WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar fusion rate

  1. Neutrinos do come from solar-fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    Results from Kamiokande 11 have given the first convincing evidence that neutrinos are emitted by nuclear fusion in the sun. However, the measured neutrino flux is less than half that predicted by the standard solar model (4 paragraphs).

  2. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  3. Fusion Reaction Rate in an Inhomogeneous Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The local fusion rate, obtained from the assumption that the distribution is a local Maxwellian, is inaccurate if mean-free-paths of fusing particles are not sufficiently small compared with the inhomogeneity length of the plasma. We calculate the first order correction of P0 in terms of the small spatial gradient and obtain a non-local modification of P(sub)0 in a shock region when the gradient is not small. Use is made of the fact that the fusion reaction cross section has a relatively sharp peak as a function of energy

  4. Reoperation Rates Following Instrumented Lumbar Spine Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmola, Tero Matti; Häkkinen, Arja; Järvenpää, Salme; Marttinen, Ilkka; Vihtonen, Kimmo; Neva, Marko

    2018-02-15

    A prospective cohort study. This study evaluated the cumulative reoperation rate and indications for reoperation following instrumented lumbar spine fusion (LSF). LSF reduces disability and improves health-related quality of life for patients with several spinal disorders. The rate of instrumented LSF has drastically increased over the last few decades. The increased incidence of LSF, however, has led to increased reoperation rates. The data are based on the prospective LSF database of Tampere University Hospital that includes all elective indications for LSF surgery. A total of 433 consecutive patients (64% women, mean age 62 years) who underwent LSF in Tampere University Hospital between 2008 and 2011 were evaluated and indications for reoperations were rechecked from patient records and radiographs. The most common diagnosis for the primary surgery was degenerative spondylolisthesis and the mean follow-up time was 3.9 years. The cumulative incidence of reoperations and the "time to event" survival rate was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. By the end of 2013, 81 patients had undergone at least one reoperation. The cumulative reoperation rate at 2 years was 12.5% (95% confidence interval: 95% CI: 9.7-16.0) and at 4 years was 19.3% (95% CI: 15.6-23.8). The most common pathology leading to reoperation was adjacent segment pathology with a cumulative reoperation rate of 8.7% (95% CI: 6.1-12.5) at 4 years. The corresponding rates for early and late instrumentation failure were 4.4% (95% CI: 2.7-7.0) and 2.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.1), respectively, and for acute complications, 2.5% (95% CI: 1.4-4.5). Although previous studies reported that early results of spinal fusion are promising, one in five patients required reoperation within 4 years after surgery. Patients and surgeons should be aware of the reoperation rates when planning fusion surgery. 4.

  5. Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components

  6. The fusion rate in the transmission resonance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaendel, M.

    1992-01-01

    Resonant transmission of deuterons through a chain of target deuterons in a metal matrix has been suggested as an explanation for the cold fusion phenomena. In this paper the fusion rate in such transmission resonance models is estimated, and the basic physical constraints are discussed. The dominating contribution to the fusion yield is found to come from metastable states. The fusion rate is well described by the Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin approximation and appears to be much too small to explain the experimental anomalies

  7. Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1996-01-01

    Experiments showed that by means of a standard electronically controlled pump, type UPE 2000 from Grundfos it is possible to control the flow rate in a solar collector loop in such a way that the flow rate is strongly influenced by the temperature of the solar collector fluid passing the pump....... The flow rate is increasing for increasing temperature.The flow rate at the high temperature level is typically 70 % greater than the flow rate at the low temperature level.Further, the energy consumption for the electronically controlled pump in a solar heating system will be somewhat smaller than...... the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0...

  8. Solar fusion cross sections II: the pp chain and CNO cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelberger, E G; Bemmerer, D; Bertulani, C A; Chen, J -W; Costantini, H; Couder, M; Cyburt, R; Davids, B; Freedman, S J; Gai, M; Garcia, A; Gazit, D; Gialanella, L; Greife, U; Hass, M; Heeger, K; Haxton, W C; Imbriani, G; Itahashi, T; Junghans, A; Kubodera, K; Langanke, K; Leitner, D; Leitner, M; Marcucci, L E; Motobayashi, T; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Nollett, Kenneth M; Nunes, F M; Park, T -S; Parker, P D; Prati, P; Ramsey-Musolf, M J; Hamish Robertson, R G; Schiavilla, R; Simpson, E C; Snover, K A; Spitaleri, C; Strieder, F; Suemmerer, K; Trautvetter, R E; Tribble, R E; Typel, S; Uberseder, E; Vetter, P; Wiescher, M

    2011-04-01

    The available data on nuclear fusion cross sections important to energy generation in the Sun and other hydrogen-burning stars and to solar neutrino production are summarized and critically evaluated. Recommended values and uncertainties are provided for key cross sections, and a recommended spectrum is given for 8B solar neutrinos. Opportunities for further increasing the precision of key rates are also discussed, including new facilities, new experimental techniques, and improvements in theory. This review, which summarizes the conclusions of a workshop held at the Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle, in January 2009, is intended as a 10-year update and supplement to 1998, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1265.

  9. Neutron detector for fusion reaction-rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Phillion, D.W.; Tietbohl, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a fast, sensitive neutron detector for recording the fusion reaction-rate history of inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The detector is based on the fast rise-time of a commercial plastic scintillator (BC-422) and has a response 7 neutrons

  10. Fusion rates for hydrogen isotopic molecules of relevance for ''cold fusion''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalewicz, K.; Morgan, J.D. III; Monkhorst, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the recent announcements of evidence for room-temperature fusion in the electrolysis of D 2 O, we have analyzed how the fusion rate depends on the reduced mass of the fusing nuclei, the effective mass of a ''heavy'' electron, and the degree of vibrational excitation. Our results have been obtained both by accurately solving the Schroedinger equation for the hydrogen molecule and by using the WKB approximation. We find that in light of the reported d-d fusion rate, the excess heat in the experiment by Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins [J. Electroanal. Chem. 261, 301 (1989)] is difficult to explain in terms of conventional nuclear processes

  11. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate in Sage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Bowles, T.J.; Cleveland, B.T.; Elliott, S.R.; Gavrin, V.N.; Girin, S.V.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Gurkina, P.P.; Ibragimova, T.V.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Khairnasov, N.G.; Knodel, T.V.; Mirmov, I.N.; Nico, J.S.; Shikhin, A.A.; Teasdale, W.A.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Yants, V.E.; Zatsepin, G.T

    2003-04-01

    Combined analysis of the data of 92 runs of SAGE during the 12-year period January 1990 through December 2001 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 70.9{sub -5.2}{sup +5.3} (stat.) {sub -3.2}{sup +3.7} (syst.) SNU. This represents only 55% of the predicted standard solar model rate of {approx}130 SNU. The results of individual runs as well as the results of combined analysis of all runs during yearly, monthly, and bimonthly periods are presented. No compelling evidence for temporal variations is observed. By an analysis of the SAGE results combined with those from all other solar neutrino experiments, we make the first estimate of the electron neutrino pp flux that reaches the Earth to be (4.6 {+-} 1.2) x 10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s). Assuming that neutrinos oscillate to active flavors the pp neutrino flux emitted in the solar fusion reaction is approximately (7.6 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), in agreement with the standard solar model calculation of (5.95 {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s)

  12. Fusion Rate and Clinical Outcomes in Two-Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Hiroyuki; Takenaka, Shota; Nagamoto, Yukitaka; Tobimatsu, Hidekazu; Yamashita, Tomoya; Furuya, Masayuki; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2018-04-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has become a general surgical method for degenerative lumbar diseases. Although many reports have focused on single-level PLIF, few have focused on 2-level PLIF, and no report has covered the fusion status of 2-level PLIF. The purpose of this study is to investigate clinical outcomes and fusion for 2-level PLIF by using a combination of dynamic radiographs and multiplanar-reconstruction computed tomography scans. This study consisted of 48 consecutive patients who underwent 2-level PLIF for degenerative lumbar diseases. We assessed surgery duration, estimated blood loss, complications, clinical outcomes as measured by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score, lumbar sagittal alignment as measured on standing lateral radiographs, and fusion status as measured by dynamic radiographs and multiplanar-reconstruction computed tomography. Patients were examined at a follow-up point of 4.8 ± 2.2 years after surgery. Thirty-eight patients who did not undergo lumbosacral fusion comprised the lumbolumbar group, and 10 patients who underwent lumbosacral fusion comprised the lumbosacral group. The mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association score improved from 12.1 to 22.4 points by the final follow-up examination. Sagittal alignment also was improved. All patients had fusion in the cranial level. Seven patients had nonunion in the caudal level, and the lumbosacral group (40%) had a significantly poorer fusion rate than the lumbolumbar group (97%) did. Surgical outcomes of 2-level PLIF were satisfactory. The fusion rate at both levels was 85%. All nonunion was observed at the caudal level and concentrated at L5-S level in L4-5-S PLIF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Some considerations of ''cold fusion'' including the calculation of fusion rates in molecules of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1989-11-01

    We calculate the fusion reaction rates in molecules of hydrogen isotopes. The rates are calculated analytically (for the first time) as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio of the electron mass to the reduced mass of the nucleii. The fusion rates of the P-D, D-D, and D-T reactions are given for a variable electron mass by a simple analytic formula. However, we do not know any mechanism by which a sufficiently localized electron in solid can have an 'effective mass' large enough to explain the result of Fleischman and Pons (FP). This calculation indicates that P-D rates should exceed D-D rates for D-D fusion rates less than approximately 10 -23 per molecule per second. The D-D fusion rate is enhanced by a factor of 10 5 at 10,000 degree K if the excited vibrational states are populated with a Boltzmann distribution and the rotational excitations suppressed. The suggestion that experimental results could be explained by bombardment of cold deuterons by kilovolt deuterons is shown to be an unlikely from an energetic point of view. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Heat of Fusion Storage with High Solar Fraction for Solar Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    to achieve 100% coverage of space heating and domestic hot water in a low energy house in a Danish climate with a solar heating system with 36 m² flat plate solar collector and approximately 10 m³ storage with sodium acetate. A traditional water storage solution aiming at 100% coverage will require a storage......This paper presents the theoretical investigation on a concept for a seasonal thermal storage based on the phase change material sodium acetate trihydrate with active use of supercooling as a measure to achieve a partly heat loss free thermal storage. The effect of supercooling allows a melted part...... of the storage to cool down below the melting point without solidification preserving the heat of fusion energy. If the supercooled storage reaches the surrounding temperature no heat loss will take place until the supercooled salt is activated. The investigation shows that this concept makes it possible...

  15. Graft position and fusion rate following arthroscopic Latarjet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Laurent; Gerometta, Antoine; Massein, Audrey; Khiami, Frederic; Rousseau, Romain; Hardy, Alexandre; Pascal-Moussellard, Hugues; Loriaut, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The arthroscopic Latarjet procedure is recently becoming an increasingly popular technique. Nevertheless, position and fusion of the autograft had not been well studied yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the positioning of the coracoid graft and the fusion rate on CT scan in the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure. The study design was a prospective series of 19 consecutive patients who received arthroscopic Latarjet procedure. Radiological assessment on CT scan performed 3 months post-operatively included an analysis of the fusion and the position of the coracoid bone graft using a validated method. 02:30-04:20 was considered an ideal positioning in the sagittal view. In the axial view, the positioning was considered as flush, congruent, medial, too medial, or lateral. The median age of patients was 27.6 (±6.9). Mean operative time was of 161 min ±34.8. The fusion rate was of 78 %. Coracoid grafts were positioned 01:52 h (56° ± 14°) to 4:04 h (122° ± 12.5°). In the axial view, 32 % of the grafts positioning were considered as flush, 38 % as congruent, 30 % as medial, and 6 % too medial. No lateral position was noted. Two complications occurred, one graft fracture during screwing requiring opening conversion and an early case of osteolysis in a medial-positioned graft. The arthroscopic Latarjet procedure is a technically challenging technique that provides satisfactory fusion rate and graft positioning with a low complication rate. The clinical importance of this study lies in the observation that it is the first study to evaluate the position of the coracoid bone graft in arthroscopic Latarjet according to a detailed and validated method. IV.

  16. Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers

  17. Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  18. Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  19. Impact of subsidence on clinical outcomes and radiographic fusion rates in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, Isaac O; Jain, Deeptee; Owens, Timothy Ryan; Gottfried, Oren; Hodges, Tiffany R; Nimjee, Shahid M; Bagley, Carlos A

    2014-02-01

    Systematic review. To provide a systematic review of published literature on the impact of subsidence on clinical outcomes and radiographic fusion rates after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with plates or without plates. Subsidence of interbody implants is common after anterior cervical spine fusions. The impact of subsidence on fusion rates and clinical outcomes is unknown. Systematic literature review on published articles on anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, which objectively measured graft subsidence, radiographic fusion rates, and clinical outcomes between April 1966 and December 2010. A total of 35 articles that measured subsidence and provided fusion rates and/or clinical outcomes were selected for inclusion. The mean subsidence rate ranged from 19.3% to 42.5%. The rate of subsidence based on the type of implant ranged from 22.8% to 35.9%. The incidence of subsidence was not impacted by the type of implant (P=0.98). The overall fusion rate of the combined studies was 92.8% and was not impacted by subsidence irrespective of subsidence definition or the measurement technique used (P=0.19). Clinical outcomes were evaluated in 27 of 35 studies with all studies reporting an improvement in patient outcomes postoperatively. Subsidence irrespective of the measurement technique or definition does not appear to have an impact on successful fusion and/or clinical outcomes. A validated definition and standard measurement technique for subsidence is needed to determine the actual incidence of subsidence and its impact on radiographic and clinical outcomes.

  20. Additive effects on the energy barrier for synaptic vesicle fusion cause supralinear effects on the vesicle fusion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schotten, Sebastiaan; Meijer, Marieke; Walter, Alexander Matthias

    2015-01-01

    supralinear effects on the fusion rate. To test this prediction experimentally, we developed a method to assess the number of releasable vesicles, rate constants for vesicle priming, unpriming, and fusion, and the activation energy for fusion by fitting a vesicle state model to synaptic responses induced......-linear effects of genetic/pharmacological perturbations on synaptic transmission and a novel interpretation of the cooperative nature of Ca2+-dependent release....

  1. Critical analysis of trends in lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders revisited: influence of technique on fusion rate and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanji, Heeren; Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Bhalla, Amandeep; Bono, Christopher M

    2018-03-15

    Lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders is among the most common spine surgical procedures performed. The purpose of this study was to analyze fusion, complications, and clinical success for lumbar fusion performed with various surgical techniques as reported in the literature from 2000 to 2015 and compare with previous critical analysis of outcomes from 1980 to 2000. A systematic review of the literature to identify all studies of adult lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders published between January 1, 2000, and August 31, 2015, was performed adhering to PRISMA guidelines. Studies were included if they enabled analysis of outcomes of individual fusion techniques. Data from 8599 patients extracted from 160 studies were recorded. Posterior and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF and TLIF) had significantly higher fusion rates compared to instrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) (OR 3.20 and 2.46, respectively). Clinical success rate was statistically higher with MIS versus non-MIS fusion (OR 2.44). While methodological quality was higher in studies from 2000 to 2015 than prior decades, the outcomes of comparable procedures were about the same. Lumbar fusions for degenerative disorders from 2000 to 2015 demonstrate a trend toward more interbody fusions and MIS techniques than prior decades. Clinical success with MIS appears more likely than with non-MIS fusions, despite equivalent fusion and complication rates. While these data are intriguing, they should be interpreted cautiously considering the level of heterogeneity of the studies available. Further, high-quality comparative studies are warranted to better understand the relative benefits of more complex interbody and MIS fusions for these conditions. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  2. A High Rated Solar Water Distillation Unit for Solar Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India is presently focusing on complete utilization of solar energy and saving fossil fuels, which are limited. Various solar energy systems like solar cookers, solar water heaters, solar lanterns, solar PV lights, and solar lamps are continuously availing by the people of India at a low cost and on good subsidies. Apart from this, India is a solar energy promising country with a good number of solar homes (carrying solar energy systems in its various locations. The present paper focuses on a unique combination of solar dish cooker (SDC and solar water heater (SWH to produce distilled water with a high distillate and a high daily productivity. The procedure has been discussed on the basis of experimental testing to produce distilled water by combining an evacuated type SWH and a SDC. Experimentation has been carried out in MIT, Moradabad (longitude, 28.83°N, and latitude, 78.78°E by developing the same experimental setup on behalf of solar homes. The daily productivity of distilled water was found around 3.66 litres per day in full sunshine hours for an approximated pH value of 7.7 and a ppm value of 21. The payback period (PBP has been estimated around 1.16 years of the present system.

  3. Effect of a generalized particle momentum distribution on plasma nuclear fusion rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a generalized particle momentum distribution derived by Galitskii and Yakimets (GY) on nuclear reaction rates in plasma. We derive an approximate semi-analytical formula for nuclear fusion reaction rate between nuclei in a plasma (quantum plasma nuclear fusion; or QPNF). The QPNF formula is applied to calculate deuteron-deuteron fusion rate in a plasma, and the results are compared with the results calculated with the conventional Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution. As an application, we investigate the deuteron-deuteron fusion rate for mobile deuterons in a deuterated metal/alloy. The calculated deuteron-deuteron fusion rates at low energies are enormously enhanced due to the modified tail of the GY's generalized momentum distribution. Our preliminary estimates indicate also that the deuteron-lithium (D+Li) fusion rate and the proton-lithium (p+Li) fusion rate in a metal/alloy at ambient temperatures are also substantially enhanced. (author)

  4. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  5. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; Pei, Bao-Qing; Yang, Jin-Cai; Hai, Yong; Li, De-Yu; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure m...

  6. The effect of electrical stimulation on lumbar spinal fusion in older patients: a randomized, controlled, multi-center trial: part 2: fusion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Thomas; Christensen, Finn B; Egund, Niels; Ernst, Carsten; Fruensgaard, Søren; Østergaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Jens Langer; Rasmussen, Sten; Niedermann, Bent; Høy, Kristian; Helmig, Peter; Holm, Randi; Lindblad, Bent Erling; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2009-10-01

    Randomized, controlled, multi-center trial. To investigate the effect of direct current (DC) electrical stimulation on fusion rates after lumbar spinal fusion in patients older than 60 years. Older patients have increased complication rates after spinal fusion surgery. Treatments which have the possibility of enhancing functional outcome and fusion rates without lengthening the procedure could prove beneficial. DC-stimulation of spinal fusion has proven effective in increasing fusion rates in younger and "high risk" patients, but little information exist on the effect in older patients. A randomized clinical trial comprising 5 orthopedic centers. The study included a total of 107 patients randomized to uninstrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion with or without DC-stimulation. Fusion rate was assessed at 2 year follow-up using thin slice CT. Functional outcome was assessed using Dallas Pain Questionnaire and Low Back Pain Rating Scale pain index. RESULTS.: Available follow-up after 2 years was 89% (84 of 95 patients). Fusion rates were surprisingly low. DC-stimulation had no effect on fusion rate: 35% versus 36% in controls. Other factors associated with low fusion rates were female gender (32% vs. 42% in males, P = 0.050) and smoking (21% vs. 42% in nonsmokers, P = 0.079). Patients who achieved a solid fusion as determined by CT had superior functional outcome and pain scores at their latest follow-up. Thin slice CT revealed very high nonunion rates after uninstrumented spinal fusion in older patients. DC-stimulation was not effective in increasing fusion rates in this patient population. The achievement of a solid fusion was associated with superior functional outcome.

  7. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 5: Conclusions and recomendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Air pollution resulting from the use of fossil fuels is discussed. Phenomena relating to the emission of CO2 such as the greenhouse effect and multiplier effect are explored. Particulate release is also discussed. The following recommendations are made for the elimination of fossil fuel combustion products in the United States: development of nuclear breeder reactors, use of solar energy systems, exploration of energy alternatives such as geothermal and fusion, and the substitution of coal for gas and oil use.

  8. Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is proposed that Iran as a world's potential supplier of fossile fuel should participate in fusion research and gain experience in this new field. Fusion, as an ultimate source of energy in future, and the problems concerned with the fusion reactors are reviewed. Furthermore; plasma heating, magnetic and inertial confinement in a fusion reactor are discussed. A brief description of tokamak, theta pinch and magnetic mirror reactors is also included

  9. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  10. Proton Spectra from ^{3}He+T and ^{3}He+^{3}He Fusion at Low Center-of-Mass Energy, with Potential Implications for Solar Fusion Cross Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Hale, G M; Brune, C R; Bacher, A; Casey, D T; Li, C K; McNabb, D; Paris, M; Petrasso, R D; Sangster, T C; Sayre, D B; Séguin, F H

    2017-12-01

    Few-body nuclear physics often relies upon phenomenological models, with new efforts at the ab initio theory reported recently; both need high-quality benchmark data, particularly at low center-of-mass energies. We use high-energy-density plasmas to measure the proton spectra from ^{3}He+T and ^{3}He+^{3}He fusion. The data disagree with R-matrix predictions constrained by neutron spectra from T+T fusion. We present a new analysis of the ^{3}He+^{3}He proton spectrum; these benchmarked spectral shapes should be used for interpreting low-resolution data, such as solar fusion cross-section measurements.

  11. Proton Spectra from 3He + T and 3He + 3He Fusion at Low Center-of-Mass Energy, with Potential Implications for Solar Fusion Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Hale, G. M.; Brune, C. R.; Bacher, A.; Casey, D. T.; Li, C. K.; McNabb, D.; Paris, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Sayre, D. B.; Séguin, F. H.

    2017-12-01

    Few-body nuclear physics often relies upon phenomenological models, with new efforts at the ab initio theory reported recently; both need high-quality benchmark data, particularly at low center-of-mass energies. We use high-energy-density plasmas to measure the proton spectra from 3He +T and 3He + 3He fusion. The data disagree with R -matrix predictions constrained by neutron spectra from T +T fusion. We present a new analysis of the 3He + 3He 3 proton spectrum; these benchmarked spectral shapes should be used for interpreting low-resolution data, such as solar fusion cross-section measurements.

  12. Diagnostic technique for measuring fusion reaction rate for inertial confinement fusion experiments at Shen Guang-III prototype laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Peng Xiao-Shi; Liu Shen-Ye; Xu Tao; Kang Dong-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A study is conducted using a two-dimensional simulation program (Lared-s) with the goal of developing a technique to evaluate the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in a neutron fusion reaction region. Two peaks of fusion reaction rate are simulated by using a two-dimensional simulation program (Lared-s) and confirmed by the experimental results. A neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD) system is developed with a high temporal resolution of ∼ 30 ps at the Shen Guang-III (SG-III) prototype laser facility in China, to measure the fusion reaction rate history. With the shape of neutron reaction rate curve and the spherical harmonic function in this paper, the degree of Rayleigh-Taylor growth and the main source of the neutron yield in our experiment can be estimated qualitatively. This technique, including the diagnostic system and the simulation program, may provide important information for obtaining a higher neutron yield in implosion experiments of inertial confinement fusion

  13. Efficiencies of flat plate solar collectors at different flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Two flat plate solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rate are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good agreement...... with the measured efficiencies....

  14. Single-screw fixation for subtalar joint fusion does not increase nonunion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarbo, William T; Berlet, Gregory C; Hyer, Christopher F; Smith, W Bret

    2010-08-01

    A philosophical shift toward more joint-sparing procedures has led to increased use of isolated subtalar joint (STJ) versus triple arthrodesis. Union rates for STJ fusion range from 47% to 100%, leading to controversy regarding the optimal type, orientation, and amount of internal fixation. The purpose of this study was to determine if single-screw fixation is a predisposing factor to nonunion. Single-screw fixation is parallel to the STJ axis and may result in motion. It is hypothesized that higher nonunion rates will be observed in single-screw versus 2-screw fusions. Isolated STJ arthrodeses performed in 113 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Single screws were used in 89 (78.8%) fusions; 2 screws were used in 24 (21.2%) fusions. The mean follow-up was 11 months (range, 9-17 months). Nonunion occurred in 13 (14.6%) single-screw and 6 (25.0%) 2-screw fusions. Twenty (22.5%) single-screw and 3 (12.5%) 2-screw fusions required hardware removal. Revision surgery was performed in 6 (6.7%) single-screw and 3 (12.5%) 2-screw fusions. No significant differences in demographics were calculated between single and 2-screw fusions. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in nonunion rate, postoperative complication incidence, or subsequent surgeries. The results from this study do not support the contention that single-screw fixation predisposes STJ fusions to nonunion. Comparable nonunion and complication incidences were observed between single and 2-screw fusions. These data suggest that the motion occurring from single-screw fixation may not be significant enough to directly affect the rate of union.

  15. The measurement of the fluence rate of accelerator fusion neutrons by using the associated particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dalun; Li Yijun; Jiang Li

    1998-11-01

    The associated particle method is normally used to measure the fluence rate of accelerator fusion neutron. The principle, set-up and technical points are standardized. The measurement error is up to 1%∼1.5%

  16. Heat of Fusion Storage with High Solar Fraction for Solar Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    The paper presents the results of a theoretical investigation of use of phase change materials (PCM’s) with active use of super cooling as a measure for obtaining partly heat loss free seasonal storages for solar combi-systems with 100% coverage of the energy demand of both space heating...... as the theoretical results obtained for a solar combi system with the PCM-storage installed in a low energy house in a Danish climate. Parametric studies of collector area, storage volume and solar fraction for the PCM-system will be presented as well as an outline for a system with 100% coverage of the space...... and domestic hot water. The work is part of the IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme Task 32 “Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar Buildings”. The investigations are based on a newly developed TRNSYS type for simulation of a PCM-storage with controlled super-cooling. The super-cooling makes it possible to let...

  17. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. Results: The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. Conclusions: One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible.

  18. Load rate of facet joints at the adjacent segment increased after fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Pei, Bao-Qing; Yang, Jin-Cai; Hai, Yong; Li, De-Yu; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2015-04-20

    The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible.

  19. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  20. Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation may improve fusion rates in cervical arthrodesis in high-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coric, D; Bullard, D E; Patel, V V; Ryaby, J T; Atkinson, B L; He, D; Guyer, R D

    2018-02-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation was evaluated after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures in a randomized, controlled clinical study performed for United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. PEMF significantly increased fusion rates at six months, but 12-month fusion outcomes for subjects at elevated risk for pseudoarthrosis were not thoroughly reported. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of PEMF treatment on subjects at increased risk for pseudoarthrosis after ACDF procedures. Two evaluations were performed that compared fusion rates between PEMF stimulation and a historical control (160 subjects) from the FDA investigational device exemption (IDE) study: a post hoc (PH) analysis of high-risk subjects from the FDA study (PH PEMF); and a multicentre, open-label (OL) study consisting of 274 subjects treated with PEMF (OL PEMF). Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression was used to compare fusion rates between PEMF-treated subjects and historical controls. In separate comparisons of PH PEMF and OL PEMF groups to the historical control group, PEMF treatment significantly (p PEMF treatment can be recommended for patients who are at high risk for pseudoarthrosis. Cite this article : D. Coric, D. E. Bullard, V. V. Patel, J. T. Ryaby, B. L. Atkinson, D. He, R. D. Guyer. Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation may improve fusion rates in cervical arthrodesis in high-risk populations. Bone Joint Res 2018;7:124-130. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.72.BJR-2017-0221.R1. © 2018 Coric et al.

  1. 1988 failure rate screening data for fusion reliability and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Piet, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    This document contains failure rate screening data for application to fusion components. The screening values are generally fission or aerospace industry failure rate estimates that can be extrapolated for use by fusion system designers, reliability engineers and risk analysts. Failure rate estimates for tritium-bearing systems, liquid metal-cooled systems, gas-cooled systems, water-cooled systems and containment systems are given. Preliminary system availability estimates and selected initiating event frequency estimates are presented. This first edition document is valuable to design and safety analysis for the Compact Ignition Tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. 20 refs., 28 tabs

  2. Comparing 30-day all-cause readmission rates between tibiotalar fusion and total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Robert K; Ferrandino, Rocco M; Hoffman, Ryan; Ndu, Anthony; Shaffer, Gene W

    2018-01-12

    End-stage ankle arthritis is a debilitating condition that negatively impacts patient quality of life. Tibiotalar fusion and total ankle replacement are treatment options for managing ankle arthritis. Few studies have examined short term readmission rates of these two procedures. The objective of this study was compare all-cause 30-day readmission rates between patients undergoing tibiotalar fusion vs. total ankle replacement. This study queried the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) from 2013-2014 and used international classification of disease, 9th revision (ICD-9) procedure codes to identify all patients who underwent a tibiotalar fusion or a total ankle replacement. Comorbidities, insurance status, hospital characteristics, and readmission rates were statistically compared between the two cohorts. Risk factors were then identified for 30-day readmission. A total of 5660 patients were analyzed with 2667 in the tibiotalar fusion cohort and 2993 in the total ankle replacement cohort. Univariate analysis revealed that the readmission rate after tibiotalar fusion (4.4%) was statistically greater than after total ankle replacement (1.4%). Multivariable regression analysis indicated that deficiency anemia (OR 2.18), coagulopathy (OR 3.51), renal failure (OR 2.83), other insurance relative to private (OR 3.40), and tibiotalar fusion (OR 2.51) were all statistically significant independent risk factors for having a readmission within 30-days. These findings suggest that during the short-term period following discharge from the hospital, patients who received a tibiotalar fusion are more likely to experience a 30-day readmission. These findings are important for decision making when a surgeon encounters a patient with end stage ankle arthritis. Level III, cohort study. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Solar geoengineering to limit the rate of temperature change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G; Caldeira, Ken; Keith, David W

    2014-12-28

    Solar geoengineering has been suggested as a tool that might reduce damage from anthropogenic climate change. Analysis often assumes that geoengineering would be used to maintain a constant global mean temperature. Under this scenario, geoengineering would be required either indefinitely (on societal time scales) or until atmospheric CO2 concentrations were sufficiently reduced. Impacts of climate change, however, are related to the rate of change as well as its magnitude. We thus describe an alternative scenario in which solar geoengineering is used only to constrain the rate of change of global mean temperature; this leads to a finite deployment period for any emissions pathway that stabilizes global mean temperature. The length of deployment and amount of geoengineering required depends on the emissions pathway and allowable rate of change, e.g. in our simulations, reducing the maximum approximately 0.3°C per decade rate of change in an RCP 4.5 pathway to 0.1°C per decade would require geoengineering for 160 years; under RCP 6.0, the required time nearly doubles. We demonstrate that feedback control can limit rates of change in a climate model. Finally, we note that a decision to terminate use of solar geoengineering does not automatically imply rapid temperature increases: feedback could be used to limit rates of change in a gradual phase-out. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of solar proton-proton fusion neutrinos with a Soviet-American gallium experiment: Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.

    1989-06-01

    A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to low-energy proton-proton fusion neutrinos. A flux of 70 SNU is expected in a gallium detector from the p-p reaction independent of solar model calculations. If, however, neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed 8 B flux measured by the Homestake 37 Cl experiment, then a comparison of the gallium and chlorine results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 60-ton gallium detector is currently being constructed in the Baksan Laboratory in the Soviet Union, and should be taking data by the end of 1989

  5. Investigation of heat of fusion storage for solar low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical investigation by means of TRNSYS simulations of a partly heat loss free phase change material (PCM) storage solution for solar heating systems. The partly heat loss free storage is obtained by controlled used of super cooling in a mixture of sodium acetate...... and xanthane rubber. The storage can cool down to surrounding temperature preserving the latent heat in form of the heat of fusion energy. The basis for the calculations is a super low energy house with a space heating demand of 2010 kWh/year and a domestic hot water demand of 2530 kWh/year. For storage...... volumes in the range of 500 – 3000 litres the heat loss free state is seldom reached and the effect of super cooling is limited. For larger volumes the heat loss free state may be reached. The benefit of using a PCM storage compared to a traditional water storage is limited with respect to energy savings...

  6. Improved Dissolution Rate of Piroxicam by Fusion Solid Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharmaceutical grade), a biodegradable polymer, to obtain a solution with drug: polymer ratio of 1:5. The release rate of the piroxicam solid dispersed drug was studied in simulated gastric fluid. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron ...

  7. Repetition rate target and fusion chamber systems for HiPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Bedrich; Edwards, Chris; Tyldesley, Mike; Griffiths, Mike; Le Garrec, Bruno; Perlado, Manolo; Perin, Jean-Paul; Guillaume, Didier; Neely, David; Polan, Jiří; Kozlová, Michaela; Homer, Pavel; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Sanders, Steve; Havlík, Petr; Kopecký, Martin; Kolařík, Vladimír; Papírek, Tomáš; Hlaváč, Martin; Haley, Richard; MacFarlane, Lewis; Alexander, Neil

    2011-06-01

    We review development in the repetition-rate target area systems and technologies within the Work Package 15 of the HiPER Preparatory Phase project. The activities carried out in 2009-2010 have been involving analysis of solutions and baseline design of major elements of the repetition-rated fusion chamber, analysis of prospective injector technologies, numerical modelling of target survival during acceleration phase and during flight in the environment of fusion chamber, analysis of options of remote handling, systems of mitigation of fusion debris, and others. The suggested solutions assume operation at the repetition rate of 10 Hz and fusion yield between 20 and 100 MJ. Shock ignition is assumed as the baseline ignition scenario, although some technologies are applicable in the fast ignition; a number of the technologies identified are exploitable as well in the indirect drive. The operation of the HiPER repetition-rate chamber will contribute to technology development for the Demonstration Reactor HiPER facility.

  8. Electrostatic levitation, control and transport in high rate, low cost production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires production of power plant grade targets at high rates and process yield. A review of present project specifications and techniques to produce targets is discussed with special emphasis on automating the processes and combining them with an electrostatic transport and suspension system through the power plant target factory

  9. Complication rate during multilevel lumbar fusion in patients above 60 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijjawara Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Complication rates strongly correlate with the blood loss and operative time. Reducing the operative time and blood loss by intraoperative tranexamic acid, laminectomy using osteotome, simultaneous bilateral exposure and instrumentation and reducing the number of interbody fusions can help in reducing the complications.

  10. A Multicenter Radiographic Evaluation of the Rates of Preoperative and Postoperative Malalignment in Degenerative Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Jean-Christophe A; Segebarth, Bradley; Schroerlucke, Samuel R; Khanna, Nitin; Pollina, John; Youssef, Jim A; Tohmeh, Antoine G; Uribe, Juan S

    2017-11-20

    Multicenter, retrospective, IRB-approved study at 18 institutions in the United States with 24 treating investigators. This study was designed to retrospectively assess the prevalence of spinopelvic malalignment in patients who underwent one- or two-level lumbar fusions for degenerative (non-deformity) indications and to assess the incidence of malalignment following fusion surgery as well as the rate of alignment preservation and/or correction in this population. Spinopelvic malalignment following lumbar fusion has been associated with lower postoperative health-related quality of life and elevated risk of adjacent segment failure. The prevalence of spinopelvic malalignment in short-segment degenerative lumbar fusion procedures from a large sample of patients is heretofore unreported and may lead to an under-appreciation of these factors in surgical planning and ultimate preservation or correction of alignment. Lateral preoperative and postoperative lumbar radiographs were retrospectively acquired from 578 one- or two-level lumbar fusion patients and newly measured for LL, PI, and pelvic tilt (PT). Patients were categorized at pre-op and post-op time points as aligned if PI-LL < 10° or malaligned if PI-LL≥10°. Patients were grouped into categories based on their alignment progression from pre- to postoperative, with preserved (aligned to aligned), restored (malaligned to aligned), not corrected (malaligned to malaligned), and worsened (aligned to malaligned) designations. Preoperatively, 173 (30%) patients exhibited malalignment. Postoperatively, 161 (28%) of patients were malaligned. Alignment was preserved in 63%, restored in 9%, not corrected in 21%, and worsened in 7% of patients. This is the first multicenter study to evaluate the preoperative prevalence and postoperative incidence of spinopelvic malalignment in a large series of short-segment degenerative lumbar fusions, finding over 25% of patients out of alignment at both time points, suggesting

  11. A Modified Technique for Occipitocervical Fusion Using Compressed Iliac Crest Allograft Results in a High Rate of Fusion in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rajiv R; Tuite, Gerald F; Meoded, Avner; Carey, Carolyn C; Rodriguez, Luis F

    2017-11-01

    In children, high rates of occipitocervical (OC) fusion have been demonstrated with the use of rigid instrumentation in combination with harvested autograft, with or without bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Historically, the use of allograft materials demonstrated inferior OC fusion outcomes compared with autograft. However, autograft harvest harbors an increased risk of patient morbidity, and the use of BMP is costly and controversial in children. Thus, there remains a need for safer, less costly, yet efficacious techniques for OC fusion in the pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients younger than 21 years of age who underwent OC fusion with structural allograft placement at our institution from 2010 to 2015. Data collected included age, sex, follow-up duration, fusion outcomes, and postoperative complications. A total of 19 patients (8 female and 11 male) underwent OC fusion with our surgical technique. Mean age was 8.5 ± 4.3 years. Radiographic follow up data were available for 18 of 19 patients. One patient was lost to clinical follow up but had radiographic confirmation of fusion. Thus, 18 of 18 (100%) of patients with radiographic follow-up achieved successful arthrodesis as determined by computed tomography. Median duration to documented fusion was 4.5 months. Clinical follow-up was available for 17 of 19 patients and was on average 18.8 ± 13.5 months. One patient required reoperation for graft fracture 8 months after radiographic confirmation of successful fusion. There were no vertebral artery injuries or other postoperative complications. We demonstrate a modified technique for OC fusion in children with unique structural allograft shaping and affixation, leading to excellent fusion outcomes at follow up. This technique obviates the need for autograft harvest or BMP, and may decrease postoperative morbidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Solar transition region and coronal response to heating rate perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariska, John T.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of Doppler shifts in UV emission lines formed in the solar transition region show continual plasma downflows and impulsive plasma upflows. Using numerical simulations, the authors examine the conjecture that areas of downflowing plasma are the base regions of coronal loops in which the heating is gradually decreasing and that areas of upflowing plasma are the base regions of coronal loops in which the heating rate is gradually increasing. Beginning with a coronal loop in equilibrium, the heating rate is reduced on time scales of 100, 1000, and 2000 s to 10 percent and 1 percent of the initial value, and the loop is allowed to evolve to a new equilibrium. The heating rate for the cooled models is then increased back to the initial value on the same time scales. While significant mass motions do develop in the simulations, both the emission measure and the velocity at 100,000 K do not show the characteristics present in UV observations.

  13. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  14. Rate of graft bone filling by transforaminal lumber interbody fusion (TLIF) with mesh cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kazuto; Kawaji, Youichi; Matsuba, Atsushi; Kouda, Hisao

    2007-01-01

    Compared to posterior lumber interbody fusion (PLIF), the transforaminal lumber interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure has a latent disadvantage in terms of bone grafting because of being a unilateral approach. We calculated the rate of graft bone filling in TLIF cases by postoperative CT and evaluated the clinical results. The rate of filling in the TLIF cases was not significantly less than in the PLIF cases. The results also showed no significant difference between TLIF and PLIF. An adequate amount of bone were grafted into the intervertebral space even by the unilateral TLIF approach, however the procedure is not easy. An incidental dural tear occurred in 1 case each treated by TLIF and PLIF. The exposure of the dural tube increases the risk of epidural bleeding and neural tissue injury. We recommend TLIF for discopathy, foraminal stenosis, and repeat surgery to avoid latent risk. (author)

  15. Outcomes and revision rates in normal, overweight, and obese patients 5 years after lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, R Kirk; Djurasovic, Mladen; Onyekwelu, Ikemefuna; Bratcher, Kelly R; McGraw, Katlyn E; Carreon, Leah Y

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in health care. Studies have demonstrated similar functional outcomes but higher complication rates after spine surgery in obese patients. This study aimed to compare patient-reported outcomes and revision rates 5 years after instrumented posterior lumbar fusion between normal, overweight, and obese patients. Propensity matched case control. Patients who had posterior instrumented lumbar spinal fusion from 2001 to 2008 from a single spine specialty center with complete preoperative and 5-year postoperative outcome measures were identified. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Back Pain (0-10) and Leg Pain (0-10) Numeric Rating Scales, and Short Form-36 Physical Composite Summary Scores (SF-36 PCS). Three comparison groups, one with body mass index (BMI) ≥20-25 kg/m 2 (normal), another with ≥25-25 at baseline did not appear to have worse outcomes than those with a normal BMI of 20-25 when undergoing posterior lumbar fusion surgery. Obesity should not be considered a contraindication to surgery in patients with appropriate surgical indications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Fusion Rates Based on Graft Material Following Occipitocervical and Atlantoaxial Arthrodesis in Adults and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leslie C; Anderson, Richard C E; Brockmeyer, Douglas L; Torok, Michelle R; Hankinson, Todd C

    2018-03-15

    Fusion rates following rigid internal instrumentation for occipitocervical and atlantoaxial instability approach 100% in many reports. Based on this success and the morbidity that can be associated with obtaining autograft for fusion, surgeons increasingly select alternative graft materials. To examine fusion failure using various graft materials in a retrospective observational study. Insurance claims databases (Truven Health MarketScan® [Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arbor, Michigan] and IMS Health Lifelink/PHARMetrics [IMS Health, Danbury, Connecticut]) were used to identify patients with CPT codes 22590 and 22595. Patients were divided by age (≥18 yr = adult) and arthrodesis code, establishing 4 populations. Each population was further separated by graft code: group 1 = 20938 (structural autograft); group 2 = 20931 (structural allograft); group 3 = other graft code (nonstructural); group 4 = no graft code. Fusion failure was assigned when ≥1 predetermined codes presented in the record ≥90 d following the last surgical procedure. Of 522 patients identified, 419 were adult and 103 were pediatric. Fusion failure occurred in 10.9% (57/522) of the population. There was no statistically significant difference in fusion failure based on graft material. Fusion failure occurred in 18.9% of pediatric occipitocervical fusions, but in 9.2% to 11.1% in the other groups. Administrative data regarding patients who underwent instrumented occipitocervical or atlantoaxial arthrodesis do not demonstrate differences in fusion rates based on the graft material selected. When compared to many contemporary primary datasets, fusion failure was more frequent; however, several recent studies have shown higher failure rates than previously reported. This may be influenced by broad patient selection and fusion failure criteria that were selected in order to maximize the generalizability of the findings.

  17. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution for a fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Guo Haiping; Mou Yunfeng; Zheng Pu; Liu Rong; Yang Xiaofei; Yang Jian

    2013-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor is established. It consists of a DT neutron source and a spherical shell of depleted uranium and hydrogen lithium. The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in the conceptual reactor was measured by DT neutrons using two sets of lithium glass detectors with different thicknesses in the hole in the vertical direction with respect to the D + beam of the Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator in direct current mode. The measured TPR distribution is compared with the calculated results obtained by the three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-Ⅵ data file. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values can be attributed to the neutron data library of the hydrogen lithium lack S(α, β) thermal scattering model, so we show that a special database of low-energy and thermal neutrons should be established in the physics design of fusion-fission hybrid reactors. (authors)

  18. Resonance of about-weekly human heart rate rhythm with solar activity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, G; Halberg, F; Wendt, H W; Bingham, C; Sothern, R B; Haus, E; Kleitman, E; Kleitman, N; Revilla, M A; Revilla, M; Breus, T K; Pimenov, K; Grigoriev, A E; Mitish, M D; Yatsyk, G V; Syutkina, E V

    1996-12-01

    In several human adults, certain solar activity rhythms may influence an about 7-day rhythm in heart rate. When no about-weekly feature was found in the rate of change in sunspot area, a measure of solar activity, the double amplitude of a circadian heart rate rhythm, approximated by the fit of a 7-day cosine curve, was lower, as was heart rate corresponds to about-weekly features in solar activity and/or relates to a sunspot cycle.

  19. Improving C1-C2 Complex Fusion Rates: An Alternate Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghostine, Samer S; Kaloostian, Paul E; Ordookhanian, Christ; Kaloostian, Sean; Zarrini, Parham; Kim, Terrence; Scibelli, Stephen; Clark-Schoeb, Scott J; Samudrala, Srinath; Lauryssen, Carl; Gill, Amandip S; Johnson, Patrick J

    2017-11-29

    The surgical repair of atlantoaxial instabilities (AAI) presents complex and unique challenges, originating from abnormalities and/or trauma within the junction regions of the C1-C2 atlas-axis, to surgeons. When this region is destabilized, surgical fusion becomes of key importance in order to prevent spinal cord injury. Several techniques can be utilized to provide for the adequate fusion of the atlantoaxial construct. Nevertheless, many individuals have less than ideal rates of fusion, below 35%-40%, which also involves the C2 nerve root being sacrificed. This suboptimal and unavoidable iatrogenic complication results in the elevated probability of complications typically composed of vertebral artery injury. This review is a retrospective analysis of 87 patients from Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, who had the C1-C2 surgical fusion procedure performed within the time frame from 2001 to 2008, with a mean follow-up period of three years. These patients had presented with typical AAI symptoms of fatigability, limited mobility, and clumsiness. Diagnosis of C1-C2 instability was documented via radiographic studies, typically utilizing computed tomography (CT) scans or x-rays. All patients had bilateral C1 lateral masses and C2 pedicle screws. In addition, the C1-C2 joint was accessed by retracting the C2 nerve root superiorly and exposing the joint by utilizing a high-speed burr. The cavity that is developed within the joint is packed with local autologous bone from the cephalad resection of the C2 laminae. Fusion of the C1-C2 joint was achieved in all patients and a final follow-up was conducted approximately three years postoperative. Of the 87 patients, two presented with occipital headaches resulting from the C1 screws impinging on the C2 nerve root. The issue was rectified by removing instrumentation in both patients after documenting complete fusion via radiographic studies, with complete resolution of symptoms. No vertebral

  20. Fusion and subsidence rate of stand alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion using PEEK cage with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrbalk, Eyal; Uri, Ofir; Parks, Ruth M; Musson, Rachel; Soh, Reuben Chee Cheong; Boszczyk, Bronek Maximilian

    2013-12-01

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is an established treatment for structural instability associated with symptomatic disk degeneration (SDD). Stand-alone ALIF offers many advantages, however, it may increase the risk of non-union. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) may enhance fusion rate but is associated with postoperative complication. The optimal dose of BMP-2 remains unclear. This study assessed the fusion and subsidence rates of stand-alone ALIF using the SynFix-LR interbody cage with 6 ml/level of BMP-2. Thirty-two ALIF procedures were performed by a single surgeon in 25 patients. Twenty-five procedures were performed for SDD without spondylolisthesis (SDD group) and seven procedures were performed for SDD with grade-I olisthesis (SDD-olisthesis group). Patients were followed-up for a mean of 17 ± 6 months. Solid fusion was achieved in 29 cases (90.6 %) within 6 months postoperatively. Five cases of implant subsidence were observed (16 %). Four of these occurred in the SDD-olisthesis group and one occurred in the SDD group (57 % vs. 4 % respectively; p = 0.004). Three cases of subsidence failed to fuse and required revision. The body mass index of patients with olisthesis who developed subsidence was higher than those who did not develop subsidence (29 ± 2.6 vs. 22 ± 6.5 respectively; p = 0.04). No BMP-2 related complications occurred. The overall fusion rate of stand-alone ALIF using the SynFix-LR system with BMP-2 was 90.6 %, comparable with other published series. No BMP-2 related complication occurred at a dose of 6 mg/level. Degenerative spondylolisthesis and obesity seemed to increase the rate of implant subsidence, and thus we believe that adding posterior fusion for these cases should be considered.

  1. Investigations on efficiencies of HT solar collectors for different flow rates and collector tilts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Two HT solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one solar collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between the abso......Two HT solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one solar collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates and tilt. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rates are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good...

  2. Preoperative Radiographic Parameters to Predict a Higher Pseudarthrosis Rate After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung H; Cho, Jae H; Hwang, Chang J; Lee, Choon S; Gwak, Hyun W; Lee, Dong-Ho

    2017-12-01

    Retrospective study. To determine whether postoperative pseudarthrosis can be predicted from specific preoperative radiograph measurements. Various factors reportedly influence the occurrence of pseudarthrosis after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). However, to our knowledge, there are no reports on the relationships between preoperative radiographic parameters and pseudarthrosis. We analyzed 84 consecutive patients (45 males, 39 females, mean age, 58.9 ± 11.2 yrs) who underwent ACDF. In all patients, allografts filled with local chip bone were inserted after discectomy and anterior plating was performed. On preoperative plain radiographs, we analyzed C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis, T1 sagittal slope, segmental motion, global cervical motion, and location of fusion segments. Pseudarthrosis was diagnosed as interspinous motion >1 mm with superjacent interspinous motion ≥4 mm on magnified dynamic lateral radiographs. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for pseudarthrosis and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define a cutoff value. One hundred and twenty-five segments from 84 patients were included. The pseudarthrosis rate was 29% based on number of patients (24/84) and 20% based on number of segments (25/125). Multilevel surgery and segments at the lowest levels showed higher pseudarthrosis rates (P = 0.01). Per multivariate logistic regression analysis, greater preoperative segmental motion, greater preoperative T1 sagittal slope, and C6-7 segments were associated with a higher risk of pseudarthrosis (all P preoperative segmental motion, greater preoperative T1 sagittal slope, and lower fusion levels could be risk factors for pseudarthrosis following ACDF. Preoperative segmental motion >12° is likely to be an important indicator of the development of pseudarthrosis. 3.

  3. Return to Work Rates After Single-level Cervical Fusion for Degenerative Disc Disease Compared With Fusion for Radiculopathy in a Workers' Compensation Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faour, Mhamad; Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2016-07-15

    A retrospective comparative cohort study. To compare return to work (RTW) rates for patients who underwent single-level cervical fusion for radiculopathy compared with fusion for degenerative disc disease (DDD) as an indication for surgery. Studies have shown that workers' compensation subjects have less favorable surgical and functional outcomes compared with the general population. Cervical decompression and fusion have provided great results with relieving radicular symptoms. Fusion for DDD, however, remains controversial. We retrospectively collected data of 21 169 subjects with cervical comorbidities who filed their claims for work-related injuries with Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation (BWC) between 1993 and 2011. The primary outcome was whether subjects met RTW criteria within 3-year follow-up after fusion. The secondary outcome measures and data on presurgical characteristics and secondary outcomes of each cohort were also collected. Successful RTW status was affected by a number of presurgical risk factors: DDD as an indication for surgery, age of more than 50 years, out of work for more than 6 months, psychological evaluation, opioid use, legal litigation, and permanent disability. The DDD group had lower rate of successful RTW status (50.9%) and was less likely to have a sustained RTW status (odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.79, P = 0.0001) compared with the radiculopathy group (successful RTW rate 62.9%). RTW rate within 1 year after surgery was lower in the DDD group (39.9%) compared with the radiculopathy group (53.1%; P = 0.0001). DDD patients were absent 112 days more on average after surgery compared with radiculopathy patients (P = 0.0003). Cervical fusion for DDD is associated with lower rate of successful RTW status when compared with fusion for radiculopathy in a worker's compensation setting. The decision to include surgical intervention in the management plan of cervical DDD should be approached with

  4. Recommendations for the performance rating of flat plate terrestrial photovoltaic solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, F. C.

    1976-01-01

    A review of recommendations for standardizing the performance rating of flat plate terrestrial solar panels is given to develop an international standard code of practice for performance rating. Required data to characterize the performance of a solar panel are listed. Other items discussed are: (1) basic measurement procedures; (2) performance measurement in natural sunlight and simulated sunlight; (3) standard solar cells; (4) the normal incidence method; (5) global method and (6) definition of peak power.

  5. Multisensor data fusion for enhanced respiratory rate estimation in thermal videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina B; Xinchi Yu; Blazek, Vladimir; Venema, Boudewijn; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2016-08-01

    Scientific studies have demonstrated that an atypical respiratory rate (RR) is frequently one of the earliest and major indicators of physiological distress. However, it is also described in the literature as "the neglected vital parameter", mainly due to shortcomings of clinical available monitoring techniques, which require attachment of sensors to the patient's body. The current paper introduces a novel approach that uses multisensor data fusion for an enhanced RR estimation in thermal videos. It considers not only the temperature variation around nostrils and mouth, but the upward and downward movement of both shoulders. In order to analyze the performance of our approach, two experiments were carried out on five healthy candidates. While during phase A, the subjects breathed normally, during phase B they simulated different breathing patterns. Thoracic effort was the gold standard elected to validate our algorithm. Our results show an excellent agreement between infrared thermography (IRT) and ground truth. While in phase A a mean correlation of 0.983 and a root-mean-square error of 0.240 bpm (breaths per minute) was obtained, in phase B they hovered around 0.995 and 0.890 bpm, respectively. In sum, IRT may be a promising clinical alternative to conventional sensors. Additionally, multisensor data fusion contributes to an enhancement of RR estimation and robustness.

  6. Retrospective Study of Anterior Interbody Fusion Rates and Patient Outcomes of Using Mineralized Collagen and Bone Marrow Aspirate in Multilevel Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostin, Richard; O'Brien, Michael; McCarthy, Ian; Bess, Shay; Gupta, Munish; Klineberg, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective, single-center analysis of multilevel anterior fusion rates and health-related quality-of-life outcomes of mineralized collagen and bone marrow aspirate (BMA) in anterior interbody fusion cages for spine fusion surgery. To determine the ability and effectiveness of mineralized collagen and BMA to achieve multilevel anterior spinal fusion in adult spinal deformity patients when placed in carbon fiber reinforced polymer cages. High rates of postoperative pain and nonunion can result from spine fusion procedures. Factors that affect the success of fusion include patient comorbidities, position of implant, and mechanical and biological deficiencies, as well as the choice of bone graft replacement. Analysis of radiographic images and health-related quality-of-life outcomes was performed for a consecutive series of 22 prospectively enrolled adult spinal deformity patients with 104 total anterior fusion levels. Fusions were graded by 3 blinded surgeons not involved in the operative procedure; each fusion was graded on a 1-4 scale based on fusion mass appearance. Levels with an average fusion grade of 1-2.4 were classified as fused; levels with an average grade >2.5 were classified as not fused. The mean patient age was 51.5 years (range, 38-61) with 21 females. A total of 95% of anterior operative levels were graded as fused based on flexion/extension and full-length biplane radiographs at 1 year. Computed tomography grading showed a reduced fusion rate at 87% overall. There was a statistically significant improvement in the Oswestry Disability Index and Scoliosis Research Society 22-item questionnaire scores at 1 and 2 years after index surgery. Fusion rates in multilevel anterior spinal fusion using mineralized collagen and BMA are relatively low compared with fusion rates of 95% or more reported in the existing literature on long fusions with bone morphogenetic protein.

  7. Effects of solar collecting area and water flow rate on the performance of a sand bed solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maganhar, A.L.; Memon, A.H.; Panhwar, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    The often discussed renewable sources of energy have been great interest to energy researchers and planners for quite some time. The primary of renewing all sources of energy is the sun. There have been two main problems not yet fully resolved. One is the large scale production of energy and other is the cost factor. In the present study, the cost factor is under consideration. In this regard a non-conventional solar collector using indigenous material (pit sand) as solar absorber is designed and manufactured. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of solar collecting area and water flow rate on the performance of a pit sand bed solar collector especially in terms of rise in water temperature. Three pit sand solar collectors of area 1m/sup 2/ each were connected in series to enhance the collecting area and the system was tested for different flow rates. Experimental results proved that there was increase in water temperature with increase in solar collecting area an decreases in water temperature with increase in flow rate. (author)

  8. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources, part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. D.; Reupke, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    The role of nuclear fission reactors in becoming an important power source in the world is discussed. The supply of fissile nuclear fuel will be severely depleted by the year 2000. With breeder reactors the world supply of uranium could last thousands of years. However, breeder reactors have problems of a large radioactive inventory and an accident potential which could present an unacceptable hazard. Although breeder reactors afford a possible solution to the energy shortage, their ultimate role will depend on demonstrated safety and acceptable risks and environmental effects. Fusion power would also be a long range, essentially permanent, solution to the world's energy problem. Fusion appears to compare favorably with breeders in safety and environmental effects. Research comparing a controlled fusion reactor with the breeder reactor in solving our long range energy needs is discussed.

  9. Economic analysis of solar industrial process heat systems: A methodology to determine annual required revenue and internal rate of return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, W. C.; Brown, K. C.

    1981-08-01

    An economic evaluation of solar industrial process heat systems, is developed to determine the annual required revenue and the internal rate of return. First, a format is provided to estimate the solar system's installed cost, annual operating and maintenance expenses, and net annual solar energy delivered to the industrial process. The annual required revenue and the price of solar is calculated. The economic attractiveness of the potential solar investment can be determined by comparing the price of solar energy with the price of fossilfuel, both expressed in levelized terms. This requires calcuation of the internal rate of return on the solar investment or, in certain cases, the growth rate of return.

  10. Comparison of allograft and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage subsidence rates in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yson, Sharon C; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Santos, Edward Rainier G

    2017-04-01

    Structural allografts and PEEK cages are commonly used interbody fusion devices in ACDF. The subsidence rates of these two spacers have not yet been directly compared. The primary aim of this study was to compare the subsidence rate of allograft and PEEK cage in ACDF. The secondary aim was to determine if the presence of subsidence affects the clinical outcome. We reviewed 67 cases (117 levels) of ACDF with either structural allograft or PEEK cages. There were 85 levels (48 cases) with PEEK and 32 levels (19 cases) with allograft spacers. Anterior and posterior disc heights at each operative level were measured at immediate and 6months post-op. Subsidence was defined as a decrease in anterior or posterior disc heights >2mm. NDI of the subsidence (SG) and non-subsidence group (NSG) were recorded. Chi-square test was used to analyze subsidence rates. T-test was used to analyze clinical outcomes (α=0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between subsidence rates of the PEEK (29%; 25/85) and allograft group (28%; 9/32) (p=0.69). Overall mean subsidence was 2.3±1.7mm anteriorly and 2.6±1.2mm posteriorly. Mean NDI improvement was 11.7 (from 47.1 to 35.4; average follow-up: 12mos) for the SG and 14.0 (from 45.8 to 31.8; average follow-up: 13mos) for the NSG (p=0.74). Subsidence rate does not seem to be affected by the use of either PEEK or allograft as spacers in ACDF. Furthermore, subsidence alone does not seem to be predictive of clinical outcomes of ACDF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Ankle Fusion Rates With and Without Anterior Plate Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Phillip M; Douleh, Diana G; Thomson, A Brian

    2017-04-01

    The optimal fixation construct for tibiotalar arthrodesis continues to be debated. While biomechanical data and clinical series support anterior plate augmentation, comparative studies assessing its use are sparse. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of successful tibiotalar arthrodesis with and without anterior plate augmentation of a compression screw construct. We studied 64 patients (65 ankles) undergoing tibiotalar arthrodesis done by a single surgeon over a 10-year period (2006-2016) with anterior plate augmentation beginning in 2010. Twenty-six ankles had a construct using compression screws only and 39 ankles had anterior plate augmentation of a compression screw construct. We reviewed clinical notes, operative reports, and postoperative radiographs to evaluate for union, incidence of revision, and postoperative complications. The nonunion rate in the compression screw (CS) cohort was 15.4% and 7.7% in the anterior plate augmentation (AP) cohort ( P = .33). The revision rate was 7.7% in the CS group and 2.6% in the AP cohort ( P = .34). The use of autograft harvested through a separate incision was 19.2% and 17.9% in the CS and AP cohorts, respectively. There were 2 deep postoperative infections in the AP group and none in the patients with CS only ( P = .24). There were no superficial wound complications in either group. Anterior plate augmentation was a viable fixation strategy in tibiotalar arthrodesis. In a trend toward an improved rate of fusion and decreased revision rate in the anterior plate augmentation cohort. Level III, retrospective comparative series.

  12. Actinometric measurement of solar ultraviolet and development of a weighted solar UV integral. [photochemical reaction rate determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Coulbert, C.

    1978-01-01

    An actinometer has been developed to measure outdoor irradiance in the range 295-400 nm. Actinometric measurements of radiation are based on determination of photochemical reaction rates for reactions of known quantum efficiency. Actinometers have the advantage of providing irradiance data over surfaces of difficult accessibility; in addition, actinometrically determined irradiance data are wavelength weighted and therefore provide a useful means of assessing the degradation rates of polymers employed in solar energy systems.

  13. Solar radiation increases suicide rate after adjusting for other climate factors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hee-Jung; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Yu Jin; Choi, Nari; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that suicide rates have significant seasonal variations. There is seasonal discordance between temperature and solar radiation due to the monsoon season in South Korea. We investigated the seasonality of suicide and assessed its association with climate variables in South Korea. Suicide rates were obtained from the National Statistical Office of South Korea, and climatic data were obtained from the Korea Meteorological Administration for the period of 1992-2010. We conducted analyses using a generalized additive model (GAM). First, we explored the seasonality of suicide and climate variables such as mean temperature, daily temperature range, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Next, we identified confounding climate variables associated with suicide rate. To estimate the adjusted effect of solar radiation on the suicide rate, we investigated the confounding variables using a multivariable GAM. Suicide rate showed seasonality with a pattern similar to that of solar radiation. We found that the suicide rate increased 1.008 times when solar radiation increased by 1 MJ/m 2 after adjusting for other confounding climate factors (P Solar radiation has a significant linear relationship with suicide after adjusting for region, other climate variables, and time trends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Heat of fusion storage systems for combined solar systems in low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Solar heating systems for combined domestic hot water and space heating has a large potential especially in low energy houses where it is possible to take full advantage of low temperature heating systems. If a building integrated heating system is used – e.g. floor heating - the supply temperature...... (and the the return temperature) would only be a few degrees above room temperature due to the very low heating demand and the large heat transfer surface area. One of the objectives in a newly started IEA Task 32 project is to investigate and develop improved thermal storages for combined solar...... systems through further improvement of water based storages and in parallel to investigate the potential of using storage designs with phase change materials, PCM. The advantage of phase change materials is that large amounts of energy can be stored without temperature increase when the material is going...

  15. Advanced latent heat of fusion thermal energy storage for solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.; Stearns, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The use of solar thermal power systems coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) is being studied for both terrestrial and space applications. In the case of terrestrial applications, it was found that one or two hours of TES could shift the insolation peak (solar noon) to coincide with user peak loads. The use of a phase change material (PCM) is attractive because of the higher energy storage density which can be achieved. However, the use of PCM has also certain disadvantages which must be addressed. Proof of concept testing was undertaken to evaluate corrosive effects and thermal ratcheting effects in a slurry system. It is concluded that the considered alkali metal/alkali salt slurry approach to TES appears to be very viable, taking into account an elimination of thermal ratcheting in storage systems and the reduction of corrosive effects. The approach appears to be useful for an employment involving temperatures applicable to Brayton or Stirling cycles.

  16. Investigation of heat of fusion storage for solar low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical investigation by means of TRNSYS simulations of a partly heat loss free phase change material (PCM) storage solution for solar heating systems. The partly heat loss free storage is obtained by controlled used of super cooling in a mixture of sodium acetate...... volumes in the range of 500 – 3000 litres the heat loss free state is seldom reached and the effect of super cooling is limited. For larger volumes the heat loss free state may be reached. The benefit of using a PCM storage compared to a traditional water storage is limited with respect to energy savings...

  17. Measurement of the Solar Neutrino Capture Rate by SAGE and Implications for Neutrino Oscillations in Vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdurashitov, J. N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Bowles, T. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Cherry, M. L. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Cleveland, B. T. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Davis, R. Jr. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Elliott, S. R. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Gavrin, V. N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Girin, S. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Gorbachev, V. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Ibragimova, T. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation)] (and others)

    1999-12-06

    The Russian-American solar neutrino experiment has measured the capture rate of neutrinos on metallic gallium in a radiochemical experiment at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. Eight years of measurement give the result 67.2{sup +7.2+3.5}{sub -7.0-3.0} solar neutrino units, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The restrictions these results impose on vacuum neutrino oscillation parameters are given. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  18. Influence of heating rate on the condensational instability. [in outer layers of solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Mariska, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis and numerical simulation are used to determine the effect that various heating rates have on the linear and nonlinear evolution of a typical plasma within a solar magnetic flux tube subject to the condensational instability. It is found that linear stability depends strongly on the heating rate. The results of numerical simulations of the nonlinear evolution of the condensational instability in a solar magnetic flux tube are presented. Different heating rates lead to quite different nonlinear evolutions, as evidenced by the behavior of the global internal energy.

  19. Coronal mass ejections observed during the solar maximum mission: Latitude distribution and rate of occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundhausen, A.J.; Sawyer, C.B.; House, L.; Illing, R.M.E.; Wagner, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-five coronal mass ejections have been identified in a systematic examination of white-light coronal images obtained between March and September 1980 by the coronagraph/polarimeter flown on the solar maximum mission spacecraft. These ejections were more uniformly distributed in position angle (or ''projected'' solar latitude) than the similar events observed during the Skylab mission in 1973--1974; 27% of the solar maximum mission mass ejections were centered at positions more than 45 0 from the solar equator. The average rate of occurrence of the observed mass ejections for the entire solar maximum mission epoch, based on the assumption that one coronagraph image per spacecraft orbit is sufficient for detection, was 0.9 +- 0.15 per 24-hour day. Application of the same sampling assumption to the Skylab data set leads to a rate of 0.75 per 24-hour day and thus a change in this rate from the Skylab era (on the declining phase of sunspot cycle 20) to solar maximum mission (near the maximum of sunspot cycle 21) of only approx.20%

  20. Multi-rate cubature Kalman filter based data fusion method with residual compensation to adapt to sampling rate discrepancy in attitude measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoting; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the multi-rate inertial and vision data fusion problem in nonlinear attitude measurement systems, where the sampling rate of the inertial sensor is much faster than that of the vision sensor. To fully exploit the high frequency inertial data and obtain favorable fusion results, a multi-rate CKF (Cubature Kalman Filter) algorithm with estimated residual compensation is proposed in order to adapt to the problem of sampling rate discrepancy. During inter-sampling of slow observation data, observation noise can be regarded as infinite. The Kalman gain is unknown and approaches zero. The residual is also unknown. Therefore, the filter estimated state cannot be compensated. To obtain compensation at these moments, state error and residual formulas are modified when compared with the observation data available moments. Self-propagation equation of the state error is established to propagate the quantity from the moments with observation to the moments without observation. Besides, a multiplicative adjustment factor is introduced as Kalman gain, which acts on the residual. Then the filter estimated state can be compensated even when there are no visual observation data. The proposed method is tested and verified in a practical setup. Compared with multi-rate CKF without residual compensation and single-rate CKF, a significant improvement is obtained on attitude measurement by using the proposed multi-rate CKF with inter-sampling residual compensation. The experiment results with superior precision and reliability show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Different parameter and technique affecting the rate of evaporation on active solar still -a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Muthu Manokar; D, Prince Winston; A. E, Kabeel; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; T, Arunkumar

    2017-10-01

    Water is one of the essential sources for the endurance of human on the earth. As earth having only a small amount of water resources for consumption purpose people in rural and urban areas are getting affected by consuming dirty water that leads to water-borne diseases. Even though ground water is available in small quantity, it has to be treated properly before its use for internal consumption. Brackish water contains dissolve and undissolved contents, and hence it is not suitable for the household purpose. Nowadays, distillation process is done by using passive and active solar stills. The major problem in using passive solar still is meeting higher demand for fresh water. The fresh water production from passive solar still is critically low to meet the demand. To improve the productivity of conventional solar still, input feed water is preheated by integrating the solar still to different collector panels. In this review article, the different parameters that affect the rate of evaporation in an active solar still and the different methods incorporated has been presented. In addition to active distillation system, forced convection technique can be incorporated to increase the yield of fresh water by decreasing the temperature of cover. Furthermore, it is identified that the yield of fresh water from the active desalination system can be improved by sensible and latent heat energy storage. This review will motivate the researchers to decide appropriate active solar still technology for promoting development.

  2. Different parameter and technique affecting the rate of evaporation on active solar still -a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Muthu Manokar; D, Prince Winston; A. E, Kabeel; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; T, Arunkumar

    2018-03-01

    Water is one of the essential sources for the endurance of human on the earth. As earth having only a small amount of water resources for consumption purpose people in rural and urban areas are getting affected by consuming dirty water that leads to water-borne diseases. Even though ground water is available in small quantity, it has to be treated properly before its use for internal consumption. Brackish water contains dissolve and undissolved contents, and hence it is not suitable for the household purpose. Nowadays, distillation process is done by using passive and active solar stills. The major problem in using passive solar still is meeting higher demand for fresh water. The fresh water production from passive solar still is critically low to meet the demand. To improve the productivity of conventional solar still, input feed water is preheated by integrating the solar still to different collector panels. In this review article, the different parameters that affect the rate of evaporation in an active solar still and the different methods incorporated has been presented. In addition to active distillation system, forced convection technique can be incorporated to increase the yield of fresh water by decreasing the temperature of cover. Furthermore, it is identified that the yield of fresh water from the active desalination system can be improved by sensible and latent heat energy storage. This review will motivate the researchers to decide appropriate active solar still technology for promoting development.

  3. Estimation of daily flow rate of photovoltaic water pumping systems using solar radiation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghanem, M.; Daffallah, K. O.; Almohammedi, A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a simple model which allows us to contribute in the studies of photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems sizing. The nonlinear relation between water flow rate and solar power has been obtained experimentally in a first step and then used for performance prediction. The model proposed enables us to simulate the water flow rate using solar radiation data for different heads (50 m, 60 m, 70 m and 80 m) and for 8S × 3P PV array configuration. The experimental data are obtained with our pumping test facility located at Madinah site (Saudi Arabia). The performances are calculated using the measured solar radiation data of different locations in Saudi Arabia. Knowing the solar radiation data, we have estimated with a good precision the water flow rate Q in five locations (Al-Jouf, Solar Village, AL-Ahsa, Madinah and Gizan) in Saudi Arabia. The flow rate Q increases with the increase of pump power for different heads following the nonlinear model proposed.

  4. Two computational approaches for Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculation with applications to the JET fusion machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrizzi, L.; Batistoni, P.; Migliori, S.; Chen, Y.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Loughlin, M.; Secco, A.

    2003-01-01

    In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and

  5. Reconciling Space Object Observed and Solar Pressure Albedo-Areas Via Astrometric and Photometric Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jah, M.; Mallik, V.

    There are many Resident Space Objects (RSOs) in the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) regime, both operational and debris. The primary non-gravitational force acting on these RSOs is Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP), which is sensitive to the RSO’s area-to-mass ratio. Sparse observation data and mismodelling of non-gravitational forces has constrained the state of practice in tracking and characterizing RSOs. Accurate identification, characterization, tracking, and motion prediction of RSOs is a high priority research issue as it shall aid in assessing collision probabilities in the GEO regime, and orbital safety writ large. Previous work in characterizing RSOs has taken a preliminary step in exploiting fused astrometric and photometric data to estimate the RSO mass, shape, attitude, and size. This works, in theory, since angles data are sensitive to SRP albedo-area-to-mass ratio, and photometric data are sensitive to shape, attitude, and observed albedo-area. By fusing these two data types, mass and albedo-area both become observable parameters and can be estimated as independent quantities. However, previous work in mass and albedo-area estimation has not quantified and assessed the fundamental physical link between SRP albedo-area and observed albedo-area. The observed albedo-area is always a function of the SRP albedo-area along the line of sight of the observer. This is the physical relationship that this current research exploits.

  6. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  7. Reoperation Rates After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy and Myelopathy: A National Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Soo; Ju, Young-Su; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Makhni, Melvin C; Riew, K Daniel

    2016-10-15

    National population-based cohort study. To compare the reoperation rates between cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy in a national population of patients. There is an inherently low incidence of reoperation after surgery for cervical degenerative disease. Therefore, it is difficult to sufficiently power studies to detect differences between reoperation rates of different cervical diagnoses. National population-based databases provide large, longitudinally followed cohorts that may help overcome this challenge. We used the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service national database to select our study population. We included patients with the diagnosis of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy or myelopathy who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion from January 2009 to June 2014. We separated patients into two groups based on diagnosis codes: cervical spondylotic radiculopathy or cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Age, sex, presence of diabetes, osteoporosis, associated comorbidities, number of operated cervical disc levels, and hospital types were considered potential confounding factors. The overall reoperation rate was 2.45%. The reoperation rate was significantly higher in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy than in patients with cervical radiculopathy (myelopathy: P = 0.0293, hazard ratio = 1.433, 95% confidence interval 1.037-1.981). Male sex, presence of diabetes or associated comorbidities, and hospital type were noted to be risk factors for reoperation. The reoperation rate after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion was higher for cervical spondylotic myelopathy than for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy in a national population of patients. 3.

  8. SOLAR PHOTOIONIZATION RATES FOR INTERSTELLAR NEUTRALS IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE: H, He, O, AND Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochsler, P.; Kucharek, H.; Möbius, E. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bzowski, Maciej; Sokół, Justyna M. [Space Research Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Ul. Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Didkovsky, Leonid; Wieman, Seth, E-mail: bochsler@space.unibe.ch [Space Sciences Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Extreme UV (EUV) spectra from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED)/Solar EUV Experiment are used to infer photoionization rates in the inner heliosphere. Relating these rates to various proxies describing the solar EUV radiation, we construct a multi-linear model which allows us to extrapolate ionization rates back to periods when no routine measurements of the solar EUV spectral distribution have been available. Such information is important, e.g., for comparing conditions of the interstellar neutral particles in the inner heliosphere at the time of Ulysses/GAS observations with conditions during the more recent observations of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer. From a period of 11 yr when detailed spectra from both TIMED and three proxies—Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/CELIAS/SEM-rates, F10.7 radio flux, and Mg II core-to-wing indices—have been available, we conclude that the simple model is able to reproduce the photoionization rates with an uncertainty of typically 5%.

  9. Oxidation/volatilization rates in air for candidate fusion reactor blanket materials, PCA and HT-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Kraus, H.G.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Jones, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Large uncertainties exist in the quantity of neutron-induced activation products that can be mobilized in potential fusion accidents. The accidental combination of high temperatures and oxidizing conditions might lead to mobilization of a significant amount of activation products from structural materials. Here, the volatilization of constituents of PCA and HT-9 resulting from oxidation in air was investigated. Tests were conducted in flowing air at temperatures from 600 to 1300 0 C for 1, 5, or 20 hours. Elemental volatility was calculated in terms of the weight fraction of the element volatilized from the initial alloy. Molybdenum and manganese were the radiologically significant primary constituents most volatilized, suggesting that molybdenum and manganese should be minimized in fusion steel compositions. Higher chromium content appears beneficial in reducing hazards from mobile activation products. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the oxide layer on samples

  10. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1561-000] Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  11. What is the rate of lumbar adjacent segment disease after percutaneous versus open fusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Kristen E; Kepler, Christopher K; Maaieh, Motasem; Anderson, D Greg; Rihn, Jeffrey; Albert, Todd; Vaccaro, Alex; Hilibrand, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) requiring treatment or re-operation is a common problem after surgery on the lumbar spine. The hypothesis of this retrospective study was that ASD occurs less often following lumbar spine fusion in patients who undergo percutaneous minimally invasive (MIS) instrumentation than in those in whom open instrumentation is used. A case-control study was performed on consecutive patients who had undergone staged single or two level anterior lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative conditions followed by open or MIS instrumentation from 2002 to 2005 in our institution. ASD was defined as that necessitating additional procedures for new symptoms related to an adjacent lumbar dermatome. One hundred and seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 53 had been followed up by chart or medical record review for longer than one year. There were 23 patients in the MIS group and 30 in the open group. Of the 30 patients in the open group, 9 had developed ASD (30%). Of the 23 patients in the MIS group, 7 had developed ASD (30%). This difference is not statistically significant (P = 1.00). Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant difference in incidence of ASD in patients who had underwent open versus percutaneous instrumentation following anterior lumbar interbody fusion. © 2014 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal, part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keY of 65.4{sup +3.1}{sub 3.0} (stat) {sup +2.6}{sub -2.8} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neUlrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 {+-} 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.88 {+-} 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63--67 SNU with an uncertainly of about 5%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the pp neutrino flux produced in the Sun to be {phi}{sup {circle_dot}}{sub pp} = (6.1 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  13. Energy Cascade Rate in Compressible Fast and Slow Solar Wind Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadid, L. Z.; Sahraoui, F.; Galtier, S.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of the energy cascade rate in the inertial range of solar wind turbulence has been done so far mostly within incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory. Here, we go beyond that approximation to include plasma compressibility using a reduced form of a recently derived exact law for compressible, isothermal MHD turbulence. Using in situ data from the THEMIS / ARTEMIS spacecraft in the fast and slow solar wind, we investigate in detail the role of the compressible fluctuations in modifying the energy cascade rate with respect to the prediction of the incompressible MHD model. In particular, we found that the energy cascade rate (1) is amplified particularly in the slow solar wind; (2) exhibits weaker fluctuations in spatial scales, which leads to a broader inertial range than the previous reported ones; (3) has a power-law scaling with the turbulent Mach number; (4) has a lower level of spatial anisotropy. Other features of solar wind turbulence are discussed along with their comparison with previous studies that used incompressible or heuristic (nonexact) compressible MHD models.

  14. Energy Cascade Rate in Compressible Fast and Slow Solar Wind Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadid, L. Z.; Sahraoui, F.; Galtier, S., E-mail: lina.hadid@lpp.polytechnique.fr [LPP, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Sud, Observatoire de Paris, Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Universités, PSL Research University, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2017-03-20

    Estimation of the energy cascade rate in the inertial range of solar wind turbulence has been done so far mostly within incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory. Here, we go beyond that approximation to include plasma compressibility using a reduced form of a recently derived exact law for compressible, isothermal MHD turbulence. Using in situ data from the THEMIS / ARTEMIS spacecraft in the fast and slow solar wind, we investigate in detail the role of the compressible fluctuations in modifying the energy cascade rate with respect to the prediction of the incompressible MHD model. In particular, we found that the energy cascade rate (1) is amplified particularly in the slow solar wind; (2) exhibits weaker fluctuations in spatial scales, which leads to a broader inertial range than the previous reported ones; (3) has a power-law scaling with the turbulent Mach number; (4) has a lower level of spatial anisotropy. Other features of solar wind turbulence are discussed along with their comparison with previous studies that used incompressible or heuristic (nonexact) compressible MHD models.

  15. The Effect of the Volume Flow rate on the Efficiency of a Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    rates. Theoretically, a simplified model of the solar collector panel is built by means of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code Fluent, where the geometry of the collector panel except the casing is fully modeled. Both lateral and longitudinal heat conduction in the absorber fins, the heat...... transfer from the absorber to the solar collector fluid and the heat loss from the absorber are considered. Flow and temperature distribution in the collector panel are investigated with buoyancy effect. Measurements are carried out with the solar collector panel. Collector efficiencies are measured......The flow distribution inside a collector panel with an area of 12.5 m² and with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins and the effect of the flow nonuniformity on the risk of boiling and on the collector efficiency have been theoretically and experimentally investigated for different volume flow...

  16. Hyperenhanced Li - Li Chemonuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Hidetsugu

    2006-01-01

    A new fusion scheme, the Li - Li chemonuclear fusion is presented, where nuclear fusion reactions are linked to atomic fusion reactions. Lithium ions are implanted on a surface of metallic Li liquid at an energy of nuclear stopping (several keV/amu). The ions collide slowly with liquid Li atoms without electronic excitation and lead to the Li - Li chemonuclear fusion through the formation of united atoms or quasi-C atoms at their turning points. Inside the quasi-atoms twin nuclei are confined within respective sub-pm scale spheres of zero-point oscillation and form themselves into ultradense intermediate nuclear complexes. Their density is million times as large as the solar interior density and close to densities of white dwarfs or white-dwarf progenitors of supernovae. This confinement of nuclear complexes is enormously prolonged towards the pycno-nuclear reactions induced by the zero-point oscillation under the presence of thermodynamic force specified by the Gibbs energy change in the quasi-atom formation in the liquid. Resulted rate enhancement of nuclear fusion by a factor of 10 48 has been anticipated. The enhancement is also argued in connection with the Bose-Einstein condensation

  17. On the Rates of Coronal Mass Ejections: Remote Solar and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Pete; Schatzman, C.; Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2006-08-01

    We compare the rates of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as inferred from remote solar observations and interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) as inferred from in situ observations at both 1 AU and Ulysses from 1996 through 2004. We also distinguish between those ICMEs that contain a magnetic cloud (MC) and those that do not. While the rates of CMEs and ICMEs track each other well at solar minimum, they diverge significantly in early 1998, during the ascending phase of the solar cycle, with the remote solar observations yielding approximately 20 times more events than are seen at 1 AU. This divergence persists through 2004. A similar divergence occurs between MCs and non-MC ICMEs. We argue that these divergences are due to the birth of midlatitude active regions, which are the sites of a distinct population of CMEs, only partially intercepted by Earth, and we present a simple geometric argument showing that the CME and ICME rates are consistent with one another. We also acknowledge contributions from (1) an increased rate of high-latitude CMEs and (2) focusing effects from the global solar field. While our analysis, coupled with numerical modeling results, generally supports the interpretation that whether one observes a MC within an ICME is sensitive to the trajectory of the spacecraft through the ICME (i.e., an observational selection effect), one result directly contradicts it. Specifically, we find no systematic offset between the latitudinal origin of ICMEs that contain MCs at 1 AU in the ecliptic plane and that of those that do not.

  18. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research: discount rate determination and the fossil fuel price effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-25

    In current and previous efforts, ECON has provided a preliminary economic assessment of a fusion research program. Part of this effort was the demonstration of a methodology for the estimation of reactor system costs and risk and for the treatment of program alternatives as a series of steps (tests) to buy information, thereby controlling program risk and providing a sound economic rationale for properly constructed research programs. The first phase of work also identified two areas which greatly affect the overall economic evaluation of fusion research and which warranted further study in the second phase. This led to the two tasks of the second phase reported herein: (1) discount rate determination and (2) evaluation of the effect of the expectation of the introduction of fusion power on current fossil fuel prices. In the first task, various conceptual measures of the social rate of discount were reviewed and critiqued. In the second task, a benefit area that had been called out by ECON was further examined. Long-range R and D yields short-term benefits in the form of lower nonrenewable energy resource prices because the R and D provides an expectation of future competition for the remaining reserves at the time of technology availability. ECON developed a model of optimal OPEC petroleum pricing as a function of the expectation of future competing technologies. It was shown that the existence of this expectation lowers the optimal OPEC export price and that accelerated technology R and D programs should provide further price decreases. These price reductions translate into benefits to the U.S. of at least a billion dollars.

  19. 78 FR 34373 - Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Campo Verde Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  20. 77 FR 41400 - AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  1. 78 FR 61999 - Simon Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-2490-000] Simon Solar... 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Simon Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that...

  2. 76 FR 32188 - Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3635-000] Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  3. 78 FR 28836 - Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1430-000] Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request..., of Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. 76 FR 64341 - Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-32-000] Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  5. 77 FR 20381 - Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1316-000] Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  6. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  7. Strong screening by lattice confinement and resultant fusion reaction rates in fcc metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Subashiev, A. V.; Nee, H. H.

    2017-09-01

    The effects of electronic screening on the cross sections and reactivities for the nuclear reactions between light nuclei in Pd and Ni is studied. We consider the applicability of the theory of thermonuclear burning in stars to the D-D nuclear reaction in metals. The screening model based on the mean field potential of the electron cloud in the metal plasma is used. We discuss the specifics of the screening for the H (D) atoms embedded in vacancies and divacancies. High concentration of hydrogen isotopes segregated to monovacancies and divacancies in face-centered cubic (fcc) metals such as Ni and Pd with densities of ∼ 6 ×1023atom /cm3 , makes the hydrogen cluster a favorable active site for the fusion reaction. Still the observation of a nuclear reaction requires an accumulation of energy in D nuclei of at least several eV, which is far above what can be achieved in the thermal heating experiments.

  8. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  9. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  10. Readmission Rates, Reasons, and Risk Factors Following Anterior Cervical Fusion for Cervical Spondylosis in Patients Above 65 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanesarajah, Varun; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Shimer, Adam L; Shen, Francis H; Singla, Anuj

    2017-01-15

    A retrospective database review. The aim of this study was to determine readmission reasons and rates following primary, elective anterior cervical spinal fusion surgery for cervical spondylosis and determine risk factors predicting increased risk of 30-day readmission in an exclusively elderly population. In the United States, there were almost 190,000 cervical spine procedures in 2009. Many cervical spine surgery patients are elderly, a demographic increasingly requiring surgery for degenerative cervical spine pathology. Unfortunately, this patient population is poorly studied, particularly concerning readmission rates. Medicare data from 2005 to 2012 were queried for elderly patients (65-84 years) who underwent primary one to two and ≥three-level anterior cervical spine fusion surgeries for cervical spondylosis. Forty-five thousand two hundred eighty-four patients treated with one to two-level and 12,103 patients with ≥three-level anterior cervical fusion (ACF) were identified and included in two study cohorts. Reasons for and rates of readmission were determined within 30 days, 90 days, and one-year postoperatively. Risk factors for medical, surgical, and all 30-day readmissions were also determined, selecting from various comorbidities, demographics, and surgical variables. Readmission rates of 1.0% to 1.4%, 2.7% to 3.6%, and 13.2% to 14.1% were observed within 30 days, 90 days, and one year. Within 30 days, over 30% of patients from both study cohorts were readmitted for surgical reasons. Of surgical reasons for 30-day readmission, hematoma/seroma diagnoses were the most frequent (11.4%-15.4% of all readmissions). Male gender, diabetes mellitus, chronic pulmonary disease, obesity, and smoking history were all found to be predictive of all-cause readmissions. Unplanned 30-day readmission rates following primary, elective ACF in elderly patients is low and often due to medical reasons. Frequent surgical reasons for 30-day readmission include hematoma

  11. Aneutronic Fusion Spacecraft Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Description: provide framework to realize fusion propulsion for long-range space travel; analyze "hybrid" schemes with a solar or fission primary energy source along...

  12. Enhancement of the rate of solar photocatalytic mineralization of organic pollutants by inorganic oxidizing species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato, S.; Blanco, J.; Richter, C.; Braun, B.; Maldonado, M.I. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria PSA, Crta Senes s/n, Tabernas, Almeriav 04200 (Spain)

    1998-08-31

    Particulate suspensions of TiO{sub 2} irradiated with natural solar light in a large experimental plant catalyze the oxidation of a typical organic contaminant: pentachlorophenol (PCP). The addition of oxidants, concentration of which is kept constant during treatment, such as hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonosulphate (oxone) and peroxydisulphate increases the rate of photodegradation of PCP in the following order: S{sub 2}O{sup 2-}{sub 8}->Oxone->H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Peroxydisulphate (10mM), selected as the best oxidant studied, has been applied to the development of a solar photocatalytic plant for the treatment of commercial pesticide rinsates found in the wastewater produced by a pesticide container recycling plant, which includes the correct treatment of this highly contaminating effluent. The first results, without process or hardware optimisation, show that peroxydisulphate enhances the photocatalytic mineralization rate at least five times

  13. Guan-Din method: a novel surgical technique for selective thoracic fusion to maximize the rate of selective thoracic fusion and compensatory correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kao-Wha; Chen, Yin-Yu; Leng, Xiangyang; Wu, Chi-Ming; Chen, Tsung-Chein; Wang, Yu-Fei; Zhang, Guo-Zhi

    2014-02-15

    Retrospective radiographical review. To evaluate the outcome of selective thoracic fusion (STF) by using the Guan-Din method for the treatment of major thoracic compensatory lumbar (MTCL) curves. Performing STF for MTCL curves is to minimize the loss of lumbar motion and the risk of lumbar degeneration or pain. Surgical treatment of MTCL curves aims to maximize the rate of STF for MTCL curves while optimizing instrumental thoracic and compensatory lumbar correction. The Guan-Din method has been demonstrated to be able to enhance the lumbar curve's capacity for spontaneous correction and broaden the current curve criteria of MTCL curves for STF. Between 2004 and 2010, 510 consecutive surgically treated MTCL curves were reviewed. Of these MTCL curves, who met the criteria of lumbar side bending Cobb 35° or less and without global thoracic hyperkyphosis and/or thoracolumbar kyphosis (T10-L2 ≤20°), were treated with STF using the Guan-Din method. Radiographs were analyzed before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at the most recent follow-up (range, 2-8 yr). Curve types of 510 MTCL curves according to Lenke system were as follows: 1A (n = 91), 2A (n = 74), 3A (n = 6), 4A (n = 2), 1B (n = 93), 2B (n = 34), 3B (n = 8), 4B (n = 5), 1C (n = 84), 2C (n = 26), 3C (n = 72), and 4C (n = 15). Of the 510 MTCL curves, 458 (90%) curves were treated with STF. A mean 73% thoracic correction and 63% lumbar correction was obtained at the most recent follow-up. Of the 197 surgically treated MTCL curves with a lumbar C modifier, 148 (75%) curves that contained 57 Lenke 1C and 2C curves and 40 Lenke 3C and 4C curves that did not meet Lenke curve criteria for STF, were successfully treated with STF. A mean 67% thoracic correction and 57% lumbar correction was obtained at the most recent follow-up. The rate of STF and the magnitude of correction of MTCL curves in this study were significantly greater than those in all other reports. No significant change in global coronal and

  14. 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. The effect of pedicle screw instrumentation on functional outcome and fusion rates in posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion: a prospective, randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, K; Christensen, F B; Eiskjaer, S P; Hansen, E S; Fruensgaard, S; Bünger, C E

    1997-12-15

    A prospective randomized clinical study. To evaluate supplementary pedicle screw fixation (Cotrel-Dubousset) in posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion. The rationale behind lumbar fusion is to eliminate pathologic motion to relieve pain. To improve fusion rates and to allow reduction, a rigid transpedicular screw fixation may be beneficial, but the positive effect of this may be counter-balanced by an increase in complications. The inclusion criteria were severe, chronic low back pain from spondylolisthesis Grades 1 and 2 or from primary or secondary degenerative segmental instability. One hundred thirty patients were randomly allocated to receive no instrumentation (n = 66) or Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation (n = 64) in posterolateral lumbar fusion. Variables were registered at the time of surgery and at 1 and 2 years after surgery. Follow-up was achieved in 97.7% of the patients. Fusion rates deduced from plain radiographs were not significantly different between instrumented and noninstrumented groups. The functional outcome assessed by the Dallas Pain Questionnaire improved significantly in both groups, and there were no significant differences in results between the two groups, except for significantly better (P < 0.06) functional outcome in relation to daily activities in the instrumented group when neural decompression had been performed. The global patients' satisfaction was 82% in the instrumented group versus 74% in the noninstrumented group (not significant). Fixation of instrumentation increased operation time, blood loss, and early reoperation rate significantly. Patients experienced only a few minor postoperative complications; none were major. Two infections appeared in the Cotrel-Dubousset group. Significant symptoms from misplacement of pedicle screws were seen in 4.8% of the instrumented patients. Lumbar posterolateral fusion with pedicle screw fixation increases the operation time, blood loss, and reoperation rate, and leads to a significant risk

  15. Effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituu, G.M.; Shitanda, D.; Kanali, C.L.; Mailutha, J.T. [Jomo Kenyatta Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Kenya). BEED

    2008-07-01

    In addition to being a source of protein, fish is an important source of local and foreign currency earnings in Kenya. A substantial amount of fish production is exported. Approximately 30 per cent is exported to the European Union, the United States, and countries in the Middle East, but nearly half of the total annual fish harvest in Kenya goes to waste due to poor processing and preservation. Measures must be taken to ensure the fish industry is protected and waste is minimized, since the livelihood of over 500,000 people depends on fish as a source of proteins and employment. Therefore, it is necessary to implement appropriate and affordable processing and preservation techniques for fish at the artisanal landing sites in order to reduce the wastage and spoilage of fish during oversupply, and to enhance long storage. This paper presented studies that were conducted to determine the effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer. The paper discussed the materials and methods, including a description of the solar tunnel dryer system; the brining process of fish; the fish drying process; and data analysis. It was concluded that limiting the amount of salt used in brining, and subsequently dehydrating fish with a solar tunnel dryer achieves a more stable and suitable dried fish product than osmotic dehydration or solar drying process separately. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  16. Thelytokous Parthenogenesis in Unmated Queen Honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis): Central Fusion and High Recombination Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P.; Allsopp, Michael H.; Gloag, Rosalyn S.; Lim, Julianne; Jordan, Lyndon A.; Beekman, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    The subspecies of honeybee indigenous to the Cape region of South Africa, Apis mellifera capensis, is unique because a high proportion of unmated workers can lay eggs that develop into females via thelytokous parthenogenesis involving central fusion of meiotic products. This ability allows pseudoclonal lineages of workers to establish, which are presently widespread as reproductive parasites within the honeybee populations of South Africa. Successful long-term propagation of a parthenogen requires the maintenance of heterozygosity at the sex locus, which in honeybees must be heterozygous for the expression of female traits. Thus, in successful lineages of parasitic workers, recombination events are reduced by an order of magnitude relative to meiosis in queens of other honeybee subspecies. Here we show that in unmated A. m. capensis queens treated to induce oviposition, no such reduction in recombination occurs, indicating that thelytoky and reduced recombination are not controlled by the same gene. Our virgin queens were able to lay both arrhenotokous male-producing haploid eggs and thelytokous female-producing diploid eggs at the same time, with evidence that they have some voluntary control over which kind of egg was laid. If so, they are able to influence the kind of second-division meiosis that occurs in their eggs post partum. PMID:18716331

  17. Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

  18. 78 FR 29131 - Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Solar Star California XX, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  19. Studies on muon cycling rates in muon catalyzed D-T fusion system with possible four-body muonic molecules formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskandri, M.R.; Hosini Motlagh, N.; Hataf, A.

    2000-01-01

    In recent studies, it is shown that the fusion rate for four-body molecules of ppμμ, ddμμ, ptμμ, pdμμ, dtμμ, ttμμ, is considerably larger than that of similar three-body molecules of ppμμ, ddμμ, ptμμ, pdμμ, dtμμ, ttμμ. It is shown that for dtμμ, fusion rate is R f (dt) ≅ 3 * 10 13 - 6 * * 10 13 S -1 which is 40 times higher than fusion rate of dtμμ molecule. In this paper we have looked for the effect of these molecules formation in muon catalyzed D-T fusion. The required data for all possible branches do not exist, so the main dtμμ branch are considered here. By choosing a variable value for dtμμ molecule formation rate and comparing obtained cycling rates with existing experimental values, the order of this parameter is evaluated to be ≅ 10 9 S -1 . Using obtained data in different conditions of D-T muon cycling rate calculations have shown that considering of four-body molecule formations in existing muon injection intensities do not make considerable change in three-body muonic molecule cycling rate

  20. Comparison of fusion rate and clinical results between CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3bioactive glass ceramics spacer with titanium cages in posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Kong, Chang-Bae; Yang, Jae Jun; Shim, Hee-Jong; Koo, Ki-Hyoung; Kim, Jeehyoung; Lee, Choon-Ki; Chang, Bong-Soon

    2016-11-01

    The CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 glass ceramics spacer generates chemical bonding to adjacent bones with high mechanical stability to produce a union with the end plate, and ultimately stability. The authors aimed to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 glass ceramics with a titanium cage that is widely used for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery in the clinical field. This is a prospective, stratified randomized, multicenter, single-blinded, comparator-controlled non-inferiority trial. The present study was conducted in four hospitals and enrolled a total of 86 patients between 30 and 80 years of age who required one-level PLIF due to severe spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, or huge disc herniation. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and pain visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed before surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The spinal fusion rate was assessed at 6 and 12 months after surgery. The spinal fusion rate and the area of fusion, subsidence of each CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 glass ceramics and titanium cage, and the extent of osteolysis were evaluated using a dynamic plain radiography and a three-dimensional computed tomography at 12 months after surgery. The present study was supported by BioAlpha, and some authors (JHL, C-KL, and B-SC) have stock ownership (CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 glass ceramics spacer showed a similar fusion rates and clinical outcomes compared with titanium cage. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Posterior column reconstruction improves fusion rates at the level of osteotomy in three-column posterior-based osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen J; Mohanty, Chandan; Gazendam, Aaron M; Kato, So; Keshen, Sam G; Lewis, Noah D; Magana, Sofia P; Perlmutter, David; Cape, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    To determine the incidence of pseudarthrosis at the osteotomy site after three-column spinal osteotomies (3-COs) with posterior column reconstruction. 82 consecutive adult 3-COs (66 patients) with a minimum of 2-year follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. All cases underwent posterior 3-COs with two-rod constructs. The inferior facets of the proximal level were reduced to the superior facets of the distal level. If that was not possible, a structural piece of bone graft either from the local resection or a local rib was slotted in the posterior column defect to re-establish continual structural posterior bone across the lateral margins of the resection. No interbody cages were used at the level of the osteotomy. There were 34 thoracic osteotomies, 47 lumbar osteotomies and one sacral osteotomy with a mean follow-up of 52 (24-126) months. All cases underwent posterior column reconstructions described above and the addition of interbody support or additional posterior rods was not performed for fusion at the osteotomy level. Among them, 29 patients underwent one or more revision surgeries. There were three definite cases of pseudarthrosis at the osteotomy site (4%). Six revisions were also performed for pseudarthrosis at other levels. Restoration of the structural integrity of the posterior column in three-column posterior-based osteotomies was associated with > 95% fusion rate at the level of the osteotomy. Pseudarthrosis at other levels was the second most common reason for revision following adjacent segment disease in the long-term follow-up.

  2. Identification of cancer fusion drivers using network fusion centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chia-Chin; Kannan, Kalpana; Lin, Steven; Yen, Laising; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Gene fusions are being discovered at an increasing rate using massively parallel sequencing technologies. Prioritization of cancer fusion drivers for validation cannot be performed using traditional single-gene based methods because fusions involve portions of two partner genes. To address this problem, we propose a novel network analysis method called fusion centrality that is specifically tailored for prioritizing gene fusions. We first propose a domain-based fusion model built on ...

  3. Comparison of single event upset rates for microelectronic memory devices during interplanetary solar particle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckerracher, P. L.; Kinnison, J. D.; Maurer, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Variability in the methods and models used for single event upset calculations in microelectronic memory devices can lead to a range of possible upset rates. Using heavy ion and proton data for selected DRAM and SRAM memories, we have calculated an array of upset rates in order to compare the Adams worst case interplanetary solar flare model to a model proposed by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In addition, methods of upset rate calculation are compared: the Cosmic Ray Effects on Microelectronics CREME code and a Monte Carlo algorithm developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory. The results show that use of a more realistic, although still conservative, model of the space environment can have significant cost saving benefits.

  4. Comparison of the osteogenesis and fusion rates between activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) and rhBMP-2 in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar spine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guang Bin; Yoon, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae Hyup

    2017-10-01

    Activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) could promote bone healing more effectively than recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) with much lower dose in a rodent model, but there is no report about the effectiveness of AB204 in a large animal model. The purpose of this study was to compare the osteogenesis and fusion rate between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as a carrier in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar fusion model. This is a randomized control animal study. Seventeen male beagle dogs were included. Bilateral posterolateral fusion was performed at the L1-L2 and L4-L5 levels. Biphasic calcium phosphate (2 cc), rhBMP-2 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc), or AB204 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc) were implanted into the intertransverse space randomly. X-ray was performed at 4 and 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and new bone formation and fusion rate were evaluated by manual palpation, computed tomography (CT), and undecalcified histology. The AB204 group showed significantly higher fusion rate (90%) than the rhBMP-2 group (15%) or the Osteon group (6.3%) by manual palpation. On x-ray and CT assessment, fusion rate and the volume of newly formed bone were also significantly higher in AB204 group than other groups. In contrast, more osteolysis was found in rhBMP-2 group (40%) than in AB204 group (10%) on CT study. In histologic results, new bone formation was sufficient between transverse processes in AB204 group, and obvious trabeculation and bone remodeling were observed. But in rhBMP-2 group, new bone formation was less than AB204 group and osteolysis was observed between the intertransverse spaces. A low dose of AB204 with BCP as a carrier significantly promotes the fusion rate in a large animal model when compared with the rhBMP-2. These findings demonstrate that AB204 could be an alternative to rhBMP-2 to improve fusion rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth rates of the ablative Rayleigh endash Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, R.; Goncharov, V.N.; McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    A simple procedure is developed to determine the Froude number Fr, the effective power index for thermal conduction ν, the ablation-front thickness L 0 , the ablation velocity V a , and the acceleration g of laser-accelerated ablation fronts. These parameters are determined by fitting the density and pressure profiles obtained from one-dimensional numerical simulations with the analytic isobaric profiles of Kull and Anisimov [Phys. Fluids 29, 2067 (1986)]. These quantities are then used to calculate the growth rate of the ablative Rayleigh endash Taylor instability using the theory developed by Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4665 (1996)]. The complicated expression of the growth rate (valid for arbitrary Froude numbers) derived by Goncharov et al. is simplified by using reasonably accurate fitting formulas. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  6. Iso-nuclear tungsten dielectronic recombination rates for use in magnetically-confined fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, D.-H.; Lee, W.; Preval, S.; Ballance, C. P.; Behar, E.; Colgan, J.; Fontes, C. J.; Nakano, T.; Li, B.; Ding, X.; Dong, C. Z.; Fu, Y. B.; Badnell, N. R.; O'Mullane, M.; Chung, H.-K.; Braams, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    Under the auspices of the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Center and the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, our assembled group of authors has reviewed the current state of dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for various ion stages of tungsten (W). Subsequent recommendations were based upon available experimental data, first-principle calculations carried out in support of this paper and from available recombination data within existing atomic databases. If a recommendation was possible, data were compiled, evaluated and fitted to a functional form with associated uncertainty information retained, where available. This paper also considers the variation of the W fractional abundance due to the underlying atomic data when employing different data sets.

  7. Resistivity damage rates in fusion-neutron-irradiated metals at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinan, M.W.; Kinney, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in electrical resistivity at liquid helium temperature have been used to monitor the production of damage in dilute alloys of vanadium, niobium and molybdenum, and pure tungsten, aluminum and copper irradiated with high energy neutrons. The neutrons were produced at the Livermore rotating-target neutron sources (RTNS-I and RTNS-II). Further experiments on V, Nb and Mo were carried out with 30 MeV d-Be neutrons and slightly degraded fission-spectra neutrons. The results for all six materials are compared to those obtained in a pure fission spectrum. The relative damage production rates are in agreement with predictions based on damage energy calculations

  8. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Associated With Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Secondary Fusion Rates Following Open vs Minimally Invasive Decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöller, Karsten; Alimi, Marjan; Cong, Guang-Ting; Christos, Paul; Härtl, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Decompression without fusion is a treatment option in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) associated with stable low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). A minimally invasive unilateral laminotomy (MIL) for "over the top" decompression might be a less destabilizing alternative to traditional open laminectomy (OL). To review secondary fusion rates after open vs minimally invasive decompression surgery. We performed a literature search in Pubmed/MEDLINE using the keywords "lumbar spondylolisthesis" and "decompression surgery." All studies that separately reported the outcome of patients with LSS+DS that were treated by OL or MIL (transmuscular or subperiosteal route) were included in our systematic review and meta-analysis. The primary end point was secondary fusion rate. Secondary end points were total reoperation rate, postoperative progression of listhetic slip, and patient satisfaction. We identified 37 studies (19 with OL, 18 with MIL), with a total of 1156 patients, that were published between 1983 and 2015. The studies' evidence was mostly level 3 or 4. Secondary fusion rates were 12.8% after OL and 3.3% after MIL; the total reoperation rates were 16.3% after OL and 5.8% after MIL. In the OL cohort, 72% of the studies reported a slip progression compared to 0% in the MIL cohort, respectively. After OL, satisfactory outcome was 62.7% compared to 76% after MIL. In patients with LSS and DS, minimally invasive decompression is associated with lower reoperation and fusion rates, less slip progression, and greater patient satisfaction than open surgery. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  9. Solar-forced diurnal regulation of cave drip rates via phreatophyte evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Coleborn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present results of a detailed study of drip rate variations at 12 drip discharge sites in Glory Hole Cave, New South Wales, Australia. Our novel time series analysis, using the wavelet synchrosqueezed transform, reveals pronounced oscillations at daily and sub-daily frequencies occurring in 8 out of the 12 monitored sites. These oscillations were not spatially or temporally homogenous, with different drip sites exhibiting such behaviour at different times of year in different parts of the cave. We test several hypotheses for the cause of the oscillations, including variations in pressure gradients between karst and cave due to cave breathing effects or atmospheric and earth tides, variations in hydraulic conductivity due to changes in viscosity of water with daily temperature oscillations, and solar-driven daily cycles of vegetative (phreatophytic transpiration. We conclude that the only hypothesis consistent with the data and hydrologic theory is that daily oscillations are caused by solar-driven pumping by phreatophytic trees which are abundant at the site. The daily oscillations are not continuous and occur sporadically in short bursts (2–14 days throughout the year due to non-linear modification of the solar signal via complex karst architecture. This is the first indirect observation leading to the hypothesis of tree water use in cave drip water. It has important implications for karst hydrology in regards to developing a new protocol to determine the relative importance of trends in drip rate, such as diurnal oscillations, and how these trends change over timescales of weeks to years. This information can also be used to infer karst architecture. This study demonstrates the importance of vegetation on recharge dynamics, information that will inform both process-based karst models and empirical estimation approaches. Our findings support a growing body of research exploring the impact of trees on speleothem paleoclimate proxies.

  10. A radiative transfer module for calculating photolysis rates and solar heating in climate models: Solar-J v7.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hsu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar-J is a comprehensive radiative transfer model for the solar spectrum that addresses the needs of both solar heating and photochemistry in Earth system models. Solar-J is a spectral extension of Cloud-J, a standard in many chemical models that calculates photolysis rates in the 0.18–0.8 µm region. The Cloud-J core consists of an eight-stream scattering, plane-parallel radiative transfer solver with corrections for sphericity. Cloud-J uses cloud quadrature to accurately average over correlated cloud layers. It uses the scattering phase function of aerosols and clouds expanded to eighth order and thus avoids isotropic-equivalent approximations prevalent in most solar heating codes. The spectral extension from 0.8 to 12 µm enables calculation of both scattered and absorbed sunlight and thus aerosol direct radiative effects and heating rates throughout the Earth's atmosphere.The Solar-J extension adopts the correlated-k gas absorption bins, primarily water vapor, from the shortwave Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for general circulation model (GCM applications (RRTMG-SW. Solar-J successfully matches RRTMG-SW's tropospheric heating profile in a clear-sky, aerosol-free, tropical atmosphere. We compare both codes in cloudy atmospheres with a liquid-water stratus cloud and an ice-crystal cirrus cloud. For the stratus cloud, both models use the same physical properties, and we find a systematic low bias of about 3 % in planetary albedo across all solar zenith angles caused by RRTMG-SW's two-stream scattering. Discrepancies with the cirrus cloud using any of RRTMG-SW's three different parameterizations are as large as about 20–40 % depending on the solar zenith angles and occur throughout the atmosphere.Effectively, Solar-J has combined the best components of RRTMG-SW and Cloud-J to build a high-fidelity module for the scattering and absorption of sunlight in the Earth's atmosphere, for which the three major components – wavelength

  11. Lower complication and reoperation rates for laminectomy rather than MI TLIF/other fusions for degenerative lumbar disease/spondylolisthesis: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Utilizing the spine literature, we compared the complication and reoperation rates for laminectomy alone vs. instrumented fusions including minimally invasive (MI) transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for the surgical management of multilevel degenerative lumbar disease with/without degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Methods: Epstein compared complication and reoperation rates over 2 years for 137 patients undergoing laminectomy alone undergoing 2-3 level (58 patients) and 4-6 level (79 patients) Procedures for lumbar stenosis with/without DS. Results showed no new postoperative neurological deficits, no infections, no surgery for adjacent segment disease (ASD), 4 patients (2.9%) who developed intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, no readmissions, and just 1 reopereation for a (postoperative day 7). These rates were compared to other literature for lumbar laminectomies vs. fusions (e.g. particularly MI TLIF) addressing pathology comparable to that listed above. Results: Some studies in the literature revealed an average 4.8% complication rate for laminectomy alone vs. 8.3% for decompressions/fusion; at 5 postoperative years, reoperation rates were 10.6% vs. 18.4%, respectively. Specifically, the MI TLIF literature complication rates ranged from 7.7% to 23.0% and included up to an 8.3% incidence of wound infections, 6.1% durotomies, 9.7% permanent neurological deficits, and 20.2% incidence of new sensory deficits. Reoperation rates (1.6–6%) for MI TLIF addressed instrumentation failure (2.3%), cage migration (1.26–2.4%), cage extrusions (0.8%), and misplaced screws (1.6%). The learning curve (e.g. number of cases required by a surgeon to become proficient) for MI TLIF was the first 33-44 cases. Furthermore, hospital costs for lumbar fusions were 2.6 fold greater than those for laminectomy alone, with overall neurosurgeon reimbursement quoted in one study as high as $142,075 per year. Conclusions: The spinal literature revealed

  12. Polymer:Nonfullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with Exceptionally Low Recombination Rates

    KAUST Repository

    Gasparini, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    Organic semiconductors are in general known to have an inherently lower charge carrier mobility compared to their inorganic counterparts. Bimolecular recombination of holes and electrons is an important loss mechanism and can often be described by the Langevin recombination model. Here, the device physics of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on a nonfullerene acceptor (IDTBR) in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are elucidated, showing an unprecedentedly low bimolecular recombination rate. The high fill factor observed (above 65%) is attributed to non-Langevin behavior with a Langevin prefactor (β/βL) of 1.9 × 10−4. The absence of parasitic recombination and high charge carrier lifetimes in P3HT:IDTBR solar cells inform an almost ideal bimolecular recombination behavior. This exceptional recombination behavior is explored to fabricate devices with layer thicknesses up to 450 nm without significant performance losses. The determination of the photoexcited carrier mobility by time-of-flight measurements reveals a long-lived and nonthermalized carrier transport as the origin for the exceptional transport physics. The crystalline microstructure arrangement of both components is suggested to be decisive for this slow recombination dynamics. Further, the thickness-independent power conversion efficiency is of utmost technological relevance for upscaling production and reiterates the importance of understanding material design in the context of low bimolecular recombination.

  13. In-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum for the metallization of silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, Christoph Paul

    2012-07-11

    This work focuses on the in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum for contacting rear sides of silicon solar cells. The substrate temperature during the deposition process, the wafer bow after deposition, and the electrical properties of evaporated contacts are investigated. Furthermore, this work demonstrates for the first time the formation of aluminum-doped silicon regions by the in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum without any further temperature treatment. The temperature of silicon wafers during in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum is investigated in this work. The temperatures are found to depend on the wafer thickness W, the aluminum layer thickness d, and on the wafer emissivity {epsilon}. Two-dimensional finite-element simulations reproduce the measured peak temperatures with an accuracy of 97%. This work also investigates the wafer bow after in-line high-rate evaporation and shows that the elastic theory overestimates the wafer bow of planar Si wafers. The lower bow is explained with plastic deformation in the Al layer. Due to the plastic deformation only the first 79 K in temperature decrease result in a bow formation. Furthermore the electrical properties of evaporated point contacts are examined in this work. Parameterizations for the measured saturation currents of contacted p-type Si wafers and of contacted boron-diffused p{sup +}-type layers are presented. The contact resistivity of the deposited Al layers to silicon for various deposition processes and silicon surface concentrations are presented and the activation energy of the contact formation is determined. The measured saturation current densities and contact resistivities of the evaporated contacts are used in one-dimensional numerical Simulations and the impact on energy conversion efficiency of replacing a screen-printed rear side by an evaporated rear side is presented. For the first time the formation of aluminum-doped p{sup +}-type (Al-p{sup +}) silicon regions by the in

  14. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye sentisised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Winter-Jensen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide / tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide / tri......-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI) - all deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrode in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  15. Fusion of High-Rate GPS and Seismic Data: Applications to Early Warning Systems for Mitigation of Geological Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Crowell, B.; Webb, F.; Kedar, S.; Clayton, R.; Miyahara, B.

    2008-12-01

    We discuss the fusion of low-latency (1 s) high-rate (1 Hz or greater) CGPS displacements and traditional seismic data, in order to extend the frequency range and timeliness of surface displacement data already available at lower frequencies from space borne InSAR and (typically daily) CGPS coordinate time series. The goal is development of components of early warning systems for mitigation of geological hazards (direct seismic damage, tsunamis, landslides, volcanoes). The advantage of the GPS data is that it is a direct measurement of ground displacement. With seismic data, this type of measure has to be obtained by deconvolution of the instrument response and integration of the broadband (velocity) measurements, or a double integration of the strong motion (acceleration) measurements. Due to the bandwidth and the dynamic range limits of seismometers the accuracy of absolute displacements so derived is poor. This problem is not present in the high-sample rate GPS data. While the seismic measurement provides a powerful constraint on the much noisier GPS measurements, unlike the seismometer, the GPS receiver never clips. Using the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table at USCD, we present an example of combining in real-time 50 Hz GPS displacements and 250 Hz raw accelerometer data using a multi-rate Kalman filter, previously applied to bridge monitoring. A full-scale 7- story building atop the shake table was subjected to high intensity shaking by replaying the Sylmar accelerometer record from the Mw 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake. The resulting 250 Hz displacement waveform is significantly more accurate than obtained solely by low-pass filtering and double integration of the 250 Hz accelerometer records. Next we demonstrate the elements of an earthquake early warning system by analyzing the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi-Oki thrust earthquake off Hokkaido Island detected by the dense Japan national real-time CGPS

  16. Rate of adjacent segment degeneration of cervical disc arthroplasty versus fusion Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaquan; Wang, Hongbo; Peng, Jun; Deng, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Shixue; Wang, Daidong; Gong, Ming; Tang, Shuo

    2018-02-27

    The concern of adjacent segment disease (ASD) has led to the development of motion-preserving technologies such as cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA). However, there is still controversy whether CDA is superior to anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) as to the incidence of ASD. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the rate of ASD between CDA and ACDF. Systematic searches of all relevant studies through November. 2017 were identified from Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase and CNKI. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing clinical effectiveness of CDA and ACDF for cervical DDD were included. Two independent reviewers searched and assessed all literature according to the standard of Cochrane systematic review.Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted, and RevMan 5.2 was used for data analysis. The random effects model was used if there was heterogeneity between studies; otherwise, the fixed effects model was used. A total of 21 studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled data revealed that CDA group had significantly lower adjacent segment diseases than that in the ACDF group. Furthermore, there were fewer adjacent segment reoperations in the CDA group compared with the ACDF group. Based on this meta-analysis, we conclude that CDA was better than the ACDF in terms of ASD and adjacent segment reoperations. This suggests the HS is a superior alternative invention for the treatment of cervical DDD to preserve cervical range of motion and reduce the risk of ASD. However, this requires further validation and investigation in larger sample-size prospective and randomized studies with long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Planetary quarantine in the solar system. Survival rates of some terrestrial organisms under simulated space conditions by proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.

    We have been studying the survival rates of some species of terrestrial unicellular and multicellular organism (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions, in connection with planetary quarantine. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 K, 4 × 10 -8 torr), and proton irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, tobacco mosaic virus, Bacillus subtilis spores, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82, 45, 74, 13, 28, and 25%, respectively.

  18. Phosphomimetic mutation of cysteine string protein-α increases the rate of regulated exocytosis by modulating fusion pore dynamics in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cysteine string protein-α (CSPα is a chaperone to ensure protein folding. Loss of CSPα function associates with many neurological diseases. However, its function in modulating regulated exocytosis remains elusive. Although cspα-knockouts exhibit impaired synaptic transmission, overexpression of CSPα in neuroendocrine cells inhibits secretion. These seemingly conflicting results lead to a hypothesis that CSPα may undergo a modification that switches its function in regulating neurotransmitter and hormone secretion. Previous studies implied that CSPα undergoes phosphorylation at Ser10 that may influence exocytosis by altering fusion pore dynamics. However, direct evidence is missing up to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using amperometry, we investigated how phosphorylation at Ser10 of CSPα (CSPα-Ser10 modulates regulated exocytosis and if this modulation involves regulating a specific kinetic step of fusion pore dynamics. The real-time exocytosis of single vesicles was detected in PC12 cells overexpressing control vector, wild-type CSPα (WT, the CSPα phosphodeficient mutant (S10A, or the CSPα phosphomimetic mutants (S10D and S10E. The shapes of amperometric signals were used to distinguish the full-fusion events (i.e., prespike feet followed by spikes and the kiss-and-run events (i.e., square-shaped flickers. We found that the secretion rate was significantly increased in cells overexpressing S10D or S10E compared to WT or S10A. Further analysis showed that overexpression of S10D or S10E prolonged fusion pore lifetime compared to WT or S10A. The fraction of kiss-and-run events was significantly lower but the frequency of full-fusion events was higher in cells overexpressing S10D or S10E compared to WT or S10A. Advanced kinetic analysis suggests that overexpression of S10D or S10E may stabilize open fusion pores mainly by inhibiting them from closing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CSPα may modulate fusion pore dynamics

  19. Quantification of design margins and safety factors based on the prediction uncertainty in tritium production rate from fusion integral experiments of the USDOE/JAERI collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, M.Z.; Konno, C.; Maekawa, F.; Ikeda, Y.; Kosako, K.; Nakagawa, M.; Mori, T.; Maekawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    Several fusion integral experiments were performed within a collaboration between the USA and Japan on fusion breeder neutronics aimed at verifying the prediction accuracy of key neutronics parameters in a fusion reactor blanket based on current neutron transport codes and basic nuclear databases. The focus has been on the tritium production rate (TRP) as an important design parameter to resolve the issue of tritium self-sufficiency in a fusion reactor. In this paper, the calculational and experimental uncertainties (errors) in local TPR in each experiment performed i were interpolated and propagated to estimate the prediction uncertainty u i in the line-integrated TPR and its standard deviation σ i . The measured data are based on Li-glass and NE213 detectors. From the quantities u i and σ i , normalized density functions (NDFs) were constructed, considering all the experiments and their associated analyses performed independently by the UCLA and JAERI. Several statistical parameters were derived, including the mean prediction uncertainties u and the possible spread ±σ u around them. Design margins and safety factors were derived from these NDFs. Distinction was made between the results obtained by UCLA and JAERI and between calculational results based on the discrete ordinates and Monte Carlo methods. The prediction uncertainties, their standard deviations and the design margins and safety factors were derived for the line-integrated TPR from Li-6 T 6 , and Li-7 T 7 . These parameters were used to estimate the corresponding uncertainties and safety factor for the line-integrated TPR from natural lithium T n . (orig.)

  20. Superior Segment Facet Joint Violation During Instrumented Lumbar Fusion is Associated With Higher Reoperation Rates and Diminished Improvement in Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jay M; Alentado, Vincent J; Healy, Andrew T; Steinmetz, Michael P; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E

    2018-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study at a single tertiary care center. To determine the impact of superior segment facet joint violation (FJV) during lumbar fusion on reoperation rates and quality of life (QOL). Although lumbar fusion is an efficacious and durable treatment for numerous spinal pathologies, adjacent segment degeneration remains a serious complication. FJV has been suggested to alter load-bearing capability and potentially contribute to adjacent segment degeneration. Patients who underwent instrumented lumbar fusion surgery between 2009 and 2013 with postoperative computed tomography imaging were included. Patients were placed in the FJV group if either of the superior segment facet joints were compromised by the pedicle screw or rod. Patients with preserved facet joints were placed in the control group. Demographic, perioperative, QOL, and reoperation data were collected. QOL scores including the Pain Disability Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and EuroQOL 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) were acquired. Of 240 patients included, 112 patients were found to have FJV and the remaining 128 patients were placed in the control group. One year following lumbar fusion, QOL outcomes and reoperation rates were similar between the FJV and control groups. At 2-year follow-up, patients in the FJV group were less likely to make a significant improvement in EQ-5D (P=0.041). Also, the reoperation rate in the FJV group was significantly higher than in the control group at 2 years (15.2% vs. 6.3%, respectively; P=0.024) and 3 years (19.6% vs. 9.4%, P=0.023). Multivariable logistic regression showed FJV to be an independent predictor of both (1) failing to make a significant improvement in EQ-5D (P=0.046) and (2) undergoing reoperation at both 2 and 3 years postoperatively (P=0.024 and 0.020, respectively). FJV was independently associated with a higher reoperation rate and diminished improvement in QOL.

  1. Comparing SSN Index to X-Ray Flare and Coronal Mass Ejection Rates from Solar Cycles 22 - 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, L. M.; Pernak, R. L.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.

    2016-11-01

    The newly revised sunspot-number series allows for placing historical geoeffective storms in the context of several hundred years of solar activity. Using statistical analyses of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray observations from the past {≈} 30 years and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) catalog (1996 - present), we present sunspot-number-dependent flare and CME rates. In particular, we present X-ray flare rates as a function of sunspot number for the past three cycles. We also show that the 1 - 8 Å X-ray background flux is strongly correlated with sunspot number across solar cycles. Similarly, we show that the CME properties ( e.g. proxies related to the CME linear speed and width) are also correlated with sunspot number for Solar Cycles 23 and 24. These updated rates will enable future predictions for geoeffective events and place historical storms in the context of present solar activity.

  2. Plume entrainment effects in solar domestic hot water systems employing variable-flow-rate control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csordas, G.F. (Hussmann Limited, Brantford, Ontario (Canada)); Brunger, A.P.; Hollands, K.G.T.; Lightstone, M.F. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Solar domestic hot water heating systems perform more efficiently if their storage tanks are perfectly thermally stratified. In real tanks, which do not perfectly stratify, the most important mechanism destroying stratification is plume entrainment. Plume entrainment occurs when cooler water is inserted into the tank top which contains hotter water. The resultant falling plume of cool water causes mixing. This paper uses computer simulation to evaluate and compare two strategies by which plume entrainment is minimized by controlling the collector flow rate. One strategy (called SCOT) maintains a constant collector outlet temperature, and the other (called FCTR) strategy maintains a constant temperature rise from inlet to outlet of the collector. The results of the study show that the SCOT strategy always produces a system that performs more poorly than the corresponding system with a fixed flow rate. The FCTR strategy, on the other hand, consistently out-performs the fixed flow strategy, but only by a few percent. When the FCTR strategy is used, the optimum [Delta]T[sub set] to use is 20[degrees]C for the SDHW system simulated.

  3. Reaction-rate coefficients, high-energy ions slowing-down, and power balance in a tokamak fusion reactor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo

    1978-07-01

    Described are the reactivity coefficient of D-T fusion reaction, slowing-down processes of deuterons injected with high energy and 3.52 MeV alpha particles generated in D-T reaction, and the power balance in a Tokamak reactor plasma. Most of the results were obtained in the first preliminary design of JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) driven with stationary neutral beam injection. A manual of numerical computation program ''BALTOK'' developed for the calculations is given in the appendix. (auth.)

  4. High efficiency high rate microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells deposited at plasma excitation frequencies larger than 100 MHz

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strobel, C.; Leszczynska, B.; Merkel, U.; Kuske, J.; Fischer, D.D.; Albert, M.; Holovský, Jakub; Michard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, Dec (2015), 347-353 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12029 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283501 - Fast Track Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : VHF * PECVD * microcrystalline silicon * solar cell * high rate * high efficiency Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.732, year: 2015

  5. 76 FR 63614 - Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-21-000] Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Agua...

  6. 75 FR 80487 - Paradise Solar Urban Renewal, L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2365-000] Paradise...-referenced proceeding of Paradise Solar Urban Renewal, L.L.C.'s application for market-based rate authority... electronic submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http...

  7. Solar thermal drying of apricots: Effect of spectrally-selective cabinet materials on drying rate and quality metrics (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar thermal (ST) drying is currently not in widespread commercial use due to concerns about slow drying rates and poor product quality. ST dryer cabinets could be constructed from spectrally-selective materials (materials which transmit only certain sunlight wavelength bands), but these types of ...

  8. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank,

  9. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures...... around 20 C, but at temperatures above 26 C we observe an increase in the scattered intensity due to fusion. The system is unusually well suited for the study of basic mechanisms of vesicle fusion. The vesicles are flexible with a bending rigidity of only a few k(H)T. The monolayer spontaneous curvature......, Ho, depends strongly on temperature in a known way and is thus tunable. For temperatures where H-0 > 0 vesicles tyre long-term stable, while in the range H-0 fusion rate increases the more negative the Spontaneous curvature Through a quantitative;analysis of the fusion rate we arrive tit...

  10. Spinal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herniated disk - fusion; Spinal stenosis - fusion; Laminectomy - fusion Patient Instructions Bathroom safety - adults Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Spine surgery - discharge Surgical wound care - open Images Scoliosis Spinal ...

  11. Design of cycler trajectories and analysis of solar influences on radioactive decay rates during space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Blake A.

    This thesis investigates the design of interplanetary missions for the continual habitation of Mars via Earth-Mars cyclers and for the detection of variations in nuclear decay rates due to solar influences. Several cycler concepts have been proposed to provide safe and comfortable quarters for astronauts traveling between the Earth and Mars. However, no literature has appeared to show how these massive vehicles might be placed into their cycler trajectories. Trajectories are designed that use either Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust to establish cycler vehicles in their desired orbits. In the cycler trajectory cases considered, the use of Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust substantially reduces the total propellant needed to achieve the cycler orbit compared to direct orbit insertion. In the case of the classic Aldrin cycler, the propellant savings due to Vinfinity leveraging can be as large as a 24 metric ton reduction for a cycler vehicle with a dry mass of 75 metric tons, and an additional 111 metric ton reduction by instead using low thrust. The two-synodic period cyclers considered benefit less from Vinfinity leveraging, but have a smaller total propellant mass due to their lower approach velocities at Earth and Mars. It turns out that, for low-thrust establishment, the propellant required is approximately the same for each of the cycler trajectories. The Aldrin cycler has been proposed as a transportation system for human missions between Earth and Mars. However, the hyperbolic excess velocity values at the planetary encounters for these orbits are infeasibly large, especially at Mars. In a new version of the Aldrin cycler, low thrust is used in the interplanetary trajectories to reduce the encounter velocities. Reducing the encounter velocities at both planets reduces the propellant needed by the taxis (astronauts use these taxis to transfer between the planetary surfaces and the cycler vehicle) to perform hyperbolic rendezvous. While the propellant

  12. Solar Energy Deposition Rates in the Mesosphere Derived from Airglow Measurements: Implications for the Ozone Model Deficit Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Roble, Raymond G.; Hagan, Maura

    2000-01-01

    We derive rates of energy deposition in the mesosphere due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone. The rates are derived directly from measurements of the 1.27-microns oxygen dayglow emission, independent of knowledge of the ozone abundance, the ozone absorption cross sections, and the ultraviolet solar irradiance in the ozone Hartley band. Fifty-six months of airglow data taken between 1982 and 1986 by the near-infrared spectrometer on the Solar-Mesosphere Explorer satellite are analyzed. The energy deposition rates exhibit altitude-dependent annual and semi-annual variations. We also find a positive correlation between temperatures and energy deposition rates near 90 km at low latitudes. This correlation is largely due to the semiannual oscillation in temperature and ozone and is consistent with model calculations. There is also a suggestion of possible tidal enhancement of this correlation based on recent theoretical and observational analyses. The airglow-derived rates of energy deposition are then compared with those computed by multidimensional numerical models. The observed and modeled deposition rates typically agree to within 20%. This agreement in energy deposition rates implies the same agreement exists between measured and modeled ozone volume mixing ratios in the mesosphere. Only in the upper mesosphere at midlatitudes during winter do we derive energy deposition rates (and hence ozone mixing ratios) consistently and significantly larger than the model calculations. This result is contrary to previous studies that have shown a large model deficit in the ozone abundance throughout the mesosphere. The climatology of solar energy deposition and heating presented in this paper is available to the community at the Middle Atmosphere Energy Budget Project web site at http://heat-budget.gats-inc.com.

  13. Turbulent Density Fluctuations and Proton Heating Rate in the Solar Wind from 9-20 R ⊙

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar Raja, K.; Subramanian, Prasad; Ramesh, R.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Ingale, Madhusudan

    2017-12-01

    We obtain scatter-broadened images of the Crab Nebula at 80 MHz as it transits through the inner solar wind in 2017 and 2016 June. These images are anisotropic, with the major axis oriented perpendicular to the radially outward coronal magnetic field. Using these data, we deduce that the density modulation index (δ {N}e/{N}e) caused by turbulent density fluctuations in the solar wind ranges from 1.9× {10}-3 to 7.7× {10}-3 between 9 and 20 R ⊙. We also find that the heating rate of solar wind protons at these distances ranges from 2.2× {10}-13 to 1.0× {10}-11 {erg} {{cm}}-3 {{{s}}}-1. On two occasions, the line of sight intercepted a coronal streamer. We find that the presence of the streamer approximately doubles the thickness of the scattering screen.

  14. Parallel processing for a 1-D time-dependent solution to impurity rate equations for fusion plasma simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerasingam, R.

    1990-01-01

    In fusion plasmas impurities such as carbon, oxygen or nickel can contaminate the plasma and cause degradation of the performance of a fusion device through radiation. However, impurities can also be used as diagnostics to obtain information about a plasma through spectroscopic experiments which can then be used in plasma modeling and simulations. In the past, serial algorithms have been described for either the time dependent or steady state problem. In this paper, we describe a parallel procedure adopted to solve the time-dependent problem. It can be shown that for the steady state problem a parallel procedure would not be a useful application of parallelization because a few seconds of the Central Processing Unit time on a CRAY-XMP or IBM 3090/600S would suffice to obtain the solution, while this is not the case for the time-dependent problem. In order to study the effects of low Z and high Z impurities on the final state of a plasma, time-dependent solutions are necessary. For purposes of diagnostics and comparisons with experiments, a fast turn around time of the simulations would be advantageous. We have implemented a parallel algorithm on and IBM 3090/600S and tested its performance for a typical set of fusion plasma parameters. 4 refs., 1 tab

  15. A Generalized Approach to Model the Spectra and Radiation Dose Rate of Solar Particle Events on the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; McDole, Thoren; Kühl, Patrick; Appel, Jan C.; Matthiä, Daniel; Krauss, Johannes; Köhler, Jan

    2018-01-01

    For future human missions to Mars, it is important to study the surface radiation environment during extreme and elevated conditions. In the long term, it is mainly galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) modulated by solar activity that contribute to the radiation on the surface of Mars, but intense solar energetic particle (SEP) events may induce acute health effects. Such events may enhance the radiation level significantly and should be detected as immediately as possible to prevent severe damage to humans and equipment. However, the energetic particle environment on the Martian surface is significantly different from that in deep space due to the influence of the Martian atmosphere. Depending on the intensity and shape of the original solar particle spectra, as well as particle types, the surface spectra may induce entirely different radiation effects. In order to give immediate and accurate alerts while avoiding unnecessary ones, it is important to model and well understand the atmospheric effect on the incoming SEPs, including both protons and helium ions. In this paper, we have developed a generalized approach to quickly model the surface response of any given incoming proton/helium ion spectra and have applied it to a set of historical large solar events, thus providing insights into the possible variety of surface radiation environments that may be induced during SEP events. Based on the statistical study of more than 30 significant solar events, we have obtained an empirical model for estimating the surface dose rate directly from the intensities of a power-law SEP spectra.

  16. Effect of solar radiation on the lipid characterization of biomass cultivated in high-rate algal ponds using domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Santiago, Anibal da Fonseca; do Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar; Leite, Mauricio de Oliveira; Sierra, Jose Jovanny Bermudez

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the lipid content and composition ofbiomass produced by a consortium of microalgae and bacteria, cultivated under different solar radiation intensities and tropical conditions in pilot-scale high-rate ponds (HRPs) using domestic sewage as culture medium. The treatment system consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor followed by UV disinfection and six HRPs covered with shading screens that blocked 9%, 18%, 30%, 60% and 80% of the solar radiation. The total lipid content does not vary significantly among the units, showing a medium value of 9.5%. The results show that blocking over 30% of the solar radiation has a negative effect on the lipid productivity. The units with no shading and with 30% and 60% of solar radiation blocking have statistically significant lipid productivities, varying from 0.92 to 0.96 gm(-2) day(-1). Besides radiation, other variables such as volatile suspended solids and chlorophyll-a are able to explain the lipid accumulation. The lipid profile has a predominance of C16, C18:1 and C18:3 acids. The unsaturation of fatty acids increases with the reduction in solar radiation. On the other hand, the effect of polyunsaturation is not observed, which is probably due to the presence of a complex and diverse biomass.

  17. Impact of Federal tax policy and electric utility rate schedules upon the solar building/electric utility interface. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.L.; Wirtshafter, R.M.; Abrash, M.; Anderson, B.; Sullivan, P.; Kohler, J.

    1978-10-01

    An analysis is performed to show that a utility solar-passive strategy can be used rather effectively in aiding the utility to obtain more efficient load factors and lower costs. The objectives are to determine the impact of active and passive solar energy designs for space conditioning and hot water heating for the residential sector upon the diurnal and annual load curves for several utilities, to assess the effect of present utility pricing policies, and to examine alternative pricing schemes, as well as Federal and state tax credits, as they may affect the optimal sizing and configuration of active solar and passive solar building components. The methodology, the systems model, an overall building design, building cost determination, and a description of TRNSYS are presented. The major parameters discussed that distinguish variation in the cost-effectiveness of particular building design fall into 5 categories: the weather, building configurations, building costs, utility costs and rates, and financial parameters (inclusive of tax credits for solar and energy conservation investment). Five utilities are studied: Colorado Springs Department of Public Utilities; Public Service Co. of New Mexico; New England Electric System; Pacific Gas and Electric; and Georgia Power Co.

  18. PARP inhibition sensitizes to low dose-rate radiation TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene-expressing and PTEN-deficient prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Exposure to genotoxic agents, such as irradiation produces DNA damage, the toxicity of which is augmented when the DNA repair is impaired. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors were found to be "synthetic lethal" in cells deficient in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that impair homologous recombination. However, since many tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa rarely have on such mutations, there is considerable interest in finding alternative determinants of PARP inhibitor sensitivity. We evaluated the effectiveness of radiation in combination with the PARP inhibitor, rucaparib in PCa cells. The combination index for clonogenic survival following radiation and rucaparib treatments revealed synergistic interactions in a panel of PCa cell lines, being strongest for LNCaP and VCaP cells that express ETS gene fusion proteins. These findings correlated with synergistic interactions for senescence activation, as indicated by β--galactosidase staining. Absence of PTEN and presence of ETS gene fusion thus facilitated activation of senescence, which contributed to decreased clonogenic survival. Increased radiosensitivity in the presence of rucaparib was associated with persistent DNA breaks, as determined by χ-H2AX, p53BP1, and Rad51 foci. VCaP cells, which harbor the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion and PC3 cells that stably express a similar construct (fusion III showed enhanced sensitivity towards rucaparib, which, in turn, increased the radiation response to a similar extent as the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441. Rucaparib radiosensitized PCa cells, with a clear benefit of low dose-rate radiation (LDR administered over a longer period of time that caused enhanced DNA damage. LDR mimicking brachytherapy, which is used successfully in the clinic, was most effective when combined with rucaparib by inducing persistent DNA damage and senescence, leading to decreased clonogenic survival. This combination was most effective in the presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG and in the

  19. Heat Rate Enhancement of IGCC Power Plant Coupled with Solar thermal power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kotdawala, Rasesh R; V., Jyothi; Kanaujia, Gaurav; Adapa, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Integrated gasification  combined cycle power plant (IGCC) has shown the potential of having higher operating thermal efficiency, than supercritical thermal power plants as it combines the advantages of coal gasification and combined cycle power plant. Solar thermal plant has shown great promise to augment the thermal efficiency of the fossil based power plants and reducing CO2 emissions. In this research paper, impact of integrating solar thermal power plant utilizing linear Fresnel collecto...

  20. Mass-loss Rates from Coronal Mass Ejections: A Predictive Theoretical Model for Solar-type Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranmer, Steven R. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are eruptive events that cause a solar-type star to shed mass and magnetic flux. CMEs tend to occur together with flares, radio storms, and bursts of energetic particles. On the Sun, CME-related mass loss is roughly an order of magnitude less intense than that of the background solar wind. However, on other types of stars, CMEs have been proposed to carry away much more mass and energy than the time-steady wind. Earlier papers have used observed correlations between solar CMEs and flare energies, in combination with stellar flare observations, to estimate stellar CME rates. This paper sidesteps flares and attempts to calibrate a more fundamental correlation between surface-averaged magnetic fluxes and CME properties. For the Sun, there exists a power-law relationship between the magnetic filling factor and the CME kinetic energy flux, and it is generalized for use on other stars. An example prediction of the time evolution of wind/CME mass-loss rates for a solar-mass star is given. A key result is that for ages younger than about 1 Gyr (i.e., activity levels only slightly higher than the present-day Sun), the CME mass loss exceeds that of the time-steady wind. At younger ages, CMEs carry 10–100 times more mass than the wind, and such high rates may be powerful enough to dispel circumstellar disks and affect the habitability of nearby planets. The cumulative CME mass lost by the young Sun may have been as much as 1% of a solar mass.

  1. Fusion as an energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.

    1976-01-01

    The environmental issues, alternative fusion fuels, the economic potential, and the time scale of fusion power are assessed. It is common for the advocate of a long-term energy source to claim his source (fission, fusion, solar, etc.) as the ultimate solution to man's energy needs. The author does not believe that such a stance will lead to a rational energy policy. Dr. Steiner encourages a long-term energy policy that has as its goal the development of fission breeders, fusion, and solar energy--not be totally reliant on a single source. He does advocate vigorous funding for fusion, not because it is a guarantee for ''clean, limitless, and cheap power,'' but because it may provide an important energy option for the next century

  2. Detection rate for significant cancer at confirmatory biopsy in men enrolled in Active Surveillance protocol: 20 cores vs 30 cores vs MRI/TRUS fusion prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pepe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The detection rate for significant prostate cancer of extended vs saturation vs mMRI/TRUS fusion biopsy was prospectively evaluated in men enrolled in active surveillance (AS protocol. Mterials and methods: From May 2013 to September 2016 75 men aged 66 years (median with very low risk PCa were enrolled in an AS protocol and elegible criteria were: life expectancy greater than 10 years, cT1C, PSA below 10 ng/ml, PSA density < 0.20, 2 < unilateral positive biopsy cores, Gleason score (GS equal to 6, greatest percentage of cancer (GPC in a core < 50%. All patients underwent 3.0 Tesla pelvic mpMRI before confirmatory transperineal extended (20 cores or saturation biopsy (SPBx; 30 cores combined with mpMRI/TRUS fusion targeted biopsy (4 cores of suspicious lesions (PI-RADS 3-5. Results: 21/75 (28% patients were reclassified by SPBx based on upgraded GS ≥ 7; mpMRI lesions PI-RADS 4-5 vs PI-RADS 3-5 diagnosed 9/21 (42.8% vs 16/21 (76.2% significant PCa with 2 false positives (6.5%. The detection rate for significant PCa was equal to 76.2% (mpMRI/TRUS fusion biopsy vs 81% (extended vs 100% (SPBx (p = 0.001; mpMRI/TRUS targeted biopsy and extended biopsy missed 5/21 (23.8% and 4/21 (19% significant PCa which were found by SPBx (p = 0.001 being characterised by the presence of a single positive core of GS ≥ 7 with GPC < 10%. Conclusions: Although mpMRI improve the diagnosis of clinically significant PCa, SPBx is provided of the best detection rate for PCa in men enrolled in AS protocols who underwent confirmatory biopsy.

  3. Detection rate for significant cancer at confirmatory biopsy in men enrolled in Active Surveillance protocol: 20 cores vs 30 cores vs MRI/TRUS fusion prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Pietro; Cimino, Sebastiano; Garufi, Antonio; Priolo, Giandomenico; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Giardina, Raimondo; Reale, Giulio; Barbera, Michele; Panella, Paolo; Pennisi, Michele; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2016-12-30

    The detection rate for significant prostate cancer of extended vs saturation vs mMRI/TRUS fusion biopsy was prospectively evaluated in men enrolled in active surveillance (AS) protocol. Mterials and methods: From May 2013 to September 2016 75 men aged 66 years (median) with very low risk PCa were enrolled in an AS protocol and elegible criteria were: life expectancy greater than 10 years, cT1C, PSA below 10 ng/ml, PSA density < 0.20, 2 < unilateral positive biopsy cores, Gleason score (GS) equal to 6, greatest percentage of cancer (GPC) in a core < 50%. All patients underwent 3.0 Tesla pelvic mpMRI before confirmatory transperineal extended (20 cores) or saturation biopsy (SPBx; 30 cores) combined with mpMRI/TRUS fusion targeted biopsy (4 cores) of suspicious lesions (PI-RADS 3-5). 21/75 (28%) patients were reclassified by SPBx based on upgraded GS ≥ 7; mpMRI lesions PI-RADS 4-5 vs PI-RADS 3-5 diagnosed 9/21 (42.8%) vs 16/21 (76.2%) significant PCa with 2 false positives (6.5%). The detection rate for significant PCa was equal to 76.2% (mpMRI/TRUS fusion biopsy) vs 81% (extended) vs 100% (SPBx) (p = 0.001); mpMRI/TRUS targeted biopsy and extended biopsy missed 5/21 (23.8%) and 4/21 (19%) significant PCa which were found by SPBx (p = 0.001) being characterised by the presence of a single positive core of GS ≥ 7 with GPC < 10%. Although mpMRI improve the diagnosis of clinically significant PCa, SPBx is provided of the best detection rate for PCa in men enrolled in AS protocols who underwent confirmatory biopsy.

  4. Assessment of fusion reactor development. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, N.; Tazima, T.

    1994-04-01

    Symposium on assessment of fusion reactor development was held to make clear critical issues, which should be resolved for the commercial fusion reactor as a major energy source in the next century. Discussing items were as follows. (1) The motive force of fusion power development from viewpoints of future energy demand, energy resources and earth environment for 'Sustainable Development'. (2) Comparison of characteristics with other alternative energy sources, i.e. fission power and solar cell power. (3) Future planning of fusion research and advanced fuel fusion (D 3 He). (4) Critical issues of fusion reactor development such as Li extraction from the sea water, structural material and safety. (author)

  5. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  6. Calculations of Solar Shortwave Heating Rates due to Black Carbon and Ozone Absorption Using in Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, R. S.; Hall, S. R.; Swartz, W. H.; Spackman, J. R.; Watts, L. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Aikin, K. C.; Shetter, R. E.; Bui, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    Results for the solar heating rates in ambient air due to absorption by black-carbon (BC) containing particles and ozone are presented as calculated from airborne observations made in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) in January-February 2006. The method uses airborne in situ observations of BC particles, ozone and actinic flux. Total BC mass is obtained along the flight track by summing the masses of individually detected BC particles in the range 90 to 600-nm volume-equivalent diameter, which includes most of the BC mass. Ozone mixing ratios and upwelling and partial downwelling solar actinic fluxes were measured concurrently with BC mass. Two estimates used for the BC wavelength-dependent absorption cross section yielded similar heating rates. For mean altitudes of 16.5, 17.5, and 18.5 km (0.5 km) in the tropics, average BC heating rates were near 0.0002 K/d. Observed BC coatings on individual particles approximately double derived BC heating rates. Ozone heating rates exceeded BC heating rates by approximately a factor of 100 on average and at least a factor of 4, suggesting that BC heating rates in this region are negligible in comparison.

  7. Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.; Ganji, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily...... consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering...

  8. Human sensory-evoked responses differ coincident with either "fusion-memory" or "flash-memory", as shown by stimulus repetition-rate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Don L; Hart, Toryalai; Larson-Prior, Linda J; Baird, Bill; Olson, Marram; Trumpis, Michael; Makayed, Katherine; Bavafa, Payam

    2006-01-01

    Background: A new method has been used to obtain human sensory evoked-responses whose time-domain waveforms have been undetectable by previous methods. These newly discovered evoked-responses have durations that exceed the time between the stimuli in a continuous stream, thus causing an overlap which, up to now, has prevented their detection. We have named them "A-waves", and added a prefix to show the sensory system from which the responses were obtained (visA-waves, audA-waves, somA-waves). Results: When A-waves were studied as a function of stimulus repetition-rate, it was found that there were systematic differences in waveshape at repetition-rates above and below the psychophysical region in which the sensation of individual stimuli fuse into a continuity. The fusion phenomena is sometimes measured by a "Critical Fusion Frequency", but for this research we can only identify a frequency-region [which we call the STZ (Sensation-Transition Zone)]. Thus, the A-waves above the STZ differed from those below the STZ, as did the sensations. Study of the psychophysical differences in auditory and visual stimuli, as shown in this paper, suggest that different stimulus features are detected, and remembered, at stimulation rates above and below STZ. Conclusion: The results motivate us to speculate that: 1) Stimulus repetition-rates above the STZ generate waveforms which underlie "fusion-memory" whereas rates below the STZ show neuronal processing in which "flash-memory" occurs. 2) These two memories differ in both duration and mechanism, though they may occur in the same cell groups. 3) The differences in neuronal processing may be related to "figure" and "ground" differentiation. We conclude that A-waves provide a novel measure of neural processes that can be detected on the human scalp, and speculate that they may extend clinical applications of evoked response recordings. If A-waves also occur in animals, it is likely that A-waves will provide new methods for

  9. Human sensory-evoked responses differ coincident with either "fusion-memory" or "flash-memory", as shown by stimulus repetition-rate effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baird Bill

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: A new method has been used to obtain human sensory evoked-responses whose time-domain waveforms have been undetectable by previous methods. These newly discovered evoked-responses have durations that exceed the time between the stimuli in a continuous stream, thus causing an overlap which, up to now, has prevented their detection. We have named them "A-waves", and added a prefix to show the sensory system from which the responses were obtained (visA-waves, audA-waves, somA-waves. Results: When A-waves were studied as a function of stimulus repetition-rate, it was found that there were systematic differences in waveshape at repetition-rates above and below the psychophysical region in which the sensation of individual stimuli fuse into a continuity. The fusion phenomena is sometimes measured by a "Critical Fusion Frequency", but for this research we can only identify a frequency-region [which we call the STZ (Sensation-Transition Zone]. Thus, the A-waves above the STZ differed from those below the STZ, as did the sensations. Study of the psychophysical differences in auditory and visual stimuli, as shown in this paper, suggest that different stimulus features are detected, and remembered, at stimulation rates above and below STZ. Conclusion: The results motivate us to speculate that: 1 Stimulus repetition-rates above the STZ generate waveforms which underlie "fusion-memory" whereas rates below the STZ show neuronal processing in which "flash-memory" occurs. 2 These two memories differ in both duration and mechanism, though they may occur in the same cell groups. 3 The differences in neuronal processing may be related to "figure" and "ground" differentiation. We conclude that A-waves provide a novel measure of neural processes that can be detected on the human scalp, and speculate that they may extend clinical applications of evoked response recordings. If A-waves also occur in animals, it is likely that A-waves will provide

  10. Identification of cancer fusion drivers using network fusion centrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chin; Kannan, Kalpana; Lin, Steven; Yen, Laising; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Gene fusions are being discovered at an increasing rate using massively parallel sequencing technologies. Prioritization of cancer fusion drivers for validation cannot be performed using traditional single-gene based methods because fusions involve portions of two partner genes. To address this problem, we propose a novel network analysis method called fusion centrality that is specifically tailored for prioritizing gene fusions. We first propose a domain-based fusion model built on the theory of exon/domain shuffling. The model leads to a hypothesis that a fusion is more likely to be an oncogenic driver if its partner genes act like hubs in a network because the fusion mutation can deregulate normal functions of many other genes and their pathways. The hypothesis is supported by the observation that for most known cancer fusion genes, at least one of the fusion partners appears to be a hub in a network, and even for many fusions both partners appear to be hubs. Based on this model, we construct fusion centrality, a multi-gene-based network metric, and use it to score fusion drivers. We show that the fusion centrality outperforms other single gene-based methods. Specifically, the method successfully predicts most of 38 newly discovered fusions that had validated oncogenic importance. To our best knowledge, this is the first network-based approach for identifying fusion drivers. Availability: Matlab code implementing the fusion centrality method is available upon request from the corresponding authors. Contact: perwu777@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23505294

  11. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirather, Jason L; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S; Underwood, Jason G; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-10-15

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion genes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  13. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...... by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  14. Ion rates in the International Space Station during the December 2006 Solar Particle Event

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Solar Particle Events (SPEs) are a major concern during prolonged space missions. During such events, a large amount of light ions, mostly protons and helium nuclei, are accelerated with enough energy to traverse the spacecraft hull and therefore represent a high hazard for the crew health. The ALTEA particle telescope was collecting continuous data inside the USLab module of the International Space Station (ISS) during most of the December 2006 SPEs. The telescope is able to meas...

  15. Interaction Cross Sections and Survival Rates for Proposed Solar System Member Planet Nine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongjie; Adams, Fred C.

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by the report of a possible new planetary member of the solar system, this work calculates cross sections for interactions between passing stars and this proposed Planet Nine. Evidence for the new planet is provided by the orbital alignment of Kuiper belt objects, and other solar system properties, which suggest a Neptune-mass object on an eccentric orbit with a semimajor axis {a}9 ≈ 400-1500 au. With such a wide orbit, Planet Nine has a large interaction cross section and is susceptible to disruption by passing stars. Using a large ensemble of numerical simulations (several million) and Monte Carlo sampling, we calculate the cross sections for different classes of orbit-altering events: (A) scattering the planet into its proposed orbit from a smaller orbit, (B) ejecting it from the solar system from its current orbit, (C) capturing the planet from another system, and (D) capturing a free-floating planet. Results are presented for a range of orbital elements with planetary mass {m}9 = 10 M ⊕. Removing Planet Nine from the solar system is the most likely outcome. Specifically, we obtain ejection cross sections {σ }{int} ˜ 5 × 106 au2 (5 × 104 au2) for environments corresponding to the birth cluster (field). With these cross sections, Planet Nine is likely to be ejected if the Sun resides within its birth cluster longer than Δt ≳ 100 Myr. The probability of ejecting Planet Nine due to passing field stars is ≲3% over the age of the Sun. Probabilities for producing the inferred Planet Nine orbit are low (≲5%).

  16. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  17. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  18. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  19. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, John T.; Keefer, Christopher J.; Slaughter, James C.; Kulp, Daniel W.; Schief, William R.; Crowe, James E.

    2014-01-01

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (K on ) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (K off ) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced K on with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased K on found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants. - Highlights: • The relationship of affinity to neutralization for virus antibodies is uncertain. • Palivizumab binds to RSV escape mutant fusion proteins, but with reduced affinity. • Association rate (K on ) correlated well with the potency of neutralization

  20. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, John T. [The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Departments of Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Keefer, Christopher J. [The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Departments of Pediatrics, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Slaughter, James C. [The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Departments of Biostatistics and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Kulp, Daniel W. [IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center and Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Schief, William R. [IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center and Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Crowe, James E., E-mail: james.crowe@vanderbilt.edu [The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Departments of Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Departments of Pediatrics, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (K{sub on}) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (K{sub off}) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced K{sub on} with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased K{sub on} found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants. - Highlights: • The relationship of affinity to neutralization for virus antibodies is uncertain. • Palivizumab binds to RSV escape mutant fusion proteins, but with reduced affinity. • Association rate (K{sub on}) correlated well with the potency of neutralization.

  1. Measurements of solar and terrestrial heating and cooling rate profiles in Arctic and sub-tropic stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Matthias; Lauermann, Felix; Ehrlich, André; Siebert, Holger; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Stratocumulus covers approximately 20 % (annually averaged) of the Earth's surface and thus strongly influences the atmospheric and surface radiative energy budget resulting in radiative cooling and heating effects. Globally, the solar cooling effect of the widespread sub-tropical stratocumulus dominates. However, in the Arctic the solar cloud albedo effect (cooling) is often smaller than the thermal-infrared greenhouse effect (warming), which is a result of the lower incoming solar radiation and the low cloud base height. Therefore, Arctic stratocumulus mostly warms the atmosphere and surface below the cloud. Additionally, different environmental conditions lead to differences between sub-tropical and Arctic stratocumulus. Broadband pyranometers and pyrgeometers will be used to measure heating and cooling rate profiles in and above stratocumulus. For this purpose two slowly moving platforms are used (helicopter and tethered balloon) in order to consider for the long response times of both broadband radiation sensors. Two new instrument packages are developed for the applied tethered balloon and helicopter platforms, which will be operated within Arctic and sub-tropical stratocumulus, respectively. In June 2017, the balloon will be launched from a sea ice floe north of 80 °N during the Arctic Balloon-borne profiling Experiment (ABEX) as part of (AC)3 (Arctic Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and Surface Processes and Feedback Mechanisms) Transregional Collaborative Research Center. The helicopter will sample sub-tropical stratocumulus over the Azores in July 2017.

  2. Enhancement of natural ventilation rate and attic heat gain reduction of roof solar collector using radiant barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puangsombut, W.; Hirunlabh, J. [Building Scientific Research Center, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Khedari, J.; Win, M.M. [South-East Asia University, 19/1 Petkasem Rd., Nongkhaem, Bangkok 10160 (Thailand); Zeghmati, B. [Centre d' Etudes Fondamentales-Groupe de Mechanique Acoustique et Instrumentation, Universite de Perpignan, 66870, Perpignan (France)

    2007-06-15

    Presented in this paper are the experimental results on natural ventilation flow rate enhancement and attic heat gain reduction of a roof solar collector equipped with a radiant barrier (RB). Investigation was conducted using an open ended inclined rectangular channel with an RB. The RB was used on the lower plate while the upper plate was heated with constant heat flux intensity. The channel dimensions are 1.5 x 0.70 x 0.19 m. The slope of the channel was fixed at 30 from horizontal plane. Four heat flux (190.5, 285.7, 380.9 and 476.2 W m{sup -2}) and five air gap space (3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 cm) were considered. Data analysis was made to determine the free convection heat transfer coefficient and induced airflow rate using two dimensionless parameters, viz., Nusselt number (Nu) and Reynolds number (Re). The Nu and Re were correlated as a function of Ra sin30 and channel aspect ratio defined as the ratio of air gap space to the channel length. The relations obtained were as follows: Nu=0.371(Ra sin 30){sup 0.2223}(S/L){sup -0.0469} and Re=191.68(Ra sin30){sup 0.1213}(S/L){sup -0.085}. When compared to a conventional roof solar configuration with gypsum board on the lower part, it was observed that the use of RB increased convective heat transfer and airflow rate by about 40-50%, thereby increasing heat transfer reduction through the lower plate by about 50%. The developed correlations are useful for the design of such open-ended channels like the roof solar collector for passive ventilation of houses. (author)

  3. Time-dependent Occurrence Rate of Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for the Effect of Alpha Particles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Feng, H. Q. [Institute of Space Physics, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing (China); Chu, Y. H. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); Huang, J. [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-20

    Previous studies revealed that electromagnetic cyclotron waves (ECWs) near the proton cyclotron frequency exist widely in the solar wind, and the majority of ECWs are left-handed (LH) polarized waves. Using the magnetic field data from the STEREO mission, this Letter carries out a survey of ECWs over a long period of 7 years and calculates the occurrence rates of ECWs with different polarization senses. Results show that the occurrence rate is nearly a constant for the ECWs with right-handed polarization, but it varies significantly for the ECWs with LH polarization. Further investigation of plasma conditions reveals that the LH ECWs take place preferentially in a plasma characterized by higher temperature, lower density, and larger velocity. Some considerable correlations between the occurrence rate of LH ECWs and the properties of ambient plasmas are discussed. The present research may provide evidence for the effect of alpha particles on the generation of ECWs.

  4. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  5. Solar radiation disinfection of drinking water at temperate latitudes: inactivation rates for an optimised reactor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C M; Roser, D J; Feitz, A J; Ashbolt, N J

    2009-02-01

    Solar radiation-driven inactivation of bacteria, virus and protozoan pathogen models was quantified in simulated drinking water at a temperate latitude (34 degrees S). The water was seeded with Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium sporogenes spores, and P22 bacteriophage, each at ca 1x10(5) mL(-1), and exposed to natural sunlight in 30-L reaction vessels. Water temperature ranged from 17 to 39 degrees C during the experiments lasting up to 6h. Dark controls showed little inactivation and so it was concluded that the inactivation observed was primarily driven by non-thermal processes. The optimised reactor design achieved S90 values (cumulative exposure required for 90% reduction) for the test microorganisms in the range 0.63-1.82 MJ m(-2) of Global Solar Exposure (GSX) without the need for TiO2 as a catalyst. High turbidity (840-920 NTU) only reduced the S(90) value by 0.05). However, inactivation was significantly reduced for E. faecalis and P22 when the transmittance of UV wavelengths was attenuated by water with high colour (140 PtCo units) or a suboptimally transparent reactor lid (prob.SODIS type pasteurization were not produced, non-thermal inactivation alone appeared to offer a viable means for reliably disinfecting low colour source waters by greater than 4 orders of magnitude on sunny days at 34 degrees S latitude.

  6. Balance of longwave radiation employing the rate of solar radiation for Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Zanini Righi

    Full Text Available New coefficients were determined for the weighting term for cloudiness in the Brunt-Penman equation using the rate of solar radiation (RK in place of the rate of sunshine duration (n/N. The coefficients in the Brutsaert method proposed for daytime in southern Brazil were also tested and adjusted, and the method was selected which gave the more accurate daily results in relation to the original Brunt-Penman equation, for Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (RS. Meteorological data covering 2,472 days obtained from the automatic and conventional weather stations in Santa Maria were used. The coefficients were adjusted by linear and nonlinear regression methods depending on the model, using 2/3 of the data. The adjusted equations were tested with the remaining 1/3 of the data. The Brunt-Penman equation modified by the term for cloudiness weighted both for solar radiation incident on the surface with no cloudiness (RK,R and for solar radiation incident at the top of the atmosphere (RK,K, were those that resulted in the best statistical indices relative to the original Brunt-Penman equation. In those equations the boundary conditions, 0.3 ≥ RK,R ≥ 1 or RK,K ≤ 0.22, were imposed. Although having similar statistical indices, a sensitivity analysis showed that the Brutsaert equation and other weightings for cloudiness resulted in larger deviations when compared to the original Brunt-Penman equation, in addition to having greater complexity for practical application.

  7. Low-Temperature, Chemically Grown Titanium Oxide Thin Films with a High Hole Tunneling Rate for Si Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tsu Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a chemically grown titanium oxide (TiO2 on Si to form a heterojunction for photovoltaic devices. The chemically grown TiO2 does not block hole transport. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy was used to study the band alignment. A substantial band offset at the TiO2/Si interface was observed. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS revealed that the chemically grown TiO2 is oxygen-deficient and contains numerous gap states. A multiple-trap-assisted tunneling (TAT model was used to explain the high hole injection rate. According to this model, the tunneling rate can be 105 orders of magnitude higher for holes passing through TiO2 than for flow through SiO2. With 24-nm-thick TiO2, a Si solar cell achieves a 33.2 mA/cm2 photocurrent on a planar substrate, with a 9.4% power conversion efficiency. Plan-view scanning electron microscopy images indicate that a moth-eye-like structure formed during TiO2 deposition. This structure enables light harvesting for a high photocurrent. The high photocurrent and ease of production of chemically grown TiO2 imply that it is a suitable candidate for future low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell applications.

  8. The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kuo; Minh, Doan Pham; Gauthier, Daniel; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Nzihou, Ange; Flamant, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Char samples were produced from pyrolysis in a lab-scale solar reactor. The pyrolysis of beech wood was carried out at temperatures ranging from 600 to 2000°C, with heating rates from 5 to 450°C/s. CHNS, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption were employed to investigate the effect of temperature and heating rate on char composition and structure. The results indicated that char structure was more and more ordered with temperature increase and heating rate decrease (higher than 50°C/s). The surface area and pore volume firstly increased with temperature and reached maximum at 1200°C then reduced significantly at 2000°C. Besides, they firstly increased with heating rate and then decreased slightly at heating rate of 450°C/s when final temperature was no lower than 1200°C. Char reactivity measured by TGA analysis was found to correlate with the evolution of char surface area and pore volume with temperature and heating rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contributions of solar-wind induced potential sputtering to the lunar surface erosion rate and it's exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnussirat, S. T.; Barghouty, A. F.; Edmunson, J. E.; Sabra, M. S.; Rickman, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    Sputtering of lunar regolith by solar-wind protons and heavy ions with kinetic energies of about 1 keV/amu is an important erosive process that affects the lunar surface and exosphere. It plays an important role in changing the chemical composition and thickness of the surface layer, and in introducing material into the exosphere. Kinetic sputtering is well modeled and understood, but understanding of mechanisms of potential sputtering has lagged behind. In this study we differentiate the contributions of potential sputtering from the standard (kinetic) sputtering in changing the chemical composition and erosion rate of the lunar surface. Also we study the contribution of potential sputtering in developing the lunar exosphere. Our results show that potential sputtering enhances the total characteristic sputtering erosion rate by about 44%, and reduces sputtering time scales by the same amount. Potential sputtering also introduces more material into the lunar exosphere.

  10. Craving Ravens: Individual ‘haa’ Call Rates at Feeding Sites as Cues to Personality and Levels of Fission-Fusion Dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgine Szipl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Common ravens aggregate in large non-breeder flocks for roosting and foraging until they achieve the status of territorial breeders. When discovering food, they produce far-reaching yells or ‘haa’ calls, which attract conspecifics. Due to the high levels of fission-fusion dynamics in non-breeders’ flocks, assemblies of feeding ravens were long thought to represent anonymous aggregations. Yet, non-breeders vary in their degree of vagrancy, and ‘haa’ calls convey individually distinct acoustic features, which are perceived by conspecifics. These findings give rise to the assumption that raven societies are based on differential social relationships on an individual level. We investigated the occurrence of ‘haa’ calling and individual call rates in a group of individually marked free-ranging ravens. Calling mainly occurred in subadult and adult females, which showed low levels of vagrancy. Call rates differed significantly between individuals and with residency status, and were correlated with calling frequency and landing frequency. Local ravens called more often and at higher rates, and were less likely to land at the feeding site than vagrant birds. The results are discussed with respect to individual degrees of vagrancy, which may have an impact on social knowledge and communication in this species.

  11. Correcting LASCO CME Catalogs to Study the Change in CME Rate from Solar Cycle 23 to 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, P.; Colaninno, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    While most measures of solar activity declined from SC 23 to SC 24, many CME catalogs that span the entire LASCO mission did not show a similar drop in CME count. The raw CME totals from many catalogs show steady levels between the two cycles . However, these totals are complicated by a doubling of the LASCO image cadence in 2010. We show, using a consistent cadence on the automated Solar Eruption Event Detection System (SEEDS) that the CME count seems to follow the SSN throughout the entire catalog. Because SEEDS is a C2 catalog, the question has been raised if this effect is limited only to small transients that can be eliminated using larger width thresholds or other catalogs that also include C3, to support that this enhanced CME rate relative to the SSN is a real effect. We will also present data from CACTus, CORIMP and CDAW that suggests this is a false assumption, and that all catalogs have their own issues in dealing with the increased LASCO cadence. This evidence points to there being no appreciable difference in the ratio between CME rate and SSN between SC 23 and SC 24. We provide some examples of why these catalogs may be susceptible to a change in data rate, and use this as part of a wider discussion of the nature of automated catalogs and how to properly consider the outputs of these algorithms. While the automated catalogs are an extremely valuable tool for getting a consistent measure of coronal activity, the significant false detection rate of an automated catalog must always be considered. Because of this, the temporal trends of the catalog results relative to one another is a far more valuable diagnostic than a raw total at any one time.

  12. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  13. ULY JUP GRB SOLAR X-RAY/COSMIC GAMMA-RAY RAW COUNT RATE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The archived data consist of count rates from the sum of two hemispherical detectors covering 4 pi steradians and operating continuously. The detectors are 3 mm...

  14. Impact of Alternative Rate Structures on Distributed Solar Customer Electricity Bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Electric utilities are increasingly proposing changes to residential rate structures, in order to address concerns about their inability to recover fixed system costs from customers with grid connected distributed generation. The most common proposals have been to increase fixed charges, set minimum bills or instigate residential demand charges. This presentation provides results of an analysis to explore how these rate design alternatives impact electricity bills for PV and non-PV customers.

  15. A study of 239Pu production rate in a water cooled natural uranium blanket mock-up of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Song; Liu, Rong; Lu, Xinxin; Yang, Yiwei; Xu, Kun; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Tonghua; Jiang, Li; Qin, Jianguo; Jiang, Jieqiong; Han, Zijie; Lai, Caifeng; Wen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    The 239Pu production rate is important data in neutronics design for a natural uranium blanket of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, and the accuracy and reliability should be validated by integral experiments. The distribution of 239Pu production rates in a subcritical natural uranium blanket mock-up was obtained for the first time with a D-T neutron generator by using an activation technique. Natural uranium foils were placed in different spatial locations of the mock-up, the counts of 277.6 keV γ-rays emitted from 239Np generated by 238U capture reaction were measured by an HPGe γ spectrometer, and the self-absorption of natural uranium foils was corrected. The experiment was analyzed using the Super Monte Carlo neutron transport code SuperMC2.0 with recent nuclear data of 238U from the ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0u2, JEFF-3.2 and CENDL-3.1 libraries. Calculation results with the JEFF-3.2 library agree with the experimental ones best, and they agree within the experimental uncertainty in general with the average ratios of calculation results to experimental results (C/E) in the range of 0.93 to 1.01.

  16. Fusion safety program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, J.G.; Holland, D.F.; Herring, J.S.

    1980-09-01

    The program plan consists of research that has been divided into 13 different areas. These areas focus on the radioactive inventories that are expected in fusion reactors, the energy sources potentially available to release a portion of these inventories, and analysis and design techniques to assess and ensure that the safety risks associated with operation of magnetic fusion facilities are acceptably low. The document presents both long-term program requirements that must be fulfilled as part of the commercialization of fusion power and a five-year plan for each of the 13 different program areas. Also presented is a general discussion of magnetic fusion reactor safety, a method for establishing priorities in the program, and specific priority ratings for each task in the five-year plan

  17. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1978-01-01

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. We have found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser fusion studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented

  18. Controlled fusion; La fusion controlee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, J.L

    2005-07-01

    During the last fifty years the researches on controlled thermonuclear fusion reached great performance in the magnetic confinement (tokamaks) as in the inertial confinement (lasers). But the state of the art is not in favor of the apparition of the fusion in the energy market before the second half of the 21 century. To explain this opinion the author presents the fusion reactions of light nuclei and the problems bound to the magnetic confinement. (A.L.B.)

  19. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  20. Direct repair surgery with screw fixation for young patients with lumbar spondylolysis: patient-reported outcomes and fusion rate in a prospective interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woo; Lee, Sun-Mi; Suh, Bo-Gun

    2015-02-15

    Prospective interventional study. To thoroughly investigate the therapeutic outcomes of direct repair (DR) for young patients with lumbar spondylolysis. DR surgery with screw fixation for a pars defect of lumbar spondylolysis is considered a notable surgical option. However, prior studies do not provide clear information on the significance of DR and its outcomes in young patients with lumbar spondylolysis because most previous studies in this area were conducted with spondylolysis patients of all ages and with low-quality study designs that were retrospective in design and had a small sample size and short follow-up time. A total of 47 young patients with lumbar spine spondylolysis who were surgically treated with DR surgery and followed up for 1 year after surgery were enrolled in this study. The primary outcome was degree of pain assessed by visual analogue scale, which separately recorded pain intensity and pain frequency. Secondary outcomes included (1) patient satisfaction, (2) clinical outcomes based on Oswestry Disability Index score and a 12-item short form health survey, (3) fusion rate of pars defect based on computed tomographic scans, and (4) surgery-related complications. The degree of lower back pain (intensity and frequency) significantly improved at final follow-up compared with preoperative level. However, 6 patients (13%) had no significant improvement, and pain frequency tended to worsen 6 months after the operation. Only 25 patients (53%) were satisfied with DR surgery. One-year postoperative clinical outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index and 12-item short form health survey) significantly improved compared with preoperative levels, but the 2 scores also tended to decrease after 6 months. The union rate of the pars defect was 55% (26/47). There was no significant difference in clinical outcomes between fusion group and nonunion group of the pars defect at the final follow-up. Two patients (4%) experienced surgery-related complications. The

  1. Recombination rates in heterojunction silicon solar cells analyzed by impedance spectroscopy at forward bias and under illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Sero, Ivan; Luo, Yan; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Bisquert, Juan [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castello (Spain); Munoz, Delfina; Voz, Cristobal; Puigdollers, Joaquim; Alcubilla, Ramon [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    Impedance spectroscopy (at forward bias and under illumination) of solar cells comprised thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films deposited on crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers was analyzed in terms of ac equivalent circuits. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at states on the device interfaces governs the cell dynamic response. Recombination process was modeled by means of simple RC circuits which allow to determine the capture rate of electrons and holes. Carrier lifetime is found to be stated by the electron capture time {tau}{sub SRH}{approx}{tau}{sub n}, and it results in the range of 300 {mu}s. The Al-annealed back contact was regarded as the dominating recombination interface. (author)

  2. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye-sensitised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, L.; West, K.; Winther-Jensen, B.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide/tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide....../tri-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI)-all deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrodes in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  3. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...... multinucleated cell or TRAcP activity. But end-point analyses do not show how the fusion came about. This would not be a problem if fusion of osteoclasts was a random process and occurred by the same molecular mechanism from beginning to end. However, we and others have in the recent period published data...... suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...

  4. Fusion physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference for graduate students and an invaluable guide for more experienced researchers. It provides an introduction to nuclear fusion and its status and prospects, and features specialized chapters written by leaders in the field, presenting the main research and development concepts in fusion physics. It starts with an introduction to the case for the development of fusion as an energy source. Magnetic and inertial confinement are addressed. Dedicated chapters focus on the physics of confinement, the equilibrium and stability of tokamaks, diagnostics, heating and current drive by neutral beam and radiofrequency waves, and plasma–wall interactions. While the tokamak is a leading concept for the realization of fusion, other concepts (helical confinement and, in a broader sense, other magnetic and inertial configurations) are also addressed in the book. At over 1100 pages, this publication provides an unparalleled resource for fusion physicists and engineers.

  5. Effects of radiation transport on mass ablation rate and conversion efficiency in numerical simulations of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of radiation transport on hydrodynamic parameters of laser produced plasmas are studied. LTE and non-LTE atomic models are used to calculate multi group opacities and emissivities. Screened hydrogenic atom model is used to calculate the energy levels. The population densities of neutral to fully ionized ions are obtained by solving the steady state rate equations. Radiation transport is treated in multi-group diffusion or Sn method. A comparison is made between 1 and 100 group radiation transport and LTE and non-LTE models. For aluminium, multi group radiation transport leads to much higher mass ablation as compared to the 1 group and no radiation transport cases. This in turn leads to higher ablation pressures. However, for gold gray approximation gives higher mass ablation as compared to multi group simulations. LTE conversion efficiency of laser light into x-rays is more than the non-LTE estimates. For LTE as well as non-LTE cases, the one group approximation over-predicts the conversion efficiency Multi group non-LTE simulations predict that the conversion efficiency increases with laser intensity up to a maximum and then it decreases. (author)

  6. The revision rate and occurrence of adjacent segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a study of 672 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Carola F; Regan, Conor; Donaldson, William F; Kang, James D; Lee, Joon Y

    2014-12-15

    retrospective cohort study. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of revision surgery and the occurrence of adjacent segment disease of patients undergoing ACDF for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy using more modern-day instrumentation techniques. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has long been the preferred treatment for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy. All patients undergoing ACDF between January of 2000 and December of 2010 were included. Age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, symptoms at presentation, number of levels fused, graft type, and smoking status were recorded. Outcomes included revision rate, reason for revision surgery, time to revision surgery, presence and grade of adjacent segment disease, distance from the instrumentation to the cranial and caudal endplate (plate-to-disc distance), and reporting of symptoms of adjacent segment disease at the final follow-up. A total of 672 patients were included in this study. The average duration of follow-up was 31 months. One hundred one (15%) patients underwent revision surgery. The reason for revision surgery was adjacent segment disease in 47 (47.5%), pseudarthrosis in 45 (45.5%) and a new problem at a nonadjacent level in 7 (7.1%) of those patients. The need for revision surgery was not affected by patient age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, symptoms at presentation, number of levels fused, plate-to-disc distance or graft type. The revision rate after ACDF is 15%. Most revisions were done for either adjacent segment disease or pseudarthrosis. No specific risk factors for revision surgery were identified in this study. 3.

  7. Automatic Identification of Physical Activity Intensity and Modality from the Fusion of Accelerometry and Heart Rate Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Fernando; Benito, Pedro J; Hernando, María E

    2016-12-07

    Physical activity (PA) is essential to prevent and to treat a variety of chronic diseases. The automated detection and quantification of PA over time empowers lifestyle interventions, facilitating reliable exercise tracking and data-driven counseling. We propose and compare various combinations of machine learning (ML) schemes for the automatic classification of PA from multi-modal data, simultaneously captured by a biaxial accelerometer and a heart rate (HR) monitor. Intensity levels (low / moderate / vigorous) were recognized, as well as for vigorous exercise, its modality (sustained aerobic / resistance / mixed). In total, 178.63 h of data about PA intensity (65.55 % low / 18.96 % moderate / 15.49 % vigorous) and 17.00 h about modality were collected in two experiments: one in free-living conditions, another in a fitness center under controlled protocols. The structure used for automatic classification comprised: a) definition of 42 time-domain signal features, b) dimensionality reduction, c) data clustering, and d) temporal filtering to exploit time redundancy by means of a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Four dimensionality reduction techniques and four clustering algorithms were studied. In order to cope with class imbalance in the dataset, a custom performance metric was defined to aggregate recognition accuracy, precision and recall. The best scheme, which comprised a projection through Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and k-means clustering, was evaluated in leave-one-subject-out cross-validation; notably outperforming the standard industry procedures for PA intensity classification: score 84.65 %, versus up to 63.60 %. Errors tended to be brief and to appear around transients. The application of ML techniques for pattern identification and temporal filtering allowed to merge accelerometry and HR data in a solid manner, and achieved markedly better recognition performances than the standard methods for PA intensity estimation.

  8. Fusion Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    surround ICF rocket concept. Calculated results of a typical propellant surround concept are shown in Figures 16 and 17 With this system, it appears...However, the time available to burn the fusion fuel to the specified burnup is also reduced. This is a minor problem with D-T fuel, but, as will be seen...TABLE 19 TCT FOR INPUT LIST NO. NAME DESCRIPTIQN 1 THRUST ROCKET THRUST, NEWTONS 2 ISP SPECIFIC IMPULSE, SECONDS 3 RATE FUSION REP RATE, HZ 4 BURNUP

  9. A motion-tolerant approach for monitoring SpO2 and heart rate using photoplethysmography signal with dual frame length processing and multi-classifier fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feiyi; Yan, Yuepeng; Tang, Yongzhong; Zhang, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring pulse oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and heart rate (HR) using photoplethysmography (PPG) signal contaminated by a motion artifact (MA) remains a difficult problem, especially when the oximeter is not equipped with a 3-axis accelerometer for adaptive noise cancellation. In this paper, we report a pioneering investigation on the impact of altering the frame length of Molgedey and Schuster independent component analysis (ICAMS) on performance, design a multi-classifier fusion strategy for selecting the PPG correlated signal component, and propose a novel approach to extract SpO 2 and HR readings from PPG signal contaminated by strong MA interference. The algorithm comprises multiple stages, including dual frame length ICAMS, a multi-classifier-based PPG correlated component selector, line spectral analysis, tree-based HR monitoring, and post-processing. Our approach is evaluated by multi-subject tests. The root mean square error (RMSE) is calculated for each trial. Three statistical metrics are selected as performance evaluation criteria: mean RMSE, median RMSE and the standard deviation (SD) of RMSE. The experimental results demonstrate that a shorter ICAMS analysis window probably results in better performance in SpO 2 estimation. Notably, the designed multi-classifier signal component selector achieved satisfactory performance. The subject tests indicate that our algorithm outperforms other baseline methods regarding accuracy under most criteria. The proposed work can contribute to improving the performance of current pulse oximetry and personal wearable monitoring devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effects of alternative furrow irrigation and nitrogen application rate on photosynthesis, growth, and yield of cucumber in solar greenhouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liu-xia; Wang, Shu-zhong; Sui, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Zhen-xian

    2011-09-01

    This paper studied the effects of alternative furrow irrigation and nitrogen (N) application rate (no N, optimal N, and conventional N) on the photosynthesis, growth characteristics, yield formation, and fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cultivar Jinyu No. 5 in a solar greenhouse in winter-spring growth season and autumn-winter season. Under alternative furrow irrigation, the net photosynthetic rate of upper, middle, eand lower leaves was appreciably lower and the transpiration rate decreased significantly, and the transient water use efficiency of upper and middle leaves improved, as compared with those under conventional irrigation. Stomatal factor was the limiting factor of photosynthesis under alternative furrow irrigation. The photosynthesis and transient water use efficiency of functional leaves under alternative furrow irrigation increased with increasing N application rate. Comparing with conventional irrigation, alternative furrow irrigation decreased leaf chlorophyll content and plant biomass, but increased root biomass, root/shoot ratio, and dry matter allocation in root and fruit. The economic output under alternative furrow irrigation was nearly the same as that under conventional irrigation, whereas the water use efficiency for economic yield increased significantly, suggesting the beneficial effects of alternative furrow irrigation on root development and fruit formation. With the increase of N application rate, the leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b, specific leaf mass, plant biomass, economic yield, and fruit Vc and soluble sugar contents under alternative furrow irrigation increased, but no significant difference was observed between the treatments optimal N and conventional N. N application had little effects on the water use efficiency for economic yield. The economic yield and biomass production of the cucumber were significantly higher in winter-spring growth season than in autumn-winter growth season.

  11. Solar UV irradiation-induced production of N2O from plant surfaces - low emissions rates but all over the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Ambus, Per

    for the first time N2O emission from terrestrial vegetation in response to natural solar ultra violet radiation. We conducted field site measurements to investigate N2O atmosphere exchange from grass vegetation exposed to solar irradiance with and without UV-screening. Further laboratory tests were conducted...... with a range of species to study the controls and possible loci of UV-induced N2O emission from plants. Plants released N2O in response to natural sunlight at rates of c. 20-50 nmol m-2 h-1, mostly due to the UV component. The emission rate is temperature dependent with a rather high activation energy...

  12. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1977-01-01

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. It was found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented

  13. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1977-11-17

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. It was found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented.

  14. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    SNARE proteins constitute the minimal machinery needed for membrane fusion. SNAREs operate by forming a complex, which pulls the lipid bilayers into close contact and provides the mechanical force needed for lipid bilayer fusion. At the chemical synapse, SNARE-complex formation between...... the vesicular SNARE VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2 and the target (plasma membrane) SNAREs SNAP25 and syntaxin-1 results in fusion and release of neurotransmitter, synchronized to the electrical activity of the cell by calcium influx and binding to synaptotagmin. Formation of the SNARE complex is tightly regulated...... and appears to start with syntaxin-1 bound to an SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) protein. Proteins of the Munc13-family are responsible for opening up syntaxin and allowing sequential binding of SNAP-25 and VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2. N- to C-terminal “zippering” of the SNARE domains leads to membrane fusion...

  15. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in fusion energy include the areas of fuel handling, processing, and containment. Current studies are concerned largely with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors and experiments and with development and evaluation of techniques for recovering tritium from solid or liquid breeding blankets. In addition, a small effort is devoted to support of the ORNL design of a major Tokamak experiment, The Next Step (TNS)

  16. Rating

    OpenAIRE

    Karas, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Charakteristika ratingu. Dělení a druhy ratingu (rating emise × rating emitenta; dlouhodobý rating × krátkodobý rating; mezinárodní rating × lokální rating). Obecné požadavky kladené na rating. Proces tvorby ratingu. Vyžádaný rating. Nevyžádaný rating. Ratingový proces na bázi volně přístupných informací. Uplatňované ratingové systémy. Ratingová kriteria. Využití a interpretace ratingové známky. Funkce ratingu. Rating v souvislosti s BASEL II. Rating v souvislosti s hospodářskými krizemi....

  17. Neutron monitors and muon detectors for solar modulation studies: Interstellar flux, yield function, and assessment of critical parameters in count rate calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, D.; Cheminet, A.; Derome, L.; Ghelfi, A.; Hubert, G.

    2015-01-01

    Particles count rates at given Earth location and altitude result from the convolution of (i) the interstellar (IS) cosmic-ray fluxes outside the solar cavity, (ii) the time-dependent modulation of IS into Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes, (iii) the rigidity cut-off (or geomagnetic transmission function) and grammage at the counter location, (iv) the atmosphere response to incoming TOA cosmic rays (shower development), and (v) the counter response to the various particles/energies in the shower. Count rates from neutron monitors or muon counters are therefore a proxy to solar activity. In this paper, we review all ingredients, discuss how their uncertainties impact count rate calculations, and how they translate into variation/uncertainties on the level of solar modulation ϕ (in the simple Force-Field approximation). The main uncertainty for neutron monitors is related to the yield function. However, many other effects have a significant impact, at the 5-10% level on ϕ values. We find no clear ranking of the dominant effects, as some depend on the station position and/or the weather and/or the season. An abacus to translate any variation of count rates (for neutron and μ detectors) to a variation of the solar modulation ϕ is provided.

  18. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents

  19. Advanced fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukihiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    The main subjects on fusion research are now on D-T fueled fusion, mainly due to its high fusion reaction rate. However, many issues are still remained on the wall loading by the 14 MeV neutrons. In the case of D-D fueled fusion, the neutron wall loading is still remained, though the technology related to tritium breeding is not needed. The p-{sup 6}Li and p-{sup 11}B fueled fusions are not estimated to be the next generation candidate until the innovated plasma confinement technologies come in useful to achieve the high performance plasma parameters. The fusion reactor of D-{sup 3}He fuels has merits on the smaller neutron wall loading and tritium handling. However, there are difficulties on achieving the high temperature plasma more than 100 keV. Furthermore the high beta plasma is needed to decrease synchrotron radiation loss. In addition, the efficiency of the direct energy conversion from protons coming out from fusion reaction is one of the key parameters in keeping overall power balance. Therefore, open magnetic filed lines should surround the plasma column. In this paper, we outlined the design of the commercial base reactor (ARTEMIS) of 1 GW electric output power configured by D-{sup 3}He fueled FRC (Field Reversed Configuration). The ARTEMIS needs 64 kg of {sup 3}He per a year. On the other hand, 1 million tons of {sup 3}He is estimated to be in the moon. The {sup 3}He of about 10{sup 23} kg are to exist in gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. (Y. Tanaka)

  20. Atomic data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research

  1. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  2. 78 FR 29130 - Solar Star California XIX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Solar Star California XIX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Solar Star California XIX, LLC's application for market-based...

  3. 57Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy Studies of Meteorites: Implications for Weathering Rates, Meteorite Flux, and Early Solar System Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, P. A.; Berry, F. J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Smith, T. B.; Bevan, A. W. R.; Cadogan, J. M.; Sexton, A. S.; Franchi, L. A.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2002-01-01

    Ordinary chondrite finds, terrestrial age dated using 14 C analyses, from different meteorite accumulation sites, have been examined by Moessbauer spectroscopy to quantitatively determine terrestrial oxidation. We observe differences in weathering rates between sites, and also between different chondrite groups. A comparison of weathering over time, and its effect in 'eroding' meteorites, together with the number and mass distribution of meteorites in each region, enables us to derive estimates of the number of meteorite falls over a given mass per year. Studies of how the oxygen isotopic composition of samples varies with weathering indicate that incipient alteration may occur without a pronounced isotopic effect, possibly due to weathering of silicates to topotactically oriented smectite confined spaces where the water volume is limited. This finding has profound implications for the use of oxygen isotopes as a tool in understanding water-rock interaction. It also may reconcile previously contradictory data regarding the nebular or asteroidal location of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration. Finally, Moessbauer spectroscopy is also found to be a useful tool in determining mineral abundance in carbonaceous chondrites, where a fine-grained matrix makes traditional approaches inapplicable. Again, the results have implications for the modification of chondritic materials in the early solar system.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) skin permeation rates change with simultaneous exposures to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Spring, Philipp; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Jimenez, Silvia; Sutter, Benjamin; Vernez, David; Berthet, Aurelie

    2018-05-01

    Road construction workers are simultaneously exposed to two carcinogens; solar ultraviolet (UV-S) radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bitumen emissions. The combined exposure may lead to photogenotoxicity and enhanced PAH skin permeation rates. Skin permeation rates (J) for selected PAHs in a mixture (PAH-mix) or in bitumen fume condensate (BFC) with and without UV-S co-exposures were measured with in vitro flow-through diffusion cells mounted with human viable skin and results compared. Possible biomarkers were explored. Js were greater with UV-S for naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene in BFC (0.08-0.1 ng/cm 2 /h) compared to without (0.02-0.26 ng/cm 2 /h). This was true for anthracene, pyrene, and chrysene in the PAH-mix. Naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the PAH-mix had greater Js without (0.97-13.01 ng/cm 2 /h) compared to with UV-S (0.40-6.35 ng/cm 2 /h). Time until permeation (T lags ) in the PAH-mix were generally shorter compared to the BFC, and they ranged from 1 to 13 h. The vehicle matrix could potentially be the reason for this discrepancy as BFC contains additional not identified substances. Qualitative interpretation of p53 suggested a dose-response with UV-S, and somewhat with the co-exposures. MMP1, p65 and cKIT were not exploitable. Although not statistically different, PAHs permeate human viable skin faster with simultaneous exposures to UV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fusion energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.C.

    The potential of fusion energy contributing to the energy needs is discussed. Controlled thermonuclear reactions hold the promise of an abundant source of fuel used to produce electrical energy for the future in an environmentally acceptable way. Once feasibility questions are answered and engineering problems are resolved, it should be possible to produce energy in a form that can use current methods of electrical generation to convert it into a useful form. If the fusion system is operated with only deuterium as fuel, the deuterium available from a pail of water would produce energy equivalent to that produced by 600 gallons of gasoline. The water in the ocean could provide energy for billions of years at the current rate of consumption. Experimental results are currently confirming the theoretical predictions and the schedule for fusion development is shown to be completion of feasibility experiments in 1974; physics test reactors appearing in 1983; experimental power reactors being built in 1990; and the demonstration plant on-line in 1994. The process of producing fusion power, fusion research needs, and problems to be solved are reviewed

  6. Destination fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumar, B.; Shapira, D.; Stelson, P.H.; Beckerman, M.; Harmon, B.A.; Teh, K.; Ayik, S.

    1986-01-01

    The orbiting yields of reaction products from the 28 Si + 14 N interaction have been measured. The relative magnitudes of the orbiting yields indicate that the dinuclear complex (DNCs) formed in such interactions live sufficiently long to permit the equilibration of charge and mass. Since both the 16 O and the 12 C orbiting yields exceed the 14 N, it appears that there is no preferred directions for mass flow between the interacting nuclei. Since the orbiting yields are typically 10% of the fusion yield, and we believe the orbiting process reflects how the DNCs formed in such collisions evolve towards fusion, it seems apt to conclude that fusion occurs not through a process of continual particle exchange whereby one nucleus is gradually consumed by the other, but by a dinuclear system that retains it mass asymmetry. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Future of fusion implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsworth, E.; Powell, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    For fusion to become available for commercial use in the 21st century, R and D must be undertaken now. But it is hard to justify these expenditures with a cost/benefit oriented assessment methodology, because of both the time-frame and the uncertainty of the future benefits. Focusing on the factors most relevant for current consideration of fusion's commercial prospects, i.e., consumption levels and the outcomes for fission, solar, and coal, many possible futures of the US energy system are posited and analyzed under various assumptions about costs. The Reference Energy System approach was modified to establish both an appropriate degree of detail and explicit time dependence, and a computer code used to organize the relevant data and to perform calculations of system cost (annual and discounted present value), resource use, and residuals that are implied by the consumptions levels and technology mix in each scenario. Not unreasonable scenarios indicate benefits in the form of direct cost savings, which may well exceed R and D costs, which could be attributed to the implementation of fusion

  8. Determination of the light-induced degradation rate of the solar cell sensitizer N719 on TiO2 nanocrystalline particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Doan Nguyen, Sau; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2005-01-01

    The oxidative degradation rate, kdeg of the solar cell dye (Bu4N+)2 [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2]2–, referred to as N719 or [RuL2(NCS)2], was obtained by applying a simple model system. Colloidal solutions of N719-dyed TiO2 particles in acetonitrile were irradiated with 532-nm monochromatic light, and the ......The oxidative degradation rate, kdeg of the solar cell dye (Bu4N+)2 [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2]2–, referred to as N719 or [RuL2(NCS)2], was obtained by applying a simple model system. Colloidal solutions of N719-dyed TiO2 particles in acetonitrile were irradiated with 532-nm monochromatic light...... range. By using the relation kdeg = deg × kback and back electron transfer reaction rates, kback, obtained using photoinduced absorption spectroscopy, it was possible to calculate an average value for the oxidative degradation rate of N719 dye attached to TiO2 particles, kdeg = 4 × 10–2 s–1....... The stability of N719 dye during solar cell operation was discussed based on this number, and on values of the electron transfer rate between [Ru(III) L2(NCS) 2] and iodide that are available in the literature....

  9. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Ali, M. K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Wong, J.; Sulaiman, J.; Yasir, S. Md.

    2014-01-01

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m 2 and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R 2 ), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested

  10. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Ali, M. K., E-mail: majidkhankhan@ymail.com, E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H., E-mail: majidkhankhan@ymail.com, E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muthuvalu, M. S., E-mail: sudaram-@yahoo.com, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J., E-mail: sudaram-@yahoo.com, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my [Unit Penyelidikan Rumpai Laut (UPRL), Sekolah Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Sulaiman, J., E-mail: ysuhaimi@ums.edu.my, E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md., E-mail: ysuhaimi@ums.edu.my, E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my [Program Matematik dengan Ekonomi, Sekolah Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  11. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Ali, M. K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Wong, J.; Sulaiman, J.; Yasir, S. Md.

    2014-06-01

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m2 and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  12. Considerations in Spinal Fusion Surgery for Chronic Lumbar Pain: Psychosocial Factors, Rating Scales, and Perioperative Patient Education-A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Daniel; Krafcik, Brianna M; Mansour, Tarek R; Alnemari, Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Despite widespread use of lumbar spinal fusion as a treatment for back pain, outcomes remain variable. Optimizing patient selection can help to reduce adverse outcomes. This literature review was conducted to better understand factors associated with optimal postoperative results after lumbar spinal fusion for chronic back pain and current tools used for evaluation. The PubMed database was searched for clinical trials related to psychosocial determinants of outcome after lumbar spinal fusion surgery; evaluation of commonly used patient subjective outcome measures; and perioperative cognitive, behavioral, and educational therapies. Reference lists of included studies were also searched by hand for additional studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients' perception of good health before surgery and low cardiovascular comorbidity predict improved postoperative physical functional capacity and greater patient satisfaction. Depression, tobacco use, and litigation predict poorer outcomes after lumbar fusion. Incorporation of cognitive-behavioral therapy perioperatively can address these psychosocial risk factors and improve outcomes. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, European Quality of Life five dimensions questionnaire, visual analog pain scale, brief pain inventory, and Oswestry Disability Index can provide specific feedback to track patient progress and are important to understand when evaluating the current literature. This review summarizes current information and explains commonly used assessment tools to guide clinicians in decision making when caring for patients with lower back pain. When determining a treatment algorithm, physicians must consider predictive psychosocial factors. Use of perioperative cognitive-behavioral therapy and patient education can improve outcomes after lumbar spinal fusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fusion cuisine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    define the culinary tradition of journalism studies in the first place. In so doing, we offer a recipe for journalism studies fusion cooking that: 1) considers technological change (audiences’ diets); 2) analyses institutional change (audiences’ supermarket of information); and 3) evaluates journalism...

  14. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  15. Fusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aschbacher, Michael; Oliver, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey article on the theory of fusion systems, a relatively new area of mathematics with connections to local finite group theory, algebraic topology, and modular representation theory. We first describe the general theory and then look separately at these connections.

  16. The role of fusion in the future of nuclear power. A European point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.; Grieger, G.

    1977-01-01

    In the long range three major energy sources will offer the potential of delivering vast amounts of energy: - fast breeders; - thermonuclear fusion; - solar energy. Taking into account the particular situation of Europe, i.e. high population density, high degree of industrialization, and, in average, rather low and variable sunshine intensity, fusion seems to offer specific advantages, including - easy availability and widespread distribution of fuel; - steady operation; - high temperature operation (assuming material problems solved) allowing either for an increased thermal efficiency or for the delivery of process heat; - probably less radioactive problems and therefore easier public acceptance; - no proliferation problems. The principle of thermonuclear fusion requires the confinement of a sufficiently dense deuterium-tritium plasma mixture heated to temperatures of about 10 keV and continuously exchanged to make up for the burn-up rate. All present and future fusion experiments aim at gradually approaching the demonstration of the feasibility of this process. The European Fusion Programme is carried out as a joint coordinated enterprise of nine associated laboratories led by the Commission of the European Communities. It is strongly concentrated on toroidal magnetic confinement devices, in particular the Tokamaks. It is centred around the large proposed Tokamak experiment JET (Joint European Torus) whose operation is planned to start at the beginning of the next decade. This experiment aims at reaching plasma conditions close to the ones needed for a thermonuclear fusion reactor. If the results turn out to be positive, an experimental power reactor might be the next step [fr

  17. Neutrons and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The production of energy from fusion reactions does not require neutrons in the fundamental sense that they are required in a fission reactor. Nevertheless, the dominant fusion reaction, that between deuterium and tritium, yields a 14 MeV neutron. To contrast a fusion reactor based on this reaction with the fission case, 3 x 10 20 such neutrons produced per gigawatt of power. This is four times as many neutrons as in an equivalent fission reactor and they carry seven times the energy of the fission neutrons. Thus, they dominate the energy recovery problem and create technological problems comparable to the original plasma confinement problem as far as a practical power producing device is concerned. Further contrasts of the fusion and fission cases are presented to establish the general role of neutrons in fusion devices. Details of the energy deposition processes are discussed and those reactions necessary for producing additional tritium are outlined. The relatively high energy flux with its large intensity will activate almost any materials of which the reactor may be composed. This activation is examined from the point of view of decay heat, radiological safety, and long-term storage. In addition, a discussion of the deleterious effects of neutron interactions on materials is given in some detail; this includes the helium and hydrogen producing reactions and displacement rate of the lattice atoms. The various materials that have been proposed for structural purposes, for breeding, reflecting, and moderating neutrons, and for radiation shielding are reviewed from the nuclear standpoint. The specific reactions of interest are taken up for various materials and finally a report is given on the status and prospects of data for fusion studies

  18. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  19. Socio-economic aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion power systems, if developed and deployed, would have many attractive features including power production not dependant on weather or solar conditions, flexible siting, and minimal carbon dioxide production. In this paper we quantify the benefit of these features. In addition, fusion deployment scenarios are developed for the last half of this century and these scenarios are analyzed for resource requirements and waste production. (author)

  20. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  1. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  2. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  3. Stem Cells in Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Michael A; Haudenschild, Dominik R; Wegner, Adam M; Klineberg, Eric O

    2017-12-01

    Review of literature. This review of literature investigates the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in spinal fusion, highlights potential uses in the development of bone grafts, and discusses limitations based on both preclinical and clinical models. A review of literature was conducted looking at current studies using stem cells for augmentation of spinal fusion in both animal and human models. Eleven preclinical studies were found that used various animal models. Average fusion rates across studies were 59.8% for autograft and 73.7% for stem cell-based grafts. Outcomes included manual palpation and stressing of the fusion, radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histological analysis. Fifteen clinical studies, 7 prospective and 8 retrospective, were found. Fusion rates ranged from 60% to 100%, averaging 87.1% in experimental groups and 87.2% in autograft control groups. It appears that there is minimal clinical difference between commercially available stem cells and bone marrow aspirates indicating that MSCs may be a good choice in a patient with poor marrow quality. Overcoming morbidity and limitations of autograft for spinal fusion, remains a significant problem for spinal surgeons and further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of stem cells in augmenting spinal fusion.

  4. On the enhancement of p-11B fusion reaction rate in laser-driven plasma by α → p collisional energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Fabio; Margarone, Daniele; Picciotto, Antonino; Schillaci, Francesco; Giuffrida, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    The possibility of triggering an avalanche reaction in laser-driven p-11B fusion by the effect of collisional energy transfer from α particles to protons has recently been debated, especially in connection to the high yield of α particles (4 × 108 per laser shot) achieved on engineered targets at the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS), with a pulse of 500 J, 0.3 ns FWHM. We elucidate this controversial subject within the framework of a simple two-population model for protons, based on the binary collision theory in a plasma. We find an avalanche characteristic time of almost 1 μs for the 675 keV fusion cross section resonance in typical PALS plasma, upon idealized confinement conditions. This avalanche time is one order of magnitude higher than previously reported, meaning that no such process can substantially develop in plasma at the PALS on the 675 keV resonance, not even in the most optimistic confinement scenarios. Nevertheless, we put forward for further investigation that more realistic conditions for setting up the avalanche regime could rather be attained by suitably targeting the narrow 163 keV resonance in the fusion cross section, also in connection to recently proposed laser-driven magnetic trapping techniques.

  5. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  6. Tore supra: towards the 'long time' fusion. Press journey; Tore Supra: vers la fusion 'longue duree'. Voyage de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    After a recall of the interest in the fusion for the development of energy sources, the document presents the fusion from the solar reaction to the nuclear fusion in laboratory. Then it discusses the great challenges of this technology and the Tore Supra installation. The last part is devoted to ITER and DEMO projects. (A.L.B.)

  7. Solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo

    1988-08-18

    Concerning the exsisting solar cell utilizing wavelength transition, the area of the solar cell element necessary for unit electric power output can be made small, but transition efficiency of the solar cell as a whole including a plastic plate with phosphor is not high. This invention concerns a solar cell which is appropriate for transferring the light within a wide spectrum range of the sunlight to electricilty efficiently, utilizes wavelength transition and has high efficiency per unit area. In other words, the solar cell of this invention has the feature of providing in parallel with a photoelectric transfer layer a layer of wavelength transitioning material (phosphor) which absorbs the light within the range of wavelength of low photoelectric transfer efficiency at the photoelectric transfer layer and emits the light within the range of wavelength in which the photoelectric transfer rate is high on the light incident side of the photoelectric transfer layer. (5 figs)

  8. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  9. Environmental aspects of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    With the continued depletion of fossil and uranium resources in the coming decades, the U. S. will be forced to look more toward renewable energy resources (e.g., wind, tidal, geothermal, and solar power) and toward such longer-term and nondepletable energy resources as fissile fast breeder reactors and fusion power. Several reference reactor designs have been completed for full-scale fusion power reactors that indicate that the environmental impacts from construction, operation, and eventual decommissioning of fusion reactors will be quite small. The principal environmental impact from fusion reactor operation will be from thermal discharges. Some of the safety and environmental characteristics that make fusion reactors appear attractive include an effectively infinite fuel supply at low cost, inherent incapability for a ''nuclear explosion'' or a ''nuclear runaway,'' the absence of fission products, the flexibility of selecting low neutron-cross-section structural materials so that emergency core cooling for a loss-of-coolant or other accident will not be necesary, and the absence of special nuclear materials such as 235 U or 239 Pu, so that diversion of nuclear weapons materials will not be possible and nuclear blackmail will not be a serious concern

  10. Comparative Study for Evaluation of Mass Flow Rate for Simple Solar Still and Active with Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidouri Khaoula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In isolated and arid areas, especially in the almost Maghreb regions, the abundant solar radiation intensity along the year and the available brackish water resources are the two favorable conditions for using solar desalination technology to produce fresh water. The present study is based on the use of three groups of correlation, for evaluating mass transfer. Theoretical results are compared with those obtained experimentally for a Simple Solar Distiller (SSD and a Simple Solar Distiller Hybrid with a Heat Pump (SSDHP stills. Experimental results and those calculated by Lewis number correlation show good agreements. Results obtained by Dunkle, Kumar and Tiwari correlations are not satisfactory with the experimental ones. Theoretical results, as well as statistical analysis, are presented. The model with heat pump ( for two configurations (111 and (001 give more output compared with the model without heat pump ((000 and (110. This results where agree for the use of the statistic results, the error it less with Lewis number as compared with the different correlation.

  11. Radioactivity and fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, H.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is expected to give an ultimate solution to energy problems over the long term. From recent progress in developing technology for fusion reactors, we can anticipate a prototype fusion reactor by 2030. This review article describes the present status of nuclear fusion research, including muon catalyzed fusion (μCF) which attracts quite new physical interest. Tritium is an essential component of fusion reactors, because the first-stage fusion reactors will utilize a mixture of deuterium and tritium as their fuel. The knowledge about tritium as well as the fusion-neutron induced radioactivity is summarized in terms of nuclear fusion research. (orig.)

  12. Astronomical calibration of the Ypresian timescale: implications for seafloor spreading rates and the chaotic behavior of the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Frederichs, Thomas; Agnini, Claudia; Raffi, Isabella; Zachos, James C.; Wilkens, Roy H.

    2017-09-01

    To fully understand the global climate dynamics of the warm early Eocene with its reoccurring hyperthermal events, an accurate high-fidelity age model is required. The Ypresian stage (56-47.8 Ma) covers a key interval within the Eocene as it ranges from the warmest marine temperatures in the early Eocene to the long-term cooling trends in the middle Eocene. Despite the recent development of detailed marine isotope records spanning portions of the Ypresian stage, key records to establish a complete astronomically calibrated age model for the Ypresian are still missing. Here we present new high-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning iron intensity, bulk stable isotope, calcareous nannofossil, and magnetostratigraphic data generated on core material from ODP Sites 1258 (Leg 207, Demerara Rise), 1262, 1263, 1265, and 1267 (Leg 208, Walvis Ridge) recovered in the equatorial and South Atlantic Ocean. By combining new data with published records, a 405 kyr eccentricity cyclostratigraphic framework was established, revealing a 300-400 kyr long condensed interval for magnetochron C22n in the Leg 208 succession. Because the amplitudes are dominated by eccentricity, the XRF data help to identify the most suitable orbital solution for astronomical tuning of the Ypresian. Our new records fit best with the La2010b numerical solution for eccentricity, which was used as a target curve for compiling the Ypresian astronomical timescale (YATS). The consistent positions of the very long eccentricity minima in the geological data and the La2010b solution suggest that the macroscopic feature displaying the chaotic diffusion of the planetary orbits, the transition from libration to circulation in the combination of angles in the precession motion of the orbits of Earth and Mars, occurred ˜ 52 Ma. This adds to the geological evidence for the chaotic behavior of the solar system. Additionally, the new astrochronology and revised magnetostratigraphy provide robust ages and

  13. Astronomical calibration of the Ypresian timescale: implications for seafloor spreading rates and the chaotic behavior of the solar system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Westerhold

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To fully understand the global climate dynamics of the warm early Eocene with its reoccurring hyperthermal events, an accurate high-fidelity age model is required. The Ypresian stage (56–47.8 Ma covers a key interval within the Eocene as it ranges from the warmest marine temperatures in the early Eocene to the long-term cooling trends in the middle Eocene. Despite the recent development of detailed marine isotope records spanning portions of the Ypresian stage, key records to establish a complete astronomically calibrated age model for the Ypresian are still missing. Here we present new high-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF core scanning iron intensity, bulk stable isotope, calcareous nannofossil, and magnetostratigraphic data generated on core material from ODP Sites 1258 (Leg 207, Demerara Rise, 1262, 1263, 1265, and 1267 (Leg 208, Walvis Ridge recovered in the equatorial and South Atlantic Ocean. By combining new data with published records, a 405 kyr eccentricity cyclostratigraphic framework was established, revealing a 300–400 kyr long condensed interval for magnetochron C22n in the Leg 208 succession. Because the amplitudes are dominated by eccentricity, the XRF data help to identify the most suitable orbital solution for astronomical tuning of the Ypresian. Our new records fit best with the La2010b numerical solution for eccentricity, which was used as a target curve for compiling the Ypresian astronomical timescale (YATS. The consistent positions of the very long eccentricity minima in the geological data and the La2010b solution suggest that the macroscopic feature displaying the chaotic diffusion of the planetary orbits, the transition from libration to circulation in the combination of angles in the precession motion of the orbits of Earth and Mars, occurred  ∼  52 Ma. This adds to the geological evidence for the chaotic behavior of the solar system. Additionally, the new astrochronology and revised

  14. Fission-fusion neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinnan; Yu, Gang

    2009-04-01

    In order to meet the requirements of fusion power reactors and nuclear waste treatment, a concept of fission-fusion neutron source is proposed, which consists of a LiD assembly located in the heavy water region of the China Advanced Research Reactor. This assembly of LiD fuel rods will be irradiated with slow neutrons and will produce fusion neutrons in the central hole via the reaction 6Li(n, α). More precisely, tritium ions with a high energy of 2.739 MeV will be produced in LiD by the impinging slow neutrons. The tritium ions will in turn bombard the deuterium ions present in the LiD assembly, which will induce fusion reaction and then the production of 14 MeV neutrons. The fusion reaction rate will increase with the accumulation of tritium in LiD by the reaction between tritium and deuteron recoils produced by the 14 MeV neutrons. When the concentration of tritium reaches 0.5 · 10 22 and the fraction of fusion reactions between tritium and deuteron recoils approaches 1, the 14 MeV neutron flux is doubled and redoubled, an so forth, approaching saturation in which the tritium produced at a time t is exhausted by the fusion reactions to keep constant the tritium concentration in LiD.

  15. Precision calibration and energy rating of solar cells and moduls. Final report; Praezisionskalibrierung und energetische Bewertung von PV-Modulen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zastrow, A. (ed.); Buecher, K.; Bopp, G.

    2001-05-01

    The main targets of the project, increased calibration accuracy for solar cells and moduls and the energy rating for solar moduls was achieved. Now the Fraunhofer can make secondary calibration of conventionell solar Cells with 1,5% accuracy, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig (PTB) can make primary calibration of reference cells with 0,5% accuracy. The measurement accuracy for solar moduls was increased from 5% to 2,5%. For the STC calibration and characterization of solar moduls an extensive measurement equipment was established. Several efficient simulation tools have been developed for the estimation of seasonal energy efficiencies. The estimation based on recorded climate and module data. The calculated yearly efficiency correspond good with measured values in selected PV - systems from the 'German 1.000 roof program'. (orig.) [German] Die drei uebergeordneten Ziele des Projekts, naemlich die Erhoehung der Kalibriergenauigkeit von Referenzzellen mit Rueckfuehrung auf internationale Normale, die Praezisionskalibierung von Modulen und die energetische Bewertung von Modulen, wurden erreicht. Fuer die Sekundaerkalibrierung konventioneller Technologie kann das Fraunhofer ISE heute eine Messunsicherheit von nur 1,5% angeben, die Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig (PTB) kalibriert ihre Referenzzellen jetzt mit 0,5% Unsicherheit. Fuer marktuebliche PV-Module wurde der Messfehler von zuvor 5% auf 2,5% reduziert. Fuer die STC-Kalibrierung von PV-Modulen und Charakterisierung unter realistischen Bezugsbedingungen wurde ein umfangreicher Geraetepark aufgebaut. Leistungsfaehige Modellierungswerkzeuge wurden bereitgestellt, die es erlauben, anhand von gemessenen Klimadaten oder von Klimamodellen gewonnenen Zeitreihen, sowie der gemessenen Modulparameter saisonale Wirkungsgrade zu ermitteln. Die Aussagen dieser Jahreswirkungsgradrechnungen ergaben eine gute Uebereinstimmung mit ausgewaehlten Ergebnissen des begleitenden

  16. Seasonal variations of U.S. mortality rates: Roles of solar ultraviolet-B doses, vitamin D, gene exp ression, and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Boucher, Barbara J

    2017-10-01

    Death rates in the U.S. show a pronounced seasonality. The broad seasonal variation shows about 25% higher death rates in winter than in summer with an additional few percent increase associated with the Christmas and New Year's holidays. A pronounced increase in death rates also starts in mid-September, shortly after the school year begins. The causes of death with large contributions to the observed seasonality include diseases of the circulatory system; the respiratory system; the digestive system; and endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases. Researchers have identified several factors showing seasonal variation that could possibly explain the seasonal variations in mortality rate. These factors include seasonal variations in solar ultraviolet-B(UVB) doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, gene expression, ambient temperature and humidity, UVB effects on environmental pathogen load, environmental pollutants and allergens, and photoperiod (or length of day). The factors with the strongest support in this analysis are seasonal variations in solar UVB doses and 25(OH)D concentrations. In the U.S., population mean 25(OH)D concentrations range from 21ng/mL in March to 28ng/mL in August. Measures to ensure that all people had 25(OH)D concentrations >36ng/mL year round would probably reduce death rates significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavicini, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The status of solar neutrino experiments and their implications for both nonstandard astrophysics ({\\it e.g.,} cool sun models) and nonstandard neutrino properties ({\\it e.g.,} MSW conversions) are discussed. Assuming that all of the experiments are correct, the relative rates observed by Kamiokande and Homestake are hard to account for by a purely astrophysical solution, while MSW conversions can describe all of the data. Assuming the standard solar model, there are two allowed regions for M...

  18. Fusion Propulsion Z-Pinch Engine Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly1. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield 2. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10(exp -6 sec). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Decade Module 2 (DM2), approx.500 KJ pulsed-power is coming to the RSA Aerophysics Lab managed by UAHuntsville in January, 2012. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) 3 propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle.

  19. Future Directions for Fusion Propulsion Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. .If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. Arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  20. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide`s chemical form.

  1. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide's chemical form.

  2. Development of a pencil-type single shield graphite quasi-adiabatic calorimeter and comparison of its performance with a double-shield graphite calorimeter for the measurement of nuclear heat deposition rate in a fusion environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joneja, O.P.; Rosselet, M.; Ligou, J.; Gardel, P.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, heat deposition rate measurements were reported that used a quasi-adiabatic double-shield graphite calorimeter. It was found that for a better understanding of nuclear heating due to incident radiation, having a calorimeter that could be conveniently moved axially and radially inside large material blocks would be advisable. Here, a simpler design, based on three elements, i.e., core, jacket, and shield is conceived. The fabrication and testing details are presented, and the performance of the current calorimeter is compared with a double-shield calorimeter under similar conditions. Such a system is found to be extremely sensitive and can be employed successfully at the LOTUS facility for future nuclear heat deposition rate measurements in large blocks of materials. The current design paves the way for the convenient testing of a large amount of kerma factor data required for constructing future fusion machines. The same configuration with minor changes can be extended to most of the fusion materials of interest. The core of the new calorimeter measures 11 mm in diameter and height and has overall dimensions of 24 mm in diameter and 180 mm in height. The response of the calorimeter is measured by placing it in front of the Haefely neutron generator. 12 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Measurement of two-peak structure in fusion reaction history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Peng Xiaoshi; Liu Shenye; Liu Yonggang; Xu Tao; Chen Ming; Mei Yu; Kang Dongguo; Gu Jianfa

    2013-01-01

    The relationship of the roughness degree of ablation shell and the two peaks of fusion reaction rate was analyzed. We developed a system for fusion reaction history measurement with high temporal resolution, and applied this system to the SG-Ⅲ prototype for measuring fusion reaction rate. Fusion reaction rate history was measured for the first time with deuterium-tritium filled targets under neutron yields of about 10 10 . We anatomized possible influence factors during fusion reaction rate's measuring. The two peaks of reaction rate can be obtained from the simulation results, and have been confirmed with the experimental results. It is found that neutrons in our experiment are generated by the first peak which is called the shock peak. The simulation and experimental results can provide strong technical support for the research on fusion reaction rate in inertial confinement fusion. (authors)

  4. Estimation of the reaction rate for the formation of CH3O from H + H2CO - Implications for chemistry in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yuk L.; Drew, William A.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Friedl, Randall R.

    1988-01-01

    Troe's (1977) approximate theory is presently used in conjunction with transition state theory to estimate the rate coefficient of the reaction by which CO is reduced to CH4; attention is given to the role that may be played in the reduction process by the formation of the CH3O radical from H + H2CO. Attention is given to the implications of such a reaction (1) for the CO chemistry on Jupiter and within the solar nebula, (2) for the interpretation of such experimental results as those of Bar-Nun and Shaviv (1975) and Bar-Nun and Chang (1983), and (3) for organic synthesis in the prebiotic terrestrial atmosphere.

  5. Considerations of the social impact of fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastil, R.D.; Markus, H.S.

    1976-09-01

    It is concluded that the direct effects of an ideal form of fusion technologies would be socially more desirable than those of the alternatives. This is particularly true of the second generation fusion power plant. However, given our technological inputs, this was a trivial result. Less trivial was consideration of the negative effects that might accrue through the availability of potentially unlimited supplies of low cost energy. It is concluded that while there may be reasonable humanist argument both for and against such abundance, in a democratic society control of energy development for its own sake is likely to be unacceptable. However, if the indirect effects of pollution, despoilment, and resource depletion through ever expanding energy use become sufficiently disturbing to the well-being of the majority, unlimited energy may come to be seen as undesirable by the society. To this extent successful research and development for unlimited sources such as the fusion or mixed solar alternatives might be judged from some point far in the future to have been a mistake. This could occur even though advances in the technology of pollution control and resource use greatly reduce the pollution and hazard accompanying a much higher rate of energy utilization.

  6. Considerations of the social impact of fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastil, R.D.; Markus, H.S.

    1976-09-01

    It is concluded that the direct effects of an ideal form of fusion technologies would be socially more desirable than those of the alternatives. This is particularly true of the second generation fusion power plant. However, given our technological inputs, this was a trivial result. Less trivial was consideration of the negative effects that might accrue through the availability of potentially unlimited supplies of low cost energy. It is concluded that while there may be reasonable humanist argument both for and against such abundance, in a democratic society control of energy development for its own sake is likely to be unacceptable. However, if the indirect effects of pollution, despoilment, and resource depletion through ever expanding energy use become sufficiently disturbing to the well-being of the majority, unlimited energy may come to be seen as undesirable by the society. To this extent successful research and development for unlimited sources such as the fusion or mixed solar alternatives might be judged from some point far in the future to have been a mistake. This could occur even though advances in the technology of pollution control and resource use greatly reduce the pollution and hazard accompanying a much higher rate of energy utilization

  7. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  8. Solar neutrinos and nonradial solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, G.T.; Gavryuseva, E.A.; Kopysov, Yu.S.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of origin of surface solar oscillations is considered. It is assumed that generation of oscillations is performed by the solar nucleus. The necessary excitation condition for gravitational oscillations of the solar nucleus is a sharp decrease of the oscillation amplitude outside the nucleus, where the nuclear reaction rates are small and only radiation losses are considerable. It is shown that the specific singularities of gravitational wave propagation in solar entrails permit to attain a significant reduction of the oscillation amplitude. The solar entrails can serve as an effective trap for gravitational waves, if the substance of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. In order that the g 1 quadrupole mode of the solar nucleus has a period of 2h 40 min and sharply decreases in the solar mantle, it is enough that only the external part of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. Closeness of the solar nucleus to the state of convectional equilibrium is an argument in favour of its periodic mixing. Periodic mixing of the solar nucleus can serve as a cause of a low counting rate of solar neutrinos in R.Davis chlorous detector

  9. Fusion as a source of synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the near-term, coal derived synthetic fuels will be used; but in the long-term, resource depletion and environmental effects will mandate synthetic fuels from inexhaustible sources - fission, fusion, and solar. Of the three sources, fusion appears uniquely suited for the efficient production of hydrogen-based fuels, due to its ability to directly generate very high process temperatures (up to approx. 2000 0 C) for water splitting reactions. Fusion-based water splitting reactions include high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam, thermochemical cycles, hybrid electrochemical/thermochemical, and direct thermal decomposition. HTE appears to be the simplest and most efficient process with efficiencies of 50 to 70% (fusion to hydrogen chemical energy), depending on process conditions

  10. A look at the fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    The prospects of fusion energy have been summarised in this paper. The rapid progress in the field in recent years can be attributed to the advances in various technologies. The commercial fusion energy depends more heavily on the evolution and improvement in these technologies. With better understanding of plasma physics, the fusion reactor designs have become more realistic and comprehensive. It is now possible to make intercomparison between various concepts within the frame work of the established technologies. Assuming certain growth rate of the technological development, it is estimated that fusion energy can become available during the early part of the next century. (author)

  11. Analytically calculated post-Keplerian range and range-rate perturbations: the solar Lense-Thirring effect and BepiColombo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    We analytically calculate the time series for the perturbations Δ ρ \\left(t\\right), Δ \\dot{ρ }\\left(t\\right) induced by a general disturbing acceleration \\boldsymbol{A} on the mutual range ρ and range-rate \\dot{ρ} of two test particles A, B orbiting the same spinning body. We apply it to the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect, due to the primary's spin \\boldsymbol{S}, and the classical perturbation arising from its quadrupole mass moment J2 for arbitrary orbital geometries and orientation of the source's symmetry axis \\boldsymbol{\\hat{S}}. The Earth-Mercury range and range-rate are nominally affected by the Sun's gravitomagnetic field to the 10 m, 10-3 cm s-1 level, respectively, during the extended phase (2026-2028) of the forthcoming BepiColombo mission to Mercury whose expected tracking accuracy is of the order of ≃ 0.1 m, 2 × 10-4 cm s-1. The competing signatures due to the solar quadrupole J_2^\\odot, if modelled at the σ _{J_2^\\odot }˜eq 10^{-9} level of the latest planetary ephemerides INPOP17a, are nearly 10 times smaller than the relativistic gravitomagnetic effects. The position and velocity vectors \\mathbf {r}, \\mathbf {v} of Mercury and Earth are changed by the solar Lense-Thirring effect by about 10 m, 1.5 m and 10-3 cm s-1, 10-5 cm s-1, respectively, over 2 yr; neglecting such shifts may have an impact on long-term integrations of the inner solar system dynamics over ˜Gyr timescales.

  12. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of research are included for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) the MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions, and (5) energy storage and power supply systems for fusion reactors

  13. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  14. Solar UV irradiation-induced production of N2O from plant surfaces - low emissions rates but all over the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T. N.; Bruhn, D.; Ambus, P.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important long-lived greenhouse gas and precursor of stratospheric ozone depleting mono-nitrogen oxides. The atmospheric concentration of N2O is persistently increasing; however, large uncertainties are associated with the distinct source strengths. Here we investigate for the first time N2O emission from terrestrial vegetation in response to natural solar ultra violet radiation. We conducted field site measurements to investigate N2O atmosphere exchange from grass vegetation exposed to solar irradiance with and without UV-screening. Further laboratory tests were conducted with a range of species to study the controls and possible loci of UV-induced N2O emission from plants. Plants released N2O in response to natural sunlight at rates of c. 20-50 nmol m-2 h-1, mostly due to the UV component. The emission rate is temperature dependent with a rather high activation energy indicative for an abiotic process. The prevailing zone for the N2O formation appears to be at the very surface of leaves. However, only c. 26% of the UV-induced N2O appears to originate from plant-N. Further, the process is dependent on atmospheric oxygen concentration. Our work demonstrates that ecosystem emission of the important greenhouse gas, N2O, may be up to c. 30% higher than hitherto assumed.

  15. High-Rate Fabrication of a-Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Large-Area VHF PECVD Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xunming [University of Toledo; Fan, Qi Hua

    2011-12-31

    The University of Toledo (UT), working in concert with it’s a-Si-based PV industry partner Xunlight Corporation (Xunlight), has conducted a comprehensive study to develop a large-area (3ft x 3ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate uniform fabrication of silicon absorber layers, and the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high performance a-Si/a-SiGe or a-Si/nc-Si tandem junction solar cells during the period of July 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2011, under DOE Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18073. The project had two primary goals: (i) to develop and improve a large area (3 ft × 3 ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate fabrication of > = 8 Å/s a-Si and >= 20 Å/s nc-Si or 4 Å/s a-SiGe absorber layers with high uniformity in film thicknesses and in material structures. (ii) to develop and optimize the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high-performance a-Si/nc-Si or a-Si/a-SiGe tandem-junction solar cells with >= 10% stable efficiency. Our work has met the goals and is summarized in “Accomplishments versus goals and objectives”.

  16. Fusion power in a future low carbon global electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Bustreo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Fusion is one of the technologies that may contribute to a future, low carbon, global energy supply system. In this article we investigate the role that it may play under different scenarios. The global energy model ETM (originally EFDA TIMES Model) has been used to analyse the participation...... of fusion technologies in the global electricity system in the long term. Results show that fusion technologies penetration is higher in scenarios with stricter CO2 emissions reduction targets. In addition, investment costs and discount rates of fusion technologies are key factors for fusion implementation....... Finally, the main competitors for fusion in future are Carbon Capture and Storage and fission technologies....

  17. Investigation and modeling of biomass decay rate in the dark and its potential influence on net productivity of solar photobioreactors for microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, François; Pruvost, Jérémy

    2013-06-01

    Biomass decay rate (BDR) in the dark was investigated for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (microalga) and Arthrospira platensis (cyanobacterium). A specific setup based on a torus photobioreactor with online gas analysis was validated, enabling us to follow the time course of the specific BDR using oxygen monitoring and mass balance. Various operating parameters that could limit respiration rates, such as culture temperature and oxygen deprivation, were then investigated. C. reinhardtii was found to present a higher BDR in the dark than A. platensis, illustrating here the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In both cases, temperature proved an influential parameter, and the Arrhenius law was found to efficiently relate specific BDR to culture temperature. The utility of decreasing temperature at night to increase biomass productivity in a solar photobioreactor is also illustrated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  19. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Research during this report period has covered the following areas: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) MACKLIB-IV, a new library of nuclear response functions, (5) energy storage and power supply requirements for commercial fusion reactors, (6) blanket/shield design evaluation for commercial fusion reactors, and (7) cross section measurements, evaluations, and techniques

  20. POSTERIOR LUMBAR INTERBODY FUSION AND INSTRUMENTED POSTEROLATERAL FUSION IN ADULT SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: ASSESSMENT AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarajan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study is to assess and compare the outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF and posterolateral fusion (PLF in adult isthmic spondylosthesis. BACKGROUND: Posterolateral fusion has been considered the best method and widely been used for surgical treatment of adult spondylolisthesis.Superior results have subsequently been reported with interbody fusion with cages and posterior instrumentation MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty six patients with isthmic spondylolisthesis were operated. One group (20 patients had decompression and posterolateral fusion (PLF with a pedicle screw system; other group (16 patients was treated by decompression, posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF and a Pedicle screw system. In both groups adequate decompression was done RESULTS: Seventy seven percent of the patients had a good result with (PLIF and 68 percent with posterolateral fusion (PLF. However there was no statistical difference in cases with low grade slipping, whereas the difference was significant for cases with high grade slipping. Fusion rate was 93% with (PLIF and 68% with (PLF, but without any significant incidence in the functional outcome. 78% has relief of sciatica and neurogenic claudication. CONCLUSION: Based on these findings we found that for high grade spondylolisthesis which requires reduction or if the disc space is still high posterior lumbar inter body fusion is preferable. For low grade spondylolisthesis or if the disc space is narrow posterolateral fusion is preferable. A successful result of fusion operation depends on adequate decompression which relieves radicular symptoms.

  1. Does the Sun Shine by pp or CNO Fusion Reactions?

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N; Penya-Garay, C; Bahcall, John N.

    2003-01-01

    We show that solar neutrino experiments set an upper limit of 7.8% (7.3% including the recent KamLAND measurements) to the fraction of energy that the Sun produces via the CNO fusion cycle, which is an order of magnitude improvement upon the previous limit. New experiments are required to detect CNO neutrinos corresponding to the 1.5% of the solar luminosity that the standard solar model predicts is generated by the CNO cycle.

  2. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R ampersand D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R ampersand D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase

  3. Fusion power economy of scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing 2 to 5 GW(electric) at a single site. The cost of electricity (COE) from fusion energy is predicted to scale as COE ∼ COE 0 (P/P 0 ) -n , where P is the electrical power, the subscript zero denotes reference values, and the exponent n ∼ 0.36 to 0.7 in various designs. The validity ranges of these scalings are limited and need to be extended by future work. The fusion power economy of scale derives from four interrelated effects: improved operations and maintenance costs; scaling of equipment unit costs; a geometric effect that increases the mass power density; and reduction of the recirculating power fraction. Increased plasma size also relaxes the required confinement parameters: For the same neutron wall loading, larger tokamaks can use lower magnetic fields. Fossil-fuel power plants have a weaker economy of scale than fusion because the fuel costs constitute much of their COE. Solar and wind power plants consist of many small units, so they have little economy of scale. Fission power plants have a strong economy of scale but are unable to exploit it because the maximum unit size is limited by safety concerns. Large, steady-state fusion reactors generating 3 to 6 GW(electric) may be able to produce electricity for 4 to 5 cents/kW·h, which would be competitive with other future energy sources. 38 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Fusion-product energy loss in inertial confinement fusion plasmas with applications to target burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Miley, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been proposed as a competitor to magnetic fusion in the drive towards energy production, but ICF target performance still contains many uncertainties. One such area is the energy-loss rate of fusion products. This situation is due in part to the unique plasma parameters encountered in ICF plasmas which are compressed to more than one-thousand times solid density. The work presented here investigates three aspects of this uncertainty

  5. Fusion-Enabled Pluto Orbiter and Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The Pluto orbiter mission proposed here is credible and exciting. The benefits to this and all outer-planet and interstellar-probe missions are difficult to overstate. The enabling technology, Direct Fusion Drive, is a unique fusion engine concept based on the Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) fusion reactor under development at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The truly game-changing levels of thrust and power in a modestly sized package could integrate with our current launch infrastructure while radically expanding the science capability of these missions. During this Phase I effort, we made great strides in modeling the engine efficiency, thrust, and specific impulse and analyzing feasible trajectories. Based on 2D fluid modeling of the fusion reactors outer stratum, its scrape-off-layer (SOL), we estimate achieving 2.5 to 5 N of thrust for each megawatt of fusion power, reaching a specific impulse, Isp, of about 10,000 s. Supporting this model are particle-in-cell calculations of energy transfer from the fusion products to the SOL electrons. Subsequently, this energy is transferred to the ions as they expand through the magnetic nozzle and beyond. Our point solution for the Pluto mission now delivers 1000 kg of payload to Pluto orbit in 3.75 years using 7.5 N constant thrust. This could potentially be achieved with a single 1 MW engine. The departure spiral from Earth orbit and insertion spiral to Pluto orbit require only a small portion of the total delta-V. Departing from low Earth orbit reduces mission cost while increasing available mission mass. The payload includes a lander, which utilizes a standard green propellant engine for the landing sequence. The lander has about 4 square meters of solar panels mounted on a gimbal that allows it to track the orbiter, which beams 30 to 50 kW of power using a 1080 nm laser. Optical communication provides dramatically high data rates back to Earth. Our mass modeling investigations revealed that if

  6. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  8. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Does the Sun work as a nuclear fusion amplifier of planetary tidal forcing? A proposal for a physical mechanism based on the mass-luminosity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2012-06-01

    Numerous empirical evidences suggest that planetary tides may influence solar activity. In particular, it has been shown that: (1) the well-known 11-year Schwabe sunspot number cycle is constrained between the spring tidal period of Jupiter and Saturn, ˜9.93 year, and the tidal orbital period of Jupiter, ˜11.86 year, and a model based on these cycles can reconstruct solar dynamics at multiple time scales (Scafetta, in press); (2) a measure of the alignment of Venus, Earth and Jupiter reveals quasi 11.07-year cycles that are well correlated to the 11-year Schwabe solar cycles; and (3) there exists a 11.08 year cyclical recurrence in the solar jerk-shock vector, which is induced mostly by Mercury and Venus. However, Newtonian classical physics has failed to explain the phenomenon. Only by means of a significant nuclear fusion amplification of the tidal gravitational potential energy dissipated in the Sun, may planetary tides produce irradiance output oscillations with a sufficient magnitude to influence solar dynamo processes. Here we explain how a first order magnification factor can be roughly calculated using an adaptation of the well-known mass-luminosity relation for main-sequence stars similar to the Sun. This strategy yields a conversion factor between the solar luminosity and the potential gravitational power associated to the mass lost by nuclear fusion: the average estimated amplification factor is A≈4.25×106. We use this magnification factor to evaluate the theoretical luminosity oscillations that planetary tides may potentially stimulate inside the solar core by making its nuclear fusion rate oscillate. By converting the power related to this energy into solar irradiance units at 1 AU we find that the tidal oscillations may be able to theoretically induce an oscillating luminosity increase from 0.05-0.65 W/m2 to 0.25-1.63 W/m2, which is a range compatible with the ACRIM satellite observed total solar irradiance fluctuations. In conclusion, the Sun

  11. Review of fusion synfuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  12. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of cryosorption pumping of hydrogen with molecular sieves at temperatures between 16 and 35 K indicate that type Na-Y sieve gives significantly higher average pumping speeds than the more conventional type 5A sieve. Apparently, pump speeds are affected by diffusion rates into the crystallite particles, and the larger pore openings in the Na-Y sieve permit higher diffusion rates. Measurements of the rate of tritium sorption from liquid lithium by yttrium coupons gave encouragingly high values despite the stagnant lithium in the contact device

  13. Superconducting magnets for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Fusion magnet technology has made spectacular advances in the past decade; to wit, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility and the Large Coil Project. However, further advances are still required for advanced economical fusion reactors. Higher fields to 14 T and radiation-hardened superconductors and insulators will be necessary. Coupled with high rates of nuclear heating and pulsed losses, the next-generation magnets will need still higher current density, better stability and quench protection. Cable-in-conduit conductors coupled with polyimide insulations and better steels seem to be the appropriate path. Neutron fluences up to 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 in niobium tin are achievable. In the future, other amorphous superconductors could raise these limits further to extend reactor life or decrease the neutron shielding and corresponding reactor size

  14. Fusion neutronics experiments and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    UCLA has led the neutronics R ampersand D effort in the US for the past several years through the well-established USDOE/JAERI Collaborative Program on Fusion Neutronics. Significant contributions have been made in providing solid bases for advancing the neutronics testing capabilities in fusion reactors. This resulted from the hands-on experience gained from conducting several fusion integral experiments to quantify the prediction uncertainties of key blanket design parameters such as tritium production rate, activation, and nuclear heating, and when possible, to narrow the gap between calculational results and measurements through improving nuclear data base and codes capabilities. The current focus is to conduct the experiments in an annular configuration where the test assembly totally surrounds a simulated line source. The simulated line source is the first-of-a-kind in the scope of fusion integral experiments and presents a significant contribution to the world of fusion neutronics. The experiments proceeded through Phase IIIA to Phase IIIC in these line source simulation experiments started in 1989

  15. Driver Fusions and Their Implications in the Development and Treatment of Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Gene fusions represent an important class of somatic alterations in cancer. We systematically investigated fusions in 9,624 tumors across 33 cancer types using multiple fusion calling tools. We identified a total of 25,664 fusions, with a 63% validation rate. Integration of gene expression, copy number, and fusion annotation data revealed that fusions involving oncogenes tend to exhibit increased expression, whereas fusions involving tumor suppressors have the opposite effect. For fusions involving kinases, we found 1,275 with an intact kinase domain, the proportion of which varied significantly across cancer types. Our study suggests that fusions drive the development of 16.5% of cancer cases and function as the sole driver in more than 1% of them. Finally, we identified druggable fusions involving genes such as TMPRSS2, RET, FGFR3, ALK, and ESR1 in 6.0% of cases, and we predicted immunogenic peptides, suggesting that fusions may provide leads for targeted drug and immune therapy. : Gao et al. analyze a 9,624 sample TCGA cohort with 33 cancer types to detect gene fusion events. They provide a landscape of fusion events detected, relate fusions to gene expression, focus on kinase fusion structures, examine mutually exclusive mutation and fusion patterns, and highlight fusion druggability. Keywords: fusion, cancer, RNA, translocation, gene fusions

  16. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  17. Laser fusion: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.

    1975-01-01

    The laser fusion concept is described along with developments in neodymium and carbon dioxide lasers. Fuel design and fabrication are reviewed. Some spin-offs of the laser fusion program are discussed. (U.S.)

  18. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  19. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  20. Fusion Canada issue 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue ITER reactor siting, a major upgrade for TdeV tokamak, Ceramic Breeders: new tritium mapping technique and Joint Fusion Symposium. 2 figs

  1. Hiper, the European Project on Laser Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonça, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Energy resources are a major concern for the future of Mankind. With the plausible decline of fossil energy in the next decades, Nuclear Fusion is one of the major energy solutions on the long term. For many years, Europe has concentrated on Magnetic Fusion, but recently a consortium of European laboratories launched an ambitious project aiming to explore the alternative approach of Laser Fusion, the HIPER project. The main targets and challenges of this project will be presented in this talk. HIPER is based on a high repetition rate laser system, compatible with a future Laser Fusion reactor, and it aims to explore improved ignition configurations, such as Fast and Shock Ignition. The 3-years preparatory phase of this project started in 2009 is approaching its conclusion. The future of the project strongly depends on the results provided by NIF, which are at the threshold of demonstrating ignition. The mood on Fusion research is about to change. (author)

  2. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  3. User's perspective on fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    The need in fusion, from the electric utilities viewpoint, is for fusion to be a real option, not huge, complicated nuclear plants costing $10 billion each and requiring restructuring the energy industry to provide and use them. A course for future fusion reactor work in order to be a real option is discussed. The advantages of alternate concepts to the tokamak are presented

  4. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  5. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  6. Zipping into fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Fusion of lipid bilayers in cells facilitates the active transport of chemicals. Non-viral membrane fusion is regulated by a cascade of proteins as the process is highly regulated both in space and time. In eukaryotic cells, the so-called SNARE protein complex is at the heart of fusion. However,

  7. The UKAEA's fusion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweetman, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    D.R. Sweetman, director of the UKAEA fusion programme, reviews the current state of the work being performed on the UK-Euratom fusion programme. The JET programme, Tokamak programme, reversed field pinch programme, fusion technology and funding are all discussed. (author)

  8. Space Propulsion via Spherical Torus Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Juhasz, Albert J.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 204 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1630 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment were performed on all major systems including nuclear fusion reactor, magnetic nozzle, power conversion, fast wave plasma heating, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery, and other systems. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance and utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/X-ray radiation

  9. The absorption effect of the Lα-line Supplement to the paper 'On the Correlation Between the Hα-line emission rate and the ablation rate of a hydrogen pellet in tokamak discharges' – Nuclear Fusion 24 (1984) 697

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Several assumptions made in a previous study of the correlation between the Hα-line emission rate and the ablation rate of a hydrogen pellet injected into a tokamak discharge showed that the emission layer of the ablatant as optically thin with respect to all levels of the principal quantum numbe...

  10. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  11. The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Chris

    1980-01-01

    The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)

  12. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  13. Versatile fusion source integrator AFSI for fast ion and neutron studies in fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirén, Paula; Varje, Jari; Äkäslompolo, Simppa; Asunta, Otto; Giroud, Carine; Kurki-Suonio, Taina; Weisen, Henri; JET Contributors, The

    2018-01-01

    ASCOT Fusion Source Integrator AFSI, an efficient tool for calculating fusion reaction rates and characterizing the fusion products, based on arbitrary reactant distributions, has been developed and is reported in this paper. Calculation of reactor-relevant D–D, D–T and D–3He fusion reactions has been implemented based on the Bosch–Hale fusion cross sections. The reactions can be calculated between arbitrary particle populations, including Maxwellian thermal particles and minority energetic particles. Reaction rate profiles, energy spectra and full 4D phase space distributions can be calculated for the non-isotropic reaction products. The code is especially suitable for integrated modelling in self-consistent plasma physics simulations as well as in the Serpent neutronics calculation chain. Validation of the model has been performed for neutron measurements at the JET tokamak and the code has been applied to predictive simulations in ITER.

  14. Fusion technology 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, C.; Gasparatto, M.; Knoepfel, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the biennial series of symposia on the title subject, organized by the European Fusion Laboratories, is the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments and on the technology being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors. The coverage of the volume includes the technological aspects of fusion reactors in relation to new developments, this forming a guideline for the definition of future work. These proceedings comprise three volumes and contain both the invited lectures and contributed papers presented at the symposium which was attended by 569 participants from around the globe. The 343 papers, including 12 invited papers, characterize the increasing interest of industry in the fusion programme, giving a broad and current overview on the progress and trends fusion technology is experiencing now, as well as indicating the future for fusion devices

  15. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  16. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    After the bad year of 2002, the european solar thermal market returned to double-digit growth rate in 2003: 22%. Nevertheless, the sector still has not recovered the growth rate it had in the early 2000 and European Commission targets are still far from being reached. This paper presents the thermal solar industry barometer. Data on the evolution of annually installed surfaces in the european union since 1993, the cumulated capacity of thermal collectors installed in the European Union, the estimation of the annual energy production associated to european solar thermal capacities and the main companies of the European Union thermal solar sector are presented and discussed. (A.L.B.)

  17. Self colliding beams ('migma') and controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Maglic, Bogdan C; Mazarakis, M; Miller, R A; Nering, J; Powell, C; Treglio, J

    1975-01-01

    While much of the early work on colliding beams was done in the US, the lead on the development of this technique is now held by Europe. The most spectacular being the only colliding of nuclei in the intersecting storage rings at CERN. The idea of using colliding beams for fusion is nearly as old as is the interest in fusion as a source of power, but the problems of low reaction rate and high Coulomb scattering initially seemed insurmountable. The authors describe recent work done at the Fusion Energy Corporation which attempts to overcome these problems. (9 refs).

  18. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II

  19. Economics of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics

  20. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  1. CFAR data fusion center with inhomogeneous receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Fusté, Antonio; Broquetas Ibars, Antoni

    1992-01-01

    Detection systems with distributed sensors and data fusion are increasingly used by surveillance systems. A system formed by N inhomogeneous constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors (cell-averaging (CA) and ordered statistic (OS) CFAR detectors) is studied. A recursive formulation of an algorithm that permits a fixed level of false alarms in the data fusion center is presented, to set the optimum individual threshold levels in the CFAR receivers and the optimum `K out of N' decision rule in...

  2. Samba Solar; Samba Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, Charles W.

    2012-07-01

    Brazil, the biggest country of the South American subcontinent, has discovered the power of solar energy. Brazil recently introduced net metering of solar power plants and started to open the power supply grid to PV systems. The market has great potential as Brazil is the world's sixth biggest national economy.

  3. Storage and Containment of Nuclear Targets for Pulsed Fission-Fusion Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The combined fission-fusion fuel target is the heart of an engine concept that can open the solar system to fast and efficient human exploration. This is a unique...

  4. Cell Fusion in the War on Cancer: A Perspective on the Inception of Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jeffrey L; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Lefferts, Adam R; Cascalho, Marilia

    2016-07-13

    Cell fusion occurs in development and in physiology and rarely in those settings is it associated with malignancy. However, deliberate fusion of cells and possibly untoward fusion of cells not suitably poised can eventuate in aneuploidy, DNA damage and malignant transformation. How often cell fusion may initiate malignancy is unknown. However, cell fusion could explain the high frequency of cancers in tissues with low underlying rates of cell proliferation and mutation. On the other hand, cell fusion might also engage innate and adaptive immune surveillance, thus helping to eliminate or retard malignancies. Here we consider whether and how cell fusion might weigh on the overall burden of cancer in modern societies.

  5. Y Fuse? Sex Chromosome Fusions in Fishes and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamosi, Jana C.; Peichel, Catherine L.; Valenzuela, Nicole; Kitano, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal fusion plays a recurring role in the evolution of adaptations and reproductive isolation among species, yet little is known of the evolutionary drivers of chromosomal fusions. Because sex chromosomes (X and Y in male heterogametic systems, Z and W in female heterogametic systems) differ in their selective, mutational, and demographic environments, those differences provide a unique opportunity to dissect the evolutionary forces that drive chromosomal fusions. We estimate the rate at which fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes become established across the phylogenies of both fishes and squamate reptiles. Both the incidence among extant species and the establishment rate of Y-autosome fusions is much higher than for X-autosome, Z-autosome, or W-autosome fusions. Using population genetic models, we show that this pattern cannot be reconciled with many standard explanations for the spread of fusions. In particular, direct selection acting on fusions or sexually antagonistic selection cannot, on their own, account for the predominance of Y-autosome fusions. The most plausible explanation for the observed data seems to be (a) that fusions are slightly deleterious, and (b) that the mutation rate is male-biased or the reproductive sex ratio is female-biased. We identify other combinations of evolutionary forces that might in principle account for the data although they appear less likely. Our results shed light on the processes that drive structural changes throughout the genome. PMID:25993542

  6. Document controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou, C.; Demarthon, F.; Ter Minassian, V.

    2004-01-01

    Since the years 30, the magnetic confinement is one of the researches programs to control the nuclear fusion. This document presents in a first part the historical aspects of the researches on the controlled fusion and in the second part the nuclear fusion. The nuclear fusion forcing two atomic nuclei to fuse together by reproducing the conditions of the thermonuclear reactions that make the stars burn. This technology is a potential source of inexhaustible energy for the future. Then are presented the tokamak which make possible to confine an extremely hot gaseous mixture (plasma that is over one hundred million degrees) in a vacuum chamber and the ITER project (superconductor tokamak) that will make it possible to attain the stage in which the plasma maintains the fusion reaction itself and therefore produces more energy than it consumes. The last part presents the projects of new fusion reactors. (A.L.B.)

  7. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  8. Status of fusion maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission

  9. Perfect focusing fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, G.; Takeda, T.; Iwata, G.; Mori, S.; Inoue, K.; Tanaka, M.

    1994-01-01

    We propose new perfect focusing (perfo) fusion systems in which ion- or atom-beam is used as a target for the fusion reaction, and ions (perfo particles) of different species moving in the perfo field collide with them. The 'efficiency' defined as the ratio of the fusion energy output to the radiation loss is ∼300, ∼20, and ∼4 for the T+D, 3 He+D, and 11 B+H reactions, respectively. (author)

  10. Magnetic-fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    In February 1980, the Director of Energy Research requested that the Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) review the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetic Fusion Program. Of particular concern to the DOE was the judicious choice of the next major steps toward demonstration of economic power production from fusion. Of equal concern was the overall soundness of the DOE Magnetic Fusion Program: its pace, scope, and funding profiles. Their finding and recommendations are included

  11. Maximum Likelihood Fusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-09

    Symposium of Robotics Re- search. Sienna, Italy: Springer, 2003. [12] D. Hall and J. Llinas, “An introduction to multisensor data fusion ,” Proceed- ings of...a data fusion approach for combining Gaussian metric models of an environment constructed by multiple agents that operate outside of a global... data fusion , hypothesis testing,maximum likelihood estimation, mobile robot navigation REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT

  12. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  13. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  14. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  15. The Borexino solar neutrino experiment and its scintillator containment vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadonati, Laura

    2001-05-01

    Thirty years ago, the first solar neutrino detector proved fusion reactions power the Sun. However, the total rate detected in this and all subsequent solar neutrino experiments is consistently two to three times lower than predicted by the Standard Solar Model. Current experiments seek to explain this ``solar neutrino puzzle'' through non-standard particle properties, like neutrino mass and flavor mixing, within the context of the MSW theory. The detection of the monoenergetic 7Be solar neutrino is the missing clue for the solution of the solar neutrino problem; this constitutes the main physics goal of Borexino, a real- time, high-statistics solar neutrino detector located under the Gran Sasso mountain, in Italy. In the first part of this thesis, I present a Monte Carlo study of the expected performance of Borexino, with simulations of the neutrino rate, the external y background and the α/β/γ activity in the scintillator. The Standard Solar Model predicts a solar neutrino rate of about 60 events/day in Borexino in the 0.25-0.8 MeV window, mostly due to 7Be neutrinos. Given the design scintillator radiopurity levels (10-16 g/g 238U and 232Th and 10-14 g/g K), Borexino will detect such a rate with a ~2.4% statistical error, after one year. In the MSW Small (Large) Angle scenario, the predicted rate of ~13 (33) events/day will be detected with 8% (4%) error. The sensitivity of Borexino to 8B and pp neutrinos and to a Galactic supernova event is also discussed. The second part of this dissertation is devoted to the liquid scintillator containment vessel, an 8.5 m diameter sphere built of bonded panels of 0.125 mm polymer film. Through an extensive materials testing program we have identified an amorphous nylon-6 film which meets all the critical requirements for the success of Borexino. I describe tests of tensile strength, measurements of 222Rn diffusion through thin nylon films and of optical clarity. I discuss how the materials' radiopurity and mechanical

  16. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  17. lysosome tethering and fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT TULI

    Molecular mechanisms regulating endosome- lysosome tethering and fusion. Mahak Sharma. Assistant Professor & Wellcome Trust-DBT Intermediate Fellow. Department of Biological Sciences. IISER-Mohali ...

  18. COTS Fusion Tracker Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gertz, J

    2002-01-01

    .... This effort included cataloging the companies that have available ATC fusion trackers, acquiring executable tracker images from as many as possible of these trackers, running the commercial tracker...

  19. Laser fusion program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    This program is structured to proceed through a series of well defined fusion milestones to proof of the scientific feasibility, of laser fusion with the Shiva Nova system. Concurrently, those key technical areas, such as advanced lasers, which are required to progress beyond proof of feasibility, are being studied. We have identified and quantified the opportunities and key technical issues in military applications, such as weapons effects simulations, and in civilian applications, such as central-station electric power production. We summarize the current status and future plans for the laser fusion program at LLL, emphasizing the civilian applications of laser fusion

  20. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  1. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  2. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission → fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ''burner'' far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ''implementation-by-default'' plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant

  3. Cell fusion in tumor progression: the isolation of cell fusion products by physical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincitorio Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell fusion induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG is an efficient but poorly controlled procedure for obtaining somatic cell hybrids used in gene mapping, monoclonal antibody production, and tumour immunotherapy. Genetic selection techniques and fluorescent cell sorting are usually employed to isolate cell fusion products, but both procedures have several drawbacks. Results Here we describe a simple improvement in PEG-mediated cell fusion that was obtained by modifying the standard single-step procedure. We found that the use of two PEG undertreatments obtains a better yield of cell fusion products than the standard method, and most of these products are bi- or trinucleated polykaryocytes. Fusion rate was quantified using fluorescent cell staining microscopy. We used this improved cell fusion and cell isolation method to compare giant cells obtained in vitro and giant cells obtained in vivo from patients with Hodgkin's disease and erythroleukemia. Conclusions In the present study we show how to improve PEG-mediated cell fusion and that cell separation by velocity sedimentation offers a simple alternative for the efficient purification of cell fusion products and to investigate giant cell formation in tumor development.

  4. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  5. Muon catalyzed fusion under compressive conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cripps, G.; Goel, B.; Harms, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The viability of a symbiotic combination of Muon Catalyzed Fusion (μCF) and high density generation processes has been investigated. The muon catalyzed fusion reaction rates are formulated in the temperature and density range found under moderate compressive conditions. Simplified energy gain and power balance calculations indicate that significant energy gain occurs only if standard type deuterium-tritium (dt) fusion is ignited. A computer simulation of the hydrodynamics and fusion kinetics of a spherical deuterium-tritium pellet implosion including muons is performed. Using the muon catalyzed fusion reaction rates formulated and under ideal conditions, the pellet ignites (and thus has a significant energy gain) only if the initial muon concentration is approximately 10 17 cm -3 . The muons need to be delivered to the pellet within a very short-time (≅ 1 ns). The muon pulse required in order to make the high density and temperature muon catalyzed fusion scheme viable is beyond the present technology for muon production. (orig.) [de

  6. Progress of laser fusion at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion is the present and future source of energy in our universe. Derivatives, such as solar, geothermal, wind, and biomass are proposed as future substitutes for possible fuel sources. All of these possible sources of energy while they may be considered to be renewable do not fulfill the single most important criteria of being unlimited. Fuel reserves of more than 100 billion years are accepted as 'unlimited'. The understanding of fusion has many 'fathers', Bethe, Teller and many others, it has also has proponents (too many to list) as the world's energy supply. This author hopes that this Program's efforts will contribute positively to the advance to the time when fusion energy will positively contribute to the energy supply for mankind. Controlled fusion is judged by us to be the world's most challenging technological problem. The potential benefit to mankind of an unlimited source of energy and thus a higher standard of living make the acceptance of this challenge worth our while. There are many dedicated scientists working on controlled fusion to make this dream a reality. Magnetic and inertial fusion are in a horse race that must not be allowed to falter or to be cancelled. Fusion is the future of the world and one of these approaches to fusion is vital to our future generations

  7. Direct observation of intermediate states in model membrane fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidel, Andrea; Bartsch, Tobias F.; Florin, Ernst-Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel assay for membrane fusion of solid supported membranes on silica beads and on coverslips. Fusion of the lipid bilayers is induced by bringing an optically trapped bead in contact with the coverslip surface while observing the bead’s thermal motion with microsecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution using a three-dimensional position detector. The probability of fusion is controlled by the membrane tension on the particle. We show that the progression of fusion can be monitored by changes in the three-dimensional position histograms of the bead and in its rate of diffusion. We were able to observe all fusion intermediates including transient fusion, formation of a stalk, hemifusion and the completion of a fusion pore. Fusion intermediates are characterized by axial but not lateral confinement of the motion of the bead and independently by the change of its rate of diffusion due to the additional drag from the stalk-like connection between the two membranes. The detailed information provided by this assay makes it ideally suited for studies of early events in pure lipid bilayer fusion or fusion assisted by fusogenic molecules. PMID:27029285

  8. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  9. Investigation of condensed matter fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.; Berrondo, M.; Czirr, J.B.; Decker, D.L.; Harrison, K.; Jensen, G.L.; Palmer, E.P.; Rees, L.B.; Taylor, S.; Vanfleet, H.B.; Wang, J.C.; Bennion, D.N.; Harb, J.N.; Pitt, W.G.; Thorne, J.M.; Anderson, A.N.; McMurtry, G.; Murphy, N.; Goff, F.E.

    1990-12-01

    Work on muon-catalyzed fusion led to research on a possible new type of fusion occurring in hydrogen isotopes embedded in metal lattices. While the nuclear-product yields observed to date are so small as to require careful further checking, rates observed over short times appear sufficiently large to suggest that significant neutrons and triton yields could be realized -- if the process could be understood and controlled. During 1990, we have developed two charged-particle detection systems and three new neutron detectors. A segmented, high-efficiency neutron counter was taken into 600 m underground in a mine in Colorado for studies out of the cosmic-ray background. Significant neutron emissions were observed in this environment in both deuterium-gas-loaded metals and in electrolytic cells, confirming our earlier observations

  10. Sandia's Particle Beam Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Sandia's Particle Beam Fusion Program is investigating pulsed electron and light ion beam accelerators, with the goal of demonstrating the practical application of such drivers as igniters in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors. Recent developments in the program are described. Traditionally, two requirements of ICF reactor operation have been the most difficult to satisfy in conceptual designs. Adequate standoff of critical components from damaging pellet emissions must be assured, and the shot repetition rate must be consistent with the desired reactor power level at reasonable pellet gains. Progress in power compression, beam focusing and transport, first-wall protection schemes, and net-energy-gain target design shows how these requirements can be met

  11. Solar Cookers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of solar cookers in the science classroom. Includes instructions for construction of a solar cooker, an explanation of how solar cookers work, and a number of suggested activities. (DS)

  12. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    small hemifusion diaphragm. To obtain a direct view of the fusion process, we have carried out extensive simulations of two bilayers, composed of block copolymers, which are immersed in a solvent which favors one of the blocks. As in the biological case, the membranes are placed under tension. This is essential as fusion ...

  14. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  15. Fusion Canada issue 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig

  16. The fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1974-01-01

    Basic principles of the fusion reactor are outlined. Plasma heating and confinement schemes are described. These confinement systems include the linear Z pinch, magnetic mirrors and Tokamaks. A fusion reactor is described and a discussion is given of its environmental impact and its fuel situation. (R.L.)

  17. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian Academy of ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 6. Fusion of biological ... The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simulation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in ...

  18. Magnetic Fusion Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    This Plan reflects the present conditions of the energy situation and is consistent with national priorities for the support of basic and applied research. It is realistic in taking advantage of the technical position that the United States has already established in fusion research to make cost-effective progress toward the development of fusion power as a future energy option

  19. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.K.; Scholz, R.; Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given for each of the following areas: (1) effects of irradiation on fusion reactor materials, (2) hydrogen permeation and materials behavior in alloys, (3) carbon coatings for fusion applications, (4) surface damage of TiB 2 coatings under energetic D + and 4 He + irradiations, and (5) neutron dosimetry

  20. Fusion Canada issue 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Darlington's Tritium Removal Facility, work at universities on Deuterium Diffusivity in Beryllium, Fusion Studies, confinement research and the operation of divertors at Tokamak de Varennes. 5 figs

  1. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  2. Two Horizons of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  3. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simu- lation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in mechanism lead to several predictions, in particular that fusion is accompanied by tran- sient leakage. This prediction has recently been verified.

  4. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  5. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simulation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in mechanism lead to several predictions, in particular that fusion is accompanied by transient leakage. This prediction has recently been verified. Self-consistent ...

  6. Fusion Canada issue 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it's role. 1 fig

  7. The IGNITEX fusion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, R.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the recently proposed fusion ignition experiment, IGNITEX. He emphasizes the basic ideas of this concept rather than the specific details of the physics and engineering aspects of the experiment. This concept is a good example of the importance of maintaining an adequate balance between the basic scientific progress in fusion physics and the new technologies that are becoming available in order to make fusion work. The objective of the IGNITEX project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. Being able to study this not-yet-produced regime of plasma operation is essential to fusion research. Two years after the fission nuclear reaction was discovered, a non-self-sustained fission reaction was produced in a laboratory, and in one more year a self-sustained reaction was achieved at the University of Chicago. However, after almost forty years of fusion research, a self-sustained fusion reaction has yet not been produced in a laboratory experiment. This fact indicates the greater difficulty of the fusion experiment. Because of the difficulty involved in the production of a self-sustained fusion reaction, it is necessary to propose such an experiment with maximum ignition margins, maximum simplicity, and minimum financial risk

  8. Computer Based Behavioral Biometric Authentication via Multi-Modal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Bhattacharyya, et al. [25], found that the iris scanner, with an Equal Error Rate (EER) of 0.01% performed the best. 1.2 Behavioral Biometrics Behavioral...include voice and facial recognition; fingerprint, voice, and iris ; and iris and retinal features [33]. 2.7.1 Fusion Methods. Fusion of biometric ...COMPUTER BASED BEHAVIORAL BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION VIA MULTI-MODAL FUSION THESIS Kyle O. Bailey, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENG-13-M-04 DEPARTMENT

  9. Some fusion perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the concepts of nuclear fusion reactions, advanced fusion fuels, environmental impacts, etc., are explored using the following general outline: I. Principles of Fusion (Nuclear Fuels and Reactions, Lawson Condition, n tau vs T, Nuclear Burn Characteristics); II. Magnetic Mirror Possibilities (the Ion Layer and Electron Layer, Exponential Build-up at MeV energies, Lorentz trapping at GeV energies); III. Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects (Advanced Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects, Burn Characteristics and Applications, Excitation-heating Prospects for Runaway Ion Temperatures). Inasmuch as the outline is very skeletal, a significant research and development effort may be in order to evaluate these prospects in more detail and hopefully ''harness the H-bomb'' for peaceful applications, the author concludes. 28 references

  10. Fusion fuel blanket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-05-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of a fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium is converted into useful product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. As fusion research turns from present short-pulse physics experiments to long-burn engineering tests in the 1990's, energy removal and tritium production capabilities become important. This technology will involve new materials, conditions and processes with applications both to fusion and beyond. In this paper, we introduce features of proposed blanket designs and update and status of international research. In focusing on the Canadian blanket technology program, we discuss the aqueous lithium salt blanket concept, and the in-reactor tritium recovery test program

  11. Fusion safety data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.; Hardy, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this Fusion Safety Data Base Program is to provide a repository of data for the design and development of safe commercial fusion reactors. The program is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fusion Energy. The function of the program is to collect, examine, permanently store, and make available the safety data to the entire US magnetic-fusion energy community. The sources of data will include domestic and foreign fusion reactor safety-related research programs. Any participant in the DOE Program may use the Data Base Program from his terminal through user friendly dialog and can view the contents in the form of text, tables, graphs, or system diagrams

  12. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  13. Indication for spinal fusion and the risk of adjacent segment pathology: does reason for fusion affect risk? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael J; Dettori, Joseph R; Standaert, Christopher J; Ely, Claire G; Chapman, Jens R

    2012-10-15

    A systematic review. To determine whether different indications or reasons for spinal fusion are associated with different risks of subsequent adjacent segment pathology (ASP) in the lumbar and cervical spine. Pre-existing degeneration at levels adjacent to an arthrodesis may play a role in the development of symptomatic adjacent segment pathology. Although most spinal arthrodeses occur in patients with degenerative spinal disease, spinal fusion occurs in the pediatric and trauma population, and also congenitally. Evaluating the risk of ASP in these populations may shed light on its etiology. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane Library for articles published between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2011. We included all articles that described the risk of radiographical adjacent segment pathology (RASP) following surgical fusion for degenerative disease, for trauma, or for conditions requiring fusion in pediatrics in the lumbar or cervical spine. In addition, we included studies recording ASP in patients with congenital fusion. Nineteen studies met our inclusion criteria. In patients who underwent fusion in the lumbar spine for degenerative reasons, the RASP rate averaged 12.4% during an average of 5.6-year follow-up. For patients who underwent fusion in the cervical spine for degenerative reasons, the average RASP rate was 25.3% during a 2.3-year follow-up. For patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome and congenital fusion, the RASP rate averaged 49.7% during an average of 23.5-years of follow-up. In patients who were fused for scoliosis, the average RASP rate was 20.3% of 3.9-year follow-up. However there is significant variation between studies in patient population, follow-up, and definition of RASP. In the cervical spine, the rate of RASP in patients with fusion for degenerative reasons indications is greater than the rate of RASP in patients with congenital fusion suggesting that the pre-existing health and status of the adjacent level at

  14. US fusion community discussion on fusion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    On April 26 - May 1, 1998, a US Fusion Community Forum for Major Next-Step Experiments was held at Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Both the Single Integrated Step strategy and the Multiple Machine strategy have substantial support from the about 180 scientists and engineers who participated

  15. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    &E potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selection, judicious design choices, and integration of safety requirements into the design of the facility. To achieve this goal, S&E research is focused on understanding the behaviour of the largest sources of radioactive and hazardous materials in a fusion facility, understanding how energy sources in a fusion facility could mobilize those materials, developing integrated state-of-the-art S&E computer codes and risk tools for safety assessment, and evaluating and improving fusion facility design in terms of accident safety, worker safety, and waste disposal. There are three papers considering safety issues of the test blanket modules (TBM) producing tritium to be installed in ITER. These modules represent different concepts of demonstration fusion power facilities (DEMO). L. Boccaccini et al (Germany) analyses the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety under specific accidents in the European helium-cooled pebble-bed TBM, e.g. pressurization of the vacuum vessel (VV), hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and VV causing air ingress. Safety analysis is also presented for Chinese TBM with a helium-cooled solid breeder to be tested in ITER by Z. Chen et al (China). Radiological inventories, afterheat, waste disposal ratings, electromagnetic characteristics, LOCA and tritium safety management are considered. An overview of a preliminary safety analysis performed for a US proposed TBM is presented by B. Merrill et al (USA). This DEMO relevant dual coolant liquid lead-lithium TBM has been explored both in the USA and EU. T. Pinna et al (Italy) summarize the six-year development of a failure rate database for fusion specific components on the basis of data coming from operating experience gained in various fusion laboratories. The activity began in 2001 with the study of the Joint European Torus vacuum and active gas handling systems. Two years later the

  16. Materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, K.; Kaletta, D.

    1978-03-01

    The following report describes five papers which were given during the IMF seminar series summer 1977. The purpose of this series was to discuss especially the irradiation behaviour of materials intended for the first wall of future fusion reactors. The first paper deals with the basic understanding of plasma physics relating to the fusion reactor and presents the current state of art of fusion technology. The next two talks discuss the metals intended for the first wall and structural components of a fusion reactor. Since 14 MeV neutrons play an important part in the process of irradiation damage their role is discussed in detail. The question which machines are presently available to simulate irradiation damage under conditions similar to the ones found in a fusion reactor are investigated in the fourth talk which also presents the limitations of the different methods of simulation. In this context also discussed is the importance future intensive neutron sources and materials test reactors will have for this problem area. The closing paper has as a theme the review of the present status of research of metallic and non-metallic materials in view of the quite different requirements for different fusion systems; a closing topic is the world supply on rare materials required for fusion reactors. (orig) [de

  17. Energy from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkau, K.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fusion research is conducted for the long-term objective of developing a power plant generating energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei. In order for the fusion fire to be ignited the fuel, a hydrogen plasma, must be confined in magnetic fields and heated to high temperatures - a design principle resulting in good safety characteristics and environmental compatibility. As the source materials required for the fusion process are available in almost unlimited quantities and are distributed all over the world, nuclear fusion could make a sizeable contribution towards future energy supplies. Since its beginnings in the early fifties, fusion research has approached its ambitious goal in painstaking, detailed work. Sometimes unnoticed by the public, these activities have made considerable progress especially in the past few years. Such formerly critical problems as plasma heating, thermal insulation, prevention of plasma impurities, and energy extraction can now be considered nearly solved. It has been possible in the meantime to generate fusion powers of several megawatt. The results obtained so far allow a test reactor to be planned which, for the first time, is to produce a self-sustaining plasma with powers in the gigawatt range. (orig.) [de

  18. Fusion Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  19. Optimal Face-Iris Multimodal Fusion Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.

  20. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  1. Beam dancer fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    To accomplish fusion of two or more fusion fuel elements numerous minute spots of energy or laser light are directed to a micro target area, there to be moved or danced about by a precision mechanical controlling apparatus at the source of the laser light or electromagnetic energy beams, so that merging and coinciding patterns of light or energy beams can occur around the area of the fuel atoms or ions. The projecting of these merging patterns may be considered as target searching techniques to locate responsive clusters of fuel elements and to compress such elements into a condition in which fusion may occur. Computerized programming may be used

  2. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  3. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  4. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components during and after irradiation. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; and the study of dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are discussed

  5. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  6. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  7. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  8. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effects on the fusion excitation function. However, a simultaneous analysis of the fusion, elastic and quasi-elastic channels would fix the structure and the reaction unambiguously. Keywords. Heavy ion fusion; fusion barrier distributions; nuclear structure; coupled reaction chan- nel calculations. PACS Nos 25.70.Bc; 25.70.

  9. Why and how of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The potential advantages of fusion power are listed. The approaches to plasma containment are mentioned and the status of the fusion program is described. The ERDA and EPRI programs are discussed. The Fusion Energy Foundation's activities are mentioned. Fusion research at the U. of Ill. is described briefly

  10. Studies on D-{sup 3}He fusion in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iiyoshi, Atsuo; Fujiwara, Masami; Okamoto, Masao [and others

    1996-03-01

    In LHD (Large Helical Device) studies on realization of D-D fusion burning has been carried out, where tritium burning is out of this plan. We propose experiments on D-{sup 3}He fusion in this plan. This fueled fusion has the reaction cross-section as large as D-D fusion, however the production rate of neutrons is quite low compared with other fueled fusions. This low production rate of neutrons mitigate limitations on experiments. Up to now, D-T burning with fusion output of 1-10 MW has been studied experimentally in TFTR and JET, however, fusion produced neutrons restrict physically detailed experiments in a short pulse operation. D-{sup 3}He burning experiments with about 0.1-1 MW fusion output in LHD promote the burning physics because of no limitations on experiments and may take the lead in performance of the steady and clean fusion. In this paper, we report the results of studies on D-{sup 3}He fusion plan in LHD. In the first section, the significance of this experiments and the basic data of D-{sup 3}He fueled fusion are presented. In Sec.2 and 3 the theoretical studies as well as the experimental plan in LHD are presented. In Sec.4 the development of a high energy beam source is discussed. In Sec.5 a D-{sup 3}He steady burning in LHD is studied. In Sec.6 we summarize and discuss the results of this plan. This plan is the first step of D-{sup 3}He fusion experiments and hereafter the innovative ideas may enrich this plan. (author)

  11. Fusion Revisits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It's going to be a hot summer at CERN. At least in the Main Building, where from 13 July to 20 August an exhibition is being hosted on nuclear fusion, the energy of the Stars. Nuclear fusion is the engine driving the stars but also a potential source of energy for mankind. The exhibition shows the different nuclear fusion techniques and research carried out on the subject in Europe. Inaugurated at CERN in 1993, following collaboration between Lausanne's CRPP-EPFL and CERN, with input from Alessandro Pascolini of Italy's INFN, this exhibition has travelled round Europe before being revamped and returning to CERN. 'Fusion, Energy of the Stars', from 13 July onwards, Main Building

  12. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  13. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appear...... to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins forming alpha-helical bundles that bring membranes close together. The syncytin family of proteins represent true fusogens and the founding member, syncytin-1......, has been documented to be involved in fusions between placental trophoblasts, between cancer cells and between cancer cells and host ells. We review the literature with emphasis on the syncytin family and propose that syncytins may represent universal fusogens in primates and rodents, which work...

  14. Fusion cost normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    The categorization and accounting methods described in this paper provide a common format that can be used to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format was developed with assistance from the fusion economics community, thus ensuring that the methods meet with the approval of potential users. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept cost estimates and also provide policy makers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concepts may be economically promising. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising concepts, thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  15. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee', S.S.; Dowker, C.L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  16. Complimentary Advanced Fusion Exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alford, Mark G; Jones, Eric C; Bubalo, Adnan; Neumann, Melissa; Greer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    .... The focus areas were in the following regimes: multi-tensor homographic computer vision image fusion, out-of-sequence measurement and track data handling, Nash bargaining approaches to sensor management, pursuit-evasion game theoretic modeling...

  17. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-04-01

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  18. International aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    International collaborative efforts in magnetic confinement fusion in which the USA is involved are reviewed. These efforts are carried under the auspices of international agencies and through bilateral agreements

  19. Fusion-breeder program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding 239 Pu and 233 U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed

  20. Fusion technology (FT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The annual report of tha fusion technology (FT) working group discusses the projects carried out by the participating institutes in the fields of 1) fuel injection and plasma heating, 2) magnetic field technology, and 3) systems investigations. (HK) [de

  1. Cold nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Shinji.

    1991-01-01

    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  2. Report on solar neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R. Jr.; Cleveland, B.T.; Rowley, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is given of the status of solar neutrino research that includes results of the Brookhaven chlorine detector, a discussion of the development of the gallium, bromine, and lithium radiochemical detectors, and some proposals for direct counting detectors. The gallium and bromine radiochemical detectors are developed and are capable of giving critical information of interest about neutrino physics and the fusion reactions in the interior of the sun. A plan for building these detectors is outlined and a rough cost estimate is given. A review is given of the plans in the Soviet Union in solar neutrino research

  3. Solar Proton Events in Six Solar Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaly, Ishkov

    Based on materials the catalogs of solar proton events (SPE) in 1955 ‒ 2010 and list SPE for the current 24 solar cycle (SC) are examined confirmed SPE with E> 10 MeV proton flux in excess of 1 proton cm-2 s ster-1 (pfu) from Švestka and Simon’s (1955 - 1969) and 5 volumes Logachev’s (1970 - 2006) Catalogs of SPE. Historically thus it was formed, that the measurements of the proton fluxes began in the epoch “increased” solar activity (SC 18 ‒ 22), and includes transition period of the solar magnetic fields reconstruction from epoch “increased” to the epoch “lowered” solar activity (22 ‒ 23 SC). In current 24 SC ‒ first SC of the incipient epoch of “lowered” SA ‒ SPE realize under the new conditions, to that of previously not observed. As showed a study of five solar cycles with the reliable measurements of E> 10 MeV proton flux in excess of 1 pfu (1964 - 2013): ‒ a quantity of SPEs remained approximately identical in SC 20, 21, somewhat decreased in the initial solar cycle of the solar magnetic fields reconstruction period (22), but it returned to the same quantity in, the base for the period of reconstruction, SC 23. ‒ Into the first 5 years of the each solar cycle development the rate of the proton generation events noticeably increased in 22 cycles of solar activity and returned to the average in cycles 23 and 24. ‒ Extreme solar flare events are achieved, as a rule, in the solar magnetic fields reconstruction period (August - September 1859; June 1991; October ‒ November 2003.), it is confirmed also for SPE: the extreme fluxes of solar protons (S4) except one (August 1972) were occurred in period of perestroika (SC 22 and 23). This can speak, that inside the epochs SA, when the generation of magnetic field in the convective zone works in the steady-state regime, extreme SPE are improbable. ‒ The largest in the fluxes of protons (S3, S4) occur in the complexes of the active regions flare events, where magnetic field more

  4. Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: 2-Year Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes with a Principles-Based SIJ Fusion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, William W; Delbridge, Arnold; Hales, Donald; Fielding, Louis C

    2018-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) degeneration is a common source of low back pain (LBP). Minimally invasive (MI) SIJ fusion procedures have demonstrated meaningful clinical improvement. A recently developed MI SIJ fusion system incorporates decortication, placement of bone graft and fixation with threaded implants (DC/BG/TF). Nineteen patients who had MI SIJ fusion with DC/BG/TF were enrolled at three centers. Fusion was assessed in CT images obtained 12 and 24 months postoperatively by an independent radiographic core laboratory. LBP was assessed using a 0-10 numerical pain scale (NPS) preoperatively and at 12 and 24 months postoperatively. At 12 months, 15/19 patients (79%) had bridging bone across the SIJ, and at 24 months 17/18 patients (94%) available for follow-up had SIJ fusion. Of the patients with bridging bone 88% had fusion within the decorticated area, with solid fusion in 83%. A significant reduction in NPS scores was demonstrated, representing a 73% reduction in average low back pain. The patients in this series demonstrated significant improvement in LBP. Fusion rates at 24 months demonstrate promise for this system, which utilizes the established orthopedic principles of DC/BG/TF to achieve arthrodesis. Further study is warranted to demonstrate comparative fusion rates for different implant systems.

  5. Outcomes of Short Fusion versus Long Fusion for Adult Degenerative Scoliosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Xu, Joshua; Maharaj, Monish M; Li, Julian; Kim, Jun S; Di Capua, John; Somani, Sulaiman; Tan, Kimberly-Anne; Mobbs, Ralph J; Cho, Samuel K

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in clinical and radiographic outcomes between short (fusions in the setting of degenerative lumbar scoliosis. A literature search was performed from six electronic databases. The key terms of "degenerative scoliosis" OR "lumbar scoliosis" AND "fusion" were combined and used as MeSH subheadings. From relevant studies identified, demographic data, complication rates, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and radiographic parameters were extracted and the data was pooled and analyzed. Long fusion was associated with comparable overall complication rates to short fusion (17% vs 14%, P = 0.20). There was a significant difference in the incidence of pulmonary complications when comparing short versus long fusion (0.42% vs 2.70%; P = 0.02). No significant difference was found in terms of motor, sensory complications, infections, construct-related or cardiac complications, pseudoarthrosis, dural tears, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, or urinary retention. A longer fusion was associated with a greater reduction in coronal Cobb angle and increases in lumbar lordosis, but both findings failed to achieve statistical significance. The ODI was comparable across both cohorts. If shorter fusion lengths are clinically indicated, they should be used instead of longer fusion lengths to reduce perioperative time, costs, and some other complications. However, there are no statistically significant differences in terms of radiographically measurable restoration associated with a short or long fusion. © 2017 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Excimer laser development for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanielli, D.

    1985-01-01

    The future utility of inertial confinement fusion requires a new driver. Successful experiments coupling laser energy to targets, and our understanding of fuel capsule behavior strongly suggest that a laboratory thermonuclear source is attainable and power production may be considered if a suitable driver with high efficiency, high repetition rate, and most importantly, low capital cost, can be identified. No adequate driver exists today; however, the krypton fluoride laser holds great promise. By the end of this decade, driver development can be brought to the point that a technically justifiable choice can be made for the future direction of ICF

  7. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  8. Bringing together fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiser, M.

    1982-01-01

    The increasing involvement of the IAEA in fusion, together with the growing efforts devoted to this area, are described. The author puts forward the idea that one of the most important aspects of this involvement is in providing a world-wide forum for scientists. The functions of the IFRC (International Fusion Research Council) as an advisory group are outlined, and the role played by IFRC in the definition and objectives of INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) are briefly described

  9. Fusion Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. (1). Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  10. Reconstituted Fusion Pore

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremic, Aleksandar; Kelly, Marie; Cho, Sang-Joon; Stromer, Marvin H.; Jena, Bhanu P.

    2003-01-01

    Fusion pores or porosomes are basket-like structures at the cell plasma membrane, at the base of which, membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and fuse to release vesicular contents. Earlier studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of fusion pores at the cell plasma membrane in a number of live secretory cells, revealing their morphology and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time. ImmunoAFM studies demonstrated the release of vesicular contents through the por...

  11. The role of fusion as a future power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintner, E.E.; Hirsch, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    potentials of fusion power in relation to nuclear fission, solar and other future energy sources can be assessed in general terms. The probability of success in fusion development, while not susceptible to measurement, continues to improve. Fusion can be expected to play an increasingly important role in energy supply world-wide in the early decades of the 21st century. If a commercial scale demonstration reactor (greater than or equal to 500 MWe) operates successfully by 2000, it is reasonable to anticipate as many as 20 to 100 large (1000 MWe) plants by 2020 and an increasing percentage of fusion electrical generating stations thereafter

  12. Perspectives of fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    New and practically inexhaustible sources of energy must be developed for the period when oil, coal and uranium will become scarce and expensive. Nuclear fusion holds great promise as one of these practically inexhaustible energy sources. Based on the deuteriumtritium reaction with tritium obtained from naturally occuring lithium, which is also widely available in Europe, the accessible energy resources in the world are 3.10 12 to 3.10 16 toe; based on the deuterium-deuterium reaction, the deuterium content of the oceans corresponds to 10 20 toe. It is presently envisaged that in order to establish fusion as a large-scale energy source, three major thresholds must be reached: - Scientific feasibility, - Technical feasibility, i.e. the proof that the basic technical problems of the fusion reactor can be solved. - Commercial feasibility, i.e. proof that fusion power reactors can be built on an industrial scale, can be operated reliably and produce usable energy at prices competitive with other energy sources. From the above it is clear that the route to commercial fusion will be long and costly and involve the solution of extremely difficult technical problems. In view of the many steps which have to be taken, it appears unlikely that commercial fusion power will be in general use within the next 50 years and by that time world-wide expenditure on research, development and demonstration may well have exceeded 100 Bio ECU. (author)

  13. Status of fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Ashok

    1978-01-01

    The current status of fusion technology is surveyed. Limited reserves of fossil fuel and dangers of proliferation from nuclear reactors have brought into focus the need to develop an optional energy source. Fusion is being looked upon as an optional energy source which is free from environmental hazards unlike fossil fuels and nuclear reactors. Investments in R and D of fusion energy have increased rapidly in USA, Japan, USSR and European countries. Out of the various fusion fuels known, a mixture of D and T is widely chosen. The main problem in fusion technology is the confinement of plasma for a time sufficient to start the fusion reaction. This can be done magnetically or inertially. The three approaches to magnetic confinement are : (1) tokamak, (2) mirror and (3) pinch. Inertial confinement makes use of lasers or electron beams or ion beams. Both the methods of confinement i.e. magnetic and inertial have problems which are identified and their nature is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  14. Energy from inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book contains 22 articles on inertial fusion energy (IFE) research and development written in the framework of an international collaboration of authors under the guidance of an advisory group on inertial fusion energy set up in 1991 to advise the IAEA. It describes the actual scientific, engineering and technological developments in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It also identifies ways in which international co-operation in ICF could be stimulated. The book is intended for a large audience and provides an introduction to inertial fusion energy and an overview of the various technologies needed for IFE power plants to be developed. It contains chapters on (i) the fundamentals of IFE; (ii) inertial confinement target physics; (iii) IFE power plant design principles (requirements for power plant drivers, solid state laser drivers, gas laser drivers, heavy ion drivers, and light ion drivers, target fabrication and positioning, reaction chamber systems, power generation and conditioning and radiation control, materials management and target materials recovery), (iv) special design issues (radiation damage in structural materials, induced radioactivity, laser driver- reaction chamber interfaces, ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces), (v) inertial fusion energy development strategy, (vi) safety and environmental impact, (vii) economics and other figures of merit; (viii) other uses of inertial fusion (both those involving and not involving implosions); and (ix) international activities. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. The search for solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, L.

    1976-01-01

    The pioneering work on the detection of solar neutrinos by R. Davis is discussed. The discrepancy between the theoretical neutrino flux rate, according to a recent standard solar model, of 5.6 solar neutrino units (SNU) and the observed rate of 1 SNU together with three suggested solutions of the discrepancy are examined. Very recently Davis has announced an increased count rate of about 4 SNU while groups in Birmingham and in the Crimea have reported solar oscillations. The impact of these latest developments is discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Solar neutrinos: proposal for a new test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, M.S.; Stevens, C.M.; Horivitz, E.P.; Fuchs, L.H.; Lerner, J.L.; Goodman, L.S.; Childs, W.J.; Hessler, J.

    1976-01-01

    The predicted flux on the earth of solar neutrinos has eluded detection, confounding current ideas of solar energy production by nuclear fusion. The dominant low-energy component of that flux can be detected by mass-spectrometric assay of the induced tiny concentration of 1.6 x 10 7 year lead-205 in old thallium minerals. Comments are solicited from those in all relevant disciplines

  17. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: research on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.

    1988-12-01

    Recent progress in thermonuclear fusion research indicates that the scientists' schedule for the demonstration of the scientific feasibility will be kept and that break-even will be attained in the course of the next decade. To see the implementation of ignition, however, the generation of future experiments must be awaited. These projects are currently under study. With technological research going on in parallel, they should at the same time contribute to the design of a reactor. Fusion reactors will be quite different from the fission nuclear reactors we know, and the waste of the plants will also be of a different nature. It is still too early to define the precise design of a fusion reactor. On the basis of a toric machine concept like that of the tokamak, we can, however, envisage that the problems with which we are confronted will be solved one after the other. As we have just seen, these will be the objectives of the future experimental installations where ignition will be possible and where the flux of fast neutrons will be so strong that they will allow the study of low-activation materials which will be used in the structure of the reactor. But this is also a task in which from now onwards numerous laboratories in Europe and in the world participate. The works are in fact punctiform, and often the mutual incidences can only be determined by an approach simulated by numerical codes. (author) 19 figs., 6 tabs., 8 refs

  18. Osteoclast Fusion is Based on Heterogeneity Between Fusion Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Bone-resorbing osteoclasts are formed through fusion of mononucleated precursors. Their choice of partners during the fusion process remains unclear. We hypothesized that osteoclasts are selective in their choice of fusion partner and that this selectivity is based on heterogeneity among the cells...... with respect to their maturation stage and their expression and cellular organization of fusion factors. Support for this hypothesis was found from immunofluorescence staining of the osteoclast fusion factors CD47, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and syncytin-1. These stainings...... fusion steps was also suggested from experiments with a CD47 blocking antibody, which resulted in an inhibition of the fusion of small osteoclasts. Conversely, blocking of connexin 43 affected the fusion of larger osteoclasts with four or more nuclei. The suggestion that different fusion factors function...

  19. Muon-catalysed fusion as a finite Markov process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Siclen, C.DeW.

    1985-01-01

    By regarding muon catalysis of nuclear fusion in a mixture of hydrogen isotopes as a series of stochastic processes. Markov chain theory is used to derive several exact analytic equations relating the rates of the various reactions and the sticking coefficients for the fusion channels. These include expressions for the mean number of pd, dd, dt, tt and pt fusions per muon, the mean total number of fusions per muon and the muon cycling rate, which reduce to the corresponding well known expressions for catalysis in a deuterium-tritium mixture. Inclusion of the fusion reaction ddμ → pμ + t provides a particularly interesting complication, as this process gives rise to a catalysis cycle that may not return a free muon to the system. (author)

  20. Potential Benefits of Ultrasonically Assisted Fusion Welding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many of the processes in which ultrasonic oscillations have been beneficial are similar to fusion welding process where the quality of welds depends on porosity, crystallisation rate, inclusions, inter-metallic compounds, depth of penetration, heat affected zone, etc. Some preliminary tests were performed to assess the effects ...

  1. Experimental results in muon-catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    Overall, it may be possible to look back over the past decade of research and conclude that muon-catalyzed fusion yields have significantly exceeded expectations, leading to renewed speculation regarding applications. Concerning the muon catalysis cycling rate, it is concluded that reaction rates and the overall catalysis cycling rate deserve further exploration, and that the rates are sufficiently fast to permit many hundreds of fusions during the muon lifetime. Various ways in which muons may be lost from the catalysis cycle are then described and discussed, and good agreement is obtained between experimental alpha-muon sticking values at liquid density. These values lie below the theoretical expectation, an outstanding mystery in muon-catalyzed cold fusion. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the alpha-muon sticking probability and related mechanisms. It is also clear that sticking is the major bottleneck in the muon catalysis cycle. In connection with expected fusion yields, to produce power commercially using μcf alone would probably require an order-of-magnitude increase in the yield per muon, assuming advanced technology for muon production. (N.K.)

  2. An injectable method for noninvasive spine fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Ronke M; Lazard, ZaWaunyka; Heggeness, Michael H; Moran, Kevin M; Hipp, John A; Dewan, Ashvin K; Davis, Alan R; West, Jennifer L; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A

    2011-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce bone formation but are difficult to localize, and subsequent diffusion from the site of interest and short half-life reduce the efficacy of the protein. Currently, spine fusion requires stripping, decortications of the transverse processes, and an autograft harvest procedure. Even in combination with BMPs, clinical spinal fusion has a high failure rate, presumably because of difficulties in localizing sufficient levels of BMP. The goal was to achieve reliable spine fusion through a single injection of a cell-based gene therapy system without the need for any surgical intervention. Eighty-seven immunodeficient (n=44) and immune-competent (n=43) mice were injected along the paraspinous musculature to achieve rapid induction of heterotopic ossification (HO) and ultimately spinal arthrodesis. Immunodeficient and immune-competent mice were injected with fibroblasts, transduced with an adenoviral vector to express BMP2, along the paraspinous musculature. Bone formation was evaluated via radiographs, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical analysis. ew bridging bone between the vertebrae and the fusion to adjacent skeletal bone was obtained as early as 2 weeks. Reduction in spine flexion-extension also occurred as early as 2 weeks after injection of the gene therapy system, with greater than 90% fusion by 4 weeks in all animals regardless of their genetic background. Injection of our cell-based system into the paraspinous musculature induces spinal fusion that is dependent neither on the cell type nor on the immune status. These studies are the first to harness HO in an immune-competent model as a noninvasive injectable system for clinically relevant spinal fusion and may one day impact human spinal arthrodesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigations and calculations toward increasing the efficiency of muon catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkhorst, H.J.

    1989-11-01

    A brief summary of results during this report period is given. Some of the topics investigated includes: (1) calculations of sticking fractions and d-t fusion from dtμ(JV) states, (2) ddμ sticking fractions, (3) the reactivation coefficient in d-t fusion, (4) fusion rates for all XYμ(JV)(JV=0,1), (5) nuclear effects on energy shifts and fusion rates for (J=O) states of dtμ, (6) and some comments on cold fusion

  4. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  5. Energy outlook for fusion in comparison with other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.

    1982-10-01

    Long-term forecasting involving changes in population levels and world-energy consumption are first recalled. The reserves and resources of the world's main energy sources are then examined: oil, gas, coal, nuclear fission as well as the solar energy potential and other renewable energy sources. The principles of nuclear fusion are first recalled; the problem of the world's lithium resources is then examined; the energy contents of natural lithium and other uses of this metal are also discussed. Finally, considerations on the impact of fusion on the energy outlook are discussed [fr

  6. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  7. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  8. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  10. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1986-05-01

    In 1982, KfK joined the fusion programme of EURATOM as a further association introducing its experience in nuclear technology. KfK closely cooperates with IPP Garching, the two institutions forming a research unit aiming at planning and realization of future development steps of fusion. KfK has combined its forces in the Nuclear Fusion Project (PKF) with participation of several KfK departments to the project tasks. Previous work of KfK in magnetic fusion has addressed mainly superconducting magnets, plasma heating by cluster ions and studies on structural materials. At present, emphasis of our work has concentrated increasingly on the nuclear part, i.e. the first wall and blanket structures and the elements of the tritium extraction and purification system. Associated to this component development are studies of remote maintenance and safety. Most of the actual work addresses NET, the next step to a demonstration of fusion feasibility. NET is supposed to follow JET, the operating plasma physics experiment of Euratom, on the 1990's. Detailed progress of the work in the past half year is described in this report. (orig./GG)

  11. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  12. Material for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhishek, Anuj; Ranjan, Prem

    2011-01-01

    To make nuclear fusion power a reality, the scientists are working restlessly to find the materials which can confine the power generated by the fusion of two atomic nuclei. A little success in this field has been achieved, though there are still miles to go. Fusion reaction is a special kind of reaction which must occur at very high density and temperature to develop extremely large amount of energy, which is very hard to control and confine within using the present techniques. As a whole it requires the physical condition that rarely exists on the earth to carry out in an efficient manner. As per the growing demand and present scenario of the world energy, scientists are working round the clock to make effective fusion reactions to real. In this paper the work presently going on is considered in this regard. The progress of the Joint European Torus 2010, ITER 2005, HiPER and minor works have been studied to make the paper more object oriented. A detailed study of the technological and material requirement has been discussed in the paper and a possible suggestion is provided to make a contribution in the field of building first ever nuclear fusion reactor

  13. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  14. Costs and effects in lumbar spinal fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Rikke; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Christiansen, Terkel

    2007-01-01

    consecutive patients with chronic low back pain, who were surgically treated from January 2001 through January 2003, was followed until 2 years postoperatively. Operations took place at University Hospital of Aarhus and all patients had either (1) non-instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion, (2......) instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion, or (3) instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion + anterior intervertebral support. Analysis of costs was performed at the patient-level, from an administrator's perspective, by means of Activity-Based-Costing. Clinical effects were measured by means...... of the Dallas Pain Questionnaire and the Low Back Pain Rating Scale at baseline and 2 years postoperatively. Regression models were used to reveal determinants for costs and effects. Costs and effects were analyzed as a net-benefit measure to reveal determinants for cost-effectiveness, and finally, adjusted...

  15. Development status of condensed cluster fusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akito

    2015-01-01

    The condensed cluster fusion theory has been developed since 1989, under the view that dynamic ordering processes of confined transient clusters of D(H)-particles in catalytic surface sites, vacancies and global mesoscopic potential well of metal nanoparticles may induce simultaneous multi-body fusion reactions. One thorough answer is obtained for the condensation motion of clusters under platonic symmetry like 4D(H)/TSC, 6D(H)/RDC and 8D(H)/RDC and their fusion reaction rates. Theoretical analysis for initial dynamic clustering process on/in catalytic sites is still speculative and under searching a technique to combine the electron density functional method and the QM Langevin method. (author)

  16. Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorne, J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper cold fusion of deuterium by electrolysis of heavy water onto a palladium (or titanium) cathode is reported. Contrary to the assumption of Fleishmann and Pons that electrochemically compressed D + exists inside the palladium cathode, the observations of Jones et al. can be partially explained by the simultaneous presence of deuteride D - and the highly mobile positive deuterium ion D + . The opposite charges reduce the intranuclear distance and enhance the tunneling fusion rate. Furthermore, alloying of lithium with palladium can stabilize a negatively charged deuteride ion due to the salinelike character of lithium deuteride. The enormous pressure (or fugacity), achieved by the applied electrochemical potential (10 30 atm), is a virtual pressure that would have existed in equilibrium with palladium deuteride (PdD x ). It is speculated that nuclear fusion occurs at the surface, and the PdD x serves as a reservoir for the supply of deuteride ions

  17. Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Antonelli, V.; Miramonti, L.; Peña Garay, Carlos; Serenelli, A.

    2013-01-01

    The study of solar neutrinos has given since ever a fundamental contribution both to astroparticle and to elementary particle physics, offering an ideal test of solar models and offering at the same time relevant indications on the fundamental interactions among particles. After reviewing the striking results of the last two decades, which were determinant to solve the long standing solar neutrino puzzle and refine the Standard Solar Model, we focus our attention on the more recent results in...

  18. Solar holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludman, Jacques E.; Riccobono, Juanita R.; Caulfield, H. John; Upton, Timothy D.

    2002-07-01

    A solar photovoltaic energy collection system using a reflection hologram is described herein. The system uses a single-axis tracking system in conjunction with a spectral- splitting holographic element. The hologram accurately focuses the desired regions of the solar spectrum to match the bandgaps of two ro more different solar cells, while diverting unused IR wavelengths away. Other applications for solar holography include daylighting and greenhouses.

  19. Different source image fusion based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Piao, Yan

    2016-03-01

    The fusion technology of video image is to make the video obtained by different image sensors complementary to each other by some technical means, so as to obtain the video information which is rich in information and suitable for the human eye system. Infrared cameras in harsh environments such as when smoke, fog and low light situations penetrating power, but the ability to obtain the details of the image is poor, does not meet the human visual system. Single visible light imaging can be rich in detail, high resolution images and for the visual system, but the visible image easily affected by the external environment. Infrared image and visible image fusion process involved in the video image fusion algorithm complexity and high calculation capacity, have occupied more memory resources, high clock rate requirements, such as software, c ++, c, etc. to achieve more, but based on Hardware platform less. In this paper, based on the imaging characteristics of infrared images and visible light images, the software and hardware are combined to obtain the registration parameters through software matlab, and the gray level weighted average method is used to implement the hardware platform. Information fusion, and finally the fusion image can achieve the goal of effectively improving the acquisition of information to increase the amount of information in the image.

  20. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, Glen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  1. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360 degree field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator

  2. Energy. From firewood to solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2006-01-01

    An outline is given of the development of energy and the options to secure the energy supply for the future. Much information is given about energy efficiency, the exploitation of tar sands, reopening of the coal mines in the Netherlands, nuclear fusion and fission, wave energy and solar cells, etc [nl

  3. Buying Solar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joe

    Presented are guidelines for buying solar systems for the individual consumer. This is intended to help the consumer reduce many of the risks associated with the purchase of solar systems, particularly the risks of fraud and deception. Engineering terms associated with solar technology are presented and described to enable the consumer to discuss…

  4. Solar Special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Roekel, A.; Osborne, J.; Schroeter, S.; De Jong, R.; De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Solar power is growing much faster than most policymakers and analysts realise. As costs come down and feed-in tariffs go up across Europe, a number of countries have started in pursuit of market leader Germany. But in Germany criticism is growing of the multi-billion-euro support schemes that keep the solar industry booming. In this section of the magazine several articles are dedicated to developments in solar energy in Europe. The first article is an overview story on the strong growing global market for solar cells, mainly thanks to subsidy schemes. The second article is on the position of foreign companies in the solar market in Italy. Article number three is dedicated to the conditions for solar technology companies to establish themselves in the German state of Saxony. Also the fifth article deals with the development of solar cells in Saxony: scientists, plant manufacturers and module producers in Saxony are working on new technologies that can be used to produce solar electricity cost-effectively. The goal is to bring the price down to match that of conventionally generated electricity within the next few years. The sixth article deals with the the solar power market in Belgium, which may be overheated or 'oversubsidized'. Article seven is on France, which used to be a pioneer in solar technology, but now produces only a fraction of the solar output of market leader Germany. However, new attractive feed-in-tariffs are changing the solar landscape drastically

  5. Solar urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

  6. Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Bone Fusion in Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Orita, Sumihisa; Inage, Kazuhidee; Ito, Michihiro; Yamashita, Masaomi; Furuya, Takeo; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Ohtori, Seiji

    2018-02-01

    Retrospective case series. To examine the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for bone fusion in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) using local bone grafting. Several authors have reported the efficacy of PRP for bone union in animal models. However, the use of PRP for bone fusion in TLIF surgery has not been fully explored. Twenty patients underwent single-level TLIF surgery because of L4 spondylolisthesis. An interbody fusion cage and local bone were used in nine patients (control group) and an interbody fusion cage, local bone, and PRP were used in 11 patients (PRP group). PRP was prepared from the patients' blood samples (400 mL) immediately before surgery. The duration of bone union and postoperative bone fusion rate were assessed using plain radiography at every 3 months postoperatively and computed tomography at 12 or 24 months postoperatively, respectively. Lower back pain, leg pain, and leg numbness were evaluated using the visual analog scale preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. The platelet count was 8.7 times higher in PRP than in blood. The bone union rate was significantly superior in the PRP group than in the control group (91% and 77%, respectively; p =0.035), whereas the average duration of bone union was not significantly different between the groups (7.7±0.74 and 10.0±2.00 months, respectively; p =0.131). There was no significant difference in lower back pain, leg pain, and leg numbness in both groups during follow-up ( p >0.05). Our study suggests that the use of PRP in TLIF surgery increases bone fusion rate.

  7. Prospects of fusion energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohzaki, Yasuji; Seki, Yasushi; Motojima, Osamu

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear fusion energy that collects large expectation as the energy system of 21st century adopts the tokamak with DT fuel as the main line to advance the research and development, and succeeded in the confinement of plasma that nearly satisfies the condition of zero power output. However, as for nuclear fusion energy, other various generation and utilization forms are conceivable. At present, there are many subjects before the practical use, but as to nuclear fusion energy system which is considered to contribute greatly to mankind when it will be practically used in future, it is significant to clarify the present state of the research and the subjects of the research for the realization. Tokamak type fusion reactor, helical type fusion reactor, D-He-3 FRC fusion reactor, inertial fusion reactor,fusion-fission hybrid reactor, nuclear fusion rocket, muon catalytic nuclear fusion, normal temperature nuclear fusion and so on are described. As the final summary, on the basis of the concepts of individual nuclear fusion reactors, what possibility nuclear fusion energy has as a whole is considered, and the way of advancing the development hereafter is summarized. (K.I.)

  8. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  9. Fusion reactor wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The fusion reactor currently is being developed as a clean source of electricity with an essentially infinite source of fuel. These reactors are visualized as using a fusion reaction to generate large quantities of high temperature energy which can be used as process heat or for the generation of electricity. The energy would be created primarily as the kinetic energy of neutrons or other reaction products. Neutron energy could be converted to high-temperature heat by moderation and capture of the neutrons. The energy of other reaction products could be converted to high-temperature heat by capture, or directly to electricity by direct conversion electrostatic equipment. An analysis to determine the wastes released as a result of operation of fusion power plants is presented

  10. Canadian fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.S.

    1982-06-01

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  11. Fusion research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  12. On impact fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1997-01-01

    Impact fusion is a promising, but much less developed road towards inertial confinement fusion. It offers an excellent solution to the so-called stand-off problem for thermonuclear microexplosions but is confronted with the challenge to accelerate macroscopic particles to the needed high velocities of 10 2 -10 3 km/s. To reach these velocities, two ways have been studied in the past. The electric acceleration of a beam of microparticles, with the particles as small as large clusters, and the magnetic acceleration of gram-size ferromagnetic or superconducting projectiles. For the generation of an intense burst of soft X-rays used for the indirect drive, impact fusion may offer new promising possibilities

  13. Ceramics for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors

  14. Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, F.P.

    1977-01-01

    On October 1, 1977 work began at LLL on the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), an advanced experimental fusion device. Scheduled for operation in late 1981, MFTF is designed as an intermediate step between present mirror machines, such as 2XIIB, and an experimental fusion reactor. This design incorporates improved technology and a better theoretical understanding of how neutral beam injection, plasma guns, and gas injection into the plasma region compensate for cooling and particle losses. With the new facility, we expect to achieve a confinement factor (n tau) of 10 12 particles . sm/cm 3 --a tenfold increase over 2XIIB n tau values--and to increase plasma temperature to over 500 million K. The following article describes this new facility and reports on progress in some of the R and D projects that are providing the technological base for its construction

  15. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  16. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying responses to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today that will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications. (author)

  17. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  18. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications

  19. [Variant fusion transcript in ALL children with E2A-PBX1 fusion gene positive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Gang; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Min-Yuan; Hu, Ya-Mei

    2006-06-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the expression of E2A-PBX1 fusion gene in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The primers located at different sites of E2A and PBX1 gene were used to screen for the fusion gene in 410 children with ALL, including 362 cases of B cell ALL and 48 cases of T cell ALL. The results showed that 17 children carried the fusion gene. The positive rate was 4.1%. Furthermore, all the positive cases expressed a variant type of fusion transcript. It resulted from different splicing of the 13th exon (159 bp) of E2A gene. Analyses with BLASTn indicated that the variant type of transcript retained the open reading frame. However, the loss of 53 amino acid residues which were located at the 2nd activation domain resulted in the partial deletion of the putative loop-helix (LH) structure as well as the complete deletion of the heptad leucine repeat. It is concluded that all the children with ALL positive for the E2A-PBX1 fusion gene express typical and variant fusion transcripts. The latter resulted from different splicing of the 13th exon (159 bp) of E2A gene. The loss of 53aa would lead to the partial deletion of the putative loop-helix (LH) structure as well as the complete deletion of the heptad leucine repeat.

  20. Feature-Fusion Guidelines for Image-Based Multi-Modal Biometric Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Brown

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The feature level, unlike the match score level, lacks multi-modal fusion guidelines. This work demonstrates a new approach for improved image-based biometric feature-fusion. The approach extracts and combines the face, fingerprint and palmprint at the feature level for improved human identification accuracy. Feature-fusion guidelines, proposed in our recent work, are extended by adding a new face segmentation method and the support vector machine classifier. The new face segmentation method improves the face identification equal error rate (EER by 10%. The support vector machine classifier combined with the new feature selection approach, proposed in our recent work, outperforms other classifiers when using a single training sample. Feature-fusion guidelines take the form of strengths and weaknesses as observed in the applied feature processing modules during preliminary experiments. The guidelines are used to implement an effective biometric fusion system at the feature level, using a novel feature-fusion methodology, reducing the EER of two groups of three datasets namely: SDUMLA face, SDUMLA fingerprint and IITD palmprint; MUCT Face, MCYT Fingerprint and CASIA Palmprint.

  1. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  2. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  3. International fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy of the light elements deuterium and lithium can be released if the 100 MK degree temperature required for deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fusion reactions can be achieved together with sufficient thermal insulation for a net energy yield. Progress of world-wide research shows good prospect for these physical conditions being achieved by the use of magnetic field confinement and of rapidly developing heating methods. Tokamak systems, alternative magnetic systems and inertial confinement progress are described. International co-operation features a number of bilateral agreements between countries: the Euratom collaboration which includes the Joint European Torus, a joint undertaking of eleven Western European nations of Euratom, established to build and operate a major confinement experiment; the development of co-operative projects within the OECD/IEA framework; the INTOR workshop, a world-wide study under IAEA auspices of the next major step in fusion research which might be built co-operatively; and assessments of the potential of nuclear fusion by the IAEA and the International Fusion Research Council. The INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) studies have outlined a major plant of the tokamak type to study the engineering and technology of fusion reactor systems, which might be constructed on a world-wide basis to tackle and share the investment risks of the developments which lie ahead. This paper summarizes the recent progress of research on controlled nuclear fusion, featuring those areas where international co-operation has played an important part, and describes the various arrangements by which this international co-operation is facilitated. (author)

  4. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  5. Confinement inertial fusion. Power reactors of nuclear fusion by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J.M.; Leira, G; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis and the need of the nuclear fusion energy are analized. The nuclear processes in the laser interation with the ablator material are studied, as well as the thermohydrodinamic processes in the implossion, and the neutronics of the fusion. The fusion reactor components are described and the economic and social impact of its introduction in the future energetic strategies.(author)

  6. Nuclear fusion: Pursuing the Soft [Symposium on fusion technology] option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenward, M.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion research has come a long way since the fusion community held the first Symposium on fusion technology (Soft) in Britain 30 years ago. Some of the recent achievements of the Jet project are reported from this year's symposium, the 16th in the series, held in London at the beginning of September. (author)

  7. Cold fusion in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, L.

    1989-01-01

    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  8. Vacuum fusion of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.A.

    1957-01-01

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results

  9. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-05-01

    In the current Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community the KfK association is working at present on 16 R and D contracts. Most of the work is strongly oriented towards the Next European Torus. Direct support to NET is given by three KfK delegates being member of the NET study group. In addition to the R and D contracts the association is working on 11 NET study contracts. Though KfK contributes to all areas defined in fusion technology, the main emphasis is put on superconducting magnet and breeding blanket development. Other important fields are tritium technology, materials research, and remote handling. (orig./GG)

  10. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised

  11. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  12. Bringing fusion electric power closer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintner, E.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the controlled fusion research program is given. The tokamak research program is described. Beam injection heating, control systems, and the safety of fusion reactors are topics that are also discussed

  13. Fusion in the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  14. Atomic physics issues in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general introduction to the present role of atomic processes in both inertial and magnetic controlled fusion work is presented. (Auth.)

  15. The quest for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.

    1997-10-01

    A brief history of the magnetic fusion program from the point of view of a stellarator enthusiast who worked at a major tokamak laboratory. The reason that success in the magnetic fusion energy program is essential is presented. (author)

  16. Accelerator and fusion research division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations

  17. Fusion technology status and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined

  18. Fusion reactor development: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is a review of the current prospects for fusion reactor development based upon the present status in plasma physics research, fusion technology development and reactor conceptual design for the tokamak magnetic confinement concept. Recent advances in tokamak plasma research and fusion technology development are summarized. The direction and conclusions of tokamak reactor conceptual design are discussed. The status of alternate magnetic confinement concept research is reviewed briefly. A feasible timetable for the development of fusion reactors is presented

  19. Fusion engineering device design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein

  20. Fusion engineering device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  1. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  2. Effective donor cell fusion conditions for production of cloned dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JungEun; Oh, HyunJu; Hong, SoGun; Kim, MinJung; Kim, GeonA; Koo, OkJae; Kang, SungKeun; Jang, Goo; Lee, ByeongChun

    2011-03-01

    As shown by the birth of the first cloned dog 'Snuppy', a protocol to produce viable cloned dogs has been reported. In order to evaluate optimum fusion conditions for improving dog cloning efficiency, in vivo matured oocytes were reconstructed with adult somatic cells from a female Pekingese using different fusion conditions. Fusion with needle vs chamber methods, and with low vs high pulse strength was compared by evaluating fusion rate and in vivo development of canine cloned embryos. The fusion rates in the high voltage groups were significantly higher than in the low voltage groups regardless of fusion method (83.5 vs 66.1% for the needle fusion method, 67.4 vs 37.9% for the fusion chamber method). After embryo transfer, one each pregnancy was detected after using the needle fusion method with high and low voltage and in the chamber fusion method with high voltage, whereas no pregnancy was detected using the chamber method with low voltage. However, only the pregnancy from the needle fusion method with high voltage was maintained to term and one healthy puppy was delivered. The results of the present study demonstrated that two DC pulses of 3.8 to 4.0 kV/cm for 15 μsec using the needle fusion method were the most effective method for the production of cloned dogs under the conditions of this experiment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Older literature review of increased risk of adjacent segment degeneration with instrumented lumbar fusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) following lumbar spine surgery occurs in up to 30% of cases, and descriptions of such changes are not new. Here, we review some of the older literature concerning the rate of ASD, typically more severe cephalad than caudad, and highly correlated with instrumented fusions. Therefore, for degenerative lumbar disease without frank instability, ASD would be markedly reduced by avoiding instrumented fusions. Methods: In a prior review, the newer literature regarding the frequency of ASD following lumbar instrumented fusions (e.g., transforaminal or posterior lumbar interbody fusions [TLIF/PLIF] fusions or occasionally, posterolateral fusions [PLFs]) was presented. Some studies cited an up to an 18.5% incidence of ASD following instrumented versus noninstrumented fusions/decompressions alone (5.6%). A review of the older literature similarly documents a higher rate of ASD following instrumented fusions performed for degenerative lumbar disease alone. Results: More frequent and more severe ASD follows instrumented lumbar fusions performed for degenerative lumbar disease without instability. Alternatively, this entity should be treated with decompressions alone or with noninstrumented fusions, without the addition of instrumentation. Conclusions: Too many studies assume that TLIF, PLIF, and even PLF instrumented fusions are the “gold standard of care” for dealing with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine without documented instability. It is time to correct that assumption, and reassess the older literature along with the new to confirm that decompression alone and noninstrumented fusion avoid significant morbidity and even potentially mortality attributed to unnecessary instrumentation. PMID:26904370

  4. Economic and environmental performance of future fusion plants in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, T.; Saez, R.M.; Lako, P.

    2001-01-01

    If the good performance of fusion as technology with no CO 2 emission during normal operation and rather low external costs, reflecting the advantageous environmental and safety characteristics, are considered in future energy regulations, fusion can win considerable market shares in future electricity markets. The economic performance was elaborated for Western Europe for the time period till 2100. The software tool MARKAL widely used in energy research was used to simulate and optimise the development of the Western European energy system. Two different scenarios were considered, the main difference was the interest rate for investments. Stringent CO 2 -emission strategies lead to considerable market shares for fusion. As a comprehensive indicator of the environmental and safety performance of fusion plants the external costs following the ExternE method was used. External costs of fusion are rather low, much below the cost of electricity, and are in the same range as photovoltaics and wind energy. (author)

  5. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source

  6. Incomplete fusion reactions in Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is confirmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion. Keywords. Heavy ion ... Several models are used to explain these ICF namely, sum rule model [8], breakup fusion model [9], promptly emitted .... The solid lines are eye guides to the experimental points. Figure 1. Excitation functions of ...

  7. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the analysis of fusion barrier distributions is not always an unambiguous test or a 'fingerprint' of the structure information of the colliding nuclei. Examples are presented with same fusion barrier distributions for nuclei having different structures. The fusion excitation functions for 16O+208Pb, using the coupled ...

  8. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  9. Lifetime and production rate of NOx in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere in the polar spring/summer after the solar proton event in October–November 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Friederich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present altitude-dependent lifetimes of NOx, determined with MIPAS/ENVISAT (the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding/the European Environment Satellite, for the Southern polar region after the solar proton event in October–November 2003. Between 50° S and 90° S and decreasing in altitude they range from about two days at 64 km to about 20 days at 44 km. The lifetimes are controlled by transport, mixing and photochemistry. We infer estimates of dynamical lifetimes by comparison of the observed decay to photochemical lifetimes calculated with the SLIMCAT 3-D Model. Photochemical loss contributes to the observed NOx depletion by 0.1% at 44 km, increasing with altitude to 45% at 64 km. In addition, we show the correlation of modelled ionization rates and observed NOx densities under consideration of the determined lifetimes of NOx, and calculate altitude-dependent effective production rates of NOx due to ionization. For that we compare ionization rates of the AIMOS data base with the MIPAS measurements from 15 October–31 December 2003. We derive effective NOx-production rates to be applied to the AIMOS ionization rates which range from about 0.2 NOx-molecules per ion pair at 44 km to 0.7 NOx-molecules per ion pair at 62 km. These effective production rates are considerably lower than predicted by box model simulations which could hint at an overestimation of the modelled ionization rates.

  10. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  11. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-08

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  12. Identification of fusion genes in breast cancer by paired-end RNA-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgren, Henrik; Murumagi, Astrid; Kangaspeska, Sara; Nicorici, Daniel; Hongisto, Vesa; Kleivi, Kristine; Rye, Inga H; Nyberg, Sandra; Wolf, Maija; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, chromosomal translocations and fusion genes have been an underappreciated class of mutations in solid tumors. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for systematic characterization of cancer cell transcriptomes, including the discovery of expressed fusion genes resulting from underlying genomic rearrangements. We applied paired-end RNA-seq to identify 24 novel and 3 previously known fusion genes in breast cancer cells. Supported by an improved bioinformatic approach, we had a 95% success rate of validating gene fusions initially detected by RNA-seq. Fusion partner genes were found to contribute promoters (5' UTR), coding sequences and 3' UTRs. Most fusion genes were associated with copy number transitions and were particularly common in high-level DNA amplifications. This suggests that fusion events may contribute to the selective advantage provided by DNA amplifications and deletions. Some of the fusion partner genes, such as GSDMB in the TATDN1-GSDMB fusion and IKZF3 in the VAPB-IKZF3 fusion, were only detected as a fusion transcript, indicating activation of a dormant gene by the fusion event. A number of fusion gene partners have either been previously observed in oncogenic gene fusions, mostly in leukemias, or otherwise reported to be oncogenic. RNA interference-mediated knock-down of the VAPB-IKZF3 fusion gene indicated that it may be necessary for cancer cell growth and survival. In summary, using RNA-sequencing and improved bioinformatic stratification, we have discovered a number of novel fusion genes in breast cancer, and identified VAPB-IKZF3 as a potential fusion gene with importance for the growth and survival of breast cancer cells.

  13. Tritium production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1981-08-01

    The present analyses on the possibilities of extracting tritium from the liquid and solid fusion reactor blankets show up many problems. A consistent ensemble of materials and devices for extracting the heat and the tritium has not yet been integrated in a fusion reactor blanket project. The dimensioning of the many pipes required for shifting the tritium can only be done very approximately and the volume taken up by the blanket is difficult to evaluate, etc. The utilization of present data leads to over-dimensioning the installations by prudence and perhaps rejecting the best solutions. In order to measure the parameters of the most promising materials, work must be carried out on well defined samples and not only determine the base physical-chemical coefficients, such as thermal conductivity, scattering coefficients, Sievert parameters, but also the kinetic parameters conventional in chemical engineering, such as the hourly space rates of degassing. It is also necessary to perform long duration experiments under radiation and at operating temperatures, or above, in order to study the ageing of the bodies employed [fr

  14. Fusion development and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: superconducting magnet technology high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies -- Aries; ITER physics; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  15. Fusion og frasigelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer, i hvilket omfang reglerne om beskyttelse af lønmodtagere ved virksomhedsoverdragelse også finder anvendelse ved selskabsretliug fusion og spaltning. Der sættes fokus på forskrifterne om erhververens frasigelse af overdragerens kollektive overenskomster, og det efterprøves, om...

  16. Bouillabaisse sushi fusion power

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "If avant-garde cuisine is any guide, Japanese-French fusion does not work all that well. And the interminable discussions over the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest that what is true of cooking is true of physics" (1 page)

  17. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-10-01

    KfK is involved in the European Fusion Programme predominantly in the NET and Fusion Technology part. The following fields of activity are covered: Studies for NET, alternative confinement concepts, and needs and issues of integral testing. Research on structural materials. Development of superconducting magnets. Gyrotron development (part of the Physics Programme). Nuclear technology (breeding materials, blanket design, tritium technology, safety and environmental aspects of fusion, remote maintenance). Reported here are status and results of work under contracts with the CEC within the NET and Technology Programme. The aim of the major part of this R and D work is the support of NET, some areas (e.g. materials, safety and environmental impact, blanket design) have a wider scope and address problems of a demonstration reactor. In the current working period, several new proposals have been elaborated to be implemented into the 85/89 Euratom Fusion Programme. New KfK contributions relate to materials research (dual beam and fast reactor irradiations, ferritic steels), to blanket engineering (MHD-effects) and to safety studies (e.g. magnet safety). (orig./GG)

  18. Rencontre on fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, S.F.J.

    1979-02-01

    This report of a rencontre held to consider the technology of magnetic confinement fusion devices gives the agenda for the meeting and lists those topics which were identified as areas of research. These topics included materials, tritium, structures and heat transfer, neutronics and nuclear data, and corrosion problems. (UK)

  19. Intelligence Fusion [video

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School; France, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Paul France is the Homeland Security Field Operations Manager for the state of Wisconsin. He is a current participant in the Naval Postgraduate School's Homeland Security Master's Program and is working on a thesis entitled 'Preventing Terrorism through Information Sharing Using TEW Systems and Intelligence Fusion Centers.

  20. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs