that significantly impact the San Francisco Bay Area. Source samples of EC only and a mix of EC and organic carbon (OC) were produced for this study to represent known emission sources and to approximate the mixing of EC and OC that would be present in the atmosphere. These samples include a combination of methane flame soot, various wood smoke samples (i.e. cedar, oak, sugar pine, pine at various ages, etc.), meat cooking, and smoldering cellulose smoke. EC fractions were isolated using a Sunset Laboratory's thermal optical transmittance carbon analyzer. For 14C analysis, samples were sent to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for isotope analysis using an accelerated mass spectrometry. End member values and uncertainties for the EC isolation utilizing this method will be reported.

  5. The characterisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions from burning of different firewood species in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Linda Y; Zhang, Weidong; Atkiston, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Four kinds of woods used for residential heating in Australia were selected and burned under two burning conditions in a domestic wood heater installed in a laboratory. The selected wood species included pine (Pinus radiata), red gum (Eucalvptus camaldulensis), sugar gum (Eucalyptus cladocalyx) and yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora). The two different burning conditions represented fast burning and slow burning, with the air inlet of the combustion chamber respectively 'full open' and 'half open'. By sampling and analysing particulate and gaseous emissions from the burning of each load of wood under defined experimental conditions, PAHs emissions and their profiles in the particulate and gaseous phases were obtained. 16 species out of the 18 selected PAHs were detected. Of these, seven species were detected in the gaseous phase and most were lower molecular weight compounds.Similarly, more than 10 species of PAHs were detected in the particulate phase and these were mostly heavier molecular weight compounds. Under both burning conditions, emission levels for total PAHs and total genotoxic PAHs were the highest for pine and lowest for sugar gum, with red gum being the second highest, followed by yellow box. Using the specific sampling method, gaseous PAHs accounted for above 90% mass fraction of total PAHs in comparison to particulate PAHs (10%). The majority of the genotoxic PAHs were present in the particulate phase. PAHs emission levels in slow burning conditions were generally higher than those in fast burning conditions.

  6. Applicability of Vegetable Oils as a Wood Preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Dizman Tomak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional heavy duty wood preservatives have been banned or restricted for some applications due to their mammalian toxicity and their adverse effect on the environment. New, eco-friendly, but nevertheless still effective protection systems, is needed to protect wood in outdoors. Non-toxic vegetable oils can form of a protective layer on the surface of the wood cells which decrease water uptake of wood. For that reason, oils have a good potential as being a wood preservative. However, impregnation with vegetable oils is insufficient to impart adequate biological decay and termite resistance, and indeed the treatment may increase wood’s propensity to burn. In addition, a high level of oil absorption required for good protection make the process impractical and uneconomic to use. The efficiency of the treatment can be improved with using the biocides and oils together. Beside this, usage of modified oils can decrease the retention levels in wood. In this study, applicability of vegetable oils being one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents on wood treatments was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection, and possible solutions for the problems were discussed.In this study, applicability of vegetable oils as one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection and possible solutions for the problems were discussed

  7. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Home Health Info Health Topics Burning Mouth Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a painful, complex condition often described ... or other symptoms. Read More Publications Cover image Burning Mouth Syndrome Publication files Download Language English PDF — Number of ...

  8. Burning issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, C.

    1998-10-01

    Coal is world`s most abundant source of energy. Turning this potential pollutant into a clean, cost-effective fuel for power production has become a matter for global concern. Some problems and their solutions are highlighted in this article. Environmental problems caused by the giant Mae Moh plant in Thailand were overcome with an extensive retrofit programme that included flue gas desulfurisation systems. For new and smaller coal-fuelled plant, boilers using circulating fluidised bed (CFB) technology provide a cost effective and efficient system which meets environmental standards. A large independent power plant at Colver, Pennsylvania, USA uses CFB technology to burn bituminous gob. AMM and Alstom can provide turnkey packages for coal-fired power plant using a modular concept based on CFB technology. 2 photos.

  9. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  10. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  11. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  12. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  13. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants ... Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs ...

  14. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored...... the first week the concentration Of PM2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 mu g m(-3) inside the hearths and 21-160 mu g m(-3) in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were...... lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 mu g m(-3) (PM2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM2.5. However, air exchange and air...

  15. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  16. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  17. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  18. Soil-wood interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; klein Gunnewiek, Paulien; Boer, de Wietse

    2017-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi may affect soil fungal communities directly underneath decaying wood via their exploratory hyphae. In addition, differences in wood leachates between decaying tree species may influence soil fungal communities. We determined the composition of fungi in 4-yr old decaying logs

  19. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  20. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  1. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  2. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  3. Proton capture in the nuclei 21Ne and 22Ne and its influence on the solar hydrogen burning in the neon-sodium cyclus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerres, J.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to remove the uncertainties in the reaction rates of 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na and 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na in order to can make founded statements about the hydrogen burning in the NeNa cyclus. After the description of the experimental arrangement the search for resonances in the reaction 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na below Esub(p)=355 keV is reported. While the theory of the direct radiation capture is discussed the experimental results of the search for this transitions in 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na respectively 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na are presented. The astrophysical aspects of the results of this thesis are discussed and summarizingly presented. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Report of the Task Force on Sawmill Wood Residue Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The Sawmill Wood Residue Task Force was established in 1993 to seek solutions to managing wood residue at sawmills, shingle mills, and log sort yards in British Columbia without burning or landfilling. In particular, the Task Force was formed to address the phaseout of beehive-type wood waste burners by January 1, 1996. The Task Force was formed at the forest product industry's request and included representatives from industry associations and government. It reviewed existing information on the quantities of mill residues and the options available for reducing, reusing, and recycling the residues. Nearly half of all the province's residues of 5 million bone dry tonnes/y is disposed of by burning with no energy recovery, or by landfilling. It was recognized that the total volume of wood residue cannot be handled by any one method suitable for all sources but that in the near term, electricity generation could deal with a significant percentage of wood currently being burned. The most immediate technically viable opportnity by industry in this area may be in cogeneration of electricity for load displacement at pulp mills. Other opportunities exist such as conversion of wood residue to liquid fuels but these require greater commitments to research and development. The need to handle bark and sawdust was identified as a critical requirement for alternate uses. Small niche uses for wood residue must be examined on a case by case basis for each company or group of companies in a region. The provincial government can also promote better use of wood wastes through policies such as social costing of power generation options and sales tax exemption for ethanol fuel. 1 tab

  5. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomak, Eylem D.; Baysal, Ergun; Peker, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Scots pine samples were impregnated with 10 commercial wood preservatives. ► Thermal degradation of wood was evaluated by TG, DTG and DTA. ► The thermal behavior of treated wood differed from that of untreated wood. ► Boron containing wood preservatives yielded more charcoal than other preservatives. ► Boric oxide and metal compounds in the formulations may affect char weight. - Abstract: Wood has been a structural material for many years; however, its ability to burn has limited its use in some applications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of commercial wood preservatives having concentration of 4% on the thermal behavior of Scots pine wood, and compare the fire retardant effectiveness of these preservatives with that of boron compounds. Thermal degradation of treated and untreated wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal behavior of treated wood differed from thermal behavior of untreated wood in terms of a high char yield. Results showed that weight loss of wood reduced while char yield increased in the charring phase of the pyrolysis in the boron containing preservative treated wood accompanying with pyrolysis temperature lowered. The highest char yield was obtained from the samples treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in the all treated groups.

  6. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem D., E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Baysal, Ergun, E-mail: bergun@mu.edu.tr [Mugla University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Kotekli, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Peker, Huseyin, E-mail: peker100@hotmail.com [Artvin Coruh University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 06100 Artvin (Turkey)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scots pine samples were impregnated with 10 commercial wood preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal degradation of wood was evaluated by TG, DTG and DTA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal behavior of treated wood differed from that of untreated wood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron containing wood preservatives yielded more charcoal than other preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boric oxide and metal compounds in the formulations may affect char weight. - Abstract: Wood has been a structural material for many years; however, its ability to burn has limited its use in some applications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of commercial wood preservatives having concentration of 4% on the thermal behavior of Scots pine wood, and compare the fire retardant effectiveness of these preservatives with that of boron compounds. Thermal degradation of treated and untreated wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal behavior of treated wood differed from thermal behavior of untreated wood in terms of a high char yield. Results showed that weight loss of wood reduced while char yield increased in the charring phase of the pyrolysis in the boron containing preservative treated wood accompanying with pyrolysis temperature lowered. The highest char yield was obtained from the samples treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in the all treated groups.

  7. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  8. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Low-NO{sub x}, wood chip combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J.; Oravainen, H.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The regulations for nitrogen oxide emissions vary in different countries, but the general trend in the future will probably be that the emissions limits will be lowered also for wood combustion plants, which are small or medium size units. Thus, the development of wood chip burning furnaces (grate furnaces, fluidized bed combustors, stoker furnaces) with lower nitrogen oxide emissions, is important. The wood used in the combustor, its particle size, moisture and fuel properties (nitrogen content) affect the nitrogen emissions. The nitrogen oxide release is also much affected by the design and operation of the combustor (air staging, fuel air preheat, flue gas circulation, air to fuel mass ratio). The fate of nitrogen compounds originally in the virgin wood depends much on the design of the combustor system and by proper planning it is possible to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides. Basic knowledge of the release of nitrogen compounds from single wood particles is attained. The release of gaseous nitrogen compounds from wood particles during pyrolysis and combustion is studied experimentally and by modelling. Nitrogen release is studied experimentally by two ways, by analysing the gas and by quenching the particle and analysing the char residue. Formation of nitrogen oxide emissions in a fuel bed is studied by modelling and by combustion experiments with a pot furnace. This research gives general information of nitrogen oxide formation in wood bunting especially in fixed beds. The development of a horizontal stoker burner for wood chips with low emissions is the practical aim of the research. (orig.)

  10. Waste-wood resource supply assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The report documents and analyzes the availability and supply of wood waste in New York State to determine the type and amount currently generated to estimate its potential future use as a fuel. Detailed, current information is included on the availability, quantity and price of wood waste. Topics include wood waste markets; the harvesting and supply infrastructure; current and project prices; competing markets; environmental impacts of harvesting, processing and burning wood waste for fuel; and factors affecting long-term availability and supply. New York State's waste wood resource was evaluated to complete the Energy Authority's recent investigation of the potential role of wood in producing electric power. In 1989 approximately 11.8 million tons of wood waste were generated in New York State. More than 8 million tons or 68 percent, were disposed of by municipal solid waste and construction and demolition debris facilities. Just under 3.8 million tons or 32 percent, were reused and/or recycled. More than 25.7 million tons of wood waste could be available annually for fuel. Of the amount, more than 17.2 million tons per year, or 67 percent, could be produced by silvicultural activities that improve the health and productivity of forests

  11. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  12. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  13. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  14. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  15. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  16. Wood pellets. The cost-effective fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The article is based on an interview with Juhani Hakkarainen of Vapo Oy. Wood pellets are used in Finland primarily to heat buildings such as schools and offices and in the home. They are equally suitable for use in larger installations such as district heating plants and power stations. According to him wood pellets are suitable for use in coal-fired units generating heat, power, and steam. Price-wise, wood pellets are a particularly competitive alternative for small coal-fired plants away from the coast. Price is not the only factor on their side, however. Wood pellets also offer a good environmental profile, as they burn cleanly and generate virtually no dust, an important plus in urban locations. The fact that pellets are a domestically produced fuel is an added benefit, as their price does not fluctuate in the same way that the prices of electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas do. The price of pellets is largely based on direct raw material and labour costs, which are much less subject to ups and downs

  17. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption...... and official emission factors, not taking into account actual burning conditions in dwellings [3]. There is limited knowledge on the real-life performance and spatial distribution of existing appliance types. Few studies have been targeting to understand the influence of fuel operation habits on PM2...... the available estimations for Denmark and Portugal, suggesting a methodology to increase the accuracy of activity data and emission factors. This work is based on new studies carried out to quantify the PM2.5 emissions in daily life through field experiments in Danish dwellings and by considering typical...

  18. Heating with wood. A guide to clean and proper heating; Heizen mit Holz. Ein Ratgeber zum richtigen und sauberen Heizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Anja [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany); Kemper, Bernd-Michael [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg (LUBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    When correctly used, wood is an eco-friendly fuel. By using well-processed wood from local sources in a properly handled modern fireplace, you can enjoy the cosy warmth from your wood-burning stove or boiler without causing significant environmental damage. The environment and your neighbours will be grateful for this. This brochure is intended to give you tips on how to properly operate a wood-based heating system - in technical terms referred to as a small combustion installation. Especially the burning of poor quality wood in old and insufficiently maintained stoves and unfavourable combustion conditions will result in the emission of unnecessarily high levels of greenhouse gases having adverse effects on the climate, and pollutants detrimental to your health. Particularly in urban agglomerations and valleys, the air quality is affected by wood heating systems due to low chimneys. Often, neighbours will feel annoyed.

  19. Wood-Based Nanotechnologies toward Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Li, Tian; Li, Yiju; Zhang, Ying; Gong, Amy; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Emily; Luo, Wei; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-01-01

    With over 30% global land coverage, the forest is one of nature's most generous gifts to human beings, providing shelters and materials for all living beings. Apart from being sustainable, renewable, and biodegradable, wood and its derivative materials are also extremely fascinating from a materials aspect, with numerous advantages including porous and hierarchical structure, excellent mechanical performance, and versatile chemistry. Here, strategies for designing novel wood-based materials via advanced nanotechnologies are summarized, including both the controllable bottom-up assembly from the highly crystalline nanocellulose building block and the more efficient top-down approaches directly from wood. Beyond material design, recent advances regarding the sustainable applications of these novel wood-based materials are also presented, focusing on areas that are traditionally dominated by man-made nonrenewable materials such as plastic, glass, and metals, as well as more advanced applications in the areas of energy storage, wastewater treatment and solar-steam-assisted desalination. With all recent progress pertaining to materials' design and sustainable applications presented, a vision for the future engineering of wood-based materials to promote continuous and healthy progress toward true sustainability is outlined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Wood pellets in a power plant - mixed combustion of coal and wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupponen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The author reviews in his presentation the development of Turku Energia, the organization of the company, the key figures of the company in 2000, as well as the purchase of energy in 2000. He also presents the purchase of basic heat load, the energy production plants of the company, the sales of heat in 2000, the emissions of the plants, and the fuel consumption of the plants in 2000. The operating experiences of the plants are also presented. The experiences gained in Turku Energia on mixed combustion of coal and wood pellets show that the mixing ratios, used at the plants, have no effect on the burning properties of the boiler, and the use of wood pellets with coal reduce the SO 2 and NO x emissions slightly. Simultaneously the CO 2 share of the wood pellets is removed from the emissions calculations. Several positive effects were observed, including the disappearance of the coal smell of the bunker, positive publicity of the utilization of wood pellets, and the subsidies for utilization of indigenous fuels in power generation. The problems seen include the tendency of wood pellets to arc the silos, especially when the pellets include high quantities of dust, and the loading of the trucks and the pneumatic unloading of the trucks break the pellets. Additionally the wood pellets bounce on the conveyor so they drop easily from the conveyor, the screw conveyors designed for conveying grain are too weak and they get stuck easily, and static electricity is easily generated in the plastic pipe used as the discharge pipe for wood pellet (sparkling tendency). This disadvantage has been overcome by using metal net and grounding

  1. Climatic impact of increased use of wood; Klimamessige virkninger av oekt bruk av trevirke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-22

    This report evaluates the climatic impact of increased absorption/storage of carbon and use of wood. This includes the impact on carbon storage through forest growth, increased use of wood products with long life, and the effect on CO{sub 2} emission of the increasing replacement of fossil fuel with wood. It also includes the effects of depositing or burning wood wastes or wood products. The main emphasis is placed on the climatic impact of the use of wood, especially for power generation, recirculation or burning of paper and the use of wood for buildings. The report also discusses briefly the carbon cycle and the principal aspects of absorption and storage of carbon as means compared to other climatic means. The possible long-term effects which efforts to increase the absorption and prolong the fixation of CO{sub 2} might have on the market prices of timber and wood products, etc., are discussed. Costs or potential for increased use of wood are not stated. 21 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomak, Eylem Dizman; Cavdar, Ayfer Donmez

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood

  3. Factors affecting sodium hypochlorite extraction of CCA from treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, E D; Cooper, P A

    2009-12-01

    Significant amounts of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood products, such as utility poles and residential construction wood, remain in service. There is increasing public concern about environmental contamination from CCA-treated wood when it is removed from service for reuse or recycling, placed in landfills or burned in commercial incinerators. In this paper, we investigated the effects of time, temperature and sodium hypochlorite concentration on chromium oxidation and extraction of chromated copper arsenate from CCA-treated wood (Type C) removed from service. Of the conditions evaluated, reaction of milled wood with sodium hypochlorite for one hour at room temperature followed by heating at 75 degrees C for two hours gave the highest extraction efficiency. An average of 95% Cr, 99% Cu and 96% As could be removed from CCA-treated, milled wood by this process. Most of the extracted chromium was oxidized to the hexavalent state and could therefore be recycled in a CCA treating solution. Sodium hypochlorite extracting solutions could be reused several times to extract CCA components from additional treated wood samples.

  4. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem Dizman, E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Forest Industry Engineering Department, Faculty of Forestry, Bursa Technical University, 16200 Bursa (Turkey); Cavdar, Ayfer Donmez [Interior Architecture Department, Faculty of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood.

  5. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  6. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  7. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  8. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  9. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  10. How James Wood Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  11. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Jarkovsky, J.

    1973-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  12. Chemical modification of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  13. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood

  14. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  15. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  16. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  17. In individual or collective dwellings, wood-fuel: an enthusiastic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The wood-fuel market benefits from the present day development of renewable energy sources, both in the individual residential sector where wood-fuel is becoming a main space-heating solution and not only an auxiliary one, and in the collective residential, tertiary and industrial sectors where more than 1850 wood-burning facilities have been implemented in 6 years under the impulse of the wood-fuel development plan. Sales have raised by 40% in the residential sector in 2006 and a 50% increase of renewable energy sources is expected in the heat generation sector from now to 2010. This article presents the main trends of the French wood-fuel market and the existing offer of wood-fuel boilers. (J.S.)

  18. To burn or not to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, L.

    1993-01-01

    While taking a match to an oil slick may sound like the making of a chaotic inferno, emergency response specialists say burning may be the most efficient way to remove large oil spills from the ocean's surface. But tests of this technique are being resisted by environmentalists as well as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which has final authority over the matter. The debate over test burning arose most recently in Alaska when a proposal to spill and then ignite 1,000 barrels of crude on the Arctic Ocean this past summer was rejected by the EPA. The EPA didn't object to the technique or to the notion of burning spilled oil. However, it contends that it's not necessary to spill thousands of gallons of oil to conduct tests, and unnecessarily pollute the environment, when plenty of oil is already available from accidental spills. Researchers disagree, claiming they won't be able to use the burning technique on an actual spill until it has been tested in a controlled experiment. Despite such concerns, the Canadian government is going ahead with a test burn off the coast of Newfoundland next year. Faced with a choice of test burning or the kind of shoreline contamination left in the wake of the Exxon Valdez disaster, Environment Canada opts for testing. Learning valuable lessons about rapid oil-spill cleanup is worth the relatively minor risks to the environment that test burning would pose

  19. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  20. Cleaner heat from wood. TULISIJA research programme for wood firing technology 1997-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    There are 1.3 million wood-burning fireplaces in Finnish homes. The interest in using fireplaces for heating of dwellings has recently been growing strongly. Some 5.6 million cubic meters of firewood is burned in domestic stoves and fireplaces annually. This corresponds to a total of 7.5 terawatthours of energy and amounts to 13 % of all energy used for heating in Finland. The aim of the TULISIJA research programme for wood firing technology (1997-1999) is to assist manufacturers in their efforts to develop the most emission-free, yet efficient, wood firing equipment in the world. Detailed objectives of the TULISIJA programme are: (1) To produce modelling capabilities for the evaluation of different fireplace designs. Capabilities are produced for utilising computer simulation for investigation of the emissions of small-size fireplaces. (2) To establish a measuring place for fireplaces, where manufacturers' equipment designs can be reliably tested according to different standards is to be built, through which the Finnish manufacturers may obtain approvals for their products for different market areas. (3) To enhance co-operation between manufacturers and research institutions. Within the programme, the expertise of researchers in universities and other research institutes is made available to manufacturers - and vice versa. Equally important is the utilisation of international co-operation and making new connections

  1. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  2. Emissions Performance of a Novel Combustor Burning Shredded Wood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindsey, C; Schmidt, A; Sawyer, Mikel; Aubrey, P; Webster, A

    2009-01-01

    .... A key feature of the furnace system is its unique patented combustion coil design. The design is intended to maximize ablative heat transfer as well as provide increased particle residence time...

  3. Research on burning of biomass fuels, KTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, U.; Zoukatas, N.; Kutscher, E.; Megas, L.

    1983-05-01

    The three main principles of combustion, namely burning over the fuel bed, under the bed, and the inverted flame have been investigated. Combustion under the fuel bed rendered the lowest emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, benzopyrene, particulates and tar. Emission is also reduced by preheating the primary incoming air. Burning of pine gives variable emissions whereas birch tree and lying log gives satisfactory combustion. High flame intensity and Reynolds number of the flame zone in the interval 5 to 8 x 10/sup 3/ also give low emission. A conventional wood burner with its flame over the fuel bed and with a water cooled combustion chamber produces 100 times more carbon monoxide than an advanced construction.

  4. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  5. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  6. Wood wastes: Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipro, A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

  7. Optically Transparent Wood from a Nanoporous Cellulosic Template: Combining Functional and Structural Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Yu, Shun; Yan, Min; Berglund, Lars

    2016-04-11

    Optically transparent wood (TW) with transmittance as high as 85% and haze of 71% was obtained using a delignified nanoporous wood template. The template was prepared by removing the light-absorbing lignin component, creating nanoporosity in the wood cell wall. Transparent wood was prepared by successful impregnation of lumen and the nanoscale cellulose fiber network in the cell wall with refractive-index-matched prepolymerized methyl methacrylate (MMA). During the process, the hierarchical wood structure was preserved. Optical properties of TW are tunable by changing the cellulose volume fraction. The synergy between wood and PMMA was observed for mechanical properties. Lightweight and strong transparent wood is a potential candidate for lightweight low-cost, light-transmitting buildings and transparent solar cell windows.

  8. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Ora, M.

    2011-07-01

    pyrolysis temperature increased. During fast pyrolysis wood particles underwent melting, yet to different extents for the two investigated fuels: pine wood produced chars of porous spherical particles, whereas beech sawdust chars showed a somewhat less drastic change of morphology with respect to the parent fuel. Char produced by low heating rate pyrolysis fully retained the original fibrous structure of wood. Fast pyrolysis chars were significantly more reactive than slow pyrolysis chars (for the same activation energy, the pre-exponential factor was up to 2 orders of magnitude greater for chars increased). The amount and composition of the ash forming matter of the wood fuels is believed to play an important role in determining the differences in char yield, morphology and reactivity. The modelling of wood char combustion is the subject of Chapter 5. The lowest and the highest reactivities obtained for the chars produced in the EFR are used in a simple single particle combustion model in combination with a description of Avedoerevaerket's boiler. In the model the char particle is assumed to burn in a gas with constant temperature and constant oxygen fraction. The particle temperature is on the other hand determined taking reaction heat, convection through boundary gas layer and radiation into account. The model accounts for external diffusion of oxygen to the particle outer surface, internal diffusion in the pores and heterogeneous chemical reaction (CO is considered the only product). The model calculates an overall efficiency factor for combustion, yet assumes that all the reacting carbon is consumed at the outer surface of the char. The model predicts that at an average furnace temperature of 1200 K the conversion of char particles with radius 20-350 {micro}m is very much affected by the reactivity of the char. The influence of the particle's reactivity is lower at higher temperatures: at furnace temperatures of 1500 K and 1700 K the combustion of the char is

  9. Emissions from burning of softwood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Maria; Kjaellstrand, Jennica

    2004-01-01

    Softwood pellets from three different Swedish manufacturers were burnt in laboratory scale to determine compounds emitted. The emissions were sampled on Tenax cartridges and assessed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. No large differences in the emissions from pellets from different manufacturers were observed. The major primary semi-volatile compounds released during flaming burning were 2-methoxyphenols from lignin. The methoxyphenols are of interest due to their antioxidant effect, which may counteract health hazards of aromatic hydrocarbons. Glowing combustion released the carcinogenic benzene as the predominant aromatic compound. However, the benzene emissions were lower than from flaming burning. To relate the results from the laboratory burnings to emissions from pellet burners and pellet stoves, chimney emissions were determined for different burning equipments. The pellet burner emitted benzene as the major aromatic compound, whereas the stove and boiler emitted phenolic antioxidants together with benzene. As the demand for pellets increases, different biomass wastes will be considered as raw materials. Ecological aspects and pollution hazards indicate that wood pellets should be used primarily for residential heating, whereas controlled large-scale combustion should be preferred for pellets made of most other types of biomass waste. (Author)

  10. Energy and carbon balances of wood cascade chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 OEstersund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    In this study we analyze the energy and carbon balances of various cascade chains for recovered wood lumber. Post-recovery options include reuse as lumber, reprocessing as particleboard, pulping to form paper products, and burning for energy recovery. We compare energy and carbon balances of chains of cascaded products to the balances of products obtained from virgin wood fiber or from non-wood material. We describe and quantify several mechanisms through which cascading can affect the energy and carbon balances: direct cascade effects due to different properties and logistics of virgin and recovered materials, substitution effects due to the reduced demand for non-wood materials when wood is cascaded, and land use effects due to alternative possible land uses when less timber harvest is needed because of wood cascading. In some analyses we assume the forest is a limiting resource, and in others we include a fixed amount of forest land from which biomass can be harvested for use as material or biofuel. Energy and carbon balances take into account manufacturing processes, recovery and transportation energy, material recovery losses, and forest processes. We find that land use effects have the greatest impact on energy and carbon balances, followed by substitution effects, while direct cascade effects are relatively minor. (author)

  11. Emissions from fireplace and woodstove combustion of prevalent Portuguese woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia

    2010-05-01

    P. Fernandes, C. Gonçalves, C.A. Alves, L. Tarelho, F. Mirante, T. Nunes and C. Pio Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal In Portugal, it was estimated that around 390000 ton/year of wood is burned in fireplaces, although the chemical characterisation of emission profiles has not yet been performed. Emission inventories and source apportionment, photochemistry and climate change models use values obtained for American or Alpine wood-fuels, uncommon in South Europe. Previous work has suggested that the species of wood used can have a huge influence on the particle emissions. Since the distribution of compounds emitted differs by species and burning conditions and there are many variations among published profiles, it is desirable to obtain specific data at a regional level on the chemical characterisation of wood smoke. A series of source tests was performed to compare the emission profiles from the woodstove combustion to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: seven species of wood grown in Portugal (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europea, Quercus ilex rotundifolia), and briquettes of biomass residues. The gas sampling was carried out in the exhaust ducts of both combustion systems. The collection of particles (PM2.5) was conducted in the dilution tunnel that was directly coupled to the chimney. Dilution sampling was used to characterise fine particle emissions from the combustion sources because it simulates the rapid cooling and dilution that occurs as exhaust mixes with the atmosphere. During each burning cycle, the concentrations of O2, CO2 and CO, as well as operational parameters (e.g. temperatures, flows, etc.), were automatically monitored. The PM2.5 samples were analysed by a thermal optical technique in order to obtain their organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content

  12. Net change in carbon emissions with increased wood energy use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; David N. Wear; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Use of wood biomass for energy results in carbon (C) emissions at the time of burning and alters C stocks on the land because of harvest, regrowth, and changes in land use or management. This study evaluates the potential effects of expanded woody biomass energy use (for heat and power) on net C emissions over time. A scenario with increased wood energy use is compared...

  13. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  14. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    . Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context......, The Burning Saints presents a highly original analysis of how mental processes can shape social and religious behaviour....

  15. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    K A Kamala; S Sankethguddad; S G Sujith; Praveena Tantradi

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to different...

  16. Chimney emissions from small-scale burning of pellets and fuelwood - examples referring to different combustion appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaellstrand, Jennica; Olsson, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Most wood boilers used for residential heating today are old-fashioned and emit large quantities of organic compounds. The installation of a pellet burner and a change to wood pellets as fuel normally decreases the emissions remarkably. In this study, the emissions from different equipment for burning of wood and pellets are compared. The organic fraction of smoke from traditional wood burning is to a great extent composed of methoxyphenols, with antioxidant effects. Methoxyphenols were also identified in smoke from pellet stoves. A fuel wood boiler or a furnace with an inserted pellet burner is heated to a higher combustion temperature, decreasing the total amount of organic compounds in the smoke. Above 800 deg C, methoxyphenols are thermally decomposed and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are formed. The combustion-formed aromatic hydrocarbon benzene is present in smoke from all kinds of burning, but the proportion relative to primary organic compounds increases with increasing combustion temperature. In smoke from an environmentally labelled wood boiler and from some pellet burning devices, the levels of PAC and benzene were found to be low. Evidently, the combustion was nearly complete. Although the change from wood to pellets significantly decreases the emissions, considerable differences exist between various combinations of pellet burners and boiler furnaces. (Author)

  17. Comparison of neighborhood-scale residential wood smoke emissions inventories using limited and intensive survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    Emission inventory based estimations of pollutants resulting from residential combustion of wood are typically determined by collecting survey data that represent a single but relatively large area. While the pollutants in wood smoke emissions may represent a relatively low fraction (<10%) of an area's total annual emissions mass inventory, they can concentrate within the specific neighborhood areas where emitted. Thus, while the representativeness of a large-area survey approach is valid and useful, its application for estimating wood smoke pollutant levels within any particular neighborhood may be limited. The ability to obtain a better estimation of pollutant levels for evaluating potential health-related impacts within neighborhoods where wood smoke pollutants can concentrate requires survey data more representative of the particular area. This study compares residential wood combustion survey data collected from six residential neighborhoods in the metropolitan area of Flagstaff, Arizona. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the ability of data collected from a limited neighborhood-scale survey effort to represent that neighborhood's wood fuel consumption characteristics and wood smoke emissions. In addition, the variation that occurs between different neighborhoods regarding residential consumption of wood is also evaluated. Residential wood combustion survey data were collected compare wood burning device distribution, wood types and quantities burned, and emission rates. One neighborhood was surveyed once at approximately a 10% distribution rate and again at a 100% distribution rate providing data for evaluating the ability of a limited-effort survey to represent a more intensive survey. Survey methodology, results and recommendations are presented

  18. Biomass fuel burning and its implications: Deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S.N.A.; Rafique, M.; Alaamer, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO 2 -equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y -1 . - Consumption of forest wood in the brick industry poses the problem of deforestation in Pakistan in addition to release of GHGs in the environment owing to biomass burning.

  19. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Angerer, M.

    1993-03-01

    Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs [de

  20. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  1. Radon reduction in wood foundation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, an issue of growing concern to the building industry. Silently, invisibly, it invades existing structures as it will future foundation structures. This paper addresses the nature and causes of radon, and cost-effective prevention and retrofit techniques used for wood foundation systems. Radon also can enter homes with foundations that use the under-floor as an air distribution system. These building practices will be shown; even materials used in construction may release radon, for example, this may be a problem in a house that has a solar heating system in which its heat is stored in large beds of stone. Stone is most often used in wood foundation construction. The common radon entry points will be looked at, and the latest prevention techniques will be illustrated, such as natural and forced ventilation, sealing major radon sources and entry routes, and sub-slab and sump crock ventilations

  2. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  3. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  4. Levels of 137Cs and 40K in wood ash-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tsutomu; Hess, C.T.

    1994-01-01

    Wood ash is a residual material produced at an annual rate of 1.5-3.0 million tons by wood burning power plants in the USA. Up to 80% of the wood ash generated in northeastern USA is landspread on agricultural soils. Recently, concern has arisen regarding the 137 Cs content of wood ash and levels of 137 Cs of wood ash-amended soils. The 137 Cs originated primarily from above ground nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s. This study examined the total and pH 3, NH 4 OAc extractable levels of 137 Cs and 40 K in three soils incubated in the laboratory with 0, 3 and 9 g of wood ash on a calcium carbonate equivalence basis kg -1 soil. The wood ash contained 137 Cs and 40 K at 3920 and 21'700 pCi kg -1 , respectively. At the regulated wood ash application rate limit, 3 g wood ash (calcium carbonate equivalent basis) kg -1 of soil, there was no statistical difference from the control treatment in both total and soluble 137 Cs and 40 K levels. For one soil, there was an increase in the 137 Cs level when wood ash was amended at 9 g wood ash (calcium carbonate equivalent basis) kg -1 soil. The 137 Cs was strongly bound to the cation exchange sites of the soils with the average fraction soluble in pH 3, NH 4 OAc solution at 4.8% in the mineral soils and 0.9% in the organic soil. Considering the current limits on permitted wood ash application rates to soils, there was no statistically significant effect on the levels of 137 Cs or 40 K found in wood ash-amended soils

  5. Wood plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Bonoan, L.S.; Verceluz, F.P.; Azucena, E.A.

    1976-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

  6. Tourniquet associated chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuk Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

  7. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small, and have sensitive skin that needs extra protection. Although some minor burns aren't cause for concern and can ... burns, the mildest of the three, are limited to the top layer of skin: Signs ... pain, and minor swelling. The skin is dry without blisters. Healing ...

  8. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Kravetz, Don

    1996-01-01

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP (TM) )is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTP TM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTP TM . The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  9. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  10. Economic impact of industrial wood energy use in the Southeast region of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    More than 1,000 commercial and industrial installations in the Southeast burn wood fuels. Collectively, these facilities consume 44.3 million green tons of fuelwood and 41.7 million tons per year of 'black liquor' residues. Considering the entire direct and indirect impacts of industrial wood energy expenditures as they ripple through the economy, activities associated with the use of industrial wood energy resulted in the production of over 71,000 jobs and $1 billion in personal income for the Southeast region in 1987. In addition, a total of $237 million in State and Federal tax revenues were generated through wood energy related economic activities. Growth projections indicate that by the year 2000, industrial wood energy utilization will generate approximately 97,000 jobs and $1.4 billion in income in the Southeast region

  11. A refinement of the potassium tracer method for residential wood smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, C. P.; Li, S.; Buchanan, J. W.; Stevens, R. K.

    Potassium has been used as a tracer for the mass of fine particles emitted to the air from residential wood burning stoves and fireplaces. The technique involves measurement by x-ray fluorescence of the total K collected on fine particle filters. Since wind blown soil particles also contain K, a correction for this contribution is made based upon soil analysis or an assumed K/Fe ratio in local soil. K in excess of this ratio is considered to be from wood smoke. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an alternative method for determining wood smoke K. The underlying assumption is that wood smoke K is water soluble but that K in crustal particles is in a mineralized form and only slightly water soluble. Results from analyses of particle samples indicate the two methods yield essentially the same amount of wood smoke K.

  12. Availability and conversion to energy potentials of wood-based industry residues in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Siyam Siew, S.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of biomass as the most accessible primary energy source in Cameroon is presented. The valorization of wood wastes and residues is seen as a way of implementing the sustainable use of biomass resources. A recent survey of wood-based industries in Cameroon reveals that large volumes of industrial wood residues are generated in the rain forest areas and are inefficiently used. Important quantities are lost in the form of burning in the four main forestry provinces, while other parts of the country suffer from fuelwood shortage. With the exception of the plywood factories, the wood industry is essentially dependent on commercial energy. An analysis made to show the economic and environmental benefits of converting wood residues to energy for industrial and domestic use is presented. (author)

  13. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  14. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 2018! Learn More For Loved Ones A burn injury doesn't just impact the survivor. Families ... to support longterm recovery, improve the quality of burn care, and prevent burn injury. Explore articles on ...

  15. The genotoxic contribution of wood smoke to indoor respirable suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, P.M. (John B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory, New Haven, CT (USA)); Rossman, T.G. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York (USA)); Daisey, J.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of wood burning stoves on the genotoxicity of indoor respirable organic matter was investigated for four homes during the winter and spring of 1986. Paired samples, one collected when the stove was not used and one when wood was burned, were extracted with dichloromethane and acetone. Aliquots of the dichloromethane extracts were analyzed with and without metabolic activation using the Microscreen bioassay. The Microscreen is a rapid, sensitive bioassay which measures a broad genotoxic endpoint, {lambda}-prophage induction. Per nanogram of organic material, wood smoke proved to be a major source of indirect (observed with metabolic activation) but not direct genotoxins in homes. The increase in indirect genotoxicity for extracts from aerosol containing wood smoke is probably due to higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the wood smoke aerosol as well as other unidentified classes. The direct genotoxicity observed for extracts of aerosol not containing wood smoke decreased with metabolic activation. This direct genotoxicity may be related to cooking activities in the homes. The trends in genotoxicity observed per nanogram of organic material are more pronounced when expressed per m{sup 3} of air due to the higher percentage of extractable material in aerosol containing wood smoke.

  16. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  17. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  18. Wood for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, D

    1986-01-01

    Growing wood for energy could contribute three million tonnes of coal equivalent per year by the end of the century. Research programmes in the UK involved with energy forestry are reported. Three systems of wood energy, modified conventional forestry, single stem timber cropping and short rotation coppicing are being investigated. The short rotation coppicing requires inputs similar to those of agricultural crops and the machinery geared towards agricultural operations is compatible with it. Single stem forestry has a medium rotation period of 20 years. The production of coppice wood fuels is discussed in further detail for different parts of the UK with recommendations for species selection and adaption of existing farming practices. A coppice willow harvester has been developed for harvesting during November - February. Weed control and fertilizer application are also briefly mentioned.

  19. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  20. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  1. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  2. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  3. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  4. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  5. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  6. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  7. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  8. Chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.

    2013-10-15

    Biomass burning has lately started to attract attention because there is a need to decrease the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. Biomass is considered as CO{sub 2} neutral fuel. However, the burning of biomass is one of the major sources of fine particles both at the local and global scale. In addition to the use of biomass as a fuel for heat energy production, biomass burning emissions can be caused, e.g. by slash-and-burn agriculture and wild open-land fires. Indeed, the emissions from biomass burning are crucially important for the assessment of the potential impacts on global climate and local air quality and hence on human health. The chemical composition of fine particles has a notable influence on these impacts. The overall object of this thesis was to gain knowledge on the chemistry of fine particles that originate from biomass burning as well as on the contribution of biomass burning emissions to the ambient fine particle concentrations. For this purpose novel analytical methods were developed and tested in this thesis. Moreover, the thesis is based on ambient aerosol measurements that were carried out in six European countries at 12 measurement sites during 2002-2011. Additionally, wood combustion experiments were conducted in a laboratory. The measurements included a wide range of techniques: filter and impactor samplings, offline chemical analyses (chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques, thermal-optical method), and online measurements of particles' physical properties and chemical composition (incl. particle number and mass concentrations and size distributions, concentrations of carbonaceous components, water-soluble ions, and tracer compounds). This thesis presents main results of different studies aimed towards chemical characterisation of fine particle emissions from biomass burning. It was found that wood combustion had a significant influence on atmospheric fine particle concentrations in

  9. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  10. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  11. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  12. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

  13. Best available control measures for prescribed burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.M.; Stoneman, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Section 190 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) as amended in 1990 requires the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue guidance on Best Available Control Measures (BACM) of PM 10 (particulate matter with a nominal aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers) from urban fugitive dust, residential wood combustion, and prescribed silvicultural and agricultural burning (prescribed burning). The purpose of this guidance is to assist states (especially, but not exclusively, those with PM 10 nonattainment areas which have been classified as serious) in developing a control measure for these three source categories. This guidance is to be issued no later than May 15, 1992 as required under the CAA. The guidance will be issued in the form of a policy guidance generic to all three BACM and in the form of Technical Information Documents (TIDs) for each of the three source categories. The policy guidance will provide the analytical approach for determining BACM and the TID will provide the technical information. The purpose of this paper is to present some insight from the forthcoming TID on what BACM might entail for prescribed burning in a serious PM 10 nonattainment area

  14. Design and Realisation of a Parabolic Solar Cooker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouannene, M; Chaouachi, B; Gabsi, S

    2009-01-01

    The sun s energy is really powerful. Solar energy is renewable and it s free. We can use it to make electricity, to heat buildings and to cook. The field of cooking consumes many fossil fuels such as gas and wood. Million people cannot find enough gas and/or wood to cook, so using solar cookers is a good idea. During this work, we designed, built and studied a parabolic solar cooker. The characteristic equations and the experimental results are given

  15. Emissions from laboratory combustor tests of manufactured wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, R.; Evans, M.; Ragland, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Baker, A. [USDA Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured wood products contain wood, wood fiber, and materials added during manufacture of the product. Manufacturing residues and the used products are burned in a furnace or boiler instead of landfilling. Emissions from combustion of these products contain additional compounds from the combustion of non-wood material which have not been adequately characterized to specify the best combustion conditions, emissions control equipment, and disposal procedures. Total hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, higher aldehydes and carbon monoxide emissions from aspen flakeboard and aspen cubes were measured in a 76 mm i.d. by 1.5 m long fixed bed combustor as a function of excess oxygen, and temperature. Emissions of hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO from flakeboard and from clean aspen were very sensitive to average combustor temperature and excess oxygen. Hydrocarbon and aldehyde emissions below 10 ppM were achieved with 5% excess oxygen and 1,200{degrees}C average temperature for aspen flakeboard and 1,100{degrees}C for clean aspen at a 0.9 s residence time. When the average temperature decreased below these levels, the emissions increased rapidly. For example, at 950{degrees}C and 5% excess oxygen the formaldehyde emissions were over 1,000 ppM. These laboratory tests reinforce the need to carefully control the temperature and excess oxygen in full-scale wood combustors.

  16. Processing of the wood angelim pedra (Hymenolobium petraeum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjenane Corrêa Taques

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the behavior of wood Angelim stone (Hymenolobium petraeum Ducke submitted to the machining process. The study was developed in a carpentry shop in the city of Alta Floresta-MT. 36 boards with dimensions of 150 cm x 13.5 cm x 2.5 cm, length, width and thickness were randomly selected respectively for machining tests. The tests were developed according to the machinability of equipment used by the furniture industry, planing, sanding, drill and split by nail. 8 boards of wood in the stack were selected randomly to determine the moisture, according to 7190 (ABNT, 1997. The notes used for evaluation of defects resulting in the wood during the machining processes were assigned according to ASTM D 1666 (1987. It was observed that the type of angelim stone showed excellent performance in grinding tests, no scratch on the surface piece a of the burring parts and the parts free from defects, with the burning of wood. In cracking test for nail had a good performance, because it showed cracks with the insertion of the nail and planing test a regular performance, with pullout grain, surface arrepiamento and pullout chip. Wood Angelim stone responds with quality to the machining processes in planing, sanding, drill and split by nail.

  17. Use of residual wood in the cement manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, R.

    2005-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of wood residuals in the cement manufacturing process. An outline of the cement manufacturing process was presented. Raw materials are combined in exact proportions to create a chemically correct mix, which is then pulverized in a mill. The mix is then burned in a kiln. The end product is cooled to form the pellet sized material known as clinker, which is then milled to form cement. The combustion and destruction characteristics of a cement kiln were presented. Modern cement kilns require approximately 3.2 Gj of energy to produce one tonne of cement. It was noted that wood residuals do not contain halogens, sulfur or other materials detrimental to the cement manufacturing process. Possible injection points for kilns were presented. Various studies have shown that wood residuals can be safely used as a fuel in the manufacture of cement. Environmental benefits derived from using wood included the complete destruction of organic portions, and the fact that residual ash becomes an indistinguishable part of the final product. It was concluded that wood residual materials are a satisfactory alternative fuel for the cement industry. tabs., figs

  18. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N

    2014-08-01

    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  20. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  1. Dark Dark Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    2017 student Bachelor film. Synopsis: Young princess Maria has had about enough of her royal life – it’s all lesson, responsibilities and duties on top of each other, every hour of every day. Overwhelmed Maria is swept away on an adventure into the monster-filled dark, dark woods. During 2017...

  2. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O; Ribeiro, R [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1998-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Sweetgum - an American wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1973-01-01

    Sweetgum grows throughout most of the eastern United States and sporadically throughout Mexico and Central America. The wood is moderately heavy, even-textured, and it machines moderately well. It is used for a variety of purposes, with furniture, plywood, containers, and pulp absorbing the most volume. Growth is good, but supplies are slowly diminishing because the...

  4. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Handling wood shavings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  6. Dynamic light absorption of biomass-burning organic carbon photochemically aged under natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Jang, M.

    2014-02-01

    Wood-burning aerosol produced under smoldering conditions was photochemically aged with different relative humidity (RH) and NOx conditions using a 104 m3 dual outdoor chamber under natural sunlight. Light absorption of organic carbon (OC) was measured over the course of photooxidation using a UV-visible spectrometer connected to an integrating sphere. At high RH, the color decayed rapidly. NOx slightly prolonged the color of wood smoke, suggesting that NOx promotes the formation of chromophores via secondary processes. Overall, the mass absorption cross section (integrated between 280 and 600 nm) of OC increased by 11-54% (except high RH) in the morning and then gradually decreased by 19-68% in the afternoon. This dynamic change in light absorption of wood-burning OC can be explained by two mechanisms: chromophore formation and sunlight bleaching. To investigate the effect of chemical transformation on light absorption, wood smoke particles were characterized using various spectrometers. The intensity of fluorescence, which is mainly related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rapidly decreased with time, indicating the potential bleaching of PAHs. A decline of levoglucosan concentrations evinced the change of primary organic aerosol with time. The aerosol water content measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that wood-burning aerosol became less hygroscopic as photooxidation proceeded. A similar trend in light absorption changes has been observed in ambient smoke aerosol originating from the 2012 County Line wildfire in Florida. We conclude that the biomass-burning OC becomes less light absorbing after 8-9 h sunlight exposure compared to fresh wood-burning OC.

  7. Dynamic light absorption of biomass burning organic carbon photochemically aged under natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Jang, M.

    2013-08-01

    Wood burning aerosol produced under smoldering conditions was photochemically aged with different relative humidity (RH) and NOx conditions using a 104 m3 dual outdoor chamber under natural sunlight. Light absorption of organic carbon (OC) was measured over the course of photooxidation using a UV-visible spectrometer connected to an integrating sphere. At high RH, the color decayed rapidly. NOx slightly prolonged the color of wood smoke, suggesting that NOx promotes the formation of chromophores via secondary processes. Overall, the mass absorption cross-section (integrated between 280 nm and 600 nm) of OC increased by 11-54% (except high RH) in the morning and then gradually decreased by 19-68% in the afternoon. This dynamic change in light absorption of wood burning OC can be explained by two mechanisms: chromophore formation and sunlight bleaching. To investigate the effect of chemical transformation on light absorption, wood smoke particles were characterized using various spectrometers. The intensity of fluorescence, which is mainly related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rapidly decreased with time indicating the potential bleaching of PAHs. A decline of levoglucosan concentrations evinced the change of POA with time. The aerosol water content measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that wood burning aerosol became less hygroscopic as photooxidation proceeded. A similar trend in light absorption changes has been observed in ambient smoke aerosol originating from the 2012 County Line Wildfire in Florida. We conclude that the biomass burning OC becomes less light absorbing after 8-9 h sunlight exposure compared to fresh wood burning OC.

  8. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, semi-volatile organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans), filter-based metals, and volatile organics were sampled for determination of emission factors. The effect on emissions from covering or not covering piles with polyethylene sheets to prevent fuel wetting was determined. Results showed that the uncovered (“wet”) piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emissions of volatile organic compounds. Results for other pollutants will also be discussed. This work determined the emissions from open burning of forest slash wood, with and without plastic sheeting. The foresters advocate the use of plastic to keep the slash wood dry and aid in the controlled combustion of the slash to reduce fuel loading. Concerns about the emissions from the burning plastic prompted this work which conducted an extensive characterization of dry, wet, and dry with plastic slash pile emissions.

  9. Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kumar Dash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.

  10. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  11. American Burn Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... burn-related care, prevention, education, and research. Our multidisciplinary membership enhances our ability to work toward common goals with other organizations and educational programs. Membership Being a member of ...

  12. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  13. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  14. Burn-out

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia van Echtelt

    2014-01-01

    Deze publicatie is alleen elektronisch verkrijgbaar (downloaden van deze site) Burn-out (ofwel: emotionele uitputting) komt relatief vaak voor: ongeveer één op de acht werknemers in Nederland heeft er last van. Het wordt dan ook gezien als een serieus maatschappelijk probleem dat beleidsmatig aandacht vergt. Dit rapport presenteert de resultaten van twee specifieke analyses over burn-out. Ten eerste gaan we na wat het effect is van emotionele uitputting op de loopbaan van werknemers. Ten twee...

  15. Smartphone applications in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewska, Joanna; Buchanan, John A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and met...

  17. Burning mouth syndrome: update

    OpenAIRE

    Cassol Spanemberg, Juliana; Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Ma Eugenia; Jané Salas, Enric; López López, José, 1958-

    2014-01-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although ...

  18. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E.; Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Kasthuri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a...

  19. Chemical source characterization of residential wood combustion emissions in Denver, Colorado; Bakersfield, California; and Mammoth Lakes, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Goulet, J.M.; Chow, J.C.; Watson, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical composition of residential wood combustion particulate emissions was determined for fireplaces and woodstoves. Burn rates, burn patterns, wood burning appliances, and cordwood types characteristic of Denver, Colorado; Bakersfield, California; and Mammoth Lakes, California, were used during sample collection. Samples were collected using a dilution/cooling system to ensure that condensible compounds were captured. Analyses for 44 chemical species were conducted. Source profiles for use in chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling were calculated from the analytical data. The principal chemical species comprising the profiles were organic compounds and elemental carbon. The minor chemical species were sulfur, chlorine, potassium, sodium, calcium, zinc, nitrate, and ammonium. Virtually all potassium was in a water-soluble form, and sulfur emissions between fireplaces and woodstoves were noted. Area-specific source profiles for fireplaces, woodstoves, and overall residential wood combustion are presented

  20. Qualitative performance and economic analysis of low cost solar fish driers in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood Keke Mustapha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative performance and economic analysis of five low cost solar driers were evaluated at the Zoology and Physics Laboratories of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. The solar driers were constructed from mosquito net, plastic, aluminum and glass with black stone inserted in it. The driers were found to be better than the other driers because they are cheap, reliable, safe to use, easy to repair, well insulated, and cost effective. The solar driers are compact, efficient with drying of fish with lowest moisture content achieved within a few days and the dried products of good quality, with long shelf life, highly acceptable to consumers. The driers save man-hour, money, use renewable energy, with no operational or maintenance costs. The driers have a long life span, with net income to fisher folks very high and the payback time for the driers very low. The adoption of the driers will contribute to the economy of rural populace in the developing countries where there is no electricity and the challenges of deforestation are becoming prominent. The improved low cost solar driers will ensure food safety and security and assist in combating climate change resulting from burning of wood and fossil fuel.

  1. Technical development of a retrofit wood burner for coal under-fed stokers in County Durham, and set up of demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N.

    2002-07-01

    Durham County Council wishes to convert its coal-burning solid fuel boilers to make use of readily-available waste wood dust. It is intended that the wood dust be converted to pelleted fuel. The emphasis was on cost-cutting rather than boiler efficiency. The experimental studies were carried out at two schools where the boilers were welded steel and cast iron sectional boilers. Factors studied were air supply to the boilers, fuel feed systems, fuel storage, fuel delivery and pelletization. The results have shown that operating costs of wood burning boilers are a little greater than coal-burning but this is slightly offset by savings elsewhere. The environmental benefits were significant in terms of lower emissions from the boilers, reduced road transport, and the wood waste is no longer sent to landfill. Further areas of study are recommended. The contractor for this study was North Energy Associates Ltd, and the study was part of the DTI Sustainable Energy Programme.

  2. Harvesting and consumption of fuel and timber wood in rural area of district tank, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, L.; Hussain, F.; Burni, T.

    2014-01-01

    The study revealed that 90% of the rural people with different age group of District Tank, Pakistan depended upon firewood for catering. The total annual wood consumption for fueling by brick brewers, food sellers and domestic utilization was 18371 metric tons in this remote region. The saw machines also convert 13650 metric tons of timber wood yearly into logs and boards of various grades. The total wood consumption exceeds the quantity of wood harvested by tree fellers, farmers and wood sellers. Therefore the balance of over 13000 metric tons is sourced from neighboring forest of Tehsil Kulachi and Dera Ismail Khan. The quantity of wood removed and consumed for various purposes did not show a significant difference at (0.05) among the six locations. However student t-test showed significant difference existed in the mean annual removal and consumption of wood in the area. The study also enumerated Acacia nilotica, Tamarix aphylla, and Sueda fruticosa as the best and preferred fuel species. While Acacia nilotica, Prosopis farcta and Dalbergia sisso as the frequently used timber species in the region. The criterion of firewood and lumber consumption was very conventional like durability in blaze and opposed to termite. Consequently, it is recommended scientific vegetation conservation strategies meant at improved burning of fuel wood and maximized used of timber products as a complimentary efforts to enforced tree planting for conservation of plant resources. (author)

  3. The Role of Dead Wood in Maintaining Arthropod Diversity on the Forest Floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James L. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Horn, Scott [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Wade, Dale D. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station

    2006-08-01

    Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. Finally, the results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  4. New Tools for Estimating and Managing Local/Regional Air Quality Impacts of Prescribed Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    locations, Bottom: 3D locations .................................... 150 Figure 4-95 Predicted Ground Levels of Particulate Organic Carbon... cellulose compounds. Nitrogen and sulfur are ɛ% by mass. Figure 4-1 Elemental Composition of Wildland Fuels in the SERDP Project Another analysis...emissions from burning silvicultural piles 61 covered by polyethylene plastic . The project mixed different weights of plastic with manzanita wood

  5. The effectiveness of aerial hydromulch as an erosion control treatment in burned chaparral watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete Wohlgemuth; Jan Beyers; Pete Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    High severity wildfire can make watersheds susceptible to accelerated erosion, which impedes resource recovery and threatens life, property, and infrastructure in downstream human communities. Land managers often use mitigation measures on the burned hillside slopes to reduce postfire sediment fluxes. Hydromulch, a slurry of paper or wood fiber that dries to a...

  6. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Radioactivity of wood ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg -1 , in decreasing order: 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 134 Cs, 235 U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210 Pb was hardly detectable. The NH 4 Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  8. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Dedek, V.; Plander, E.

    1975-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with vinyl monomers in a solution of organic solvents and in the presence of a swelling agent. The impregnation mixture contains a diolefinic hydrocarbon and/or a solid chlorinated or bromated compound with the melting point exceeding 30 degC and less than 10 % of an organosilicon compound. Polymerization is effected by ionizing radiation and a subsequent action of temperature in a range of 40 to 150 JegC. (B.S.)

  9. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  10. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  11. Production of dry wood chips in connection with a district heating plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjölä Jukka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture and its variation in wood chips make the control of burning in small scale heating appliances difficult resulting in emissions and loss of efficiency. If the quality of wood chips would be better, i. e. dried and sieved fuel with more uniform size distribution would be avail able, the burning could be much cleaner and efficiency higher. In addition higher power out put could be obtained and the investment costs of the burning appliances would be lower. The production of sieved and dried wood chip with good quality could be accomplished in connection with a district heating plant. Then the plant would make profit, in addition to the district heat, from the dried wood chips sold to the neighboring buildings and enterprises sep a rated from the district heating net using wood chips in energy production. The peak power of a district heating plant is required only a short time during the coldest days of the winter. Then the excess capacity during the milder days can be used as heat source for drying of wood chips to be marketed. Then wood chips are sieved and the fuel with best quality is sold and the reject is used as fuel in the plant it self. In a larger district heating plant, quality of the fuel does not need to be so high In this paper the effect of moisture on the fuel chain and on the boiler is discussed. Energy and mass balance calculations as a tool of system design is described and the characteristics of proposed dry chips production method is discussed.

  12. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  13. Non-burn electric generation: How today's options stack up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The technical preparedness to generate electricity without burning fuel is dealt with. Nuclear, hydroelectric, solar and wind energy are recommended as the clean options. The aims of energy policy, views upon regulation, technical maturity and commercial preparedness of such variants are discussed. (Z.S.). 4 figs

  14. Regional formation of oxidants. Caused by emissions from wood firing; Regional oxidantbildning. Till foeljd av utslaepp fraan vedeldning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Y [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-09-01

    An atmospheric trajectory model has been used in case studies to calculate the regional ozone formation due to emissions from household wood burning in Sweden. The simulations are conducted in various types of environments and describe a number of different meteorological conditions. The case studies show that the ozone contribution from wood burning is low. The formation of PAN and aldehydes is more pronounced. The concentration of PAN in Sweden is, however, expected to be far below the levels affecting health and environment as are the concentrations of aldehydes. 25 refs, 7 tabs

  15. Burning of biomass waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm Christensen, B.; Evald, A.; Buelow, K.

    1997-01-01

    The amounts of waste wood from the Danish wood processing industry available for the energy market has been made. Furthermore a statement of residues based on biomass, including waste wood, used in 84 plants has been made. The 84 plants represent a large part of the group of purchasers of biomass. A list of biomass fuel types being used or being potential fuels in the future has been made. Conditions in design of plants of importance for the environmental impact and possibility of changing between different biomass fuels are illustrated through interview of the 84 plants. Emissions from firing with different types of residues based on biomass are illustrated by means of different investigations described in the literature of the composition of fuels, of measured emissions from small scale plants and full scale plants, and of mass balance investigations where all incoming and outgoing streams are analysed. An estimate of emissions from chosen fuels from the list of types of fuels is given. Of these fuels can be mentioned residues from particle board production with respectively 9% and 1% glue, wood pellets containing binding material with sulphur and residues from olive production. (LN)

  16. Burning mouth disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Bala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth disorder (BMD is a burning or stinging sensation affecting the oral mucosa, lips and/or tongue, in the absence of clinically visible mucosal lesions. There is a strong female predilection, with the age of onset being approximately 50 years. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. The causes of BMD are multifactorial and remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of burning mouth syndrome (BMS may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The most common sites of burning are the anterior tongue, anterior hard palate and lower lip, but the distribution of oral sites affected does not appear to affect the natural history of the disorder or the response to treatment BMS may persist for many years. This article provides updated information on BMS and presents a new model, based on taste dysfunction, for its pathogenesis.

  17. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  18. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  19. Wood ash to treat sewage sludge for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    About 90% of the three million tons of wood ash generated in the United States from wood burning facilities is being landfilled. Many landfills are initiated tipping fees and/or restrictions on the disposal of special wastes such as ash. The purpose of this work was to evaluate (1) the feasibility of using wood ash to stabilize sewage sludge and (2) the fertilizer and liming value of the sludge/ash mixture on plant response and soil pH. Research showed that wood ash, when mixed with sludge, will produce a pH above 12.0, which meets US EPA criteria for pathogen reduction for land application on non-direct food chain crops. Different ratios of wood ash to sludge mixtures were tested and the 1:1 ratio (by weight) was found to be optimal. Five replications of wood ash from four sources were tested for moisture content, pH and fertilizer nutrients. The pH of the ash/sludge mixture (1:1) on day one ranged from 12.4 to 13.2. In most cases the pH remained the same over a 21 day test or only dropped 0.1 to 0.3 units. Analyses of the mixtures showed that heavy metal concentrations (As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Zn) were low. The 1:1 ash/sludge mixture had a calcium carbonate equivalency of 17%. Green house pot studies using tall fescue grass were loadings of 300 to 750 pounds per acre of TKN-N than for 500 lb/acre of 10-10-10 commercial fertilizer. Plant tissue analysis showed N, P, K, Ca, and Mg levels to be within the sufficiency range for tall fescue.

  20. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  1. Inoculation Expedition of Agar wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Rusli Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation expedition of agar wood is a main field works for researcher in Nuclear Malaysia to prove the real inoculation of agar wood in real jungle. These expeditions was conducted fourth times in the jungles of Malaysia including Gunung Tebu in Terengganu, Murum in Belaga, Sarawak, Kampung Timbang in Kota Belud, Sabah and Nuclear Malaysia itself. This expedition starts from preparation of samples and equipment, transportation into the jungle, searching and recognition of agar wood and lastly, inoculation of the agar wood. Safety aspects precedence set out in the preparation and implementation of this expedition. (author)

  2. The wood energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douard, F.; Oremus, Y.; Garsault-Fabbi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The program law fixing the energy policy (POPE Law of the 13 july 2005) fixes an objective of 50% of growth for the renewable heat. As this renewable heat is today generated by the biomass, it seems necessary to adjust all the efforts on this sector. This document proposes to takes stock on the wood energy in France. It presents the wood fuels, an evaluation of the Wood-Energy Plan decided by the ADEME in 2000, the wood heat networks, and some example of installations. (A.L.B.)

  3. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  4. Health effects of wood smoke. A literature review; Gezondheidseffecten van houtrook. Een literatuurstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagens, W.I.; Van Overveld, A.J.P.; Fischer, P.H.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Cassee, F.R.

    2012-02-15

    In the Netherlands, the most commonly cited source of odour nuisance in the surrounding environment is the burning of wood in fireplaces and wood burning stoves. Fears concerning the health effects of inhaled wood smoke may also be an issue. Various chemical substances are emitted when wood is burnt in fireplaces and wood burning stoves, such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, different volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, based on the research available, it is not possible to accurately estimate the extent to which these emissions can cause health effects. One reason for this is the large variation in the composition of wood smoke which is linked to the type of wood burning stove or fireplace, the type of fuel and heating behaviour. The results of the many different studies investigating the effects of wood burning on human health vary. While some studies have found an association between exposure to wood smoke and increased (hospital admissions for) cardiovascular disease, respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function, other studies have not found an association between health effects and wood smoke. Currently, particulate matter originating from the burning of wood is not considered more detrimental to human health than that from other sources of combustion, such as traffic. These are the most important results of a literature review carried out by the RIVM on the potential health effects of exposure to wood smoke. The studies included in the literature review were primarily performed in areas where wood burning fireplaces and stoves are the only source of domestic heating. As this situation rarely occurs in the Netherlands, extrapolation of the results of these studies to the situation in the Netherlands is problematic. An extensive survey of local exposure to harmful substances due to wood burning in the Netherlands is necessary to obtain more insight into the contribution of wood burning to local air

  5. Wood as an energy source in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjonen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Woodbased fuels cover 14 % of the Finnish energy demand in the beginning of 1990s. Over half (55 %) of the wood power is generated in the cellulose industries by burning the residual black and sulphite liquor. A quarter (23 %) of the woodpower comes from mechanical wood residues, whereas 22 % only comes from conventional firewood. Based on the efficiency of the wood-based energy economy the cellulose and saw milling industries managed in the 1980s to exceed self sufficiency in electricity and steam power production. Increasing use of wood-based fuels in the future in nationally significant scale is therefore tied with the future growth of the cellulose and sawmilling industries. The growth has been made possible by the growth in the Finnish forests since the 1970s. A new model of power generation has been created in the town of Kuhmo in the eastern Finland. It is based on a modem saw mill, combined with electricity (5 MW) and district heating power (13 MW) plant. The power technology is based on fluidized bed combustion which has also been designed for minimizing the nitrogen emissions. Because woodbased fuels are sulphur free, and their impact in carbon balance can be kept in zero, increasing use of woodpower in Finland in the 1990s suits well in the international trends of sustained development

  6. First Nation partner in wood-chip cogen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Ginoogaming First Nation is working with Long Lake Forest Products to develop a cogeneration plant at a local mill which would burn wood chips and waste wood to produce heat and electrical energy for the mill and the community. The plan is part of a larger development project by the community that calls for the construction of new infrastructure, services and business for the town of 250 people near Thunder Bay, Ontario. It is a widely held view that energy is a major factor in achieving self reliance for First Nations especially in remote communities. Concern was expressed by Ontario Hydro that if the town takes over its own electricity production, Ontario Hydro may still be legally required to maintain back up generation. The preferred remedy would be to lift Ontario Hydro's obligation to provide all power to remote communities of Ontario

  7. 太阳能/热泵技术在木材干燥领域的应用%Application of solar energy and heat pump technology in wood drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琪; 赵文欣

    2017-01-01

    提出在家具行业领域,采用太阳能/热泵技术替代传统能源.介绍太阳能及热泵技术的基本原理及应用范围.通过太阳能/热泵技术在江西家具行业的应用,分析该技术的主要特点及注意事项.太阳能/热泵综合能源技术应用在家具行业可实现节能环保,具有推广价值.%The paper puts forward the use of integrated energy technology with solar energy and heat pump to replace traditional en?ergyin the field of furniture industry. This paper introduces the basic principle and application of solar energy and heat pump technology. Through the application of solar energy and heat pump technology in Jiangxi, this paper analyzes the main features of the technology and the matters needing attention. Solar+heat pump technology in the furniture industry has the advantages of energy saving and environ?mental protection and has the promotion value.

  8. Emission factors of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and levoglucosan from wood combustion in south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jorge; Farias, Oscar; Quiroz, Roberto; Yañez, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    In south-central Chile, wood stoves have been identified as an important source of air pollution in populated areas. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Chilean oak (Nothofagus oblique), and mimosa (Acacia dealbata) were burned in a single-chamber slow-combustion wood stove at a controlled testing facility located at the University of Concepción, Chile. In each experiment, 2.7-3.1 kg of firewood were combusted while continuously monitoring temperature, exhaust gases, burn rate, and collecting particulate matter samples in Teflon filters under isokinetic conditions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and levoglucosan analyses. Mean particulate matter emission factors were 2.03, 4.06, and 3.84 g/kg dry wood for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. The emission factors were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency. The mean emission factors of the sums of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle phases were 1472.5, 2134.0, and 747.5 μg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene were present in the particle phase in higher proportions compared with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that were analyzed. Mean levoglucosan emission factors were 854.9, 202.3, and 328.0 mg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Since the emissions of particulate matter and other pollutants were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency, implementing more efficient technologies would help to reduce air pollutant emissions from wood combustion. Residential wood burning has been identified as a significant source of air pollution in populated areas. Local wood species are combusted for home cooking and heating, which releases several toxic air pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Air pollutant emissions depend on the type of wood and the technology and operational conditions of the wood stove. A better understanding of emissions from

  9. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Xiaoqing, E-mail: wangxq@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Forestry New Technology, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorod arrays were deposited on the wood surface via a hydrothermal process. • The assembled ZnO nanorod arrays greatly enhanced the photostability of wood. • The treated wood can sustain direct exposure to flame with only minor smoldering. • The ZnO-coated wood modified with stearic acid showed a superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  10. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorod arrays were deposited on the wood surface via a hydrothermal process. • The assembled ZnO nanorod arrays greatly enhanced the photostability of wood. • The treated wood can sustain direct exposure to flame with only minor smoldering. • The ZnO-coated wood modified with stearic acid showed a superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  11. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  12. Survival, growth, wood basic density and wood biomass of seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four ...

  13. [Surgical treatment of burns : Special aspects of pediatric burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührer, G; Beier, J P; Horch, R E; Arkudas, A

    2017-05-01

    Treatment of pediatric burn patients is very important because of the sheer frequency of burn wounds and the possible long-term ramifications. Extensive burns need special care and are treated in specialized burn centers. The goal of this work is to present current standards in burn therapy and important innovations in the treatment of burns in children so that the common and small area burn wounds and scalds in pediatric patients in day-to-day dermatological practice can be adequately treated. Analysis of current literature, discussion of reviews, incorporation of current guidelines. Burns in pediatric patients are common. Improvement of survival can be achieved by treatment in burn centers. The assessment of burn depth and area is an important factor for proper treatment. We give an overview for outpatient treatment of partial thickness burns. New methods may result in better long-term outcome. Adequate treatment of burn injuries considering current literature and guidelines improves patient outcome. Rational implementation of new methods is recommended.

  14. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  15. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  16. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...

  17. [Burns in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Rodríguez, R; Domínguez Amillo, E; Soto Beauregard, C; Díaz González, M; López Gutiérrez, J C; Ros Mar, Z; Tovar Larrucea, J A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to know the epidemiology of burns in teenagers. Burn patients over 11 years old admitted in our Institution in the last 10 years were included. Etiology, burn size, hospital stay, quirurgical interventions and long term sequelae were registered. One thousand and eight patients were admitted, 89 were over 11 years (8.8%), 70.7% were boys and 29.3% girls. Fire was the principal agent in 58 cases (65.1%), due to fireworks in 13 (22.4%), alcohol in 7 (12%), explosion of flammable containers (spray) in 4 (6.8%) and gasoline in 3 (5.2%). Fireworks injuries and spray explosions affected face and hand in 88% cases. The median hospital stay was 8 days after admission (1 to 90). 83.1% required surgical treatment with mean of 1.8 +/- 1.4 interventions and 21.3% had long-term sequelaes that required at least one surgical intervention. Fire is the main cause of burns in adolescents. Fireworks injuries represented a quarter of that lesions, and highlights paint spray explosions as new causative agents. Considering the high morbidity in this age group, with permanent functional and aesthetic sequelae, prevention campaigns are needed to reduce such accidents.

  18. Electrical Burns: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local emergency number if the source of the burn is a high-voltage wire or lightning. Don't get near high-voltage ... 20 feet (about 6 meters) away — farther if wires are jumping and sparking. Don't move a person with ... breathing Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) Cardiac ...

  19. Burns - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Translations Russian (Русский) Expand Section Burn Care - Русский (Russian) Bilingual ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  20. One Burn, One Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Giretzlehner M., Haller H. L., Faucher L. D., Pressman M. A., Salinas J., Jeng J. C., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...AUVA Linz, Austria Lee D. Faucher, MD University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Melissa A. Pressman , PhD Arizona Burn Center Phoenix

  1. Gaseous and particulate emissions from prescribed burning in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangil; Baumann, Karsten; Schauer, James J; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Naeher, Luke P; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R; Edgerton, Eric S; Russell, Armistead G; Clements, Mark

    2005-12-01

    Prescribed burning is a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the southeastern United States. However, limited data exist on the emission characteristics from this source. Various organic and inorganic compounds both in the gas and particle phase were measured in the emissions of prescribed burnings conducted at two pine-dominated forest areas in Georgia. The measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM2.5 allowed the determination of emission factors for the flaming and smoldering stages of prescribed burnings. The VOC emission factors from smoldering were distinctly higher than those from flaming except for ethene, ethyne, and organic nitrate compounds. VOC emission factors show that emissions of certain aromatic compounds and terpenes such as alpha and beta-pinenes, which are important precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are much higher from active prescribed burnings than from fireplace wood and laboratory open burning studies. Levoglucosan is the major particulate organic compound (POC) emitted for all these studies, though its emission relative to total organic carbon (mg/g OC) differs significantly. Furthermore, cholesterol, an important fingerprint for meat cooking, was observed only in our in situ study indicating a significant release from the soil and soil organisms during open burning. Source apportionment of ambient primary fine particulate OC measured at two urban receptor locations 20-25 km downwind yields 74 +/- 11% during and immediately after the burns using our new in situ profile. In comparison with the previous source profile from laboratory simulations, however, this OC contribution is on average 27 +/- 5% lower.

  2. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  3. Time-resolved characterization of primary emissions from residential wood combustion appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, M F; DeCarlo, P F; Chirico, R; Lauber, A; Doberer, A; Good, J; Nussbaumer, T; Keller, A; Burtscher, H; Richard, A; Miljevic, B; Prevot, A S H; Baltensperger, U

    2012-10-16

    Primary emissions from a log wood burner and a pellet boiler were characterized by online measurements of the organic aerosol (OA) using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) and of black carbon (BC). The OA and BC concentrations measured during the burning cycle of the log wood burner, batch wise fueled with wood logs, were highly variable and generally dominated by BC. The emissions of the pellet burner had, besides inorganic material, a high fraction of OA and a minor contribution of BC. However, during artificially induced poor burning BC was the dominating species with ∼80% of the measured mass. The elemental O:C ratio of the OA was generally found in the range of 0.2-0.5 during the startup phase or after reloading of the log wood burner. During the burnout or smoldering phase, O:C ratios increased up to 1.6-1.7, which is similar to the ratios found for the pellet boiler during stable burning conditions and higher than the O:C ratios observed for highly aged ambient OA. The organic emissions of both burners have a very similar H:C ratio at a given O:C ratio and therefore fall on the same line in the Van Krevelen diagram.

  4. Wood residue production and utilization research at Virgina Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, L.A.; Stuart, W.B.; Sharp, J.C. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (US)); Yu Jian-guo (Northeastern Forestry Univ., Harbin (CN))

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the activities in crushing, drying and segregating wood residues currently underway at Virginia Tech. Experiments with high speed roll crushing as a means of reducing logging residues and small diameter stems to a form suitable for transportation and further processing appear promising. Deflecting whole tree chip streams across a double set of screens coupled with stripping transport air has been shown to reduce bark content and remove fines, bark and grit. Testing and refinement of two prototype sawdust driers is currently under way. Both driers offer increased opportunity for suspension burning and transport. (4 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.) (au).

  5. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  6. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  7. The wood of Merovingian weaponry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tegel, W.; Muigg, B.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, JAN (2016), s. 148-153 ISSN 0305-4403 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Merovingian weaponry * Mineralised wood * Wood anatomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  8. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  9. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  10. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  11. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  12. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  13. Holistic approach to wood protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    When untreated wood is exposed to adverse outdoor conditions, nature has a series of chemistries to degrade it to its original building blocks of carbon dioxide and water. Fungi, termites, heat, moisture, ultraviolet (UV) energy, and chemicals take their toll on the performance properties of wood. We tend to study each of these degradation chemistries as individual...

  14. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  15. Public opinion and wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  16. On Erdos–Wood's conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we prove that infinite number of integers satsify Erdős–Woods conjecture. Moreover, it follows that the number of natural numbers ≤ satisfies Erdős–Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2.

  17. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  18. Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology?

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms re...

  19. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  20. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  1. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, Donovan S; Morgan, Penelope; Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Hudak, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  2. Air-freshener burns: a new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M; Khan, M S; Tiernan, E

    2011-10-01

    We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  3. Domestic biomass burning in rural and urban Zimbabwe: Pt. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marufu, Lackson; Ludwig, Joerg; Andreae, M.O.; Meixner, F.X.; Helas, Guenter

    1997-01-01

    A questionnaire survey, to estimate biofuel consumption rates in rural and urban households in Zimbabwe, was conducted during the months of March and April 1995. The survey formed part of an integrated campaign aimed at establishing the extent to which domestic biofuel burning in Africa contributes to the atmospheric trace gas budget. Five study areas, four rural and one urban, were covered by the survey. The forms of biofuel used in rural areas were found to be wood, agricultural residues and cow dung, with wood being predominant. When available, agricultural residues were the second most popular form of fuel. Cow dung was only used in situations of severe fuel shortages. On average, rural consumption rates of wood, agricultural residues and cow dung for this time of the year were found to be 3.2, 1.5 and 0.2 kg/capita/day respectively. Wood and agricultural residues were the only biofuels used by urban households and were consumed at rates of 1.6 and > 0.1 kg/capitaday respectively. Across the study areas, consumption rates were a function of fuel availability. (author)

  4. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  5. A five-century sedimentary geochronology of biomass burning in Nicaragua and Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, D.O.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the extensive use of fire as an agricultural agent in Central America today, little is known of its history of biomass burning or agriculture. As an indicator of the burning practices on the adjacent land, a sedimentary record of carbonized particles sheds light on the trends in frequency and areal extent of biomass burning. This research focuses on a sediment core recovered from an anoxic site in the Pacific Ocean adjacent to the Central American Isthmus and reports a five-century record of charcoal deposition. The research illustrates that biomass burning has been an important ecological factor in the Pacific watershed of Central America at least during the past five centuries. Fluxes of charcoal have generally decreased toward the present suggesting a reduction in the charcoal source function. Perhaps, five centuries ago, the frequency of biomass burning was greater than it is today, larger areas were burned, or biomass per unit area of burned grassland was greater. The major type of biomass burned throughout this five-century period has been grass, as opposed to woods, indicating that any major deforestation of the Pacific watershed of Central America occurred prior to the Conquest

  6. ANFO truck burn trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen von, B.; Contestabile, E. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the investigation of a tractor-trailer explosion. A truck loaded with 18,000 kg of commercial explosives, of which 13,000 kg was ammonium nitrate with fuel oil (ANFO), caught fire when it struck a rockcut near Walden, Ontario on August 5, 1998. The fire resulted in the detonation of the load. The Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory (CERL) conducted a test program to examine the suitability of existing explosive transportation regulations. Unconfined burns of ANFO were performed. The accident was recreated in two burn trials in an attempt to identify the mechanism that led from fire to detonation. Two full-scale tests were conducted using complete tractor-trailers, each in a jack-knifed position with most of the explosives placed on the ground in front of the trailer. ANFO was used in the first test to determine its response to thermal stimulus and the likelihood of detonation or explosion. The second test involved ANFO, a slurry and an emulsion. Thermocouples and video cameras were used to observe the burning characteristics of the explosives, the truck and its components. The explosives burned steadily for 80 minutes in each test. Many truck components, such as tires, spring brake chambers and the fuel tank ruptured violently due to the heat. Although no detonation occurred in the test trials, it was concluded that under favourable conditions, many truck components, might produce fragments with enough energy to initiate heat-sensitized explosives. It was suggested that a fragment impact caused the detonation at Walden. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes ( Mucor , Rhizopus).6 reduce...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and...sensitivity reports, and the patient’s sue, including one patient who required a hip disarticulation response. to control an invasive Mucor burn wound

  8. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  9. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezdorn, N.; Limbourg, A.; Paprottka, F.J.; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R.; Vogt, P.M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours. PMID:28149254

  10. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  11. Burning mouth syndrome: etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiari, Dafne Patrícia; de Moricz, Renata Dutra; Sanjar, Fernanda Alves; Rapoport, Priscila Bogar; Moretti, Giovana; Guerra, Marja Michelin

    2006-01-01

    The Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is an oral mucosa pain--with or without inflammatory signs--without any specific lesion. It is mostly observed in women aged 40-60 years. This pain feels like a moderate/severe burning, and it occurs more frequently on the tongue, but it may also be felt at the gingiva, lips and jugal mucosa. It may worsen during the day, during stress and fatigue, when the patient speaks too much, or through eating of spicy/hot foods. The burning can be diminished with cold food, work and leisure. The goal of this review article is to consider possible BMS etiologies and join them in 4 groups to be better studied: local, systemic, emotional and idiopathic causes of pain. Knowing the different diagnoses of this syndrome, we can establish a protocol to manage these patients. Within the local pain group, we must investigate dental, allergic and infectious causes. Concerning systemic causes we need to look for connective tissue diseases, endocrine disorders, neurological diseases, nutritional deficits and salivary glands alterations that result in xerostomia. BMS etiology may be of difficult diagnosis, many times showing more than one cause for oral pain. A detailed interview, general physical examination, oral cavity and oropharynx inspection, and lab exams are essential to avoid a try and error treatment for these patients.

  12. Online molecular characterization of fine particulate matter in Port Angeles, WA: Evidence for a major impact from residential wood smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Whybrew, Lauren E.; Hadley, Odelle; McNair, Fran; Gao, Honglian; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-08-01

    We present on-line molecular composition measurements of wintertime particulate matter (PM) during 2014 using an iodide-adduct high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). These measurements were part of an intensive effort to characterize PM in the region with a focus on ultrafine particle sources. The technique was used to detect and quantify different classes of wood burning tracers, including levoglucosan, methoxyphenols, and nitrocatechols, among other compounds in near real-time. During the campaign, particulate mass concentrations of compounds with the same molecular composition as levoglucosan ranged from 0.002 to 19 μg/m3 with a median mass concentration of 0.9 μg/m3. Wood burning markers, in general, showed a strong diurnal pattern peaking at night and in the early morning. This diurnal profile combined with cold, stagnant conditions, wind directions from predominantly residential areas, and observations of lower combustion efficiency at night support residential wood burning as a dominant source of wintertime PM in Port Angeles. This finding has implications for improving wintertime air quality in the region by encouraging the use of high efficiency wood-burning stoves or other cleaner home heating options throughout the relevant domain.

  13. Evaluation of Methods for Physical Characterization of the Fine Particle Emissions from Two Residential Wood Combustion Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fine particulate matter (PM) emissions from a U. S. certified non-catalytic wood stove and a zero clearance fireplace burning Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) cordwood each at two different moisture levels were determined. Emission t...

  14. Hazardous emissions, operating practices, and air regulations at industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since October of 1988 the State of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has regulated over four hundred substances as hazardous air pollutants. The rule regulates new as well as existing sources of air pollution in Wisconsin. Consequently, all permits to operate an air pollution source in Wisconsin must address the hazardous air emissions potential of the source. While widely perceived as a clean-burning fuel, wood is often burned in a manner which clearly results in significant emissions of very hazardous air pollutants. Research conducted on a 20 million BTU per hour wood-fired spreader stoker boiler in northern Wisconsin showed that this boiler has the potential to emit 0.022 pound of benzene and 0.012 pound of formaldehyde per ton (lb/ton) of wood fired. Recent stack tests at more than a dozen other small industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin show a range of formaldehyde emissions of 0.0007--0.1950 lb/ton. Work at Birchwood Lumber ampersand Veneer showed that the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under good firing conditions are an order of magnitude lower than the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under poor firing conditions. This finding has supported Wisconsin's regulatory approach of encouraging wood-fired facilities to enhance the quality of the combustion process as a technique to minimize the hazardous air pollution potential of industrial wood combustion. The Wisconsin strategy is to define open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes through easily measurable combustion parameters rather than emission standards. This paper presents several techniques in use in Wisconsin to comply with open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes for industrial wood-fired furnaces. These techniques include fuel blending overfire air, furnace insulation, and proper grate design

  15. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  16. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, Auke

    2003-01-01

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  17. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  18. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  19. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  20. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  1. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  2. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the

  3. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  5. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  6. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Foot burns: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  8. A combustion model of vegetation burning in "Tiger" fire propagation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannino, F.; Ascoli, D.; Sirignano, M.; Mazzoleni, S.; Russo, L.; Rego, F.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a semi-physical model for the burning of vegetation in a wildland fire. The main physical-chemical processes involved in fire spreading are modelled through a set of ordinary differential equations, which describe the combustion process as linearly related to the consumption of fuel. The water evaporation process from leaves and wood is also considered. Mass and energy balance equations are written for fuel (leaves and wood) assuming that combustion process is homogeneous in space. The model is developed with the final aim of simulating large-scale wildland fires which spread on heterogeneous landscape while keeping the computation cost very low.

  9. Adapting to an innovation: Solar cooking in the urban households of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Hilde M.

    Most households in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on wood as primary energy source. The availability of wood is decreasing and deforestation is a major ecological problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The scarcity of wood is demanding for a sustainable solution. The sun seems to provide a good alternative. Solar energy is free, without unhealthy smoke or chances to burns. The idea of using solar energy for cooking is not new: many different techniques have already been tested. Most variants are expensive, and therefore not available for most families in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cheap solar cooking device is the CooKit, a cardboard panel cooker covered with aluminium foil. In the adaptation to the CooKit, as to all innovations, it is important that the users are convinced of the advantages. An important step in the adaptation process is learning how to use the cooking device; the best way to do this is by home practice. Monitoring and evaluating the real use is needed, for it is interesting to know if the CooKit is actually used, and also to find out how women have implemented the new technique in their kitchens. In 2005, the SUPO foundation started a project in Burkina Faso: Programme Energie Solaire Grand-Ouaga (PESGO). The aim of PESGO is to introduce the CooKit in the urban households in Ouagadougou by providing training sessions and home assistance. In this paper, a mid-term review on this small-scale cooking project is presented. The possibilities and challenges of solar cooking are outlined, taking the urban context of Ouagadougou in account. In PESGO, dependence on weather conditions is found to be one of the challenges: if sunrays are blocked by clouds or dust in the air, the cooking will be slowed down. The CooKit cannot replace firewood entirely, and a complementary element has to be found. SUPO is exploring the use of Jatropha oil as a complement to the CooKit. The Jatropha plant is drought tolerant and its fruits contain oil which can be used as fuel substitute. Further

  10. Women's work... in wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1998-01-01

    Women have opportunities galore in the 1990s in wood products research, education, extension, consulting,manufacturing, marketing, and associations in North America. In the 1980s the same statement could not have been made.

  11. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood (models)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    Trained models for UDPipe used to produce our final submission to VarDial 2017 shared task (https://bitbucket.org/hy-crossNLP/vardial2017) and described in a paper by the same authors titled Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood.

  12. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  13. Rethinking wood dust safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnasingam, Jega; Wai, Lim Tau; Ramasamy, Geetha; Ioras, Florin; Tadin, Ishak; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Buckinghamshire New University; Centre for Occupational Safety and Health Singapore

    2015-01-01

    The current universal work safety and health standards pertaining to wood dust in factories lack the localisation required. As a study has shown, there is a urgent need to reevaluate the current guidelines and practices.

  14. Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Niemi, J.V. [HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005-2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October-March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115-225 ng m{sup -3} and 83-98 ng m{sup -} {sup 3}at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19-78 ng m{sup -3}), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222-378 ng m{sup -}3{sup )}. Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles. (orig.)

  15. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humar, Miha; Amartey, Sam A.; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes

  16. Highly Flexible and Efficient Solar Steam Generation Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoji; Li, Yiju; Song, Jianwei; Yang, Zhi; Kuang, Yudi; Hitz, Emily; Jia, Chao; Gong, Amy; Jiang, Feng; Zhu, J Y; Yang, Bao; Xie, Jia; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-08-01

    Solar steam generation with subsequent steam recondensation has been regarded as one of the most promising techniques to utilize the abundant solar energy and sea water or other unpurified water through water purification, desalination, and distillation. Although tremendous efforts have been dedicated to developing high-efficiency solar steam generation devices, challenges remain in terms of the relatively low efficiency, complicated fabrications, high cost, and inability to scale up. Here, inspired by the water transpiration behavior of trees, the use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified flexible wood membrane (F-Wood/CNTs) is demonstrated as a flexible, portable, recyclable, and efficient solar steam generation device for low-cost and scalable solar steam generation applications. Benefitting from the unique structural merits of the F-Wood/CNTs membrane-a black CNT-coated hair-like surface with excellent light absorbability, wood matrix with low thermal conductivity, hierarchical micro- and nanochannels for water pumping and escaping, solar steam generation device based on the F-Wood/CNTs membrane demonstrates a high efficiency of 81% at 10 kW cm -2 , representing one of the highest values ever-reported. The nature-inspired design concept in this study is straightforward and easily scalable, representing one of the most promising solutions for renewable and portable solar energy generation and other related phase-change applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Community integration after burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, P C; Ptacek, J T; Kowalske, K; Cromes, G F; deLateur, B J; Engrav, L H

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of community integration is a meaningful outcome criterion after major burn injury. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was administered to 463 individuals with major burn injuries. The CIQ results in Total, Home Integration, Social Integration, and Productivity scores. The purposes of this study were to determine change in CIQ scores over time and what burn injury and demographic factors predict CIQ scores. The CIQ scores did not change significantly from 6 to 12 to 24 months postburn injury. Home integration scores were best predicted by sex and living situation; Social Integration scores by marital status; and Productivity scores by functional outcome, burn severity, age, and preburn work factors. The data demonstrate that individuals with burn injuries have significant difficulties with community integration due to burn and nonburn related factors. CIQ scores did not improve over time but improvement may have occurred before the initial 6-month postburn injury follow-up in this study.

  18. Solar History An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Beyond the four centuries of sunspot observation and the five decades during which artificial satellites have monitored the Sun – that is to say for 99.99999% of the Sun’s existence – our knowledge of solar history depends largely on analogy with kindred main sequence stars, on the outcome of various kinds of modelling, and on indirect measures of solar activity. They include the analysis of lunar rocks and meteorites for evidence of solar flares and other components of the solar cosmic-ray (SCR) flux, and the measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in wood, stratified ice and marine sediments to evaluate changes in the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux and thus infer changes in the sheltering magnetic fields of the solar wind. In addition, shifts in the global atmospheric circulation which appear to result from cyclic fluctuations in solar irradiance have left their mark in river sediments and in the isotopic composition of cave deposits. In this volume the results these sources have already produced have bee...

  19. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Renton, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Bruning mouth syndrome is a burning sensation of one or several oral soft tissues with the tongue being affected the most, and may be associated with some other symptoms outside the oral structures. The oral symptoms may appear suddenly or gradually within a time course, may be persistent throughout the day or get more intense as the day progresses in a complaint-free patient in the morning. The syndrome affects mostly women and those over 50 years old, and usually caused by multiple factors....

  20. Burning mouth syndrome: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage; Jaishankar Homberhalli Puttabuddi; Purnachandrarao Naik Nunsavath

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by an oral burning sensation in the absence of any organic disorders of the oral cavity. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and is characterized by an intense burning type of pain, preferably on the tongue and in other areas of the ...

  1. Burning mouth syndrome: Present perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Parajuli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of obvious visible mucosal lesions. Patient presenting with the burning mouth sensation or pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice which poses a challenge to the treating clinician. Its exact etiology remains unknown which probably has multifactorial origin. It often affects middle or old age women and it may be accompanied by xerostomia and alte...

  2. Drying wood waste with a pulse combustion dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchkowski, A.G. [Spectrum Engineering Corp., Ltd., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); Kitchen, J.A. [John A. Kitchen, Ltd., Hastings, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    There is a vast amount of wood waste available to be used as an alternate fuel if its moisture could be reduced efficiently. Tests have been conducted to assess an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste; specifically sawdust and pulverized wet hog fuel. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, and low NO{sub x} emissions. The material is injected into the exhaust gases in the tailpipe of the combustor which uses natural gas or propane as a fuel. The turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The materials is further dried in a rotary drum. The material has been dried without scorching or burning in tests where the inlet moisture content has been as high as 60% on a wet basis. The outlet moisture contents achieved have typically been 10%. Analysis of the test data and cost estimates of the equipment indicate that the pulse combustion drying system is at least comparable to existing systems in terms of operating costs, and offers very significant savings in capital costs. Testing with various other materials such as wood pulp, sludges and peat is continuing to further assess the equipment`s performance.

  3. Domestic wood combustion - practices, attitudes and regulation; Braendefyring i hjemmet - praksis, holdninger og regulering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Martinsen, L.

    2008-06-15

    Use of wood burning stoves for domestic heating is the subject of this report which is based on results from an interview study and a survey. The report is concerned with why people have and use stoves, how they use them and which functions the stoves serve in their homes. Of equal interest are the attitudes of users as well as non-users to environmental consequences of wood combustion and to different forms of regulation. There can be several reasons for having and using a wood burning stove for domestic heating. The main reason seems to be the sense of homeliness and cosiness and calm that it gives to the home, and the second most important reason is the economic advantages it implies in terms of reducing heating expenses. Enjoyment of the particular quality of warmth that stoves can provide and a desire to obtain higher indoor temperature are important additional motivations, while self determination in household heating supply runs through all these motivations as an underlying incentive. Potential environmental problems from domestic wood combustion depend on the properties of the stove, on the quality of the fuel, and on air intake and other aspects of the combustion process; and practices of stove users play an important role in all this. For stove users there are both sensuous experiences and social norms - e.g. regarding use of damp wood or any other type of fuel than pure wood - that support an environmentally appropriate practice. However, this study shows that even though users are inclined to follow environmentally sound practices for wood combustion other considerations in everyday life may be more important; considerations regarding what kind of effort one has time and energy for, what is practically feasible, what one can be bothered to consider, and what level of thermal comfort one wants. Almost half of the respondents, users and non-users alike, are to some extend - from slightly to extremely - bothered by smoke from wood combustion, and around

  4. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  5. Solar possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D

    1979-01-01

    A major energy transition of some kind is inevitable. For rich lands and poor alike, the energy patterns of the past are not prologue to the future. The oil-based societies of the industrial world cannot be sustained and cannot be replicated. The huge increases in oil prices since 1973 virtually guarantee that the Third World will never derive most of its energy from petroleum. Gross world oil production is likely to peak within the next decade; per capita world oil production may have already peaked. The world thus faces an awesome discontinuity in the production and use of energy. In the past, such energy transformations invariably produced far-reaching social change. The 18th-century substitution of coal for wood and wind in Europe, for example, accelerated and refashioned the industrial revolution. Later, the shift to petroleum altered the nature of travel, shrinking the planet and reshaping its cities. The coming energy transition can be counted upon to fundamentally alter tomorrow's world. This will be as true of a solar era as of a nuclear age. Sunlight is abundant, dependable, and free. With some minor fluctuations, the sun has been bestowing its bounty on the earth for more than four billion years, and it is expected to continue to do so for several billion more. The use of photovoltaic, wind power, biomass conversion, and hydro power for energy production are also discussed.

  6. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  7. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  8. Novel burn device for rapid, reproducible burn wound generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Dunham, D M; Supp, D M; Sen, C K; Powell, H M

    2016-03-01

    Scarring following full thickness burns leads to significant reductions in range of motion and quality of life for burn patients. To effectively study scar development and the efficacy of anti-scarring treatments in a large animal model (female red Duroc pigs), reproducible, uniform, full-thickness, burn wounds are needed to reduce variability in observed results that occur with burn depth. Prior studies have proposed that initial temperature of the burner, contact time with skin, thermal capacity of burner material, and the amount of pressure applied to the skin need to be strictly controlled to ensure reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to develop a new burner that enables temperature and pressure to be digitally controlled and monitored in real-time throughout burn wound creation and compare it to a standard burn device. A custom burn device was manufactured with an electrically heated burn stylus and a temperature control feedback loop via an electronic microstat. Pressure monitoring was controlled by incorporation of a digital scale into the device, which measured downward force. The standard device was comprised of a heat resistant handle with a long rod connected to the burn stylus, which was heated using a hot plate. To quantify skin surface temperature and internal stylus temperature as a function of contact time, the burners were heated to the target temperature (200±5°C) and pressed into the skin for 40s to create the thermal injuries. Time to reach target temperature and elapsed time between burns were recorded. In addition, each unit was evaluated for reproducibility within and across three independent users by generating burn wounds at contact times spanning from 5 to 40s at a constant pressure and at pressures of 1 or 3lbs with a constant contact time of 40s. Biopsies were collected for histological analysis and burn depth quantification using digital image analysis (ImageJ). The custom burn device maintained both its internal

  9. Investment preferences for wood-based energy initiatives in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Francisco X. [Department of Forestry, School of Natural Resources, 203L Anheuser-Busch Natural Resources Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The forest sector is poised to become a major supplier of wood-based energy in the US. Prospects for growth in energy demand and higher prices can create opportunities for private investments in renewable energy industries. A conjoint analysis examined individuals' willingness to invest in wood-based energies following a random utility model. The study design included three investment attributes: annual returns on investment, type of investment, and location of investment. Three ordinal models that also included demographic and attitudinal characteristics indicate that wood-based energy is less preferred among potential investors compared to the stock market and solar/wind renewable energy investments. Expected returns and location of energy investments within the US are also major drivers of investment preferences. Favorable attitudes towards forestry and wood-based energy could enhance prospects for a greater number of potential investors. (author)

  10. Investment preferences for wood-based energy initiatives in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Francisco X.

    2009-01-01

    The forest sector is poised to become a major supplier of wood-based energy in the US. Prospects for growth in energy demand and higher prices can create opportunities for private investments in renewable energy industries. A conjoint analysis examined individuals' willingness to invest in wood-based energies following a random utility model. The study design included three investment attributes: annual returns on investment, type of investment, and location of investment. Three ordinal models that also included demographic and attitudinal characteristics indicate that wood-based energy is less preferred among potential investors compared to the stock market and solar/wind renewable energy investments. Expected returns and location of energy investments within the US are also major drivers of investment preferences. Favorable attitudes towards forestry and wood-based energy could enhance prospects for a greater number of potential investors.

  11. Biomass burning aerosol detection over Buenos Aires City, August 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, L A; Ristori, P R; Pawelko, E E; Pallotta, J V; D'Elia, R L; Quel, E J

    2011-01-01

    At the end of August 2009, a biomass burning aerosol intrusion event was detected at the Laser and Applications Research Center, CEILAP (CITEFA-CONICET) (34.5 deg. S - 58.5 deg. W) at Villa Martelli, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This center has a sunphotometer from the AERONET-NASA global network, UV solar radiation sensors, a meteorological station and an aerosol lidar system. The aerosol origin was determined by means of back-trajectories and satellite images. This work studies the aerosol air mass optical characterization and their effect in UV solar radiation.

  12. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  13. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  14. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile...... of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles...... at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation...

  16. Analyses of biomass burning contribution to aerosol in Zhengzhou during wheat harvest season in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyang; Yin, Shasha; Li, Xiao; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Ruiqin

    2018-07-01

    Ambient PM2.5 samples were collected in suburban area of Zhengzhou, China to investigate the impact of straw open burning on local aerosol during wheat harvest season in 2015. Secondary formation and accumulation processes were found under unfavorable meteorological conditions through the chemical composition analysis in PM2.5. And spatial and temporal variation of the agricultural activities were observed through MODIS fire spots data combined with back trajectory analysis. Results showed elevated levoglucosan was affected directly during biomass burning episodes and transportation periods. In order to estimate the contribution, levoglucosan/K+ combined with levoglucosan/mannosan were analyzed to identify biomass burning sources. And the results showed that levoglucosan were emitted from straw burning mixing with softwood combustion during the study period, emphasizing that wood combustion for households was non-negligible which consists part of the levoglucosan background in Zhengzhou aerosol. Based on emission factors (levoglucosan/OC or levoglucosan/PM2.5) summarized by laboratory simulation experiments, the study period was divided into 7 depending on the former characteristics to estimate the contribution of biomass burning to aerosol, and the average contributions of biomass burning emission to OC and PM2.5 were 46% and 13% relatively, indicating biomass burning have a significant impact on ambient aerosol levels during harvest season.

  17. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  18. Mutagenicity assessment of aerosols in emissions from wood combustion in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, B.; Alves, C.A.; Gonçalves, C.; Pio, C.; Gonçalves, F.; Pereira, R.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) extracts of fine particles (PM 2.5 ) collected from combustion of seven wood species and briquettes were tested for mutagenic activities using Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The woods were Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalypt), Quercus suber (cork oak), Acacia longifolia (golden wattle), Quercus faginea (Portuguese oak), Olea europea (olive), and Quercus ilex rotundifolia (Holm oak). Burning experiments were done using woodstove and fireplace, hot start and cold start conditions. A mutagenic response was recorded for all species except golden wattle, maritime pine, and briquettes. The mutagenic extracts were not correlated with high emission factors of carcinogenic PAHs. These extracts were obtained both from two burning appliances and start-up conditions. However, fireplace seemed to favour the occurrence of mutagenic emissions. The negative result recorded for golden wattle was interesting, in an ecological point of view, since after confirmation, this invasive species, can be recommended for domestic use. - Highlights: ► Both woodstove and fireplace, either with a cold or hot start, produce emissions with mutagenic potential. ► The high level of carcinogenic PAHs in combustion emissions was not correlated with mutagenicity. ► The golden wattle, an invasive species, produced no mutagenic emissions. - Wood smoke from fireplace burning of dominant forest species displayed strong mutagenic activity without a significant correlation with carcinogenic PAHs emission factors.

  19. Analysis of existing structure and emissions of wood combustion plants for the production of heat and electricity in Bavaria; Analyse der Bestandesstruktur und der Emissionen von Holzfeuerungsanlagen zur Erzeugung von Waerme und Strom in Bayern.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joa, Bettina

    2014-07-01

    This work deals with the detailed analysis of the existing structure of all Bavarian wood burning plants for the generation of heat and electricity as well as the determination of the resulting emission emissions in 2013. The number of wood burning plants in the single-chamber fireplaces, wood central heating and wood-fired heating plants which are in operation in the year 2013 were determined, and how many plants are existing in the various areas like pellet stoves, traditional ovens, wood-burning fireplace, pellet central heating systems, wood chips central heating systems, fire-wood central heating systems, wood combined heat and power plant (electricity and heat) and wood power plants (heat). In addition, the regional distribution of the wood burning plants in the Bavarian governmental districts is investigated as well as the type and amount of energy produced by them (heat, electricity). [German] Diese Arbeit behandelt die detaillierte Analyse der Bestandesstruktur saemtlicher bayerischer Holzfeuerungsanlagen zur Erzeugung von Waerme und Strom sowie die Ermittlung des dabei entstehenden Emissionsausstosses im Jahr 2013. Dabei wurde ermittelt wie viele Holzfeuerungsanlagen in den Segmenten Einzelraumfeuerstaetten, Holz-Zentralheizungen und Holzheiz(kraft)werke im Jahr 2013 in Bayern in Betrieb sind und wie viele Anlagen es in den einzelnen Bereichen Pelletoefen, traditionelle Oefen, Kaminoefen, Heizkamine, offene Kamine, Kacheloefen, Pellet-Zentralheizungen, Hackschnitzel-Zentralheizungen, Scheitholz-Zentralheizungen, Holzheizkraftwerke (Waerme und Strom), Holzheizwerke (Waerme) sowie Holzkraftwerke (Strom) gibt. Des Weiteren wird die regionale Verteilung der Holzfeuerungsanlagen in den bayerischen Regierungsbezirken erforscht sowie die durch sie produzierte Art und Menge an Energie (Waerme, Strom).

  20. Observations of biomass burning tracers in PM2.5 at two megacities in North China during 2014 APEC summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhisheng; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Han; Tao, Jun; Qiu, Xionghui; Chai, Fahe; Li, Yang; Wang, Shulan

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of biomass burning control measures on PM2.5 reduction, day- and nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban sites in North China, one in Beijing (BJ) and the other in Shijiazhuang (SJZ), during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. Typical biomass burning aerosol tracers including levoglucosan (LG), Mannosan (MN), and water-soluble potassium (K+), together with other water-soluble ions and carbonaceous species were determined. The levels of biomass burning tracers dropped dramatically during the APEC period when open biomass burning activities were well controlled in North China, yet they increased sharply to even higher levels during the post-APEC period. Distinct linear regression relationships between LG and MN were found with lower LG/MN ratios from periods with much reduced open biomass burning activities. This was likely resulted from the reduced open crop residues burning and increased residential wood burning emissions, as was also supported by the simultaneous decrease in K+/LG ratio. The positive matrix factorization and air quality model simulation analyses suggested that PM2.5 concentration produced from biomass burning sources was reduced by 22% at BJ and 46% at SJZ during the APEC period compared to pre-APEC period, although they increased to higher levels after APEC mainly due to increased residential biomass burning emissions in winter heating season. Biomass burning was also found to be the most important contributor to carbonaceous species that might cause significant light extinction in this region. This study not only suggested implementing biomass burning controls measures were helpful to reduce PM2.5 in North China, but also pointed out both open crop residues burning and indoor biomass burning activities could make substantial contributions to PM2.5 and its major components in urban areas in North China.

  1. [Emission factors and PM chemical composition study of biomass burning in the Yangtze River Delta region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xi-Bin; Huang, Cheng; Lou, Sheng-Rong; Qiao, Li-Ping; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ming-hua; Chen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Qian; Li, Gui-Ling; Li, Li; Huang, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Gang-Feng

    2014-05-01

    The emission characteristics of five typical crops, including wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw, soybean straw and fuel wood, were investigated to explore the gas and particulates emission of typical biomass burning in Yangzi-River-Delta area. The straws were tested both by burning in stove and by burning in the farm with a self-developed measurement system as open burning sources. Both gas and fine particle pollutants were measured in this study as well as the chemical composition of fine particles. The results showed that the average emission factors of CO, NO, and PM2,5 in open farm burning were 28.7 g.kg -1, 1.2 g.kg-1 and 2.65 g kg-1 , respectively. Due to insufficient burning in the low oxygen level environment, the emission factors of stove burning were higher than those of open farm burning, which were 81.9 g kg-1, 2. 1 g.kg -1 and 8.5 gkg -1 , respectively. Oil rape straw had the highest emission factors in all tested straws samples. Carbonaceous matter, including organic carbon(OC) and element carbon(EC) , was the foremost component of PM2, 5from biomass burning. The average mass fractions of OC and EC were (38.92 +/- 13.93)% and (5.66 +/-1.54)% by open farm burning and (26.37 +/- 10. 14)% and (18.97 +/- 10.76)% by stove burning. Water soluble ions such as Cl-and K+ had a large contribution. The average mass fractions of CI- and K+ were (13.27 +/-6. 82)% and (12.41 +/- 3.02)% by open farm burning, and were (16.25 +/- 9.34)% and (13.62 +/- 7.91)% by stove burning. The K +/OC values of particles from wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw and soybean straw by open farm burning were 0. 30, 0. 52, 0. 49 and 0. 15, respectively, which can be used to evaluate the influence on the regional air quality in YRD area from biomass burning and provide direct evidence for source apportionment.

  2. VOC emissions from residential combustion of Southern and mid-European woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtyugina, Margarita; Alves, Célia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luís; Duarte, Márcio; Prozil, Sónia O.; Evtuguin, Dmitry V.; Pio, Casimiro

    2014-02-01

    Emissions of trace gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from combustion of European beech, Pyrenean oak and black poplar in a domestic woodstove and fireplace were studied. These woods are widely used as biofuel in residential combustion in Southern and mid-European countries. VOCs in the flue gases were collected in Tedlar bags, concentrated in sorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID). CO2 emissions ranged from 1415 ± 136 to 1879 ± 29 g kg-1 (dry basis). The highest emission factors for CO and THC, 115.8 ± 11.7 and 95.6 24.7 ± 6.3 g kg-1 (dry basis), respectively, were obtained during the combustion of black poplar in the fireplace. European beech presented the lowest CO and THC emission factors for both burning appliances. Significant differences in emissions of VOCs were observed among wood species burnt and combustion devices. In general the highest emission factors were obtained from the combustion of Pyrenean oak in the woodstove. Among the VOCs identified, benzene and related compounds were always the most abundant group, followed by oxygenated compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The amount and the composition of emitted VOCs were strongly affected by the wood composition, the type of burning device and operating conditions. Emission data obtained in this work are useful for modelling the impact of residential wood combustion on air quality and tropospheric ozone formation.

  3. Nuisance or Not? Part 2 "Wood" New Additives Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardi, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Nuisance or Not? Part 2"Wood" New Additives Make a Difference? Julian Vilardi Wetumpka Middle School, Wetumpka, USA Last year fuel briquettes were created out of nuisance organisms. Several samples had results better or comparable to the controls. This project is a revision/ extension. Purpose: Find process and formula for a long lasting environmentally friendly biofuel that produces high energy with low byproducts and low cost. Hypotheses: If wisteria is processed to make a biofuel that contains 90% wisteria leaves and vines and 10% pine cones, then a high energy, low byproduct, biofuel will be created. Procedure: Collect, dry and chop material, compress mass, burn test, repeat for every organism. Kudzu was combined in a 70 % kudzu: 30 % wood additive with used cooking oil and pressed into logs. Logs were massed, burned and temperature was recorded and compared to controls. Results: Kudzu had the longest flame but produced smoke. Kudzu logs with recycled cooking oil had less smoke and burned for an hour plus. Conclusions: Wisteria did not compact or have great flammability. Pine cones did not flame well either. This hypothesis was unsupported. All kudzu samples when compacted and combined with any additive were the best biofuel. Kudzu logs with the mixture of wood additives burned the longest and was one of the hottest. The gas chromatograph/emissions tests showed the organic byproducts produced on burning the kudzu logs were less than the accepted range for air quality. These supported the hypothesis and met the purpose of this project. A low cost, environmentally friendly, efficient fuel source was created!

  4. In-situ burning of Orimulsion : small scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of burning Orimulsion. In-situ burning has always been a viable method for cleaning oil spills on water because it can effectively reduce the amount of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of recovered oil. Orimulsion, however, behaves very differently from conventional oil when it is spilled because of its composition of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. In-situ burning of this surfactant-stablized oil-in-water emulsion has never been seriously considered because of the perception that Orimulsion could not be ignited, and if it could, ignition would not be sustained. In this study, burn tests were conducted on 3 scales in a Cleveland Open Cup apparatus of 5 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm diameters. Larger scale burns were conducted in specially built pans. All tests were conducted on salt water which caused the bitumen to separate from the water. The objective was to determine if sufficient vapours could be generated to ignite the Orimulsion. The study also measured if a sustained flame would result in successful combustion. Both objectives were successfully accomplished. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the Orimulsion in the specially designed pan for large scale combustion. Quantitative removal of Orimulsion was achieved in all cases, but in some burns it was necessary to re-ignite the Orimulsion. It was noted that when Orimulsion burns, some trapped water droplets in the bitumen explode with enough force to extinguish a small flame. This did not occur on large-scale burns. It was concluded that the potential for successful in-situ burning increases with size. It was determined that approximately 1 mm in thickness of diesel fuel is needed to ignite a burn. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Assessment of biomass burning emissions and their impacts on urban and regional PM2.5: a Georgia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Di; Hu, Yongtao; Wang, Yuhang; Boylan, James W; Zheng, Mei; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-01-15

    Biomass burning is a major and growing contributor to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Such impacts (especially individual impacts from each burning source) are quantified using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model, a chemical transport model (CTM). Given the sensitivity of CTM results to uncertain emission inputs, simulations were conducted using three biomass burning inventories. Shortcomings in the burning emissions were also evaluated by comparing simulations with observations and results from a receptor model. Model performance improved significantly with the updated emissions and speciation profiles based on recent measurements for biomass burning: mean fractional bias is reduced from 22% to 4% for elemental carbon and from 18% to 12% for organic matter; mean fractional error is reduced from 59% to 50% for elemental carbon and from 55% to 49% for organic matter. Quantified impacts of biomass burning on PM2.5 during January, March, May, and July 2002 are 3.0, 5.1, 0.8, and 0.3 microg m(-3) domainwide on average, with more than 80% of such impacts being from primary emissions. Impacts of prescribed burning dominate biomass burning impacts, contributing about 55% and 80% of PM2.5 in January and March, respectively, followed by land clearing and agriculture field burning. Significant impacts of wildfires in May and residential wood combustion in fireplaces and woodstoves in January are also found.

  6. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  7. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)

  8. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  9. Animal Models in Burn Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  10. Stem Cells in Burn Eschar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; Vlig, M.; van Milligen-Kummer, F.J.; de Vries, S.I.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares mesenchymal cells isolated from excised burn wound eschar with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal fibroblasts in their ability to conform to the requirements for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A population of multipotent stem cells in burn eschar could be an

  11. Carbon Transfers and Emissions Following Harvest and Pile Burning in Coastal Douglas-fir Forests Determined from Analysis of High-Resolution UAV Imagery and Point Clouds and from Field Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Gougeon, F.; Kelley, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Forest carbon (C) models require knowledge on C transfers due to intense disturbances such as fire, harvest, and slash burning. In such events, live trees die and C transferred to detritus or exported as round wood. With burning, live and detrital C is lost as emissions. Burning can be incomplete, leaving wood, charred and scattered or in unburnt rings and piles. For harvests, all round wood volume is routinely measured, while dispersed and piled residue volumes are typically assessed in field surveys, scaled to a block. Recently, geospatial methods have been used to determine, for an entire block, piled residues using LiDAR or image point clouds (PC) and dispersed residues by analysis of high-resolution imagery. Second-growth Douglas-fir forests on eastern Vancouver Island were examined, 4 blocks at Oyster River (OR) and 2 at Northwest Bay (NB). OR blocks were cut winter 2011, piled spring 2011, field survey, aerial RGB imagery and LiDAR PC acquired fall 2011, piles burned, burn residues surveyed, and post-burn aerial RGB imagery acquired 2012. NB blocks were cut fall 2014, piled spring 2015, field survey, UAV RGB imagery and image PC acquired summer 2015, piles burned and burn residues surveyed spring 2016, and post-burn UAV RGB imagery and PC acquired fall 2016. Volume to biomass conversion used survey species proportions and wood density. At OR, round wood was 261.7 SE 13.1, firewood 1.7 SE 0.3, and dispersed residue by survey, 13.8 SE 3.6 tonnes dry mass (t dm) ha-1. Piled residues were 8.2 SE 0.9 from pile surveys vs. 25.0 SE 5.9 t dm ha-1 from LiDAR PC bulk pile volumes and packing ratios. Post-burn, piles lost 5.8 SE 0.5 from survey of burn residues vs. 18.2 SE 4.7 t dm ha-1 from pile volume changes using 2011 LiDAR PC and 2012 imagery. The percentage of initial merchantable biomass exported as round & fire wood, remaining as dispersed & piled residue, and lost to burning was, respectively, 92.5%, 5.5% and 2% using only field methods vs. 87%, 7% and 6% from

  12. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  13. Chemical characterzation of fine particle emissions from the fireplace combustion of woods grown in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Philip M; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-04-01

    The fireplace combustion of wood is a significant and largely unregulated source of fine particle pollution in the United States. Source apportionment techniques that use particulate organic compounds as tracers have been successful in determining the contribution of wood smoke to ambient fine particle levels in specific areas in California. To apply these techniques to the rest of the United States, the differences in emissions profiles between different wood smoke sources and fuel types should be resolved. To this end, a series of fireplace source tests was conducted on six fuel wood species found in the Southern United States to determine fine particulate emission factors for total mass, ionic and elemental species, elemental and organic carbon, and over 250 individual organic compounds. The wood species tested, chosen for their high abundance and availability in the Southern U.S. region, were yellow poplar, white ash, sweetgum, mockernut hickory, loblolly pine, and slash pine. The differences in the emissions of compounds such as substituted phenols and resin acids help to distinguish between the smoke from hardwood and softwood combustion. Levoglucosan, a cellulose pyrolysis product which may serve as a tracer for wood smoke in general, was quantified in the emissions from all the wood species burned. The furofuran lignan, yangambin, which was emitted in significant quantities from yellow poplar combustion and not detected in any of the other North American wood smokes, is a potential species-specific molecular tracer which may be useful in qualitatively identifying particulate emissions from a specific geographical area where yellow poplar is being burned.

  14. Solar heating for a village; Ein Dorf heizt solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, Ina

    2013-07-05

    In Buesingen (administrative district of Konstanz) a solar thermal system with 1091 sqm collector area is put into operation. Together with two wood chip boilers they supply more than 100 private and municipal buildings with regenerative heat. [German] In Buesingen im Landkreis Konstanz ist eine solarthermische Anlage mit 1091 qm Kollektorflaeche in Betrieb gegangen. Zusammen mit zwei Hackschnitzelkesseln versorgt sie ueber 100 private und kommunale Gebaeude mit regenerativer Waerme.

  15. Burning mouth syndrome: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is characterized by an oral burning sensation in the absence of any organic disorders of the oral cavity. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and is characterized by an intense burning type of pain, preferably on the tongue and in other areas of the oral mucosa. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. This article provides an overview of the literature on this syndrome with special reference to the etiological factors, clinical aspects, diagnostic criteria that should be followed and the therapeutic management with reference to the most recent studies.

  16. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission using solar based power satellite technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M; Nasir, M Nauman

    2013-01-01

    In the near future due to extensive use of energy, limited supply of resources and the pollution in environment from present resources e.g. (wood, coal, fossil fuel) etc, alternative sources of energy and new ways to generate energy which are efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses are of great concern. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission (WET) has become a focal point as research point of view and nowadays lies at top 10 future hot burning technologies that are under research these days. In this paper, we present the concept of transmitting power wirelessly to reduce transmission and distribution losses. The wired distribution losses are 70 – 75% efficient. We cannot imagine the world without electric power which is efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses is of great concern. This paper tells us the benefits of using WET technology specially by using Solar based Power satellites (SBPS) and also focuses that how we make electric system cost effective, optimized and well organized. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  17. Fuel burning and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunan, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Emission of soot particles and other air pollution indoors constitutes a considerable health hazard for a major part of the population in many developing countries, one of them being China. In these countries problems relating to poverty are the most important risk factors, undernourishment being the dominating reason. Number four on the list of the most serious health hazards is indoor air pollution caused by burning of coal and biomass in the households. Very high levels of soot particles occur indoors because of incomplete combustion in old-fashioned stoves and by use of low quality fuel such as sticks and twigs and straw and other waste from agriculture. This leads to an increase in a series of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. It has been pointed out in recent years that emissions due to incomplete combustion of coal and biomass can contribute considerably to climate changes

  18. Pediatric burns: Kids' Inpatient Database vs the National Burn Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Tahereh; Evans, Tyler A; Sood, Rajiv; Hartman, Brett C; Hadad, Ivan; Tholpady, Sunil S

    2016-04-01

    Burn injuries are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and National Burn Repository (NBR) are two large national databases that can be used to evaluate outcomes and help quality improvement in burn care. Differences in the design of the KID and NBR could lead to differing results affecting resultant conclusions and quality improvement programs. This study was designed to validate the use of KID for burn epidemiologic studies, as an adjunct to the NBR. Using the KID (2003, 2006, and 2009), a total of 17,300 nonelective burn patients younger than 20 y old were identified. Data from 13,828 similar patients were collected from the NBR. Outcome variables were compared between the two databases. Comparisons revealed similar patient distribution by gender, race, and burn size. Inhalation injury was more common among the NBR patients and was associated with increased mortality. The rates of respiratory failure, wound infection, cellulitis, sepsis, and urinary tract infection were higher in the KID. Multiple regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders demonstrated similar mortality rate but significantly longer length of stay for patients in the NBR. Despite differences in the design and sampling of the KID and NBR, the overall demographic and mortality results are similar. The differences in complication rate and length of stay should be explored by further studies to clarify underlying causes. Investigations into these differences should also better inform strategies to improve burn prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomass fuel burning and its implications: deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, S N A; Rafique, M; Alaamer, A S

    2010-07-01

    Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO(2)-equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y(-1). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Liquefaction of aspen poplar wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, R L; Mathews, J F; Pepper, J M

    1982-01-01

    Dried and green aspen poplar wood suspended in water containing alkali catalysts was converted completely to an oil, water-soluble chemical, and gases by heating for 1 hour in the presence of CO in a rocking batch reactor. Within the ranges of parameters studied: temperature of 593-633 K; nominal reaction times of less than or equal to 1 hour; water-to-wood ratio of 0.5:1-5:1; Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and NaOH catalysts; amount of catalyst 7.0-12.5%; and initial H-CO ratios of 2:1-0:1, the water-to-wood ratio was most important. Oil yields of approximately 50% with a C plus H content of approximately 80% and representing a C recovery of approximately 66% were obtained. The higher heats of combustion were 32.2-36.0 MJ/kg.

  1. Thermopower of beech wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I. A.; Smirnov, B. I.; Orlova, T. S.; Sulkovski, Cz.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the thermopower S of high-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon with micron-sized sap pores aligned with the tree growth direction. The measurements have been performed in the temperature range 5-300 K. The samples have been fabricated by pyrolysis of beech wood in an argon flow at different carbonization temperatures ( T carb). The thermopower S has been measured both along and across the sap pores, thus offering a possibility of assessing its anisotropy. The curves S( T carb) have revealed a noticeable increase of S for T carb biocarbons, which suggests that for T carb ˜ 1000°C they undergo a phase transition of the insulator-(at T carb 1000°C) type. The existence of this transition is attested also by the character of the temperature dependences S( T) of beech wood biocarbon samples prepared at T carb above and below 1000°C.

  2. Energy poverty, shack fires and childhood burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Kimemia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a persisting challenge in South Africa. Energy poverty, prevalent in under-resourced communities, is a key contributor to the problem. The energy-poor rely on solid fuels and flammable hydrocarbons, such as paraffin, for energy services. The fuels are burnt in inefficient, leaky and unstable appliances, leading to health losses from pollutant emissions, burns, and conflagrations. Within cramped informal home settings, using flammable fuels and risky combustion technologies, the situation can become devastating, especially for young children. Those who survive fiery incidents have to contend with trauma and property losses that may lead to further impoverishment. Proactive intervention strategies are required and should include the broadening of access to safe and sustainable energy. We advocate greater enforcement of home appliance standards and targeted support for the distribution of proven alternative energy technologies, such as liquefied petroleum gas and solar power. Support and advocacy from professional and citizen groups would be necessary to ensure that government prioritises the safe energy requirements of poor citizens.

  3. Evaluating a Small Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) Designed Solar Kiln in Southwestern New Mexico - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Ted E.M. Bilek

    2012-01-01

    With increasing energy costs, using small dry kilns for drying lumber for small-volume value-added wood products has become more of an option when compared with conventional drying. Small solar kilns are one such option, and a number of solar kiln designs exist and are in use. However, questions remain about the design and operation of solar kilns, particularly during...

  4. Assessment of the wood waste resource and its position in the wood / wood-energy sector - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinard, Ludovic; Deroubaix, Gerard; Roux, Marie-Lise; Levet, Anne-Laure; Quint, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The first objective of this study is to obtain a better knowledge of the 'wood wastes' issue, to propose a photography of the wood waste sector (productions, trades, consumptions), and then to elaborate different prospective scenarios on the use of wood waste volumes while taking into account possible evolutions on the medium or short term of the regulation and market of the wood/wood energy sector. The considered wastes come from industrial production, from the use of wood-based products, and from the end of life of products potentially containing wood. The authors present bibliographical sources and the adopted methodology, briefly describe the 'wood waste' system with its actors, and then report their assessment of wood wastes. They propose a global assessment as well as detailed assessments with respect to waste origins: wood trade and distribution, industries, craft, households and communities, building sector, public and private tertiary sector, packaging. They also address the collection and management of wood wastes by public services, and present the different types of valorisation (panel fabrication, energy, and others). They discuss exports, and then present different scenarios: a trend-based scenario, and two prospective scenarios with a priority to energetic valorisation or to material valorisation of wood wastes. These scenarios are compared

  5. Wood Protection Research Council: Research Priorities 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A Clausen; Frederick Green III; Grant T. Kirker; Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes presentations and comments from the inaugural Wood Protection Research Council meeting. Research needs for the wood protection industry were identified and prioritized. Methods for successfully addressing research needs were discussed by industry, academia, and association representatives.

  6. Wood: a construction material for tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Wood has great potential as a building material, because it is strong and lightweight, environmentally friendly and can be used in prefabricated buildings. However, only changes in building codes will make wood competitive with steel and concrete.

  7. Three Construction Projects with Wood Scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elizabeth

    1977-01-01

    Wood, a natural material, appeals to children of all ages. Wood construction allows children the flexibility of moving parts of their work around until they are satisfied with the arrangement. Three projects are described. (Author/RK)

  8. Photodegradation of wood and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Photochemical degradation is a key process of the weathering that occurs when wood is exposed outdoors. It is also a major cause of the discoloration of wood in indoor applications. The effects of sunlight on the chemical composition of wood are superficial in nature, but estimates of the depth at which photodegradation occurs in wood vary greatly from 80 microm to as much as 2540 mic rom. Better understanding of the photodegradation of wood through depth profile analysis is desirable because it would allow the development of more effective photo-protective treatments that target the surface layers of wood most susceptible to photodegradation. This paper briefly describes fundamental aspects of photodegradation of wood and reviews progress made in the field of depth profile study on the photodegradation of wood. (author)

  9. Ergonomics and safety in secondary wood processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado Gazo; James D. McGlothlin; Yuehwern, Wiedenbeck, Jan Yih; Yuehwern Yih

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to initiate a pilot program in ergonomics for the secondary wood products industry. Case studies were conducted at three Midwest secondary wood product companies in 2000 and 2001.

  10. Fireplace and woodstove fine particle emissions from combustion of western Mediterranean wood types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia; Gonçalves, Cátia; Fernandes, Ana Patrícia; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2011-08-01

    Wood from seven species of trees grown in the Portuguese forest ( Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia), and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste were burned in a fireplace and in a woodstove to determine the chemical composition of fine particle (PM 2.5) emissions. Samples were analysed for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), water soluble ions (Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42-) and 67 elements. The PM 2.5 emission factors (g kg - 1 fuel burned, dry basis) were in the ranges 9.9-20.2 and 4.2-16.3, respectively, for the fireplace and the woodstove. Organic carbon contributed to about 50% of the fine particle mass in the emissions from every wood species studied in both burning appliances. The carbonaceous component of PM 2.5 was dominated by organic carbon, accounting for more than 85% of the total carbon (TC): OC/TC ranged from 0.85 to 0.96 (avg. 0.92) for the fireplace and from 0.86 to 0.97 (avg. 0.93) for the woodstove. The water-soluble ions accounted for 0.64 to 11.3% of the PM 2.5 mass emitted from the fireplace, whereas mass fractions between 0.53 and 13.6% were obtained for the woodstove. The golden wattle wood smoke showed a much higher ionic content than the emissions from the other wood types. Trace elements represented 0.4 to 2.5% and 0.2 to 2.2% of the PM 2.5 mass emitted, respectively, from the fireplace and the woodstove, which corresponded to average total emissions of 132 ± 77.3 mg kg - 1 and 93.4 ± 60.8 mg kg - 1 of wood burned. Among these, K, Pb, Al, Mn and Sr were present in all samples. From the emission profiles of the individual experiments, composite wood combustion profiles are suggested with the aid of a cluster analysis.

  11. Forest industry wood fuel supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The potential for wood fired energy production in the UK is significant. Large scale developments are currently underway which could utilise over 100,000 green tonnes of forest residues. The fuel supply chain is likely to be complicated and there are perceived risks in its organisation and security. This report sets out to address some of these perceived risks and suggest suitable measures to reduce it. Six areas of the fuel supply chain have been studied, namely; Extraction, Comminution, Transport, Assessment and payment of wood fuel; Environmental impact; Nutrient recycling (ash disposal). (author)

  12. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  13. Wood fuelled boiler operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandars, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

  14. Preparation of coloured wood plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.T.; Filippova, T.G.; Rajchuk, F.Z.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made into the possibility of using fat, as well as alcohol- and water-soluble dyes for radiation-chemical dying of polymers and plastics filled with wood. The use of fat-soluble azo and anthraquinone dyes permits obtaining intensely colored wood-plastic materials based on methyl methacrylate by way of gamma radiation with doses of up to 3 Mrad. At a dose above 5 Mrad, a marked tarnishing of the dye or a change in color and stains are observed. Dyes in styrene withstand higher radiation doses without any significant destruction

  15. Wood pellets for stoker burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The author of this article has had a stoker for several years. Wood chips and sod peat has been used as fuels in the stoker, either separately or mixed. Last winter there occurred problems with the sod peat due to poor quality. Wood pellets, delivered by Vapo Oy were tested in the stoker. The price of the pellets seemed to be a little high 400 FIM/500 kg large sack. If the sack is returned in good condition 50 FIM deposit will be repaid to the customer. However, Vapo Oy informed that the calorific value of wood pellets is three times higher than that of sod peat so it should not be more expensive than sod peat. When testing the wood pellets in the stoker, the silo of the stoker was filled with wood pellets. The adjustments were first left to position used for sod peat. However, after the fire had ignited well, the adjustments had to be decreased. The content of the silo was combusted totally. The combustion of the content of the 400 litter silo took 4 days and 22 hours. Respectively combustion of 400 l silo of good quality sod peat took 2 days. The water temperature with wood pellets remained at 80 deg C, while with sod peat it dropped to 70 deg C. The main disadvantage of peat with small loads is the unhomogenous composition of the peat. The results of this test showed that wood pellets will give better efficiency than peat, especially when using small burner heads. The utilization of them is easier, and the amount of ash formed in combustion is significantly smaller than with peat. Wood pellets are always homogenous and dry if you do not spoil it with unproper storage. Pellets do not require large storages, the storage volume needed being less than a half of the volume needed for sod peat. When using large sacks the amount needed can even be transported at the trunk of a passenger car. Depending on the area to be heated, a large sack is sufficient for heating for 2-3 weeks. Filling of stoker every 2-5 day is not an enormous task

  16. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...

  17. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  18. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Jakub; Florek, Marek; Kwiatek, Wojciech; Lekki, Janusz; Chevallier, Pierre; Zieba, Emil; Mestres, Narcis; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Kuczumow, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, μ-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of μ-Raman and μ-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested

  19. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  20. Selected mechanical properties of modified beech wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Holan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis deals with an examination of mechanical properties of ammonia treated beach wood with a trademark Lignamon. For determination mechanical properties were used procedures especially based on ČSN. From the results is noticeable increased density of wood by 22% in comparison with untreated beach wood, which makes considerable increase of the most mechanical wood properties. Considering failure strength was raised by 32% and modulus of elasticity was raised at average about 46%.