WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar service hot

  1. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  2. Residential solar hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar energy to preheat domestic water coming from the city supply at a temperature of approximately 4{degree}C. Four solar collectors totalling 7 m{sup 2} were installed on a support structure facing south at an angle of 60{degree} from the horizontal. The system worked most efficiently in the spring and early summer when the combination of long hours of sunshine, clean air and clear skies allowed for maximum availability of solar radiation. Performance dropped in late summer and fall mainly due to cloudier weather conditions. The average temperature in the storage tank over the 10 months of operation was 42{degree}C, ranging from a high of 83{degree}C in July to a low of 6{degree}C in November. The system provided a total of 7.1 GJ, which is approximately one-third the annual requirement for domestic hot water heating. At the present time domestic use of solar energy to heat water does not appear to be economically viable. High capital costs are the main problem. As a solar system with present day technology can only be expected to meet half to two-thirds of the hot water energy demand the savings are not sufficient for the system to pay for itself within a few years. 5 figs.

  3. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  4. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  5. Solar Technician Program Blows Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Peg Moran

    1977-01-01

    A training program for solar heating technicians was initiated at Sonoma State College's School of Environmental Studies for CETA applicants. Among the projects designed and built were a solar alternative energy center, a solar hot water system, and a solar greenhouse. (MF)

  6. SOLCOST. Solar Hot Water Handbook. A Simplified Design Method for Sizing and Costing Residential and Commercial Solar Service Hot Water Systems. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet offers a preview of information services available from Solcost, a research and development project. The first section explains that Solcost calculates system and costs performance for solar heated and cooled new and retrofit constructions, such as residential buildings and single zone commercial buildings. For a typical analysis,…

  7. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  8. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  9. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-01-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building

  10. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  11. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  12. Possibilities of utilizing solar systems for heating the hot service water in Košice build-up areas KVP and Ťahanovce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A production of „HSW“ in block of flats areas by solar collectors means a real alternative to the traditional way of heating by fossil fuels (coal, gas. With this method, it’s possible to save ca. 50 % of energy from the net of the central service of the heat, what can reduce the production of pollutants in the locality, or it can enable to increase the quantity of customers without claims for the restructuralization of the central source. Because Slovakia is the producer of quality solar collectors it’s suitable to use them just for this reason, which could be projected into the price reduction of relatively expensive present systems. On the other side, when using the flat roofs on the block of flats, other useful places are hot occupied and the heating source is nearby the place of it sconsumption. In this case, a collaboration of the solar system and the Central Service of Heat is especially suitable in time with a shortage of the solar radiation.

  13. Design data brochure: Solar hot air heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The design, installation, performance, and application of a solar hot air heater for residential, commercial and industrial use is reported. The system has been installed at the Concho Indian School in El Reno, Oklahoma.

  14. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  15. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  16. BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.C. [BC Sustainable Energy Association, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Although solar hot water heating is an environmentally responsible technology that reduces fossil fuel consumption and helps mitigate global climate change, there are many barriers to its widespread use. Each year, domestic water heating contributes nearly 6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide towards Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. The installation of solar water heaters can eliminate up to 2 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per household. The BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project was launched in an effort to demonstrate that the technology has the potential to be widely used in homes and businesses across British Columbia. One of the main barriers to the widespread use of solar hot water heating is the initial cost of the system. Lack of public awareness and understanding of the technology are other barriers. However, other jurisdictions around the world have demonstrated that the use of renewables are the product of conscious policy decisions, including low-cost financing and other subsidies that have created demand for these technologies. To this end, the BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project will test the potential for the rapid acceleration of solar water heating in pilot communities where barriers are removed. The objective of the project is to install 100 solar water systems in homes and 25 in businesses and institutions in communities in British Columbia by July 2007. The project will explore the financial barriers to the installation of solar hot water systems and produce an action plan to reduce these barriers. In addition to leading by example, the project will help the solar energy marketplace, mitigate climate change and improve energy efficiency.

  17. Solar action: solar hot water in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Water, Adrie

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of solar hot water systems in the Netherlands, and reports on the Dutch Solar Domestic Hot Water System agreement signed in 1999 and set up to enhance the development of the market for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems and their application as a sustainable energy source. The Dutch Thermal Solar Energy Programme's objectives and goals, the subsidy schemes for thermal solar energy administered by Senter - an agency of the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MEA), and the project-based and individual approaches to boosting the sales of SDHW systems are examined. Large system sales, the targeting of consumers via a national campaign, and national publicity using the slogan 'Sustainable energy. Goes without saying' commissioned by the MEA are discussed along with the support shown by the Dutch power distribution companies for SDHW systems, marketing aspects, and the outlook for sales of SDHW systems

  18. Collective solar hot water: best practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutin, Philippe; Grouzard, Patrice; Coroller, Francoise

    2005-10-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a collection of good practices concerning the selection and installation of collective solar water heating systems in France. A first note presents the Garantie de Resultats solaires (GRS - Guarantee of Solar Results), a kind of certification that gives a long term guarantee of the annual solar energy produced quantity as a function of the hot water consumption. An overview of the collective solar market is given, followed by informations on the financial incentives for feasibility studies and installations, the technical design and optimization of a collective solar project, its economic assessment, etc. Numerous examples of collective of solar heating operations in collective buildings are presented, in various regions of France, in the east (Alsace), the center (Auvergne, Ile de France (Paris region)), and the south (Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrennes, PACA), giving technical data, financing, partnerships, etc

  19. Solar-powered hot-air system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  20. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  1. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  2. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  3. A novel solar hot plate for cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A; Osorio Jaramillo, Fidel A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UAEMex, Toluca, Edo. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, the use of firewood as combustible for cooking has contributed to deforestation and desertification of large zones. This is due to the lack of alternative combustibles for the poor inhabitants of the countryside and remote areas. In this paper, a new solar hot plate, intended for contributing to solve this problem, is presented. It can be used for cooking not only a great variety of prehispanic and traditional meals, like tortillas, fried meat and vegetables, but also hot cakes, bacon, eggs, steaks and fries. The hot plate solar cooker, called Tolocatzin, consists of a horizontal metallic plate, which is heated from both of its top and bottom surfaces by concentrated sun light from multicompound concentrator based on nonimaging optics, and built with nine ordinary plane glass-silvered, and two curved aluminum mirrors, so it can be manufactured easily in a small factory or at home. For an acceptance angle of 15 Celsius degrees, which allows the concentration of sun light without sun-tracking for about one hour, it can reach temperatures up to 240 Celsius degrees in a few minutes. This temperature is high enough for cooking almost all fried or grilled meals. The design was optimized using ray-trace procedures. The operational experience with early prototypes has shown that the Tolocatzin solar hot plate does an excellent cooking job and could really be massively used in sunny countries. [Spanish] En Mexico y otros paises en desarrollo, el uso de la madera como combustible para cocinar ha contribuido a la deforestacion y desertificacion de grandes zonas. Esto es debido a la falta de combustibles alternativos por parte de los habitantes pobres del campo y de areas remotas. En este articulo se presenta una nueva placa solar que tiene el proposito de contribuir a resolver este problema. Puede ser usada para cocinar no solamente una gran variedad de comidas prehispanicas y tradicionales, como tortillas, carne frita y verduras sino

  4. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  5. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  6. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Two prototype solar heating and hot water systems for use in single-family dwellings or commercial buildings were designed. Subsystems included are: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The systems are designed for Yosemite, California, and Pueblo, Colorado. The necessary information to evaluate the preliminary design for these solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Included are a proposed instrumentation plan, a training program, hazard analysis, preliminary design drawings, and other information about the design of the system.

  7. Experimental study of multipurpose solar hot box at Freiburg, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandwani, S.S. [Iowa State University, Ames (United States). International Inst. of Theoretical and Applied Physics; Steinhart, J.; Henning, H.M.; Rommel, M.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    With the aim to test an compare some properties of materials and common geometries that are used for designing solar cookers, water heaters, etc. we have made a solar hot box with two similar compartments. In the present study this hot box has been used for, (a) comparing the behavior of a metallic slab filled with a phase change material for short term heat storage, with a conventional absorbing sheet, (b) the use of a selectively coated, as compared to a normal black painted, cooking pot, and (c) for finding the overall heat loss coefficient and thermal capacity of the box. Experiments with the solar hot box will yield valuable information on solar systems that are to be constructed. Besides its use for research this multi-purpose device has been used both to pasteurize up to 14-16 l of water and for cooking. (author)

  8. Energy efficiency of a solar domestic hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Miroslaw

    2017-11-01

    The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system located on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology is the object of the research described in the current paper. The solar thermal system is composed of 35 flat plate collectors, 21 evacuated tube collectors and eight hot water tanks with the capacity of 1 m3 of each. Solar facility is equipped with hardware for automatic data collection. Additionally, the weather station located on the roof of the building provides measurements of basic parameters of ambient air and solar radiation. The main objective of Regional Operational Program was the assessment of the effectiveness of this solar energy technology in the climatic conditions of the north-eastern Poland. Energy efficiency of SDHW system was defined in this research as the ratio between the useful heat energy supplied to the domestic hot water system and solar energy incident on the surface of solar panels. Heat loss from water storage tanks, and from the pipe network to the surrounding air, as well as the electrical energy consumed by the pumps have been included in the calculations. The paper presents the detailed results and conclusions obtained from this energy analysis.

  9. Preliminary design package for solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, Val; Aspinwall, David B.

    1977-12-01

    The information necessary to evaluate the preliminary design of the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's (SEMCO) solar hot water system is presented. This package includes technical information, schematics, drawings and brochures. This system, being developed by SEMCO, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control, auxiliary energy, and Government-furnished site data acquisition. The two units being manufactured will be installed at Loxahatchee, Florida, and Macon, Georgia.

  10. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  11. Entrance Effects in Solar Hot Water Stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of water jets entering a solar storage tank is performed. CFD calculations of three inlet designs with different inlet flow rates were carried out to illustrate the varying behaviour of the thermal conditions in a solar store. The results showed the impact ...... in an analysis using the first and second law of thermodynamics. The results showed how the entropy changes and the exergy changes in the storage during the draw-offs influenced by the Richardson number, the volume draw-off and the initial tank conditions....

  12. Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is described. The systems consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy.

  13. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 281 Solar Hot Water Application Assessment for U.S. Army IMCOM-Southeast Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Chvala, William D.

    2010-09-30

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires installations (EISA) to install solar systems of sufficient capacity to provide 30% of service hot water in new construction and renovations where cost-effective. However, installations are struggling with how to implement solar hot water, and while several installations are installing solar hot water on a limited basis, paybacks remain long. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to address this issue to help determine how best to implement solar hot water projects. This documents discusses the results of that project.

  14. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of a multi-family solar heating and domestic hot water prototype system is presented. The report contains the necessary information to evaluate the system. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control and Government-furnished site data acquisition.

  15. Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a solar collector is used to heat water for domestic use. The working fluid is moved by natural convection so no pumps are required. Experimental apparatus is simple in design and operation so that data can be collected quickly and easily. (Author/JN)

  16. SolarSoft Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, S.; Hurlburt, N.

    2005-12-01

    The SolarSoft system (SSW) is a set of integrated software libraries, databases, and system utilities which provide a common programming and data analysis environment for solar physics. The system includes contributions from a large community base, representing the efforts of many NASA PI team MO&DA teams,spanning many years and multiple NASA and international orbital and ground based missions. The SSW general use libraries include Many hundreds of utilities which are instrument and mission independent. A large subset are also SOLAR independent, such as time conversions, digital detector cleanup, time series analysis, mathematics, image display, WWW server communications and the like. PI teams may draw on these general purpose libraries for analysis and application development while concentrating efforts on instrument specific calibration issues rather than reinvention of general use software. By the same token, PI teams are encouraged to contribute new applications or enhancements to existing utilities which may have more general interest. Recent areas of intense evolution include space weather applications, automated distributed data access and analysis, interfaces with the ongoing Virtual Solar Observatory efforts, and externalization of SolarSoft power through Web Services. We will discuss the current status of SSW web services and demonstrate how this facilitates accessing the underlying power of SolarSoft in more abstract terms. In this context, we will describe the use of SSW services within the Collaborative Sun Earth Connector environment.

  17. Solar wind flows associated with hot heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-05-01

    Solar wind heavy ion spectra measured with the Vela instrumentation have been studied with the goal of determining the solar origins of various solar wind structures which contain anomalously high ionization states. Since the ionization states freeze-in close to the sun they are good indicators of the plasma conditions in the low and intermediate corona. Heavy ion spectra from three different periods throughout the solar cycle have been analyzed. These data are consistent with freezing-in temperatures ranging from approx. 1.5 x 10 6 K to higher than 9 x 10 6 . The spectra indicating hot coronal conditions occur in roughly 1/7 of all measurements and almost exclusively in postshock flows (PSFs), nonshock related helium abundance enhancements (HAEs), or noncompressive density enhancements (NCDEs). The PSFs and HAEs are both probably interplanetary manifestations of solar flares. The observation of several flare-related HAEs which were not preceded by an interplanetary shock suggests that the flare-heated plasma can evolve into the solar wind without producing a noticeable shock at 1 AU. The NCDEs with hot heavy ions differ from the PSF-HAEs in several ways implying that they evolve from events or places with lower temperatures and less energy than those associated with the flares, but with higher temperatures and densities than the quiet corona. Active regions, coronal mass ejections, and equatorial streamers are possible sources for the NCDEs with spectra indicating hot coronal conditions. These events owe their enhanced densities to coronal processes as opposed to interplanetary dynamical processes. Models of the solar wind expansion demonstrate how some NCDEs can have extreme, nonequilibrium ionization distributions

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating on cooling system is described which is designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1,596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glyco water solution through the collectors into a hot water system exchanger. The water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2,300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described.

  19. Solar Hot Water System Matter in Turkey (Mersin Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan ŞEREFHANOĞLU SÖZEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When the effects of sustainability on the construction sector have been taken into consideration, solar active systems on buildings emerge as an important design issue in the context of renewal energy usage. Solar hot water systems such as those widely used in Turkey are inefficient and have a negative effect on a building’s aesthetic and the urban view in general because of the poor quality of installation. Natural circulated open loop systems are commonly used, particularly in the south of Turkey, as they are highly economical and require no regulation to install. Solar hot water systems tend to be clustered together on the roofs, causing visual pollution, and this situation arises largely because are not considered part of the architectural design. It is therefore important to consider the negative effects of such systems in the form of treatment studies. This study aims to determine the positive effects that will be gained by the renovation of solar hot water systems in Mersin, a city in the southern region of Turkey.

  20. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  1. Drying hot red pepper using solar tunnel drier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.A; Bala, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    A solar tunnel drier was used to dry red hot pepper under the tropical weather conditions of Bangladesh in order to investigate its performance and the quality of the drier product. The drier comprises a plastic sheet-covered flat plate collector and a drying tunnel. The drier is arranged to supply hot air to the drying tunnel using two small fans powered by a 40 watt PV module. Fresh red pepper was water blanched before drying. In each drying batch in the solar tunnel drier, 20 kg of dried red pepper with 4 to 6% moisture content (wb) was obtained from 80 kg of fresh red pepper with initial moisture content of 73 to 75% (wb) in 20 to 22 hours of drying while it took 32 to 34 hours to bring down the moisture content of similar sample to 8 to 10% (wb) in sun drying methods. The pepper dried in the solar tunnel drier was completely protected from dust, dirt, rain, insects, birds, rodents and microorganisms and it was a quality-dried product in term of colour and pungency. The solar tunnel drier is recommended for drying of pepper as well as vegetables and fruits in developing countries especially in Bangladesh

  2. Economics of residential solar hot water heating systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmula, Ahmed Mohamed Omer; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Haj Othman, Mohd Yosof

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia has favorable climatic conditions for the development of solar energy due to the abundant sunshine and is considered good for harnessing energy from the sun. This is because solar hot water can represent the large energy consumer in Malaysian households but, because of the high initial cost of Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHSs) and easily to install and relatively inexpensive to purchase electric water heaters, many Malyaysian families are still using Electric Water Heaters to hot their water needs. This paper is presented the comparing of techno-economic feasibility of some models of SWHS from Malaysian's market with the Electric Water Heaters )EWH) by study the annual cost of operation for both systems. The result shows that the annual cost of the electrical water heater becomes greater than than the annual cost of the SWHS for all models in long-team run so it is advantageous for the family to use the solar water heater, at least after 4 years. In addition with installation SWHS the families can get long-term economical benefits, environment friendly and also can doing its part to reduce this country's dependence on foreign oil that is price increase day after day.(Author)

  3. Solar hot-water generation and heating - Kombi-Kompakt+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, M.; Vogelsanger, P.

    2005-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes new testing facilities at the Institute for Solar Technology in Rapperswil, Switzerland, that allow the testing of solar systems the whole year through. The systems tested feature the combined generation of heat for hot water storage vessels and heat for space heating. The test method used, the Concise Cycle Test (CCT) is described. The results of tests made on a large number of systems demonstrate that it is especially important to have a test system that allows the solar market to be protected from unsatisfactory systems. Good co-operation with manufactures is noted. As the test method includes tests with secondary energy sources such as oil or gas, certain problems in this area were discovered and corrected. Further tests are to be made with systems using biomass as a secondary source of heat

  4. Domestic hot water and solar energy in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, F; Asare, B; Haslett, J

    1977-01-01

    Two systems are discussed which involve the use of solar energy to supply domestic hot-water requirements and their usefulness in Ireland is examined. The systems are evaluated for thermal performance and cost-effectiveness by the use of a computer simulation model of a system involving a typical commercially available solar panel. It is shown that such systems may be economically justified when compared with electricity, but only if the water supply is directly heated by solar panels and only if the installed cost of such panels is low. Further, it appears that the system performance is relatively insensitive to the panel orientation and consequently that retro-fit installations on existing houses are unlikely to cause difficulties.

  5. Solar hot water systems application to the solar building test facility and the Tech House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, R. L.; Jensen, R. N.; Basford, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Projects which relate to the current national thrust toward demonstrating applied solar energy are discussed. The first project has as its primary objective the application of a system comprised of a flat plate collector field, an absorption air conditioning system, and a hot water heating system to satisfy most of the annual cooling and heating requirements of a large commercial office building. The other project addresses the application of solar collector technology to the heating and hot water requirements of a domestic residence. In this case, however, the solar system represents only one of several important technology items, the primary objective for the project being the application of space technology to the American home.

  6. Numerical Simulation of a Solar Domestic Hot Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongibello, L; Graditi, G; Bianco, N; Di Somma, M; Naso, V

    2014-01-01

    An innovative transient numerical model is presented for the simulation of a solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The solar collectors have been simulated by using a zerodimensional analytical model. The temperature distributions in the heat transfer fluid and in the water inside the tank have been evaluated by one-dimensional models. The reversion elimination algorithm has been used to include the effects of natural convection among the water layers at different heights in the tank on the thermal stratification. A finite difference implicit scheme has been implemented to solve the energy conservation equation in the coil heat exchanger, and the energy conservation equation in the tank has been solved by using the finite difference Euler implicit scheme. Energy conservation equations for the solar DHW components models have been coupled by means of a home-made implicit algorithm. Results of the simulation performed using as input data the experimental values of the ambient temperature and the solar irradiance in a summer day are presented and discussed

  7. Numerical Simulation of a Solar Domestic Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongibello, L.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Naso, V.

    2014-11-01

    An innovative transient numerical model is presented for the simulation of a solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The solar collectors have been simulated by using a zerodimensional analytical model. The temperature distributions in the heat transfer fluid and in the water inside the tank have been evaluated by one-dimensional models. The reversion elimination algorithm has been used to include the effects of natural convection among the water layers at different heights in the tank on the thermal stratification. A finite difference implicit scheme has been implemented to solve the energy conservation equation in the coil heat exchanger, and the energy conservation equation in the tank has been solved by using the finite difference Euler implicit scheme. Energy conservation equations for the solar DHW components models have been coupled by means of a home-made implicit algorithm. Results of the simulation performed using as input data the experimental values of the ambient temperature and the solar irradiance in a summer day are presented and discussed.

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

  9. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  10. Solar heating systems for heating and hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnaith, G; Dittrich, K

    1980-07-01

    Deutsche Bundesbahn has shown an interest in solar heating systems, too. The items discussed include the useful radiation energy, design features of collectors, heat carrier media, safeguards and profitability studies. The system installed by Deutsche Bundesbahn in the social services building of the Munich-Laim railway workshop is described. In conclusion, the test results of the first few months of service are given. In order to obtain unambiguous results, it appears indispensable to arrange for an additional total trial period of not less than two years and to conduct tests also on further systems presently under construction.

  11. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2012-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  12. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, Kyaw; Bhatia, Hitasha Kaur; Bhatia, Charanjit Singh; Ng, K. C.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  13. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. The authors find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i layer while it is being cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. They present data concerning these surface treatments, and correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. The authors also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell efficiency data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer was added to complete the partial devices. No light trapping layer was used to increase the device Jsc. Their preliminary investigations have yielded efficiencies of up to 6.8% for a cell with a 4000 {Angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10% after a 900 hour light soak. The authors suggest avenues for further improvement of their devices.

  14. Anomalous energy transport in hot plasmas: solar corona and Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaufume, P.

    1992-04-01

    Anomalous energy transport is studied in two hot plasmas and appears to be associated with a heating of the solar corona and with a plasma deconfining process in tokamaks. The magnetic structure is shown to play a fundamental role in this phenomenon through small scale instabilities which are modelized by means of a nonlinear dynamical system: the Beasts' Model. Four behavior classes are found for this system, which are automatically classified in the parameter space thanks to a neural network. We use a compilation of experimental results relative to the solar corona to discuss current-based heating processes. We find that a simple Joule effect cannot provide the required heating rates, and therefore propose a dimensional model involving a resistive reconnective instability which leads to an efficient and discontinuous heating mechanism. Results are in good agreement with the observations. We give an analytical expression for a diffusion coefficient in tokamaks when magnetic turbulence is perturbing the topology, which we validate thanks to the standard mapping. A realistic version of the Beasts' Model allows to test a candidate to anomalous transport: the thermal filamentation instability

  15. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO)

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  16. Reversible electron–hole separation in a hot carrier solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpert, S; Bremner, S; Linke, H

    2015-01-01

    Hot-carrier solar cells are envisioned to utilize energy filtering to extract power from photogenerated electron–hole pairs before they thermalize with the lattice, and thus potentially offer higher power conversion efficiency compared to conventional, single absorber solar cells. The efficiency of hot-carrier solar cells can be expected to strongly depend on the details of the energy filtering process, a relationship which to date has not been satisfactorily explored. Here, we establish the conditions under which electron–hole separation in hot-carrier solar cells can occur reversibly, that is, at maximum energy conversion efficiency. We thus focus our analysis on the internal operation of the hot-carrier solar cell itself, and in this work do not consider the photon-mediated coupling to the Sun. After deriving an expression for the voltage of a hot-carrier solar cell valid under conditions of both reversible and irreversible electrical operation, we identify separate contributions to the voltage from the thermoelectric effect and the photovoltaic effect. We find that, under specific conditions, the energy conversion efficiency of a hot-carrier solar cell can exceed the Carnot limit set by the intra-device temperature gradient alone, due to the additional contribution of the quasi-Fermi level splitting in the absorber. We also establish that the open-circuit voltage of a hot-carrier solar cell is not limited by the band gap of the absorber, due to the additional thermoelectric contribution to the voltage. Additionally, we find that a hot-carrier solar cell can be operated in reverse as a thermally driven solid-state light emitter. Our results help explore the fundamental limitations of hot-carrier solar cells, and provide a first step towards providing experimentalists with a guide to the optimal configuration of devices. (paper)

  17. Combined Active and Passive Solar Space Heating and Solar Hot Water Systems for an Elementary School in Boise, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, Neil A.; Armstrong, Gerald L.

    1979-01-01

    Amity Elementary School in Boise, Idaho, features a solar space heating and domestic hot water system along with an earth covering to accommodate the passive aspects of energy conservation. (Author/MLF)

  18. Economic efficiency of solar hot water policy in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillingham, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand has recently followed the path of several other countries in promoting solar hot water (SHW) systems in the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet the economic efficiency of large-scale policies to encourage SHW remains a pressing question for policymakers. This paper develops an economic framework to examine policies to promote SHW in New Zealand, including the current information, training, and subsidy policy. The economic framework points to environmental, energy security, and average-cost electricity retail pricing market failures as motivation for SHW policy, with the global climate change externality the most important of these. The results indicate that domestic SHW systems are close to being financially attractive from a consumer perspective, but a more substantial subsidy policy would be necessary for SHW to appeal to a wider audience. Such a policy is far more likely to have positive net benefits than a policy of mandating SHW on all homes or all new homes in New Zealand, and could be justified on economic efficiency grounds under reasonable assumptions. However, this result reverses under an economy-wide carbon trading system that internalizes the environmental externality.

  19. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  20. Economical judge possibility uses solar collectors to warm service water and heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The sun-heated water has been used from before fossil fuels started to determine the direction of our power consumption. This article is focused on the assessing of the use of solar energy as one of inexhaustible resources that has multiple uses, including hot water service systems. Heating is rendered through solar collectors that permit to transform solar energy to warm water. We divide solar collectors into various groups but in principle they are medium temperature collectors and low temperature collectors. The work is directed also on the solar collector market. In our case the market is just at its initial stage as this technology is little known and costs of collectors are rather high, compared to our conditions, on average, they may grow up to 100,000 Slovac crowns per a family house. Because it is the only investment and the costs of operation are minimum throughout the entire collectors lifetime, from the economic point of view, it is a rather advantageous investment. Solar collectors are used in heating and also in hot service water systems in family houses, where they permit to lower costs for the consumption of many kinds of energies. In the hot service water system, solar collectors permit to lower the consumption by almost 70 %. This way of using the solar energy is very prospective and in future it will be used in various sectors

  1. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  2. Single-nanowire, low-bandgap hot carrier solar cells with tunable open-circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, Steven; Burke, Adam; Chen, I.-Ju; Anttu, Nicklas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Fahlvik, Sofia; Bremner, Stephen; Conibeer, Gavin; Thelander, Claes; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Linke, Heiner

    2017-10-01

    Compared to traditional pn-junction photovoltaics, hot carrier solar cells offer potentially higher efficiency by extracting work from the kinetic energy of photogenerated ‘hot carriers’ before they cool to the lattice temperature. Hot carrier solar cells have been demonstrated in high-bandgap ferroelectric insulators and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, but so far not in low-bandgap materials, where the potential efficiency gain is highest. Recently, a high open-circuit voltage was demonstrated in an illuminated wurtzite InAs nanowire with a low bandgap of 0.39 eV, and was interpreted in terms of a photothermoelectric effect. Here, we point out that this device is a hot carrier solar cell and discuss its performance in those terms. In the demonstrated devices, InP heterostructures are used as energy filters in order to thermoelectrically harvest the energy of hot electrons photogenerated in InAs absorber segments. The obtained photovoltage depends on the heterostructure design of the energy filter and is therefore tunable. By using a high-resistance, thermionic barrier, an open-circuit voltage is obtained that is in excess of the Shockley-Queisser limit. These results provide generalizable insight into how to realize high voltage hot carrier solar cells in low-bandgap materials, and therefore are a step towards the demonstration of higher efficiency hot carrier solar cells.

  3. Motel solar-hot-water system with nonpressurized storage--Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Modular roof-mounted copper-plated arrays collect solar energy; heated water drains from them into 1,000 gallon nonpressurized storage tank which supplies energy to existing pressurized motel hot water lines. System provides 65 percent of hot water demand. Report described systems parts and operation, maintenance, and performance and provides warranty information.

  4. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

  5. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas is discussed. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  6. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  7. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  8. Solar Energy for Domestic Hot Water: Case Studies in Sisimiut 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2005-01-01

    Two pioneer solar domestic hot water systems were installed at Bygge- og Anlægsskolen in Sisimiut in 1999 and 2000. Detailed measurements of energy flows and solar radiation incl. snow reflectance has been undertaken for both plants. Since August 2004 data logging of the measurements was made...... available online on the website www.arcticsolar.com. Measurements show that solar plant 1 and 2 cover 22% and 23%, respectively, of the energy spent for domestic hot water heating. This paper summarises the findings from the past 5 years....

  9. Quantitative experimental assessment of hot carrier-enhanced solar cells at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Lombez, Laurent; Gibelli, François; Boyer-Richard, Soline; Le Corre, Alain; Durand, Olivier; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2018-03-01

    In common photovoltaic devices, the part of the incident energy above the absorption threshold quickly ends up as heat, which limits their maximum achievable efficiency to far below the thermodynamic limit for solar energy conversion. Conversely, the conversion of the excess kinetic energy of the photogenerated carriers into additional free energy would be sufficient to approach the thermodynamic limit. This is the principle of hot carrier devices. Unfortunately, such device operation in conditions relevant for utilization has never been evidenced. Here, we show that the quantitative thermodynamic study of the hot carrier population, with luminance measurements, allows us to discuss the hot carrier contribution to the solar cell performance. We demonstrate that the voltage and current can be enhanced in a semiconductor heterostructure due to the presence of the hot carrier population in a single InGaAsP quantum well at room temperature. These experimental results substantiate the potential of increasing photovoltaic performances in the hot carrier regime.

  10. Solar Drying in Hot and Dry Climate of Jaipur

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, Darshit; Agrawal, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the present study was to design, develop and to carry out detail experimentation and then analyze solar cabinet dryer. For these various types of solar dryer, their principles and design methods, modeling, drying temperature, efficiency, utilization of dryer and payback period were reviewed. In the present study, solar cabinet dryer is constructed at Mechanical Engineering Department, M.N.I.T, Jaipur, latitude (26.01° N). The measurement of solar intensity, temperatures, relative...

  11. Identification and assessment of environmental benefits from solar hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralambopoulos, D.; Spilanis, I.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental benefits associated with the utilization of solar energy for hot water production are estimated in this work. The case of a particular country, Greece, and its electricity production system is employed to show the direct consequences of substituting electricity with solar energy for hot water production. The amount of conventional fuel saved, i.e. lignite and oil, is estimated, and the reduction in air pollution is calculated. This allows the calculation of reduction emission factors for solar hot water production to be undertaken. Data, with respect to the materials and the amount of energy necessary for the construction of the solar heaters, are also presented. These can serve as inputs to an energy-environment policy framework in order to lead to reduction of air pollutants like SO 2 , NO X and particulates, and the release of the greenhouse gas CO 2 into the atmosphere. (Author)

  12. Thermal solar energy. Collective domestic hot water installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Cedric; Chauvet, Chrystele; Fourrier, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic outlook on the way to complete the installation of a collective domestic water solar heating system. After some recall of what is solar energy, the thermal solar technology and the energy savings it may induce, this document presents the main hydraulic configurations of a solar heating system with water storage, the dimensioning of a solar water heating system and its cost estimation, the installation and the commissioning of the system, the monitoring and maintenance operations

  13. Getting into hot water Problematizing hot water service demand: The case of Old Cairo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, Thomas Henry

    This dissertation analyzes hot water demand and service infrastructure in two neighboring but culturally distinct communities of the urban poor in the inner-city area of central Cairo. The communities are the Historic Islamic Cairo neighborhood of Darb Al Ahmar at the foot of Al-Azhar park, and the Zurayib neighborhood of Manshiyat Nasser where the Coptic Zabaleen Recyclers live. The study focuses on the demand side of the hot water issue and involves consideration of built-environment infrastructures providing piped water, electricity, bottled gas, sewage, and the support structures (wiring and plumbing) for consumer durables (appliances such as hot water heaters, stoves, refrigerators, air conditioners) as well as water pumps and water storage tanks. The study asks the questions "How do poor communities in Cairo value hot water" and "How do cost, infrastructure and cultural preferences affect which attributes of hot water service are most highly preferred?". To answer these questions household surveys based primarily on the World Bank LSMS modules were administered by professional survey teams from Darb Al Ahmar's Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the Zabaleen's local NGO "Spirit of Youth" in their adjacent conununities in and surrounding historic Cairo. In total 463 valid surveys were collected, (231 from Darb Al Ahmar, 232 from the Zabaleen). The surveys included a contingent valuation question to explore Willingness to Pay for improved hot water service; the surveys queried household assets as proxies for income. The dissertation's findings reveal that one quarter of the residents of Darb Al Ahmar and two-thirds of the residents of Manshiyet Nasser's Zabaleen lack conventional water heating service. Instead they employ various types of stoves and self-built contraptions to heat water, usually incurring considerable risk and opportunity costs. However the thesis explores the notion that this is rational "satisficing" behavior; despite the shortcomings of such self

  14. Advantages using inlet stratification devices in solar domestic hot water storage tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Bava, Federico

    2017-01-01

    performances of two solar domestic hot water systems are presented. One system is a traditional high flow system with a heat exchanger spiral in the tank. The other system is a low flow system with an external heat exchanger and a newly developed inlet stratifier from EyeCular Technologies ApS installed......The thermal performance of a domestic hot water system is strongly affected by whether the storage tank is stratified or not. Thermal stratification can be built up in a solar storage tank if the heated water from the solar collectors enters the tank through an inlet stratifier.Measured thermal...... with the stratification device has a higher thermal performance compared to the system with the heat exchanger spiral inside the tank.The relative performance (defined as the ratio between the net utilized solar energy of the low flow system and the net utilized solar energy of the high flow system), is a function...

  15. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  16. Development of domestic hot water systems in Costa Rica from solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizana-Moreno, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    A software tool is developed to implement the solar domestic hot water systems (DHW) in Costa Rica and to replace the electric water heating equipment. A database with information from the solar radiation is elaborated for different locations in Costa Rica. A manual of design DHW solar systems is realized for the country. An DHW solar system is designed for the type of average building the of country. A software is implemented to calculate the parameters and dimensions necessary for the solar installation of DHW, using the F-Chart method; in addition, the information of the mentioned database is included. A financial analysis is elaborated of the DHW solar systems in Costa Rica. The strategies are proposed for the implementation of DHW solar systems in Costa Rica [es

  17. Evaluation of the service quality of solar water-heaters; Evaluation de la qualite de service des chauffe-eau solaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscarlet, C.; Filloux, A.

    1998-12-31

    This small booklet is the result of research studies carried out for the evaluation of solar water-heater performances, including service quality. Service quality is evaluated according to the capacity of production of `useful` hot water (hot water above a given temperature) and to the influence of the daily profile of drawing up on the performances of the water-heater. Procedures have been developed that allow to determine these indicators without the need of supplementary tests. A suggestion of information file for solar water-heaters without auxiliary heating is proposed which presents for each type of apparatus a synthetic information about its performances and service quality. (J.S.)

  18. Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

  19. Analysis of systems for hot water supply with solar energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlateva, M.

    2001-01-01

    The results from the analysis of the hot water consumption of a group of hotels in the Black See resort Albena are presented. Structural schemes of hot water solar systems with flat plate collectors have been synthesized. By the synthesis have been analyzed the type of the consumers, the operating period, the existing heating plants, the auxiliary energy source - electricity. The change of the solar fraction by different performance of the system have been investigated. A comparative analysis of the alternative solutions has been fulfilled. The most advantageous solution has been chosen on the basis of the evaluation of the pay-back period, the life cycle savings and the benefit-cost ratio. The effect of the changing economic characteristics on the economic efficiency have been investigated. The risk for the investments has been examined. It had been proved that for the conditions in Bulgarian Black See region the use of solar energy for hot water producing is economic reasonable. (author)

  20. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  1. Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin

    1999-01-01

    This study focus on the analysis, modeling and simulation of solar domestic hot water(DHW) systems. Problems related to the system operation such as input weather data and hot water load conditions are also investigated.In order to investigate the heat loss as part of the total heat load, dynamic...... model of distribution network is developed and simulations are carried out for typical designed circulation type of distribution networks. For dynamic simulation of thermosyphon and drain-back solar DHW systems, thermosyphon loop model and drain-back tank model are put forward. Based on the simulations...

  2. Energy behavior of solar hot water systems under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Lombá, Osmanys; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Hernández, Massipe J. Raúl; Cueva Gonzales, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations in TRNSYS v14 the influence of the solar absorption area of a system for heating water with solar energy, composed by a flat solar collector and a tank thermo-accumulator, on its energy efficiency. For the study, the solar collectors EDWARDS, ISOFOTÓN 1, ISOFOTÓN 2, MADE, ROLDAN and IBERSOLAR of absorption area 2, 1,9, 1,88, 2, 1,9 and 2,3 m2 respectively were chosen. For each collector, the energy performance was simulated for one year, setting 200 L for the accumulation volume and 50 °C for the intake temperature. Despite the different characteristics of each collector, their behavior is quite similar showing a very mature technology. (author)

  3. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  4. Study of emission process in hot, optically thin plasma: application to solar active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenman-Clark, Lois.

    1983-06-01

    Analysis of soft X-ray got in hot and weak density plasmas, such as those in TOKAMAKS and in solar flares, needs a detailed knowledge of emission processes. In this work are presented spectroscopic diagnostics which can be deduced from such spectra analysis and results are applied to magnesium solar spectrum analysis. An important improvement is brought to collisional calculation corresponding to forbidden line populating. For this line, The relative importance of autoionizing states effect, called also resonance effect is studied [fr

  5. Prototype Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (A collation of Quarterly Reports)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This report is a collection of quarterly reports from Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company (SEMCO) covering the period from November 1976 through September 1977. SEMCO, under NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-32248, is developing two prototype solar domestic hot water systems consisting of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy. These two systems are being installed at sites in Loxahatchee, Florida (OTS-27) and Macon, Georgia (OTS-28).

  6. Thermal performance assessment and improvement of a solar domestic hot water tank with PCM in the mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Furbo, Simon; Kong, Weiqiang

    2018-01-01

    To develop an appropriate solar DHW (Domestic Hot Water) tank for residential dwellings and put it into the European solar thermal market for promotion, thermal performance tests of PCM (Phase Change Material) hot water storage tanks of both a prototype and an improved version with a water volume...

  7. Investigation af a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply with a high degree of coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility.......A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility....

  8. Performance of a solar dryer using hot air from roof-integrated solar collectors for drying herbs and spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Tung, P. [Silpakorn University, Pathom (Thailand). Dept. of Physics

    2005-11-01

    A solar dryer for drying herbs and spices using hot air from roof-integrated solar collectors was developed. The dryer is a bin type with a rectangular perforated floor. The bin has a dimension of 1.0 m x 2.0 m x 0.7 m. Hot air is supplied to the dryer from fiberglass-covered solar collectors, which also function as the roof of a farmhouse. The total area of the solar collectors is 72 m{sup 2}. To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry four batches of rosella flowers and three batches of lemon-grasses during the year 2002-2003. The dryer can be used to dry 200 kg of rosella flowers and lemon-grasses within 4 and 3 days, respectively. The products being dried in the dryer were completely protected from rains and insects and the dried products are of high quality. The solar air heater has an average daily efficiency of 35% and it performs well both as a solar collector and a roof of a farmhouse. (author)

  9. Analytical modeling of the temporal evolution of hot spot temperatures in silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, Sven; Rajsrima, Narong; Geisemeyer, Ino; Fertig, Fabian; Greulich, Johannes Michael; Rein, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    We present an approach to predict the equilibrium temperature of hot spots in crystalline silicon solar cells based on the analysis of their temporal evolution right after turning on a reverse bias. For this end, we derive an analytical expression for the time-dependent heat diffusion of a breakdown channel that is assumed to be cylindrical. We validate this by means of thermography imaging of hot spots right after turning on a reverse bias. The expression allows to be used to extract hot spot powers and radii from short-term measurements, targeting application in inline solar cell characterization. The extracted hot spot powers are validated at the hands of long-term dark lock-in thermography imaging. Using a look-up table of expected equilibrium temperatures determined by numerical and analytical simulations, we utilize the determined hot spot properties to predict the equilibrium temperatures of about 100 industrial aluminum back-surface field solar cells and achieve a high correlation coefficient of 0.86 and a mean absolute error of only 3.3 K.

  10. Verification test report on a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Information is provided on the development, qualification and acceptance verification of commercial solar heating and hot water systems and components. The verification includes the performances, the efficiences and the various methods used, such as similarity, analysis, inspection, test, etc., that are applicable to satisfying the verification requirements.

  11. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Alderson Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Data needed necessary to evaluate the design and operation of a solar energy heating and hot water system installed in a commercial application are presented. The information includes system descriptions, acceptance test data, schematics, as built drawing, problems encountered, all solutions and photographs of the system at various stages of completion.

  12. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation: a hot topic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernez, David; Backes, Claudine; Milon, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The Sun can be harmful to human health, about a certain threshold. More than occasional exposures, it is chronic exposures that are responsible for the majority of the UV-related skin cancers that affect numerous outdoor workers. Solar exposure should not merely be a public health issue, it should also be raised in the working world. (authors)

  13. Investigation and Construction of a Thermosyphoning Solar Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harvey

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a thermosyphoning solar water heater capable of heating 110 kilogram of water to 80 degree Celsius and maintaining this temperature for 24 hours was constructed by four students in the fifth form of Sekolah Date Abdul Razak, Seremban, Malaysia in 1976. (HM)

  14. Solar heating and hot water system installed at James Hurst Elementary School, Portsmouth, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Solar heating and a hot water system installed in an elementary school in Portsmouth, Virginia are examined. The building is zoned into four heating/cooling areas. Each area is equipped with an air handling unit that is monitored and controlled by central control and monitoring system. The solar system for the building uses a collector area of 3,630 sq. ft. of flat plate liquid collectors, and a 6,000 gallon storage tank. System descriptions, maintenance reports, detailed component specifications, and design drawings to evaluate this solar system are reported.

  15. Simulation Programs for Ph.D. Study of Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin

    1999-01-01

    The design of solar domestic hot water system is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. This report presents the detaile...... programs or units that were developed in the Ph.D study of " Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems"....

  16. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  17. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  18. System design package for SIMS Prototype System 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air type solar energy collection techniques. The system consists of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit containing solar collctors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with inforation sufficient to assemble a similar system. The prepackage solar unit has been installed at the Mississippi Power and Light Company, Training Facilities, Clinton, Mississippi.

  19. Solar Heating of Buildings and Domestic Hot Water. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    tracking mechanism and can collect only direct radiation. Figure 2-9(c) shows a compound parabolic mirror collector . The design of the mirrors allow the...linear-trough, fresnel lens tube collector (c compound parabolic mirror IFigurc 2-9. Cirnicntrating coll’ectors lr solar cncrgy. Direct radiation is...the parabolic trough, the linear-trough fresnel lens, and the compound parabolic mirror. -Figure 2-9(a) shows a linear concentrating or parabolic

  20. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

  1. Potential application of solar thermal systems for hot water production in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Yang Hongxing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation results of conventional solar water heater (SWH) systems and solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) systems for hot water production in Hong Kong. An economic comparison and global warming impact analysis are conducted among the two kinds of solar thermal systems and traditional water heating systems (i.e. electric water heaters and towngas water heaters). The economic comparison results show that solar thermal systems have greater economic benefits than traditional water heating systems. In addition, conventional SWH systems are comparable with the SAHP systems when solar fractions are above 50%. Besides, analysis on the sensitivity of the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) indicates that the towngas boosted SWH system has the greatest potential in greenhouse gas emission reduction with various solar collector areas and the electricity boosted SWH system has the comparative TEWI with the SAHP systems if its solar fraction is above 50%. As for SAHP systems, the solar assisted air source heat pump (SA-ASHP) system has the least global warming impact. Based on all investigation results, suggestions are given on the selection of solar thermal systems for applications in Hong Kong

  2. Methods of accounting the hot water consumption modes at the solar installations design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav O. Dubkovsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of the high-powered solar systems for hot water heating are considered. The purpose of work consists in development of methods for accounting the 24-hourly hot water consumption mode, determining the solar systems dynamic descriptions. The basic solar system schemes are analyzed with their shortages from the user satisfaction view point due to sun energy. For the dynamic parameters improvement the use of operative expense tank is examined such receptacle bearing built-in worm-pipe, through which all heat carrier from solar collectors passes before entering the fast heat exchanger which heats a tank-accumulator. The scientific novelty refers to the proof that this tank principal parameter is a not the volume, but the built-in exchanger capacity, determined by the solar collectors field total thermal power. As an ecological constituent of operating costs it is suggested to take into account cost paid for the emission of combustion products. As this method practical application example considered is the solar collectors capacity optimization for a communal enterprise.

  3. System design package for SIMS prototype system 3, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plat collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system. The SIMS Prototype Heating and Hot Water System, Model Number 3 has been installed in a residence at Glendo State Park, Glendo, Wyoming.

  4. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. [Hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-16

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system went into operation November 8, 1978 and is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are General Electric Company liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  5. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Municipal Building complex, Abbeville, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information on the solar energy system installed at the new municipal building for the City of Abbeville, SC is presented, including a description of solar energy system and buildings, lessons learned, and recommendations. The solar space heating system is a direct air heating system. The flat roof collector panel was sized to provide 75% of the heating requirement based on an average day in January. The collectors used are job-built with two layers of filon corrugated fiberglass FRP panels cross lapped make up the cover. The storage consists of a pit filled with washed 3/4 in - 1 1/2 in diameter crushed granite stone. The air handler includes the air handling mechanism, motorized dampers, air circulating blower, sensors, control relays and mode control unit. Solar heating of water is provided only those times when the hot air in the collector is exhausted to the outside.

  6. An experimental investigation with artificial sunlight of a solar hot-water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal performance measurements were made of a commercial solar hot water heater in a solar simulator to determine basic performance characteristics of a traditional type of flat plate collector, with and without side reflectors (to increase the solar flux). Information on each of the following was obtained; (1) the effect of flow and incidence angle on the efficiency of a flat plate collector (but only without side reflectors); (2) transient performance under flow and nonflow conditions; (3) the effectiveness of reflectors to increase collector efficiency for a zero radiation angle at fluid temperatures required for solar air conditioning; and (4) the limits of applicability of a collector efficiency correlation based on the Hottel Whillier equation.

  7. Long term performance of a solar floor and hot water heating house; Taiyonetsu yukadanbo kyuto jutaku no choki seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udagawa, M [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Outlined herein are measured energy consumption followed for 12 years for a totally electrified solar house with a floor-heating and hot-water heating system. In the solar system, hot water generated by the solar collector is sent, via a surge tank, to a living room, dining room and study to heat their concrete floors, and recycled back to the collector after heating the heat-storage tank for hot water supply. The collector is of plate type, consisting of 6 units, each with a white glass sheet as the heat-collecting membrane for selectively absorbing heat. Its total heat-collecting area is 11.4m{sup 2}. Long-term performance of the solar system installed for floor and hot-water heating in a totally electrified solar house, is analyzed by the measured results collected for 12 years. The house consumes secondary energy of 11.7MWh/year on the average, which is approximately 20% lower that that required for a house of the equivalent size. The solar system has been operated smoothly, to supply 46 and 35% of the required heat for hot-water and floor heating. It is however estimated that annual heat loss reaches 34% in the hot-water heating system, including that in the electric hot-water generator, and prevention of heat loss is one of the major themes for the future system designs. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Center-to-Limb Variability of Hot Coronal EUV Emissions During Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, E. M. B.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Eparvier, F. G.; Epp, L.

    2018-02-01

    It is generally accepted that densities of quiet-Sun and active region plasma are sufficiently low to justify the optically thin approximation, and this is commonly used in the analysis of line emissions from plasma in the solar corona. However, the densities of solar flare loops are substantially higher, compromising the optically thin approximation. This study begins with a radiative transfer model that uses typical solar flare densities and geometries to show that hot coronal emission lines are not generally optically thin. Furthermore, the model demonstrates that the observed line intensity should exhibit center-to-limb variability (CTLV), with flares observed near the limb being dimmer than those occurring near disk center. The model predictions are validated with an analysis of over 200 flares observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which uses six lines, with peak formation temperatures between 8.9 and 15.8 MK, to show that limb flares are systematically dimmer than disk-center flares. The data are then used to show that the electron column density along the line of sight typically increases by 1.76 × 10^{19} cm^{-2} for limb flares over the disk-center flare value. It is shown that the CTLV of hot coronal emissions reduces the amount of ionizing radiation propagating into the solar system, and it changes the relative intensities of lines and bands commonly used for spectral analysis.

  9. Imitation experiment for water-treatment by heat of solar collector and hot pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yuanzong; Liu Shuqing; Pang Heding; Zhao Zhongxin; Zhang Biguang; Wang Xiping; Huo Guangqing

    1997-01-01

    The author presents an imitation experiment in which solar collector and hot pump are jointed for supplying heat to evaporate cleaned water and diffuse it into air. The effects of the temperature and the quantity of supplying air, and circumstance conditions on evaporation quantity are studied. The ratio of evaporating quantity to consuming energy, the efficiency of evaporation, average efficiency of solar collector and supplying heat coefficient of heat pump are measured. The experiment shows that this supplying heat model is practicable, economic and efficient for treating cleaned water

  10. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  11. The Development of a Roof Integrated Solar Hot Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Infrastructure and DER Dept.; Moss, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solar Technologies Dept.; Palomino, G. Ernest [Salt River Project (SRP), Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The Salt River Project (SRP), in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Energy Laboratories, Inc. (ELI), collaborated to develop, test, and evaluate an advanced solar water-heating product for new homes. SRP and SNL collaborated under a Department of Energy Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), with ELI as SRP's industry partner. The project has resulted in the design and development of the Roof Integrated Thermal Siphon (RITH) system, an innovative product that features complete roof integration, a storage tank in the back of the collector and below the roofline, easy installation by homebuilders, and a low installed cost. SRP's market research guided the design, and the laboratory tests conducted at SNL provided information used to refine the design of field test units and indicated that the RITH concept is viable. ELI provided design and construction expertise and is currently configured to manufacture the units. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent and available materials connected to the project including market research studies, the design features and development of the system, and the testing and evaluation conducted at SNL and at a model home test site in Phoenix, Arizona.

  12. Study on Thermal Performance Assessment of Solar Hot Water Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar Hot Water Systems (SHWS are gaining popularity in Malaysia due to increasing cost of electricity and also awareness of environmental issues related to the use of fossil fuels. The introduction of solar hot water systems in Malaysia is an indication that it has potential market. However, there is a need for a proper methodology for rating the energy performance of these systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the thermal performance of several SHWS subject to four different locations in Malaysia using combined direct measurement and computer modelling using the TRNSYS simulation program. The results showed distinct differences in performance of the systems as a result of locations and manufacturers. The findings could be used further in developing an acceptable rating system for SHWS in Malaysia.

  13. An experimental study of solar desalination using free jets and an auxiliary hot air stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Eldesouki I.; Khalaf-Allah, Reda A.; Dahab, Mohamed A.

    2018-04-01

    An experimental study for a solar desalination system based on jet-humidification with an auxiliary perpendicular hot air stream was carried out at Suez city, Egypt 29.9668°N, 32.5498°E. The tests were done from May to October 2016. The effects of nozzles situations and nozzle diameter with and without hot air stream on fresh water productivity were monitored. The results show that; the lateral and downward jets from narrow nozzles have more productivities than other situations. The hot air stream has to be adapted at a certain flow rate to get high values of productivity. The system productivity is (5.6 L/m 2 ), the estimated cost is (0.030063 / L) and the efficiency is 32.8%.

  14. System design package for IBM system one: solar heating and domestic hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage. The system was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system was packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  15. System Design Package for SIMS Prototype System 3, Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A collation of documents and drawings are presented that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plate collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  16. An assessment of solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area - Implications for local utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, M. W.

    1980-04-01

    A survey of residential solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area is presented with estimates of the total solar energy contribution per year. These estimates are examined in relation to a local utility's peak-load curves to determine the impact of a substantial increase in solar domestic hot water use over the next 20 yr in the area of utility management. The results indicate that a 10% market penetration of solar water heaters would have no detrimental effect on the utility's peak-load profile and could save several million dollars in new plant construction costs.

  17. The impact of the hot tap water load pattern in the industrial hall on the energy yield from solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidorów-Kaprawyl, Natalia; Dudkiewicz, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    The systems using solar energy, popular in Poland, can be used to supply hot water for the installation used by employees of industrial halls. In manufacturing plants, employing a large number of people, the demand for hot water is practically constant throughout the year and is characterized by periodic use at the end of each work shift. Dynamics of the hot water consumption depends on the number of shifts as well as working days and holidays. Additionally the maximum hot tap water demand occurs in the whole period of installation operation. In polish climatic conditions the solar collectors' systems have the largest capacity in the summer, while in winter they need to be assisted. Beside that the supply of renewable energy is uneven and depends on weather conditions. In the paper the one-hour step analysis concerning the dependence of the load pattern of the hot tap water preparation system on the energy yield from solar collectors had been performed.

  18. Solar electricity: An effective asset to supply urban loads in hot climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Fabien Chidanand; Gopalan, Sundararaman

    2018-04-01

    While human population has been multiplied by four in the last hundred years, the world energy consumption was multiplied by ten. The common method of using fossil fuels to provide energy and electricity has dangerously disturbed nature's and climate's balance. It has become urgent and crucial to find sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives to preserve a livable environment with unpolluted air and water. Renewable energy is the unique eco-friendly opportunity known today. The main challenge of using renewable energy is to ensure the constant balance of electricity demand and generation on the electrical grid. This paper investigates whether the solar electricity generation is correlated with the urban electricity consumption in hot climates. The solar generation and total consumption have been compared for three cities in Florida. The hourly solar generation has been found to be highly correlated with the consumption that occurs 6 h later, while the monthly solar generation is correlated with the monthly energy consumption. Producing 30% of the electricity using solar energy has been found to compensate partly for the monthly variation in the urban electricity demand. In addition, if 30% of the world electricity is produced using solar, global CO2 emissions would be reduced by 11.7% (14.6% for India). Thus, generating 30% solar electricity represents a valuable asset for urban areas situated in hot climates, reducing the need for electrical operating reserve, providing local supply with minimal transmission losses, but above all reducing the need for fossil fuel electricity and reducing global CO2 emission.

  19. Application of solar energy to the supply of hot water for textile dyeing. Final report, CDRL/PA 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-01

    The design plan for a solar process hot water system for a textile dye beck at Riegel Textile Corporation's LaFrance, South Carolina, facilities is presented. The solar system consists of 396 GE model TC 100 evacuated tube collector modules arranged in a ground mounted array with a total collector area of 6680 square feet. The system includes an 8000-gallon hot water storage tank. Systems analyses, specification sheets, performance data, and an economic evaluation of the proposed system are presented. (WHK)

  20. Simulation of the solar hot water systems diffusion: the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidiras, D.; Koukios, E.

    2004-01-01

    The main object of this paper is the documentation and study of the main factors behind the spectacular diffusion of solar energy use for domestic hot water production in Greece. The time pattern of the diffusion of flat-plate solar collectors since its 'out of the blue' first appearance in 1974, shows that the diffusion rate grew exponentially at first, with the annual sales figure reaching 91,000 m 2 by 1980. A rate slow down in the early 1980s was followed by a brief period of explosive growth, with the annual sales figure reaching its peak value of more than 185,000 m 2 in mid-1980s. A rapid decline of the growth rate down to the present annual sales level followed. The installed solar collectors pattern has the characteristic form of an S-shape curve, representing the overall penetration of the flat-plate solar collector use for domestic hot water production in the Greek economy and society. This evolution has gone through an inflection point around 1987, i.e. at a time when about 1,000,000 m 2 of collectors had already been installed. By the year 2000, about 2,070,000 m 2 of collectors had been installed, with a tendency to level off by 2010, unless some the present conditions determining this phenomenon change. (author)

  1. Development of a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump for hot water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdesselam Hamloui; Ong, K.S.; Than Cheok Fah; Masjuki Hassan

    2000-01-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted on the direct expansion solar assisted Heat Pump (DESAHP). Refrigerant R-22 was expanded in the solar collector which also acted as the evaporator in a conventional vapor compression refrigerating machine. The experiments were conducted under conditions of high and low solar radiation, with evaporator completely shaded from the sun, and at night. System thermal performance was determined by measuring refrigerant flow rate, temperature and pressure at numerous points in the system. The results showed that 227-l of water could be heated from 3O degree to 55 degree C in about 105 minutes. Higher water temperatures were obtained during hot sunny days. The coefficient of performance of heating, COP h , ranged from 11 to 4.7, depending upon operating conditions. The total saving of electric energy during hot sunny days was about 460 %. It means that for 1 kWh of electrical input to the system, we achieve 4.6 kWh. This percentage decreases as the evaporator temperature decreases and is a function of solar energy input. (Author)

  2. Usage of solar aggregate stockpiles in the production of hot mix asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androjić, Ivica; Kaluđer, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Low energy storage mineral mixtures. • The impact of models thermal insulation on the temperature of aggregate. • Effect of periods with no solar radiation on the aggregate accumulated heat. • Low energy storage saves energy for preheating mineral mixtures. - Abstract: The production process of hot mix asphalt (HMA) requires a considerable demand for thermal energy which is fed into the process of drying and heating of mineral mixture. An overview of solar aggregate stockpiles designed in order to reduce energy consumption is given. Solar stockpiles were designed with the primary goal of achieving as much accumulation of thermal energy obtained from solar radiation as possible during the exposure period. Models of solar stockpiles were made with a constant volume capacity, variable thermal insulation thickness in the range of 2, 5 and 10 cm, and a glass ceiling surface to allow the realisation of high solar transmission into the interior of a stockpile. Temperature measurement of the mineral mixture deposited in the solar models and of those exposed to external environmental conditions was conducted during the period from May to November, 2015. The results achieved indicate to the facts that there comes to the constant growth in warmth of mineral mixtures in insulated stockpiles for the duration of their exposure to solar radiation, that an increase in thermal insulation thickness leads to the quadratic functional dependence between the referred thickness and mixture temperature and, ultimately, that there comes to the exponential loss of an accumulated thermal energy in insulated models in the period with no effect of solar radiation.

  3. Effects of solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tamaki, Akira; Watson, Phillip; Maughan, Ronald J

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of variations in solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity and thermoregulatory responses in a hot environment. Eight male volunteers performed four cycle exercise trials at 70 % maximum oxygen uptake until exhaustion in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 °C and 50 % relative humidity. Volunteers were tested under four solar radiation conditions: 800, 500, 250 and 0 W/m(2). Exercise time to exhaustion was less on the 800 W/m(2) trial (23 ± 4 min) than on all the other trials (500 W/m(2) 30 ± 7 min; P 0.05). Mean skin temperature was higher on the 800 W/m(2) trial than the 250 and 0 W/m(2) trials (P solar radiation increases.

  4. Primary energy consumption of the dwelling with solar hot water system and biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berković-Šubić, Mihaela; Rauch, Martina; Dović, Damir; Andrassy, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodology for determing delivered and primary energy is developed. • Conventional and solar hot water system are analyzed. • Influence of system components, heat losses and energy consumption is explored. • Savings when using solar system in delivered energy is 30% and in primary 75%. • Dwelling with higher Q H,nd has 60% shorter payback period. - Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology, based on the energy performance of buildings Directive related European norms. It is developed to overcome ambiguities and incompleteness of these standards in determining the delivered and primary energy. The available procedures from the present “Algorithm for determining the energy demands and efficiency of technical systems in buildings”, normally used for energy performance certification of buildings, also allow detailed analyzes of the influence of particular system components on the overall system energy efficiency. The calculation example is given for a Croatian reference dwelling, equipped with a solar hot water system, backed up with a biomass boiler for space heating and domestic hot water purposes as a part of the dwelling energy performance certification. Calculations were performed for two cases corresponding to different levels of the dwelling thermal insulation with an appropriate heating system capacity, in order to investigate the influence of the building heat losses on the system design and energy consumption. The results are compared against those obtained for the conventional system with a gas boiler in terms of the primary energy consumption as well as of investment and operating costs. These results indicate great reduction in both delivered and primary energy consumption when a solar system with biomass boiler is used instead of the conventional one. Higher savings are obtained in the case of the dwelling with higher energy need for space heating. Such dwellings also have a shorter payback period than the ones with

  5. Energetical and ecological assessment of solar- and heat pump technologies for hot water preparation and space heating in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1991-11-01

    Solar and heat pump systems have been proved in many applications on the market. To achieve an efficient energy output it is necessary to consider the special conditions of these technologies. The energetical and ecological criteria of solar and heat pump systems for hot water preparation and space heating are analysed on the basis of experimental data. (author)

  6. Measurements of hot water service consumptions: temperature influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, R.; Vallat, D.; Cyssau, R. (COSTIC, Saint Remy-les-Chevreuse (France))

    This article presents a campaign of measurements of which the aim is the observation of consumptions, for individual installations equiped with a hot water tank. The study takes an interest in the temperature of the water in the tank and the instantaneous power of the generator. The instrumentation, the installations and the results of this campaign are presented in this paper. The conclusion is the ''economic'' temperature of hot sanitary water is below 60/sup 0/C but above 55/sup 0/C.

  7. High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayan, M.

    1997-12-31

    Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

  8. The Use of Solar Energy for Preparing Domestic Hot Water in a Multi-Storey Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the possibilities of solar collectors used for a domestic hot water system and installed on the roofs of modernized multi-storey buildings under the existing climate conditions. A number of combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors with accumulation tank systems of various sizes have been examined. Heat from the district heating system is used as an additional heat source for preparing domestic hot water. The paper compares calculation results of energy and economy regarding the combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors and the size of the accumulation tank. The influence of variations in the main indicators on the final economic results has also been evaluated. Research has been supported applying EC FP7 CONCERTO program (‘‘Sustainable Zero Carbon ECO-Town Developments Improving Quality of Life across EU - ECO-Life’’ (ECO-Life Project Contract No. TREN/FP7EN/239497/”ECOLIFE”.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The object of this study was dynamic modeling, simulation and optimum design of solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, with respect to different whether conditions, and accurate dynamic behaviour of the heat load. Special attention was paid to systems with thermosyphon and drain-back design. The solar radiation in Beijing (China) and in Denmark are analyzed both by theoretical calculations and the analysis of long-term measurements. Based on the weather data from the Beijing Meteorological Station during the period of 1981-1993, a Beijing Test Reference Year has been formulated by means of statistical analysis. A brief introduction about the Danish Test Reference Year and the Design Reference Year is also presented. In order to investigate the heat loss as a part of the total heat load, dynamic models for distribution networks have been developed, and simulations have been carried out for typically designed distribution networks of the circulation type. The influence of operation parameters such as the tank outlet temperature, the hot-water load and the load pattern, on the heat loss from the distribution networks in presented. It was found that the tank outlet temperature has a significant influence on the heat loss from a circulation type of distribution network, while the hot-water load and the load pattern have no obvious effect. Dynamic models of drain-back tanks, both as a separated tank and combined with a mantle tank, have been developed and presented. Models of the other basic components commonly used in solar DHW systems, such as flat-plate collectors, connection pipes, storage tanks with a heat exchanger spiral, and controllers, are also described. (LN) 66 refs.

  10. To built a solar hot water heater to work the sustainability problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero Gómez, María Begoña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are commemorating the Education Decade for Sustainable Development. If we want to create positive towards our environment and its sustainable development we have to begin working at school. It is necessary to show our students what problems of the environment are and which solutions can be adopted. That is the reason we have planned this activity in our secondary school. We do think that by doing daily activities we have a good opportunity to fulfil this goal. An example of such experiences is the fabrication of a solar hot water heater to make them and their families more environment conscience.

  11. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  12. Lead Acetate Based Hybrid Perovskite Through Hot Casting for Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gwang Su; Choi, Won-Gyu; Na, Sungjae; Gökdemir, Fatma Pinar; Moon, Taeho

    2018-03-01

    Flawless coverage of a perovskite layer is essential in order to achieve realistic high-performance planar heterojunction solar cells. We present that high-quality perovskite layers can be efficiently formed by a novel hot casting route combined with MAI (CH3NH3I) and non-halide lead acetate (PbAc2) precursors under ambient atmosphere. Casting temperature is controlled to produce various perovskite microstructures and the resulted crystalline layers are found to be comprised of closely packed islands with a smooth surface structure. Lead acetate employed perovskite solar cells are fabricated using PEDOT:PSS and PCBM charge transporting layers, in p- i- n type planar architecture. Especially, the outstanding open-circuit voltage demonstrates the high crystallinity and dense coverage of the produced perovskite layers by this facile route.

  13. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  14. Evaporation heat transfer of hot water from horizontal free service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Hirota, T.; Murase, M.

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow in a horizontal duct was examined. Hot water was in the range of 35 o C ~ 65 o C. Cold air was approximately 25 o C. The air velocity was varied from 0.0656 m/s ~ 1.41 m/s. The heat transfer rate from the water flow to the air flow became large with an increase in the air velocity. The higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat transfer rate was. When the total heat flux from water to the air flow is divided into two terms; the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term, the evaporation term dominate main part and that is about 90 ~ 80 % of the total heat flux. The measured values of the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term were larger than the predicted because of the effect of the diffusion of evaporated vapor. The correlation to predict the heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow with the evaporation was developed by modifying the laminar flow mass transfer correlation and the laminar forced convection heat transfer correlation. Good results were obtained. (author)

  15. Evaporation heat transfer of hot water from horizontal free service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Hirota, T. [Shinshu Univ., Ueda, Nagano (Japan); Murase, M. [INSS, Mihama-cho, Fukui (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    Evaporation heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow in a horizontal duct was examined. Hot water was in the range of 35{sup o}C ~ 65{sup o}C. Cold air was approximately 25{sup o}C. The air velocity was varied from 0.0656 m/s ~ 1.41 m/s. The heat transfer rate from the water flow to the air flow became large with an increase in the air velocity. The higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat transfer rate was. When the total heat flux from water to the air flow is divided into two terms; the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term, the evaporation term dominate main part and that is about 90 ~ 80 % of the total heat flux. The measured values of the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term were larger than the predicted because of the effect of the diffusion of evaporated vapor. The correlation to predict the heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow with the evaporation was developed by modifying the laminar flow mass transfer correlation and the laminar forced convection heat transfer correlation. Good results were obtained. (author)

  16. Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Springer, M. Seitzler, and C. Backman

    2016-12-01

    Sun Light & Power, a San Francisco Bay Area solar design-build contractor, teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America partner the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) to study this heat-loss issue. The team added three-way valves to the solar water heating systems for two 40-unit multifamily buildings. In these systems, when the stored solar hot water is warmer than the recirculated hot water returning from the buildings, the valves divert the returning water to the solar storage tank instead of the water heater. This strategy allows solar-generated heat to be applied to recirculation heat loss in addition to heating water that is consumed by fixtures and appliances.

  17. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  18. Independent Energy's Solar thermal products and services listing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This article is a listing of companies offering products and services for the development of solar thermal electric power plants. The listing provides the company name under a heading describing the product or service the company provides. The products and services covered by the listing include developers and owner/operators, manufacturers of equipment, instruments and controls, consulting services, engineering and construction, and financial and legal services

  19. Prediction and experimental validation of stagnation temperature attained by a solar cooker of hot box type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimha Rao, A. V; Srikrishna, D. V. N [Warangal (India)

    2000-07-01

    A hot box type solar cooker, having double glass covers and a plane mirror reflector, is tested for stagnation temperature. A computer code is developed based on the analytical model proposed by Vaishya et. al. The global and beam components of solar radiation measured at Warangal are made use to predict the stagnation temperature of the cooker. The observed values of stagnation temperature at Warangal are compared with those of predicted values. A good agreement of the measured and observed values of the stagnation temperature is observed during the afternoon period. The lag in the observed values during the forenoon may be due to thermal inertia of the cooker. [Spanish] Se probo una estufa solar de tipo caja caliente con cubiertas dobles de vidrio y un espejo reflector plano para medir la temperatura de estancamiento. Se desarrollo un codigo de computacion basado en el modelo analitico propuesto por Vaishya et. al. Los componentes de la radiacion solar globales y de rayo medidos en Warangal se usan para predecir la temperatura de estancamiento de la estufa. Los valores observados de la temperatura de estancamiento en Warangal se comparan con los valores predichos. Se aprecia una buena concidencia de los valores medidos y observados de la temperatura de estancamiento durante el periodo de la tarde. El retraso de los valores observados durante la manana puede ser debido a la inercia termica de la estufa.

  20. Assessing the economic aspects of solar hot water production in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralambopoulos, D.; Kovras, H.

    1997-01-01

    The long-term performance of various systems was determined and the economic aspects of solar hot water production were investigated in this work. The effect of the collector inclination angle, collector area and storage volume was examined for all systems, and various climatic conditions and their payback period was calculated. It was found that the collector inclination angle does not have a significant effect on system performance. Large collector areas have a diminishing effect on the system's overall efficiency. The increase in storage volume has a detrimental effect for small daily load volumes, but a beneficial one when there is a large daily consumption. Solar energy was found to be truly competitive when the conventional fuel being substituted is electricity, and it should not replace diesel oil on pure economic grounds. Large daily load volumes and large collector areas are in general associated with shorter payback periods. Overall, the systems are oversized and are economically suitable for large daily hot water load volumes. (Author)

  1. Looking beyond installation: Why households struggle to make the most of solar hot water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Nicholas; Osman, Peter; Head, Lesley; Voyer, Michelle; Harada, Theresa; Waitt, Gordon; Gibson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines household responses to sustainability issues and adoption of energy saving technologies. Our example of solar hot water systems highlights the complexity and variability of responses to low-carbon technologies. While SHW systems have the potential to provide the majority of household hot water and to lower carbon emissions, little research has been done to investigate how SHW systems are integrated into everyday life. We draw on cultural understandings of the household to identify passive and active users of SHW systems and utilize a model that illustrates how technology use is dependent on inter-relations between cultural norms, systems of provision, the material elements of homes, and practice. A key finding is that households can be ill-prepared to make the most of their SHW systems and lack post-installation support to do so. Thus, informed and efficient use of SHW systems is hit and miss. Current policy is largely aimed at subsidizing purchase and installation on the assumption that this is sufficient for emission reduction goals. Our analysis provides evidence to the contrary. Areas we highlight for policy and practice improvement are independent pre-purchase advice, installation quality, and practical guidance on system operation and interaction with patterns of hot water use. - Highlights: • We interview Australian households about their experience with SHW systems. • We identify active and passive users of SHW. Active users tend to be dissatisfied with their system. • Passive users tend to be satisfied but have relatively inefficient systems. • Householders struggle to integrate hot water use and system operation, compromising efficiency. • Policy should encompass pre and post-installation support as much as incentives to install.

  2. Smart solar domestic hot water systems. Development and test; Intelligente solvarmeanlaeg. Udvikling og afproevning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, E.; Knudsen, S.; Furbo, S.; Vejen, N.K.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to develop and test smart solar domestic hot water systems (SDHW systems) where the energy supply from the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a flexible way fitted to the hot water consumption in such a way, that the SDHW systems are suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. In a smart SDHW system the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a smart way. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the water in the hot water tank from the top and only the hot water volume needed by the consumers is heated. Further the water is heated immediately before tapping. The control system includes a number of temperature sensors which cover the temperatures in the auxiliary heated volume. Based on these temperatures the energy content in the hot water tank is calculated. Only water heated to a temperature above 50 deg. C contributes to the total energy content in the hot water tank. Furhter the control system includes a timer that only allows the auxiliary energy supply system to be active in certain time periods and only if the energy content in the hot water tank is lower than wanted. In this way the water in the tank is heated immediately before the expected time of tapping and only the hot water volume needed is heated. The report is divided into five main sections. The sections deals with: Developing and testing storage tanks, laboratory test of SDHW systems based on some of the developed storage tanks, validation of simulation programs for smart solar heating systems, optimisation of system design and control strategy and measurements on two smart SDHW systems installed in single family houses. In all the developed hot water tanks, attempt is made to heat the water in the tank from the top of the tank and not as in traditional tanks where the water is heated from the lowest level of the auxiliary energy supply system, normally a helix or a electrical heating element placed in the

  3. Investigation of a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply for Sol&Træ A.m.b.a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from "Sol&Træ A.m.b.a." was tested in a laboratory test facility.......A solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from "Sol&Træ A.m.b.a." was tested in a laboratory test facility....

  4. Investigation of a low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply for Aidt Miljø A/S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1997-01-01

    A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility.......A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility....

  5. Enhancing pre-service physics teachers' creative thinking skills through HOT lab design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Adam; Setiawan, Agus; Suhandi, Andi; Permanasari, Anna

    2017-08-01

    A research on the implementation of HOT (Higher Order Thinking) Laboratory has been carried out. This research is aimed to compare increasing of creative thinking skills of pre-service physics teachers who receive physics lesson with HOT Lab and with verification lab for the topic of electric circuit. This research used a quasi-experiment methods with control group pretest-posttest design. The subject of the research is 40 Physics Education pre-service physics teachers of UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. Research samples were selected by class random sampling technique. Data on pre-service physics teachers' creative thinking skills were collected using test of creative thinking skills in the form of essay. The results of the research reveal that average of N-gain of creative thinking skills are for pre-service physics teachers who received lesson with HOT Lab design and for pre-service physics teachers who received lesson with verification lab, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that application of HOT Lab design is more effective to increase creative thinking skills in the lesson of electric circuit.

  6. Enhancing Communication Skills of Pre-service Physics Teacher through HOT Lab Related to Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A.; Setiawan, A.; Suhandi, A.; Permanasari, A.; Dirgantara, Y.; Yuniarti, H.; Sapriadil, S.; Hermita, N.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the improvement to pre-service teacher’s communication skills through Higher Order Thinking Laboratory (HOT Lab) on electric circuit topic. This research used the quasi-experiment method with pretest-posttest control group design. Research subjects were 60 students of Physics Education in UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. The sample was chosen by random sampling technique. Students’ communication skill data collected using a communication skills test instruments-essays form and observations sheets. The results showed that pre-service teacher communication skills using HOT Lab were higher than verification lab. Student’s communication skills in groups using HOT Lab were not influenced by gender. Communication skills could increase due to HOT Lab based on problems solving that can develop communication through hands-on activities. Therefore, the conclusion of this research shows the application of HOT Lab is more effective than the verification lab to improve communication skills of pre-service teachers in electric circuit topic and gender is not related to a person’s communication skills.

  7. Hot-carrier solar cells using low-dimensional quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Daiki; Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Harada, Yukihiro; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-10-27

    We propose a high-conversion-efficiency solar cell (SC) utilizing the hot carrier (HC) population in an intermediate-band (IB) of a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) structure. The bandgap of the host semiconductor in this device plays an important role as an energy-selective barrier for HCs in the QDSLs. According to theoretical calculation using the detailed balance model with an air mass 1.5 spectrum, the optimum IB energy is determined by a trade-off relation between the number of HCs with energy exceeding the conduction-band edge and the number of photons absorbed by the valence band−IB transition. Utilizing experimental data of HC temperature in InAs/GaAs QDSLs, the maximum conversion efficiency under maximum concentration (45 900 suns) has been demonstrated to increase by 12.6% as compared with that for a single-junction GaAs SC.

  8. Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, A.A.; Barzegar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

  9. HOT PLASMA FROM SOLAR ACTIVE-REGION CORES: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE HINODE X-RAY TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, J. T. [USRA, 7178 Columbia Gateway Drive, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Christian, G. M.; Matheny, P. O., E-mail: jschmelz@usra.edu [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Mechanisms invoked to heat the solar corona to millions of degrees kelvin involve either magnetic waves or magnetic reconnections. Turbulence in the convection zone produces MHD waves, which travel upward and dissipate. Photospheric motions continuously build up magnetic energy, which is released through magnetic reconnection. In this paper, we concentrate on hot non-flaring plasma with temperatures of 5 MK <  T  < 10 MK because it is one of the few observables for which wave and reconnection models make different predictions. Wave models predict no (or little) hot plasma, whereas reconnection models predict it, although in amounts that are challenging to detect with current instrumentation. We used data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). We requested a special XRT observing sequence, which cycled through the thickest XRT filter several times per hour so we could average these images and improve the signal-to-noise. We did differential emission measure (DEM) analysis using the time-averaged thick-filter data as well as all available channels from both the XRT and AIA for regions observed on 2014 December 11. Whereas our earlier work was only able to determine that plasma with a temperature greater than 5 MK was present , we are now able to find a well-constrained DEM distribution. We have therefore added a strong observational constraint that must be explained by any viable coronal heating model. Comparing state-of-the-art wave and reconnection model predictions, we can conclude that reconnection is heating the hot plasma in these active regions.

  10. Thermal performance of small solar domestic hot water systems in theory, in the laboratory and in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1998-01-01

    for poor thermal performances of systems tested in practice are given. Based on theoretical calculations the negative impact on the thermal performance, due to a large number of different parameter variations are given. Recommendations for future developments of small solar domestic hot water systems...

  11. The effect of side-chain substitution and hot processing on diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymers for organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heintges, G.H.L.; Leenaers, P.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of cold and hot processing on the performance of polymer-fullerene solar cells are investigated for diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based polymers that were specifically designed and synthesized to exhibit a strong temperature-dependent aggregation in solution. The polymers, consisting of

  12. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  13. The effect of payback time on solar hot water systems diffusion: the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidiras, Dimitrios K.; Koukios, Emmanuel G.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the payback time on the spectacular diffusion of solar hot water systems (SHWS) in Greece was investigated in this work. The time pattern of the diffusion of flat plate solar collectors since its first appearance in 1974 shows that the diffusion rate grew exponentially at first, with the annual sales figure reaching 185,000 m 2 in the mid-80s. A rapid decline of the growth rate, down to the present annual sales level followed. By the year 2000, more than 2,000,000 m 2 of collectors had been installed. The economic behaviour of the main type of users (households and hotels) was found to have undergone two stages: in one of them, 1978-2002, the change of sales is in agreement with a change in economic feasibility, measured by payback time, while in the other, the early growth stage, 1974-1977, the demand grew despite a negative economic trend, obviously because of non-economic factors. The role of tax deduction, which is the most influential incentive, has been rather instrumental in the growth period 1978-1989, but lost its significance thereafter. This incentive has been withdrawn since the beginning of 1993

  14. The effect of payback time on solar hot water systems diffusion: the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidiras, D.K.; Koukios, E.G.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the payback time on the spectacular diffusion of solar hot water systems (SHWS) in Greece was investigated in this work. The time pattern of the diffusion of flat plate solar collectors since its first appearance in 1974 shows that the diffusion rate grew exponentially at first, with the annual sales figure reaching 185,000 m 2 in the mid-80s. A rapid decline of the growth rate, down to the present annual sales level followed. By the year 2000, more than 2,000,000 m 2 of collectors had been installed. The economic behaviour of the main type of users (households and hotels) was found to have undergone two stages: in one of them, 1978-2002, the change of sales is in agreement with a change in economic feasibility, measured by payback time, while in the other, the early growth stage, 1974-1977, the demand grew despite a negative economic trend, obviously because of non-economic factors. The role of tax deduction, which is the most influential incentive, has been rather instrumental in the growth period 1978-1989, but lost its significance thereafter. This incentive has been withdrawn since the beginning of 1993. [Author

  15. Establishment and verification of solar radiation calculation model of glass daylighting roof in hot summer and warm winter zone in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Caidan; Wu, Peihao; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Wang, Yuchen; Yang, Xiaokun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, solar heat gain through glass daylighting roof is deeply studied by theoretical calculation method, taking Guangzhou in the Hot Summer and Warm Winter (HSWW) zone as an example. The direct solar radiation is calculated by Bouguer formula whereas the diffuse solar radiation is calculated by Berlage formula, representing the basis for the calculation method of the solar radiation intensity through the glass daylighting roof. Through the establishment of solar radiation calculatio...

  16. Performance analysis of solar cogeneration system with different integration strategies for potable water and domestic hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uday Kumar, N.T.; Mohan, Gowtham; Martin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar driven cogeneration system integrating membrane distillation technology is developed. • System utilizes solar thermal energy for the operations without auxiliary heaters. • Three different system integrations are experimentally investigated in UAE. • Economical benefits of solar cogeneration system is also reported. - Abstract: A novel solar thermal cogeneration system featuring the provision of potable water with membrane distillation in combination with domestic hot water supply has been developed and experimentally analyzed. The system integrates evacuated tube collectors, thermal storage, membrane distillation unit, and heat exchangers with the overall goals of maximizing the two outputs while minimizing costs for the given design conditions. Experiments were conducted during one month’s operation at AURAK’s facility in UAE, with average peak global irradiation levels of 650 W/m"2. System performance was determined for three integration strategies, all utilizing brackish water (typical conductivity of 20,000 μs/cm) as a feedstock: Thermal store integration (TSI), which resembles a conventional indirect solar domestic hot water system; Direct solar integration (DSI) connecting collectors directly to the membrane distillation unit without thermal storage; and Direct solar with thermal store integration (DSTSI), a combination of these two approaches. The DSTSI strategy offered the best performance given its operational flexibility. Here the maximum distillate productivity was 43 L/day for a total gross solar collector area of 96 m"2. In terms of simultaneous hot water production, 277 kWh/day was achieved with this configuration. An economic analysis shows that the DSTSI strategy has a payback period of 3.9 years with net cumulative savings of $325,000 during the 20 year system lifetime.

  17. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A HOT-CHANNEL-LIKE SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE AND ITS EMBEDDED PROMINENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Zhang, J.; Guo, Y.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic flux rope (MFR) is a coherent and helical magnetic field structure that has recently been found likely to appear as an elongated hot channel prior to a solar eruption. In this Letter, we investigate the relationship between the hot channel and the associated prominence through analysis of a limb event on 2011 September 12. In the early rise phase, the hot channel was initially cospatial with the prominence. It then quickly expanded, resulting in a separation of the top of the hot channel from that of the prominence. Meanwhile, they both experienced an instantaneous morphology transformation from a Λ shape to a reversed-Y shape and the top of these two structures showed an exponential increase in height. These features are a good indication of the occurrence of kink instability. Moreover, the onset of kink instability is found to coincide in time with the impulsive enhancement of flare emission underneath the hot channel, suggesting that ideal kink instability likely also plays an important role in triggering fast flare reconnection besides initiating the impulsive acceleration of the hot channel and distorting its morphology. We conclude that the hot channel is most likely the MFR system and the prominence only corresponds to the cool materials that are collected in the bottom of the helical field lines of the MFR against gravity

  18. Longevity characteristics of flat solar water-heating collectors in hot-water-supply systems. Part 1. Procedure for calculating collector thermal output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avezova, N.R.; Ruziev, O. S.; Suleimanov, Sh. I.; Avezov, R. R.; Vakhidov, A.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for calculating longevity indices (daily and monthly variations and, hence, annual thermal output) of flat solar water-heating collectors, amount of conditional fuel saved per year by using solar energy, and cost of solar fuel and thermal energy generated in hot-water-supply systems is described. (authors)

  19. Learning Experience on Transformer Using HOT Lab for Pre-service Physics Teacher’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A.; Setiawan, A.; Suhandi, A.; Permanasari, A.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed at investigating pre-service teacher’s critical thinking skills improvement through Higher Order Thinking (HOT) Lab on transformer learning. This research used mix method with the embedded experimental model. Research subjects are 60 students of Physics Education in UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. The results showed that based on the results of the analysis of practical reports and observation sheet shows students in the experimental group was better in carrying out the practicum and can solve the real problem while the control group was going on the opposite. The critical thinking skills of students applying the HOT Lab were higher than the verification lab. Critical thinking skills could increase due to HOT Lab based problems solving that can develop higher order thinking skills through laboratory activities. Therefore, it was concluded that the application of HOT Lab was more effective than verification lab on improving students’ thinking skills on transformer topic learning. Finally, HOT Lab can be implemented in other subject learning and could be used to improve another higher order thinking skills.

  20. Performance analysis of high-concentrated multi-junction solar cells in hot climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Adel A.; Kandil, Kandil M.; Alzanki, Talal H.; Alenezi, Mohammad R.

    2018-03-01

    Multi-junction concentrator solar cells are a promising technology as they can fulfill the increasing energy demand with renewable sources. Focusing sunlight upon the aperture of multi-junction photovoltaic (PV) cells can generate much greater power densities than conventional PV cells. So, concentrated PV multi-junction solar cells offer a promising way towards achieving minimum cost per kilowatt-hour. However, these cells have many aspects that must be fixed to be feasible for large-scale energy generation. In this work, a model is developed to analyze the impact of various atmospheric factors on concentrator PV performance. A single-diode equivalent circuit model is developed to examine multi-junction cells performance in hot weather conditions, considering the impacts of both temperature and concentration ratio. The impacts of spectral variations of irradiance on annual performance of various high-concentrated photovoltaic (HCPV) panels are examined, adapting spectra simulations using the SMARTS model. Also, the diode shunt resistance neglected in the existing models is considered in the present model. The present results are efficiently validated against measurements from published data to within 2% accuracy. Present predictions show that the single-diode model considering the shunt resistance gives accurate and reliable results. Also, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and air mass are most important atmospheric parameters having a significant impact on HCPV cell performance. In addition, the electrical efficiency (η) is noticed to increase with concentration to a certain concentration degree after which it decreases. Finally, based on the model predictions, let us conclude that the present model could be adapted properly to examine HCPV cells' performance over a broad range of operating conditions.

  1. Application of solar energy to the supply of industrial process hot water. Aerotherm final report, 77-235. [Can washing in Campbell Soup plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the Solar Industrial Process Hot Water Program are to design, test, and evaluate the application of solar energy to the generation and supply of industrial process hot water, and to provide an assessment of the economic and resource benefits to be gained. Other objectives are to stimulate and give impetus to the use of solar energy for supplying significant amounts of industrial process heat requirements. The plant selected for the design of a solar industrial process hot water system was the Campbell Soup facility in Sacramento, California. The total hot water demand for this plant varies between 500 and 800 gpm during regular production shifts, and hits a peak of over 1,000 gpm for approximately one hour during the cleanup shift. Most of the hot water is heated in the boiler room by a combination of waste heat recovery and low pressure (5 psi) steam-water heat exchangers. The hot water emerges from the boiler room at a temperature between 160/sup 0/F and 180/sup 0/F and is transported to the various process areas. Booster heaters in the process areas then use low pressure (5 psi) or medium pressure (20 psi) steam to raise the temperature of the water to the level required for each process. Hot water is used in several processes at the Campbell Soup plant, but the can washing process was selected to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar hot water system. A detailed design and economic analysis of the system is given. (WHK)

  2. Impact on a utility, utility customers and the environment of an ensemble of solar domestic hot water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragan, K.E.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of the installation of a large number of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems are identified and quantified. The benefits of SDHW systems include reduced energy use, reduced electrical demand, and reduced pollution. The avoided emissions, capacity contribution, energy and demand savings were evaluated using the power generation schedules, emissions data and annual hourly load profiles from a Wisconsin utility. It is shown that each six square meter solar water heater system can save annually: 3,560 kWh of energy, 0.66 kW of peak demand, and over four tons of pollution

  3. AECL hot-cell facilities and post-irradiation examination services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schankula, M.H.; Plaice, E.L.; Woodworth, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) services available at AECL's hot-cell facilities (HCF). The HCFs are used primarily to provide PIE support for operating CANDU power reactors in Canada and abroad, and for the examination of experimental fuel bundles and core components irradiated in research reactors at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) and off-shore. A variety of examinations and analysis are performed ranging from non-destructive visual and dimensional inspections to detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examinations. Several hot cells are dedicated to mechanical property testing of structural materials and to determine the fitness-for-service of reactor core components. Facility upgrades and the development of innovative examination techniques continue to improve AECL's PIE capabilities. (author)

  4. AECL hot-cell facilities and post-irradiation examination services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schankula, M.H.; Plaice, E.L.; Woodworth, L.G.

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) services available at AECL's hot-cell facilities (HCF). The HCFs are used primarily to provide PIE support for operating CANDU power reactors in Canada and abroad, and for the examination of experimental fuel bundles and core components irradiated in research reactors at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) and off-shore. A variety of examinations and analyses are performed ranging from non-destructive visual and dimensional inspections to detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examinations. Several hot cells are dedicated to mechanical property testing of structural materials and to determine the fitness-for-service of reactor core components. Facility upgrades and the development of innovative examination techniques continue to improve AECL's PIE capabilities. (author)

  5. A HOT GAP AROUND JUPITER'S ORBIT IN THE SOLAR NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, N. J.; Choukroun, M.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Bryden, G., E-mail: neal.turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The Sun was an order of magnitude more luminous during the first few hundred thousand years of its existence, due in part to the gravitational energy released by material accreting from the solar nebula. If Jupiter was already near its present mass, the planet's tides opened an optically thin gap in the nebula. Using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that sunlight absorbed by the nebula and re-radiated into the gap raised temperatures well above the sublimation threshold for water ice, with potentially drastic consequences for the icy bodies in Jupiter's feeding zone. Bodies up to a meter in size were vaporized within a single orbit if the planet was near its present location during this early epoch. Dust particles lost their ice mantles, and planetesimals were partially to fully devolatilized, depending on their size. Scenarios in which Jupiter formed promptly, such as those involving a gravitational instability of the massive early nebula, must cope with the high temperatures. Enriching Jupiter in the noble gases through delivery trapped in clathrate hydrates will be more difficult, but might be achieved by either forming the planet much farther from the star or capturing planetesimals at later epochs. The hot gap resulting from an early origin for Jupiter also would affect the surface compositions of any primordial Trojan asteroids.

  6. Performance optimization of evacuated tube collector for solar cooling of a house in hot climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Adel A.

    2018-02-01

    Evacuating the space connecting cover and absorber significantly improves evacuated tube collector (ETC) performance. So, ETCs are progressively utilised all over the world. The main goal of current study is to explore ETC thermal efficiency in hot and severe climate like Kuwait weather conditions. A collector test facility was installed to record ETC thermal performance for one-year period. An extensively developed model for ETCs is presented, employing complete optical and thermal assessment. This study analyses separately optics and heat transfer in the evacuated tubes, allowing the analysis to be extended to different configurations. The predictions obtained are in agreement with experimental. The optimum collector parameters (collector tube length and diameter, mass flow rate and collector tilt angle) are determined. The present results indicate that the optimum tube length is 1.5 m, as at this length a significant improvement is achieved in efficiency for different tube diameters studied. Finally, the heat generated from ETCs is used for solar cooling of a house. Results of the simulation of cooling system indicate that an ETC of area 54 m2, tilt angle of 25° and storage tank volume of 2.1 m3 provides 80% of air-conditioning demand in a house located in Kuwait.

  7. A solar cooling system for greenhouse food production in hot climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P.A. [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    This study is motivated by the difficulty of cultivating crops in very hot countries and by the tendency for some such countries to become dependent on imported food. Liquid desiccation with solar regeneration is considered as maintained at or above room temperature, and this was confirgreenhouses. Previous studies demonstrated the technical feasibility of the desiccation-evaporation process, but mainly in the context of human dwellings. In the proposed cycle, the air is dried prior to entering the evaporative cooler. This lowers the wet-bulb temperature of the air. The cooling is assisted by using the regenerator to partially shade the greenhouse. The heat of desiccation is transferred and rejected at the outlet of the greenhouse. The cycle is analysed and results given for the climate of the The Gulf, based on weather data from Abu Dhabi. Taking examples of a temperate crop (lettuce), a tropical crop (tomato) and a tropical crop resistant to high temperatures (cucumber) we estimate the extension in growing seasons relative to (i) a greenhouse with simple fan ventilation (ii) a greenhouse with conventional evaporative cooling. Compared to option (ii), the proposed system lowers summers maximum temperatures by 5{sup o}C. This will extend the optimum season for lettuce cultivation from 3 to 6 months of the year and, for tomato and cucumber, from 7 months to the whole year. (author)

  8. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Ichiki, Akihisa; Kusano, Yuya; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs

  9. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko, E-mail: takeda@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Sugimoto, Noriaki [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ichiki, Akihisa [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, Yuya [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corp., 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2015-09-28

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs.

  10. Solar Power Potential of Tanzania: Identifying CSP and PV Hot Spots through a GIS Multicriteria Decision Making Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Ahmed; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Pedersen, Anders Branth

    2017-01-01

    More than one billion people are still living without access to electricity today. More than half of them are living in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a noticeable shortage of energy related information in Africa, especially for renewable energies. Due to lacking studies and researches on integrating...... renewable energy technologies, the Tanzanian official generation expansion plan till 2035 showed high dependency on fossil fuel and a negligible role of renewables other than large hydropower. This study investigates the spatial suitability for large-scale solar power installations in Tanzania through using...... technology-specific suitability map categorizes all the non-excluded areas into most suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, and least suitable areas. The study also suggests four hot spots (i.e. specific recommended locations) for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) installations and four hot spots...

  11. Modeling and characterization of double resonant tunneling diodes for application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Julian, Anatole; Bernard, Cyril; Miyashita, Naoya; Gibelli, Francois; Okada, Yoshitaka; Guillemolles, Jean-Francois

    2017-02-01

    Double resonant tunneling barriers are considered for an application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells. Experimental symmetric and asymmetric double resonant tunneling barriers are realized by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by temperature dependent current-voltage measurements. The negative differential resistance signal is enhanced for asymmetric heterostructures, and remains unchanged between low- and room-temperatures. Within Tsu-Esaki description of the tunnel current, this observation can be explained by the voltage dependence of the tunnel transmission amplitude, which presents a resonance under finite bias for asymmetric structures. This effect is notably discussed with respect to series resistance. Different parameters related to the electronic transmission of the structure and the influence of these parameters on the current voltage characteristic are investigated, bringing insights on critical processes to optimize in double resonant tunneling barriers applied to hot carrier solar cells.

  12. Solar Hot Air Balloons: A Low Cost, Multi-hour Flight System for Lightweight Scientific Instrumentation Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, D. C.; Albert, S.; Dexheimer, D.; Murphy, S.; Mullen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Existing scientific ballooning solutions for multi hour flights in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere are expensive and/or technically challenging. In contrast, solar hot air balloons are inexpensive and simple to construct. These balloons, which rely solely on sunlight striking a darkened envelope, can deliver payloads to 22 km altitude and maintain level flight until sunset. We describe an experimental campaign in which five solar hot air balloons launched in 45 minutes created a free flying infrasound (low frequency sound) microphone network that remained in the air for over 12 hours. We discuss the balloons' trajectory, maximum altitude, and stability as well as present results from the infrasound observations. We assess the performance and limitations of this design for lightweight atmospheric instrumentation deployments that require multi-hour flight times. Finally, we address the possibilities of multi day flights during the polar summer and on other planets.

  13. Retrofitted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Swedish Single-Family Houses—Evaluation of a Prototype and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Bernardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to recent technology road maps, system cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. Previous studies have investigated such retrofitting, using theoretical simulations and laboratory tests, but no actual installations were made and tested in practice. This article describes the installation, measured performance and cost effectiveness of a retrofitting solution that converts existing domestic hot water heaters to a solar domestic hot water system. The measured performance is characterised by the monthly and annual solar fractions. The cost effectiveness is evaluated by a life-cycle cost analysis, comparing the retrofitted system to a conventional solar domestic hot water system and the case without any solar heating system. Measurements showed that approximately 50% of the 5000 kWh/year of domestic hot water consumption was saved by the retrofitted system in south Sweden. Such savings are in agreement with previous estimations and are comparable to the energy savings when using a conventional solar domestic hot water system. The life-cycle cost analysis showed that, according to the assumptions and given climate, the return on investment of the retrofitted system is approximately 17 years, while a conventional system does not reach profitability during its lifetime of 25 years.

  14. A method of exploration of the atmosphere of Titan. [hot air balloon heated by solar radiation or planetary thermal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamont, J.

    1978-01-01

    A hot-air balloon, with the air heated by natural sources, is described. Buoyancy is accomplished by either solar heating or by utilizing the IR thermal flux of the planet to heat the gas in the balloon. Altitude control is provided by a valve which is opened and closed by a barometer. The balloon is made of an organic material which has to absorb radiant energy and to emit as little as possible.

  15. X-ray emitting hot plasma in solar active regions observed by the SphinX spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, M.; Reale, F.; Gburek, S.; Terzo, S.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Podgorski, P.; Gryciuk, M.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The detection of very hot plasma in the quiescent corona is important for diagnosing heating mechanisms. The presence and the amount of such hot plasma is currently debated. The SphinX instrument on-board the CORONAS-PHOTON mission is sensitive to X-ray emission of energies well above 1 keV and provides the opportunity to detect the hot plasma component. Methods: We analysed the X-ray spectra of the solar corona collected by the SphinX spectrometer in May 2009 (when two active regions were present). We modelled the spectrum extracted from the whole Sun over a time window of 17 days in the 1.34-7 keV energy band by adopting the latest release of the APED database. Results: The SphinX broadband spectrum cannot be modelled by a single isothermal component of optically thin plasma and two components are necessary. In particular, the high statistical significance of the count rates and the accurate calibration of the spectrometer allowed us to detect a very hot component at ~7 million K with an emission measure of ~2.7 × 1044 cm-3. The X-ray emission from the hot plasma dominates the solar X-ray spectrum above 4 keV. We checked that this hot component is invariably present in both the high and low emission regimes, i.e. even excluding resolvable microflares. We also present and discuss the possibility of a non-thermal origin (which would be compatible with a weak contribution from thick-target bremsstrahlung) for this hard emission component. Conclusions: Our results support the nanoflare scenario and might confirm that a minor flaring activity is ever-present in the quiescent corona, as also inferred for the coronae of other stars.

  16. Prospects for jointly using solar and wind energy for heat supply and hot water supply to private houses under the conditions of Baku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamov, O. M.; Aliev, F. F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the discovery of the potential for jointly using solar and wind energy for heat supply (HS) and hot water supply (HWS) to a one-family private house located in the Apsheron Peninsula. (authors)

  17. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries. A business analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pau, F.; Oremus, M.H.P.

    2003-04-01

    While you refuel for gas, why not refuel for information or download vehicle data? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage, service offering, and full business models from WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional, public) around gas stations. Also analyzed are the parties which play a role in such service authorization, provisioning and delivery, with all the dependencies modelled by attributed digraphs. Service planning is included as to WLAN base station capabilities. Five year financial models (CAPEX,OPEX), and data pertain to two possible service suppliers: multi-service oil companies, and mobile service operators (or MVNO). Model optimization on the return-on-investment (ROI) is carried out for different deployment scenarios, geographical coverage assumptions, as well as tariff structures. Comparison is also being made with public GPRS data services, as precursors for 3G services, and the effect of WLAN roaming is analyzed. Analysis shows that due to manpower costs and marketing costs, suitable ROI will not be achieved unless externalities are accounted for and innovative tariff structures are introduced. Open issues and further research are outlined. Further work is carried out, also with automotive electronics sector, wireless systems providers, wireless terminals platform suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers

  18. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries. A business analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pau, F. [Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus Research Institute of Management ERIM, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oremus, M.H.P. [Rolls Royce (BMW) Germany, Dahlewitz (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    While you refuel for gas, why not refuel for information or download vehicle data? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage, service offering, and full business models from WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional, public) around gas stations. Also analyzed are the parties which play a role in such service authorization, provisioning and delivery, with all the dependencies modelled by attributed digraphs. Service planning is included as to WLAN base station capabilities. Five year financial models (CAPEX,OPEX), and data pertain to two possible service suppliers: multi-service oil companies, and mobile service operators (or MVNO). Model optimization on the return-on-investment (ROI) is carried out for different deployment scenarios, geographical coverage assumptions, as well as tariff structures. Comparison is also being made with public GPRS data services, as precursors for 3G services, and the effect of WLAN roaming is analyzed. Analysis shows that due to manpower costs and marketing costs, suitable ROI will not be achieved unless externalities are accounted for and innovative tariff structures are introduced. Open issues and further research are outlined. Further work is carried out, also with automotive electronics sector, wireless systems providers, wireless terminals platform suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers.

  19. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...

  20. Search for solar axions by the CERN axion solar telescope with 3He buffer gas: closing the hot dark matter gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Da Riva, E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Georgiopoulou, E; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Gómez Marzoa, M; Gruber, E; Guthörl, T; Hartmann, R; Hauf, S; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovčić, K; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krčmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakić, B; Lang, P M; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Shilon, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomás, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2014-03-07

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with (3)He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV ≲ ma ≲ 1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ ≲ 3.3 × 10(-10)  GeV(-1) at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.

  1. Search for Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3 He Buffer Gas: Closing the Hot Dark Matter Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Arik, M.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Cetin, S.A.; Collar, J.I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J.G.; Gazis, E.N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez, H.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Gruber, E.; Guthörl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Lang, P.M.; Laurent, J.M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Lozza, V.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Silva, P.S.; Solanki, S.K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.K.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has finished its search for solar axions with 3^He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV < m_a <1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 3.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of g_a, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope IAXO.

  2. Search for Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with He3 Buffer Gas: Closing the Hot Dark Matter Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Collar, J. I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez, H.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Gruber, E.; Guthörl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Lang, P. M.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Silva, P. S.; Solanki, S. K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; CAST Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with He3 buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV≲ma≲1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ≲3.3×10-10 GeV-1 at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.

  3. The impact of silicon solar cell architecture and cell interconnection on energy yield in hot & sunny climates

    KAUST Repository

    Haschke, Jan

    2017-03-23

    Extensive knowledge of the dependence of solar cell and module performance on temperature and irradiance is essential for their optimal application in the field. Here we study such dependencies in the most common high-efficiency silicon solar cell architectures, including so-called Aluminum back-surface-field (BSF), passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC), passivated emitter rear totally diffused (PERT), and silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. We compare measured temperature coefficients (TC) of the different electrical parameters with values collected from commercial module data sheets. While similar TC values of the open-circuit voltage and the short circuit current density are obtained for cells and modules of a given technology, we systematically find that the TC under maximum power-point (MPP) conditions is lower in the modules. We attribute this discrepancy to additional series resistance in the modules from solar cell interconnections. This detrimental effect can be reduced by using a cell design that exhibits a high characteristic load resistance (defined by its voltage-over-current ratio at MPP), such as the SHJ architecture. We calculate the energy yield for moderate and hot climate conditions for each cell architecture, taking into account ohmic cell-to-module losses caused by cell interconnections. Our calculations allow us to conclude that maximizing energy production in hot and sunny environments requires not only a high open-circuit voltage, but also a minimal series-to-load-resistance ratio.

  4. Eco-services for solar thermal systems. Case studies. The Netherlands and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermelj, M.; Djazalov, A.; Esser, P.; Freire, I.; Grafakos, S.; Kovacs, C.; Villalba, M.P.; Rafaj, P.

    1999-04-01

    To satisfy the consumption requirements from society the demand of materials and energy is increasing. Nowadays the use of conventional energy sources in all economical sectors has negative environmental impacts. The household sector contributes significantly to the CO2 emissions through the use of fossil fuels, as domestic energy sources. The majority of the energy consumed by this sector covers demand for space beating and hot water supply. Some systems, which use renewable energy resources, as solar thermal systems (STS), could be used for the same purpose. If they are integrated in dwellings for hot water provision, the quantity of conventional energy can be reduced significantly. The two main objectives of the study are: (1) Assess the most sustainable consumption pattern for STS (individual or collective use); (2) Assess the most sustainable ownership pattern for STS (owning, leasing or renting) for both consumption patterns. To achieve these two objectives the group focuses the research on the comparison of the consumption and ownership patterns of STS in The Netherlands and Spain. The analysis of environmental, economic and comfort aspects is carried out using the data from relevant case studies in both countries. Each combination of the product/service that results in an environmental benefit without decreasing the economic and comfort benefits is considered as eco-service. The results from this analysis and the recommendations for the target group (European Commission and National governments) are summarised bellow. refs

  5. Air-cooled LiBr-water absorption chillers for solar air conditioning in extremely hot weathers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.S.; Infante Ferreira, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    A low temperature-driven absorption cycle is theoretically investigated for the development of an air-cooled LiBr-water absorption chiller to be combined with low-cost flat solar collectors for solar air conditioning in hot and dry regions. The cycle works with dilute LiBr-water solutions so that risk of LiBr crystallization is less than for commercially available water-cooled LiBr-water absorption chillers even in extremely hot ambient conditions. Two-phase heat exchangers in the system were modelled taking account of the heat and mass transfer resistances in falling film flows by applying the film theory in thermal and concentration boundary layers. Both directly and indirectly air-cooled chillers were modelled by properly combining component models and boundary conditions in a matrix system and solved with an algebraic equation solver. Simulation results predict that the chillers would deliver chilled water around 7.0 deg. C with a COP of 0.37 from 90 deg. C hot water under 35 deg. C ambient condition. At 50 deg. C ambient temperature, the chillers retained about 36% of their cooling power at 35 deg. C ambient. Compared with the directly air-cooled chiller, the indirectly air-cooled chiller presented a cooling power performance reduction of about 30%

  6. Simulation of the interaction of a solar domestic hot water tank system with a compact plate heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizami, D.J.; Lightstone, M.F. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Harrison, S.; Cruickshank, C. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2008-08-15

    An external natural convection heat exchanger (NCHE) was used as an alternative to forced convection for transferring energy from solar collector loops to a hot water storage tank. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was used to predict interactions between the natural convection-driven side-arm heat exchanger and a hot water storage tank. A solar domestic hot water tank with a vertical compact plate natural convection heat exchanger was modelled. In addition, the heat exchanger was modelled as a section of pipe with high flow resistance and a volumetric energy source. Transient analyses were conducted and the CFD model was then compared with data obtained from laboratory experiments. Simulations were conducted on the fluid domain in order to investigate the influence of the flow on the thermal stratification in the tank, the heat transfer inside the tank, and the natural convection in the tank loop. Buoyancy for an incompressible fluid with constant fluid properties was modelled using a Boussinesq approximation. Temperature distributions were measured as a function of time. Results of the study indicated that assuming a constant thermal expansion coefficient in evaluation buoyancy forces for a wide range of operating temperatures did not result in accurate predictions. Future studies will model natural convection with a full buoyancy model. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Designing gondola using satcom services and solar cell energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, M.; Dezen, P.

    Introduction of compact, and lightweight terminals for mobile satellite communication, opens up many opportunities to design new telecommunication systems for balloons. Architecture of this gondola, named Narcisse, is built around a control process unit able to support interface with all Inmarsat services, and Iridium or Thuraya satellite network as well. A first technological gondola was launched from Brazil in February 2001, under a Infra Red Mongolfiere (hot air balloon). This gondola used an Inmarsat terminal C which can support in two ways , store and forward messages at a data rate of 600 bits per second. During the 3 turns around the earth, the system worked well, and demonstrated its ability to handle change over from one geostationary spacecraft to the next, when balloon changes ocean region. Moreover this system provides high telemetry rate (Mbits) or telecommand capability, and greatly increase the performances of the scientific payloads . On the other hand, such types of gondola can be useful to operate long duration flight (days) with large stratospheric balloons, currently limited to range capability of UHF ground station . When line of sight of view is lost, between ground station and gondola, the switch would be made from UHF to the Inmarsat or iridium system to complete the mission. In this case, the TM/TC system has no range or altitude limitation, and the gondola descent trajectory can be followed until the ground improving the localization of landing which will be helpful for recovery operation. So, using a real time duplex mini M Inmarsat terminal, the Narcisse gondola has been operationally involved early 2002 in Archeops project. Launched from Kiruna, Narcisse provided a full duplex 2400bits per second link, all along the flight across Russia. Narcisse has been again involved in march 2003 in Mipas project, using Iridium as a cold redundancy to secure Inmarsat mini M not working at extreme polar regions (latitude more than 80°). During this

  8. Design of nanophotonic, hot-electron solar-blind ultraviolet detectors with a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng

    2014-01-01

    Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) detection refers to photon detection specifically in the wavelength range of 200 nm–320 nm. Without background noises from solar radiation, it has broad applications from homeland security to environmental monitoring. The most commonly used solid state devices for this application are wide band gap (WBG) semiconductor photodetectors (Eg > 3.5 eV). However, WBG semiconductors are difficult to grow and integrate with Si readout integrated circuits (ROICs). In this paper, we design a nanophotonic metal-oxide-semiconductor structure on Si for solar-blind UV detectors. Instead of using semiconductors as the active absorber, we use Sn nano-grating structures to absorb UV photons and generate hot electrons for internal photoemission across the Sn/SiO 2 interfacial barrier, thereby generating photocurrent between the metal and the n-type Si region upon UV excitation. Moreover, the transported hot electron has an excess kinetic energy >3 eV, large enough to induce impact ionization and generate another free electron in the conduction band of n-Si. This process doubles the quantum efficiency. On the other hand, the large metal/oxide interfacial energy barrier (>3.5 eV) also enables solar-blind UV detection by blocking the less energetic electrons excited by visible photons. With optimized design, ∼75% UV absorption and hot electron excitation can be achieved within the mean free path of ∼20 nm from the metal/oxide interface. This feature greatly enhances hot electron transport across the interfacial barrier to generate photocurrent. The simple geometry of the Sn nano-gratings and the MOS structure make it easy to fabricate and integrate with Si ROICs compared to existing solar-blind UV detection schemes. The presented device structure also breaks through the conventional notion that photon absorption by metal is always a loss in solid-state photodetectors, and it can potentially be extended to other active metal photonic devices. (paper)

  9. Tandem solar cells deposited using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, M.K. van

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, the application of the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique for the deposition of silicon thin films is described. The HWCVD technique is based on the dissociation of silicon-containing gasses at the catalytic surface of a hot filament. Advantages of this technique

  10. Hot-compress: A new postdeposition treatment for ZnO-based flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque Choudhury, Mohammad Shamimul, E-mail: shamimul129@gmail.com [Department of Frontier Material, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, b154/a, College Road, Chittagong 4203 (Bangladesh); Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo [Department of Frontier Material, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A new postdeposition treatment named hot-compress is introduced. • Hot-compression gives homogeneous compact layer ZnO photoanode. • I-V and EIS analysis data confirms the efficacy of this method. • Charge transport resistance was reduced by the application of hot-compression. - Abstract: This article introduces a new postdeposition treatment named hot-compress for flexible zinc oxide–base dye-sensitized solar cells. This postdeposition treatment includes the application of compression pressure at an elevated temperature. The optimum compression pressure of 130 Ma at an optimum compression temperature of 70 °C heating gives better photovoltaic performance compared to the conventional cells. The aptness of this method was confirmed by investigating scanning electron microscopy image, X-ray diffraction, current-voltage and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of the prepared cells. Proper heating during compression lowers the charge transport resistance, longer the electron lifetime of the device. As a result, the overall power conversion efficiency of the device was improved about 45% compared to the conventional room temperature compressed cell.

  11. Hybrid solar-PLG system for industrial scale steam and hot water generation; Sistema hibrido solar-GLP para geracao de vapor e agua quente em escala industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco A.; Monteiro, Marcio D.; Gimenes, Andre L.V.; Fujii, Ricardo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GEPEA/EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: saidel@pea.usp.br, e-mail: marcio.monteiro@poli.usp.br, e-mail: gimenes@gmail.com, e-mail: fujii@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents an initiative conceived for attending to objectives of the PUREFA (Program for Rational Use of Energy and Alternative Sources) of the Sao Paulo university, Brazil. The indicative consists of the implantation of a solar collector system for pre-heating of the water used in the production of the steam consumed at the university restaurant, with a production of 5800 meals per day. This system (auxiliary to the original steam boiler) pre-heats the water of the boiler minimizing the energy expenses for the production of steam and hot water.

  12. Test and evaluation of Fern Engineering Company, Incorporated, solar heating and hot water system. [structural design criteria and system effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Tests, test results, examination and evaluation by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc., of a single family solar heating and hot water system consisting of collector, storage, control, transport, and data acquisition are presented. The structural characteristics of the solar flat plate collectors were evaluated according to snow and wind loads indicated in various building codes to determine their suitability for use both Michigan and Pennsylvania where prototype systems were installed. The flame spread classification of the thermal insulation is discussed and the fire tests conducted on components are described. The operation and dielectrics withstand tests of the energy transport module indicate the module is capable of rated air delivery. Tests of the control panel indicate the relay coil temperatures exceed the temperature limits allowed for the insulating materials involved.

  13. Enhancement of stack ventilation in hot and humid climate using a combination of roof solar collector and vertical stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusoff, Wardah Fatimah Mohammad; Salleh, Elias [Department of Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Adam, Nor Mariah [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sapian, Abdul Razak [Department of Architecture, Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yusof Sulaiman, Mohamad [Solar Energy Research Institute, 3rd Floor, Tun Sri Lanang Library Building, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In the hot and humid climate, stack ventilation is inefficient due to small temperature difference between the inside and outside of naturally ventilated buildings. Hence, solar induced ventilation is a feasible alternative in enhancing the stack ventilation. This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of a proposed solar induced ventilation strategy, which combines a roof solar collector and a vertical stack, in enhancing the stack ventilation performance in the hot and humid climate. The methodology selected for the investigation is physical experimental modelling which was carried out in the actual environment. The results are presented and discussed in terms of two performance variables: air temperature and air velocity. The findings indicate that the proposed strategy is able to enhance the stack ventilation, both in semi-clear sky and overcast sky conditions. The highest air temperature difference between the air inside the stack and the ambient air (T{sub i}-T{sub o}) is achieved in the semi-clear sky condition, which is about 9.9 C (45.8 C-35.9 C). Meanwhile, in the overcast sky condition, the highest air temperature difference (T{sub i}-T{sub o}) is 6.2 C (39.3 C-33.1 C). The experimental results also indicate good agreement with the theoretical results for the glass temperature, the air temperature in the roof solar collector's channel and the absorber temperature. The findings also show that wind has significant effect to the induced air velocity by the proposed strategy. (author)

  14. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  15. Mapping Cultural Ecosystem Services in Vilnius using Hot-Spot Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Egarter-Vigl, Lukas; Oliva, Marc; Misiune, Ieva; Keesstra, Saskia; Estebaranz, Ferran; Cerda, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Cultural services in urban areas are very important to promote tourism activities and develop the economy. These activities are fundamental for the sustainability of the urban areas since can represent an important monetary source. However, one of the major threats to the sustainability of cultural services is the high amount of visitants that can lead to a degradation of the services provided (Depellegrin et al., 2016). Mapping the potential of cultural ecosystems services is fundamental to assess the capacity that the territory have to provide it. Previous works used land use classification to identify the ecosystem services potential, and revealed to be a good methodology to attribute to each type of land use a specific capacity (Burkhard et al., 2008). The objective of this work is to map the cultural services in Vilnius area using a hot-spot analysis. Ecosystem services potential was assessed using the matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009), which ranks ES capacity from 0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity to a different land use type. The results showed that with the exception of Cultural Heritage ecosystem services that had a random pattern (Z-score=0.62, pTourism (Z-score=4.02, pReligious and Spiritual (Z-score=3.80, pTourism ecosystem services had the maximum spatial correlation at the distance of 5125.12 m, Landscape Aesthetics at 3495.70 m, Knowledge Systems at 5218.66 m, Religious and Spiritual at 3495.70 m, Cultural Heritage at 6746.17 m and Natural Heritage at 6205.82 m. This showed that the cultural services studied have a different spatial correlation. References Burkhard B, Kroll F, Müller F, Windhorst W. 2009. Landscapes' capacities to provide ecosystem services- a concept for land-cover based assessments. Landscape Online. 15, 1-22. Depellegrin, D.A., Pereira, P., Misiune, I., Egarter-Vigl, L. Mapping Ecosystem Services potential in Lithuania. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455.

  16. WiFi Hot Spot Service Business for the Automotive and Oil Industries: A Competitive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Francois PAU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While you refuel for gas, why not refuel for information or upload vehicle data, using a cheap wireless technology as WiFi? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage, service offering, and full business models from WiFi hot spot services delivered to and from vehicles (private, professional, public around gas stations. Are also analyzed the parties which play a role in such services: authorization, provisioning and delivery, with all the dependencies modelled by attributed digraphs. Account is made of WiFi base station technical capabilities and costs. Five year financial models (CAPEX, OPEX, and data pertain to two possible service suppliers: multi-service oil companies, and mobile service operators (or MVNOs. Model optimization on the return-on-investment (R.O.I. is carried out for different deployment scenarios, geographical coverage assumptions, as well as tariff structures. Comparison is also being made with public GPRS and 3G data services, as precursors to HSPA/LTE, and the effect of WiFi roaming is analyzed. Regulatory implications, including those dealing with public safety, are addressed. Analysis shows that due to manpower costs and marketing costs, suitable R.O.I. will not be achieved unless externalities are accounted for and innovative tariff structures are introduced. Open issues and further research are outlined. Further work is currently carried out with automotive electronics sector, wireless systems providers, wireless terminals platform suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers. Future relevance of this work is also discussed for the emerging electrical reloading grids for electrical vehicles.

  17. Testing of Solar Heated Domestic Hot Water System for Solahart Scandinavia ApS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1997-01-01

    The solar heating system marketed by Solahart Scandinavia ApS was tested in the Institutes test facility for SDHWsystems. The test results are described in the report.......The solar heating system marketed by Solahart Scandinavia ApS was tested in the Institutes test facility for SDHWsystems. The test results are described in the report....

  18. NO THERMAL INVERSION AND A SOLAR WATER ABUNDANCE FOR THE HOT JUPITER HD 209458B FROM HST /WFC3 SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Line, Michael R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States); Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob; Kreidberg, Laura [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel [University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Diamond-Lowe, Hannah [Department of Astronomy, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-10, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The nature of the thermal structure of hot Jupiter atmospheres is one of the key questions raised by the characterization of transiting exoplanets over the past decade. There have been claims that many hot Jupiters exhibit atmospheric thermal inversions. However, these claims have been based on broadband photometry rather than the unambiguous identification of emission features with spectroscopy, and the chemical species that could cause the thermal inversions by absorbing stellar irradiation at high altitudes have not been identified despite extensive theoretical and observational effort. Here we present high-precision Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 observations of the dayside thermal emission spectrum of the hot Jupiter HD 209458b, which was the first exoplanet suggested to have a thermal inversion. In contrast to previous results for this planet, our observations detect water in absorption at 6.2 σ confidence. When combined with Spitzer photometry, the data are indicative of a monotonically decreasing temperature with pressure over the range of 1–0.001 bars at 7.7 σ confidence. We test the robustness of our results by exploring a variety of model assumptions, including the temperature profile parameterization, presence of a cloud, and choice of Spitzer data reduction. We also introduce a new analysis method to determine the elemental abundances from the spectrally retrieved mixing ratios with thermochemical self-consistency and find plausible abundances consistent with solar metallicity (0.06–10 × solar) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios less than unity. This work suggests that high-precision spectrophotometric results are required to robustly infer thermal structures and compositions of extrasolar planet atmospheres and to perform comparative exoplanetology.

  19. Hot-electron-based solar energy conversion with metal-semiconductor nanodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Hyosun; Lee, Changhwan; Hwang, Euyheon; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-06-01

    Energy dissipation at metal surfaces or interfaces between a metal and a dielectric generally results from elementary excitations, including phonons and electronic excitation, once external energy is deposited to the surface/interface during exothermic chemical processes or an electromagnetic wave incident. In this paper, we outline recent research activities to develop energy conversion devices based on hot electrons. We found that photon energy can be directly converted to hot electrons and that hot electrons flow through the interface of metal-semiconductor nanodiodes where a Schottky barrier is formed and the energy barrier is much lower than the work function of the metal. The detection of hot electron flow can be successfully measured using the photocurrent; we measured the photoyield of photoemission with incident photons-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE). We also show that surface plasmons (i.e. the collective oscillation of conduction band electrons induced by interaction with an electromagnetic field) are excited on a rough metal surface and subsequently decay into secondary electrons, which gives rise to enhancement of the IPCE. Furthermore, the unique optical behavior of surface plasmons can be coupled with dye molecules, suggesting the possibility for producing additional channels for hot electron generation.

  20. Cost-effectiveness optimization of a solar hot water heater with integrated storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Syahri, M.; Shahrir, A.; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2006-01-01

    Solar processes are generally characterized by high first cost and low operating costs. Therefore, the basic economic problem is one of comparing an initial known investment with estimated future operating cost. This paper present the cost-benefit ratio of solar collector with integrated storage system. Evaluation of the annual cost (AC) and the annual energy gain (AEG) of the collector are performed and the ratio of AC/AEG or the cost benefit ratio is presented for difference combination of mass flow rate, solar collector length and channel depth. Using these cost-effectiveness curves, the user can select optimum design features, which correspond to minimum AC/AEG

  1. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Karlsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

  2. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  3. Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center is described. Detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are presented.

  4. Solar Cogeneration of Electricity and Hot Water at DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    the cogeneration system displaces more energy (the impact is not 4-5X because the GHG intensity factors for offsetting electricity generation and...visibility to Army energy managers. Additional benefits of Cogenra’s solar cogeneration system are the engineering and design jobs at Cogenra’s...certification. Solar cogeneration can help earn LEED points in three areas: Optimizing Energy Efficiency Performance, On-Site Renewable Energy , and

  5. System design package for SIMS prototype system 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The system consisted of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit, containing solar collectors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping, and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system were packaged for evaluation.

  6. Solar hot water for household and institutional use in Bujumbura, Burundi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katihabwa, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on solar energy which is clean and renewable. It is the primary source for a wide range of energy resources such as biomass, hydraulics, coal, peat and petroleum. Until recently, the sun was the major source of energy used by man to satisfy his needs. The extraction and use of fossil fuels became important with the technological and industrial development that took place in the nineteenth century. For countries without fossil fuels (such as petroleum and coal), solar energy is an important asset. The oil crisis of 1973 clearly showed the limits of fossil fuel consumption. The crisis slowed down and, in some cases, severely hampered economic growth in many developing countries. To this day, fossil fuels remain expensive for many developing countries which have to part with a significant share of their meagre convertible currency resources to import fossil fuels. It is thus imperative that developing countries should investigate the possibility of developing solar energy systems that can reduce their dependence on fossil fuels. In the short term, high investment costs and shortage of qualified manpower are major constraints on the development of solar energy systems. In the long run, however, the benefits of solar energy systems are expected to overcome these constraints. The benefits include low operation costs and non-generation of pollutants. The decentralized nature of solar energy is an asset in the isolated rural areas of Africa. It is possible to build small solar units and this provide energy security and autonomy at the level of a community and even at the level of an individual. Solar energy has, however, one major disadvantage - its energy density is low (1.0 kw per square metre on the earth surface, after taking absorption losses into account)

  7. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Charlotte Memorial Hospital, Charlotte, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Detailed information regarding the design and installation of a heating and hot water system in a commercial application is given. This information includes descriptions of system and building, design philosophy, control logic operation modes, design and installation drawing and a brief description of problems encountered and their solutions.

  8. Thermal performance parameters estimation of hot box type solar cooker by using artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Hueseyin; Atik, Kemal; Oezkaymak, Mehmet; Recebli, Ziyaddin [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Karabuk Technical Education Faculty, 78200 Karabuk (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    Work to date has shown that Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has not been used for predicting thermal performance parameters of a solar cooker. The objective of this study is to predict thermal performance parameters such as absorber plate, enclosure air and pot water temperatures of the experimentally investigated box type solar cooker by using the ANN. Data set is obtained from the box type solar cooker which was tested under various experimental conditions. A feed-forward neural network based on back propagation algorithm was developed to predict the thermal performance of solar cooker with and without reflector. Mathematical formulations derived from the ANN model are presented for each predicting temperatures. The experimental data set consists of 126 values. These were divided into two groups, of which the 96 values were used for training/learning of the network and the rest of the data (30 values) for testing/validation of the network performance. The performance of the ANN predictions was evaluated by comparing the prediction results with the experimental results. The results showed a good regression analysis with the correlation coefficients in the range of 0.9950-0.9987 and mean relative errors (MREs) in the range of 3.925-7.040% for the test data set. The regression coefficients indicated that the ANN model can successfully be used for the prediction of the thermal performance parameters of a box type solar cooker with a high degree of accuracy. (author)

  9. Plasma properties of hot coronal loops utilizing coordinated SMM and solar research rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Three improvements in photographic x-ray imaging techniques for solar astronomy are presented. The testing and calibration of a new film processor was conducted; the resulting product will allow photometric development of sounding rocket flight film immediately upon recovery at the missile range. Two fine grained photographic films were calibrated and flight tested to provide alternative detector choices when the need for high resolution is greater than the need for high sensitivity. An analysis technique used to obtain the characteristic curve directly from photographs of UV solar spectra were applied to the analysis of soft x-ray photographic images. The resulting procedure provides a more complete and straightforward determination of the parameters describing the x-ray characteristic curve than previous techniques. These improvements fall into the category of refinements instead of revolutions, indicating the fundamental suitability of the photographic process for x-ray imaging in solar astronomy.

  10. A hot Jupiter orbiting a 2-million-year-old solar-mass T Tauri star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, J F; Moutou, C; Malo, L; Baruteau, C; Yu, L; Hébrard, E; Hussain, G; Alencar, S; Ménard, F; Bouvier, J; Petit, P; Takami, M; Doyon, R; Collier Cameron, A

    2016-06-30

    Hot Jupiters are giant Jupiter-like exoplanets that orbit their host stars 100 times more closely than Jupiter orbits the Sun. These planets presumably form in the outer part of the primordial disk from which both the central star and surrounding planets are born, then migrate inwards and yet avoid falling into their host star. It is, however, unclear whether this occurs early in the lives of hot Jupiters, when they are still embedded within protoplanetary disks, or later, once multiple planets are formed and interact. Although numerous hot Jupiters have been detected around mature Sun-like stars, their existence has not yet been firmly demonstrated for young stars, whose magnetic activity is so intense that it overshadows the radial velocity signal that close-in giant planets can induce. Here we report that the radial velocities of the young star V830 Tau exhibit a sine wave of period 4.93 days and semi-amplitude 75 metres per second, detected with a false-alarm probability of less than 0.03 per cent, after filtering out the magnetic activity plaguing the spectra. We find that this signal is unrelated to the 2.741-day rotation period of V830 Tau and we attribute it to the presence of a planet of mass 0.77 times that of Jupiter, orbiting at a distance of 0.057 astronomical units from the host star. Our result demonstrates that hot Jupiters can migrate inwards in less than two million years, probably as a result of planet–disk interactions.

  11. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1977-01-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using isolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in isolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  12. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  13. Theoretical model and experimental validation of a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump for domestic hot water applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Rodríguez, A.; González-Gil, A.; Izquierdo, M.; Garcia-Hernando, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has shown the development of a theoretical model to determine the operating parameters and consumption of a domestic hot water (DHW) installation, which uses a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump (DXSAHP) with refrigerant R-134a, a compressor with a rated capacity of 1.1 kW and collectors with a total area of 5.6 m 2 . The model results have been compared and validated the experimental results obtained with the equipment installed at the University Carlos III, South of Madrid. The analysis was conducted over the course of a year, and the results have been represented depending on the meteorological and process variables of several representative days. Taking into account the thermal losses of the installation and the dependency on the operating conditions, the acquired experimental coefficient of performance is between 1.7 and 2.9, while the DHW tank temperature over the course of the study is 51 °C. -- Highlights: ► The study aims to present a new theoretical model and an experimental validation. ► The experimental COP vary between 1.7 and 2.9 (max. condensation temperature 57 °C). ► The operating parameters respond to the solar radiation. The COP may increase up to 50%. ► The useful surface area varies between 50% and 85% of the total surface. ► The system stops if conditions exceed the maximum value of the absorbed heat.

  14. Experimental evidence of hot carriers solar cell operation in multi-quantum wells heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodière, Jean; Lombez, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.lombez@chimie-paristech.fr [IRDEP, Institute of R and D on Photovoltaic Energy, UMR 7174, CNRS-EDF-Chimie ParisTech, 6 Quai Watier-BP 49, 78401 Chatou Cedex (France); Le Corre, Alain; Durand, Olivier [INSA, FOTON-OHM, UMR 6082, F-35708 Rennes (France); Guillemoles, Jean-François [IRDEP, Institute of R and D on Photovoltaic Energy, UMR 7174, CNRS-EDF-Chimie ParisTech, 6 Quai Watier-BP 49, 78401 Chatou Cedex (France); NextPV, LIA CNRS-RCAST/U. Tokyo-U. Bordeaux, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2015-05-04

    We investigated a semiconductor heterostructure based on InGaAsP multi quantum wells (QWs) using optical characterizations and demonstrate its potential to work as a hot carrier cell absorber. By analyzing photoluminescence spectra, the quasi Fermi level splitting Δμ and the carrier temperature are quantitatively measured as a function of the excitation power. Moreover, both thermodynamics values are measured at the QWs and the barrier emission energy. High values of Δμ are found for both transition, and high carrier temperature values in the QWs. Remarkably, the quasi Fermi level splitting measured at the barrier energy exceeds the absorption threshold of the QWs. This indicates a working condition beyond the classical Shockley-Queisser limit.

  15. A Proposal for a Thesaurus for Web Services in Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Benoit; Menard, Lionel; Ranchin, Thierry; Wald, Lucien; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata are necessary to discover, describe and exchange any type of information, resource and service at a large scale. A significant amount of effort has been made in the field of geography and environment to establish standards. Efforts still remain to address more specific domains such as renewable energies. This communication focuses on solar energy and more specifically on aspects in solar radiation that relate to geography and meteorology. A thesaurus in solar radiation is proposed for the keys elements in solar radiation namely time, space and radiation types. The importance of time-series in solar radiation is outlined and attributes of the key elements are discussed. An XML schema for encoding metadata is proposed. The exploitation of such a schema in web services is discussed. This proposal is a first attempt at establishing a thesaurus for describing data and applications in solar radiation.

  16. Solar-based rural electrification policy design: The Renewable Energy Service Company (RESCO) model in Fiji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornan, M. [Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Program, The Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, Acton ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Solar photovoltaic technologies have for some time been promoted as a cost effective means of rural electrification in developing countries. However, institutional structures resulting in poor maintenance have adversely affected the sustainability of past solar projects. In Fiji, the Renewable Energy Service Company (RESCO) program is the latest attempt to promote solar-based rural electrification in a fee-for-service model, aiming to remove the high upfront capital costs associated with solar technologies and using a public-private sector partnership for maintenance. This paper assesses the program using survey and interview data. Major flaws are identified, relating to incorrect treatment of principal-agent problems, information asymmetries, motivational problems, and resourcing of government agencies. General lessons for fee-for-service solar home system models emerge, including that incentives for stakeholders must take centre stage in designing and administering such programs, and that active government support and ownership are required to make programs sustainable. (author)

  17. The Fate of Cool Material in the Hot Corona: Solar Prominences and Coronal Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Antolin, Patrick; Sun, Xudong; Vial, Jean-Claude; Berger, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    As an important chain of the chromosphere-corona mass cycle, some of the million-degree hot coronal mass undergoes a radiative cooling instability and condenses into material at chromospheric or transition-region temperatures in two distinct forms - prominences and coronal rain (some of which eventually falls back to the chromosphere). A quiescent prominence usually consists of numerous long-lasting, filamentary downflow threads, while coronal rain consists of transient mass blobs falling at comparably higher speeds along well-defined paths. It remains puzzling why such material of similar temperatures exhibit contrasting morphologies and behaviors. We report recent SDO/AIA and IRIS observations that suggest different magnetic environments being responsible for such distinctions. Specifically, in a hybrid prominence-coronal rain complex structure, we found that the prominence material is formed and resides near magnetic null points that favor the radiative cooling process and provide possibly a high plasma-beta environment suitable for the existence of meandering prominence threads. As the cool material descends, it turns into coronal rain tied onto low-lying coronal loops in a likely low-beta environment. Such structures resemble to certain extent the so-called coronal spiders or cloud prominences, but the observations reported here provide critical new insights. We will discuss the broad physical implications of these observations for fundamental questions, such as coronal heating and beyond (e.g., in astrophysical and/or laboratory plasma environments).

  18. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  19. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiaochun; Shen, Yi; Shao, Shegang

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and...

  20. Retrofitting Conventional Electric Domestic Hot Water Heaters to Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses—Model Validation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Bernardo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available System cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. In this study, the TRNSYS simulation models of the retrofitting solar thermal system were validated against measurements. Results show that the validated models are in good agreement with measurements. On an annual basis a deviation of 2.5% out of 1099 kWh was obtained between the auxiliary energy from results and from the simulation model for a complete system. Using the validated model a system optimization was carried out with respect to control strategies for auxiliary heating, heat losses and volume of auxiliary storage. A sensitivity analysis was carried out regarding different volumes of retrofitted hot water boiler, DHW profiles and climates. It was estimated that, with adequate improvements, extended annual solar fractions of 60%, 78% and 81% can be achieved for Lund (Sweden, Lisbon (Portugal and Lusaka (Zambia, respectively. The correspondent collector area was 6, 4 and 3 m2, respectively. The studied retrofitted system achieves a comparable performance with conventional solar thermal systems with the potential to reduce the investment cost.

  1. THERMAL RESPONSE OF A SOLAR-LIKE ATMOSPHERE TO AN ELECTRON BEAM FROM A HOT JUPITER: A NUMERICAL EXPERIMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, P.-G.; Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the thermal response of the atmosphere of a solar-type star to an electron beam injected from a hot Jupiter by performing a one-dimensional MHD numerical experiment with nonlinear wave dissipation, radiative cooling, and thermal conduction. In our experiment, the stellar atmosphere is non-rotating and is modeled as a one-dimensional open flux tube expanding super-radially from the stellar photosphere to the planet. An electron beam is assumed to be generated from the reconnection site of the planet's magnetosphere. The effects of the electron beam are then implemented in our simulation as dissipation of the beam momentum and energy at the base of the corona where the Coulomb collisions become effective. When the sufficient energy is supplied by the electron beam, a warm region forms in the chromosphere. This warm region greatly enhances the radiative fluxes corresponding to the temperature of the chromosphere and transition region. The warm region can also intermittently contribute to the radiative flux associated with the coronal temperature due to the thermal instability. However, owing to the small area of the heating spot, the total luminosity of the beam-induced chromospheric radiation is several orders of magnitude smaller than the observed Ca II emissions from HD 179949.

  2. Confinement of hot, hard x-ray producing electrons in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F.; Lilliequist, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    Possible thermal models for solar, hard X-ray emission, consisting of small volumes in which the electrons are rapidly heated to 4 x 10 8 K, are examined to determine under what conditions such models can be more efficient than nonthermal models. The primary energy-loss mechanism in these models is source expansion due to heat conduction which deviates from its classical value by mechanisms which are reviewed and systematized. One such mechanism is saturation of the heat flux at its maximum possible value, corresponding to direct convection by electrons. Another mechanism is anomalous limitation of the heat flux due to instability of the return current which must compensate the electron current carrying the heat. A simple, one-dimensional model in which a section of the flux tube of constant density is heated to 4 x 10 8 K is analyzed. A conduction front, determined by the above collisionless process, moves along the flux tube at the head of the expanding source. A more realistic, one-dimensional, one-fluid, two-temperature model with a spatially and temporally varying energy source which delivers energy to the electrons at a finite rate is formulated and solved numerically. This results in some ion heating and mass motions which, by themselves, represent only a small energy loss. However, because of changes in the anomalous limitation of the heat flux with higher ion temperature, the expansion losses increase considerably

  3. Optimal operation by dynamic programming in a solar/electric hot-water system; Taiyonetsu/denryoku kyuto system no doteki keikakuho ni yoru saiteki un`yo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edo, S; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    With regard to utilization of a solar/electric hot-water system, a discussion was given by using a dynamic programming method on operation of a system which minimizes power charge. The discussed system is an installation in a welfare facility accommodating 100 persons, where solar heat is stored in a heat storage tank from a heat collector, and utilized for hot water supply. If the solar heat is insufficient for required hot water quantity, the water is heated by using an electric heater. The discussion compared the system operation using the dynamic programming method with the following two systems: the operation method 1, which does not utilize insolation forecast and the operation method 2, in which insolation forecast is utilized and late-night electric power is utilized for heating water in shortage. As a result of the calculation, the operation using the dynamic programming method conducts heat storage by utilizing the late-night power even if insolation is sufficient in winter in order to suppress heating by utilizing late-night power for days with less insolation. Thus, suppression is given on excessive utilization of day-time power and on rise in annual maximum power demand. It was found that the present system reduces power consumption by 37.7% when compared with the operation method 1, and 22.7% when compared even with the operation method 2. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Experimental analysis of solar thermal integrated MD system for cogeneration of drinking water and hot water for single family villa in dubai using flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asim, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Leung, Michael K.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental analysis performed on solar thermal integrated membrane distillation (MD) system using flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. The system will be utilized for cogeneration of drinking water and domestic hot water for single family in Dubai comprising of four...... to five members. Experiments have been performed in Ras Al Khaimah Research and Innovation Centre (RAKRIC) facility. The experimental setup has been installed to achieve the required production of 15–25 L/d of drinking water and 250 L/d of hot water for domestic purposes. Experiments have been performed...

  5. Ancillary Services for the European Grid with High Shares of Wind and Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hulle, Frans; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2012-01-01

    to be better understood. This relates both to the technical capabilities of the plants for delivering specific services and to the quantification of the needs. The paper presents the approach of the European IEE project REserviceS, aiming at establishing reference guidance for the ongoing developments......With significantly increasing share of variable renewable power generation like wind and solar PV, the need in the power system for ancillary services supporting the network frequency, voltage, etc. changes. Turning this issue around, market opportunities will emerge for wind and solar PV...... technology to deliver such grid services. In the European power system, adequate market mechanisms need to be developed to ensure that there will be an efficient trading of these services. For that purpose a range of (economic) characteristics of wind (and solar) power as providers of grid services need...

  6. estec2007 - 3rd European solar thermal energy conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-14

    The sessions of the 'estec2007 - 3{sup rd} European Solar Thermal Energy Conference held in Freiburg, Germany have the following titles: The solar thermal sector at a turning point; Cooling and Process Heat, Country reports Europe; Standards and Certification; Country reports outside Europe; Awareness raising and marketing; Domestic hot water and space heating; Domestic hot water and space heating; Quality Assurance and Solar Thermal Energy Service Companies; Collectors and other key technical issues; Policy - Financial incentives; Country Reports; Marketing and Awareness Raising; Quality Assurance Measures/Monistoring; Standards and Certification; Collectors; Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Industrial Process Heat; Storage; Solar Cooling. (AKF)

  7. estec2007 - 3rd European solar thermal energy conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-14

    The sessions of the 'estec2007 - 3{sup rd} European Solar Thermal Energy Conference held in Freiburg, Germany have the following titles: The solar thermal sector at a turning point; Cooling and Process Heat, Country reports Europe; Standards and Certification; Country reports outside Europe; Awareness raising and marketing; Domestic hot water and space heating; Domestic hot water and space heating; Quality Assurance and Solar Thermal Energy Service Companies; Collectors and other key technical issues; Policy - Financial incentives; Country Reports; Marketing and Awareness Raising; Quality Assurance Measures/Monistoring; Standards and Certification; Collectors; Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Industrial Process Heat; Storage; Solar Cooling. (AKF)

  8. Spreading the rooftop revolution: What policies enable solar-as-a-service?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overholm, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Firms using third-party-ownership (TPO) business models transform solar rooftop installations into a simple service. TPO firms sign long-term agreements with building owners or users to install, finance and manage locally sited solar panels. Customers simply buy solar electricity. The business model can increase total PV market demand by removing central barriers to PV adoption including technology risk, financing needs, and learning costs. TPO is now the dominant US model for residential solar and attempts to use the business model are underway in Europe and Asia. This study discusses how policy makers can enable emergence of solar TPO business models in new markets, a theme novel to extant literature. The paper is based on a comprehensive study of the US solar TPO ecosystem including 50 interviews with key market actors. A downside to the TPO model is potential lock-out of innovative solar technology. Crucial policy actions to enable TPO emergence in new markets are to ensure the legality of the TPO model and to facilitate solar self-consumption (the ability of customers to offset grid electricity costs by using locally generated solar electricity). -- Highlights: •Solar third-party ownership (TPO) firms can boost solar rooftop growth. •5 in-depth cases of US TPO firms and their ecosystem of partners are analyzed. •Policy options to enable solar TPO emergence in new markets are suggested. •Avoiding prohibitive rules and facilitating solar self-consumption are key measures. •Lock-out of new and innovative solar technology is a downside to the TPO model

  9. Task assignment No. 3. Solar audience test summary report. [Reactions of viewers to public service advertisements about solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-03

    Audience response to a public service advertisement concerning solar energy was tested. The test was designed to answer four categories of questions: (1) what information on solar energy in general is conveyed by the advertisement. What additional information is desired; (2) what is the reaction of the respondent to specific components or characteristics of the advertisment; (3) how appropriate is the use of the American Indian in conveying the message; and (4) how likely is the respondent to take further action as a result of viewing the advertisment. The rationale and methods for answering each question are discussed. (LEW)

  10. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system; 1974 nendo taiyonetsu reidanbo kyuto system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system. This 3- year project from fiscal 1974 to 1976 aims to predict the share of solar energy in future cooling/heating and hot water supply energy demand, and develop simulation technology. The project surveys and analyzes current domestic and overseas development states, and studies various systems to obtain characteristics of every system, pursuit an optimum implementation, and establish a diffusion plan. Future energy consumptions and prices are predicted in relation to energy saving, and the utilization impact of solar energy is analyzed. Study is also made on diffusion plan, profitability and performance evaluation method. Among these schedules, in fiscal 1974 based on the survey and analysis on previous domestic and overseas development states, features and problems were arranged every system and application. The basic study on system simulation, and rough feasibility study on solar heat systems by conventional technique were carried out. The basic data on performance evaluation standards were also prepared. (NEDO)

  11. Structure and hot-rolled reinforcement rods properties evolution in the process of long service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikryukov, V.R.; Syomin, A.P.; Konovalov, S.V.; Ivanov, Yu.F.; Gromov, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    The physical nature of mechanical properties of hot-rolled reinforcement rods degradation during long-life operation is established by methods of transmission diffraction electron microscopy. It is shown that strength and plasticity properties decrease is due to cementite plates cutting and dissolution, microcracks formation process as a result of interstitial phase inclusions creation in the near-surface layer of material

  12. Structure and hot-rolled reinforcement rods properties evolution in the process of long service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikryukov, V R [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Syomin, A P [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Konovalov, S V [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yu F [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Gromov, V E [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-25

    The physical nature of mechanical properties of hot-rolled reinforcement rods degradation during long-life operation is established by methods of transmission diffraction electron microscopy. It is shown that strength and plasticity properties decrease is due to cementite plates cutting and dissolution, microcracks formation process as a result of interstitial phase inclusions creation in the near-surface layer of material.

  13. EVIDENCE OF THE SOLAR EUV HOT CHANNEL AS A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE FROM REMOTE-SENSING AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONG, H. Q.; CHEN, Y.; Wang, B. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); ZHANG, J. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); CHENG, X. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); HU, Q.; LI, G. [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); WANG, Y. M., E-mail: hqsong@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-07-20

    Hot channels (HCs), high-temperature erupting structures in the lower corona of the Sun, have been proposed as a proxy of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) since their initial discovery. However, it is difficult to provide definitive proof given the fact that there is no direct measurement of the magnetic field in the corona. An alternative method is to use the magnetic field measurement in the solar wind from in situ instruments. On 2012 July 12, an HC was observed prior to and during a coronal mass ejection (CME) by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly high-temperature images. The HC is invisible in the EUVI low-temperature images, which only show the cooler leading front (LF). However, both the LF and an ejecta can be observed in the coronagraphic images. These are consistent with the high temperature and high density of the HC and support that the ejecta is the erupted HC. Meanwhile, the associated CME shock was identified ahead of the ejecta and the sheath through the COR2 images, and the corresponding ICME was detected by the Advanced Composition Explorer, showing the shock, sheath, and magnetic cloud (MC) sequentially, which agrees with the coronagraphic observations. Further, the MC average Fe charge state is elevated, containing a relatively low-ionization-state center and a high-ionization-state shell, consistent with the preexisting HC observation and its growth through magnetic reconnection. All of these observations support that the MC detected near the Earth is the counterpart of the erupted HC in the corona for this event. The study provides strong observational evidence of the HC as an MFR.

  14. Evidence of the Solar EUV Hot Channel as a Magnetic Flux Rope from Remote-sensing and in situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H.

    2015-12-01

    Hot channels (HCs), high-temperature erupting structures in the lower corona of the Sun, have been proposed as a proxy of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) since their initial discovery. However, it is difficult to provide definitive proof given the fact that there is no direct measurement of the magnetic field in the corona. An alternative method is to use the magnetic field measurement in the solar wind from in situ instruments. On 2012 July 12, an HC was observed prior to and during a coronal mass ejection (CME) by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly high-temperature images. The HC is invisible in the EUVI low-temperature images, which only show the cooler leading front (LF). However, both the LF and an ejecta can be observed in the coronagraphic images. These are consistent with the high temperature and high density of the HC and support that the ejecta is the erupted HC. Meanwhile, the associated CME shock was identified ahead of the ejecta and the sheath through the COR2 images, and the corresponding ICME was detected by the Advanced Composition Explorer, showing the shock, sheath, and magnetic cloud (MC) sequentially, which agrees with the coronagraphic observations. Further, the MC average Fe charge state is elevated, containing a relatively low-ionization-state center and a high-ionization-state shell, consistent with the preexisting HC observation and its growth through magnetic reconnection. All of these observations support that the MC detected near the Earth is the counterpart of the erupted HC in the corona for this event. The study provides strong observational evidence of the HC as an MFR.

  15. Use of Spatial Epidemiology and Hot Spot Analysis to Target Women Eligible for Prenatal Women, Infants, and Children Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Christopher; Gradziel, Pat; Geraghty, Estella M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used a geographic information system and cluster analyses to determine locations in need of enhanced Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program services. Methods. We linked documented births in the 2010 California Birth Statistical Master File with the 2010 data from the WIC Integrated Statewide Information System. Analyses focused on the density of pregnant women who were eligible for but not receiving WIC services in California’s 7049 census tracts. We used incremental spatial autocorrelation and hot spot analyses to identify clusters of WIC-eligible nonparticipants. Results. We detected clusters of census tracts with higher-than-expected densities, compared with the state mean density of WIC-eligible nonparticipants, in 21 of 58 (36.2%) California counties (P Hot spot analyses provided a rigorous and objective approach to determine the locations of statistically significant clusters of WIC-eligible nonparticipants. Results helped inform WIC program and funding decisions, including the opening of new WIC centers, and offered a novel approach for targeting public health services. PMID:24354821

  16. Development of Be/Glidcop joint obtained by hot isostatic pressing diffusion bonding for high in-service temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Antonin, F.; Bucci, P.; Burlet, H.; Le Marois, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France); Barberi, D.; Laille, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses some aspects of the beryllium-Glidcop joining by Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion Bonding. The quality of a joint is mainly dependent on the interface microstructure. Thus, as Be/copper direct bonding is not recommended, the choice of interlayers is a critical point. The joining process parameters, i.e. temperature, pressure and time, must take into account the in-service requirements, the mechanical and metallurgical properties of each material. The Be/Glidcop joining process developed at CEA/Grenoble is presented here. (author)

  17. Hai Di Lao Hot Pot: From Employee Stimulation to Service Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C.; Shen, H.; Fan, Daisy X.F.

    2015-01-01

    The management of Chinese restaurant chains has for some time followed the western model while accommodating Chinese customers. The new Hai Di Lao Hot Pot Restaurant chain has established its own management style, pioneering chain catering management to help the Chinese restaurant industry establish a professional image, explore a local management model, and maintain high standards of food safety. The objectives of this case study are to introduce the Hai Di Lao managerial strategy, investiga...

  18. Radiographer emergency department hot reporting: An assessment of service quality and feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Maryann [Division of Radiography, School of Health Studies, University of Bradford, Trinity Road, Bradford, West Yorkshire BD5 0BB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.l.hardy1@bradford.ac.uk; Spencer, Nicholas; Snaith, Beverly [Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiology Department, Pinderfields General Hospital, Aberford Road, Wakefield WF1 4DG (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: Radiographer reporting has been implemented widely as cold reporting. This study aimed to compare hot and cold reports by the same radiographer to establish whether there was any significant difference in the diagnostic outcome. Method: Three experienced radiographers reported 1618 musculoskeletal trauma cases over a 3 month period. These cases were stratified for age (0-17 years; 18-50 years; 51 years+) and a random sample of 400 cases selected (95% confidence interval, 90% power) for delayed reporting. Both reports were independently compared by 2 experienced film readers. Results: Radiographs and notes on 391 (97.8%; n = 391/400) cases were located (age range 3 months to 97 years) for cold reporting. The diagnostic outcome of the reports was concordant in 357 cases (91.3%; n = 357/391) and discrepant in 34 cases (8.7%; n = 34/391). Logistic regression performed on age stratified discrepancies indicated that paediatric cases had increased odds of receiving discrepant reports (OR = 3.34; p = 0.005; 95% CI [1.44-7.74]). Hot and cold report agreement was high ({kappa} = 0.87). McNemar's test demonstrated no significant difference in the report discrepancies (p = 0.189). Conclusion: No significant difference was demonstrated between the diagnostic outcome of radiographer hot reports, issued whilst working within the trauma radiography department at time of patient attendance, and cold reports.

  19. Radiographer emergency department hot reporting: An assessment of service quality and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Spencer, Nicholas; Snaith, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Radiographer reporting has been implemented widely as cold reporting. This study aimed to compare hot and cold reports by the same radiographer to establish whether there was any significant difference in the diagnostic outcome. Method: Three experienced radiographers reported 1618 musculoskeletal trauma cases over a 3 month period. These cases were stratified for age (0-17 years; 18-50 years; 51 years+) and a random sample of 400 cases selected (95% confidence interval, 90% power) for delayed reporting. Both reports were independently compared by 2 experienced film readers. Results: Radiographs and notes on 391 (97.8%; n = 391/400) cases were located (age range 3 months to 97 years) for cold reporting. The diagnostic outcome of the reports was concordant in 357 cases (91.3%; n = 357/391) and discrepant in 34 cases (8.7%; n = 34/391). Logistic regression performed on age stratified discrepancies indicated that paediatric cases had increased odds of receiving discrepant reports (OR = 3.34; p = 0.005; 95% CI [1.44-7.74]). Hot and cold report agreement was high (κ = 0.87). McNemar's test demonstrated no significant difference in the report discrepancies (p = 0.189). Conclusion: No significant difference was demonstrated between the diagnostic outcome of radiographer hot reports, issued whilst working within the trauma radiography department at time of patient attendance, and cold reports

  20. Solar Schematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

  1. Value of solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants to Arizona Public Service Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Arizona Public Service Company has performed a study using historical solar radiation and system load data to (1) estimate the effects of six types of solar generation on system reliability, (2) estimate the central station value of each to its system, (3) and to assess the potential of each of those technologies to provide bulk power to its system in the 2000 time frame. Technologies included three solar thermal (central receiver, dish Stirling, and parabolic trough) and three flat plate photovoltaic plants (fixed position, one axis, and two axis tracking)

  2. Solar project description for Public Service Company of New Mexico (lot 7) single family residence, Rio Rancho, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    A solar space heating/domestic hot water system employing 150 square feet air flat plate collectors and 20,000 pounds of rock for storage is described. The collector, storage, energy to load, and auxiliary heat subsystems and five modes of operation are described. Auxiliary space heating is provided by an electric strip heater in the air ducts. The hot water system consists of an 80 gallon solar preheating tank which supplies a 40 gallon conventional tank. An electric heating element provides auxiliary heating in the preheat tank.

  3. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries :a business analysis Or : "Refuel the car with petrol and information, both ways at the gas station"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François); M.H.P. Oremus

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile you refuel for gas ,why not refuel for information or download vehicle data ? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage , service offering , and full business models from WLAN hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional ,

  4. Occurrence of Legionella in hot water systems of single-family residences in suburbs of two German cities with special reference to solar and district heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Werner; Stanke, Juliane; Harmuth, Margarita; Junge-Mathys, Elisabeth

    2008-03-01

    A total of 452 samples from hot water systems of randomly selected single family residences in the suburbs of two German cities were analysed for the occurrence of Legionella. Technical data were documented using a standardized questionnaire to evaluate possible factors promoting the growth of the bacterium in these small plumbing systems. All houses were supplied with treated groundwater from public water works. Drinking water quality was within the limits specified in the German regulations for drinking water and the water was not chlorinated. The results showed that plumbing systems in private houses that provided hot water from instantaneous water heaters were free of Legionella compared with a prevalence of 12% in houses with storage tanks and recirculating hot water where maximum counts of Legionella reached 100,000 CFU/100ml. The presence of L. pneumophila accounted for 93.9% of all Legionella positive specimens of which 71.8% belonged to serogroup 1. The volume of the storage tank, interrupting circulation for several hours daily and intermittently raising hot water temperatures to >60 degrees C had no influence on Legionella counts. Plumbing systems with copper pipes were more frequently contaminated than those made of synthetic materials or galvanized steel. An inhibitory effect due to copper was not present. Newly constructed systems (water preparation had a marked influence. More than 50% of all houses using district heating systems were colonized by Legionella. Their significantly lower hot water temperature is thought to be the key factor leading to intensified growth of Legionella. Although hot water systems using solar energy to supplement conventional hot water supplies operate at temperatures 3 degrees C lower than conventional systems, this technique does not seem to promote proliferation of the bacterium. Our data show convincingly that the temperature of the hot water is probably the most important or perhaps the only determinant factor for

  5. Simulation study on single family house with solar floor and domestic hot water heating system by EESLISM; EESLISM ni yoru taiyonetsu danbo kyuto jutaku no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, H; Udagawa, M [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Indoor thermal conditions and energy performance were simulated, by the aid of EESLISM as a common simulation program for indoor thermal conditions and energy systems, for an actual two-storied single family house equipped with solar-heated floors and a domestic hot water (DHW) heating system, in order to investigate applicability of the simulation program. The house, built in Shibuya Ward in Tokyo, has a total floor area of 164m{sup 2}, with a living room, dining room and study heated by the solar system for a total floor area of 35m{sup 2}. A heat-storage tank is provided, dedicated to the DHW system. The solar collector is of flat type, with selectively light-absorbing planes, having a total collector area of 11.46m{sup 2}. The operating conditions of the floor-heating and DHW systems are almost reproduced. It is necessary to take surrounding conditions into consideration; solar radiation in daytime will be overestimated if adjacent buildings are neglected to give higher temperature in the space and on the wall on the south than the observed level. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Co-Production Performance Evaluation of a Novel Solar Combi System for Simultaneous Pure Water and Hot Water Supply in Urban Households of UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutakki Tirumala Uday Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most desirable and sparse resource in Gulf cooperation council (GCC region. Utilization of point-of-use (POU water treatment devices has been gaining huge market recently due to increase in knowledge of urban population on health related issues over contaminants in decentralized water distribution networks. However, there is no foolproof way of knowing whether the treated water is free of contaminants harmful for drinking and hence reliance on certified bottled water has increased worldwide. The bottling process right from treatment to delivery is highly unsustainable due to huge energy demand along the supply chain. As a step towards sustainability, we investigated various ways of coupling of membrane distillation (MD process with solar domestic heaters for co-production of domestic heat and pure water. Performance dynamics of various integration techniques have been evaluated and appropriate configuration has been identified for real scale application. A solar combi MD (SCMD system is experimentally tested for single household application for production 20 L/day of pure water and 250 L/day of hot water simultaneously without any auxiliary heating device. The efficiency of co-production system is compared with individual operation of solar heaters and solar membrane distillation.

  7. Validation of a simulation method for forced circulation type of solar domestic hot water heating systems; Kyosei junkangata taiyonetsu kyuto system simulation hoho no kensho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M; Udagawa, M [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, T [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Simulation of solar hot water systems using element model was conducted, in which computation of the convergence of apparatus characteristic values was performed every hour. For each apparatus, the outlet temperature was made a function of the inlet temperature on the basis of the heat balance, from which a simultaneous equation was derived and then solved for the determination of the outlet temperature for the computation of the quantity of heat collected by each apparatus. The actually measured system comprises a planar solar collector, heat storage tank, and heat collector piping. The measurement involved a direct heat collecting system with the medium running from the heat storage tank bottom layer, through the solar collector, and then back to the heat storage tank third layer, and an indirect heat collector system with a heat exchanger provided at the heat storage tank bottom layer. There was no substantial difference between the direct type and the indirect type with respect to the solar collector inlet and outlet temperatures, quantity of heat collected, and the fluctuation in heat storage tank inside temperature distribution relative to time. Difference occurred between the two in tank water temperature distribution, however, when water was extracted in great volume at a time. The quantity of the heat collected by each of the two and the daily integration of the same differed but a little from computed values. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Educational benefits from solar technology-Access to solar electric services and changes in children's study routines, experiences from eastern province Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Solar technology is diffused in many parts of the world with the ambition to improve the situation in rural areas. One claimed benefit of solar power at household level is improved situation for studies. The aim of this article is to analyse the impacts that access to solar electric services can have on education in a rural setting. The results presented concern the use of solar home systems related to children's possibilities to study at night and their exposure to TVs and radios are based on two surveys. Children are reported to spend more time studying after getting solar services than prior. They do not complain to the same extent about the light as the children living in houses without solar electric light. TV and radio cassette players are found in many households. Most households served have at least one household member with a formal income, a typical occupation is teacher. A number of schools also have access to solar services through the ESCO-project. The possibility to arrange evening classes is appreciated. Targeting schools serves as a possibility to improve the educational services offered in the rural setting, benefiting all students and not only those that can afford solar at home

  9. Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems[Solar Domestic Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Soeren

    2004-07-01

    This thesis, 'Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems', describes a study of the heat transfer and flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers for low-flow Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems. The heat storage is a key component in SDHW systems and the vertical mantle heat exchanger is one of the most promising heat storage designs for low-flow SDHW systems. The study was carried out using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Thermal experiments of mantle heat exchangers with different mantle inlet designs showed that the mantle inlet port with advantage can be located a distance from the top of the mantle. Consequently, the mantle heat exchangers marketed today can be improved by changing the mantle inlet position. The heat transfer and flow structure in mantle heat exchangers are rather complex and the thermal experiments were followed by investigations by means of advanced experimental and numerical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Using a transparent glass mantle tank, experimental flow visualisation was carried out with a PIV system. The flow structures inside the mantle and inside the tank were visualised and then compared with the flow structures predicted by CFD-models. The investigations showed that the CFD-models were able to model the flow in the mantle and in the tank correctly. The CFD-models were also validated by means of thermal experiments with a steel mantle tank. With the verified CFD-models, a parameter analysis was carried out for differently designed mantle heat exchangers for different typical conditions to reveal how the mantle tank parameters influence the flow structure and heat transfer in mantle heat exchangers. The heat transfer in the mantle near the mantle inlet port showed to be in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from the inlet increased, natural convection started to dominate. The

  10. Nuclear combined heat and power - analyses of hot water pipeline breaks in a service tunnel with Apros simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henttonen, T.; Paananen, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a computer model and simulation results for a long-distance heat transport system. The system can be used e.g. to transport heat from a nuclear power plant with combined heat and power (CHP) production. CHP production is considered for new build NPP projects in Finland. Emphasis is on the environmental conditions during a hot water pipeline break in a service tunnel. The modelled pipeline system is designed to transport 1000 MW of heat over a distance of 77 km for district heating purposes. The hot water pipeline is assumed to be 1200 mm diameter with a water temperature of 120 deg. C. Cooled water returns with a temperature of 55 - 60 deg. C in a similar 1200 mm diameter pipe. Both pipelines are installed to a service tunnel which is excavated into bedrock and divided into 2 kilometres long compartments. Both the 77 km long pipeline and the tunnel are modelled with Apros simulation software. A leak is modelled from the pipeline to the tunnel and the results are analyzed. This paper includes three different leak sizes (1 %, 10 % and 100 % of the pipeline's cross-sectional area). The leaks are calculated with water temperatures of 95 deg. C and 120 deg. C in the pipeline. Apros calculates dynamically the phenomena inside the pipeline with two-phase 6-equation calculation model. The tunnel conditions are calculated with a lumped parameter model. The size of the leak has a substantial effect on the leak's consequences in the tunnel. Also the water temperature in the pipeline influences the results strongly. If the water temperature is over 100 deg. C, a considerable amount of the water boils as it leaks to the tunnel. The boiling of water makes the conditions in the tunnel much more severe than they would otherwise be. If there is a substantial flow out of the tunnel, the air in the tunnel can be replaced by hot steam. Obviously, this can mean hazardous conditions in the tunnel. (authors)

  11. Utilizing hot electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozik, Arthur J.

    2018-03-01

    In current solar cells, any photon energy exceeding the semiconductor bandgap is lost before being collected, limiting the cell performance. Hot carrier solar cells could avoid these losses. Now, a detailed experimental study and analysis shows that this strategy could lead to an improvement of the photoconversion efficiency in practice.

  12. Practice of Meteorological Services in Turpan Solar Eco-City in China (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Chang, R.; He, X.; Jiang, Y.; Zhao, D.; Ma, J.

    2013-12-01

    Turpan Solar Eco-City is located in Gobi in Northwest China, which is one of the National New Energy Demonstration Urban. The city was planed and designed from October of 2008 and constructed from May of 2010, and the first phase of the project has been completed by October of 2013. Energy supply in Turpan Solar Eco-City is mainly from PV power, which is installed in all of the roof and the total capacity is 13.4MW. During the planning and designing of the city, and the running of the smart grid, meteorological services have played an important role. 1) Solar Energy Resource Assessment during Planning Phase. According to the observed data from meteorological stations in recent 30 years, solar energy resource was assessed and available PV power generation capacity was calculated. The results showed that PV power generation capacity is 1.3 times the power consumption, that is, solar energy resource in Turpan is rich. 2) Key Meteorological Parameters Determination for Architectural Design. A professional solar energy resource station was constructed and the observational items included Global Horizontal Irradiance, Inclined Total Solar Irradiance at 30 degree, Inclined Total Solar Irradiance at local latitude, and so on. According these measured data, the optical inclined angle for PV array was determined, that is, 30 degree. The results indicated that the annual irradiation on inclined plane with optimal angle is 1.4% higher than the inclined surface with latitude angle, and 23.16% higher than the horizontal plane. The diffuse ratio and annual variation of the solar elevation angle are two major factors that influence the irradiation on inclined plane. 3) Solar Energy Resource Forecast for Smart Grid. Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model was used to forecast the hourly solar radiation of future 72 hours and the measured irradiance data was used to forecast the minutely solar radiation of future 4 hours. The forecast results were submitted to smart grid and used to

  13. Solar heating still in the early stages. Changes for hot water production - VDI meeting 'Efficient heating systems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehringer, P

    1976-10-01

    More and more realism replaces the initial euphoria concerning the discussion on solar heating. Not only the possibilities are considered these days, but also the limits of this still controversial way of heating. This impression was deepened by a meeting of the VDI-Gesellschaft Technische Gebaeudeausruestung (Society for the technical equipment of buildings) held in Bonn. The heating of water with solar energy during the summer is viewed optimistically by the experts - as far as space heating is concerned, the sun collector is conceded only a very modest position in Central Europe within integrated heating systems. It is true that solar technology in the USA is already very sophisticated and economically feasible in many cases; however, techniques cannot be adopted unconditionally for Europe, as the average values of global solar radiation are much lower here. Thus, different technologies will be required.

  14. The impact of silicon solar cell architecture and cell interconnection on energy yield in hot & sunny climates

    KAUST Repository

    Haschke, Jan; Seif, Johannes P.; Riesen, Yannick; Tomasi, Andrea; Cattin, Jean; Tous, Loï c; Choulat, Patrick; Aleman, Monica; Cornagliotti, Emanuele; Uruena, Angel; Russell, Richard; Duerinckx, Filip; Champliaud, Jonathan; Levrat, Jacques; Abdallah, Amir A.; Aï ssa, Brahim; Tabet, Nouar; Wyrsch, Nicolas; Despeisse, Matthieu; Szlufcik, Jozef; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    architectures, including so-called Aluminum back-surface-field (BSF), passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC), passivated emitter rear totally diffused (PERT), and silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. We compare measured temperature coefficients (TC

  15. Single and multijunction silicon based thin film solar cells on a flexible substrate with absorber layers made by hot-wire CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo

    2007-09-01

    With the worldwide growing concern about reliable energy supply and the environmental problems of fossil and nuclear energy production, the need for clean and sustainable energy sources is evident. Solar energy conversion, such as in photovoltaic systems, can play a major role in the urgently needed energy transition in electricity production. Solar cells based on thin film silicon and its alloys are a promising candidate that is capable of fulfilling the fast increasing demand of a reliable solar cell supply. The conventional method to deposit silicon thin films is based on plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) techniques, which have the disadvantage of increasing film inhomogeneity at a high deposition rate when scaling up for the industrial production. In this thesis, we study the possibility of making high efficiency single and multijunction thin film silicon solar cells with the so-called hot-wire CVD technique, in which no strong electromagnetic field is involved in the deposition. Therefore, the up-scaling for industrial production is straightforward. We report and discuss our findings on the correlation of substrate surface rms roughness and the main output parameter of a solar cell, the open circuit voltage Voc of c-Si:H n i p cells. By considering all the possible reasons that could influence the Voc of such cells, we conclude that the near linear correlation of Voc and substrate surface rms roughness is the result the two most probable reasons: the unintentional doping through the cracks originated near the valleys of the substrate surface due to the in-diffusion of impurities, and the high density electrical defects formed by the collision of columnar silicon structures. Both of them relate to the morphology of substrate surface. Therefore, to have the best cell performance on a rough substrate surface, a good control on the substrate surface morphology is necessary. Another issue influencing the performance of c-Si:H solar cells is the

  16. Cascade Utilization of Energy in Solar Photovoltaic Hot Water System%太阳能光伏热水系统的能量梯级利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关欣; 王艳迪; 向勇涛; 郭志波

    2012-01-01

    为了实现太阳能光伏发电系统中用于冷却太阳能电池的低品位热能利用,本文提出了太阳能光伏热水系统。通过对单体光伏光热系统(PV/T)的实验研究表明,在单体PV/T放置角度为30°,流量为200 L/h时,集热效率可达到最大值65.6%,系统的平均发电效率为14.3%,瞬时综合效率最大为83%,达到了能量的梯级利用。%To realize the use of low-grade thermal energy after cooling solar cells in solar photovoltaic systems,this paper puts forward a solar photovoltaic hot water system(PV/T).The experiment of the PV/T system shows,at the condition that inclination is 30°,and flow rate is 200 L/h,the maximum heat-collecting efficiency can be achieved at 65.6%and the average power generation efficiency is 14.3%, the maximum instantaneous overall efficiency is 83%,which realize the cascade utilization of energy.

  17. Solar Flare Prediction Science-to-Operations: the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Themelis, Konstantinos; Magiati, Margarita; Angelopoulou, Georgia

    2016-07-01

    We attempt a synoptical overview of the scientific origins of the Athens Effective Solar Flare Forecasting (A-EFFort) utility and the actions taken toward transitioning it into a pre-operational service of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The preferred method for solar flare prediction, as well as key efforts to make it function in a fully automated environment by coupling calculations with near-realtime data-downloading protocols (from the Solar Dynamics Observatory [SDO] mission), pattern recognition (solar active-region identification) and optimization (magnetic connectivity by simulated annealing) will be highlighted. In addition, the entire validation process of the service will be described, with its results presented. We will conclude by stressing the need for across-the-board efforts and synergistic work in order to bring science of potentially limited/restricted interest into realizing a much broader impact and serving the best public interests. The above presentation was partially supported by the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort project, ESA Contract No. 4000111994/14/D/MRP. Special thanks go to the ESA Project Officers R. Keil, A. Glover, and J.-P. Luntama (ESOC), M. Bobra and C. Balmer of the SDO/HMI team at Stanford University, and M. Zoulias at the RCAAM of the Academy of Athens for valuable technical help.

  18. Analysis and modeling of hot extrusion die for its service life enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Syed Sohail

    Aluminum extrusion finds extensive application in the construction, automobile and aerospace industries. High pressures, elevated temperatures, complex and intricate section geometries lead to repeated mechanical and thermal stresses in the die and affiliated tooling. Product rework and rejects can be traced back to various defects spread over the die life cycle: die design, die manufacture and heat treatment, process parameters, inprocess die maintenance/correction and, billet type and quality. Therefore, improved and efficient service life of die and related tooling used in the extrusion press is one the most important factors in maximizing productivity and minimizing cost for ensuring the economical efficiency of an aluminum extrusion plant. How often a die has to be scrapped and replaced with a new one directly contributes to the commercial viability of producing a certain profile. The focus of the current work is on three distinct yet inter-related studies pertaining to the improvement of aluminum extrusion die. Study-A (Die Failure Analysis) is an investigation of various modes and critical failure types based on industrial data (Chapter-2 ), examination of failed dies and finite element simulation for identification of critical process parameters and design features in die fatigue-life (Chapter-3). In Study-B (Die Surface Hardening Treatment), two-stage controlled gas nitriding process for H13 steel is evaluated, both experimentally and numerically, in terms of nitrided case morphology and properties (Chapter-4) followed by experimental and numerical investigation of the effects of repeated nitriding (Chapter-5), pre-nitriding surface preparation (Chapter-6) and die profile geometry (Chapter-7) on nitriding performance in regard to die service life. In Study-C (Effect of Billet Quality on Die Life), the effect of billet quality and related influencing extrusion parameters on the die service life is investigated based on industrial data and some regression

  19. Development of a Performance Calculation Program for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems with Improved Prediction of Thermal Stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon; Li, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in a hot water tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss were investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and by thermal measurements in previous investigation. It is elucidated how thermal stratification in the tank is influenced...... by the natural convection and how the heat loss from the tank sides will be distributed at different levels of the tank at different thermal conditions....

  20. Golden Rays - July 2017 | Solar Research | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    , subscribe to the Solar Newsletter. SUBSCRIBE Hot Topics Two solar installers secure solar panels on the roof that has the potential to improve the efficiency of solar panels while leveraging existing

  1. Effect of solar radiation on the performance of cross flow wet cooling tower in hot climate of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banooni, Salem; Chitsazan, Ali

    2016-11-01

    In some cities such as Ahvaz-Iran, the solar radiation is very high and the annual-mean-daily of the global solar radiation is about 17.33 MJ m2 d-1. Solar radiation as an external heat source seems to affect the thermal performance of the cooling towers. Usually, in modeling cooling tower, the effects of solar radiation are ignored. To investigate the effect of sunshade on the performance and modeling of the cooling tower, the experiments were conducted in two different states, cooling towers with and without sunshade. In this study, the Merkel's approach and finite difference technique are used to predict the thermal behavior of cross flow wet cooling tower without sunshade and the results are compared with the data obtained from the cooling towers with and without sunshade. Results showed that the sunshade is very efficient and it reduced the outlet water temperature, the approach and the water exergy of the cooling tower up to 1.2 °C, 15 and 1.1 %, respectively and increased the range and the efficiency of the cooling tower up to 29 and 37 %, respectively. Also, the sunshade decreased the error between the experimental data of the cooling tower with sunshade and the modeling results of the cooling tower without sunshade 1.85 % in average.

  2. Who's hot, who's not? Effects of concentrating solar power heliostats on soil temperature at Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System, Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodsky, S.; Hernandez, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Solar energy development may function as a contemporary, anthropogenic driver of disturbance when sited in natural ecosystems. Orientation and density of solar modules, including heliostats at concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities, may affect soils via shading and altered surface-water flow. Meanwhile, soil attributes like temperature and moisture may affect nutrient cycling, plant germination and growth, and soil biota. We tested effects of CSP heliostats on soil temperature at Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS) in the Mojave Desert, USA. We implemented experimental treatments based on preconstruction rare plant [e.g., Mojave milkweed (Asclepias nyctaginifolia)] protection areas (hereafter "halos"), site preparation activities, and heliostat density throughout three, replicated CSP blocks (i.e., tower and associated heliostats), including: (1) No Halos (Bladed) - high site preparation intensity, high heliostat density immediately surrounding towers; (2) No Halos (Mowed) - moderate site preparation intensity, moderate to low heliostat density as distance increases from towers; and (3) Halos - no site preparation, no heliostats. We also established control sites within 1,600 km of ISEGS in undisturbed desert. We observed significant differences in soil temperature across treatments. We recorded significantly lower soil temperatures in the No Halos (Bladed) treatments (26.7°C) and No Halos (Mowed) treatments (29.9°C) than in the Halos treatments (32.9°C) and controls (32.1°C). We also determined that soil temperatures in the Halos treatments and controls did not significantly differ. Our results indicated that shading from high-density heliostat configuration significantly reduced soil temperature relative to low-density heliostat configuration and areas without CSP. Shading from heliostats and consequential fluctuation in soil temperatures may affect local-scale distribution of flora and fauna, leading to altered "bottom-up" ecological

  3. Using hot lab to increase pre-service physics teacher’s critical thinking skills related to the topic of RLC circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A.; Setiawan, A.; Suhandi, A.; Permanasari, A.; Samsudin, A.; Safitri, D.; Lisdiani, S. A. S.; Sapriadil, S.; Hermita, N.

    2018-05-01

    This research purposes to explore the used of Higher Order Thinking Laboratory (HOT-Lab) in enhancing the critical thinking skills of pre-service teachers related to the topic of Resistors, Inductors, Capacitor (RLC circuit). This study utilised a quasi-experiment method with Pretest-Posttest Control Group design. The sample of the study was 60 students that were divided into two groups covering in experiment and control group, consists of 30 students. The instrument for measuring critical thinking skills is essay test. Data has been analyzed using normalized gain average, effect size, and t-test. The results show that students’ critical thinking skills using the HOT Lab are higher than the verification lab. Using HOT-lab was implemented in the form of activity in the laboratory can improve high-order thinking skills. Hence, it was concluded that the use of HOT Lab had a greater impact on improving students’ critical thinking skills on RLC topic. Finally, HOT Lab can be used for other physics topics.

  4. Development of Low-Cost Solar Water Heater Using Recycled Solid Waste for Domestic Hot Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Din Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the development of a low-cost solar water heater (SWH system by utilizing solid waste material as part of system elements. Available technologies of the solar water heater systems, heat collectors and its components were reviewed and the best system combinations for low cost design were chosen. The passive-thermosiphon system have been chosen due to its simplicity and independency on external power as well as conventional pump. For the heat collector, flat plate type was identified as the most suitable collector for low cost design and suits with Malaysia climate. Detail study on the flat plate collector components found that the heat absorber is the main component that can significantly reduce the solar collector price if it is replaced with recycled solid waste material. Review on common solid wastes concluded that crushed glass is a non-metal material that has potential to either enhance or become the main heat absorber in solar collector. A collector prototype were then designed and fabricated based on crashed glass heat collector media. Thermal performance test were conducted for three configurations where configuration A (black painted aluminum absorber used as benchmark, configuration B (crushed glass added partially that use glass for improvement, and lastly configuration C (black colored crushed glass that use colored glass as main absorber. Result for configuration B have shown a negative effect where the maximum collector efficiency is 26.8% lower than configuration A. Nevertheless, configuration C which use black crushed glass as main heat absorber shown a comparable maximum efficiency which is at 82.5% of the maximum efficiency for configuration A and furthermore have shown quite impressive increment of efficiency at the end of the experiment. Hence, black colored crushed glass is said to have quite a good potential as the heat absorber material and therefore turn out to be a new contender to other non

  5. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  6. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system; 1976 nendo taiyonetsu reidanbo kyuto system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1974-76 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems. Research was made on survey and analysis of current R and D states, system analysis, energy impact analysis, installation sites of solar collectors, diffusion policy, profitability, and performance evaluation method. Main research results obtained are as follows. The effect of solar cooling/heating and hot water supply on the Japanese energy demand in 2000 is estimated to be 13% for residences and 5% for the other buildings. Environment pollution derived from solar cooling/heating is extremely less than that from conventional energy quantitatively. The facility cost is estimated to be probably 27,000yen/m{sup 2} in collector cost, and nearly 100,000yen/t in heat storage tank cost. As design data for solar cooling/heating systems, the estimation method of heat collection for every solar radiation rank, performance comparison of honeycomb type collectors, and various data for air heat collection systems are presented. (NEDO)

  7. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  8. HOT 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    2016-01-01

    HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....

  9. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research on solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply; 1977 nendo taiyo netsu reidanbo kyuto system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at research and development of utilization of solar energy for air conditioning and hot water supply, as part of the researches on systems under Sunshine Project for utilization of solar energy. This project is focused on the research items, selected from those pursued by the 3-year project beginning in FY1974 as the ones considered to be important for the future diffusion and promotion of the systems for utilization of solar energy. The 3-year project has produced the software and hardware results, based on development of the devices and construction of a solar house. At this stage of time, it is pointed out that studies on economic viability of the system, development of the software for diffusion of the solar systems, and development of new, more suitable systems and methods for utilization of solar energy are important. In this fiscal year, the four themes (studies on economic viability of the conceptual solar system designs, simplified methods for designing the systems, evaluation of system performance, and studies on energy-saving effects and economic viability) are taken up, viewed from development of the software for diffusion and promotion of the systems for utilizing solar energy, based on the results obtained by the previous 3-year project. (NEDO)

  10. Standard Guide for On-Site Inspection and Verification of Operation of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures and test methods for conducting an on-site inspection and acceptance test of an installed domestic hot water system (DHW) using flat plate, concentrating-type collectors or tank absorber systems. 1.2 It is intended as a simple and economical acceptance test to be performed by the system installer or an independent tester to verify that critical components of the system are functioning and to acquire baseline data reflecting overall short term system heat output. 1.3 This guide is not intended to generate accurate measurements of system performance (see ASHRAE standard 95-1981 for a laboratory test) or thermal efficiency. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine th...

  11. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in a two story office building at a utilities company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World, is described. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled water. Performance to date has equaled or exceeded design criteria.

  12. Demonstration of Essential Reliability Services by a 300-MW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutan, Clyde; Klauer, Peter; Chowdhury, Sirajul; Hall, Stephen; Morjaria, Mahesh; Chadliev, Vladimir; Milam, Nick; Milan, Christopher; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2017-03-24

    The California Independent System Operator (CAISO), First Solar, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a demonstration project on a large utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plant in California to test its ability to provide essential ancillary services to the electric grid. With increasing shares of solar- and wind-generated energy on the electric grid, traditional generation resources equipped with automatic governor control (AGC) and automatic voltage regulation controls -- specifically, fossil thermal -- are being displaced. The deployment of utility-scale, grid-friendly PV power plants that incorporate advanced capabilities to support grid stability and reliability is essential for the large-scale integration of PV generation into the electric power grid, among other technical requirements. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, PV power plants can be used to mitigate the impact of variability on the grid, a role typically reserved for conventional generators. In August 2016, testing was completed on First Solar's 300-MW PV power plant, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to use grid-friendly controls to provide essential reliability services. These data showed how the development of advanced power controls can enable PV to become a provider of a wide range of grid services, including spinning reserves, load following, voltage support, ramping, frequency response, variability smoothing, and frequency regulation to power quality. Specifically, the tests conducted included various forms of active power control such as AGC and frequency regulation; droop response; and reactive power, voltage, and power factor controls. This project demonstrated that advanced power electronics and solar generation can be

  13. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  14. The integration of solar power plants for domestic water services in buildings; Integracion de calderas y calentadores individuales en las instalaciones de ACS con energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J. V.; Garcia, R.; Lopez de Subijana, R.; Casado, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    The integration of solar power plants for domestic water services in buildings with individual heating and domestic water facilities has some problems which must be solved by the manufacturers of boilers and individual heaters; the most important is the water temperature in the entrance to the individual equipment because of solar heating. Therefore, we must care about materials in boilers and heaters, and temperature control systems of domestic water production. We analyse the technical conditions which appear in these equipment in the usual schemes: Centralized accumulation, distributed accumulation, serial heating, etc., and propose some elements which can be integrated in these facilities to obtain a better operation. (Author)

  15. Application of elements of systems for solar heating and hot water supply in medical planning modules and submodules; Prilagane na elementi na sistemi za slynchevo otoplenie i dostavyane na topla voda v meditsinski planirovychni moduli i podmoduli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrova, L. [Civil Engineering Higher School, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    Here is reviewed the application of some characteristic elements of well-known innovative solutions of systems for solar heating and hot water supply in buildings - in medical modules and submodules in extreme situations - natural disaster, industrial average or military conflict. Also are given exemplary schemes of situation of the characteristic elements of the planning schemes of selected modules in accordance with the dimensions of the refrigeration chambers. (author)

  16. Information work: solar energy. Home heating, hot water production, cooling, power generation. Volume 1. Informationswerk sonnenenergie. Hausheizung, warmwasserbereitung, kuehlung, stromgewinnung. Band 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Seven articles on various aspects of solar energy utilization are compiled. The topics discussed are solar home heating in modular construction, recommedations for private and industrial new construction, legal aspects in solar energy installations, solar state diagrams as an aid for improving solar planning data for construction, insolation and clouds, network of stations and observation sites for radiation measurements in Germany, and solar collectors for air medium. (JSR)

  17. Effects of hot airflow during spin-coating process on CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Ohishi, Yuya; Oku, Takeo

    2018-01-01

    CH3NH3PbI3-xClx photovoltaic devices were fabricated, and the effects of hot airflow during spin-coating were investigated. Cubic perovskite crystals that is a high temperature phase were obtained by the hot airflow method. The conversion efficiencies of the devices prepared by the hot airflow were remained even after 56 days.

  18. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobson, Arne [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Ga Rick [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Alstone, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Khare, Amit [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  19. Baking hot. Burger King is testing a restaurant with solar power supply; Unter der Sonne braten. Der Fastfood-Riese Burger King testet ein Restaurantkonzept mit Solaranlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaizl, Mira

    2010-07-15

    At Waghaeusel in the German state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, the local solar provider Wirsol Solar AG constructed a restaurant building for the Burger King GmbH. The building consumes comparably little energy and has a solar roof for photovoltaic power generation. Burger King hopes for good money and a clean image, while Wirsol Solar is hoping for new projects in Europe and in the USA. (orig.)

  20. Effect of insolation forecasting error on reduction of electricity charges for solar hot water system; Taiyonetsu kyuto system no denki ryokin sakugen koka ni oyobosu nissharyo yosoku gosa no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A solar hot water system can be economically operated if inexpensive midnight power is purchased to cover the shortage of solar energy predicted for the following day. Investigations were conducted because error in insolation prediction affects the system operation and electric charge reduction effect. The target temperature of the heat accumulation tank at every predetermined time point is calculated on the previous evening in consideration of predicted insolation so that the water will be as hot as prescribed at the feeding time on the following day. Midnight power is used for uniform heating to attain the target temperature for 7 o`clock on the following morning. The uniform heating continues from 8 o`clock to the feeding time, this time using solar energy and daytime power to attain the target temperature. Accordingly, the division between the midnight power and daytime power is determined in view of the target temperature for 7 o`clock on the following morning, which target temperature is so set that the charge will be the minimum by optimizing the allocation of the above-said two. When the insolation prediction error rate is beyond 30%, the electric charge grows higher as the rate rises. But, when the rate is not higher than 30%, the charge is little affected by a rise in the rate. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  2. HOT 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen......Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  3. HOT 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  4. HOT 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet....

  5. Prospects of concentrating solar power to deliver key energy services in a developing country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakosta, Charikleia; Pappas, Charalampos; Psarras, John [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Management and Decision Support Systems Lab (NTUA-EPU), 9, Iroon Polytechniou str., 15780, Athens (Greece)

    2011-07-01

    One of today's greatest challenges is the response to the worldwide continuously increasing energy demand. The need for supply of electricity is getting greater year by year. In addition, climate change problems and the limited fossil resources require new sustainable electricity generation options, which utilize Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and are economical in the meantime. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) generation is a proven renewable energy technology that has the potential to become cost-effective in the future. This analysis explores for Chile the potential of CSP to deliver key energy services for the country. The specific technology has a significant technical potential within Chile, but 'somehow' do not receive sufficient attention from relevant stakeholders, because of gaps either in stakeholders' awareness of the technology or in domestic research and development (R and D) and/or public/private investment. The aim of this paper is to establish a well-informed discussion on the feasibility and potential of the specific sustainable energy technology, namely the CSP technology, within a given country context and particularly Chile. It provides an overview of the fundamental (macro-economic) forces within an economy and identifies some of the blockages and barriers that can be expected when introducing a new technology.

  6. Hot-spot analysis applied to the identification of potential high and low regulating, providing and cultural ecosystem services in Vilnius Region (Lithuania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Daniel, Depellegrin; Egarter-Vigl, Lukas; Cerda, Artemi; Estebaranz, Ferran; Misiune, Ieva

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) potential assessment is crucial for a correct territorial planning at different scales of analysis (Depellegrin et al., 2016). In urban and peri-urban areas, sprawl, grazing and unsustainable agriculture practices contributed to land degradation and de decrease of the quality and quantity of the services provided by these areas (Eldridge and Delgado-Baquerizo, 2017; Favretto et al., 2017). In order to understand the spatial pattern of these impacts, mapping ES potential is key to understand the areas that need to be restored and protected for an unsustainable use (Brevik et al., 2016; Egarter-Vigl et al., 2017; Pereira et al., 2017). Hot-spot analysis is a good method to identify clusters of areas with high and low capacity for ES capacity. This analysis is very useful to detect homogeneous areas, where ES have high or low quality. The objective of this work is to apply a hot-spot analysis to detect areas with high/low capacity for Regulating, Provision, Cultural and Total ES in Vilnius region. ES potential was carried out based on the matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009), which ranks ES capacity from 0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity to a different land use type. The results showed that regulating, providing and cultural and total ES have a significant dispersed (low-clustered) pattern: Regulating (Z-score=-19.28, pInternational Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455. Egarter-Vigl, L., Depellegrin, D., Pereira, P., De Groot, D., Tappeiner, U. (2017) Mapping the ecosystem service delivery chain: Capacity, flow, and demand pertaining to aesthetic experiences in mountain landscapes, Science of the Total Environment, 574, 442-436. Eldridge, D.J., Delgado-Baquerizo, M. (2017) Continental-scale impacts of livestock grazing on ecosystem supporting and regulating services. Land Degradation and Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2668 Favretto, N., Lueding, E., Stringer, L., Dougill, A.J. (2017) Valuing

  7. 工程型太阳能热泵热水系统节能效益分析%Energy-saving Benefit Analysis of Engineering Type Solar Energy Hot Water System in Conjunction with Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    According to the engineering case region meteorological data and solar resource characteristics,the solar energy centralized heating system in Conjunction with heat pump used in the hotel is analyzed based on saving benefits. By means of comprehensive analyzing of annual amount of energy saving,cost saving,payback period for the increase of the initial investment,as well as environmental benefits of the solar energy heat pump hot water system,it is indicated that solar energy heat pump hot water system project not only has the very high heat efficiency and environmental adaptability but also has high economy efficiency. It is a kind of heating water systems of ideal high quality.%  根据工程案例地区气象参数及太阳能资源特点,对已投入宾馆使用的太阳能热泵集中供热水系统进行节能效益分析。通过对太阳能热泵热水系统的年节能量,节省费用,系统增加的初投资的回收年限,以及太阳能热泵热水系统的环保效益进行综合分析。表明工程型太阳能热泵热水系统不仅具有很高的热效率和环境适应性同时具有较高的经济性,是一种理想的高品质供热水系统。

  8. Medical Services at an International Summer Camp Event Under Hot and Humid Conditions: Experiences From the 23rd World Scout Jamboree, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takemasa; Mizutani, Keiji; Iwai, Toshiyasu; Nakashima, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    The 23rd World Scout Jamboree (WSJ) was a 10-day summer camp held in Japan in 2015 under hot and humid conditions. The attendees comprised 33,628 people from 155 countries and territories. The aim of this study was to examine the provision of medical services under such conditions and to identify preventive factors for major diseases among long-term campers. Data were obtained from WSJ medical center records and examined to clarify the effects of age, sex, and period on visit frequencies and rates. Medical records from 3215 patients were examined. Daytime temperatures were 31.5±3.2°C and relative humidity was 61±13% (mean±SD). The initial visit rates among scouts and adults were 72.2 and 77.2 per 1000 persons, respectively. No significant age difference was observed in the initial visit rate; however, it was significantly higher among female patients than male patients. Significant differences were also seen in the adjusted odds ratios by age, sex, and period for disease distributions of initial visit frequencies. In addition, a higher initial visit frequency for heat strain-related diseases was seen among the scouts. Initial visit frequencies for heatstroke and/or dehydration increased just after opening day and persisted until closing day. Our findings suggest the importance of taking effective countermeasures against heat strain, fatigue, and unsanitary conditions at the WSJ. Medical services staff should take attendees' age, sex, and period into consideration to prevent heat strain-related diseases during such camps under hot and humid conditions. Copyright © 2018 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of solar energy; Proceedings of the First Southeastern Conference, Huntsville, Ala., March 24-26, 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Christensen, D. L.; Head, R. R.; Whitacre, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Topics related to architectural and institutional considerations are discussed along with studies of components and subsystems. Subjects in the area of system design and analysis are also explored. Residential and commercial applications are considered, taking into account hot-water usage in a typical single-family residence, solar heating and cooling of mobile homes, aspects of design and performance in the case of a solar heating system using a reflective pyramid optical condenser, solar heating in a Boston school, a performance analysis of solar service hot water systems, comparative performance analyses of three solar heated and cooled buildings, and the use of solar energy in a soybeam processing operation. Applications related to power generation are also examined, giving attention to solar thermal electric power systems and photovoltaic research. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  10. Development of an economic solar heating system with cost efficient flat plate collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder-Milchgeisser, W.; Burkart, R.

    1980-10-01

    Mass produced flat plate solar collectors were worked into the design of a system for heating a swimming pool and/or providing domestic hot water. The collector characteristics, including physical and mechanical data as well as theoretical energy conversion efficiency, are presented. The collector was tested and service life efficiency was determined. The mounting of the collector, depending on roof type, is explained. Both in service and laboratory test results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of the system. Further improvement of efficiency is envisaged with automatic flow control in the solar collector and hot water circuits.

  11. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of solar systems for condominiums); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shugo jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-06-01

    This project is aimed at technological development of economical solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply for condominiums. The major items for the FY 1977 programs include (1) designs and fabrication of equipment for a test building, (2) development of the equipment materials, and (3) system analysis. The jobs for item (1) include management of the designs and construction, placing an order for the building, and fabrication of an air conditioner expander and heat pump; those for item (2) include simplification of a condensing type and plate type heat collector structures, weather-resistance of the plate type heat collector structure, and materials for selective absorbing membranes and reflectors; and those for item (3) include estimation of heat loads in a model building, first to third floors as the test building, and fourth to 14th floors as the conventional box-shaped building. The heat collector installation area is investigated for a multistory building, for which solar radiation intensity at the heat-receiving plane and the like are taken into account. It is found that the solar system can be installed, when an area of 50m{sup 2} can be allocated to the system in each story. There is a limit to story number for the solar system to economically work for air conditioning and hot water supply. Sufficient insulation of the system and reduction in pipe length by zoning are the necessary measures against heat losses. (NEDO)

  12. The Design of Hot Water Supply System of Solar Energy and Air Source Heat Pump%太阳能+空气源热泵的热水供应系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢春萍

    2015-01-01

    太阳能集中热水系统受到天气的影响难以全天候运行,需要设置辅助加热装置。以广州市宾馆热水供应为例,对太阳能空气源热泵的热水系统进行设计,包括空气源热泵热水机组选型计算、太阳能集热管面积计算、储热水箱的确定、集热循环水泵的确定。%Influenced by weather condition,it is difficult to run for hot water supply system of solar en-ergy all the time,and the auxiliary heating device need setting.Taking hot water supply in a hotel of Guangzhou city as an example in this paper,the heat pump system of solar energy and air source was designed,including the calculation of equipment selection of the air source heat pump, the calculation of the collector area,the determination of the heat storage tank,and the determina-tion of the circulating pump of the heat collection.

  13. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission . XIII. CoRoT-13b: a dense hot Jupiter in transit around a star with solar metallicity and super-solar lithium content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J.; Bruntt, H.; Ollivier, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, R.; Almenara, J.-M.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Deleuil, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Gillon, M.; Guenther, E. W.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Havel, M.; Hébrard, G.; Jorda, L.; Léger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Lammer, H.; Lovis, C.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ofir, A.; von Paris, P.; Pätzold, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Tingley, B.; Titz-Weider, R.; Wuchterl, G.

    2010-11-01

    We announce the discovery of the transiting planet CoRoT-13b. Ground-based follow-up in CFHT and IAC80 confirmed CoRoT's observations. The mass of the planet was measured with the HARPS spectrograph and the properties of the host star were obtained analyzing HIRES spectra from the Keck telescope. It is a hot Jupiter-like planet with an orbital period of 4.04 days, 1.3 Jupiter masses, 0.9 Jupiter radii, and a density of 2.34 g cm-3. It orbits a G0V star with T_eff = 5 945 K, M* = 1.09 M⊙, R_* = 1.01 R⊙, solar metallicity, a lithium content of + 1.45 dex, and an estimated age of between 0.12 and 3.15 Gyr. The lithium abundance of the star is consistent with its effective temperature, activity level, and age range derived from the stellar analysis. The density of the planet is extreme for its mass, implies that heavy elements are present with a mass of between about 140 and 300 {M}⊕. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany and Spain. Part of the observations were obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6-m European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile (ESO program 184.C-0639). Based on observations made with the IAC80 telescope operated on the island of Tenerife by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. Part of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics

  14. Solar Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  15. HOT 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  16. HOT 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  17. Application of solar chargers to prospection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caille, G.

    1960-01-01

    The use of conventional batteries has certain disadvantages, and for this reason high-voltage batteries have been gradually replaced in all prospection instruments by transistor supply systems, using less cumbersome sources of energy. All the same low voltages are still necessary, and in hot or damp countries the use of these batteries leads to consumptions out of all proportion to the services rendered. This is why the use of solar energy possesses real advantages. After a brief review of the basic ideas on semiconductors, this article describes a selenium solar battery which was developed by the Westinghouse brakes and signals society. (author) [fr

  18. Preliminary design package for solar collector and solar pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A solar-operated pump using an existing solar collector, for use on solar heating and cooling and hot water systems is described. Preliminary design criteria of the collector and solar-powered pump is given including: design drawings, verification plans, and hazard analysis.

  19. Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

  20. Standard Practice for Installation and Service of Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems for One- and Two-Family Dwellings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides descriptions of solar domestic water heating systems and sets forth installation and service practices in new and existing one- and two-family dwellings to help ensure adequate operation and safety., 1.2 This practice applies regardless of the fraction of heating requirement supplied by solar energy, the type of conventional fuel used in conjunction with solar, or the heat transfer fluid (or fluids) used as the energy transport medium. However, where more stringent requirements are recommended by the manufacturer, these manufacturer requirements shall prevail. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Sections 6 and 7.

  1. Pre-service Teacher Extraneous Cognitive Load in the Pedagogical Content and Knowledge of Solar System Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, I.; Redjeki, S.; Hamidah, I.; Safitri, N.

    2017-09-01

    This study reported the student’s Extraneous Cognitive Load (ECL) in the Pedagogical Content and Knowledge of solar system Course. Participants in the study were 31 pre-service elementary school teachers from the university in Bogor Indonesia. The data collected from ECL were obtained using a Likert 4-scale questionnaire and interview. After taking lectures, we asked for some mental effort from pre-service elementary school teachers to attend courses in order to assess the ECL. The courses include 3 topics and they were non-experimental worksheet, developing experimental worksheet using Vee Diagram framework, and analysis for curriculum by grade IV, V and VI. Results of the data analysis showed that the course strategy resulted by ECL was relatively low. The ECL increased in the course of curriculum analysis due to material complexity.

  2. Assessment of SEPS solar array technology for orbital service module application

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Work performed in the following assessment areas on the SEPS solar array is reported: (1) requirements definition, (2) electrical design evaluation, (3) mechanical design evaluation, and (4) design modification analysis. General overall assessment conclusions are summarized. There are no known serious design limitations involved in the implementation of the recommended design modifications. A section of orbiter and array engineering drawings is included.

  3. Enrichment services for chromium isotopes for the GALLEX (gallium experiment) international collaboration experiment on solar neutrino flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szady, Andrew J.

    1990-07-01

    Detailed discussions were held with members of the Gallium Experiment (GALLEX) international solar neutrino research collaboration concerning negotiations to provide $1.4 million in services to enrich (50)Cr for a (51)Cr neutrino source. The source will be used to calibrate the 20-ton gallium solar neutrino detector currently in place in the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. Funding approval for the enrichment services is expected from the European Common Market by October 19, 1990. The discussions focused on the technical aspects of the enrichment, the health and safety requirements for handling the process gas, cost projections, schedule, the Work-for-Others contract, and the method of payment. Discussions were also held with members of the Nuclear Physics Dept. at the University of Milan concerning the availability of isotopes enriched by the Calutron at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Very high purity material is needed to grow crystals for use in double beta decay detectors. Finally, working sessions were held to draft a coauthored paper on the results of using the gas centrifuge to remove trace quantities of (85)Kr from natural xenon.

  4. Exploring the link between products and services in low-income markets—Evidence from solar home systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebe, Christian A.; Flotow, Paschen von; Täube, Florian A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the key challenges of energy access in emerging markets and developing countries is how to reach households and communities that are unlikely to get a grid connection in the long term or those that are connected to the grid but suffer from regular blackouts or low voltage. By surveying entrepreneurs selling Solar Home Systems (SHSs) on a commercial basis in emerging and developing countries, this study is one of the first attempts to quantify the key elements of four potential Product Service Systems (PSSs): Cash, Credit, Leasing and Fee-for-Service. Whereas the Fee-for-Service approach was found to be suitable only under certain conditions, all PSSs share two key elements for successful market deployment: one or more years of maintenance, and customer support in financing these customers' new asset. Moreover, it appears that private sector companies are in principle able to deliver SHSs to households with incomes greater than USD 1000 per year. The implications for policy makers and development aid agencies are, first, to include maintenance services into public programmes or public–private partnerships and, second, to explicitly consider financial risks for entrepreneurs (e.g., customer commitment and repayment conditions). - Highlights: ► Explorative quantitative study among entrepreneurs across different low-income markets. ► Specific combinations of product and service are identified and evaluated. ► Cash, Credit and Leasing can be feasible from a private sector point of view. ► Fee-for-Service is very challenging for the private sector without any policy support. ► Combining the SHS with services such as finance and maintenance is key to success.

  5. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (Phase O). Volume 1: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, CA.

    The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings. Five selected building types in 14 selected cities were used to determine loads for space heating, space cooling and dehumidification, and domestic service hot water heating. Relying on existing and…

  6. Solar thermal in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This article gives details of Plan Soleil established in 2000 by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management and its identification of solar hot water systems and combined domestic solar hot water and space heating as promising sectors for development. The setting up of a support scheme for investment by Plan Soleil is discussed along with subsidies and grants, manufacturers and importers, the guarantee of solar results, and the quality of plants, components, and installers. The costs of thermal solar equipment, and results of the French assessment programme are considered. The need for quality standards is stressed

  7. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  8. Application of Air Source Heat Pump plus Solar Energy in Domestic Hot Water Preparation System%空气源热泵+太阳能在热水制备系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 卢强; 郭萌; 赵勇

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the commonly used heating modes and gives a detailed introduction of both air source heat pump technology and solar heating technology. Combined with the actual project, the steam heating system of hot water is changed into air source heat pump plus solar heating. By analyzing the actual enetgy consumption data, we obtain the energy -saving value, thus achieve the goal of energy efficiency.%通过对常用供热方式的分析,并对空气源热泵技术、太阳能制热技术原理的介绍,结合工程实际情况,将原蒸汽加热制热水方式改造为空气源热泵+太阳能制热。通过对实际能耗数据的经济分析,得出改造后的节能价值,达到了节约能源的目的。

  9. Warm and hot electron distribution in the inner magnetosphere and the plasmasheet region related to the magnetospheric indices and the solar wind parameters: a statistical study form the NOAA POES TED and MEPED data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscher, Daniel; Rochel Grimald, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    Using DMSP satellites, low altitude measurements has demonstrated to give a good picture of the plasmasheet population. The NOAA POES satellites are a constellation of five spacecraft orbiting in a polar orbit between 800 and 850 km and covering a wide L-shell range. They provide fourteen years of data without interruption which allow to make statistical study of the inner magnetosphere and the plasmasheet population. Moreover, since 2002, three of the NOAA POES satellites are located at different local times allowing to deduce the plasmasheet properties, even for huge magnetic activity. This paper present a statistical study of the warm and hot electron density over an energy range [0.16 ; 300] keV and between 1 and 12 Re. We present here maps in Mac Ilwain L paramater / MLT and we use the magnetic indices and solar wind parameter to classify our observations. The results show a clear motion of the plasmapause when Kp increase, which is in agreement with previous results, but it also show changes of the plasmapause shape and strong density variations in the night side sector. Moreover, a clear link between the solar wind parameters, in particular Bz, and the density distribution has been established. Unexpected distributions have been observed in the dayside and will be discussed here.

  10. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on system for multiple dwelling); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shugo jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This R and D was intended to develop the following technologies for the purpose of putting into practice an innovative system that performs cooling/heating and hot-water supply for a multiple dwelling economically by solar energy: development of equipment constituting solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system, and development of a system which uses such equipment and which is inexpensive and safe as well as easy for inspection and maintenance. In fiscal 1979, a study was implemented in which emphasis was placed on the experiment of a test housing with a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system incorporated for the purpose of proving the results of the research since fiscal 1974. In the overall flow of this project, the following research contents were partially performed or being performed successively during the period of seven years. (1) Examination of various methods, (2) Development of thermally driven freezer, (3) High performance heat collecter, (4) Heat storage device, (5) Types of multiple dwelling suitable for solar energy utilization, (6) Construction of experimental multiple dwelling, (7) Experiment in houses actually in use by people, (8) Confirmation of system improvements and results on the basis of experimental measurements, and (9) Evaluation as a solar system for multiple dwelling. (NEDO)

  11. Prediction of transits of Solar system objects in Kepler/K2 images: an extension of the Virtual Observatory service SkyBoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, J.; Carry, B.; Vachier, F.; Eggl, S.; Santerne, A.

    2016-05-01

    All the fields of the extended space mission Kepler/K2 are located within the ecliptic. Many Solar system objects thus cross the K2 stellar masks on a regular basis. We aim at providing to the entire community a simple tool to search and identify Solar system objects serendipitously observed by Kepler. The sky body tracker (SkyBoT) service hosted at Institut de mécanique céleste et de calcul des éphémérides provides a Virtual Observatory compliant cone search that lists all Solar system objects present within a field of view at a given epoch. To generate such a list in a timely manner, ephemerides are pre-computed, updated weekly, and stored in a relational data base to ensure a fast access. The SkyBoT web service can now be used with Kepler. Solar system objects within a small (few arcminutes) field of view are identified and listed in less than 10 s. Generating object data for the entire K2 field of view (14°) takes about a minute. This extension of the SkyBoT service opens new possibilities with respect to mining K2 data for Solar system science, as well as removing Solar system objects from stellar photometric time series.

  12. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  13. Solar water lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarov, B A; Gonchar, V I; Maymerdangulyyev, G; Orekhova, N P; Ryabikov, S V; Strevkov, D S; Tereshin, V D; Yurin, Ye M

    1982-01-01

    A water lifter is described which contains a pump, whose piston is kinematically connected to the drive element made of material with thermal-mechanical memory of the shape in the hot state, and a solar heater.

  14. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis.......HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  15. Hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures

  16. Solar Tyrol project: using climate data for energy production estimation. The good practice of Tyrol in conceptualizing climate services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitta, Marcello; Wagner, Jochen; Costa, Armin; Monsorno, Roberto; Innerebner, Markus; Moser, David; Zebisch, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The scientific community in the last years is largely discussing the concept of "Climate services". Several definitions have been used, but it still remains a rather open concept. We used climate data from analysis and reanalysis to create a daily and hourly model of atmospheric turbidity in order to account the effect of the atmosphere on incoming solar radiation with the final aim of estimating electric production from Photovoltaic (PV) Modules in the Alps. Renewable Energy production in the Alpine Region is dominated by hydroelectricity, but the potential for photovoltaic energy production is gaining momentum. Especially the southern part of the Alps and inner Alpine regions offer good conditions for PV energy production. The combination of high irradiance values and cold air temperature in mountainous regions is well suited for solar cells. To enable more widespread currency of PV plants, PV has to become an important part in regional planning. To provide regional authorities and also private stakeholders with high quality PV energy yield climatology in the provinces of Bolzano/Bozen South Tirol (Italy) and Tyrol (Austria), the research project Solar Tyrol was inaugurated in 2012. Several methods are used to calculate very high resolution maps of solar radiation. Most of these approaches use climatological values. In this project we reconstructed the last 10 years of atmospheric turbidity using reanalysis and operational data in order to better estimate incoming solar radiation in the alpine region. Our method is divided into three steps: i) clear sky radiation: to estimate the atmospheric effect on solar radiation we calculated Linke Turbidity factor using aerosols optical depth (AOD), surface albedo, atmospheric pressure, and total water content from ECMWF and MACC analysis. ii) shadows: we calculated shadows of mountains and buildings using a 2 meter-resolution digital elevation model of the area and GIS module r.sun modified to fit our specific needs. iii

  17. Energy from solar balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grena, Roberto [C. R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Solar balloons are hot air balloons in which the air is heated directly by the sun, by means of a black absorber. The lift force of a tethered solar balloon can be used to produce energy by activating a generator during the ascending motion of the balloon. The hot air is then discharged when the balloon reaches a predefined maximum height. A preliminary study is presented, along with an efficiency estimation and some considerations on possible realistic configurations. (author)

  18. Solar Training Network and Solar Ready Vets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalstrom, Tenley Ann

    2016-09-14

    In 2016, the White House announced the Solar Ready Vets program, funded under DOE's SunShot initiative would be administered by The Solar Foundation to connect transitioning military personnel to solar training and employment as they separate from service. This presentation is geared to informing and recruiting employer partners for the Solar Ready Vets program, and the Solar Training Network. It describes the programs, and the benefits to employers that choose to connect to the programs.

  19. Solar Technology Curriculum, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    This curriculum guide contains lecture outlines and handouts for training solar technicians in the installation, maintenance, and repair of solar energy hot water and space heating systems. The curriculum consists of four modular units developed to provide a model through which community colleges and area vocational/technical schools can respond…

  20. Homemade Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Through the use of NASA Tech Briefs, Peter Kask, was able to build a solarized domestic hot water system. Also by applying NASA's solar energy design information, he was able to build a swimming pool heating system with minimal outlay for materials.

  1. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  2. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  3. Solar thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-07-15

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  4. Surface-Plasmon-Driven Hot Electron Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; He, Shuai; Guo, Wenxiao; Hu, Yue; Huang, Jiawei; Mulcahy, Justin R; Wei, Wei David

    2017-11-30

    Visible-light-driven photochemistry has continued to attract heightened interest due to its capacity to efficiently harvest solar energy and its potential to solve the global energy crisis. Plasmonic nanostructures boast broadly tunable optical properties coupled with catalytically active surfaces that offer a unique opportunity for solar photochemistry. Resonant optical excitation of surface plasmons produces energetic hot electrons that can be collected to facilitate chemical reactions. This review sums up recent theoretical and experimental approaches for understanding the underlying photophysical processes in hot electron generation and discusses various electron-transfer models on both plasmonic metal nanostructures and plasmonic metal/semiconductor heterostructures. Following that are highlights of recent examples of plasmon-driven hot electron photochemical reactions within the context of both cases. The review concludes with a discussion about the remaining challenges in the field and future opportunities for addressing the low reaction efficiencies in hot-electron-induced photochemistry.

  5. Long-term energy storage tanks for dwellings and solar house architecture. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The design and installation of hot water storage tanks as accumulators of solar energy is presented. Solar house architecture which maximizes roof, solar collector energy absorption potential is then considered. Proposals for residential areas which include solar houses are made.

  6. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  7. A web service for controlling the quality of measurements of global solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, M.; Menard, L.; Wald, L. [Ecole des Mines, Paris (France). Centre d' Energetique; Diabate, L. [UFAE/GCMI, Bamako (Mali)

    2002-12-01

    The control of the quality of irradiation data is often a prerequisite to their further processing. Though data are usually controlled by meteorological offices, the sources are so numerous that the user often faces time-series of measurements containing questionable values. As customers of irradiation data, we established our own procedures to screen time-series of measurements. Since this problem of quality control is of concern to many researchers and engineers and since it is often a lengthy and tedious task, we decided to make this screening procedure available to everyone as a web service. This service is the purpose of this paper. The objective is not to perform a precise and fine control, an objective out of reach without details on the site and instruments, but to perform a likelihood control of the data and to check their plausibility. This is achieved by comparing observations with some expectations based upon the extraterrestrial irradiation and a simulation of the irradiation for clear skies. This service is available to everyone on the Web site www.helioclim.net. It offers a very convenient means to check time-series of irradiation: data are input in a HTML page by a copy and paste procedure and the return is also a HTML page that can be analyzed in detail for the data flagged as suspicious. (author)

  8. Mars Solar Balloon Lander, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Solar Balloon Lander (MSBL) is a novel concept which utilizes the capability of solar-heated hot air balloons to perform soft landings of scientific...

  9. The 1995 total solar eclipse: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.

    A number of experiments were conducted during the total solar eclipse of October 24, 1995. First time efforts were made to photograph the solar corona using IAF jet aircrafts and transport planes ad hot air balloons.

  10. Profile in solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.; Woods, A.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews an innovative solar hot water heater and its inventor/entrepreneur. It includes the inventor's strategy for developing and marketing the product and his ideas on the state of the solar industry in general. There is a brief description of the solar water heater which has as prominent features its skylight-like appearance, resistance to freeze damage, simplicity and low cost

  11. High Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Constructed with Composites of TiO2 and the Hot-bubbling Synthesized Ultra-Small SnO2 Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ru; Zhang, Shouwei; Ding, Liping; Wan, Lei; Qin, Shengxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Xu, Jinzhang; Miao, Shiding

    2016-01-13

    An efficient photo-anode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should have features of high loading of dye molecules, favorable band alignments and good efficiency in electron transport. Herein, the 3.4 nm-sized SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) of high crystallinity, synthesized via the hot-bubbling method, were incorporated with the commercial TiO2 (P25) particles to fabricate the photo-anodes. The optimal percentage of the doped SnO2 NCs was found at ~7.5% (SnO2/TiO2, w/w), and the fabricated DSSC delivers a power conversion efficiency up to 6.7%, which is 1.52 times of the P25 based DSSCs. The ultra-small SnO2 NCs offer three benefits, (1) the incorporation of SnO2 NCs enlarges surface areas of the photo-anode films, and higher dye-loading amounts were achieved; (2) the high charge mobility provided by SnO2 was confirmed to accelerate the electron transport, and the photo-electron recombination was suppressed by the highly-crystallized NCs; (3) the conduction band minimum (CBM) of the SnO2 NCs was uplifted due to the quantum size effects, and this was found to alleviate the decrement in the open-circuit voltage. This work highlights great contributions of the SnO2 NCs to the improvement of the photovoltaic performances in the DSSCs.

  12. Hot Flow Anomaly formation by magnetic deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsager, T.G.; Thomsen, M.F.; Winske, D.

    1990-01-01

    Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) are localized plasma structures observed in the solar wind and magnetosheath near the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. The authors present 1-D hybrid computer simulations illustrating a formation mechanism for HFAs in which the single, hot, ion population results from a spatial separation of two counterstreaming ion beams. The higher-density, cooler regions are dominated by the background (solar wind) ions, and the lower-density, hotter, internal regions are dominated by the beam ions. The spatial separation of the beam and background is caused by the deflection of the ions in large amplitude magnetic fields which are generated by ion/ion streaming instabilities

  13. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  14. Established Companies meet Start-ups : Case: A service to research developing business models in start-up hot spots around the globe

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenblätter, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a business model with the aim to improve conversation between traditional companies and newly established start-ups. The assumption that such conversation can be facilitated by scouting for innovation in start-up hot spots around the world, will be discussed throughout the paper. The purpose of this work is to lay out a plan which can be presented to a first range of possible customers, with the goal of negotiating a trial cooperation. Before introducing the busi...

  15. Combined heat and power and solar energy; BHKW und solare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, M.; Schmidt, A.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at a new apartment complex in Buelach, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie' low energy-consumption standard and also features solar-thermal heat generation. This solar installation provides heat for the provision of domestic hot water and, also, heat for the space-heating system of the building complex. The solar collectors cover an area of 153 m{sup 2}; their power is rated at 96 kW. Further elements of the building's technical services include a combined heat and power plant, a heat-pump and a gas-fired boiler. The article discusses ecological and social aspects of the design and construction of the building complex and briefly describes the installations, which also include a 'Minergie' fan-assisted balanced ventilation system.

  16. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for apartment houses); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shugo jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system for apartment houses. In the system research, comparative study was made on facility costs and operation costs per heat load between previous and solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for apartment houses. In the working design for apartment houses, various calculation necessary for start of work, and preparation of detail drawings and specifications were made. In development of solar collector, the test loop and collector were prepared using full-scale collector elements for medium-scale performance tests. In development of heat accumulator, inorganic hydrate was selected as heat storage material using latent heat for the confirmation test of basic physical properties. In development of solar cooling/heating equipment, the confirmation test of Rankine engine's performance, controllability and durability was made under real load. In addition, the refrigerator of nearly 20 tons of refrigeration driven by Rankine engine was fabricated, (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for new detached houses); 1994 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shinchiku kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 result on the solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system. The report includes the system analysis result (collection of existing technical data, analysis of weather conditions, profitability assessment, concept design of the primary experimental house), and the research result on equipment and materials (view and evaluation of existing technologies, selective transparent and absorption materials, the primary prototype solar heat collector model, refrigerator). As the study result, the spheroidal experimental house was adopted. The solar heat utilization system is a central air-conditioning equipment composed of heating by hot water obtained from the solar heat collector, and cooling by absorption refrigerator. Heat collection efficiencies were measured for (1) stainless steel substrate collector, (2) copper substrate collector, and (3) glass pipe collector prepared as prototype collectors. (2) was higher in heat collection efficiency than (1). The efficiency of (3) hardly increased by rise in heat collection temperature due to vacuum structure and selective absorption membrane. Further measurement of such characteristics is necessary at higher temperatures. (NEDO)

  18. Proceedings of the General Assembly 2016 on solar heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, Francois; Porcheyre, Edwige; Mouvet, Celine; Humbert, Adrien; SEGUIS, Anne-Sophie; Manteau, Olivier; Roland, Joel; LAPLAGNE, Valerie; Chavagnac, Jean-Francois; Godin, Olivier; Long, Guy; Tamri, Laila; Parrens, Gael; Neveux, Guillaume; Fourmessol, Thomas; Cholin, Xavier; Mugnier, Daniel; Berthomieu, Nadine; Loyen, Richard; Benabdelkarim, Mohamed; Daclin, Julien; Dejonghe, Joseph; Bealu, Christophe; Alsafar, Thaer; Crozier, Benoit; Ramonet, Corinne; Meriau, Jean-Paul

    2016-10-01

    After an opening speech, a first set of contributions addressed the impact of the evolutions of building energetic regulations on the solar heat market for new buildings: towards positive energy and low carbon buildings with the Energy-Carbon experimentation; results of the RT2012 study on technical and economic solutions of solar hot water; opportunities and constraints of the integration of solar energy into projects. The second set addressed new opportunities in terms of technical innovations and services for connected thermal solar: a harmonised framework proposed by industries for individual equipment; returns on experience from industrials; impact of connected solar on the operator's profession. The third session discussed perspectives for the French sector: synthesis of a prospective study on the economic and social potential of the solar sector in France; a new MOOC on energy labelling of solar heating and water heaters. The fourth session presented some recent advances dealing with SOCOL for a collective, performing and sustainable production of solar heat: new SOCOL tools; a new design and sizing software; integration of the SOCOL quality approach in the 2017 Heat Fund. The fifth set of contributions addressed the issue of self-consumption and its possible dynamic impact on the production of solar electrons and calories: approach to burden management and reduction of CO_2 emissions; innovation at the service of photovoltaic performance by using phase-change materials; the example of the future House of the Ile-de-France in Paris. The last session addressed local dynamics noticed in relationship with the use of solar heat: the SOLTHERM plan in Wallonia; local initiatives in the farming sector; a large project by Lyon Habitat within the frame of an ADEME program (large installations). A closing speech proposes a synthesis on how to find growth again and reach the national ambitious objective for solar heat by 2023

  19. Questions of economics. [solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeff, P

    1976-05-01

    The essay deals with questions of profitability in connection with the use of solar energy to heat buildings or to prepare hot water. The total problem is approached from 3 points of view: 1. General national economy point of view: Judgment by politicians determines the possibilities of support by the government. 2. The business economy aspect: Here the most important matter is to construct the plants with dimensions permitting to obtain the highest profits possible. 3. The financing model: possible incentives must be taken into consideration as well as technical aspects, e.g. the service life of the plants.

  20. Design, Fabrication, and Efficiency Study of a Novel Solar Thermal Water Heating System: Towards Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal heat-pump system for small scale hot water production for household purposes. The effective use of solar energy is hindered by the intermittent nature of its availability, limiting its use and effectiveness in domestic and industrial applications especially in water heating. The easiest and the most used method is the conversion of solar energy into thermal energy. We developed a prototype solar water heating system for experimental test. We reported the investigation of solar thermal conversion efficiency in different seasons which is 29.24% in summer, 14.75% in winter, and 15.53% in rainy season. This paper also discusses the DC heater for backup system and the current by using thermoelectric generator which are 3.20 V in summer, 2.120 V in winter, and 1.843 V in rainy season. This solar water heating system is mostly suited for its ease of operation and simple maintenance. It is expected that such novel solar thermal technology would further contribute to the development of the renewable energy (solar driven heating/hot water service and therefore lead to significant environmental benefits.

  1. Application of solar energy to the supply of industrial process hot water: preliminary design and performance report. Volume I. Technical report. Aerotherm report TR-76-219. [For can washing at Campbell Soup Plant in Sacramento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-10-14

    The design and performance of a solar hot water system for can washing at the Campbell Soup Plant in Sacramento, California, are presented. The collector field is located on the roof of the finished products warehouse of the Campbell Soup Sacramento plant. Water is supplied from a 3.8 cm (1/sup 1///sub 2/ in.) supply line which is located directly below an existing roof access hatch. A supply pipe will be brought up through that hatch. The water flow will then be split into two manifold lines which supply the dual rows of flat plate collectors. The preheated water from the flat plates is then passed into six sets of parallel connected concentrators. Each set consist of eight 1.83 x 3.05 m (6 x 10 foot) modules connected in series. The water from these units is gathered in a 3.8 cm (1/sup 1///sub 2/ in.) insulated pipe which transports it to the storage tank. This pipe will be attached to an existing pipe run until it reaches the can washing building. From there the pipe will follow the can washing building around to the storage tank. The storage tank is a 75,200 1 (20,000 gal) steel tank which is coated internally with a USDA approved phenolic liner. The outside of the tank is insulated. A 2.2 kw (3 hp) motor is used to pump the stored water for the tank into the can washing line. Detail drawings and descriptions of the collector field, installation, piping, controls, data acquisition equipment, and roof structure are included. Furthermore, a program schedule with equipment and manpower costs for successfully completing Phase II of this contract is included. Also included is an organization chart of the Phase II program personnel. (WHK)

  2. Liquid flat plate collector and pump for solar heating and cooling systems: A collection of quarterly reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development, fabrication, and delivery of solar subsystems consisting of a solar operated pump, and solar collectors which can be used in solar heating and cooling, or hot water, for single family, multifamily, or commercial applications is reported.

  3. Working hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, G.

    1988-01-01

    The author says ''barehand'' methods, where specially trained utility workers are called in conductive suits to equalize voltage over their bodies, to maintain high-voltage transmission lines are on the rise. Utilities are building lines at higher voltages and selling more power to other utilities, making it highly inconvenient to take the lines out of service. However, some unions view the barehand work with less than enthusiasm. Touching lines energized at hundreds of thousands of volts demands flawless equipment and rigid work procedures followed to the letter. Some local unions contend that adequate safety procedures and training, and appropriate penalties for workplace negligence, should be in place before utilities may do barehand work. The author discusses some of the methods of barehand work and the equipment used, i.e. steel-mesh lineman's suit, bucket truck's boom, helicopters, and robots

  4. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    This final report describes in detail the solar energy system installed in a new two-story office building at the Reedy Creek Utilities Company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World at Lake Buena Vista, Florida. The solar components were partly funded by the Department of Energy under Contract EX-76-C-01-2401, and the technical management was by NASA/George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The collector is a modular cylindrical concentrator type with an area of 3.840 square feet. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled. Design, construction, operation, cost, maintenance, and performance are described in depth. Detailed drawings are included.

  5. Solar heating for a restaurant--North Little Rock, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Hot water consumption of large building affects solar-energy system design. Continual demand for hot water at restaurant makes storage less important than at other sites. Storage capacity of system installed in December 1979 equals estimated daily hot-water requirement. Report describes equipment specifications and modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems.

  6. Hot moons and cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller René

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exquisite photometric precision of the Kepler space telescope now puts the detection of extrasolar moons at the horizon. Here, we firstly review observational and analytical techniques that have recently been proposed to find exomoons. Secondly, we discuss the prospects of characterizing potentially habitable extrasolar satellites. With moons being much more numerous than planets in the solar system and with most exoplanets found in the stellar habitable zone being gas giants, habitable moons could be as abundant as habitable planets. However, satellites orbiting planets in the habitable zones of cool stars will encounter strong tidal heating and likely appear as hot moons.

  7. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  8. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  9. Investigations of solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2005-01-01

    ). However, it is still too early to draw conclusions on the design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions needs to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal domestic hot water preparation? Is a stratification manifold always more......A large variety of solar combi systems are on the marked to day. The best performing systems are highly advanced energy systems with thermal stratification manifolds, an efficient boiler and only one control system, which controls both the boiler and the solar collector loop (Weiss et al., 2003...... desirable than a fixed inlet position? This paper presents experimental investigations of an advanced solar combi system with thermal stratification manifold inlets both in the solar collector loop and in the space heating system and with an external domestic hot water preparation. Theoretical...

  10. Ionospheric hot spot at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, R.W.; Sojka, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    A hot spot (or spots) can occur in the high-latitude ionosphere depending on the plasma convection pattern. The hot spot corresponds to a small magnetic local time-magnetic latitude region of elevated ion temperatures located near the dusk and/or dawn meridians. For asymmetric convection electric field patterns, with enhanced flow in either the dusk or dawn sector of the polar cap, a single hot spot should occur in association with the strong convection cell. However, on geomagnetically disturbed days, two strong convection cells can occur, and hence, two hot spots should exist. The hot spot should be detectable when the electric field in the strong convection cell exceeds about 40 mV m -1 . For electric fields of the order of 100 mV m -1 in the convection cell, the ion temperature in the hot spot is greatest at low altitudes, reaching 4000 0 K at 160 km, and decreases with altitude in the F-region. An ionospheric hot spot (or spots) can be expected at all seasons and for a wide range of solar cycle conditions

  11. Slow hot carrier cooling in cesium lead iodide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Ripolles, Teresa S.; Even, Jacky; Ogomi, Yuhei; Nishinaka, Koji; Izuishi, Takuya; Nakazawa, Naoki; Zhang, Yaohong; Ding, Chao; Liu, Feng; Toyoda, Taro; Yoshino, Kenji; Minemoto, Takashi; Katayama, Kenji; Hayase, Shuzi

    2017-10-01

    Lead halide perovskites are attracting a great deal of interest for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, LEDs, and lasers because of their unique properties. In solar cells, heat dissipation by hot carriers results in a major energy loss channel responsible for the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. Hot carrier solar cells offer the possibility to overcome this limit and achieve energy conversion efficiency as high as 66% by extracting hot carriers. Therefore, fundamental studies on hot carrier relaxation dynamics in lead halide perovskites are important. Here, we elucidated the hot carrier cooling dynamics in all-inorganic cesium lead iodide (CsPbI3) perovskite using transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe that the hot carrier cooling rate in CsPbI3 decreases as the fluence of the pump light increases and the cooling is as slow as a few 10 ps when the photoexcited carrier density is 7 × 1018 cm-3, which is attributed to phonon bottleneck for high photoexcited carrier densities. Our findings suggest that CsPbI3 has a potential for hot carrier solar cell applications.

  12. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of solar systems for existing residential buildings); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-05-31

    As part of the research and development of the solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply for existing residential buildings, the following efforts are made: (1) system analysis, (2) studies on devices and materials, and (3) installation and operation of the facilities in test buildings, and collection of the data. For the item (1), the sensible heat type heat-accumulating tank is replaced by the latent heat type to reduce heat losses and auxiliary power requirements by improving heat-accumulating tank efficiency and revising the control procedure. For the item (2), the devices installed in the test buildings are tested to improve their performance and reliability, in which, e.g., results of operation, under commercial conditions, of the Rankine cycle refrigerator installed in the test building are taken into consideration. The empirical correlation {eta} 0.66 - 1.7{delta}T/I is obtained for instantaneous heat-collecting efficiency of a vacuum collector, made on a trial basis. Its heat loss is sufficiently small, which is in agreement with the results of the nighttime heat release tests. For the latent heat type heat-accumulating tank, stability of the materials therefor are investigated. For the Rankine cycle refrigerator, development of its parts is continued. For the item (3), the facilities are tested for around 7 months, and problems involved in each device are clarified. (NEDO)

  13. Hot tub folliculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... survives in hot tubs, especially tubs made of wood. Symptoms The first symptom of hot tub folliculitis ... may help prevent the problem. Images Hair follicle anatomy References D'Agata E. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other ...

  14. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  15. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  16. Solar thermal application for the livestock industry in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mei Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems have proven reliable and economical. In Taiwan, the cumulative area of installed solar collectors at the end of 2014 was approximately 2.39 million m2 and approximately 98% of those systems were installed in the domestic sector. Preheating water for livestock processing plants is cost-effective since heated water can be used for evisceration, sanitation during processing and for daily cleanup of plant. In this case study, detailed measurements are reported for parallel combined solar thermal and heat pump systems that are installed in a livestock processing plant. These results confirm that the hot water consumption, the mass flow rate and the operation of circulation and heat pumps affect the system's thermal efficiency. The combined operational effect is a factor in system design. The estimated payback period is less than the expected service period of the system, which validates the financial viability.

  17. Investigation of the comparative test method of solar DHW system; Solar kyuto system no toitsuteki seino shiken hoho no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, M; Noguchi, T [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the development of a unified performance test method for solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, the Japan Quality Assurance Organization test was applied to three types. In an individual test, each specimen is exposed to irradiation from a solar simulator for 8 hours in a specified pattern. Upon completion of the 8-hour irradiation, hot water is taken from the specimen, the amount being 1.1 times as large as the heat accumulation tank capacity, for the measurement of the collected heat. The control of the heat medium circulation pump, flow rate, and density, all supposed to affect the heat collecting performance, are examined. Stable data, not subject to meteorological factors and high in reproducibility, is obtained, allowing a single test to represent the heat collecting performance. A system test continues for 24 hours, from 8 o`clock on this morning through 8 o`clock on the following morning, with water collected in a specified pattern. This test is suitable for examining the in-service performance of a solar hot water system including the auxiliary heat source. If temperature is not set properly in the auxiliary heat source before testing, the system performance coefficient and sun-dependency coefficient will not be expressed in a uniform manner. For a correct evaluation, measurements should be made only after a several days` uninterrupted operation for the removal of the adverse effect of the heat residual in the heat accumulation tank. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMART SOLAR TANK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of small SDHW systems based on so-called smart solar tanks are presented. A smart solar tank is a hot water tank in which the domestic water can both be heated by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply sys...

  19. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  20. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoitescu Arina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.

  1. Study on Operating Performance of a Combined Hot Water Supplying System with Solar Energy and Heat Pump Based on TRNSYS%基于TRNSYS的太阳能-热泵联合供热水系统运行性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2017-01-01

    Established a combined hot water supplying system model with solar energy and air source heat pump based on TRNSYS and simulated the water temperature variation and operating energy consumption characteristics in the water tank of a student dormitory in different seasons in Changsha.The results show that the water from the time-temperature control scheme of the system each month can basically meet the needs of users.By concmparing the solar energy absorption,heat pump energy consumption and energy consumption of each part at each month,coluded that the heat pump has the least energy consumption,the solar energy utilization rate is the highest and the system save energy most in summer.The research results provide reference value for mastering theperformance of hot water supplying system with solar energy and improving the design and control of the whole system.%基于TRNSYS软件建立了太阳能与空气源热泵联合供水系统模型,模拟了长沙地区某学生宿舍不同季节水箱内的水温变化及运行能耗特点.结果表明,所选取的时间-温差控制方案下该系统各个月的水温基本上可以满足用户需求.通过比较各供热水系统各月吸收太阳热量、热泵能耗、各个部件能耗,得出夏季热泵能耗最少,太阳能利用率最高,该系统节约能源最多.研究结果对掌握太阳能供热水系统性能及改善整个系统的设计与控制具有参考价值.

  2. Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the services section is (1) to offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers, (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described

  3. Solar Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientist Dr. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. He resigned from JPL to develop his system and later form Sage Advance Corporation to market the technology. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides 50-90 percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

  4. Solar Energy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy furnishes all of the heating and hot water needs, plus 80 percent of the air conditioning, for the two-story Reedy Creek building. A unique feature of this installation is that the 16 semi-cylindrical solar collectors (center photo on opposite page with closeup of a single collector below it) are not mounted atop the roof as is customary, they actually are the roof. This arrangement eliminates the usual trusses, corrugated decking and insulating concrete in roof construction; that, in turn, reduces overall building costs and makes the solar installation more attractive economically. The Reedy Creek collectors were designed and manufactured by AAI Corporation of Baltimore, Maryland.

  5. Evaluation of filters in RSPCS (Reactor Service Pool Cooling System) and HWL (Hot Water Layer) in OPAL research reactor at ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization) using Gamma Spectrometry System and Liquid Scintillation Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jim In; Foy, Robin; Jung, Seong Moon; Park, Hyeon Suk; Ye, Sung Joon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization(ANSTO) has a research reactor, OPAL (Open Pool Australian Lightwater reactor) which is a state-of-art 20 MW reactor for various purposes. In OPAL reactor, there are many kinds of radionuclides produced from various reactions in pool water and those should be identified and quantified for the safe use of OPAL. To do that, it is essential to check the efficiency of filters which are able to remove the radioactive substance from the reactor pool water. There are two main water circuits in OPAL which are RSPCS (Reactor Service Pool Cooling System) and HWL (Hot Water Layer) water circuits. The reactor service pool is connected to the reactor pool via a transfer canal and provides a working area and storage space for the spent and other materials. Also, HWL is the upper part of the reactor pool water and it minimize radiation dose rates at the pool surface. We collected water samples from these circuits and measured the radioactivity by using Gamma Spectrometry System (GSS) and Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) to evaluate the filters. We could evaluate the efficiency of filters in RSPCS and HWL in OPAL research reactor. Through the measurements of radioactivity using GSS and LSC, we could conclude that there is likely to be no alpha emitter in water samples, and for beta and gamma activity, there are very big differences between inlet and outlet results, so every filter is working efficiently to remove the radioactive substance.

  6. Monitoring of Danish marketed solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellehauge, K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the monitoring of manufactured solar heating systems for domestic hot water combined with space heating and systems for domestic hot water only. Results from the monitoring of 5 marketed combined systems for domestic hot water and space heating are presented. The systems situated at one family houses at different sites in Denmark have been monitored from January/February 1992. For the detailed monitoring of manufactured systems only for domestic hot water a test facility for simultaneous monitoring of 5 solar heating systems has been established at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory. (au)

  7. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on metal system materials); 1974 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kinzokukei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 research result on metal system materials for solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems. Study was made on cathodic protection of a roll bond heat collection board promising as Al plane collector. The protection is dependent on sacrificial anode materials. Al-Zn system alloy including minute amounts of In and Sn was effective in protection by transferring natural electrode potential to a base side largely, however, excess addition of In and Sn increased self-corrosion, remaining some issues to be solved. The prototype water flow corrosion test equipment was prepared for corrosion analysis of an Al roll bond collector natural circulation hot water supplier. Preliminary study was made to give selective absorption power (large short-wave absorption and small long-wave radiation from collector surfaces) to a collector. Deposition of Cu, Ni, Co and Sn oxides as black semiconductors into Al anodic oxidation film porous layers by secondary electrolysis was invalid as well as a painting method. Glossy Ni plating onto Al and black Cr and Ni plating onto the surface more elevated solar exposure surface temperature by more than 20% than black painting. (NEDO)

  8. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on system for large-sized building); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-31

    In fiscal 1977, studies were carried out jointly with a research group assigned by the Government Research Institute using a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system for a large-sized building (i.e., various devices such as a heat collecting device, heat storing device, refrigerator, etc., and their attached equipment, hereinafter the 'test equipment'), a system installed in the building of the energy technology section, Department of engineering, Oita University. The studies were as follows. (1) Meteorological observation was conducted concerning meteorological items such as insolation, temperature, wind direction and wind velocity which were necessary for the operation and evaluation of the test equipment. (2) The test equipment was operated by the Oita University technical assistants in cooperation with the research group so that R and D was smoothly carried out for the practicability of an innovative system, in which cooling/heating and hot-water supply for a large-sized building were economically performed by the solar energy using the test equipment; and also, maintenance and management for the overall facilities were carried out within a pre-determined range. (3) Temperature, wind velocity, etc., around the heat collecting device were continuously measured in the winter time for preventive measures against freezing, with the data accumulated. The facilities consisted of 40 units of 2 m x 7.5 m large heat collecting device, 30USRT absorption refrigerating machine, and 45 m{sup 3} heat storage tank. (NEDO)

  9. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on system for large-sized building); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    Equipment was developed constituting a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system, as was the system using such equipment as well as being safe and easy to carry out inspection and maintenance, with the purpose of putting into practice an innovative system capable of cooling/heating and hot-water supply for a large-sized building economically by means of solar energy. An analysis was conducted on the test result in an experimental system having a practical size, with the effect confirmed of the improvement work of fiscal 1978. An inspection was made for the cause of piping corrosion, as were the examination and proposal for anti-corrosion measures. Heat and weather resistance tests were carried out on selective absorption films and a convection preventive structure. A selective absorption film processing was performed on a heat collecting plate for a large heat-collecting device, with a durability test conducted for the device by assembling the film in it. A test equipment was designed and manufactured for a latent heat type heat-collecting system of a practical size, performing various experiments and an automatically controlled operation. Displayed in the test by the practical size experiment system (in the Oita University laboratory) were the cooling/heating operation mode, summary of a whole day operation, daily fluctuation of electrical power and kerosene consumption, and a graph of accumulating totals. A long-term/short-term instrumentation analysis were also performed. (NEDO)

  10. Marketing energy-efficient solar houses: A method to locate and identify people who will buy energy-efficient solar houses, or related services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessio, G.

    1999-01-01

    Houses built in New England within the last six years, equal to or exceeding energy-efficiency standards from Energy Crafted Homes (ECH) or from DOE's Energy Star Homes are termed energy-efficient for this study. An assumption is that people who purchase houses being newly constructed may request special features including more energy-efficient features. The average house being constructed today is not as energy-efficient as it could easily be; therefore, owners of recently constructed energy-efficient houses may be termed early-adopters of an innovation. It has been demonstrated that early adopters have different personal attitudes and perceptions of an innovation compared to later-adopters. Both types of adopters--owners of recently constructed energy-efficient or energy-inefficient houses, have been surveyed in New England to determine whether their differences are significant enough to be used in identifying future potential early-adopters. Solar houses also are usually energy-efficient, and should be termed an innovation

  11. Solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    The focus in the present Ph.D. thesis is on the active use of solar energy for domestic hot water and space heating in so-called solar combi systems. Most efforts have been put into detailed investigations on the design of solar combi systems and on devices used for building up thermal...... the thermal behaviour of different components, and the theoretical investigations are used to study the influence of the thermal behaviour on the yearly thermal performance of solar combi systems. The experimental investigations imply detailed temperature measurements and flow visualization with the Particle...... Image Velocimetry measurement method. The theoretical investigations are based on the transient simulation program TrnSys and Computational Fluid Dynamics. The Ph.D. thesis demonstrates the influence on the thermal performance of solar combi systems of a number of different parameters...

  12. Plasmonically enhanced hot electron based photovoltaic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Fatih B; Battal, Enes; Aygun, Levent E; Daglar, Bihter; Bayindir, Mehmet; Okyay, Ali K

    2013-03-25

    Hot electron photovoltaics is emerging as a candidate for low cost and ultra thin solar cells. Plasmonic means can be utilized to significantly boost device efficiency. We separately form the tunneling metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junction for electron collection and the plasmon exciting MIM structure on top of each other, which provides high flexibility in plasmonic design and tunneling MIM design separately. We demonstrate close to one order of magnitude enhancement in the short circuit current at the resonance wavelengths.

  13. Hot Surface Ignition

    OpenAIRE

    Tursyn, Yerbatyr; Goyal, Vikrant; Benhidjeb-Carayon, Alicia; Simmons, Richard; Meyer, Scott; Gore, Jay P.

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable hot surface ignition of flammable liquids is one of the hazards in ground and air transportation vehicles, which primarily occurs in the engine compartment. In order to evaluate the safety and sustainability of candidate replacement fuels with respect to hot surface ignition, a baseline low lead fuel (Avgas 100 LL) and four experimental unleaded aviation fuels recommended for reciprocating aviation engines were considered. In addition, hot surface ignition properties of the gas tu...

  14. Development of scientific and technological basis for the fabrication of thin film solar cells on the basis of a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H using the 'hot-wire' deposition technique. Final report; Entwicklung wissenschaftlicher und technischer Grundlagen fuer die Herstellung von Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis des a-Si:H und {mu}c-Si:H mit der 'Hot-Wire'-Depositionstechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, B.

    2002-01-22

    Two new deposition systems were realized enabling the entire and respectively, large area deposition of a-Si:H based solar cells using the so called 'hot-wire' (HW) CVD. The deposition conditions for appropriate n- and p-doped a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H layers have been developed. For the first time in the world a-Si:H based pin solar cells were entirely deposited by the HWCVD method. A maximum initial conversion efficiency of {eta}{sub initial}=8.9% was obtained. After the development of a suitable p/n-tunnel/recombination junction pin-pin tandem structures with a-Si:H absorbers could be entirely fabricated by the HWCVD for the first time in the world, too. A conversion efficiency of {eta}=7% was measured for the tandem cell, after some structural degradation took place. In general, the stability of the HWCVD solar cells is not satisfactory, what could be attributed to a structural instability of the HWCVD-p-layers. For the first time we have deposited nip solar cells on stainless steel substrates entirely by HWCVD ({eta}{sub initial}>6%). The incorporation of {mu}c-Si:H absorber layers by HWCVD or ECWR-PECVD into pin solar cells was not successfull until now. Large area deposition of a-Si:H films has been performed in a simple vacuum vessel. Under consideration of appropriate filament and gas supply geometry as well as simulation calculations a good electronic quality and a film thickness uniformity of {delta}d={+-}2.5% of the material was obtained. i-layers for small area solar cells on an area of 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} have been deposited which could be completed to solar cells with very uniform conversion efficiencies of {eta}{sub initial} = 6,1{+-}0.2%. This result represents a proof of concept for the large area deposition of a-Si:H based solar cells using the HWCVD. Also for the first time the HWCVD was used for the deposition of emitter layers on c-Si-wafers to realize hetero solar cells. Hetero solar cells with amorphous, microcrystalline and epitaxial n

  15. Solar Heater in a West Virginia College

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Solar space-heating and hot water system installed at Alderson-Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia, is described in 87-page document. Report contains description of building and its solar-energy system; specifications for solar-energy system, including collectors, coolant, storage tanks, circulation equipment, piping, controls, and insulation; acceptance test data; and discussion of problems with installation, their solution, and recommendations for dealing with excess solar energy.

  16. External perforated window Solar Screens: The effect of screen depth and perforation ratio on energy performance in extreme desert environments

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, A.; El-Zafarany, A.; Arafa, R.

    2012-01-01

    In hot arid desert environments, the solar radiation passing through windows increases the cooling loads and the energy consumption of buildings. Shading of windows can reduce these loads. Unlike the woven solar screens, wooden solar screens have a

  17. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...... of applied participative research performed in a developing country. The report may be used as a background for the improvement of the indoor climate in poor, hot and humid regions without increased use of electricity....

  18. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for apartment houses); 1974 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shugo jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 R and D result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for apartment houses. In system analysis, the system plan was selected through basic data survey, modeling by combining some kinds of such systems and energy flow calculation. On solar heat collector, theoretical analysis was made on a stationary plane collector, and study was made on cover glass material and absorption surface performances. On Rankine's engine, studies on advanced selective absorption film, transmissive film, prevention of heat radiation and converging collector were necessary. As solar heat driving refrigerators, absorptive one and Rankine's one were promising. As heat media for refrigerators, R-11 and 113, and R-114 and 11 were suitable for turbo one and displacement one, respectively. Since a displacement compressor is featured by high-efficiency lower-speed operation than that of turbo one without any constraint, its direct connection with a motor or generator is possible. Screw compressor belonging to displacement one was promising. Rotary displacement one was also promising in a small-capacity range within 20-50RT. (NEDO)

  19. Solar water heaters in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.; Lee, T.; Chung, K.

    2006-01-01

    Solar water heater has been commercialized during the last two decades in Taiwan. The government initiated the incentive programs during 1986-1991 and 2000-2004. This created an economic incentive for the end-users. The total area of solar collectors installed was more than one million square meters. The data also show that most of the solar water heaters are mainly used by the domestic sector for hot water production (about 97%). The regional popularization analysis indicates limited installation of solar water heaters in the northern district. In the eastern district and remote islands, the problems of climatic conditions and availability of localized installers/dealers are addressed. (author)

  20. Solar-Heated and Cooled Office Building--Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Final report documents solar-energy system installed in office building to provide space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. Collectors mounted on roof track Sun and concentrate rays on fluid-circulating tubes. Collected energy is distributed to hot-water-fired absorption chiller and space-heating and domestic-hot-water preheating systems.

  1. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  2. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  3. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  5. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang; Huey Liang Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light,have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  6. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...... loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......, calculations show that the yearly thermal performance of solar domestic hot water systems is strongly reduced if the hot water tank has a thermal bridge located at the top of the tank....

  7. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  8. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest... Rangeland Project area. The analysis will determine if a change in management direction for livestock grazing is needed to move existing resource conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area...

  9. Simple characterisation of solar DHW tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to compare different methods used for testing small solar domestic hot water tanks. A small hot water tank is tested at three different European laboratories by means of the test methods normally used at the laboratories. The tank is marketed in Denmark.The test carried ...

  10. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M; Cuesta-Santianes, M J; Cabrera Jimenez, J A

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  11. Solar air-conditioning. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    European countries (Ignasi Gurruchaga); (21) Optimisation potential of a large solar adsorption cooling plant (Antoine Dalibard); (22) Planning, commissioning and practical experience with first summer of operation of a cost effective solar air conditioning system for a Canteen at Munich Airport (Carsten Hindenburg); (23) Energy and economic performance of solar cooling systems (Ursula Eicker); (24) Solar-driven adsorption chiller controlled by hot and cooling water temperature (Jan Albers); (25) Comparative results of monitored solar assisted heating and cooling installations (Wolfram Sparber); (26) Heating and cooling with a small scale solar driven adsorption chiller combined with a borehole system - recent results (Tomas Nunez); (27) Solar heating and cooling - Town hall Gleisdorf (Alexander Thuer); (28) Solar dessicant cooling system operating in Palermo (Italy): Results and Validation of simulation models (Marco Beccali); (29) The application of a liquid-dessicant air conditioner to solar cooling (Andrew Lowenstein); (30) A compact solid adsorption chiller for solar air conditioning (Robert Critoph); (31) Development of a two-stage absorption chiller for solar-assisted cooling and heating (Manuel Riepl); (32) Ionic liquids - a promising solution for solar absorption chillers? (Annett Kuehn);(33) Parabolic trough design optimization for high temperature lift solar cooling applications (Marcello Aprile); (34) Tentative R and D program forgetting adsorbents effective for solar air conditioning (Yury Aristov); (35) An energy efficient solar driven two-stage rotary desiccant cooling system: Experiment and case study (Yanjun Dai); (36) Performance of a flat plate collector-regenerator that uses earth-to-air heat exchangers for regeneration of water-lithium chloride solution in a solar coolant plant (Roberto Bruno); (37) 350 KW of dual solar cooling for optimal flexibility and economic performance (Roel de Coninck); (38) Global performance of a solar absorption cooling

  12. Job creation potential of solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person plenty of water and fruit or vegetable juice even if they say they’re not thirsty. No alcohol, coffee or tea. Seek medical help if you suspect dehydration. Light meals: Avoid hot, heavy meals and don’ ...

  14. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  15. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on system for existing private house); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-05-31

    The following technologies were developed for the purpose of putting into practice an innovative system that performs cooling/heating and hot-water supply for an existing private house economically by solar energy: (1) development of equipment constituting solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system, and (2) development of a system which uses such equipment and which is inexpensive and safe as well as easy for inspection and maintenance. The results of the research were as follows. A latent heat type heat storage tank was developed in a small low-loss type in which ammonium alum was selected for a high temperature heat storage tank and in which NaCH{sub 3}COO(center dot)3H{sub 2}O were selected for a combination latent heat/cold water heat storage tank. A refrigerator was developed driven by a small Rankine cycle engine of a result coefficient of 0.47. A flat plate type heat collecting device was developed in a type having a BrNi selective absorbing film and materials of copper tube, aluminum plate and double glass. A vacuum heat collecting device was developed in a high efficient type with the outside dimension of {phi} (diameter) 70 x 1,270 mm, selective absorbing film BrNi, and a degree of vacuum of 10{sup -3}Torr. A heat receiving/releasing storm shutter was developed in a type using a latent heat storing material of paraffin wax. A heat absorbing/insulating outside wall panel was developed using FRP and aluminum as the materials. The system analysis also achieved success. (NEDO)

  16. Business Opportunity Prospectus for Utilities in Solar Water Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Alliance Group

    1999-06-30

    Faced with deregulation and increasingly aggressive competition, utilities are looking for new products and services to increase revenues, improve customer loyalty and retention, and establish barriers to market erosion. With open access now a reality, and retail wheeling just around the corner, business expansion via new products and services is now the central goal for most utilities in the United States. It may seem surprising that solar thermal energy as applied to heating domestic hot water - an idea that has been around for a long time - offers what utilities and their residential customers want most in a new product/service. This document not only explains how and why, it shows how to get into the business and succeed on a commercial scale.

  17. Hot complaint intelligent classification based on text mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Haifeng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The complaint recognizer system plays an important role in making sure the correct classification of the hot complaint,improving the service quantity of telecommunications industry.The customers’ complaint in telecommunications industry has its special particularity which should be done in limited time,which cause the error in classification of hot complaint.The paper presents a model of complaint hot intelligent classification based on text mining,which can classify the hot complaint in the correct level of the complaint navigation.The examples show that the model can be efficient to classify the text of the complaint.

  18. Efficient, Broadband and Wide-Angle Hot-Electron Transduction using Metal-Semiconductor Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Sakhdari, Maryam; Hajizadegan, Mehdi; Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Hot-electron devices are emerging as promising candidates for the transduction of optical radiation into electrical current, as they enable photodetection and solar/infrared energy harvesting at sub-bandgap wavelengths. Nevertheless, poor

  19. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  20. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report (Drawings). R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for apartment houses); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho zumenshu. Shugo jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Working design was made on an apartment house for R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system, and its drawings were prepared. The design was made on the experimental medium-rise square pyramid apartment house (3- storied, 28 dwelling units, RC structure, 1,566.63m{sup 2} in building area, 2,309.05m{sup 2} in total floor area). The house was equipped with normal high-voltage receiving panel, indoor cubicle of 300kVA, common antenna TV, telephone piping, door chime, direct water supply system with individual meters, LPG gas piping with individual meters, central hot water supply system with individual meters, and central cooling/heating system with individual fan coil units. The exterior of the house was finished with asphalt-waterproofing normal concrete-finished roofs of 1/50 in gradient, epoxy system resin-coated exposed concrete exterior walls, Al sash slide pair-glass window and alumite-finished Al door openings, and foamed polystyrene insulation plates (60mm, 50mm and 50mm thick for roofs, floors and walls, respectively). (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for large buildings); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-30

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for large buildings. Although the small experimental single/double effect absorption refrigerator system didn't satisfy the initial design specifications, if the large system is used, it probably satisfies them. Its wide operation range was confirmed by adding LiCl to water-LiBr system coolant. Concentration by reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for recycling absorbent resulted in failure. The storage tank volume of coolant and absorbent necessary for a heat storage refrigerator reached 4 times as large as refrigerator unit one. The primary basic plan of a single/double effect refrigerator system with plane collectors was prepared for Oita University. For system simulation, more practical characteristic equations are showed by reconsidering equations for single effect systems. The characteristic equations for double effect and single/double effect systems were obtained on the basis of the 1976 research result. The control method of hot water and absorbent effective for refrigerators was clarified. Absorbent circulation of 3.5-4% in concentration difference was optimum. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for large buildings); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-30

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for large buildings. Although the small experimental single/double effect absorption refrigerator system didn't satisfy the initial design specifications, if the large system is used, it probably satisfies them. Its wide operation range was confirmed by adding LiCl to water-LiBr system coolant. Concentration by reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for recycling absorbent resulted in failure. The storage tank volume of coolant and absorbent necessary for a heat storage refrigerator reached 4 times as large as refrigerator unit one. The primary basic plan of a single/double effect refrigerator system with plane collectors was prepared for Oita University. For system simulation, more practical characteristic equations are showed by reconsidering equations for single effect systems. The characteristic equations for double effect and single/double effect systems were obtained on the basis of the 1976 research result. The control method of hot water and absorbent effective for refrigerators was clarified. Absorbent circulation of 3.5-4% in concentration difference was optimum. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for existing detached houses); 1974 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for existing detached houses. The program for calculating heat collection rates was prepared by integrating peripheral conditions and every calculation step of heat collection rate, mean value, accumulated value and changes caused by disturbance. The cooling/heating load calculation program was also prepared for unsteady dynamic thermal analysis of houses. Another program was prepared for hot water supply load because of a large difference in life pattern. The profitability and energy conservation of 644 systems different in heat source, heat discharge, heat collection, heat storage, auxiliary heat source and equipment were evaluated by heat balance calculation program. Survey and study were also made on various heat engines such as heat pump, absorption refrigerator and Rankine cycle engine. Based on the survey result on existing technology for plane collectors, the optimum design method of collectors were established through various characteristic tests. Some kinds of suitable fusion latent heat type heat media were selected, and their operation stabilities were studied. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of systems for new residential buildings); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinchiku kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at development of devices for solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply, in order to commercialize innovative systems for economic air conditioning and hot water supply for new residential buildings. The research items are (1) development of materials for the devices (e.g., heat collectors and absorption refrigerators), (2) operation of the systems in the test building, and measurement (methods for measurement and evaluation of the systems in the test building, instrumentation systems and operation thereof, and analysis of the measured data), and (3) system analysis (system simulation, comparison of the simulated results with the observed results, and system variations). The item (1) studies economic efficiency, durability and stability of the vacuum glass tube type collectors. The item (2) studies a dripping type generator, refrigerant recycling type generator and generator with a built-in auxiliary heat source for the absorption refrigerators. These types have their own advantages and disadvantages, and it is necessary to establish how these results are to be included in the products. The item (3) changes the collector arrangement, based on the observed data, and improves heat-collecting pump starting/stopping conditions, refrigerator operating conditions and insulation around the primary heat-storage tank. It is necessary to analyze the improved systems. (NEDO)

  5. The sun as hot water source. Answers to questions on the solar water heater; Le soleil source d'eau chaude. Les reponses a vos questions sur le chauffe-eau solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This guide answers to the main questions concerning a water heating system for domestic use. It aims to help the people who want to buy a solar water heater, to better estimate the advantages and the limits, in providing information on the operating and the use. (A.L.B.)

  6. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  7. Performance test for a solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Two reports describe procedures and results of performance tests on domestic solar powered hot water system. Performance tests determine amount of energy collected by system, amount of energy delivered to solar source, power required to operate system and maintain proper tank temperature, overall system efficiency, and temperature distribution in tank.

  8. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  9. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    whether Geminga’s tails are formed by electrons or by their twin particles with an opposite electrical charge, called positrons. Nevertheless, they expected that, if for instance electrons are kicked into space, then the positrons should be funnelled down towards the neutron star itself, like in an ‘own goal’. Where these particles strike the surface of the star, they ought to create a hot spot, a region considerably hotter than the surroundings. An international team of astronomers, lead by Patrizia Caraveo, IASF-CNR, Italy, has now reported the detection of such a hot spot on Geminga using ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory. With a temperature of about two million degrees, this hot spot is considerably hotter than the one half million degrees of the surrounding surface. According to this new work, Geminga’s hot spot is just 60 metres in radius. "This hot spot is the size of a football field," said Caraveo, "and is the smallest object ever detected outside of our Solar System." Details of this size can presently be measured only on the Moon and Mars and, even then, only from a spacecraft in orbit around them. The presence of a hot spot was suspected in the late 1990s but only now can we see it ‘live’, emitting X-rays as Geminga rotates, thanks to the superior sensitivity of ESA’s X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton. The team used the European Photon Imaging Cameras (EPIC) to conduct a study of Geminga, lasting about 28 consecutive hours and recording the arrival time and energy of every X-ray photon that Geminga emitted within XMM-Newton’s grasp. "In total, this amounted to 76 850 X-ray counts - twice as many as have been collected by all previous observations of Geminga, since the time of the Roman Empire," said Caraveo. Knowing the rotation rate of Geminga and the time of each photon’s arrival meant that astronomers could identify which photons were coming from each region of the neutron star as it rotates. When they compared photons coming from different

  10. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on system for newly built private housing); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinchiku kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This report is for the results of fiscal 1979 on a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system for newly-built private housing. The research reports for fiscal 1974 to 1978 are as reported so far; for example, the research on energy-saving construction including thermal insulation method was used in an experimental housing completed in fiscal 1976. The solar heat collecting device was built in the experimental housing by increasing the scale of and utilizing the heat collecting device of a vacuum glass tube type on which research was done before fiscal 1975. The absorption refrigerating machine incorporated in the housing was of a forced circulation type which was high in temperature stability using the result of the research carried out until then. In fiscal 1979, as in fiscal 1978, one year residential experiment was conducted in which a family of a couple and two children lived in a house under an improved system as a result of a system variation and the like, and made an evaluation on the performance. Simultaneously, a control management system was developed in which a micro-computer was introduced for the purpose of improving the system performance, with the operation carried out under the micro-computer control. In addition, a fundamental experiment was also completed concerning a long-term heat accumulation by underground heat reserve. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of systems for large buildings); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at development of (1) devices for solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply, and (2) low-cost, safe systems incorporating the above devices, which are easily inspected and maintained, in which optimum buildings for effective utilization of solar energy are also investigated. Precision of the system analysis is improved by feeding back the results obtained by the basic studies conducted so far into the simulation. The technical supports for commercialization of heat collectors, refrigerators, heat-storage tanks and radiation type ceilings are also obtained. These results are combined for the designs of a real-size test building. In this year, works to install the facilities in the Oita University's test building are completed. These facilities include 40 units of large-size heat collectors (each approximately 2 m by 7.5 m in size); an absorption refrigerator of 30 uSRT in which single- and double-effect systems are combined; 2 piston-flow type heat-storage tanks, each 45 m{sup 3} in capacity; and others including analyzer, associated piping, duct, instrumentation and electrical systems. The test runs are conducted for the control systems, and long- and short-term instrumentation systems to draw the test schedules for optimizing the full-scale runs to be conducted in the next year. The operating and instrumentation manuals, and operating schedules are also drawn. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on synthetic resin system materials); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Gosei jushikei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on synthetic resin system materials for solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems. In fiscal 1976, study was made on evaluation of the practical performance of photo-selective transmissive films, photo-selective absorptive films, reflective films and collector materials. In the study on photo-selective transmissive films, study was mainly promoted on indium oxide film, and a solar radiation transmissivity of 78% and an IR reflectance of 78% were obtained at 4000(angstrom)/min in deposition rate by reactive sputtering under the existence of oxygen gas mixture. In the study on photo-selective absorptive films, study was made on conditions for the basic prescription of paints for semiconductor dispersing coated films. The exposure test result of CuO and CuO-MnO{sub 2} system materials showed excellent heat resistances with less change in optical property after 720h at 140 degreesC and 350h at 180 degreesC. In the study on reflective films, evaluation was made on the durability of reflective films obtained by vacuum deposition of Ag and Al onto synthetic resin films through outdoor exposure. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for large buildings); 1974 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    Large buildings such as government office building, private office building and gymnasium are consuming a huge amount of fossil fuel as energy for cooling/heating and hot water supply. The final target of this project is a use of solar heat as energy for such systems in place of fossil fuel. The fiscal 1974 target of this project is as follows. The main part of the computation program was developed for system analysis on the whole thermal system composed of building structure, thermal load, and cooling and heating equipment. The small experimental thermal equipment and artificial light source were prepared to clarify the mechanism of solar heat collectors experimentally. As the first step of innovative refrigerator development, the small trial experimental equipment was prepared to clarify heat transfer characteristics for coolant recycling, and to develop an ideal structure heat exchanger possible to reduce the temperature difference between heating medium and heated liquid. Prior to development of a heat storage equipment, basic study was made on heat storage materials, heat insulation methods and characteristics of heat storage tanks. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on metal system materials); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kinzokukei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on high-efficiency high-durability inexpensive metallic collectors, equipment and materials for solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems. In the study on metal materials for heat collector plates, corrosion-proofing experiment was made on Al-Zn, Al-Zn-In and Al-Zn-Fe-In alloys treated by bainite under 7 kinds of environmental conditions, resulting in no formation of any through hole. Study was also made on water flow corrosion test of A1100 material, and water- corrosion retardant for Al. In the study on selective absorption films, study was made on secondary electrochemically coated film and vacuum deposition film. Fabrication, test operation and preliminary experiment were made on the large secondary electrolysis facility for full- scale solar panels. The selective absorptivity of secondary electrochemically coated films was a maximum of 0.95 in absorptivity and 0.10 in emissivity, showing the favorable selective absorptivity of both Ni and Co. The durability test result showed favorable heat resistance, light resistance and moisture resistance. (NEDO)

  15. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on metallic materials ); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kinzokukei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-31

    The following technologies were developed for the purpose of materializing various methods of a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system using aluminum and other metallic materials: (1) research on improving corrosion resistance of metallic materials for a heat collector plate and (2) research on a selective absorbing film. The results in fiscal 1979 were as follows. (1) A practicality running test for a solar panel, which started in fiscal 1977, was continuously carried out at eight places in the nation. After approximately two years and a half passed, each panel was cut open and analyzed. As a result, despite a difference in the degree of corrosion by the regions, an Al-Zn-Fe-In alloy had a larger corrosion area than two other alloys, but the corrosion depth was shallower, with the corrosion remained only in the clad layer, which seemed to eliminate the fear that it might grow to be a through-hole for the time being. This research was completed. (2) Research for the selective absorbing film was carried out in fiscal 1979 on a chrome black membrane by a high frequency excited ion plating method and on a carbide and nitride membranes. In addition, a durability test and an Auger analysis were performed for a titanium nitride selective absorbing film that was obtained by a DC bipolar reactive ion plating method. (NEDO)

  16. Experimental Validation of a Domestic Stratified Hot Water Tank Model in Modelica for Annual Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    The use of stratified hot water tanks in solar energy systems - including ORC systems - as well as heat pump systems is paramount for a better performance of these systems. However, the availability of effective and reliable models to predict the annual performance of stratified hot water tanks...

  17. Investigations on stratification devices for hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Hampel, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The significance of the thermal stratification for the energy efficiency of small solar-thermal hot water heat stores is pointed out. Exemplary the thermal stratification build-up with devices already marketed as well as with devices still in development has been investigated experimentally...

  18. Energy flux of hot atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotzak, G.P.; Kostin, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process in which hot atoms collide with thermal atoms of a gas, transfer kinetic energy to them, and produce additional hot atoms is investigated. A stochastic method is used to obtain numerical results for the spatial and time dependent energy flux of hot atoms in a gas. The results indicate that in hot atom systems a front followed by an intense energy flux of hot atoms may develop

  19. 78 FR 9785 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose connectors...., Washington, DC 20590. For service information identified in this AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd...

  20. HotRegion: a database of predicted hot spot clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukuroglu, Engin; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion.

  1. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  2. Investigations of medium sized solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    A large variety of solar combi systems are on the market, but it is still too early to draw conclusions on optimum design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions need to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal? What...... is the advantage by using inlet stratifiers? To answer the questions, theoretical investigations are carried out for differently designed solar combi systems. The work is carried out within the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA SHC), Task 32 Advanced storage concepts...... for solar houses and low energy buildings....

  3. Economical analysis of a solar desalination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Wang, Tie-Zhu; He, Xiao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple stage tower-type of solar desalination unit by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit...... and yearly electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful to do the further investigation on solar desalination systems for reducing the cost of fresh water...

  4. Solar energy conversion. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion euro/dollar field to expand. (orig.)

  5. Hot spots and heavily dislocated regions in multicrystalling silicon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The formation mechanism and the electrical consequences of hot spots have been investigated in multicrystalline solar cells. The hot spots were revealed by means of an infrared camera when the cells are reverse biassed in the dark. The minority carrier diffusion length (L n ), the photovoltage (V oc ) and the photocurrent (J sc ) were measured in the hot spot area and far from this zone thanks to mesa diodes. Dark forward I-V curves lead to values of ideality factor (M) and reverse saturation current (J o ). It is found that J o and M are higher in the hot spot area, while J sc , V oc and at a less extent L n are smaller. Large densities of dislocations and lineages structures are revealed in the abnormally heated regions

  6. Variation in the WWV, 15 MHz field strength received at Hiraiso during a low solar activity and the application of the result to radio disturbance warning services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshio, Mitsuo; Kidokoro, Tsuneichi

    1978-01-01

    Recurrent geomagnetic storms occur predominantly apparently during the period of low solar activity. Radio disturbance warning services are apt to be made in terms of geomagnetic disturbances in this period. This analysis has been made from the standpoint of making the electric field strength of a short wave (WWV, 15 MHz) circuit with a long distance received at Hiraiso, Japan correspond to not only geomagnetic disturbances, but also its absorption in the ionosphere. The electric field strength has been treated as a newly introduced daily mean value of time-integrated one in this paper. The result has been obtained from the analysis that about 2/3 of the daily electric field strength of the total cases treated were influenced by geomagnetic disturbances and that about 2/3 within the remaining about 1/3 proved to be influenced by the ionospheric absorption, ionospheric parameters such as f sub(min) and the phase of a VLF radio wave circuit being used. The strength has been considered to be influenced by the absorption also in case of being influenced by geomagnetic disturbances. The remaining about 1/9 of the total cases could not correspond to its cause. Some applications of the consideration have been made to practical problems. (author)

  7. Low temperatures - hot topic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-09-15

    Neutrino mass measurements, next-generation double beta experiments, solar neutrino detection, searches for magnetic monopoles and the challenge of discovering what most of the Universe is made of (dark matter), not to mention axions (cosmic and solar), supersymmetric neutral particles and cosmic neutrinos. All this physics could use cryogenic techniques. Thus the second European Workshop on Low Temperature Devices for the Detection of Low Energy Neutrinos and Dark Matter, held at LAPP (Annecy) in May, covered an active and promising field.

  8. Low temperatures - hot topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Neutrino mass measurements, next-generation double beta experiments, solar neutrino detection, searches for magnetic monopoles and the challenge of discovering what most of the Universe is made of (dark matter), not to mention axions (cosmic and solar), supersymmetric neutral particles and cosmic neutrinos. All this physics could use cryogenic techniques. Thus the second European Workshop on Low Temperature Devices for the Detection of Low Energy Neutrinos and Dark Matter, held at LAPP (Annecy) in May, covered an active and promising field

  9. Multifragmentation of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1990-10-01

    It is difficult to deposit a large amount (∼ 1 Gev) of excitation energy into a nucleus. And if one wants to deposit large excitation energy values, the best way consists of shooting a given target nucleus with several nucleons, which can be achieved by using intermediate energy (10-100 MeV/nucleon) heavy ions. Such very excited objects were named hot nuclei. The study of hot nuclei has been undertaken only for 7 years because intermediate energy heavy ion facilities were not available before. The game is then to determine the decay properties of such nuclei, their limits of existence. Their study is connected with general properties of nuclear matter: namely its equation of state. Of special interest, is the onset of a new decay mechanism: multifragmentation, which is the non-sequential disassembly of a hot nucleus into several light nuclei (often called intermediate-mass fragments or IMF) or particles. This paper, shows how this mechanism can reflect fundamental properties of nuclear matter, but also how its experimental signature is difficult to establish. Multifragmentation has also been studied by using very energetic projectiles (protons and heavy ions) in the relativistic or ultra-relativistic region. The multifragmentation question of hot nuclei is far from being solved. One knows that IMF production increases when the excitation energy brought into a system is strongly increased, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved and a clear onset for multifragmentation is not established

  10. Mechanical shielded hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, H.R.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A plan to erect a mechanical shielded hot cell in the process hall of the Radiochemical Laboratory at Inchas is described. The hot cell is designed for safe handling of spent fuel bundles, from the Inchas reactor, and for dismantling and cutting the fuel rods in preparation for subsequent treatment. The biological shielding allows for the safe handling of a total radioactivity level up to 10,000 MeV-Ci. The hot cell consists of an α-tight stainless-steel box, connected to a γ-shielded SAS, through an air-lock containing a movable carriage. The α-box is tightly connected with six dry-storage cavities for adequate storage of the spent fuel bundles. Both the α-box, with the dry-storage cavities, and the SAS are surrounded by 200-mm thick biological lead shielding. The α-box is equipped with two master-slave manipulators, a lead-glass window, a monorail crane and Padirac and Minirag systems. The SAS is equipped with a lead-glass window, tong manipulator, a shielded pit and a mechanism for the entry of the spent fuel bundle. The hot cell is served by adequate ventilation and monitoring systems. (author)

  11. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  12. Evolution of hot galactic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenstein, M.; Mathews, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    The time-dependent equations describing galactic flows, including detailed models for the evolving source terms, are integrated over a Hubble time for two elliptical galaxies with total masses of 3.1 x 10 to the 12th and 8.3 x 10 to the 12th solar masses, 90 percent of which resides in extended, nonluminous halos. The standard supernova rate of Tammann and a rate 4 times smaller are considered for each galaxy model. The combination of the extended gravitational potential of the dark halo and the time-dependent source terms generally lead to the development of massive, quasi-hydrostatic, nearly isothermal distributions of gas at about 10 to the 7th K with cooling inflows inside their galactic cores. For the less massive galaxy with the higher supernova rate, however, a low-luminosity supersonic galactic wind develops. The effects of a lowered metal abundance, thermal conduction, and the absence of a massive halo are explored separately for one of the present models. The X-ray luminosities of the hot gas in the models with dark halos and the lower supernova rate are in good agreement with Einstein observations of early-type galaxies. 42 references

  13. Secular chaos and its application to Mercury, hot Jupiters, and the organization of planetary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-09-02

    In the inner solar system, the planets' orbits evolve chaotically, driven primarily by secular chaos. Mercury has a particularly chaotic orbit and is in danger of being lost within a few billion years. Just as secular chaos is reorganizing the solar system today, so it has likely helped organize it in the past. We suggest that extrasolar planetary systems are also organized to a large extent by secular chaos. A hot Jupiter could be the end state of a secularly chaotic planetary system reminiscent of the solar system. However, in the case of the hot Jupiter, the innermost planet was Jupiter (rather than Mercury) sized, and its chaotic evolution was terminated when it was tidally captured by its star. In this contribution, we review our recent work elucidating the physics of secular chaos and applying it to Mercury and to hot Jupiters. We also present results comparing the inclinations of hot Jupiters thus produced with observations.

  14. Secular chaos and its application to Mercury, hot Jupiters, and the organization of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    In the inner solar system, the planets’ orbits evolve chaotically, driven primarily by secular chaos. Mercury has a particularly chaotic orbit and is in danger of being lost within a few billion years. Just as secular chaos is reorganizing the solar system today, so it has likely helped organize it in the past. We suggest that extrasolar planetary systems are also organized to a large extent by secular chaos. A hot Jupiter could be the end state of a secularly chaotic planetary system reminiscent of the solar system. However, in the case of the hot Jupiter, the innermost planet was Jupiter (rather than Mercury) sized, and its chaotic evolution was terminated when it was tidally captured by its star. In this contribution, we review our recent work elucidating the physics of secular chaos and applying it to Mercury and to hot Jupiters. We also present results comparing the inclinations of hot Jupiters thus produced with observations. PMID:24367108

  15. Solar thermal space heating combined with swimming pool heating: A promising solution for southern Europe climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.J.; Neves, Ana [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    The system concept evaluation performed focused on systems that can provide hot water, space heating and swimming-pool heating, and are designed for application in southern climates specifically for single-family houses. Due to the climate characteristics of southern Europe, space heating is required only for a few months in the year. In this evaluation it was considered a six month period for space heating and, on the other six months, swimming pool heating was considered. This type of systems are applicable to a niche market of people who are building their houses as single-family houses and want also to take profit of the good climate conditions for the use of solar energy. It is common that the construction of a swimming pool is also planned and constructed. The evaluation is made considering as reference system a factory made with 4m{sup 2} collector area and 300 l storage tank. The system in evaluation offers extra service - space heating and swimming pool heating and is formed by a collector field and a combistore providing solar hot water preparation and space heating in the winter period and providing also swimming pool heating in the summer period. The evaluation made shows that in southern Europe climates this system will give extra service in comparison to the traditional solar systems used and can be economically interesting.

  16. Solar energy enters the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coehoorn, M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    Everybody agrees that there is a bright future for solar energy. After two decades of research and development, the market introduction of solar hot water systems is now taking off. In several countries, including the Netherlands, preparations are also underway for the large-scale introduction of photovoltaic systems. Although the share of thermal and photovoltaic solar energy in the energy supply sector in the Netherlands is very small (0.1 PJ) there are signs of imminent change. According to the Follow-up Policy Document on Energy Conservation, the share of solar energy should increase to 7 PJ by the year 2010. After years of concentrating on research and development, it is now generally recognised that it is time to introduce these technologies onto the market in order to realize the long-term objectives. In this respect, thermal solar energy is ahead of photovoltaics. 4 ills

  17. Hot Deformation Behavior of Hot-Extruded AA7175 Through Hot Torsion Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeon; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Son, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Choi, Ho-Joon; Oh, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ji-Woon; Hyun, Soong-Keun

    2018-03-01

    The hot deformation behavior of hot-extruded AA7175 was investigated with flow curves and processing maps through hot torsion tests. The flow curves and the deformed microstructures revealed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred in the hot-extruded AA7175 during hot working. The failure strain was highest at medium temperature. This was mainly influenced by the dynamic precipitation of fine rod-shaped MgZn2. The processing map determined the optimal deformation condition for the alloy during hot working.

  18. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    The brittleness of a solidifying alloy in a temperature range near the solidus temperature has been recognised since the fifties as the mechanism responsible for hot tearing. Due to this brittlenes, the metal will crack under even small amounts of strain in that temperature range. We see these hot...... tears in castings close to hot centres, where the level of strain is often too high.Although the hot tearing mechanism is well understood, until now it has been difficult to do much to reduce the hot tearing tendency in a casting. In the seventies, good hot tearing criteria were developed by considering...... the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas...

  19. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  20. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  1. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  2. Hot subluminous star: HDE 283048

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, M.; Vuillemin, A.; Parsons, S.B.; Henize, K.G.; Wray, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The star HDE 283048, located at α = 3/sup h/50/sup m/.3, delta = +25 0 36', shows a strong ultraviolet continuum. Ground-based observations indicate a hot-dominated composite spectrum. Several lines of evidence suggest that the hot component is a hot subdwarf. 2 figures

  3. The technical use of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, E.

    1993-01-01

    For all considerations on energy, information on energy-quantity and energy-value is necessary. Such information is presented for Germany as an example for an industrialized country. The application of solar heat for an Institute building is presented for a pilot project at the University Stuttgart. With unglazed solar collectors, a flooded pebble-bed store and a heat pump, about 60% of the Institute's heat demand can be supplied by solar energy. With the experience gained from this project, large district heating systems are designed for two different locations in Germany under differing conditions. For solar assisted house heating and domestic hot water, heat costs are obtained which are about twice the present heat cost in Germany. If solar energy assists domestic hot water production and house heating, costs can be achieved which are below present conventional heat cost. In addition, it will also reduce air pollution. (author). 9 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Fiscal 1994 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development of industrial solar system practicalization technology - Survey and research on solar system (Survey and research on city-oriented solar technology); 1994 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (solar toshi muke gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Solar technology and energy conservation technology (through retrofitting) which can be introduced into existing buildings are evaluated for their effect and economic efficiency. Studied are technologies verified to be technically feasible at the current stage, introducible into existing buildings without major modification, low in introduction cost, and high in energy conservation effect. How retrofitting technology should be in Japan is discussed. In Japan where demand for heat is smaller than in Europe or America and building service life is shorter, conditions to meet for efficient cost recovery are quite severe. Suitable measures to enhance cost recovery include use of multiple panels of low-radiation glass and light modulators for windows and use of collecting technologies such as solar systems for hot water supply and air solar collectors. Use of a transparent insulator is also recommended. Japanese houses demand repair and reconstruction very often, which helps cost recovery. Dependence on locality is extensive, and this causes difference in solar system application. Since it is high in temperature and humidity in summer in Japan, there is a great need for environmental comfort, and therefore not only energy conservation but also comfortable air-conditioning is important. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of glass-based materials); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Glass kei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-05-01

    This project is aimed at development of the following collector techniques for various types of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply: (1) selective transmission glass, (2) reflection-preventive glass, (3) glass-based selective absorption film, and (4) high-performance collector. For the item (1), the STG coated with a reflection-preventive film of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and that with MgF{sub 2} attain the target performance, and high-speed sputtering is investigated for development of the mass production techniques and promising results are produced. For the item (2), formation of a uniform reflection-preventive film on the glass's front surface and improvement of the reproducibility are investigated, and promising results are produced. For the item (3), a selective absorption plane having a solar radiation absorptivity of 0.90 or more and infrared emissivity of 0.30 or less is produced by baking a SnO{sub 2} film on a soft steel plate undercoated with a black glaze as the glass-based film. For the item (4), a total of 4 types of collectors are fabricated on a trial basis and tested for their heat-collecting performance; a honeycomb type with the selective absorption film, modified laminated type with changed pipe arrangement, one using a large-size reflection-preventive glass, and another one with changed method for supporting the heat-collecting plate. Attainable performance level of the flat plate type collector for commercial purposes is estimated, and the specifications of the commercial collector as the research target are determined. (NEDO)

  6. Hot chocolate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments

  7. Hot water reticulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, S. K.

    1977-10-15

    Hot water reticulation (district heating) is an established method of energy supply within cities in many countries. It is based on the fact that heat can often be obtained cheaply in bulk, and that the resultant savings can, in suitable circumstances, justify the investment in a reticulation network of insulated pipes to distribute the heat to many consumers in the form of hot water or occasionally steam. The heat can be used by domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers for space heating and water heating, and by industries for process heat. The costs of supplying domestic consumers can be determined by considering an average residential area, but industrial and commercial consumers are so varied in their requirements that every proposal must be treated independently. Fixed costs, variable costs, total costs, and demand and resource constraints are discussed.

  8. The hot chocolate effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  9. The ''hot'' patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipper, M.S.; Alazraki, N.P.; Feiglin, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Increased patellar uptake on bone scans is seen quite commonly but the possible or probable etiologies of this finding have not been previously well described. A review of 100 consecutive bone scans showed that the incidence of bilateral ''hot'' patellae is 15%. Identified etiologies include osteoarthritic degenerative disease (35%), fracture, possible metastatic disease, bursitis, Paget's disease, and osteomyelitis. The value of careful history, physical examination, and radiographs is stressed

  10. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1993-01-01

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  11. 'Hot particle' intercomparison dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Baum, J.W.; Charles, M.W.; Darley, D.P.J.; Durham, J.S.; Scannell, M.J.; Soares, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Dosimetry measurements of four 'hot particles' were made at different density thickness values using five different methods. The hot particles had maximum dimensions of 650 μm and maximum beta energies of 0.97, 046, 0.36, and 0.32 MeV. Absorbers were used to obtain the dose at different depths for each dosimeter. Measurements were made using exoelectron dosimeters, an extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), Eberline RO-2 and RO-2A survey meters, and two sets of GafChromic (tm) dye film with each set read out at a different institution. From these results the dose was calculated averaged over 1 cm 2 of tissue at 18, 70, 125, and 400 μm depth. Comparisons of tissue-dose averaged over 1 cm 2 for 18, 70, and 125 μm depth based on interpolated measured values, were within 30% for the GafChromic (tm) dye film, extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), and Eberline RO-2 and 2A (tm) survey meters except for the hot particle with 0.46 MeV maximum beta energy. The results for this source showed differences of up to 60%. The extrapolation chamber and NE Extremity Tape dosimeters under-responded for measurements at 400 μm by about a factor of 2 compared with the GafChromic dye films for two hot particles with maximum beta energy of 0.32 and 0.36 MeV which each emitted two 100% 1 MeV photons per disintegration. Tissue doses determined using exoelectron dosimeters were a factor of 2 to 5 less than those determined using other dosimeters, possibly due to failures of the equipment. (author)

  12. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-01-01

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG and amp;E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  13. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  14. Papers presented at ISES solar world congress 1993 in Budapest, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Papers presented at the ISES Solar World Congress 1993 by researchers employed at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory at the Technical University of Denmark. The subjects dealt with are: the design of small domestic hot water low-flow solar heating systems, heat storage for large low-flow solar heating systems, the monitoring of Danish marketed solar heating systems, conversion of indoor measurements to outdoor long term performances for low flow solar collectors, optimum ventilation rate of solar collectors, the construction of seasonal heat storage based on a pit with clay membrane, a solar house with a new solar collector, and a framing system for solar wall glazings. (AB)

  15. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  16. Solar systems and heat pumps in operation in Carinthia: results 1994 - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1998-04-01

    Solar systems and heat pumps in operation in Carinthia: results 1994 - 1997. Test results from solar systems for swimming pool heating, hot water preparation and space heating as well as heat pumps for hot water preparation, space heating and heat recovery will be reported and assessed collectively. (author)

  17. Reconsidering solar grid parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Grid parity-reducing the cost of solar energy to be competitive with conventional grid-supplied electricity-has long been hailed as the tipping point for solar dominance in the energy mix. Such expectations are likely to be overly optimistic. A realistic examination of grid parity suggests that the cost-effectiveness of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems may be further away than many are hoping for. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness may not guarantee commercial competitiveness. Solar hot water technology is currently far more cost-effective than photovoltaic technology and has already reached grid parity in many places. Nevertheless, the market penetration of solar water heaters remains limited for reasons including unfamiliarity with the technologies and high upfront costs. These same barriers will likely hinder the adoption of distributed solar photovoltaic systems as well. The rapid growth in PV deployment in recent years is largely policy-driven and such rapid growth would not be sustainable unless governments continue to expand financial incentives and policy mandates, as well as address regulatory and market barriers.

  18. German co-operation in the IEA WG 'Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors'. Final report; Deutsche Mitarbeit in der IEA - Arbeitsgruppe 'Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors'. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehl, M.; Heck, M.; Kuebler, V.; Steinhart, J.

    2000-07-01

    To effectively select, use and maintain a material in a given application, its degradation under service conditions must be predicted prior to use. Preferably, the durability of the material should be expressed quantitatively in terms of an expected service life. Durability in this case is the ability of a material to withstand deterioration caused by all external factors in the environment, which may influence the performance of the material under service conditions. Service life is defined as the period of time after installation during which specific material properties important for the performance of the material meet or exceed minimum acceptable values. The present recommended qualification procedure for solar absorber surface durability is based on the conduct of a series of short term durability tests. During a test the optical performance of absorber surface tested is determined by measuring its solar absorptance and thermal emittance. From the loss in optical performance of absorber surface, its failure time in the test performed is assessed and compared with the shortest acceptable failure time set by the design service life of absorber. Design service life, performance requirement defining failure time in terms of loss in optical performance, classification of type and levels of environmental stress are set under the assumption, that the absorber surface tested will be installed in a flat plate solar collector for use in domestic hot water systems. (orig.)

  19. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for existing detached houses); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-05-27

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for existing detached houses. In system analysis, various evaluation items of the primary experimental house to be constructed and the titled thermal system were determined, and its measurement/control online program was developed. In the R and D on equipment and materials, the performance of the vacuum collector prepared in last fiscal year was tested, and based on its result and study on optimum structure, the new prototype vacuum collector was fabricated. In the study on heat transfer and heat storage system equipment, the medium-scale latent heat type heat storage tank (1 x 10{sup 4}kcal in thermal capacity, 8 x 10{sup 3}kcal/h in thermal output) using ammonium alum was prepared. For a preventive mechanism against supercooling, reconsideration of structure of a crystal nucleus formation plate was necessary. In the study on refrigerator driven by Rankine cycle engine, the prototype compressor more than 3,000kcal/h in refrigeration capacity was fabricated. Construction of the experimental house and trial operation of the cooling/heating system were promoted. (NEDO)

  20. Absorption generator for solar-powered air-conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, D. J.; Murray, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Device passes solar-heated water through coils. Hot lithium Bromide/Water solution leaves through central stand-pipe, and water vapor leaves through refrigerant outlet at top. Matching generation temperature to collector efficiency helps cut costs.

  1. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for IBM System 1B, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A hot solar heating and hot water system's operational performance from April 1979 through March 1980 is evaluated. The space heating and hot water loads were near expected values for the year. Solar energy provided 43 percent of the space heating and 53 percent of the hot water energy. The system did not meet the total system solar fraction design value of 69 percent because of a combination of higher estimated space heating load than was actually encountered and the apportioning of solar energy between the space heating and the domestic hot water loads. System losses and high building temperatures also contributed to this deviation. Total net savings were 23.072 million BTUs. Most of the energy savings came during the winter months, but hot water savings were sufficient to justify running the system during the summer months.

  2. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  3. Hot-electron nanoscopy using adiabatic compression of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2013-10-20

    Surface plasmon polaritons are a central concept in nanoplasmonics and have been exploited to develop ultrasensitive chemical detection platforms, as well as imaging and spectroscopic techniques at the nanoscale. Surface plasmons can decay to form highly energetic (or hot) electrons in a process that is usually thought to be parasitic for applications, because it limits the lifetime and propagation length of surface plasmons and therefore has an adverse influence on the functionality of nanoplasmonic devices. Recently, however, it has been shown that hot electrons produced by surface plasmon decay can be harnessed to produce useful work in photodetection, catalysis and solar energy conversion. Nevertheless, the surface-plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency has been below 1% in all cases. Here we show that adiabatic focusing of surface plasmons on a Schottky diode-terminated tapered tip of nanoscale dimensions allows for a plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency of ∼30%. We further demonstrate that, with such high efficiency, hot electrons can be used for a new nanoscopy technique based on an atomic force microscopy set-up. We show that this hot-electron nanoscopy preserves the chemical sensitivity of the scanned surface and has a spatial resolution below 50 nm, with margins for improvement.

  4. Hot-electron nanoscopy using adiabatic compression of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea; Torre, Bruno; Toma, Andrea; Francardi, Marco; Malerba, Mario; Alabastri, Alessandro; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Stockman, Mark Mark; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are a central concept in nanoplasmonics and have been exploited to develop ultrasensitive chemical detection platforms, as well as imaging and spectroscopic techniques at the nanoscale. Surface plasmons can decay to form highly energetic (or hot) electrons in a process that is usually thought to be parasitic for applications, because it limits the lifetime and propagation length of surface plasmons and therefore has an adverse influence on the functionality of nanoplasmonic devices. Recently, however, it has been shown that hot electrons produced by surface plasmon decay can be harnessed to produce useful work in photodetection, catalysis and solar energy conversion. Nevertheless, the surface-plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency has been below 1% in all cases. Here we show that adiabatic focusing of surface plasmons on a Schottky diode-terminated tapered tip of nanoscale dimensions allows for a plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency of ∼30%. We further demonstrate that, with such high efficiency, hot electrons can be used for a new nanoscopy technique based on an atomic force microscopy set-up. We show that this hot-electron nanoscopy preserves the chemical sensitivity of the scanned surface and has a spatial resolution below 50 nm, with margins for improvement.

  5. Service behaviour of high speed steel rolling rolls used in hot strip mills; Comportamiento en servicio de los aceros rapidos utilizados en la fabricacion de los cilindros de trabajo de los trenes de bandas en caliente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziadi, A.; Belzunce, F. J.; Rodriguez, C.; Fernandez, I.

    2005-07-01

    Work rolls used in hot strip mills may be able to carry out severe actions: very high thermal stresses and wear, along with mechanical stresses due to normal rolling loads, which develop in the presence of cracks, produced by the former actions. The microstructure and the mechanical behaviour (strength and toughness) of high speed steels, which recently have been introduced in this applications, were studied in this work in comparison with high chromium cast irons. (Author) 7 refs.

  6. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  7. Reactivating Catalytic Surface: Insights into the Role of Hot Holes in Plasmonic Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tianhuan; Miao, Junjian; Gao, Zhaoshuai; Zhang, Linjuan; Gao, Yi; Fan, Chunhai; Li, Di

    2018-03-01

    Surface plasmon resonance of coinage metal nanoparticles is extensively exploited to promote catalytic reactions via harvesting solar energy. Previous efforts on elucidating the mechanisms of enhanced catalysis are devoted to hot electron-induced photothermal conversion and direct charge transfer to the adsorbed reactants. However, little attention is paid to roles of hot holes that are generated concomitantly with hot electrons. In this work, 13 nm spherical Au nanoparticles with small absorption cross-section are employed to catalyze a well-studied glucose oxidation reaction. Density functional theory calculation and X-ray absorption spectrum analysis reveal that hot holes energetically favor transferring catalytic intermediates to product molecules and then desorbing from the surface of plasmonic catalysts, resulting in the recovery of their catalytic activities. The studies shed new light on the use of the synergy of hot holes and hot electrons for plasmon-promoted catalysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nano-technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; HueyLiang Hwang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light, have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  9. Instrumentation at the Decade 80 solar house in Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Modifications, problems and solutions for the instrumentation system that occurred during the period from May through September, 1978, are described. The solar house was built to show the use of copper in home building and to demonstrate the use of solar energy to provide space heating and cooling and domestic hot water. The auxiliary energy sources are electrical resistance heating for the domestic hot water and a gas-fired boiler for space heating and operation of the adsorption air conditioning units.

  10. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  11. Solar radiophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.; Labrum, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats all aspects of solar radioastronomy at metre wavelengths, particularly work carried out on the Australian radioheliograph at Culgoora, with which most of the authors have been associated in one way or another. After an introductory section on historical aspects, the solar atmosphere, solar flares, and coronal radio emission, the book deals with instrumentation, theory, and details of observations and interpretations of the various aspects of metrewave solar radioastronomy, including burst types, solar storms, and the quiet sun. (U.K.)

  12. Solar system installation at Louisville, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of a solar space heating and domestic hot water system is described. The overall philosophy used was to install both a liquid and a hot air system retrofitted to existing office and combined warehouse building. The 1080 sq. ft. office space is heated first and excess heat is dumped into the warehouse. The two systems offer a unique opportunity to measure the performance and compare results of both air and liquid at one site.

  13. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  14. Progress in hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodhag, C.; Thevenot, F.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental technique is described to study hot pressing of ceramics under conditions of controlled temperature and pressure during both the heating and final sintering stages. This method gives a better control of the final microstructure of the material. Transformation mechanisms can be studied during initial heating stage (impurity degasing, reaction, phase transformation, mechanical behavior of intergranular phase...) using computer control and graphical data representations. Some examples will be given for different systems studied in our laboratory: B (α, β, amorphous), B 12 O 2 (reaction of B + B 2 O 3 ), Si 3 N 4 ( + additives), TiN, Al 2 O 3 + AlON,ZrC

  15. Multipurpose reprocessing hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A multipurpose hot cell is being designed for use at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant for handling future scheduled fuels that cannot be adequately handled by the existing facilities and equipment. In addition to providing considerable flexibility to handle a wide variety of fuel sizes up to 2,500 lb in weight the design will provide for remote maintenance or replacement of the in-cell equipment with a minimum of exposure to personnel and also provide process piping connections for custom processing of small quantities of fuel. (auth)

  16. Modeling the impact of forest biomass change on the subsequent ground level solar energy to enhance the understanding of ecosystem service tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Solar radiation is a significant environmental driver that impacts the quality and resilience of terrestrial and aquatic habitats, yet its spatiotemporal variations are complicated to model accurately at high resolution over large, complex watersheds. ...

  17. Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

  18. Solar water lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandurdyyev, A; Daykhanov, S

    1982-01-01

    A water lifter is proposed which contains a piston pump, whose rod of the piston is connected to the drive element having periodic contact with the solar heater storage battery. In order to expand the range of operation and to simplify design, the drive element is made in the form of a hollow tube with closed ends equipped with mobile supports, and a ridged HE attached to its middle part, hydraulically connected to the cavity of the tube, and the latter is made of material which has the memory of the shape in the hot state.

  19. Climate classification and passive solar design implications in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Chris C.S.; Lam, Joseph C. [Building Energy Research Group, Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yang, Liu [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Shaanxi 710055 (China)

    2007-07-15

    China's climate differs greatly in various regions, ranging from severe cold to hot and arid to humid. This has significant influences on energy efficient building design strategies and energy use. Solar radiation data from 123 measuring stations were used to propose a map indicating the solar radiation climates in China. A cluster analysis was adopted to identify the prevailing solar climates using the monthly average daily clearness index, K{sub t}, as climatic variable. Five major solar climates were identified with annual average K{sub t} ranging from 0.3 in the Sichuan Basin to 0.65 in the north and northwest regions. The solar climates were compared with the more widely used general (thermal) climates (severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild and hot summer and warm winter) and the major topography (basin, plain and plateau), and implications for building designs were briefly discussed. (author)

  20. Climate classification and passive solar design implications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Chris C.S.; Lam, Joseph C.; Yang, Liu

    2007-01-01

    China's climate differs greatly in various regions, ranging from severe cold to hot and arid to humid. This has significant influences on energy efficient building design strategies and energy use. Solar radiation data from 123 measuring stations were used to propose a map indicating the solar radiation climates in China. A cluster analysis was adopted to identify the prevailing solar climates using the monthly average daily clearness index, K t , as climatic variable. Five major solar climates were identified with annual average K t ranging from 0.3 in the Sichuan Basin to 0.65 in the north and northwest regions. The solar climates were compared with the more widely used general (thermal) climates (severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild and hot summer and warm winter) and the major topography (basin, plain and plateau), and implications for building designs were briefly discussed

  1. Hot ductility testing and weld simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.; Schick, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the project was to enhance the insight into the causes of intergranular cracks detected in austenitic circumferential welds at BWR pipes. The susceptibility of a variety of austenitic pipe materials to hot cracking during welding and in-service intergranular crack corrosion was examined. The assumption was cracking in the root area of the HAZ of a multiple-layer weld. Hot-ductility tests and weld simulation tests specifically designed for the project were performed with the austenitic LWR pipe materials 1.4553 (X6 CrNiNb 18 10 S), 1.4550 (X10 CrNiNb 18 9), 1.4533 (X6 CrNiTi 18 9, two weld pools), and a non-stabilized TP 304 (X5 CrNi 18 10). (orig./CB) [de

  2. Pre-cometary ice composition from hot core chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Carmen; Kührt, Ekkehard; Motschmann, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Pre-cometary ice located around star-forming regions contains molecules that are pre-biotic compounds or pre-biotic precursors. Molecular line surveys of hot cores provide information on the composition of the ice since it sublimates near these sites. We have combined a hydrostatic hot core model with a complex network of chemical reactions to calculate the time-dependent abundances of molecules, ions, and radicals. The model considers the interaction between the ice and gas phase. It is applied to the Orion hot core where high-mass star formation occurs, and to the solar-mass binary protostar system IRAS 16293-2422. Our calculations show that at the end of the hot core phase both star-forming sites produce the same prebiotic CN-bearing molecules. However, in the Orion hot core these molecules are formed in larger abundances. A comparison of the calculated values with the abundances derived from the observed line data requires a chemically unprocessed molecular cloud as the initial state of hot core evolution. Thus, it appears that these objects are formed at a much younger cloud stage than previously thought. This implies that the ice phase of the young clouds does not contain CN-bearing molecules in large abundances before the hot core has been formed. The pre-biotic molecules synthesized in hot cores cause a chemical enrichment in the gas phase and in the pre-cometary ice. This enrichment is thought to be an important extraterrestrial aspect of the formation of life on Earth and elsewhere.

  3. Solar electron source and thermionic solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Yaghoobi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Common solar technologies are either photovoltaic/thermophotovoltaic, or use indirect methods of electricity generation such as boiling water for a steam turbine. Thermionic energy conversion based on the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into vacuum and their collection by an anode is also a promising route. However, thermionic solar conversion is extremely challenging as the sunlight intensity is too low for heating a conventional cathode to thermionic emission temperatures in a practical manner. Therefore, compared to other technologies, little has been done in this area, and the devices have been mainly limited to large experimental apparatus investigated for space power applications. Based on a recently observed “Heat Trap” effect in carbon nanotube arrays, allowing their efficient heating with low-power light, we report the first compact thermionic solar cell. Even using a simple off-the-shelf focusing lens, the device delivered over 1 V across a load. The device also shows intrinsic storage capacity.

  4. Ayres' bifurcated solar model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkofen, W.

    1985-01-01

    The assumptions of Ayres' model of the upper solar atmosphere are examined. It is found that the bistable character of his model is postulated - through the assumptions concerning the opacity sources and the effect of mechanical waves, which are allowed to destroy the CO molecules but not to heat the gas. The neglect of cooling by metal lines is based on their reduced local cooling rate, but it ignores the increased depth over which this cooling occurs. Thus, the bifurcated model of the upper solar atmosphere consists of two models, one cold at the temperature minimum, with a kinetic temperature of 2900 K, and the other hot, with a temperature of 4900 K. 8 references

  5. Thermal Performance of a Large Low Flow Solar Heating System with a Highly Thermally Stratified Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2005-01-01

    are facing west. The collector tilt is 15° from horizontal for all collectors. Both the east-facing and the west-facing collectors have their own solar collector loop, circulation pump, external heat exchanger and control system. The external heat exchangers are used to transfer the heat from the solar......In year 2000 a 336 m² solar domestic hot water system was built in Sundparken, Elsinore, Denmark. The solar heating system is a low flow system with a 10000 l hot-water tank. Due to the orientation of the buildings half of the solar collectors are facing east, half of the solar collectors...... collector fluid to the domestic water. The domestic water is pumped from the bottom of the hot-water tank to the heat exchanger and back to the hot-water tank through stratification inlet pipes. The return flow from the DHW circulation pipe also enters the tank through stratification inlet pipes. The tank...

  6. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  7. Multifunctional Hot Structure Heat Shield

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is performing preliminary development of a Multifunctional Hot Structure (HOST) heat shield for planetary entry. Results of this development will...

  8. Huge opportunity for solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In Europe more than 400 solar cooling systems have been installed. By contrast, only a small number of solar cooling installations exist in Australia - primarily adsorption and absorption systems for commercial and hospitals - although these systems are growing. As with other renewable energy technologies, cost is a challenge. However solar cooling is currently competitive with other technologies, with some suggesting that system costs have been decreasing by about 20% per annum in recent times. Australia is also leading efforts in the development of residential solar desiccant technology, currently commercialising Australian-developed technology. Commercial and industrial enterprises are increasingly aware of the impact of demand charges, the potential to install technology as a hedge against future energy price rises and opportunities associated with increased on-site generation and reduced reliance on the grid, often necessitating on-site demand reduction and management. They are also driven by environmental and corporate social responsibility objectives as well as the opportunity for energy independence and uninterruptible operation. Interestingly, many of these interests are mirrdred at residential level, inspiring CSIRO's commercialisation of a domestic scale solar air conditioner with Australian manufacturer Brevis Climate Systems. Australia and other countries are increasingly aware of solar cooling as technology which can reduce or replace grid-powered cooling, particularly in applications where large building thermal energy requirements exist. In these applications, heating, cooling and hot water are generated and used in large amounts and the relative amounts of each can be varied dynamically, depending on building requirements. Recent demonstrations of solar cooling technology in Australia include Hunter TAFE's Solar Desiccant Cooling System - which provides heating, cooling and hot water to commercial training kitchens and classrooms - GPT

  9. Integrated solar water-heater and solar water cooler performance during winter time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.U.; Siddiqui, M.A

    2012-01-01

    Solar powered water heater and water cooler is an important contribution for the reduction of fossil fuel consumptions and harmful emissions to the environment. This study aims to harness the available solar potential of Pakistan and provide an option fulfilling the domestic hot and cold water demands during winter and summer seasons respectively. The system was designed for the tap-water temperature of 65 degree C (149 degree F) and the chilled drinking-water temperature of 14 degree C (57 degree F) that are the recommended temperatures by World Health Organization (WHO). The solar water heater serves one of the facilities of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at NED University of Engineering and Technology whereas, the solar water cooler will provide drinking water to approximately 50 people including both faculty and students. A pair of single glazed flat plate solar collector was installed to convert solar radiations to heat. Hot water storage and supply system was carefully designed and fabricated to obtain the designed tap-water temperature. Vapour-absorption refrigeration system was designed to chill drinking water. Intensity of solar radiations falling on the solar collector, water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the solar collectors and the tap water temperature were measured and analyzed at different hours of the day and at different days of the month. The results show that the installed solar collector system has potential to feed hot water of temperatures ranging from 65 degree C (149 degree F) to 70 Degree C (158 degree F), that is the required hot water temperature to operate a vapour absorption chilled water production system. (author)

  10. Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model was used to size the system to minimize the annualized cost of hot water. The annualized cost of solar-assisted gas-energy water heating is found to be less expensive than electric water heating but more expensive than gas water heating. The feasibility of a natural gas utility supplying the auxiliary fuel is evaluated. It is estimated that gas-utilizing companies will find it profitable to offer solar water heating as part of a total energy service option or on a lease basis when the price of new base-load supplies of natural gas reaches $2.50-$3.00 per million Btu.

  11. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model used to calculate the boiler efficiency on a monthly basis was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions...

  12. Solar-energy heats a transportation test center--Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Petroleum-base, thermal energy transport fluid circulating through 583 square feet of flat-plate solar collectors accumulates majority of energy for space heating and domestic hot-water of large Test Center. Report describes operation, maintenance, and performance of system which is suitable for warehouses and similar buildings. For test period from February 1979 to January 1980, solar-heating fraction was 31 percent, solar hot-water fraction 79 percent.

  13. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchaey, John

    Most galaxy formation models predict that massive low-redshift disk galaxies are embedded in extended hot halos of externally accreted gas. Such gas appears necessary to maintain ongoing star formation in isolated spirals like the Milky Way. To explain the large population of red galaxies in rich groups and clusters, most galaxy evolution models assume that these hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a denser environment. This simple model has been remarkably successful at reproducing many observed properties of galaxies. Although theoretical arguments suggest hot gas halos are an important component in galaxies, we know very little about this gas from an observational standpoint. In fact, previous observations have failed to detect soft X-ray emission from such halos in disk galaxies. Furthermore, the assumption that hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a group or cluster has not been verified. We propose to combine proprietary and archival XMM-Newton observations of galaxies in the field, groups and clusters to study how hot gas halos are impacted by environment. Our proposed program has three components: 1) The deepest search to date for a hot gas halo in a quiescent spiral galaxy. A detection will confirm a basic tenet of disk galaxy formation models, whereas a non-detection will seriously challenge these models and impose new constraints on the growth mode and feedback history of disk galaxies. 2) A detailed study of the hot gas halos properties of field early-type galaxies. As environmental processes such as stripping are not expected to be important in the field, a study of hot gas halos in this environment will allow us to better understand how feedback and other internal processes impact hot gas halos. 3) A study of hot gas halos in the outskirts of groups and clusters. By comparing observations with our suite of simulations we can begin to understand what role the stripping of hot gas halos plays in galaxy

  14. Refurbishment of an Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, K.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Coleman, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    An Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell (ALHC) Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was in service for nearly thirty years. In order to comply with DOE regulations governing such facilities and meet ANL-W programmatic requirements, a major refurbishment effort was undertaken. All penetrations within the facility were sealed; the ventilation system was redesigned, upgraded and replaced; the manipulators were replaced; the hot cell windows were removed, refurbished, and reinstalled; all hot cell utilities were replaced; a lead-shielded glovebox housing an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) System was interfaced with the hot cells, and a new CO2 fire suppression system and other ALHC support equipment were installed

  15. Improved model for solar heating of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    A considerable future increase in the global energy use is expected, and the effects of energy conversion on the climate are already observed. Future energy conversion should thus be based on resources that have negligible climate effects; solar energy is perhaps the most important of such resources. The presented work builds on a previous complete model for solar heating of a house; here the aim to introduce ventilation heat recovery and improve on the hot water storage model. Ventilation he...

  16. Solar installer training: Home Builders Institute Job Corps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K.; Mann, R. [San Diego Job Corps Center, Imperial Beach, CA (United States). Home Builders Inst.

    1996-10-01

    The instructors describe the solar installation training program operated since 1979 by the Home Builders Institute, the Educational Arm of the National Association of Home Builders for the US Department of Labor, Job Corps in San Diego, CA. The authors are the original instructors and have developed the program since its inception by a co-operative effort between the Solar Energy Industries Association, NAHB and US DOL. Case studies of a few of the 605 students who have gone to work over the years after the training are included. It is one of the most successful programs under the elaborate Student Performance Monitoring Information System used by all Job Corps programs. Job Corps is a federally funded residential job training program for low income persons 16--24 years of age. Discussion details the curriculum and methods used in the program including classroom, shop and community service projects. Solar technologies including all types of hot water heating, swimming pool and spa as well as photovoltaics are included.

  17. Implementation of solar-reflective surfaces: Materials and utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretz, S.; Akbari, H.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H.

    1992-06-01

    This report focuses on implementation issues for using solar-reflective surfaces to cool urban heat islands, with specific examples for Sacramento, California. Advantages of solar-reflective surfaces for reducing energy use are: (1) they are cost-effective if albedo is increased during routine maintenance; (2) the energy savings coincide with peak demand for power; (3) there are positive effects on environmental quality; and (4) the white materials have a long service life. Important considerations when choosing materials for mitigating heat islands are identified as albedo, emissivity, durability, cost, pollution and appearance. There is a potential for increasing urban albedo in Sacramento by an additional 18%. Of residential roofs, we estimate that asphalt shingle and modified bitumen cover the largest area, and that built-up roofing and modified bitumen cover the largest area of commercial buildings. For all of these roof types, albedo may be increased at the time of re-roofing without any additional cost. When a roof is repaired, a solar-reflective roof coating may be applied to significantly increase albedo and extend the life of the root Although a coating may be cost-effective if applied to a new roof following installation or to an older roof following repair, it is not cost-effective if the coating is applied only to save energy. Solar-reflective pavement may be cost-effective if the albedo change is included in the routine resurfacing schedule. Cost-effective options for producing light-colored pavement may include: (1) asphalt concrete, if white aggregate is locally available; (2) concrete overlays; and (3) newly developed white binders and aggregate. Another option may be hot-rolled asphalt, with white chippings. Utilities could promote solar-reflective surfaces through advertisement, educational programs and cost-sharing of road resurfacing.

  18. Hot business - cool opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new role for the deregulated electric utilities in the energy services market or performance contracting markets was discussed. It was argued that in view of the long tradition of close customer contact, distribution utilities are in a good position to leverage their relationship with their customers to expand the range of products and services that the ''utility'' provides to them. Real time pricing, energy services, HVAC maintenance and operation are just some of the areas where the distribution utility''s linkage to customers could be used to good advantage. Some case histories, and a list of potential product and service opportunities in the commercial/industrial and residential sectors were provided. Some of the potential pitfalls were also identified for utilities that wish to pursue these opportunities. These pitfalls included legal, marketing, risk management and funding issues

  19. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisheer, N.

    1992-01-01

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

  20. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....