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Sample records for solar battery taiyo

  1. Solar cell. Taiyo denchi

    Kamihara, T; Kondo, S; Mori, K [Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1990-10-23

    This invention provides a solar cell having high resistance to strong incident light and high temperature preservability. Reason of performance degradation of the solar cell in high temperature atmosphere thermally diffuses at the boundary surface of the silicon with metal particles. The method of blocking this thermal diffusion is that the film thickness is of the level that the electrons can pass through the film by a quantum dynamical tunnel effect. In this invention, the construction is that a transparent substrate, a transparent electrode, a P-type amorphous silicon, an I-type amorphous silicon, silica and a collector electrode are sequentially laminated and receives the incident light, thus generating a voltage between the two electrodes. Thickness of silica film is 10-100 microns. Materials of the collector electrode are either single element or alloys of Cs, K, Na, Li, Ba, Mg, Cd, Ta, Al, Mo, Zr, Co, Fe, Cu, Ag, W, Cr, Au and Ni. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Solar cell. Taiyo denchi

    Amemiya, S.; Hashimoto, Y. (Canon Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-05-17

    This invention provides a cheap solar cell having a transparent surface protective layer which satisfies both controversial properties such as high electroconductivity and high water repellency and also abated the reduction of photoelectric conversion. In other words, this invention provides a solar cell having a surface-protective layer prepared by lamination of a mixture of a transparent water-repelling resin and a transparent electroconductive oxide powder; said protective layer is grounded at the surface resistance of 1 {times} 10 {sup 10} ohm or less and the contact angle of water on said protective layer is 90 degrees or more. The transparent water-repelling resin used is a fliorine resin such as PTFE and a silicone resin such as organopolysiloxane. The transparent electrodonductive oxide powder used is tin oxide, indium oxide or a complex compound of ton oxide and antimony oxide. The solar cell of this invention can be used for a long time because the adhesion of the dusts and the contamination by dirty water are restricted. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Tsutsumi, K; Nishitani, M [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkanshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Asai, S; Mizuno, T [Yazaki Resources Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the purpose of satisfying demands for qualitative improvement on tapwater temperature and pressure, an indirect-type solar water heater using solar cells, in which a closed type hot water storage tank connected directly to the water supply is integrated with a solar collector, was examined for its characteristics and performance. The heat collecting medium is a water solution of polypropylene glycol, which circulates through the solar collector pump, cistern, solar collector, and heat exchanger (hot water storage tank). The results of the test are summarized below. When comparison is made between the two solar collector pump control methods, the solar cells direct connection method and the differential thermo method utilizing temperature difference between the solar collector and the hot water storage tank, they are alike in collecting heat on clear days, but on cloudy days the latter collects 5% more than the former. In winter, when the heat exchanger heat transfer area is 0.4m{sup 2} large, a further increase in the area improves but a little the heat collecting efficiency. An increase in the medium flow rate and temperature, or in the Reynolds number, enhances the heat collecting efficiency. 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkahshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Asai, S; Mizuno, T [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Optimal operation control was discussed on a forced-circulation solar water heater using solar cells not only as the power supply of a heat collecting pump, but also for controlling operation of the heat collecting pump. With this system, when the amount of power generated by solar cells reaches a sufficient level for operating the heat collecting pump, the heat collecting pump starts operation, wherein the heat collecting medium circulates in the system. The discussion was given by using simulation based on experimental expressions such as the relation expression between insolation and heat collecting medium flow rate as derived from the result of the system`s heat collecting performance test. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: optimal insolation for activating the discussed system is from 50 to 100 W/m {sup 2}, and the heat collected within this range is within -1.5% of the collected heat amount at an optimum value; optimal activating insolation for the case of 1000 to 2000 W/m {sup 2} with low daily cumulative insolation is from 0 to 50 W/m {sup 2}, whereas the optimal activating insolation amount increases as the daily cumulative insolation amount increases; and the optimal activating insolation amount increases as water to be supplied requires higher temperature. 1 ref., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Study on the best utilization of solar energy. Experimental study of hydrogen generation by water electrolysis using solar battery; Taiyo energy no yuko riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Taiyo denchi riyosui denki bunkai suiso hassei field test

    Kawashima, Y; Murai, K; Nakai, T [Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Shortcomings of solar energy are that it is subject to weather and is not available in the nighttime. The weak points may be effectively made up for when solar energy collected on a fine day is stored in the form of hydrogen energy for recovery as required. In this report, power generated by solar cells is used for the electrolysis of water for the generation of hydrogen. The amounts of the thus-generated hydrogen and hydrogen energy are determined and, on the basis of the measured amount of insolation, the solar energy availability rate (hydrogen conversion performance) is calculated. The amount of hydrogen generated in fiscal 1996 is also calculated for every month. The hydrogen generation level is quite low in the TiO2 wet type solar cell, approximately 0.2% at most. The current efficiency is fairly high in hydrogen generation using electrolysis, which is approximately 96-97%. The efficiency is higher when several units of electrolyte are connected in series until the solar cell optimum voltage is attained. A linear relationship is found between the daily summation of insolation and the amount of hydrogen generated. 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. An intensity monitor for solar hydrogen Lyman-alpha radiation (TAIYO SXU)

    Oshio, Takanori; Masuoka, Toshio; Higashino, Ichiro; Watanabe, Norihiko.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute intensity of hydrogen Lyman-alpha (1216A) from the total solar disk is currently monitored by an ion chamber as a part of the satellite mission of TAIYO. The apparatus consists of an ion chamber with a special input control mask and associated electronics. The ion chamber with an MgF 2 window and filled with NO gas is sensitive to a narrow spectral band including the Lα. The special mask serves to keep the angular response of the detector constant at the elevation angle of the sun relative to the plane perpendicular to the spinning axis of the satellite within an error of the order of one percent, when the angle is within +-30 0 . A flux reducer attenuates the incident radiation upon the detector by a factor of 20 to lengthen the life of detector. The associated electronics measures the output current of the ion chamber, holds the maximum value of the output every four-second period and sends it to the telemeter. From the currently observed data, the absolute intensity of the solar Lα is 3.2 x 10 11 photons/cm 2 sec and constant within +-4.2% during the period from 24 February to 31 May, 1975. (auth.)

  8. Solar cell driving device. Taiyo denchi kudo sochi

    Yamazaki, K [Shibaura Engineering Works Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-01-24

    In driving a motor by a solar cell, if the sun light is weak, the motor cannot be started because of the fact that the start-up current of the motor is more than the current needed for driving. In this invention, a current limiting circuit is placed between the solar cell and the load, whereby the current limitation by said limiting circuit is released when the detected voltage of the solar cell reached the value required for starting the load. The current limiting circuit uses a semiconductor element such as a thyrister and a transistor which general limits a current. Such a current limiting circuit is controlled by a voltage detecting circuit and is so constructed that the cell limitation is released when a specific preset volatge of the solar cell is reached. 2 figs.

  9. Protective material for solar cell; Taiyo denchiyo hyomen hogozai

    Iimura, M.; Domoto, T. [Nitto Denko Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-03

    The protective material for the solar cell of this invention consists of fluororesin containing from 1 to 20wt% titanium oxide particles with the particle size range from 1 to 1,000nm. Surface contamination of the protective material for the solar cell and deterioration of the adhesive are prevented when titanium oxide with particular particle size is contained in the fluororesin in a particular range as mentioned above. Titanium oxide has photocatalytic performance to decompose organic substances, and the surface protective material for the solar cell containing titanium oxide can decompose and remove dirt such as dust adhering the surface for preventing surface contamination. In addition, total light permeability can be maintained at high rate and the permeability of less than 350nm ultraviolet rays causing deterioration of the adhesive can be decreased if the particle size and content of titanium oxide are specified. Titanium dioxide of anatase type crystal structure is ideal as the titanium oxide. 1 tab.

  10. Solar cell element, solar cell system, and illuminating system; Taiyo denchi soshi, taiyo denchi sochi oyobi shomei system

    Oka, Y. [Toshiba Laytech Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-12

    This invention relates to provision of a photocatalytic film on the light intercepting surface for the solar cell substrate of the solar cell element, which transmits the lights in the wavelength region longer than ultraviolet, i.e. 410nm and longer wavelength lights, and intercepts the lights in ultraviolet wavelength region. This photocatalytic film retards the decrease in the light interception by the solar cell element, and simplifies the maintenance because it oxidizes and decomposes organic matters by the less than 410nm ultraviolet ray contained in the sunlight to prevent adhesion of organic substance on the light intercepting surface of the solar cell element. In addition, decomposed dirt composition is washed away to accelerate dirt removing performance by rain waterdrop adhesion on the intercepting surface when it is used outdoors. As to this photocatalytic film, the thickness from 0.01 to 0.5{mu}m is desirable, effective phtocatalytic activity can not be expected if the thickness is less than 0.01{mu}m, and transmission factor becomes smaller if the thickness exceeds 0.5{mu}m, producing no electromotive force. TiO2, ZnO, and FeTiO3 are used as such photocatalyst. 6 figs.

  11. Solar energy and ecosystem. ; Botanical factory which utilizes the solar energy. Taiyo energy to ecosystem. ; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita shokubutsu kojo

    Okano, T [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-11-30

    The present paper explains the present development status and future problem of botanical factory. As a lightening method in the factory, there are artificial light type, solar light type, and combined solar and artificial light type. Each of all the types has both advantages and disadvantages. Development history is explained of a combined solar and artificial light type botanical factory. An NFT (nutrient film technique) nutrient liquid cultivator was developed in order to stabilize the vegetable production. Further, the air conditioner was modified. Heat storage tank for the night power utilization use and simple duct type heat exchanger for the air conditioning use in the cultivating room underwent associated works for both the thermal insulation and prevention of water bakage, which resulted in heightening in efficiency of both floor area utilization and air conditioning. As for the botanical growth, spinach cultivated with a CO2 concentration which was about three times as high as that outdoors gave a 60% heavier harvest and hardly differed in nutritive quality from that cultivated in the farm. A continuous cultivation test in summer, 1990 resulted in about 224g/day and 250g/day in production rate per 1m[sup 2] of cultivation area for the spinach and lettuce, respectively, which makes the factory cultivation profitable by economizing both the construction and maintenance (expenses for light and fuel). Future problem is about how to put it to practical use. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. On practicality of a hybrid car with solar cells; Taiyo denchi wo tosaishita hybrid car no jitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Sasaki, K; Nagayoshi, H; Kamisako, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper stated a development of a hybrid car which is a parallel type with gasoline engine and electric motor as driving source (connecting each according to the situation) and is also equipped with solar cells. Specifications are gasoline engine of 1200cc, induction motor of 5.5kW, lead battery of 288V and 7.2kWh, monocrystal silicon solar cells of 180W maximum output, and body weight of 1100kg. The rear wheel is driven by electric motor, and the front wheel by gasoline engine. The car is loaded with battery charge use solar cells on hood and roof. To enhance cleaning degree, 1.6kW solar cells are installed as an installed power system and used for battery charge. Even by an electric motor with output less than that of the usual electric car, harmful exhaust gas emitted in start-up can be controlled. This is because the electric motor can be used in accelerating. It was confirmed that the power required for it could be supplied by solar cells installed on the car. The hybrid car is practically useful for prevention of local air pollution. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. To the partnership in Kanegafuchi Chemical Industry and solar cell; Kaneka, taiyo denchi de teikei he

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Kanegafuchi Chemical Ind. clarified that the consultation was advanced in the direction in which the business cooperates with BP Amoco Corp. in international oil majors on the solar cell business on 11 th capital. In full amount fund subsidiary of the bell pool chemistry, the solar cell making and selling company is established in the joint venture in Europe and America, Asia, when the BP Amoco Corp. does capital participation in money mosquito solar tech which is the production marketer of solar cell. The plan which develops the amorphous solar cell of low cost which the bell pool chemistry developed in the world. The consultation of the partnership is also arranging prospect in the end June, and it seems to greatly jump by uniting with the BP Amoco Corp. of the largest hand. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Prospects to solar energy power generation in space. Uchu taiyo hatsuden eno tenbo

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Solar energy power generation in space uses large arrays of solar cells developed on a geosynchronous orbit to obtain electric energy, which is transmitted to the earth using microwaves. The idea had already been advocated in 1968, which was followed a decade later by joint discussions done by NASA and DOE. The concept intended to take care of the U.S. power demand by using 60 power plant satellites, each having an output of 5 GW. This expanse of the scale, regarded reasonable even today, calls for the solar cell arrays in space spreading over an area of 10 km [times] 5 km if silicon solar cells with a conversion efficiency of 15% are used, and rectenna on the ground (a received wave converting facility) forming an ellipse of 10 km [times] 13 km (assuming a location at the north latitude of 36[degree]). Although there are a number of problems in the idea such as transportation means to lift construction materials into the space and effect of microwaves on the ionosphere and the ecosystems, the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology organized a 'committee for investigating and studying the space power generation systems' in the fiscal year 1991, and has been moving discussions forward since then. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  15. CO2 recovery system using solar energy; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita CO2 bunri kaishu system

    Hosho, F; Naito, H; Yugami, H; Arashi, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    As a part of studies on chemical absorption process with MEA (monoethanolamine) for CO2 recovery from boiler waste gas in thermal power plants, use of solar heat as MEA regenerating energy was studied. An integrated stationary evacuated concentrator (ISEC) effective as collector in a medium temperature range was used to realize a regenerating temperature range of 100-120degC. ISEC is featured by vacuum insulation, use of selective absorbing membranes for an absorber, a CPC (compound parabolic concentrator)-shaped reflection mirror, and high-efficiency. An MEA regenerator is composed of an ISEC and PG(propylene glycol)-MEA heat exchanger, and circulates PG as heat medium. Heat collection experiment was also made using water instead of MEA. Both batch and continuous systems could supply a heat quantity necessary for MEA regeneration. CO2 concentration in the top of the regenerator rapidly decreased with PG circulation regenerating MEA. As mol ratios of CO2/MEA were compared between before and after regeneration, a recovery rate was estimated to be 59.4% for the batch system. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. SolarChill - a solar PV refrigerator without battery

    Pedersen, P.H.; Poulsen, S.; Katic, I. [Danish Technological Inst., Taastrup (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    A solar powered refrigerator (SolarChill) has been developed in an international project involving Greenpeace International, GTZ, UNICEF, UNEP, WHO, industrial partners and Danish Technological Institute. The refrigerator is able to operate directly on solar PV panels, without battery or additional electronics, and is therefore suitable for locations where little maintenance and reliable operation is mandatory. The main objective of the SolarChill Project is to help deliver vaccines and refrigeration to the rural poor. To achieve this objective, the SolarChill Project developed - and plans to make freely available a versatile refrigeration technology that is environmentally sound, technologically reliable, and affordable. SolarChill does not use any fluorocarbons in its cooling system or in the insulation. For domestic and small business applications, another type of solar refrigerator is under development. This is an upright type, suitable for cool storage of food and beverages in areas where grid power is non-existent or unstable. The market potential for this type is thus present in industrialised countries as well as in countries under development. The unique feature of SolarChill is that energy is stored in ice instead of in batteries. An ice compartment keeps the cabinet at desired temperatures during the night. The paper describes the product development, possible SolarChill applications and experience with the two types of solar refrigerators, as well as results from the laboratory and field test. (orig.)

  17. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  18. Progress in batteries and solar cells. Volume 5

    Shimotake, H.

    1984-01-01

    The 89 articles in this book are on research in batteries, solar cells and fuel cells. Topics include uses of batteries in electric powered vehicles, load management in power plants, batteries for miniature electronic devices, electrochemical processes, and various electrode and electrolyte materials, including organic compounds. Types of batteries discussed are lithium, lead-acid, manganese dioxide, Silver cells, Air cells, Nickel cells and solar cells. Problems of recharging and life cycle are also discussed

  19. Design And Construction Of Microcontroller Based Solar Battery Charger

    Zar Ni Tun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes a microcontroller based battery charger by using solar energy. Solar-powered charging systems are already available in rural as well as urban areas. Solar energy is widely used around the worldwide. This system converts solar energy to electrical energy and stores it in a battery. Photovoltaic panel is used to convert solar energy to electrical energy and stored in a 12V battery. Battery is the main component in solar charging system to store the energy generated from sunlight for various application. This system requires sensor to sense whether the battery is fully charged or not. Microcontroller is the heart of the circuit. Lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used power source for many applications. This system consists of voltage sensing charging controlling and display unit.

  20. Influence of spectral solar radiation to the generating power of photovoltaic module; Taiyo denchi shutsuryoku eno taiyoko supekutoru eno eikyo

    Minaki, S.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, T.; Nakamura, H. [Japan quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    As to the influence of spectral solar radiation to generating power of solar cells, a study was conducted from the aspects of season, time zone, intensity of solar radiation, etc. In the study, spectral responsive variation correction coefficients were introduced as evaluation values expressing the influence of spectral solar radiation. For the spectral distribution, an all sky spectral pyranometer by wavelength was used, and data were used which were obtained in the measurement in experimental facilities of the solar techno center. Concerning solar cell relative spectral sensitivity values, used were relative spectral sensitivity values of monocrystal and amorphous standard solar cells to the short-circuit current. Spectral response variation correction coefficients are coefficients correcting variations in conversion efficiency of solar cells due to changes in the spectral distribution. The changes of spectral responsive variation correction coefficients were studied using data obtained during April 1994 and March 1996. As a result, it was found that the coefficients showed large changes in summer and small ones in winter and that amorphous solar cells indicate this trend conspicuously. 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Summary of reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. Solar energy; 1979 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Taiyo energy

    NONE

    1980-04-01

    This report is a compilation of all outlines of the results concerning 'solar energy' for which R and D was carried out as a part of Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. The research subjects (items of the studies) are written below. 1. Solar energy system (measurement of spectral irradiance, utilization system, and meteorological investigation); 2. Solar thermal power generation system; 3. Photovoltaic power generation system (basic research on solar cells, silicon vertical ribbon crystal, silicon horizontal ribbon crystal, particle non-acceleration growth type thin film silicon crystal, particle acceleration growth type thin film silicon crystal, new type solar cells, secondary to quaternary compound semiconductor solar cells, and photovoltaic power generation system); 4. Solar cooling, heating and hot water supply system (evaluation system, newly-built private residential system, existing private residential system, multiple dwelling system, large building system, synthetic resin materials, glass based materials, and metallic materials); 5. Solar energy new utilization method (new power generation system and materials); 6. R and D on solar thermal power generation plant (R and D on pilot plant, experimental research for developing plant on curved surface converging method, and experimental research for developing plant on tower converging method). (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar energy system (weather survey). Part 1. Bibliography on solar radiation; 1974 nendo taiyo hosha ni kansuru bunken mokuroku. 1. Taiyo energy system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kisho chosa)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report is the 1st one among 3 reports 'Bibliography on solar radiation', 'Guideline for using weather data' and 'Observation data on global solar radiation and sunshine duration'. This report is composed of the part 1 'Present state and view of researches on solar radiation' including (1) view of researches on short-wave radiation, (2) atmospheric radiation, (3) scattering of solar radiation, (4) global net radiation and (5) radiometer, and the part 2 including the bibliography and its commentary. (1) describes researches on incident short-wave radiation (solar radiation) and some current issues, (2) describes the basis for quantitative measurement of atmospheric radiation transfer, based on the premise that atmospheric radiation is infrared radiation between the ground surface and atmospheric system. (3) describes scattering of solar radiation in the air, and its effect. (4) describes that the global profile of net radiation of the air-earth system and its seasonal change can be observed directly from the weather satellite roughly, and research on global net radiation is approaching a new era. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar energy system (weather survey). Part 1. Bibliography on solar radiation; 1974 nendo taiyo hosha ni kansuru bunken mokuroku. 1. Taiyo energy system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kisho chosa)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report is the 1st one among 3 reports 'Bibliography on solar radiation', 'Guideline for using weather data' and 'Observation data on global solar radiation and sunshine duration'. This report is composed of the part 1 'Present state and view of researches on solar radiation' including (1) view of researches on short-wave radiation, (2) atmospheric radiation, (3) scattering of solar radiation, (4) global net radiation and (5) radiometer, and the part 2 including the bibliography and its commentary. (1) describes researches on incident short-wave radiation (solar radiation) and some current issues, (2) describes the basis for quantitative measurement of atmospheric radiation transfer, based on the premise that atmospheric radiation is infrared radiation between the ground surface and atmospheric system. (3) describes scattering of solar radiation in the air, and its effect. (4) describes that the global profile of net radiation of the air-earth system and its seasonal change can be observed directly from the weather satellite roughly, and research on global net radiation is approaching a new era. (NEDO)

  4. Solar cell array for driving MOS type FET gate. MOS gata EFT gate kudoyo taiyo denchi array

    Murakami, S; Yoshida, K; Yoshiki, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Nakayama, T; Owada, Y

    1990-03-12

    There has been a semiconductor relay utilizing MOS type FET (field effect transistor). Concerning the solar cells used for a semiconductor relay, it is required to separate the cells by forming insulating oxide films first and to form semiconductor layers by using many mask patterns, since a crystal semiconductor is used. Thereby its manufacturing process becomes complicated and laminification as well as thin film formation are difficult, In view of the above, this invention proposes a solar cell array for driving a MOS type FET gate consisting of amorphous silicon semiconductor cells, which are used for a semiconductor relay with solar cells generating electromotive power by the light of a light emitting diode and a MOS type FET that the power output of the above solar cells is supplied to its gate, and which are connected in series with many steps. 9 figs.

  5. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Survey and research on systems utilizing solar energy (Solar thermal power generation systems); 1977 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyo netsu hatsuden system

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at surveys and researches on operation, economic efficiency and performance evaluation of solar thermal power generation systems, and test methods, e.g., for aging the materials for their devices, in order to establish the methods for evaluating their performance. For operation of solar thermal power generation systems, a feasible system is a hybrid with another system, e.g., thermal power or nuclear system. For economic efficiency, heat-storage capacity will be based on power generation for around 4 hours a day for a solar system to be installed in Japan. The construction and light/heat-collecting costs should be reduced to around 300,000 yen/kW and 13,000 to 21,000 yen/m{sup 2}, respectively, in order to keep the power generation cost at around 23 yen/kWH. The energy analysis of solar thermal power generation, based on the data given by the industrial correlation tables, indicates that the total energy required for construction of the system can be recovered in 2 to 3 years. Also outlined are construction of a 1MW pilot plant and its facilities, and designs of the pilot plants with a curved surface or tower type light collector. A total of 12 types of reflection mirrors are screened for establishing the air-exposure testing methods. Methods for treating back surface edges of the reflection mirrors are also investigated. (NEDO)

  6. 28th Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 3rd Solar Cell Liaison Meeting. Report for fiscal 1990; Dai 28 kai taiyo energy suishin iinkai dai 3 kai taiyo denchi renrakukai. 1980 nendo hokoku

    NONE

    1991-05-14

    The above events took place in Tokyo in the period May 14-17, 1991, when a total of 89 essays were presented. In relation with the thin film/a-Si systems, 55 presentations were given, which were 'Novel preparation technique termed Chemical Annealing for making a-Si:H with a rigid and stable Si-network,' 'Interface characteristics of a-Si:H films prepared by VHF (very high frequency) plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition),' 'Preparation of amorphous superlattices by continuous method and characterization of the interface,' etc. In relation with the thin film/compound systems, 8 presentations were given, which were 'Preparation of CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells by selenization method,' 'Deposition of CuInSe{sub 2} films by ICB (ionized cluster beam) technique and their optical characterization,' 'Large-area CdS/CdTe solar cells,' etc. In relation with the crystal/compound systems, 8 presentations were given, which were 'Lattice strain relaxation processes in GaAs grown on Si,' 'Optical transmission studies of tandem solar cells,' etc. In relation with the crystal/Si systems, 18 presentations were given, which were 'Effect of electric field on effective minority carrier lifetime,' 'Computer analysis of surface recombination velocity for high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,' etc. (NEDO)

  7. 30th Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 5th Solar Cell Liaison Meeting. Combined report for fiscal 1989-1992; Dai 30 kai taiyo energy suishin iinkai dai 5 kai taiyo denchi renrakukai (1989-1992 nendo hokoku no matome)

    NONE

    1993-04-20

    The above-named events were convened in Tokyo in the period of April 20-23, 1993, where a total of 51 presentations were given on research achievements. Presented in the session on a-Si systems were 22 essays concerning high quality manufacturing technology - high integration technology, large area manufacturing technology - large area a-Si tandem solar cell, highly reliable manufacturing technology - bilayer device, composite transparent conductive film - transparent conductive film with performance enhanced by compositing, etc. Presented in the session on chalcopyrite and II-VI group systems were 8 essays concerning amorphous/compound tandem cell manufacturing technology, research on compound semiconductor solar cell, etc. Presented in the session of III-V group systems were 6 essays concerning research on compound semiconductor solar cell - superlattice structure tandem cell, development of InGaP/Si tandem solar cell, etc. In the session of crystalline Si systems, 15 essays were presented concerning highly pure silicon manufacturing technology, highly pure substrate manufacturing technology, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Confinement of solar thermal energy by Nesa film; Nesa maku ni yoru taiyo netsu energy no fujikome

    Shimizu, A; Yano, K; Kasuga, M; Daigo, Y [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports a Nesa (SnO2) film as selective transmissive film for effective confinement of solar thermal energy. Solar light spectrum ranges from 0.3 to 2.0{mu}m, while thermal radiation from bodies at 100-200degC is infrared ray more than 2{mu}m. Consequently, a solar water heater using the film which can pass rays below 2.0{mu}m while reflect rays over 2.0{mu}m for windows is very efficient. The Nesa film reflects rays with wavelengths more than plasma wavelengths (controllable from 1 to several {mu}m) by plasma action of free electrons. The Nesa films with different carrier densities were fabricated by spraying deposition method at dopant rates (Sb/Sn) from 0 to 2mol%. The solar water heaters were prepared using normal glass and specific glass coated with the Nesa film as selective transmissive film. The heater using the glass coated with the Nesa film of 2{mu}m plasma wavelength for windows could efficiently confine solar heat. The Nesa film of 700nm plasma wavelength which can pass visible light while reflect infrared ray was effective to reduce cooling/heating losses. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  9. 28th Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 3rd Solar Cell Liaison Meeting. Report for fiscal 1990; Dai 28 kai taiyo energy suishin iinkai dai 3 kai taiyo denchi renrakukai. 1980 nendo hokoku

    NONE

    1991-05-14

    The above events took place in Tokyo in the period May 14-17, 1991, when a total of 89 essays were presented. In relation with the thin film/a-Si systems, 55 presentations were given, which were 'Novel preparation technique termed Chemical Annealing for making a-Si:H with a rigid and stable Si-network,' 'Interface characteristics of a-Si:H films prepared by VHF (very high frequency) plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition),' 'Preparation of amorphous superlattices by continuous method and characterization of the interface,' etc. In relation with the thin film/compound systems, 8 presentations were given, which were 'Preparation of CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells by selenization method,' 'Deposition of CuInSe{sub 2} films by ICB (ionized cluster beam) technique and their optical characterization,' 'Large-area CdS/CdTe solar cells,' etc. In relation with the crystal/compound systems, 8 presentations were given, which were 'Lattice strain relaxation processes in GaAs grown on Si,' 'Optical transmission studies of tandem solar cells,' etc. In relation with the crystal/Si systems, 18 presentations were given, which were 'Effect of electric field on effective minority carrier lifetime,' 'Computer analysis of surface recombination velocity for high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,' etc. (NEDO)

  10. 31st Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 6th Solar Cell Liaison Meeting. Report for fiscal 1993; Dai 31 kai taiyo energy suishin iinkai dai 6 kai taiyo denchi renrakukai (1993 nendo hokoku)

    NONE

    1994-04-25

    The above-named events were convened in the period of April 25-28, 1994, when a total of 71 presentations were given on research achievements. Presented in the session on thin film systems were 21 essays concerning the low cost manufacturing technology of low-area modules, development of film substrate a-Si solar cells, etc. Discussed at the symposium were the 'Autonomous development of photovoltaic power generation' and 'Practical application and research and development.' Presented in the session on crystalline Si systems were 17 essays concerning real-time observation of epitaxial growth using STM (scanning tunneling microscope), research on single crystal silicon manufacturing technology, etc. Discussed in the session on international cooperation was 'How international joint research should be.' Presented in the session on systems were 11 essays including the research and development of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials. Presented in the session on III-V group systems were 7 essays including the development of crystallized compound solar cell technology. Presented in the session on chalcopyrite II-VI group systems were 9 essays including the development of large area CdS/CdTe solar cell. (NEDO)

  11. 31st Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 6th Solar Cell Liaison Meeting. Report for fiscal 1993; Dai 31 kai taiyo energy suishin iinkai dai 6 kai taiyo denchi renrakukai (1993 nendo hokoku)

    NONE

    1994-04-25

    The above-named events were convened in the period of April 25-28, 1994, when a total of 71 presentations were given on research achievements. Presented in the session on thin film systems were 21 essays concerning the low cost manufacturing technology of low-area modules, development of film substrate a-Si solar cells, etc. Discussed at the symposium were the 'Autonomous development of photovoltaic power generation' and 'Practical application and research and development.' Presented in the session on crystalline Si systems were 17 essays concerning real-time observation of epitaxial growth using STM (scanning tunneling microscope), research on single crystal silicon manufacturing technology, etc. Discussed in the session on international cooperation was 'How international joint research should be.' Presented in the session on systems were 11 essays including the research and development of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials. Presented in the session on III-V group systems were 7 essays including the development of crystallized compound solar cell technology. Presented in the session on chalcopyrite II-VI group systems were 9 essays including the development of large area CdS/CdTe solar cell. (NEDO)

  12. 32nd Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 7th Solar Cell Liaison Meeting. Report for fiscal 1994; Dai 32 kai taiyo energy suishin iinkai dai 7 kai taiyo denchi renrakukai (1994 nendo hokoku)

    NONE

    1995-04-24

    The above-named events were convened in the period of April 24-27, 1995, when a total of 77 presentations were given on research achievements. In the session on thin type Si polycrystalline systems, 12 essays were presented concerning the thermodynamics of phosphorus and titanium in silicon, etc. In addition, a discussion was held on the 'Technological tasks remaining to be discharged toward industrialization.' In the session on thin film polycrystalline silicon systems, 5 essays were presented and 'Technological tasks related to thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cell' was discussed. In the session on ultrahigh efficiency Si systems, 5 essays were presented and 'Tasks related to the development of ultrahigh frequency single crystal Si solar cell' was discussed. At the symposium, 'Adoption of new energy to be accelerated following the formulation of the New Energy Introduction Guidelines' and 'Outlook for thin film solar cell practical application' were taken up. Various essays were presented and a discussion was held in each of the other sessions on ultrahigh efficiency III-V group systems, thin film chalcopyrite/II-VI group systems, international collaboration, matters related to systems, and thin film a-Si systems. (NEDO)

  13. 32nd Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 7th Solar Cell Liaison Meeting. Report for fiscal 1994; Dai 32 kai taiyo energy suishin iinkai dai 7 kai taiyo denchi renrakukai (1994 nendo hokoku)

    NONE

    1995-04-24

    The above-named events were convened in the period of April 24-27, 1995, when a total of 77 presentations were given on research achievements. In the session on thin type Si polycrystalline systems, 12 essays were presented concerning the thermodynamics of phosphorus and titanium in silicon, etc. In addition, a discussion was held on the 'Technological tasks remaining to be discharged toward industrialization.' In the session on thin film polycrystalline silicon systems, 5 essays were presented and 'Technological tasks related to thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cell' was discussed. In the session on ultrahigh efficiency Si systems, 5 essays were presented and 'Tasks related to the development of ultrahigh frequency single crystal Si solar cell' was discussed. At the symposium, 'Adoption of new energy to be accelerated following the formulation of the New Energy Introduction Guidelines' and 'Outlook for thin film solar cell practical application' were taken up. Various essays were presented and a discussion was held in each of the other sessions on ultrahigh efficiency III-V group systems, thin film chalcopyrite/II-VI group systems, international collaboration, matters related to systems, and thin film a-Si systems. (NEDO)

  14. Influence of angle of inclination on power of solar module; Taiyo denchi module no keisha kakudo to shutsuryoku tokusei

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Dai Ichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Experiment/study were conducted on the influence of angle of inclination on output of solar modules. In the experiment, changing the angle of inclination of the photovoltaic module installed on the top of school building to 0, 30, 60 and 90 degC, the global radiation on an inclined surface was measured by pyranometer equipped with the module, and at the same time output characteristics were measured by I-V curve tracer. In the I-V curve tracer, voltage, current, and output capability diagram are illustrated automatically changing bias voltage to get the maximum output. The global radiation on an inclined surface and the maximum output indicated an almost proportional relation and were expressed in a recursion method. Moreover, measurement of the global radiation is usually conducted using the amount of global radiation on a horizontal surface, and the global radiation on an inclined surface is calculated as a sum of the direct solar radiation amount and the sky solar radiation amount after determining a penetration rate by the relational equation. By calculating the global radiation on an inclined surface, it becomes possible to calculate the maximum output of photovoltaic modules by this recursion method. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 29th Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 4th Solar Cell Liaison Meeting. (Report for fiscal 1991); Dai 29 kai taiyo energy suisuin iinkai dai 4 kai taiyo denchi renrakukai. 1991 nendo hokoku

    NONE

    1992-04-21

    The above-named events took place in Tokyo in the period of April 21-24, 1992, and a total of 55 essays were presented. Presented in the session of the thin-film/a-Si systems were 27 essays, which were 'Light-induced degradation and its mechanism in a-Si:H and its multilayers,' 'Light-induced ESR (electron spin resonance) in a-Si{sub 1-x}N{sub x}:H,' 'Distribution of hydrogen surrounding light-induced defects,' 'Equilibration temperature and hydrogen diffusion in a-Si:H,' etc. Presented in the session of the thin-film compound systems were 6 essays, which were 'Local structure studies of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films,' 'Characterization of CuInSe{sub 2} bilayer films fabricated by ICB (ionized cluster beam) techniques,' etc. Presented in the session of the crystal compound systems were 7 essays, which were 'heteroepitaxy of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As/GaAs,' 'cell efficiency calculation for optimization of cell structure,' etc. Presented in the session of the crystal/Si systems were 15 essays which were 'Preparation of textured AR film,' 'Development of amorphous/thin film polycrystalline silicon tandem cell,' 'Development of high efficiency polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells,' 'Production of SOG (spin on glass)-Si from metallic grade silicon,' etc. (NEDO)

  16. Study on solar collector utilizing electro-hydrodynamical effect; Denki ryutai rikigaku koka wo riyosuru taiyo shunetsuki no kenkyu

    Sato, M; Aoki, H; Wako, Y [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    This paper proposes a cone type electro-hydrodynamical (EHD) heat collector, describes its structure and principle, and mentions possibility of improving the heat collecting efficiency. The paper proposes a heat collector with a shape close to a cone. Trees are of cone form so that their every leaf, branch and truck can capture solar energy efficiently. Imitating this fact existing in the natural world, a cone-shaped heat collector was fabricated on a trial basis to discuss its heat collecting efficiency. Furthermore, black round stones are placed in the inner cone of the cone- shaped heat collector of double-glass structure. A low boiling point medium is placed between the inner and outer cones to cause corona discharge in vapor generated by absorbing the solar heat, and generate corona wind for an attempt to accelerate heat transfer into a heat exchanger. Thus, development was made on a cone-shaped high-efficiency heat collector utilizing electro-hydrodynamical (EHD) effect, and elucidation was given on dynamic phenomena of an electro-thermal fluid. Heat transfer in the EHD heat collector has a possibility of being accelerated by generation of ionic wind. In addition, it is thought that there would be an optimum value in applied voltage to increase electric charge supply as a result of corona discharge. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  17. Study on water desalination system by solar energy distillation; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita joryugata kaisui tansuika system no kenkyu

    Nagai, M; Ameku, K; Yonamine, K [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Discussions have been given on developing a seawater desalination system by solar energy distillation. The system is composed of evaporators installed on the seawater level, condensers placed on high and cool locations, and steam transport pipes to connect these two pieces of equipment. Steam is generated from seawater heated by solar heat in evaporators, and the steam is transported driven by low power consuming fans to higher locations through the steam transport pipes, where it is condensed by cool air in the condensers, and recovered as plain water. The concept is such that electric power required to operate the fans is supplied from photovoltaic panels, and all other energy is obtained from the sun. First, an experiment was performed upon noticing on methods of transporting and condensing the steam. The experiment used plain water rather than seawater. The heat source and evaporators were installed on the first floor, and the steam transporting fans on the second floor of an atrium. The thermal load was set to 1.5 times greater than average outdoor insolation amount. Increase in the distilled water recovery rate and distillation efficiency was verified by using the fans. The evaporation efficiency was found to tend to increase when the steam flow rate is increased. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  18. 29th Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 4th Solar Cell Liaison Meeting. (Report for fiscal 1991); Dai 29 kai taiyo energy suisuin iinkai dai 4 kai taiyo denchi renrakukai. 1991 nendo hokoku

    NONE

    1992-04-21

    The above-named events took place in Tokyo in the period of April 21-24, 1992, and a total of 55 essays were presented. Presented in the session of the thin-film/a-Si systems were 27 essays, which were 'Light-induced degradation and its mechanism in a-Si:H and its multilayers,' 'Light-induced ESR (electron spin resonance) in a-Si{sub 1-x}N{sub x}:H,' 'Distribution of hydrogen surrounding light-induced defects,' 'Equilibration temperature and hydrogen diffusion in a-Si:H,' etc. Presented in the session of the thin-film compound systems were 6 essays, which were 'Local structure studies of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films,' 'Characterization of CuInSe{sub 2} bilayer films fabricated by ICB (ionized cluster beam) techniques,' etc. Presented in the session of the crystal compound systems were 7 essays, which were 'heteroepitaxy of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As/GaAs,' 'cell efficiency calculation for optimization of cell structure,' etc. Presented in the session of the crystal/Si systems were 15 essays which were 'Preparation of textured AR film,' 'Development of amorphous/thin film polycrystalline silicon tandem cell,' 'Development of high efficiency polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells,' 'Production of SOG (spin on glass)-Si from metallic grade silicon,' etc. (NEDO)

  19. Stabilized efficiency of stacked a-Si solar cell; Sekisogata a-Si taiyo denchi no anteika koritsu

    Takahisa, K; Kojima, T; Nakamura, K; Koyanagi, T; Yanagisawa, T [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Different types of tests combining light and temperature were carried out in a laboratory on predicting long-term performance of stacked amorphous silicon solar cells. Cell terminals were left open, xenon was used as an irradiation light source, and cell temperature was controlled within {+-} 2 degC of the setting. The result of the experiment may be summarized as follows: with regard to the deterioration characteristics, the speed in which the efficiency changes reached a maximum within 10 hours, and thereafter the change has slowed down gradually in the case of temperature at 50 degC; in the case of 25 degC, the maximization is reached between 500 and 1000 hours; the stabilization efficiency turns out to be a pessimistic value according to the saturated value derived from an experimental expression, hence the value would have to be expressed by specifying cell temperatures, light intensities and elapsed time; the minimum value of seasonal variation may be estimated at about 85% as a pessimistic value; for recovery characteristics, the saturated value for the recovery tends to become lower as the lower the value immediately before the recovery; and if the light intensity is varied, the deterioration characteristic shifts to that at an individual light intensity. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells. Technological development for crystalline compound solar cells (high-efficiency III-V tandem solar cells); Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu. Kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu (III-V zoku kagobutsu handotai taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on technological development of III-V compound semiconductor solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of epitaxial growth technology of lattice mismatching systems, the optimum structure of InGaAs strain intermediate layers was studied for reducing a dislocation density by lattice mismatching of GaAs layer grown on Si substrate and difference in thermal expansion coefficient. The effect of strain layer on dislocation reduction was found only at 250dyne/cm in strain energy. Growth of GaAs layers on the Si substrate treated by hydrofluoric acid at low temperature was attempted by MBE method. As a dislocation distribution was controlled by laying different atoms at hetero-interface, the dislocation density of growing layer surfaces decreased by concentration of dislocation at hetero-interface. (2) On development of high-efficiency tandem cell structure, tunnel junction characteristics, cell formation process and optimum design method of lattice matching tandem cells were studied, while thin film cell formation was basically studied for lattice mismatching tandem cells. 45 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells. Technological development for crystalline compound solar cells (research and development of composite materials on solar cells under microgravity environment); Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu. Kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu (bisho juryoku kankyo wo riyoshita taiyo denchiyo zairyo kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on development of composite materials for solar cells under microgravity environment in fiscal 1994. (1) On a thin film capillary method, 26 experiments of GaSb thin film crystal growth were conducted using the especially prepared high-accuracy electric furnace under microgravity. The wettability of thin film crystals was improved by refining equipment. Rhombus crystal planes and large crystal grains were observed in GaSb thin film crystals prepared under microgravity. (2) On a liquid phase method, the effect of the gravity on crystal structure and grain morphology was studied for synthesis of CdS fine grains. (3) On technological development of composite materials, the solidification experiment of Cu-In-Se melt was conducted under short time microgravity of 10{sup -4}g for 10 sec. As a result, more uniform texture and more high crystallinity were obtained under microgravity, and In in melt was concentrated by surface tension effect. It was suggested that high-quality CIS thin films will be obtained by Se doping into Cu-In composite films under microgravity environment.

  2. Technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells. Technological development for super-high efficiency singlecrystalline silicon solar cells (super-high efficiency singlecrystalline Si solar cells); Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu. Chokokoritsu tankessho silicon taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu (chokokoritsu tankessho silicon taiyo denchi cell no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on technological development of super-high efficiency singlecrystalline silicon solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of high-performance light receiving layer, the fine electrode for receiving surfaces was designed to reduce serial resistance, and the high-quality oxide passivation film was studied to reduce surface recombination velocity. (2) On development of forming technology of back heterojunction, the high-quality cell with B-doped fine crystalline Si film on its back was studied by heat treatment of the fine crystalline Si film, and the cell structure with high back reflectance of light was also studied. (3) On analysis for high-efficiency cells, the relation between the back recombination velocity at the interface between p-type substrate and back passivation film, and the internal collection efficiency as probe light was injected from the back, was calculated by numerical simulation. As a result, the cell back recombination velocity could be evaluated by measuring the spectral internal collection efficiency to back injection. 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar furnace); 1974 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu. Taiyoro

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    In fiscal 1974, analysis was made on the concept design of solar furnace hardware, and utilization and use purpose of solar furnaces as high-temperature industrial heat source. Detailed survey was also made on the history of high- temperature solar furnaces. Based on the history of large- scale solar furnaces and the current state of some industries consuming a large amount of thermal energy, wide consideration was made on the applicability of large-scale solar furnaces as heat source in the future. Although various applications of large-scale solar furnaces are expected in the future, their current main applications are production of high-melting point materials, research on high-temperature physical properties, production of silicon, and solar heat power generation. A solar furnace is mainly composed of a parabolic reflector and heliostat plane reflector as optical system. It is necessary for practical industrial use of solar furnaces to study on furnace core design, profitability, installation site, temperature control, and reflector maintenance enough. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar heat power generation); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyonetsu hatsuden

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Research was made on solar heat power generation following last fiscal year, as a part of solar energy utilization technologies. In this fiscal year, in particular, research was made on the following: selection of suitable sites for solar heat power plants in Japan, estimation of expected power supply, positioning of a solar heat power system among future power systems, operation policy of solar heat power systems, survey on suitable sites for the 1,000kW pilot power plant, operation characteristics of the small test plant, design of the 1,000kW pilot power plant, test methods and facilities for every element equipment of solar heat power systems, an environmental test method for mostly solar collectors, and the profitability of solar heat power systems. Optimum operation temperature levels were nearly 350 degrees C for distributed systems and nearly 400 degrees C for centralized ones. The distributed system is profitable in a unit capacity range less than 5-10MWe, while the centralized system is profitable in a range over 10MWe. Under some assumptions, the power cost of solar heat power systems was estimated to be 20-30yen/kWH. (NEDO)

  5. Indirect solar-pumped laser diode using a solar cell; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita taiyoko kansetsu reikigata handotai laser no kaihatsu

    Kanamori, Y.; Yugami, H.; Naito, H.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of a stabilizing circuit using commercial electricity, those of a stabilizing circuit using solar cells, relation between the quantity of solar radiation and the maximum output of a semiconductor laser diode (LD), and simulation results of annual LD output in Sendai City. The stabilizing circuit for the solar-cell driven LD was structured such that the output of the solar cell panels was guided to a DC/DC converter, that the voltage was set at a prescribed value and that the current was stabilized with the use of power MOSFET. The solar cells used in the experiment were monocrystal silicone solar cells with the maximum output of 53W each. In the experiment, the LD was protected by stabilizing the current at a set value when an excess current was supplied to the stabilizing circuit. As a result of the simulation of the annual LD output from the meteorological data of Sendai City, it was predicted that a solar cell of approximately 1kW was able to provide an annual output of 102MJ and that the efficiency was highest with four sheets of the solar cell. Consequently, consistency proved to be essential between the LD and the solar cell output. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar furnace); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoro

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    For solar furnace, study was made on analysis of its use purpose, analysis of the profitability of large furnaces, safety, maintenance, solar radiation and construction site conditions. On production of fused refractories by solar furnace, in particular, giving attention on zircon sand and mullite, their fusion property was clarified, and their fine structure was obtained by rapid heating/cooling. On production of Si by solar furnace, in this fiscal year, in particular, study was made on the 1st step (production of coarse Si from silica rock) and 4th step (deposition of Si by decomposition of SiHCl{sub 3}). On study on high-temperature processing followed by chemical reaction, study was made on production of carborundum by solar furnace, its application to high-temperature gas reaction, and its application to heat storage by high-temperature chemical reaction. In addition, for large solar furnace, study was made on its maintenance, safety, pollution problem, and construction site condition based on estimation of direct solar radiation profile maps. Inlands of Tokai, Kii-Hanto and Seto-Naikai districts were confirmed to be suitable for solar furnaces. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar heat power generation); 1974 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyonetsu hatsuden

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1974 research result on solar heat power generation. The following are promising as solar heat power plant sites in Japan: Large-scale sites such as the foot of volcanos, riverbed, railway site and road, medium-scale sites such as isolated island, saltpan site and industrial park, and small-scale sites such as factory site, factory roof floor, housing complex, warehouse and school. Based on the primary concept design of both curved reflector type and tower type 1,000kW class solar heat power plants, various requirements were clarified roughly. It was clarified that food, fiber and non-ferrous metal factories can cover 80-90% of their thermal energy requirements with high- temperature solar heat, while factories related to food and fiber can cover even nearly 100% of their electric power requirements with solar heat. Study was also made on specifications of a solar simulator as common use facility necessary for characteristic evaluation of equipment and materials for solar heat power generation systems. (NEDO)

  8. Application of resettable elements for electrical protection of solar batteries

    Tonkoshkur A. S.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The manifestation and formation of various defects in the process of exploitation in real photovoltaic cells and their compounds as well as their work in the regime of changing non-uniform illumination lead to the so-called series and parallel inconsistencies (differences of electrical characteristics between separate cells and their groups. This results in local overheating and intensifying of degradation processes. In some cases temporary disconnection (isolation of the corresponding elements of the solar batteries is more appropriate in order to increase their service life. In this work additional devices for insulation of overheating cells (and/or components of solar batteries such as «PolySwith» resettable fuses are proposed to be used as a perspective solution of such problems. These structures are polymer composites with nanosized carbon fillers. Electrical resistance of such a fuse increases abruptly by several orders of magnitude when certain threshold temperature is reached, and when the temperature decreases the fuse returns to its initial high-conductivity state. This study investigates the possibilities of using the specified type of fuses for electrical insulation of «overheated» photovoltaic cells. Particular attention is paid to the research of the effect of fuses on the working of the solar batteries in the operating temperature range and their functional applicability in emergency situations associated with overheating. The studies were carried out using a model structure of several series of parallel connected photovoltaic cells and specified fuses. Attention is paid to the influence of such factors as the ambient temperature and the drift of the fuses resistance in the conducting state in the process their multiple switching. It has been established that such protection elements do not influence the work of solar batteries in operating temperature range and are functionally applicable for the electrical isolation of local

  9. Design approach for solar cell and battery of a persistent solar powered GPS tracker

    Sahraei, Nasim; Watson, Sterling M.; Pennes, Anthony; Marius Peters, Ian; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2017-08-01

    Sensors with wireless communication can be powered by photovoltaic (PV) devices. However, using solar power requires thoughtful design of the power system, as well as a careful management of the power consumption, especially for devices with cellular communication (because of their higher power consumption). A design approach can minimize system size, weight, and/or cost, while maximizing device performance (data transmission rate and persistence). In this contribution, we describe our design approach for a small form-factor, solar-powered GPS tracker with cellular communication. We evaluate the power consumption of the device in different stages of operation. Combining measured power consumption and the calculated energy-yield of a solar cell, we estimate the battery capacity and solar cell area required for 5 years of continuous operation. We evaluate trade-offs between PV and battery size by simulating the battery state of charge. The data show a trade-off between battery capacity and solar-cell area for given target data transmission rate and persistence. We use this analysis to determine the combination of solar panel area and battery capacity for a given application and the data transmission rate that results in minimum cost or total weight of the system.

  10. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  11. Unbiased, complete solar charging of a neutral flow battery by a single Si photocathode

    Wedege, Kristina; Bae, Dowon; Dražević, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Solar redox flow batteries have attracted attention as a possible integrated technology for simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. In this work, we review current efforts to design aqueous solar flow batteries in terms of battery electrolyte capacity, solar conversion efficiency...... and depth of solar charge. From a materials cost and design perspective, a simple, cost-efficient, aqueous solar redox flow battery will most likely incorporate only one semiconductor, and we demonstrate here a system where a single photocathode is accurately matched to the redox couples to allow...... for a complete solar charge. The single TiO2 protected Si photocathode with a catalytic Pt layer can fully solar charge a neutral TEMPO-sulfate/ferricyanide battery with a cell voltage of 0.35 V. An unbiased solar conversion efficiency of 1.6% is obtained and this system represents a new strategy in solar RFBs...

  12. Ruthenium based redox flow battery for solar energy storage

    Chakrabarti, Mohammed Harun; Roberts, Edward Pelham Lindfield; Bae, Chulheung; Saleem, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Undivided redox flow battery employing porous graphite felt electrodes was used. → Ruthenium acetylacetonate dissolved in acetonitrile was the electrolyte. → Charge/discharge conditions were determined for both 0.02 M and 0.1 M electrolytes. → Optimum power output of 0.180 W was also determined for 0.1 M electrolyte. → 55% voltage efficiency was obtained when battery was full of electrolytes. -- Abstract: The technical performance for the operation of a stand alone redox flow battery system for solar energy storage is presented. An undivided reactor configuration has been employed along with porous graphite felt electrodes and ruthenium acetylacetonate as electrolyte in acetonitrile solvent. Limiting current densities are determined for concentrations of 0.02 M and 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate. Based on these, operating conditions for 0.02 M ruthenium acetylacetonate are determined as charging current density of 7 mA/cm 2 , charge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0072 cm/s (through the porous electrodes), discharge current density of 2 mA/cm 2 and discharge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0045 cm/s. An optimum power output of 35 mW is also obtained upon discharge at 2.1 mA/cm 2 . With an increase in the concentration of ruthenium species from 0.02 M to 0.1 M, the current densities and power output are higher by a factor of five approximately (at same superficial velocities) due to higher mass transport phenomenon. Moreover at 0.02 M concentration the voltage efficiency is better for battery full of electrolytes prior to charging (52.1%) in comparison to an empty battery (40.5%) due to better mass transport phenomenon. Voltage efficiencies are higher as expected at concentrations of 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate (55% when battery is full of electrolytes and 48% when empty) showing that the all-ruthenium redox flow battery has some promise for future applications in solar energy storage. Some improvements for the

  13. Aqueous Lithium-Iodine Solar Flow Battery for the Simultaneous Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy.

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D; Beauchamp, Damian R; Huang, Zhongjie; Ren, Xiaodi; Wu, Yiying

    2015-07-08

    Integrating both photoelectric-conversion and energy-storage functions into one device allows for the more efficient solar energy usage. Here we demonstrate the concept of an aqueous lithium-iodine (Li-I) solar flow battery (SFB) by incorporation of a built-in dye-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrode in a Li-I redox flow battery via linkage of an I3(-)/I(-) based catholyte, for the simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. During the photoassisted charging process, I(-) ions are photoelectrochemically oxidized to I3(-), harvesting solar energy and storing it as chemical energy. The Li-I SFB can be charged at a voltage of 2.90 V under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination, which is lower than its discharging voltage of 3.30 V. The charging voltage reduction translates to energy savings of close to 20% compared to conventional Li-I batteries. This concept also serves as a guiding design that can be extended to other metal-redox flow battery systems.

  14. Solar photovoltaic charging of high voltage nickel metal hydride batteries using DC power conversion

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    There are an increasing number of vehicle choices available that utilize batteries and electric motors to reduce tailpipe emissions and increase fuel economy. The eventual production of electricity and hydrogen in a renewable fashion, such as using solar energy, can achieve the long-term vision of having no tailpipe environmental impact, as well as eliminating the dependence of the transportation sector on dwindling supplies of petroleum for its energy. In this report we will demonstrate the solar-powered charging of the high-voltage nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery used in the GM 2-mode hybrid system. In previous studies we have used low-voltage solar modules to produce hydrogen via the electrolysis of water and to directly charge lithium-ion battery modules. Our strategy in the present work was to boost low-voltage PV voltage to over 300 V using DC-DC converters in order to charge the high-voltage NiMH battery, and to regulate the battery charging using software to program the electronic control unit supplied with the battery pack. A protocol for high-voltage battery charging was developed, and the solar to battery charging efficiency was measured under a variety of conditions. We believe this is the first time such high-voltage batteries have been charged using solar energy in order to prove the concept of efficient, solar-powered charging for battery-electric vehicles.

  15. Toward an Aqueous Solar Battery: Direct Electrochemical Storage of Solar Energy in Carbon Nitrides.

    Podjaski, Filip; Kröger, Julia; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2018-03-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides have emerged as an earth-abundant family of polymeric materials for solar energy conversion. Herein, a 2D cyanamide-functionalized polyheptazine imide (NCN-PHI) is reported, which for the first time enables the synergistic coupling of two key functions of energy conversion within one single material: light harvesting and electrical energy storage. Photo-electrochemical measurements in aqueous electrolytes reveal the underlying mechanism of this "solar battery" material: the charge storage in NCN-PHI is based on the photoreduction of the carbon nitride backbone and charge compensation is realized by adsorption of alkali metal ions within the NCN-PHI layers and at the solution interface. The photoreduced carbon nitride can thus be described as a battery anode operating as a pseudocapacitor, which can store light-induced charge in the form of long-lived, "trapped" electrons for hours. Importantly, the potential window of this process is not limited by the water reduction reaction due to the high intrinsic overpotential of carbon nitrides for hydrogen evolution, potentially enabling new applications for aqueous batteries. Thus, the feasibility of light-induced electrical energy storage and release on demand by a one-component light-charged battery anode is demonstrated, which provides a sustainable solution to overcome the intermittency of solar radiation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. Research on solar energy system (meteorological investigation); 1979 nendo taiyo energy system no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kisho chosa

    NONE

    1980-03-31

    The following were implemented with the purpose of collecting, measuring and putting in order the meteorological data required for the R and D on solar energy technology. (1) Observation of direct solar radiation (Nagoya/Sendai), (2) Meteorological observation for the pilot plant site of 1,000kW solar thermal power generation, (3) Studies on estimation of quantity of direct solar radiation, and (4) Studies on characteristics of quantity of direct solar radiation. In (1), the summary and the results were explained on the continuous observation of the quantity of the direct solar radiation conducted in Nagoya and Sendai using a self-recording actinometer. In (2), meteorological observation was conducted for building lots reclaimed from a salt pan at Nio-cho, Mitoyo county, Kagawa prefecture, a scheduled site for the pilot plant. The items were the quantity of global solar radiation, quantity of sky solar radiation, quantity of direct solar radiation, temperature, wet-bulb temperature, wind direction and wind velocity. In (3), A method was developed for estimating the monthly average quantity of the global solar radiation, normal direct solar radiation, horizontal sky solar radiation at an arbitrary spot. In (4), the characteristics of direct/specified direct solar radiation flux curves were elucidated as the basic data for the technological development of solar energy utilization using a sun follower type heat collecting device, with research done on a method for estimating these curves from other meteorological factors. (NEDO)

  17. Autonomous wind/solar power systems with battery storage

    Protogeropoulos, C I

    1993-12-31

    The performance of an autonomous hybrid renewable energy system consisting of combined photovoltaic/wind power generation with battery storage is under evaluation in this thesis. Detailed mathematical analysis of the renewable components and the battery was necessary in order to establish the theoretical background for accurate simulation results. Model validation was achieved through experimentation. The lack of a sizing method to combine both hybrid system total cost and long-term reliability level was the result of an extended literature survey. The new achievements which are described in this research work refer to: - simplified modelling for the performance of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic panels for all solar irradiance levels. -development of a new current-voltage expression with respect to wind speed for wind turbine performance simulation. -establishment of the battery storage state of voltage, SOV, simulation algorithm for long-term dynamic operational conditions. The proposed methodology takes into account 8 distinct cases covering steady state and transient effects and can be used for autonomous system reliability calculations. -techno-economic evaluation of the size of the hybrid system components by considering both reliability and economic criteria as design parameters. Two sizing scenarios for the renewable components are examined : the average year method and the ``worst renewable`` month method. (Author)

  18. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (total system); 1974 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Total system

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    The current most important solar energy utilization fields are solar energy power generation (solar heat and photovoltaic power generation), and solar heat cooling and heating. A solar heat power system collects or stores solar thermal energy as energy source of power systems, and converts it to electric power through heat exchange systems. To establish such system, not only R and D on a collector, absorption capsule, storage unit and heat transfer unit, but also complete study on an optimum system configuration and environmental impact are necessary. A photovoltaic power system converts solar energy to electric power directly by photoelectric conversion device such solar cell. Except specific local uses, drastic cost reduction and improvement of a conversion efficiency (at present 12-15%) and life (several years) are necessary for solar cells. Although a lot of solar heat cooling and heating systems is in practical use in Japan, for its further diffusion an important research task is development of heat collector excellent in efficiency, cost, life and maintainability. (NEDO)

  19. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of solar energy R and D program; 1994 nendo new sunshine keikaku. Seika hokokusho gaiyoshu (taiyo energy)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The paper reported the results of fiscal 1994 studies on solar energy in the New Sunshine Project. Relating to the technical development for the practical use of photovoltaic power systems, the development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates and the development of element technology for manufacturing low-cost polycrystalline cells/modules were reported as the development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. As to the research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use, reports were made on the research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules and the technological development for qualitative improvement, etc. In respect to the technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells, reported were the technological development for super-high efficiency single crystalline silicon solar cells and the technological development for crystalline compound solar cells, etc. Concerning the research and development of photovoltaic power systems, reports were on the characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films and the research on surface passivation for high-efficiency silicon solar cells, etc. In regard to the utilization technology of solar thermal energy, the energy conversion technology using chemical reactions and the development of chemical refrigeration and cold storage systems using solar heat were reported as the research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal systems for industrial use.

  20. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (photovoltaic power generation); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on the technical and economical perspectives of various solar cells, high-efficiency solar cell and its evaluation technique, and a photovoltaic power generation system and its applications. On Si single-crystal slice solar cell, it was pointed out that cost reduction by automatic production process using no vacuum process is essential. On Si thin film solar cell, some problems to be solved for development of particle accelerating growth technique were pointed out. Study was also made on 2-6 group compound semiconductor solar cell, 3-5 group bulk crystal solar cell, 3-5 group thin film solar cell, solar collection solar cell, and raw polycrystal Si materials. On photovoltaic power generation systems, it was reconfirmed through reconsideration of power generation systems for every application that the photovoltaic power generation system for residences is promising. On medium- scale power generation systems, study was made on power load and system configuration in consideration of applications to electric railway, highway, and power source of isolated islands. (NEDO)

  1. Development of a Battery-Free Solar Refrigerator

    Ewert, Michael K.; Bergeron, David J., III

    2000-01-01

    Recent technology developments and a systems engineering design approach have led to the development of a practical battery-free solar refrigerator as a spin-off of NASA's aerospace refrigeration research. Off-grid refrigeration is a good application of solar photovoltaic (PV) power if thermal storage is incorporated and a direct connection is made between the cooling system and the PV panel. This was accomplished by integrating water as a phase-change material into a well insulated refrigerator cabinet and by developing a microprocessor based control system that allows direct connection of a PV panel to a variable speed compressor. This second innovation also allowed peak power-point tracking from the PV panel and elimination of batteries from the system. First a laboratory unit was developed to prove the concept and then a commercial unit was produced and deployed in a field test. The laboratory unit was used to test many different configurations including thermoelectric, Stirling and vapor compression cooling systems. The final configuration used a vapor compression cooling cycle, vacuum insulation, a passive condenser, an integral evaporator/ thermal storage tank, two 77 watt PV panels and the novel controller mentioned above. The system's only moving part was the variable speed BD35 compressor made by Danfoss. The 365 liter cabinet stayed cold with as little as 274 watt-hours per day average PV power. Battery-free testing was conducted for several months with very good results. The amount of thermal storage, size of compressor and power of PV panels connected can all be adjusted to optimize the design for a given application and climate. In the commercial unit, the high cost of the vacuum insulated refrigerator cabinet and the stainless steel thermal storage tank were addressed in an effort to make the technology commercially viable. This unit started with a 142 liter, mass-produced chest freezer cabinet that had the evaporator integrated into its inner walls

  2. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (photovoltaic power generation); Taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report summarizes the research result on the guide for developing solar cells. The report includes (1) standard measurement method for solar cells, (2) system configuration and installation site, (3) optimum design and profitability of solar cells and (4) raw materials and pollution prevention. In the 1st research, study was made on the standard for solar radiation intensity, the definition and measurement methods for spectral profiles, and the measurement conditions for solar cells. In the 2nd research, study was made on various basic data for the scale of photovoltaic power systems. In the 3rd research, since it is necessary to obtain characteristics of solar cells with any profiles of physical constants such as impurity, minority carrier life and mobility by simulation of solar cell actions, research was made on the measurement method of minority carrier lives by using a prepared computer program. Technical and economical comparisons were also made between Si solar cells with various structures. In the 4th research, survey was made on various data for compound semiconductors, and study was made on industrial waste pollution. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (total system); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Total system

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    For every solar energy utilization field, its background, feasibility, impact in practical use, and R and D policy in Japan were studied. Heating and hot water supply by solar energy are already practical because of less technical problems and reasonable profitability, and cooling is also practical as far as a technical viewpoint. At present, the technical level of solar heat power generation is in the stage of basic technology, however, in the future, development of economically reasonable systems will be demanded as well as establishment of its technology. The most difficult problem for realizing practical solar cell power generation systems is cost reduction. It is also another problem that a big demand of Si for solar cells further exceeds the current yield of Si in a semiconductor industry. A small-scale hybrid solar cell power generation system applicable to the roof of general residences is already feasible. Although a solar furnace is still poor in application to industrial fields, it is expected as the leading part for a future solar heat chemical industry. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy system (weather survey); 1976 nendo taiyo energy system no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kisho chosa

    NONE

    1977-03-31

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on weather survey for solar energy systems. Study was made on preparation of the global solar radiation (GSR) map of Japan. To obtain the estimation equation of GSR based on related weather data, analysis was made on data at A type GSR observation sites and related weather data. As some factors effective for estimating monthly mean GSR, a relative sunshine duration, snowfall index (ratio of days more than 10cm in snowfall) and solar altitude index (sine of solar altitude at culmination hour) were selected. The estimation equation was prepared on the basis of these above factors. GSR was affected by relative sunshine duration exceedingly, snowfall by 12%, and solar altitude difference by 6% within an error of 5%. The monthly and annual GSR maps were prepared every site by the above calculation. The continuous observation results in Kagoshima and Fukuoka by recording direct pyranometers are presented. Scattered solar radiation is defined as the difference between simultaneously measured GSR and direct solar radiation. Weather data preparation in Fukuoka for design of solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems is also described. (NEDO)

  5. Technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells. Survey on the commercialization on analysis; Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu. Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on analysis of super-high efficiency solar cells for practical use in fiscal 1994. (1) On the survey on crystalline compound solar cells, it was pointed out that the present study target is III-V compound semiconductor solar cell, and efficiencies of 36-39% are theoretically expected by use of two-junction cells. (2) On structure of super-high efficiency solar cells of 40%, selection of upper and lower cell materials for multi-junction cells, high-efficiency tandem Si solar cells, and the merit and possibility of light collection operation were surveyed, and their issues were discussed. (3) On physical properties of mixed crystalline semiconductors and characteristic evaluation of solar cells, impurities, trap center, minority carrier life, and applicability of supper lattice structure to high-efficiency solar cells were surveyed. (4) On fabrication technology of compound semiconductor solar cells, various problems of and approaches to electrode formation and antireflection film technologies, the meaning and issues of thin film substrate technology and continuous process, trial calculation of costs, safety, and resource problem were surveyed.

  6. 17th Business Report Meeting of New Energy Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Section Meeting on Solar Technology; Dai 17 kai jigyo hokokukai. Taiyo gijutsu bunkakai

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    In this section meeting, reports were made on the following themes: 1) outline of NEDO solar technology development; 2) commercialization study of thin film polycrystal solar cell production technology; 3) development of CdTe solar cell module production technology; 4) R and D of construction material monolithic solar cell modules; 5) development of the project overseas for solar energy technology development. In 1), outlined were the development of commercialization technology of photovoltaic power system, internationally joint demonstration development of photovoltaic power system, development of production facilities of solar cell use compound semiconductors, development of commercialization technology of solar system for industrial use, etc., and a large wind power system. In 2), the results of the study 'low cost Si substrate production by continuous cast method' were reported. In 3), the results were reported of the increase in efficiency and development of low cost production technology for large area modules. In 4), 3 kinds and 6 systems of R and D for house roofs and building walls were conducted, and possibilities of commercialization were obtained in terms of performance and economical efficiency as construction material. In 5), with the use of natural conditions and social systems in Nepal, Mongol, Thailand and Malaysia, the development for commercialization of this system is being made by joint research with each country. (NEDO)

  7. Identifying Critical Factors in the Cost-Effectiveness of Solar and Battery Storage in Commercial Buildings

    McLaren, Joyce A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Katherine H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laws, Nicholas D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Xiangkun [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-21

    This analysis elucidates the emerging market for distributed solar paired with battery energy storage in commercial buildings across the United States. It provides insight into the near-term and future solar and solar-plus-storage market opportunities as well as the variables that impact the expected savings from installing behind-the-meter systems.

  8. Development of a high temperature solar receiver for high-efficient thermionic conversion systems; Fukugo netsuden henkan system yo chokoon taiyo junetsuki no kaihatsu

    Umeoka, T; Naito, H; Yugami, H; Arashi, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    For thermionic conversion systems (TIC) using concentrated sunlight as heat source, the newly developed solar receiver was tested. Concentrated sunlight aims at the inner surface of the cavity type solar receiver. The emitter of TIC installed in the rear of the solar receiver is uniformly heated over 1700K by thermal radiation from the rear of the solar receiver, emitting thermion. Electric power is generated by collecting the thermion by collector. Mo is used as emitter material, however, because of poor heat absorption of Mo, high-absorptive TiC is used for heat absorption surface to heat Mo by thermal conduction from high-temperature TiC. Functionally gradient material (FGM) with an intermediate layer of gradient TiC/Mo ratios between TiC and Mo is used as emitter material. The emitter is thus uniformly heated at high temperatures of 1723{plus_minus}12K. As a result, the developed solar receiver is applicable to heat the emitter of TIC. Heat flux measurement at the graphite cavity clarified that cavity temperature of as high as 1780K and heat flow of 50W/cm{sup 2} are obtained at 4.7kW in input. 6 figs.

  9. Control method for light deterioration of amorphous solar cell. 2. Temperature effect method; Amorphous taiyo denchi no hikari rekka yokuseiho. 2. Ondo kokaho

    Fujimoto, H; Itsumi, J; Sano, N [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Experimental studies have been carried out on suppressing early deterioration in amorphous silicon solar cells. The amorphous silicon solar cell is characterized by deterioration due to light irradiation and restoration due to temperature rise. An exposure experiment was performed under three conditions: installation in natural environment, installation with rear side of the solar cells covered with an insulating material, and installation with rear side of the solar cells covered with warming elements and an insulating material. Tests were made on suppressing progress of the early deterioration caused by temperature conditions. As a result, the efficiency in the natural condition was found to decrease as largely as 32% in an open circuit condition and 58% in a short circuit condition. The efficiency reduction rate was smaller in the open circuit condition when the insulation material was installed, but in the short circuit condition, resistance characteristics caused by rain water and electrolytic corrosion were exhibited. For the case with warming elements installed, the reduction in the efficiency was more remarkable, contrary to the expectation. The cause was determined that water existing between the rear side and the warming elements was warmed up, accelerating the electrolytic action, and resulting in deterioration advanced over a wide area in the rear side. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program survey and research. Research on solar energy systems (Meteorological survey); 1981 nendo taiyo energy system no kenkyu. Kisho chosa

    NONE

    1982-03-31

    The basic national map on global solar radiation compiled in fiscal 1975-76 provides but inadequate information on the weather of Japan where weather distribution and geography are complicated. The amount of global solar radiation is estimated using data supplied from 838 local weather stations across Japan, and a plan is implemented of compiling detailed local maps. For the application of a formula for this estimation, however, difference between the two types of sunshine recorders in use is taken up, which are the Jordan type and the solar cell type. Values observed using the two types of sunshine recorders at 149 sites are compared and the difference is defined. Using hourly observation records of sunshine duration at 838 sites across Japan (covering 2 years), and taking into consideration the outlines worked out for terrain and things on the ground surface, monthly correction coefficients are determined for correcting geography-caused difference in sunshine duration records (for all sites). Since the nationwide deployment of local weather stations was completed barely in 1979, normal values have to be estimated based on data collected in a short period following 1979. For 151 weather offices whose normal values are already known, normalization factors are worked out for converting the values obtained in a specified year into normal values, and monthly maps are prepared. When a normalization factor is determined for a given local weather station, values recorded at that station for a specified year may be converted into normal values. (NEDO)

  11. Development of a battery-free solar refrigerator

    Ewert, Michael K; Bergeron, David J. III [Houston, TX (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Recent technology developments and a systems engineering design approach have led to the development of a practical battery-free solar refrigerator as a spin-off of NASA's aerospace refrigeration research. Off-grid refrigeration is a good application of solar photovoltaic (PV) power thermal storage is incorporated and a direct connection is made between the cooling system and the PV panel. This was accomplished by integrating water as a phase-change material into a well-insulated refrigerator cabinet and by developing a microprocessor-based control system that allows direct connection of a PV panel to a variable-speed compressor. This second innovation also allowed peak power-point tracking from the PV panel and elimination of batteries from the system. First a laboratory unit was developed to prove the concept and then a commercial unit was produced and deployed in a field test. The laboratory unit was used to test many different configurations including thermoelectric., Stirling and vapor compression cooling systems. The final configuration used a vapor compression cooling cycle, vacuum insulation, a passive condenser, and integral evaporator/thermal storage tank, two 77 watt PV panels, and the novel controller mentioned above. The system's only moving part was the variable-speed BD35 compressor made by Danfoss. The 365 liter cabinet stayed cold with as a little as 274 watt-hours per day average PV power. Battery-free testing was conducted for several months with very good results. The amount of thermal storage, size of compressor, and power of PV panels connected can all be adjusted to optimize the design for a given application and climate. In the commercial unit, vacuum insulation and the stainless steel thermal storage tank were not used in order to reduce cost and make the technology commercially viable. This unit started with a 142 liter, mass-produced chest freezer cabinet that had the evaporator integrated into its inner walls. Its compressor

  12. Investigation on the chemically fixing technique of carbon dioxide utilizing solar energy; Taiyo energy riyo ni yoru nisanka tanso no kagakuteki koteika gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the results of effective fixing technique of CO2 by utilizing solar energy. First of all, the investigation was directed to the technique for synthesizing ethylene, hydrocarbons and alcohol by electrochemical reduction of CO2. The power required for this process is supplied by photovoltaic power generation. Development of excellent electrode catalyst is needed because the reduction of CO2 requires a high overvoltage. It is desirable to enhance the selectivity of the reaction for specific material and improve the transport process in the electrolytic cell. Next, designing of material and reaction of photocatalysts using semiconductor electrode and semiconductor particulate was examined. A semiconductor electrode made of FeS2 is inexpensive and has a high ability of collecting solar light. In the category of photocatalysis system, a photocatalytic system in which semiconductor particles are embedded in vesicle and a photpocatalyst based on potassium niobate are noteworthy. As biosystem, the method of reducing CO2 by calcareous algae which simultaneously advances fixing and calcification of CO2 by photosynthesis is noteworthy. 129 refs., 45 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Control method for light deterioration of amorphous solar cell. Temperature effect method; Amorphous taiyo denchi no hikari rekka yokuseiho. Ondo kokaho

    Fujimoto, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper describes a proposed method for suppressing light deterioration (temperature effect method), in which an annealing effect was always expected by laminating an NEM element and a heat insulation material on the back side of a-Si solar cell module and thereby raising the temperature in the back side of the module, and also describes an outdoor exposure test device completed for the method. The NEM element consisted of conductive potassium titanate and high molecular polymer and was a self temperature-controlling organic exothermic body that required no outside temperature control device. It was provided with a heat generating temperature of 45-75{degree}C as the exothermic property of the element and capable of generating heating temperature arbitrarily according to the purpose. The NEM element varied a resistance value against the ambient temperature and kept the element temperature constant. Measurement was commenced starting April 19, 1996, using the completed outdoor exposure test device and a measuring circuit. The deterioration phenomenon was and from then on continuously examined under the following conditions: (1) measurements were those of clear days only, and (2) measurements to be used were those between 10:00 and 14:00 with the quantity of solar radiation on a constant level. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Development of measurement device for evaluation of solar cell module output. 2; Taiyo denchi module shutsuryoku hyokayo sokuteiki no kaihatsu. 2

    Minoda, M.; Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Enhancement in design efficiency may be attained as well as utilization in maintenance if on-the-spot data is made available, for the purpose of flexibly dealing with changes in design or matching with a house structure, in calculating the power generation output of a solar cell (PV) module. Under the circumstances, a small-sized compound measuring device was produced as a prototype which, using an I-V curve tracer, measured output and condition of a roof at the time of installation, compared with the optimum operation and predicted the power generation. The device was structured with the main body consisting of a computing part, measurement controller and power supply and with various sensor modules. The electron load control method was employed in order to measure I-V characteristics of the PV module, since it was desirable to use a variable load and to cover the range from the release voltage of a solar cell to the short-circuit state through the maximum output point. The reference module method was used for the system evaluation. The device was presumably applicable to a PV system design by incorporating a sensor module for measuring design environment data, which was essential at the time of a system design, in addition to those for measuring output. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. FY 1990 achievement report on the survey of possibility of introducing solar energy into buildings; 1990 nendo taiyo energy no kenchikubutsu eno donyu kanosei chosa seika hokokusho

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1990 on survey on possibility of introducing solar energy into buildings. Capacity of photovoltaic power generation facilities installed on an area of 1600 km{sup 2}, such as roofs of residential houses, schools and building may be calculated on a trial bases as 100 million kW at maximum. The capacity can replace 16% of the total demand and corresponds to 26.30 million kiloliters (9%) as converted to crude oil. If photovoltaic power generation is utilized on buildings of users, diversified technological criteria are required from the viewpoint of legislation covering wide range of architectural, electrical and disaster aspects. However, no direct and clear standards are available now, except for the electric power business law. What are urgently required are solar cell standardization, incentive subsidies, aging safety, institutions for electric power sale and purchase, and establishment of technological criteria. An utilization example survey revealed problems in array installation and size. Increased demand, mass production and cost reduction will create a favorable cycle. Introduction, proliferation, and acceleration under policies at public facilities which are expected of enlightenment and development into other areas will be the effective means for the purpose. (NEDO)

  16. Cooling Li-ion batteries of racing solar car by using multiple phase change materials

    Moraga, Nelson O.; Xamán, Jesús P.; Araya, Ricardo H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal efficiency of Li-ion batteries improved by use of phase change materials. • Multiple layers of PCM provides good cooling capabilities for solar car batteries. • Evolution of temperature of solar car batteries described by Finite Volume Method. • Thermal control in discharge mode of lithium battery for solar car achieved by PCM. - Abstract: A numerical study of the unsteady phase change convection-conduction heat transfer of an ion-lithium battery with volumetric heat generation used in solar vehicles is presented. The cooling process is investigated for a total of seven arrays of phase change material (PCM): capric acid (PCM 1), eicosane (PCM 2), decahydrated sodium carbonate (PCM 3) and octadecane (PCM 4) located in one or three layers around the battery. The results show that heat conduction predominates in the battery with a PCM and the liquid phase fraction of the PCM indicates that the melting initiates after 7 min, reaching totally liquid state after 14.25 min. From the different configurations of PCM around the battery, the configuration “B” (multiple PCM: PCM 1 (5 mm) + PCM 3 (2.9 mm) + PCM 2 (4.3 mm)) and the configuration with a single layer of PCM 3 (14.3 mm) respectively reduce the maximum temperature of the battery about 20.9 and 23.2 K compared with the temperature reached by the battery without PCM. This result occurs because of the Decahydrated Sodium Carbonate PCM, since it has the highest latent heat and has a low melting point.

  17. A solar rechargeable flow battery based on photoregeneration of two soluble redox couples.

    Liu, Ping; Cao, Yu-liang; Li, Guo-Ran; Gao, Xue-Ping; Ai, Xin-Ping; Yang, Han-Xi

    2013-05-01

    Storable sunshine, reusable rays: A solar rechargeable redox flow battery is proposed based on the photoregeneration of I(3)(-)/I(-) and [Fe(C(10)H(15))(2)](+)/Fe(C(10)H(15))(2) soluble redox couples, which can be regenerated by flowing from a discharged redox flow battery (RFB) into a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and then stored in tanks for subsequent RFB applications This technology enables effective solar-to-chemical energy conversion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Survey and research on systems utilizing solar energy (Photovoltaic power generation systems); 1977 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at investigation on irradiation conditions of natural solar radiation to establish the performance evaluation methods; establishment of standard evaluation methods under natural solar radiation; and investigation on practical problems involved in the photovoltaic power generation systems. The research items are (1) photovoltaic power generation systems, and (2) standard evaluation methods for photovoltaic power generation systems installed on the ground. The item (1) includes the effect analysis in which existing Japanese residential buildings are selected to estimate possibility of installation of photovoltaic power generation systems and possible quantity of power generated; conceptual designs in which several systems conceivable at present are proposed and outlined, and a 30kW photovoltaic power generation system is taken up to investigate, e.g., solar cell arrays for the system, orthogonal conversion devices, associated facilities, conceptual designs of storage batteries, problems involved therein, and future research themes; and operation of the cell, which takes up operational examples of solar cell power sources, and operational problems viewed from the power transmission side. The item (2) proposes the standard evaluation methods (primary drafts) for the solar cell arrays and panels as those for photovoltaic power generation systems installed on the ground. (NEDO)

  19. System approach on solar hydrogen generation and the gas utilization; Taiyo energy ni yoru suiso no seisei oyobi sono riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu

    Fujii, I; Hirooka, N; Deguchi, Y; Narita, D [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    An apparatus is developed to establish a system which allows utilization of hydrogen safely and easily, and its applicability to a hydrogen system for domestic purposes is tested. The system converts solar energy by the photovoltaic cell unit into power, which is used to generate hydrogen by electrolysis of water at the hydrogen generator, stores hydrogen in a metal hydride , and sends stored hydrogen to the burner and fuel cell units. It is found that a hydrogen occluding alloy of LaNi4.8Al0.2 stores hydrogen to approximately 80% when cooled to 20 to 25degC, and releases it to 10% when heated to 40degC. The fuel cell uses a solid polymer as the electrolyte. The hydrogen gas burner is a catalytic combustion burner with a Pt catalyst carried by expanded Ni-Al alloy. The optimum distance between the burner and object to be heated is 22mm. High safety and fabrication simplicity are confirmed for use for domestic purposes. The system characteristics will be further investigated. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Photocatalytic removal of nitrogen oxides from ambient air using solar energy; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita taikichu no NOx no hikari shokubai jokyo

    Fukaya, M; Taoda, H; Watanabe, E; Nonami, T; Iseda, K; Kato, K [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan); Kunieda, S [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Nagoya (Japan); Kato, S

    1997-11-25

    Experiment was made on removal of NOx from ambient air using ceramic blocks coated with a newly developed easy-to- handle TiO2 film photocatalyst. After TiO2 sol was prepared by hydrolyzing titanium tetraisopropoxide, the photocatalytic blocks were prepared through drying and sintering after immersing the blocks in TiO2 sol. The effect of the number of coating on catalytic performance was studied using the single-coated and triple-coated blocks. Artificial solar light of 1mW/cm{sup 2} was used as light source for flowing reaction experiment of air (containing NOx) in a laboratory. NOx concentration rapidly decreased with irradiation, and 94% and 98% of NOx were removed by the single- and triple-coated blocks, respectively. NOx was completely oxidized to HNO3 through NO2 by triple-coated blocks. The demonstration test of removal of NOx from ambient air in Okazaki city showed a removal rate of nearly 90% in noonday and 40% or more in average, while not 0% but 5-20% even in the nighttime. The latter is probably derived from adsorption by the porous photocatalytic blocks. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Temperature dependence of the early degradation in a-Si solar cells; Amorphous Si taiyo denchi no shoki rekka no ondo izonsei

    Takahisa, K; Kojima, T; Nakamura, K; Koyanagi, T; Yanagisawa, T [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Discussions were given on early degradation in up to about ten minutes in amorphous silicon solar cells. The experiment has used a model cell of single junction layer for power use with a Glass/ITO/P-i-n:a-Si/Al structure. Test samples were annealed at 130 degC for 30 minutes to eliminate hysteresis of degradation during storage. Xenon was used as an irradiation light source, and the temperatures were varied from 0 to 100 degC and the measurement time was set to 0.1 to 500 minutes. The result of the experiment may be summarized as follows: with regard to time-based degradation pattern for conversion efficiency, the tilt of a pattern to express degradation rate varies with temperature conditions, and changes in 10 to 20 minutes of light irradiation as a boundary; in long-term degradation after 20 minutes, the higher the environmental temperature, the lower the degradation is suppressed, but the rate of initial degradation up to about 10 minutes is higher as the higher the temperature; and the degradation rate increases as the higher the temperature in the initial degradation of about 10 minutes, whereas, corresponding to this fact, it is estimated that a phenomenon is involved, in which carrier recombination defect may increase. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. NREL Screens Universities for Solar and Battery Storage Potential

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-12

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative, NREL provided solar photovoltaic (PV) screenings in 2016 and 2017 for universities seeking to go solar. Fifteen universities were selected for screenings based on campus solar and sustainability goals, plans for future solar projects and solar deployment capacity (megawatts), regional diversity, energy costs, and availability of campus energy data for the analysis.

  3. Solar Powered Aircraft, Photovoltaic Array/Battery System Tabletop Demonstration: Design and Operation Manual

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A system was constructed to demonstrate the power system operation of a solar powered aircraft. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a charge controller, a battery, an electric motor and propeller. The system collects energy from the PV array and either utilizes this energy to operate an electric motor or stores it in a rechargeable battery for future use. The system has a control panel which displays the output of the array and battery as well as the total current going to the electric motor. The control panel also has a means for adjusting the output to the motor to control its speed. The entire system is regulated around 12 VDC.

  4. Features of the low-power charge controller of lead-acid current sources charged by solar batteries

    Tukfatullin, O.F.; Yuldoshev, I.A.; Solieva, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influence of different factors on exploitations characteristics of solar photoelectric plant is investigated by field-performance data. A construction of charge controller of the lead-acid accumulator battery charging by means of solar battery is analyzed taking into account these factors. (authors)

  5. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal energy system for industrial and other use. International joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems; Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Taiyo energy riyo system kokusai kyodo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for international joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems. The joint study with an Indonesian research institute takes a model of lumber drying plant for the design and feasibility study. All the parts it needs are technically available in Indonesia, except carbon fiber sheets and electronic devices for controlling purposes. The drying cost is higher than that of a plant which procures charge-free wood fuel, but lower than that of a plant which procures fuel at 30$/t. A cacao drying plant model is also studied. The feasibility study shows that the initial investment for the blowing-up model is much higher by 60% to 100% than that for the conventional plant. Its fuel cost is lower by 11% than that of residual oil but 27% higher than that of wood. 4 figs.

  6. Solar battery charging; Sonne in den Akku laden

    Frey, Martin

    2012-01-30

    Swiss battery producer Leclanche intends serial production of lithium ion cells for storage of renewable energy. A production facility at Kehl, Germany, is currently under construction. Schueco International KG is one of the first customers.

  7. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Research and development of solar cell evaluation system (Survey of research and development of solar cell evaluation system); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchi hyoka system no kenkyu kaihatsu (taiyo denchi hyoka system no kenkyu kaihatsu chosa)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The fiscal 1999 results of survey and research conducted for the establishment of solar cell performance evaluation and reliability evaluation methods are reported. In the development of a super high fidelity (broad spectrum) solar simulator for cell evaluation, a prototype was tested for performance evaluation, and initially set values were achieved. In the development of a large-area module evaluation technology, the radiation area was increased to be 1.0m times 1.0m large. Outdoor exposure tests continued at 5 sites in Japan, 3 sites in Australia, and 1 site in Oman, and analyses and databasing were carried out for the outputs of various types of solar cell modules. As for the problem of coloring of fillers which are module constituents, coloring in the U.S. was attributed to high temperature and intensive insolation, and in Austria to an oxidation inhibitor. In the development of a photo-accelerated degradation testing method for Si-based solar cells, application of the cycled illumination test was found feasible. In this test method, an amorphous silicon solar cell retains 70% of the initial Pmax value even after the passage of a period equivalent to 30 years. (NEDO)

  8. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (production technology for amorphous silicon solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (amorphous taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of amorphous Si solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On process technology for prototype film substrate solar cells, an advanced preprocessing equipment for film substrates, stepping roll type film forming technology, and prototype submodules were studied. A conversion efficiency of 7.2% was achieved by use of the submodule formed in an effective region of 40 {times} 40cm{sup 2}. (2) On efficiency improvement technology for film substrate solar cells, p/i and n/i interfaces, forming condition for Ag film electrodes, film thickness of transparent electrode ITO, and optimum transmissivity were studied. (3) On technology for advanced solar cells, high-quality a-SiGe: H film, ion control in plasma CVD, and a-Si film formation by plasma CVD using SiH2Cl2 were studied as production technology of narrow gap materials. (4) On advanced two-layer tandem solar cells, the defect density in optical degradation of a-Si cells by reverse bias dark current was evaluated, and outdoor exposure data were analyzed. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Fiscal 1994 achievement report. Development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology - Development of ultrahigh-efficiency solar cell technology (Development of new photoelectric conversion material technology - Research on future feasibility of wet-type solar cells); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu (shinkoden henkan zairyo no gijutsu kaihatsu (shisshiki taiyo denchi no shoraiteki kanosei no chosa))

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    A survey is conducted of wet-type solar cells that may constitute an important field in solar chemistry. The wet type solar cell made known by Graetzel et al. in 1991 is a combination of ultrafine TiO{sub 2} grains and a sensitizing dye. The ultrafine grain surface structure enlarges the area of an electrode for the absorption of 46% of incident solar radiation of which 80% or more is converted into electric power. The fill factor at 520nm of a cell fabricated for an additional test turns out to be 40% against the 76% mentioned in technical literature, and the conversion efficiency 10%. The Titanyl sulfate is also tested because it is low in price as material for titanium oxide. Functional groups are experimentally introduced for the generation of bonds on the substrate to be effective in the injection of a sensitizing dye. A sensitizing dye with two carboxyl groups and two bipyridine rings as ligand is allowed to be supported by TiO{sub 2}. IR (infrared) spectrometry is performed, and then formation is found of ester-like bonds or chelate bonds due to the interaction of carboxyl groups and the substrate surface. This is enhanced by surface treatment. (NEDO)

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program research and development. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Research and development of amorphous solar cells on flexible film substrates); 1981 nendo amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kadosei film wo kiban to suru amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1982-03-31

    Efforts will be made to reduce the cost, increase efficiency, and enlarge cell areas and, at the same time, to establish the foundation of a roll-up type solar cell manufacturing process which is required for the implementation of mass production. In an inverted pin/ITO (indium-tin oxide) hetero-face structure cell installed on a polymer film substrate, a conversion efficiency of 5.33% is achieved in the case of a solar cell whose n-layer is of the amorphous phase, and 6.36% in the case of a cell of the microcrystallized phase. A roll-up type glow discharge CVD (chemical vapor deposition) unit is designed and experimentally built, which is for the realization of large area cells. It is now duly expected that an undoped (i-type) a-Si:H film will be deposited to a thickness of approximately 5000A. As the result of a first-step screening conducted in search of amorphous solar cell sealing materials, some applicable plastic materials are selected. The future is bright of amorphous solar cells on polymer film substrates. (NEDO)

  11. Analysis and Design of CLL Resonant Converter for Solar Panel-battery Systems

    D.Ramasubramanian; C.Nagarajan; M.Muruganandam

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a CLL resonant converter with DSP based Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) for solar panel to battery charging system. The mathematical model of the converters has been developed and simulated using MATLAB. The state space model of the converter is developed; it is used to analysis the steady state stability of the system. The aim of the proposed converter is to regulate and control of the output voltage from the solar panel voltage. The performance of the proposed converter is ...

  12. Integrating a Photocatalyst into a Hybrid Lithium-Sulfur Battery for Direct Storage of Solar Energy.

    Li, Na; Wang, Yarong; Tang, Daiming; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-03

    Direct capture and storage of abundant but intermittent solar energy in electrical energy-storage devices such as rechargeable lithium batteries is of great importance, and could provide a promising solution to the challenges of energy shortage and environment pollution. Here we report a new prototype of a solar-driven chargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, in which the capture and storage of solar energy was realized by oxidizing S(2-) ions to polysulfide ions in aqueous solution with a Pt-modified CdS photocatalyst. The battery can deliver a specific capacity of 792 mAh g(-1) during 2 h photocharging process with a discharge potential of around 2.53 V versus Li(+)/Li. A specific capacity of 199 mAh g(-1), reaching the level of conventional lithium-ion batteries, can be achieved within 10 min photocharging. Moreover, the charging process of the battery can proceed under natural sunlight irradiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for development of extra-high efficiency solar cells (fundamental research on extra-high efficiency Si solar cells); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu no tame no kaiseki hyoka (chokokoritsu silicon taiyo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Sekikawa, T; Suzuki, E; Ishikawa, K; Takato, H; Yui, N; Shimokawa, R [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for analysis and evaluation for development of extra-high efficiency silicon solar cells. It is necessary for development of extra-high efficiency Si solar cells to extend as far as possible service life of minority carriers and to develop the evaluation techniques. Noting photoluminescence (PL) observable even with Si, the method of evaluating characteristics of minority carriers, which are not limited in samples, is developed to experimentally determine their service life from transitional response of the PL characteristics. Si has an extremely low quantum effect, because it is an indirect transitional semiconductor, and needs measurement of very high sensitivity. A rapid heat annealing apparatus and others to generate carriers in the infrared and ultraviolet regions are provided in consideration that these are possible means to increase efficiency. These possibilities will be pursued by developing the annealing techniques. 1 fig.

  14. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices

    Li, Wenjie

    2016-09-21

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L−1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency.

  15. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices.

    Li, Wenjie; Fu, Hui-Chun; Li, Linsen; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; He, Jr-Hau; Jin, Song

    2016-10-10

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L -1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (CdS/CdTe solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (CdTe taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of CdS/CdTe solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology for high-efficiency large-area solar cells, high-quality CdTe active layer was studied. S content taken in the active layer at sintering of CdTe decreased with an increase in formed CdTe, resulting in improvement of Voc of cells. (2) On the window layer with wide band gap, the solar cell superior in collection efficiency and photoelectric characteristics could be obtained using the newly developed mixed crystal film of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)S. (3) On the forming technology of large-area coating/sintering films, improvement of CdS film quality was studied by pressurized processing of printed CdS films. As a result, improvement of film density and light transmissivity was confirmed. (4) On the leveling process technology of CdTe films, smooth surface films were obtained by experiment using an equipment simultaneously exciting samples in all directions as one of uniform coating methods of films. 7 figs.

  17. Achievement report on Sunshine Program research and development for fiscal 1981. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Research and development of integrated type amorphous solar cells); 1981 nendo amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shusekigata amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    An a-SiC (amorphous SiC) material with a wider band gap adds to the conventional hydrogen- and fluorine-based a-Si materials in the study for device efficiency enhancement, and the a-SiC is found suitable as a wide-gap window material. The separated formation technique is found to work effectively for improvement on cell characteristics because it prevents the mixing of impurities of different types. A p-i-n (positive-intrinsic-negative) type amorphous solar cell is subjected to analysis, and a theoretical efficiency of 12.5% is obtained in photoelectric conversion. A conversion efficiency not less than 7% is obtained from an ITO (indium-tin oxide)/p(SiC)-i-n/Al cell on a glass substrate. Design is optimized for area enlargement for an integrated type device, which results in an experimental 10cm-square integrated type solar cell with a conversion efficiency of not less than 5%. As for modularization, a glass substrate for integrated type device is used, as is, as a light-receiving surface protecting board, and studies are conducted thereon. It is then found that the amorphous solar cell experiences some degradation in reliability at the beginning of an irradiation test but that no extensive degradation in reliability is observed even after the passage of 1,000 hours from the beginning of the test. The separated formation technique is found suitable for use in mass production. (NEDO)

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program research and development of photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Research and development of technologies for enlarging amorphous solar cell area); 1981 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu (amorphous taiyo denchi no daimensekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    In the basic studies of large-area a-Si film formation technologies, the validity is discussed of the evaluation technique using plasma optical emissions spectrometry (OES) employed for the achievement of the intended film qualities. The film forming condition that exerts the greatest influence on the plasma state relative to OES is the power of discharge, and correlations are found to exist between specific emission intensity, infrared absorption level, and photoconductivity of the film. It is found that a P- or B-doped Si:H/SiC:H film is suitable as the material for the window layer on the light-receiving surface of the solar cell. Materials are studied for the i-layer responsible for photo carrier generation, isolation, and acceleration. Studies are also conducted on fluorine-containing film. In the efforts at designing and building solar cells, ITO (indium-tin oxide)/n-i-p/SS (reversed type) cells are analyzed, designing is carried out for transparent electrode film thickness optimization, window effect in stainless substrate cells is improved, glass substrate cells are experimentally built and analyzed, large-area solar cell properties are improved, interaction between the substrate and a-Si is studied, and reliability tests are conducted. For cost reduction, it is necessary to develop technologies of automated production of simplified-structure modules using low-cost materials. Basic matters are taken up for discussion. (NEDO)

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1983 on Sunshine Program-entrusted survey and research. Cooperative project between Japan and Australia, etc., on solar energy technology (Cooperation between Japan and France on solar energy technology); 1983 nendo Nichigonado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Nichifutsu taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This paper reports a survey on solar heat utilization technologies conducted in fiscal 1983 in accordance with a scientific cooperation agreement signed by the Japanese Government and the French Government. The survey was carried out by two employees with the solar technology development office of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization who were dispatched to France on a tour in the period March 13-24. Concerning the 'French Photovoltaic Program 1982-1986,' knowledge on the goal of the program, long-term research and development, and budgetary matters were obtained at the AFME (French Energy Management Agency) head office and its branches. Relations of AFME with EC (European Community) projects were clarified. The photovoltaic power system (50kW) of Nice Airport is one of the EC projects, and was built thanks to financial aids by EC and AFME. The power system is now in service as a power source for electronic equipment in the airport management building and for taxi lights installed on the ground. The CGE (Compagnie General d'Electricite) central laboratory and the Rhone Poulenc Specialites Chimique were visited, when information on the research and development of a ribbon crystal pulling process and solar-grade silicon was acquired. (NEDO)

  20. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. Investigation and research on solar energy utilization system (solar thermal power generation system); 1979 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu. Taiyoko hatsuden system

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    In connection with the practicability of a solar thermal power generation system, examination was made on the technical economic problems and the operation method as well as on the problems of required performance of the constituent equipment, with the measuring method and performance evaluation method examined that are suitable for various devices. The items for the examination are as follows: (1) Silicon as the raw material for solar cells and its R and D, (2) Amorphous silicon solar cells, (3) R and D on low cost solar cells and array, (4) Basic design for photovoltaic generation system, and (5) Problems and technical subjects for solar cell standard measurement. The research themes and items for the above examination are listed as below: (1) Demand trend for raw material silicon, overseas trend, and development plan for polycrystalline silicon; (2) R and D plan for amorphous Si solar cell and its system, their optimum design, and their cost analysis and economic effect; (3) Technological investigation on cells and examination on array; (4) Basic design, peripheral equipment for system, and development schedule; (5) Report on the first actual state investigation concerning instrumentation of solar cells, i.e., on 'instrumentation and deviation in transformation efficiency', calibration system, problems of instrumentation of new device, problems of reliability test method, situation in various countries, and trend in atmospheric turbidimeter. (NEDO)

  1. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. Investigation and research on solar energy utilization system (solar thermal power generation system); 1979 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu. Taiyoko hatsuden system

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    In connection with the practicability of a solar thermal power generation system, examination was made on the technical economic problems and the operation method as well as on the problems of required performance of the constituent equipment, with the measuring method and performance evaluation method examined that are suitable for various devices. The items for the examination are as follows: (1) Silicon as the raw material for solar cells and its R and D, (2) Amorphous silicon solar cells, (3) R and D on low cost solar cells and array, (4) Basic design for photovoltaic generation system, and (5) Problems and technical subjects for solar cell standard measurement. The research themes and items for the above examination are listed as below: (1) Demand trend for raw material silicon, overseas trend, and development plan for polycrystalline silicon; (2) R and D plan for amorphous Si solar cell and its system, their optimum design, and their cost analysis and economic effect; (3) Technological investigation on cells and examination on array; (4) Basic design, peripheral equipment for system, and development schedule; (5) Report on the first actual state investigation concerning instrumentation of solar cells, i.e., on 'instrumentation and deviation in transformation efficiency', calibration system, problems of instrumentation of new device, problems of reliability test method, situation in various countries, and trend in atmospheric turbidimeter. (NEDO)

  2. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (development of fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cell); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (usumaku takessho silicon kei taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology of high-quality Si thin films, the new equipment was studied which allows uniform stable melting recrystallization over a large area. The new equipment adopted a heating method based on RTP system, and is now under adjustment. (2) On the fabrication technology of light/carrier confinement structure, degradation of hydrogen-treated thin film Si solar cells by light irradiation was examined. As a result, since any characteristic degradation was not found even by long time light irradiation, the high quality of the cells was confirmed regardless of hydrogen-treatment. Fabrication of stable reproducible fine texture structure became possible by using fabrication technology of light confinement structure by texture treatment of cell surfaces. (3) On low-cost process technology, design by VEST process, estimation of cell characteristics by simulation, and characteristics of prototype cells were reported. 33 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program research and development. Research and development of solar energy technologies (Research and development of SnO{sub 2} solar cells); 1981 nendo taiyo energy gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. SnO{sub 2} taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The aim is to establish the technology of manufacturing SnO{sub 2}/nSi solar cells using a low-temperature deposition method and thereby to reduce the cost. A 5cm-diameter wafer is subjected to a batch process, and a large-area, uniform-quality SnO{sub 2} film is obtained. A conversion efficiency of 13.7% is achieved for a single-crystal 9cm{sup 2} cell. As for the conditions of electrode formation, conventional methods are applied for bonding metals, which are Sn, Ni, Zn, etc., for the surface electrode and rear electrode. Vapor deposition is found to be the most excellent. Since it is known that ohmic characteristics improve when Cr is inserted as the base for the surface electrode rear electrodes, it is anticipated that a contact resistance value not inferior to that by vapor deposition will be achieved once the method of Cr bonding, whether by printing or plating, is established. An n-type low-cost polycrystalline Si substrate is subjected to etching under the optimum conditions, and a conversion efficiency of 9.6% is achieved for a 0.5cm{sup 2} cell. An SnO{sub 2} film is formed on a uneven surface for a reduction in the single-crystal cost, when characteristics better than those of a wafer manufactured by surface polishing are realized. Experimentally produced cells are evaluated using a solar simulator, and the result indicates that the electrode forming conditions influence conversion efficiency a great deal. (NEDO)

  4. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. Investigation and research on solar energy utilization system (solar thermal power generation system); 1979 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyonetsu hatsuden system

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    An investigation and research were conducted on the operation method of various solar thermal power generation systems and on the evaluation of the rating and cost performance; in the environmental test method for the equipment, the examination was continued for the test method and evaluation method concerning the absorbing surface and transmitting film; in the heat storing technology, an investigative research was done on the optimum heat storing method and energy conversion method suitable for the operation of the thermal power generation system, as well as performing, as an objective, a computer simulation on the total system with the purpose of clarifying the heat storing capacity. The results in the year were as follows. The operation method for solar thermal power generation was examined, as were the energy analysis, evaluation method of 1 MW pilot plant, the optimum utilization system of solar energy in the long run including its application, and technological economical problems to be solved for the next large solar thermal power generating plant. A discussion was carried out on the endurance test of the selective absorbing surface and transmitting film and on the durability of the reflection mirror. Evaluation and examination were made on the various materials of the 1 MW pilot plant. A review was done on various heat accumulating devices for solar thermal generation, mathematical thermal characteristics of heat accumulating devices, and future energy storing methods and problems. (NEDO)

  5. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    Kang, Jin Sung

    Inkjet printing of electrode using copper nanoparticle ink is presented. Electrode was printed on a flexible glass epoxy composite substrate using drop on demand piezoelectric dispenser and was sintered at 200°C in N 2 gas condition. The printed electrodes were made with various widths and thicknesses. Surface morphology of electrode was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Reliable dimensions for printed electronics were found from this study. Single-crystalline silicon solar cells were tested under four-point bending to find the feasibility of directly integrating them onto a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate. These solar cells were not able to withstand 0.2% strain. On the other hand, thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells were subjected to flexural fatigue loadings. The current density-voltage curves were analyzed at different cycles, and there was no noticeable degradation on its performance up to 100 cycles. A multifunctional composite laminate which can harvest and store solar energy was fabricated using printed electrodes. The integrated printed circuit board (PCB) was co-cured with a carbon/epoxy composite laminate by the vacuum bag molding process in an autoclave; an amorphous silicon solar cell and a thin-film solid state lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery were adhesively joined and electrically connected to a thin flexible PCB; and then the passive components such as resistors and diodes were electrically connected to the printed circuit board by silver pasting. Since a thin-film solid state Li-ion battery was not able to withstand tensile strain above 0.4%, thin Li-ion polymer batteries were tested under various mechanical loadings and environmental conditions to find the feasibility of using the polymer batteries for our multifunctional purpose. It was found that the Li-ion polymer batteries were stable under pressure and tensile loading without any noticeable degradation on its charge and discharge

  6. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (improvement of conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells after degradation); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (amorphous taiyo denchi no shoki rekkago koritsu kojo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on technological development for qualitative improvement of a-Si solar cells after initial degradation in fiscal 1994. On the fabrication technology of light-stable a-Si films, the film formation method possible to control combined hydrogen by repetitive formation/treatment was developed. The obtained high-quality light-stable a-Si film was featured by low defect density in a wide optical band gap range, and defect density of nearly 3 {times} 10{sup 16}/cm{sup -3} after light irradiation. The light degradation rate of the cell where the a-Si film was applied to i layer was relatively stable by 10% or less. The a-Si/a-Si double-layer tandem cell fabricated by this technology produced a high conversion efficiency of 10.5%. By applying {mu}c-Si material to photoactive layer as narrow band gap material, the cell with optical sensitivity even in long wavelength ranges more than 1000nm was obtained. The a-Si/{mu}c-Si double-layer tandem cell produced an initial efficiency of 8.0% and an efficiency after degradation of 7.5%. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program survey and research. Joint projects on solar energy between Japan and Australia, etc. (Japan-France technological cooperation on solar energy); 1981 nendo Nichigo nado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Nichifutsu taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    A curved-surface thermal power system just before completion is visited, located on the island of Corsica. Light is collected by a curved-surface mirror in which narrow flat-surface mirrors with their length matching the linear collector width are attached amphitheater-wise to a curved-surface foundation built of concrete, and a linear collector performs tracking along the focal line. Exchange of information and comparative study will be required concerning this system. As for passive use of heat, a flat-plate collector has reached a level of practical application at homes in the low-temperature domain. Sites related to long-term basic research and seawater desalination are also visited. As for collector in the high-temperature domain, a THEK (Thermo-Helio-Electricity Kilowatt) system which is a spherical mirror collector is on the initial stage of planning. It is important to compare various types of curved-surface systems for their merits and demerits. As for the production of solar cells for photovoltaic power generation, it is monopolized by the Photowatt Corporation, with most of the products to be exported for use as independent power sources. As for future development, the casting technique will be industrialized at the end of 1983, the ribbon type will come next, and the amorphous material will be farther in the future. The task is how to enhance technical cooperation in the future. (NEDO)

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells/development of technology to manufacture low-cost large-area modules/development of technology to manufacture next generation thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction); 1997 nendo tiayoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module esizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A thin film single crystal silicon solar cell module is developed, in which a porous silicon layer is formed on the surface of a long-sized single crystal silicon substrate, a single crystal silicon film is integrated on the layer by epitaxially growing the film thereon to form a solar cell, and the solar cell is peeled off from the silicon substrate and transferred to a plastic film substrate. The achievements during this fiscal year may be summarized as follows: simultaneous formation of a porous silicon layer on a silicon substrate, reduction of anode formation current density from 200 mA/cm{sup 2} to 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, development of a silicon epitaxial device using a carbon heater, and attainment of aperture conversion efficiency of 11.8% in a thin film single crystal silicon solar cell. Three kinds of methods were developed to peel off the solar cell. A method was developed to grind silicon substrate surface from which the solar cell has been peeled off. A technology was developed to obtain a long-sized silicon substrate of about 30 cm times 10 cm times 0.1 cm from a 4-inch silicon ingot by using a wire saw. (NEDO)

  9. Nanocrystalline TiO2 for Solar Cells and Lithium Batteries

    Kavan, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2006), s. 20-29. ISBN 3-908158-08-7. ISSN 1661-819X Grant - others:EC project Molycell(XE) SES6-CT-2003-502783; High Power Lithium(XE) EC-COST D35.0002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : titanium dioxide * solar cells * Li- ion batteries Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  10. Study on optimal configuration of the grid-connected wind-solar-battery hybrid power system

    Ma, Gang; Xu, Guchao; Ju, Rong; Wu, Tiantian

    2017-08-01

    The capacity allocation of each energy unit in the grid-connected wind-solar-battery hybrid power system is a significant segment in system design. In this paper, taking power grid dispatching into account, the research priorities are as follows: (1) We establish the mathematic models of each energy unit in the hybrid power system. (2) Based on dispatching of the power grid, energy surplus rate, system energy volatility and total cost, we establish the evaluation system for the wind-solar-battery power system and use a number of different devices as the constraint condition. (3) Based on an improved Genetic algorithm, we put forward a multi-objective optimisation algorithm to solve the optimal configuration problem in the hybrid power system, so we can achieve the high efficiency and economy of the grid-connected hybrid power system. The simulation result shows that the grid-connected wind-solar-battery hybrid power system has a higher comprehensive performance; the method of optimal configuration in this paper is useful and reasonable.

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction) (development of technology to manufacture micro light collection type solar cells); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (micro shukogata taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    These technological developments are intended to demonstrate module efficiency of a micro light collection type solar cell of 15% by fiscal 2000, and obtain prospect on the module manufacturing cost of 140 yen per watt. Discussions given during fiscal 1997 are as follows: development has been performed on a design method to decide construction of a non-tracking micro light collection type module; in the state of cells being integrated on the module, the cells are arranged minutely and discretely, whereas, with discussions on a method to form them and assessment of the optical system as the main objective, single crystal silicon solar cells with a size smaller than 5 mm were fabricated on a trial basis; problems of forming micro cells by using the wafer cutting process were clarified; micro cells operating on light collection were fabricated trially to extract technological problems in light collecting operation and discuss technical problems in mass production; and development was performed on an evaluation method to analyze the cells' light collecting operation, and discussions were given on a method to estimate power generation amount from the light collection type modules. (NEDO)

  12. Lightweight Battery Charge Regulator Used to Track Solar Array Peak Power

    Soeder, James F.; Button, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    A battery charge regulator based on the series-connected boost regulator (SCBR) technology has been developed for high-voltage spacecraft applications. The SCBR regulates the solar array power during insolation to prevent battery overcharge or undercharge conditions. It can also be used to provide regulated battery output voltage to spacecraft loads if necessary. This technology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. The high-voltage SCBR shown in the photograph has demonstrated power densities of over 1000 watts per kilogram (W/kg). Using four 150-W dc-dc converter modules, it can process 2500 W of power at 120 Vdc with a minimum input voltage of 90 Vdc. Efficiency of the SCBR was 94 to 98 percent over the entire operational range. Internally, the unit is made of two separate SCBR s, each with its own analog control circuitry, to demonstrate the modularity of the technology. The analog controllers regulate the output current and incorporate the output voltage limit with active current sharing between the two units. They also include voltage and current telemetry, on/off control, and baseplate temperature sensors. For peak power tracking, the SCBR was connected to a LabView-based data acquisition system for telemetry and control. A digital control algorithm for tracking the peak power point of a solar array was developed using the principle of matching the source impedance with the load impedance for maximum energy transfer. The algorithm was successfully demonstrated in a simulated spacecraft electrical system at the Boeing PhantomWorks High Voltage Test Facility in Seattle, Washington. The system consists of a 42-string, high-voltage solar array simulator, a 77-cell, 80-ampere-hour (A-hr) nickel-hydrogen battery, and a constant power-load module. The SCBR and the LabView control algorithm successfully tracked the solar array peak

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program survey and research. Joint projects on solar energy between Japan and Australia, etc. (Joint efforts for high-grade flat-plate collector development); 1981 nendo Nichigonado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Nichigo taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku (kokyu heiban collector kaihatsu kyoryoku)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Investigated at DET (Division of Energy Technology) are a unit for controlling air convection in between a heat collector heat-collecting plate and the cover, testing methods, and under-floor heat accumulation using a horizontal rock bed. DMC (Division of Mineral Chemistry) is engaged in the study of black Ni selective absorption film formation on a metal plate and a reflection-preventing film for a heat collector. Monash University studies methods for testing heat collectors, transfer of heat, heat pipe, tracking mechanism, etc. Melbourne University is dedicated to computer model calculation involving solar energy utilization. Sydney University deals with collectors, selective absorption films, absorption type refrigerators, heat accumulation, and desalination of water. Under study at New South Wales University are passive solar systems, photothermal collectors, solar cells, etc. The Beaseley Corporation is a manufacturer of heater collectors and water heaters in South Australia, and a visit is paid to the corporation for the study of its manufacturing process. The Rheem Corporation manufactures water heaters in New South Wales, and its presence in the solar collector industry is known. (NEDO)

  14. Collection of outlines of Sunshine Program achievement reports for fiscal 1989. Solar energy (Light utilizing technology and heat utilizing technology); 1989 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Taiyo energy (hikari riyo gijutsu / netsu riyo gijutsu)

    NONE

    1990-04-01

    Collected concerning the research and development of photovoltaic power systems are the basic research on solar cells; research and development of new-type photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of amorphous solar cells. Collected concerning the development of technologies for the practical application of photovoltaic power systems are the research on the practical application of new-type solar cells; research on the practical application of amorphous solar cells; research and development of solar cell evaluation systems; research and development of peripheral technologies; research and development of photovoltaic power-aided systems; research and development of centralized photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of photothermal hybrid photovoltaic power systems. Collected concerning heat application technologies are the research and development of solar thermal energy systems; development of practical application technologies for solar systems for industrial use etc.; and cooperative projects between Japan and Australia etc. on solar energy technologies. (NEDO)

  15. Research and development of evaluation system for photovoltaic power generation system. Survey on research and development of solar cell evaluation system; Taiyoko hatsuden system hyoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyo denchi hyoka system no kenkyu kaihatsu chosa

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on R and D of solar cell evaluation systems in fiscal 1994. The performance/reliability evaluation subcommittee continuously analyzed technical issues and discussed solution measures from the last fiscal year. On development of performance evaluation methods, improvement of measurement accuracy for laminated solar cells is the study issue to be solved. Although laminated solar cells are measured by multiple light source solar simulator, difficult spectrum compensation causes measurement errors. Collection and analysis of data for determining atmospheric conditions, and outdoor measurement experiment under the atmospheric conditions for reference solar light were carried out. The study on incident angle characteristics of laminated solar cells clarified that the deviation from COS characteristics is 1.0% or less at an incident angle of 30{degree}. The study on generated energy in solar cell module level in field clarified that generated energy and generation efficiency are proportional to intensity of solar radiation. 1 tab.

  16. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (CuInSe2 based PV cell); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (CuInSe2 taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of CuInSe2 based PV cell in fiscal 1994. (1) On formation of high-quality CIGS thin films by bilayer method, Mo film was deposited on a glass substrate by sputtering, and CIGS film with different Ga/In ratios was next formed on the substrate by quaternary simultaneous deposition at different In and Ga deposition speeds. In addition, CdS film was deposited on the CIGS film, and ZnO and ITO films were finally deposited on it by sputtering to complete solar cell. This solar cell offered the maximum conversion efficiency among cells using CIGS film. (2) On formation of high-quality CIGS thin films by three-stage method, a certain correlation was found between substrate temperature and CIGS film composition by monitoring substrate temperature in film forming process. This phenomenon allowed rigorous control of CIS film compositions important for CIS thin film solar cells. (3) On low-cost process technology for thin film formation, Cu(In,Ga)S2 solid solution film was fabricated by expanded selenic process. 3 figs.

  17. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates (technical development for production of high purity silicon); Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Tei cost kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (taiyo denchiyo silicon seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on development of manufacturing technologies of Si for solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) P in Si could be successfully reduced to 0.1ppmw by EB melting method. The condition possible to reduce P in Si while continuously supplying metal Si was found. The 20kg class EB melting equipment was also designed and manufactured which can be connected with solidifying rough refining process. (2) Use of a water-cooling copper mold was studied using a small melting equipment for cost reduction in solidifying rough refining process. As a result, the prospect of crucible-free technology for removal of P and solidifying rough refining was obtained. (3) B in Si could be successfully reduced to the target of 0.1ppmw by vapor addition method using a plasma melting equipment. (4) The prototype SOG-Si achieved a conversion efficiency of 14.1% as solar cell. In addition, the advanced solar cell prepared by efficiency enhancement process achieved a conversion efficiency of 15.9%. 3 figs.

  18. The Possibility of Functioning at Maximum Power for Solar Photovoltaic - Electric Battery Systems

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the functioning of a solar photovoltaic module(PVM that debits direct to on electric battery (EB. By a good adaptingof PVM to EB, so that the no load voltage of the two components (PVMand EB are well suited, during a day the energy value can be reachednear to the maximum possible value, when the PVM functions in themaximum power point (MPP. The proposed solution is much moreeconomic than the classical: PVM + DC – DC + EB because the directcurrent - direct current power converter, is not necessary (DC - DC.

  19. Optimal integration of a hybrid solar-battery power source into smart home nanogrid with plug-in electric vehicle

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Teng, Yanqiong; Qian, Shide; Cheng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid solar-battery power source is essential in the nexus of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), renewables, and smart building. This paper devises an optimization framework for efficient energy management and components sizing of a single smart home with home battery, PEV, and potovoltatic (PV) arrays. We seek to maximize the home economy, while satisfying home power demand and PEV driving. Based on the structure and system models of the smart home nanogrid, a convex programming (CP) problem i...

  20. Operation strategy for grid-tied DC-coupling power converter interface integrating wind/solar/battery

    Jou, H. L.; Wu, J. C.; Lin, J. H.; Su, W. N.; Wu, T. S.; Lin, Y. T.

    2017-11-01

    The operation strategy for a small-capacity grid-tied DC-coupling power converter interface (GDPCI) integrating wind energy, solar energy and battery energy storage is proposed. The GDPCI is composed of a wind generator, a solar module set a battery bank, a boost DC-DC power converter (DDPC), a bidirectional DDPC power converter, an AC-DC power converter (ADPC) and a five-level DC-AC inverter (DAI). A solar module set, a wind generator and a battery bank are coupled to the common DC bus through the boost DDPC, the ADPC and the bidirectional DDPC, respectively. For verifying the performance of the GDPCI under different operation modes, computer simulation is carried out by PSIM.

  1. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell module manufacturing technology - Development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technology - Development of high-quality film enlargement technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / kohinshitsumaku no daimensekika gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project aims to establish a manufacturing process that enables both high-quality CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) film solar cell enlargement and cost reduction and to develop a device structure which uses less heavy metal for the purposes of increasing the CIS thin-film solar cell size and efficiency and decreasing environmental impact. Several element technologies have been established for increasing the area of high-efficiency Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. Concerning the enlargement of the photoabsorption layer which is to assume the most important role, it is found that a high-quality CIGS film, which is near homogeneous though within a 10cm times 10cm area, is fabricated by an in-line vapor deposition method. As for dead area reduction and high-speed patterning, it is found that laser scribing works effectively in the patterning of the window layer and photoabsorption layer. As for reduction in the use of heavy metal, a high efficiency of 16.2% is attained in a cell not using a CdS film as expected in the case of a cell using a CdS film, this thanks to a CIGS film surface reforming technique. The technique of junction formation for CIGS solar cells is improved, and then a true efficiency of 18.5% is achieved. (NEDO)

  2. Role of Bismuth in the Electrokinetics of Silicon Photocathodes for Solar Rechargeable Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Flox, Cristina; Murcia-López, Sebastián; Carretero, Nina M; Ros, Carles; Morante, Juan R; Andreu, Teresa

    2018-01-10

    The ability of crystalline silicon to photoassist the V 3+ /V 2+ cathodic reaction under simulated solar irradiation, combined with the effect of bismuth have led to important electrochemical improvements. Besides the photovoltage supplied by the photovoltaics, additional decrease in the onset potentials, high reversibility of the V 3+ /V 2+ redox pair, and improvement in the electrokinetics were attained thanks to the addition of bismuth. In fact, Bi 0 deposition has shown to slightly decrease the photocurrent, but the significant enhancement in the charge transfer, reflected in the overall electrochemical performance clearly justifies its use as additive in a photoassisted system for maximizing the efficiency of solar charge to battery. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Collection of outlines of Sunshine Program achievement reports for fiscal 1988. Solar energy (Light utilizing technology and heat utilizing technology); 1988 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Taiyo energy (hikari riyo gijutsu / netsu riyo gijutsu)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    Collected concerning the research and development of photovoltaic power systems are the basic research on solar cells; research and development of new-type photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of amorphous solar cells. Collected concerning the development of technologies for the practical application of photovoltaic power systems are the experiment, refining, and verification of low-cost silicon; experiment, fabrication, and verification of solar panels; research on the practical application of high-efficiency crystal-based solar cells; research and development of amorphous solar cells; research and development of solar cell evaluation systems; development of peripheral technologies; research and development of photovoltaic power-aided systems; research and development of centralized photovoltaic power systems; and development of photothermal hybrid type photovoltaic power systems. Collected concerning heat-utilizing technologies are the research and development of solar thermal electric power generation systems; research and development of solar air-conditioners and hot water supply systems; and development of practical application technologies for industrial solar systems. Collected also are international cooperative projects on solar energy technologies. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1998 annual report on the solar energy technology research and development working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo taiyo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the solar energy R and D working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Kadoi, a NEDO's director, gave a lecture titled (Expectation on and problems involved in power generation by solar light and wind power), and Mr. Kamon, a managing researcher of NEDO's solar technology development group, reported (Technological development trends of solar technology development group). The other topics reported by the individual groups include development of large-size wind power generation systems, development of techniques for increasing throughputs of high-efficiency, large-area amorphous solar cells, development of techniques for manufacturing high-reliability CdTe solar cell modules, development of techniques for manufacturing CIS solar cell modules, analysis/assessment of thin-film silicon-based solar cells, development of processes for manufacturing silicon of rationalized energy use, R and D of (new multi-layer structure) modules assembled into building materials to form monolithic structures, and development of techniques for manufacturing amorphous thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin- film solar cells. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1998 annual report on the solar energy technology research and development working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo taiyo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the solar energy R and D working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Kadoi, a NEDO's director, gave a lecture titled (Expectation on and problems involved in power generation by solar light and wind power), and Mr. Kamon, a managing researcher of NEDO's solar technology development group, reported (Technological development trends of solar technology development group). The other topics reported by the individual groups include development of large-size wind power generation systems, development of techniques for increasing throughputs of high-efficiency, large-area amorphous solar cells, development of techniques for manufacturing high-reliability CdTe solar cell modules, development of techniques for manufacturing CIS solar cell modules, analysis/assessment of thin-film silicon-based solar cells, development of processes for manufacturing silicon of rationalized energy use, R and D of (new multi-layer structure) modules assembled into building materials to form monolithic structures, and development of techniques for manufacturing amorphous thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin- film solar cells. (NEDO)

  6. Accomplishments hitherto achieved regarding the development of solar cell manufacturing technologies and the future course. Annex; Taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu no koremade no seika to kongo no hoko. Fuzoku shiryo

    NONE

    1985-07-01

    Collected in this paper are the results of evaluation and studies which were conducted, regarding the development of solar cell manufacturing technologies, by the Solar Cell Manufacture Evaluation Sub-Committee at its 4 meetings held in the period from May to August, 1985. For the development of technologies of manufacturing solar cells under the Sunshine Program, the development of technologies for manufacturing crystalline solar cells and amorphous solar cells is required. The Industrial Technology Council, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, in August, 1982, set intermediate goals to be achieved by fiscal 1985. To be developed for the practical application of crystalline silicon solar cells are a low cost experimental silicon refining system and an experimental solar panel manufacturing system. To be carried out for amorphous solar cells are basic studies including a study of physical properties, the development of a large-area high-efficiency solar cell manufacturing technology, and the development of a low cost monosilane manufacturing technology making use of molten salt electrolysis in a closed cycle. In fiscal 1984, 90% of the goals were attained, and now it is expected that almost all will be complete within fiscal 1985. (NEDO)

  7. Simulation study on reduction of peak power demand and energy consumption in residential houses with solar thermal and PV systems; Taiyo energy riyo jutaku no fuka heijunka oyobi energy sakugen koka no simulation ni yoru kento

    Endo, T. [Yokohama City Office, Yokohama (Japan); Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-11-20

    In this study, taking the all factors involved in the energy consumption in residential houses as subjects, the effectiveness of the solar PV system and solar thermal utilizing system in residential houses has been studied by simulating a model residential house considering the improvement of the residual environment in the future. Therefore, a model residual house is assumed, 18 kinds of combinations of construction style, cooling and heating type and solar energy utilizing form are assumed and year round simulation is carried out. The conclusions obtained by the simulation are as follows. The energy consumption in residential houses may decrease greatly by using a solar hot water supplying system. If combined with a solar PV system, the energy consumption in one year is about 8.7 to 9.7 MWh. The combined use of a solar thermal utilizing system and a PV system is more effective to reduce the second-time energy in comparison with the PV system only. 36% of the space heating energy consumption may be decreased by using the solar space heating system, but the decrease effect of the energy consumption of the solar space heating system is smaller than the solar hot water supplying system. 12 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Thailand's solar white elephants: an analysis of 15 yr of solar battery charging programmes in northern Thailand

    Green, Donna

    2004-01-01

    The use of decentralised renewable energy technologies to provide rural electrification in developing countries has been a common topic of analysis and policy debate for more than two decades. Unfortunately, a lack of empirical evidence about the field performance of these technologies is a significant barrier to making sound policy decisions about them. Compounded by minimal information sharing between stakeholders, this situation has frequently allowed duplication of inefficient policies. This issue is addressed here by providing empirical evidence gathered from field visits and interviews about the largest government subsidised solar battery charging programme in the world. This analysis highlights the different policies of departments responsible and discusses them with specific attention to their technical, social and economic components. Field study results from over 50 villages in the north of Thailand suggest about 60 per cent of these systems are no longer operational. Many of the technical failures observed are attributed to social factors, as well as flawed implementation strategies

  9. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research on solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply; 1977 nendo taiyo netsu reidanbo kyuto system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at research and development of utilization of solar energy for air conditioning and hot water supply, as part of the researches on systems under Sunshine Project for utilization of solar energy. This project is focused on the research items, selected from those pursued by the 3-year project beginning in FY1974 as the ones considered to be important for the future diffusion and promotion of the systems for utilization of solar energy. The 3-year project has produced the software and hardware results, based on development of the devices and construction of a solar house. At this stage of time, it is pointed out that studies on economic viability of the system, development of the software for diffusion of the solar systems, and development of new, more suitable systems and methods for utilization of solar energy are important. In this fiscal year, the four themes (studies on economic viability of the conceptual solar system designs, simplified methods for designing the systems, evaluation of system performance, and studies on energy-saving effects and economic viability) are taken up, viewed from development of the software for diffusion and promotion of the systems for utilizing solar energy, based on the results obtained by the previous 3-year project. (NEDO)

  10. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells (compound semiconductors and their fabrication technologies); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Usumaku taiyo denchi jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka (kagobutsu taiyo denchi zairyo oyobi seisaku gijutsu no kaiseki hyoka)

    Oyagi, H; Okada, Y; Yamaguchi, H; Shiota, T; Kuroda, S; Igarashi, O; Tanino, H; Makita, Y; Yamada, A; Kimura, S; Ohara, A; Niki, S; Shibata, H; Fons, P [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for analysis and evaluation for thin-film compound semiconductor solar cells. The study on epitaxial growth and optical properties of the thin films of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 evaluates the thin epitaxial films grown under various conditions, showing morphology of the defects at the interface of heteroepitaxial growth. These results are used to set the growth conditions under which a thin film of high luminescence by exciter recombination is produced. The study also gives information of luminescence transition in the vicinity of the band ends and of energy level between the bands. The study on structural analysis of the epitaxially grown thin films of CuInSe2 investigates dependence of lattice constants of the MBE-grown CIS layer on film thickness by the X-ray diffractometry based on the bond method. The study on epitaxial growth by the Se(CH3)2-halogen transfer method tests epitaxial growth of the single-crystalline Mo on a substrate of single-crystalline sapphire. 5 figs.

  12. FY 1978 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Survey and research on systems utilizing solar energy (Photovoltaic power generation systems); 1978 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    This survey report provides the basic data for planning national projects to smoothly raise the large industry of solar cell industry in the future by studying how to promote the research and development projects for this area, continuously pursued from the establishment of the Sunshine Project. This report clarifies, first of all, the concept of long-term schedules for research and development of solar thermal power generation systems, based on which technical themes are concretely surveyed, and their economic viability and ripple effects on the other industries are analyzed. The industry of solar thermal power generation systems is a new industry, even based on the global horizons, backed up by the Japan's high-technological areas of electronics and semiconductor industries. It is one of important projects to be urgently developed, also viewed from the above standpoint. This report describes the long-term visions of solar thermal power generation systems, and the research and development projects therefor; stock materials for solar cells and problems involved therein; research and development projects for low-cost solar cells; photovoltaic power generation systems, and the research and development projects therefor; conceptual designs of photovoltaic power generation systems; and standard analytical procedures for solar cells, and technical problems involved therein. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1978 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Survey and research on systems utilizing solar energy (Photovoltaic power generation systems); 1978 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    This survey report provides the basic data for planning national projects to smoothly raise the large industry of solar cell industry in the future by studying how to promote the research and development projects for this area, continuously pursued from the establishment of the Sunshine Project. This report clarifies, first of all, the concept of long-term schedules for research and development of solar thermal power generation systems, based on which technical themes are concretely surveyed, and their economic viability and ripple effects on the other industries are analyzed. The industry of solar thermal power generation systems is a new industry, even based on the global horizons, backed up by the Japan's high-technological areas of electronics and semiconductor industries. It is one of important projects to be urgently developed, also viewed from the above standpoint. This report describes the long-term visions of solar thermal power generation systems, and the research and development projects therefor; stock materials for solar cells and problems involved therein; research and development projects for low-cost solar cells; photovoltaic power generation systems, and the research and development projects therefor; conceptual designs of photovoltaic power generation systems; and standard analytical procedures for solar cells, and technical problems involved therein. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This research aims to achieve a conversion efficiency of 13% and a manufacturing cost of 140 yen/Wp with a 30cm times 30cm Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}-based thin-film solar cell submodule. Ga and sulfur are combined and a film fabrication technology was developed which would improve on Voc. Concerning Ga, a laminated precursor layer was fabricated and evaluated, which comprised a Cu-25wt%Ga alloy layer and a Ga source which was a Cu-48%Ga alloy layer. Concerning sulfur, the vapor phase selenization temperature and the selenization retention time in an H{sub 2}Se gas atmosphere was allowed to vary for a change in Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} calcopyrite crystallinity for the study of relations between the amount of sulfur taken in and the solar cell characteristics, and the relations were assessed by EPMA (electron probe microanalyzer). Technologies were developed for the fabrication of high-resistivity buffer layers by solution growth, for the fabrication of window layers (transparent, conductive ZnO film) by sputtering, and for their patterning. Submodules of a ZnO/Zn(O,S,OH)x/Mo structure were fabricated, 10cm times 30cm and 30cm times 30cm in size. The former achieved 12.5% in conversion efficiency, and the latter 11.6%. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of application type novel-structure thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of amorphous silicon/thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / amorphous silicon/usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project aims to manufacture the above for the development of low-cost high-efficiency practical cells. Technologies were developed to homogeneously fabricate films with an average efficiency of 10% or more in a 100mm times 85mm area in a STAR (naturally surface texture and enhanced absorption with a back reflector) structure thin-film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) solar cell. The texture shape was improved for a higher light trapping effect and a STAR structure cell highly sensitive to long wavelengths and fit for use for a hybrid cell bottom layer was obtained. Various cells were examined for temperature characteristics, and it was found that thin-film poly-Si cells present a temperature coefficient equal to or less than that of bulk single-crystal silicon systems, and hybrid cells a temperature coefficient similar to that of a-Si systems. The technology was applied to a hybrid solar cell in which an a-Si cell was placed on STAR structure thin film poly-Si cells, and a resultant 3-layer a-Si/poly-Si/poly-Si cell exhibited a stabilization factor of 12.0% after 550 hours of optical irradiation. (NEDO)

  16. Design and preliminary operation of a hybrid syngas/solar PV/battery power system for off-grid applications: A case study in Thailand

    Kohsri, Sompol; Meechai, Apichart; Prapainainar, Chaiwat

    2018-01-01

    , in this study a customized hybrid power system integrating solar, biomass (syngas) power and battery storage system is evaluated a pilot scale for micro off-grid application. This paper shows that for a reliability of a hybrid syngas/solar PV system along with rechargeable batteries, the syngas generator can......Due to the irregular nature of solar resource, solar photovoltaic (PV) system alone cannot satisfy load on a 24/7 demand basis, especially with increasing regional population in developing countries such as Thailand. A hybrid solar PV/biomass based along with battery storage system has been drawing....... Furthermore, the generator has to be always synchronized during the commissioning time. Battery state of charge (SOC) in percent (%) connecting with syngas is greater than solar PV and the charging time appears significantly shorter than that one. All possible combinations between an innovation and existing...

  17. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar energy system (weather survey). Part 2. Guideline for using weather data; 1974 nendo kisho data ni saishite no shishin. 2. Taiyo energy system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report describes the guideline for using weather data in R and D on solar energy system. Solar radiation is defined as direct, scattered and reflected radiation in a range of near UV-near IR radiation. Direct solar radiation is observed by silver disk pyrheliometer, while global solar radiation by thermostat or bimetal pyranometer. Accuracy standards of such meters are indispensable to keep the accuracy uniformly. To keep the uniformity and accuracy of observation data all over the world, the international comparative observation is held every 5 years. Solar radiation observation in Japan started in 1932 by installing silver disk pyrheliometers all over the country. In 1938 the observation stations were increased to 79 sites, however, in 1953 those were integrated into 13 long-term weather observation stations. Sunshine duration is defined as the time direct sunbeam aims at the ground, and observed generally by Jordan's heliograph which observes sunshine durations with burned holes on photosensitive recording paper by direct sunbeam through 2 small holes on both sides of a cylinder. The history of statistical processing of solar radiation and sunshine duration data in Meteorological Agency is also presented. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on photovoltaic power generation system (R and D on new type solar cells); 1974 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shingatashiki taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1975-05-27

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1974 research result on R and D of new type solar cells, which includes researches on (1) solar cell structure, (2) packaging, and (3) improvement of a conversion efficiency. In the 1st research, theoretical study was made on the relation between a solar cell efficiency and various design factors to obtain basic data for ordinary cell structure and vertical junction type cell structure. As impurity source, a thermal diffusion method using doped oxide by CVD was compared with that using boron nitride, resulting in no difference in solar cell characteristics between both methods. The measurement results on contact resistances of Al, Fe and Ni with electrodes prepared by electron beam deposition showed that these materials are applicable to Si more than 10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3} in impurity density as electrode materials. In the 2nd research, exposure tests were made on some kinds of specimens, resulting in no troubles. Study was made on production costs and structures suitable for automatic production of 4 kinds of packages with different basic structures. In the 3rd research, the prototype solar cell was prepared to use under solar radiation within 20SUNS. (NEDO)

  19. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Survey on the commercialization analysis; Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on the technological trend, safety and latest technologies of thin film solar cells in fiscal 1994. As the fabrication technology for amorphous film solar cells, three-electrode plasma CVD was surveyed as fabrication method for high-mobility materials, and hydrogen radical CVD as fabrication method for high-photostable films. Current foreign and domestic reliability tests were surveyed for reliability evaluation of solar cells. In order to ascertain the performance, efficiency, physical properties and optimum structure of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells, previously reported test results on physical properties such as carrier concentration, carrier lifetime and mobility of films were surveyed together with device simulation results. In addition, technologies for high-efficiency CuInSe2 system and CdTe system solar cells, technologies for cost reduction and mass production, and environmental influence were surveyed. Estimation of production costs for cell modules, and safety of thin film solar cells were also surveyed.

  20. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic power system commercialization technology (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Surveys and studies of peripheral key technologies/Feasibility study of wet-type solar cell commercialization); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - Shissiki taiyo denchi jitsuyoka kanosei chosa

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell commercialization was studied for feasibility. Studies were made about photoelectric conversion efficiency and various factors supposedly to affect the life and other properties, and a wet-type (dye-sensitized type) solar cell was fabricated. In an endurance test, the dye-sensitized solar cell retained its initial performance after 3,500 hours of continuous irradiation. A 16 cm{sup 2}-large integrated type Graetzel cell was fabricated, and it achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.6%. Furthermore, in the study of Graetzel cells, possibility of the creation of new electrolytic solutions was discussed, a non-TiO{sub 2} dye-sensitized solar cell was fabricated based on the self-assembled electrodeposition of the ZnO dye, and the feasibility was deliberated of a dye-sensitized solar sell using a composite oxide semiconductor. Concerning their development in the future, it was concluded that dye-sensitized solar cells including the Graetzel cell were equipped with the basic characteristics of a next-generation solar cell that would be requested to be low in cost and high in performance. (NEDO)

  1. New Sunshine Project for fiscal 1997 on the international cooperation project. Cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other countries; 1997 nendo new sunshine keikaku kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Nichigo nado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the state of progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country, the memorandum concluded for the new project, and the activity report on the NEDO/MUERI project. The progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country is divided into that of the new project and that of the continued project. The former relates to the start of the long-term endurance test project for photovoltaic solar modules in Oman. The location of the endurance test is the Sultan Qaboos University in the suburb of Muscat. Modules subjected to the endurance test consist of ten modules of five types. The test will be performed on air temperature, humidity, wind directions, insolation on horizontal surface, insolation on slanted surface, ultraviolet ray intensity, module temperatures, and electric characteristics of the modules. The continued project is an outdoor endurance test for the photovoltaic solar modules begun in fiscal 1996, which is executed by the Murdock University Energy Research Institute (MUERI). The endurance test locations were selected at Darwin, Alice Springs and Perth. This paper reports the photovoltaic solar module endurance test and investigation, as well as the periodical consultations as the activity report of the NEDO/MUERI project. (NEDO)

  2. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Shen, Q; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of technologies to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new structure and development of high-efficiency hybrid thin film/sheet solar cells); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (oyogata shin kozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kokoritsu hybrid gata usumaku / sheet taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop low-cost and high-efficiency hybrid thin film/sheet solar cells, research and development has been performed. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research is related to a hybrid construction, in which the upper cells of amorphous silicon thin film are formed on the lower cells bonded with micro-crystalline silicon thin film relative to a poly-crystalline silicon sheet. In the technology to form the upper cells, a pin-construction using amorphous silicon thin film made by using the plasma CVD process was adopted, whereas an open circuit voltage of 1.45V, a short circuit current of 13.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, and a conversion efficiency of 13.5% were obtained. In the technology to form the substrate for the lower cells, formation of flat silicon thin plate that can be peeled off was identified as a result of adopting the construction in which a graphite substrate is provided on a rotating cooling body of 12-prism type. With regard to the technology to bond and form the lower cells, electrical properties of hetero-bonded cells were discussed, and an open circuit voltage of 0.605V and a conversion efficiency of 14.3% were obtained as a result of enhancing the film quality and optimizing the film thickness. (NEDO)

  4. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, next generation thin film solar cell module manufacturing technologies, development of thin film poly-crystalline solar cell module manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a high throughput forming technology and a modularization technology for thin film poly-crystalline solar cell modules. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing the high throughput forming technology for a high-quality thin film, research has been made on a low-cost VEST process to re-utilize substrates by separating the thin film from the substrate. In the melting re-crystallization process, it was discovered that plasticity deformation of the substrate can be reduced greatly by raising the substrate heating temperatures. It was also found out that substrate warping amount can be reduced to about one-fifth of the conventional amount by making the thickness greater than 1.5 mm and raising the heating temperatures higher than 1300 degree C. In developing the thin film modularization technology, it was indicated that the property improving effect remains the same even if the hydrogen passivation method is changed from the hydrogen ion injection to the hydrogen plasma processing. In the trial fabrication of the thin film modules, a conversion efficiency of 13.1% was achieved in nine-cell structured modules. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of thin-film polycrystalline solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim is to realize the practical application of the above-named solar module expected to exhibit higher efficiency and reliability and achieve cost reduction through consumption of less materials. In fiscal 1998, 1) technologies were developed to reduce substrate warpage during recrystallization for the higher-throughput fabrication of high-quality thin films and 2) technologies were also developed for the realization of higher-throughput fabrication of thin films and for efficiency improvement for thin-film modules. Under item 1), experiments were conducted by simulation for reducing warpage to occur in thin-film polycrystalline Si substrates during fabrication by melting and recrystallization. Under item 2), for the development of thin-film cell high-throughput technologies, studies were started on a more practical hydrogen plasma process to challenge the conventional process of crystal defect inactivation by hydrogen ion injection with which achievement of high throughputs is difficult. For the development of technologies for the enhancement of thin-film module efficiency, efforts were exerted to realize a 10cm times 10cm square shape for the enhancement of efficiency in the process of filling modules with cells. These efforts achieved a great step toward future practical application. (NEDO)

  6. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, next generation thin film solar cell module manufacturing technologies, development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihtsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a technology to manufacture CIS-based thin film solar cells. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the research of a large-area light absorbing layer manufacturing technology, investigation was made on light absorbing layers in manufacturing sub-modules with a size of 30 cm times 30 cm. With regard to the temperature condition in the light absorbing layer forming process, it was found that the cooling rate affects particularly the adhesion in the connecting interface of the light absorbing layer and the Mo rear electrode layer. In addition, it was revealed that the sulfur take-in amount can be increases by extending the retention time at the sulfurizing temperature and by decreasing the temperature to turn the gas phase into selenium. In the research of elementary technologies to establish the mass production process, developments were performed on the high-resistance buffer layer manufacturing technology, the high-quality window layer film manufacturing technology, and the technology to manufacture rear electrode layer made of high-quality metals. In developing the patterning technology, two kinds of the existing patterning devices were modified and adjusted for patterning the substrates with a size of 30 cm times 30 cm. In addition, a processing device was installed in the conventional manually operated process for module finishing. (NEDO)

  7. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules, development of technologies to manufacture next-generation thin film solar cells (development of technologies to manufacture CIS solar cell modules); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was made with an objective to achieve conversion efficiency of 13% in a 30 cm times 30 cm size submodule of a CIS-based thin film solar cell, and to develop a manufacturing technology that can achieve 140 yen/Wp. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. In fiscal 1997, based on the achievements reached during the previous year, a submodule with a size of 10 cm times 30 cm was fabricated for an attempt of improving the open voltage and short circuit current density. Simultaneously, the applicability thereof to a module with an area as large as 30 cm times 30 cm was evaluated. As a result of experimental discussions, enhancement in the open voltage was verified by increasing amount of Ga or sulfur, but it was not possible to achieve 600 mV or higher. In the research of component technologies to establish a mass production process, research and development was made on a high-resistance buffer layer film forming technology, a high-quality window layer film forming technology, a high-quality metallic rear electrode film forming technology, and patterning technologies. The outdoor exposure test was continued on laminated mini-modules with a size of 10 cm times 10 cm. (NEDO)

  8. Batteries

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  9. Direct battery-driven solar LED lighting using constant-power control

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    A direct battery-driven LED lighting technique using constant-power control is proposed in the present study. A system dynamics model of LED luminaire was derived and used in the design of the feedback constant-power control system. The test result has shown that the power of 18. W and 100. W LED luminaires can be controlled accurately with error at 2-5%. A solar LED street lighting system using constant-power and dimming control was designed and built for field test in a remote area. The long-term performance was satisfactory and no any failure since the installation. Since no high-power capacitor is used in the present constant-power control circuit, a longer lifetime is expected. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Survey and research on systems utilizing solar energy (Heat-storage subsystems); 1977 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu. Chikunetsu sub system

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at surveys and researches on materials for heat-storage systems for solar thermal power generation systems and solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply; analysis of current status of heat-storage subsystems and extraction of problems involved therein; and sorting out the research themes. Surveyed are the tower type light-collecting systems under development for solar thermal power generation systems, heat-storage subsystems with flat- and curved-surface type light-collecting systems; heat-storage systems being developed by the Electrotechnical Laboratory; heat-storage materials for solar thermal power generation techniques; regenerative heat exchangers; thermodynamic considerations for heat storage and molten salt techniques; and relationship between heat storage material properties and containers. Problems involved in each item are also extracted. The heat-storage subsystems for solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply are now being under development, some being already commercialized, and the classification of and surveys on the related techniques are conducted. At the same time, problems involved in the heat-storage subsystems, being developed for residential buildings, condominiums and large-size buildings, are also extracted. The research themes for the heat-storage subsystems for solar air conditioning and hot water supply systems are sorted out, and case studies are conducted, based on the discussions on, e.g., thermal properties of heat-storage materials, behavior and heat transfer characteristics of latent heat type heat-storage materials, and corrosion of the heat-storage materials. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey of peripheral element technologies - Survey of environmental adaptation of next-generation solar cell development); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - jisedai taiyo denchi kaihatsu kankyo tekioka chosa)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Surveys are conducted of photovoltaic power system development projects and their utilization in Japan and overseas, and a discussion is made on the progress, technical challenges, effects, and implementation systems relating to the solar cell application technology development project under the New Sunshine Program. Compiled in the report are the results of surveys of the research and development of photovoltaic power systems and their diffusion in the U.S. and European nations, and the research and development strategies for and the trends of the development of various types of solar cells in these countries. The trends of research and development of non-conventional type solar cells are also collected, which include 3 cases of TPV (thermophotovoltaic) devices, 5 cases of new inorganic materials, 1 case of new organic materials, and 4 cases of dye-sensitized solar cells. In relation to the status of resources of crystalline compound-based solar cell materials, raw materials for solar cells other than silicon are taken up, and their reserves, manufacturing methods, quantities yielded and consumed, costs, etc., are surveyed. These are all taken into consideration in discussing the basic approach to the study of future research and development as it ought to be. (NEDO)

  12. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Direct Solar Charging of an Organic-Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode.

    Wedege, Kristina; Azevedo, João; Khataee, Amirreza; Bentien, Anders; Mendes, Adélio

    2016-06-13

    The intermittent nature of the sunlight and its increasing contribution to electricity generation is fostering the energy storage research. Direct solar charging of an auspicious type of redox flow battery could make solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. The first solar aqueous alkaline redox flow battery using low cost and environmentally safe materials is demonstrated. The electrolytes consist of the redox couples ferrocyanide and anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate in sodium hydroxide solution, yielding a standard cell potential of 0.74 V. Photovoltage enhancement strategies are demonstrated for the ferrocyanide-hematite junction by employing an annealing treatment and growing a layer of a conductive polyaniline polymer on the electrode surface, which decreases electron-hole recombination. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Fiscal 1993 international joint projects under New Sunshine Program. Surveys of bilateral cooperation and solar energy technology; 1993 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo nikokukan kyoryoku taiyo energy gijutsu ni kakawaru gijutsu chosa

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Concerning bilateral projects, overseas surveys were conducted about Japan-Australian and Japan-US technical cooperation. Concerning technological development, information was collected at the Solar World Congress of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES), and information was collected and opinions were exchanged at the 15th International Conference on Amorphous Semiconductors. A survey was conducted of Russia's development of solar cells and of their performance evaluation, and an overseas survey was conducted of the development of spaceborne photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology. Surveys were conducted of international joint projects for the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology in Europe and the US. Overseas surveys were conducted of international joint projects concerning the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology, and a survey was conducted of the research and development of photovoltaic power generation in the US and of the state of introduction and diffusion of the same. A survey was also conducted of the state of element technology development for solar energy utilization in Europe. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1993 international joint projects under New Sunshine Program. Surveys of bilateral cooperation and solar energy technology; 1993 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo nikokukan kyoryoku taiyo energy gijutsu ni kakawaru gijutsu chosa

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Concerning bilateral projects, overseas surveys were conducted about Japan-Australian and Japan-US technical cooperation. Concerning technological development, information was collected at the Solar World Congress of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES), and information was collected and opinions were exchanged at the 15th International Conference on Amorphous Semiconductors. A survey was conducted of Russia's development of solar cells and of their performance evaluation, and an overseas survey was conducted of the development of spaceborne photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology. Surveys were conducted of international joint projects for the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology in Europe and the US. Overseas surveys were conducted of international joint projects concerning the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology, and a survey was conducted of the research and development of photovoltaic power generation in the US and of the state of introduction and diffusion of the same. A survey was also conducted of the state of element technology development for solar energy utilization in Europe. (NEDO)

  16. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Survey on analysis for practical use; Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on the manufacturing technology trend of thin substrate solar cells for practical use in fiscal 1994. In production of Si raw material, as electron beam melting and ingot production are combined, C, P, Ca and Al are removed by evaporation, while Fe and Ti by solidifying segregation. As the basic technology of continuous casting for substrate production, a drop coagulation method for Si melt is under investigation which is more advantageous in unidirectional solidification and cell conversion efficiency than conventional methods. The cost and future of single crystal Si and polycrystal Si were compared on the basis of document survey. Every institute commonly uses FZ substrates to produce single crystal Si cells, and SiO2 for surface passivation. New cell structure, hetero-structure, thin cell, crystalline defect and lifetime are under investigation for ultrahigh-efficiency solar cells. The technology trend was also surveyed through academic societies and conferences. 5 tabs.

  17. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on photovoltaic power generation system (R and D on new type solar cell); 1976 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shingatashiki taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1977-05-30

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on new type solar cells for photovoltaic power systems. On junction formation, the solar cell fabricated by spray coating showed output characteristics equivalent to that by rotary coating or phase diffusion, and inexpensive coating liquid, 1/40 of commercially available liquid in price, showed a sufficient result, however, the conversion efficiency of P{sup +}/N elements was insufficient. Schottky barrier polycrystal Si thin film was suitable for large-area elements without any property degradation. Small grain boundary density of polycrystal layers was also necessary. Temperature characteristics of collector element structure with a comb electrode were calculated theoretically. Change in diffusion length of minority carriers due to temperature well agreed between measured and calculated ones. Optimization calculation was also carried out. The size, curve, weight and transmissivity of plastic and glass materials for solar cell packaging were evaluated by continuous outdoor exposure tests. Fluorinated ethylene-propylene, methyl methacrylate and polycarbonate plates and glass were the most promising materials because of less deformation. (NEDO)

  18. Dependence of open-circuit voltage of SnO2-nSi solar cells; SnO2-nSi taiyo denchi no sanka ondo menhoi izonsei

    Shinoda, S; Shimizu, A; Yano, K; Kasuga, M [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    Although metal(or semiconductor)-semiconductor solar cells, SnO2-nSi solar cell for example, are superior in cost and efficiency, its barrier height and open-circuit voltage V(oc) are lower than those of p-n junctions. To improve these defects, study was made on the dependence of V(oc) on oxidation temperature and surface orientation using various solar cells prepared from (100)Si and (111)Si under various oxidation conditions. As a result, the density of surface states increases with a decrease in oxidation temperature of Si substrates, resulting in an increase in diode factor and V(oc). In this case, since oxide films are extremely thin and contribution of non-terminated bonds is large in the initial oxidation stage, the quantity of dangling bonds is larger in (100) plane than (111) plane, resulting in an increase in diode factor and V(oc). Since the surface energy level (the degree of electrons dominated by acceptor-like surface state from this level to the top of a valence band) of (100) Si is lower than that of (111) Si, the effective barrier height and V(oc) increase. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Solid electrolyte membranes and the system to produce hydrogen from thermally decomposed water by solar energy; Taiyo energy riyo ni yoru mizu no chokusetsu netsubunkai kara no suiso seizoyo

    Nigara, K; Watanabe, K; Kawamura, K; Kawada, T; Mizusaki, J; Ishigame, M [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute for Scientific Measurements

    1996-10-27

    For conversion of solar heat to transportable energy, hydrogen production by direct thermal decomposition of water using concentrated high-temperature solar heat was studied. Water vapor is injected into the tubular target with high melting point and high oxygen permeability at high temperature while heating the target by concentrated solar heat over 2000K. Oxygen in decomposed gas is discharged through an oxygen permeable membrane to extract hydrogen. Solid electrolyte is used as one of the target materials. Oxygen gas in the high-oxygen partial pressure site changes into oxygen ion by accepting two electrons at the target surface, and returns to neutral oxygen gas in the low-oxygen partial pressure site by discharging two electrons at the surface after permeation through oxygen vacancy. In the case of n-type solid electrolyte, to obtain constant permeation of a large amount of oxygen, flow of a large amount of electrons is indispensable in the opposite direction to oxygen ion. Among [(ZrO2)(1-x)(CeO2)x](0.9)(CaO)(0.1), materials of 0.4-0.5 in x seems to be useful as the target material. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Studies of flat-plate solar air collectors with absorber plates made of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules; Amorphous taiyo denchi module wo shunetsuban to shita heibangata kukishiki shunetsuki no kenkyu

    Sato, K; Ito, S; Miura, N [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A light/heat hybrid air type heat collector has been developed in which heat is collected by solar cell panels. In Type 1 heat collector provided with a glass cover, two modules are connected in series and placed under a glass cover to serve as a heat collecting plate, each module built of a steel plate and two thin-film amorphous solar cells bonded to the steel plate. Air runs under the heat collecting plate. Type 2 heat collector is a Type 1 heat collector minus the glass cover. Air is taken in by a fan, runs in a vinyl chloride tube, and then through the heat collector where it is heated by the sun, and goes out at the exit. Heat collecting performance was subjected to theoretical analysis. This heat collector approximated in point of heat collection a model using a board painted black, which means that the new type functions effectively as an air-type heat collector. Operating as a photovoltaic power generator, the covered type generated approximately 20% less than the uncovered type under 800W/m{sup 2} insolation conditions. Type 1 has been in service for five months, and Type 2 for 2 months. At present, both are free of troubles such as deformation and the amorphous solar cell modules have deteriorated but a little. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey of peripheral element technologies - Survey of novel voltaic cell structure solar cell development); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - shinhatsuden soshi kozo taiyo denchi kaitaku no chosa kenkyu)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present state and trend are surveyed of organic ferroelectric thin films, new carbon materials, fullerene compounds, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power. In the study of organic ferroelectric thin-film solar cells, the effort still remains at the basic stage, with the conversion rate as low as 3% in Europe and 2% in Japan. The progress of basic studies, however, is worth attention. It is deemed that 15% is the photoconversion rate to be currently expected from new carbon material solar cells. Fullerene compounds include some semiconductors whose bandgap values may be controlled across a 0.75-1.95eV range, and they may find their place in thin-film solar cells. However, their physical properties are not fully known, and their development into devices such as solar cells is scarcely reported. The research and development of TPV in the U.S. is led by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), with their efforts concentrated on the development of portable power sources utilizing combustion heat. In Europe, TPV application to small-scale residential cogeneration systems is under study. (NEDO)

  2. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture next-generation thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture CIS solar cell modules, development of technologies to increase high-quality film area; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, kohinshitsumaku no daimensekika gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    With an objective to improve efficiency and reduce cost of CIS-based thin film solar cells, research and development has been made on technologies to increase high-quality CIS film area and technologies to increase speed in the manufacturing process. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. The research covered development of technologies to form high-grade Cu (In, Ga) Se{sub 2} (CIGS) film by using the multi-dimensional deposition process, component technologies for forming a rear electrode, a buffer layer and a transparent electrode, and patterning technologies. As a result of the research, thickness of the CIGS film was reduced to half as much as that of the conventional films, having achieved conversion efficiency of 13.1%, which corresponds to about 90% of the conventional CIGS solar cells. In addition, elucidation was made on the effect of an MoSe{sub 2} layer existing on interface with CIGS/Mo in a CIGS solar cell imposed on solar cell characteristics. In developing an Mo film laser scribing technology, intensity dependence of laser energy was made clear, the energy being required for scribing according to surface condition of the Mo film. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Research and survey of peripheral element technologies (Research and survey for development of solar cell of new power generation device structure); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (shinhatsuden soshi kozo taiyo denchi kaitaku no chosa kenkyu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Attention is paid to behavior at the molecular level with reference taken to the photosynthetic mechanism, and a behavioral mechanism is proposed, which incorporates, in place of the conventional band model, a concept of a molecular structure based on electron transfer, excitation energy transfer, and reactions of oxidation and reduction. Discussion is then made on elements of technology development for the embodiment of high-efficiency organic ferroelectric thin-film solar cells. The elements taken up include the feasibility of organic ferroelectric thin-film cells, photoelctric conversion systems of plants and photosynthetic bacteria, solar cells using donor-acceptor type dyes, organic thin-film solar cells using conductive polymers, and efficient photoexcitation of organic dyes. Fullerene compounds are semiconductive and their band gaps may be controlled to stay within the range of 0.75-1.9eV, and this justifies a hope that they will serve as solar cells. As for TPV (thermophotovoltaic) conversion, it is under development mainly at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) as a transportable power source based on heat of combustion. Efforts are also being exerted since 1990 in five European countries to develop TPV systems for small-scale cogeneration. (NEDO)

  4. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture application type thin film solar cells with new structure (development of technologies to manufacture amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystal silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (amorphous silicon/usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was performed with an objective to manufacture amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystal silicon hybrid solar cells with large area and at low cost, being a high-efficiency next generation solar cell. The research was performed based on a principle that low-cost substrates shall be used, that a manufacturing process capable of forming amorphous silicon films with large area shall be based on, and that silicon film with as thin as possible thickness shall be used. Fiscal 1997 has started research and development on making the cells hybrid with amorphous silicon cells. As a result of the research and development, such achievements have been attained as using texture structure on the rear layer in thin poly-crystal silicon film solar cells with a thickness of two microns, and having achieved conversion efficiency of 10.1% by optimizing the junction interface forming conditions. A photo-deterioration test was carried out on hybrid cells which combine the thin poly-crystal silicon film cells having STAR structure with the amorphous silicon cells. Stabilization efficiency of 11.5% was attained after light has been irradiated for 500 hours or longer. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1999 research and development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of technologies for production of thin-film solar cells and low-cost, large-area modules (Development of technologies for high-reliability CdTe solar cell modules); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for production of low-cost, large-area modules of CdTe solar cells by the high-quality film-making process and high-function patterning, and the FY 1999 results are reported. The research program for the large-area TCO film-making technologies involves investigations on improvement of SnO{sub 2} film quality by the mist method and continuous film-making, which lead to continuous, stable production of 34 substrates of low resistance of 9.7{omega} on the average. The program for production of the large-area, thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells involves production of TCO and CdS by the mist method, and patterning of the laminated TCO/CdS film by laser scribing. The CdTe film is formed by the atmospheric pressure CSS method, and treated with CdCl{sub 2} to improve its crystallinity. The CdTe film is patterned by sand blasting, and provided with the carbon and silver electrodes by screen printing, to complete the cell. The process is totally effected at the atmospheric pressure, needing no vacuum device. The CdTe solar cell assembly (130 cells connected in series, opening area: 5,413cm{sup 2}), fabricated on a trial basis, achieves a conversion efficiency of 10%. (NEDO)

  6. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for development of extra-high efficiency solar cells (fundamental research on extra-high efficiency III-V compound semiconductor tandem solar cells); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu no tame no kaiseki hyoka (chokokoritsu III-V zoku kagobutsu taiyo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Sekikawa, T; Kawanami, H; Sakata, I; Nagai, K; Matsumoto, K; Miki, K [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for development of extra-high efficiency III-V compound semiconductor tandem solar cells. Heteroepitaxial structures of compound semiconductors, such as GaAs, on silicon substrates are analyzed and evaluated by EXAFS, Raman and RHEED for the initial stage of the film growth and heterointerfaces. The device capable of in-situ observation of the growing surface structures during the period of heteroepitaxial film growth is introduced, to investigate the effects of rise-up and initial growth conditions on defects. The effects of atomic hydrogen on growth of a GaAs film on a silicon substrate are investigated from photoluminescence and solar cell characteristics, to confirm the effects of reducing defects. Heteroepitaxial growth of InGaP, which has the optimum band width for forming multi-junction silicon solar cells, on a silicon substrate is investigated, to find that an interfacial buffer layer is necessary to form a good film. 2 figs.

  7. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic power system commercialization technology (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Surveys and studies of peripheral key technologies/Surveys of ultrahigh-efficiency solar cell application fields); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi tou oyo bunya kaitaku chosa)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys and studies were conducted in order to make propositions concerning the fields of application wherein the merits of ultrahigh-efficiency solar cells would be fully utilized. A questionnaire was held about solar cell application fields, and studies were made about new systems based on the need in the market for specific solar cell goods and capable of supporting their mass diffusion. Proposed as the result was the establishment of a rental (lease) system for photovoltaic power systems, a local photovoltaics advisory system, a market for used photovoltaic power systems, and so forth. In the feasibility study of photovoltaic power generation on unused land in agricultural villages, surveys were conducted concerning energy problems, the energy structure, the actual state of energy consumption, the abandoned farm and its utilization, and so forth. Propositions involving photovoltaic power feasibility were then made, which covered power consumption for greenhouse culture, energy supply for producing methanol out of biomass, power sources for insect incapacitating yellow fluorescent lamps, power sources for livestock barn air-conditioning, power sources for animal excretion treatment, and so forth. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost/large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shingata amorphous taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project intends to improve on large-area amorphous silicon solar cell performance and to develop high-throughput manufacturing technologies for a reduction in the cost of modules. A film substrate type amorphous solar cell structure of the serial connection type named SCAF (series-connection through apertures formed on film) is contrived. Under this method, film formation using a stepping roll system newly developed for glass substrates may be applied, and the number of manhours required is allowed to be less than under conventional serial connection forming processes. The new technique is characterized in that serial connections are established via through-holes provided in plastic substrates. Making use of the technology, progress is attained in the development of high-throughput process technology for film substrate type amorphous solar cells and of efficiency enhancement technology. In fiscal 1997, an electron beam unit for plasma generation aiming at the elucidation of reaction processes in plasma was introduced, and technologies based on the equilibrium discharge technique were developed enabling high-speed a-Si film formation without degradation in film quality. The effect of trace boron addition to the tandem cell bottom I layer was investigated, and a stabilization rate of 8.05% was achieved using a 40cm times 80cm large SCAF cell. In fiscal 1998, endeavors were exerted for similar developments. (NEDO)

  9. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 8. Study on periodic steady state of the annual cycle energy system at a practical operation; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 8

    Tanaka, H; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A study was made of the periodic steady state of the annual cycle solar energy system with seasonal heat storage at a practical operation. Cold heat in winter and warm heat in summer are stored in the seasonal storage tank, and these are each used in shift until when demand for cold/warm heat appears. Moreover, gap in quantity of cold/warm heat going in/out of the heat storage tank during a year is filled by natural energy such as solar energy, so that the system can be operated in annual cycles. Studies were conducted of the periodic unsteady term and the problem on lowering of performance during the term such as the periodic unsteady term of water temperature inside the seasonal heat storage tank and temperature of the soil around the storage tank, and the level of lowering of performance during the term, necessity of additional operation/control at the start of operation and aged deterioration of the system. Within the assumption, even if starting operation in any time of the year, the system could show the performance almost expected from the first operation year with no additional system operation and control required only at the start of operation. It is thought that the heat source selection control of heat pump largely contributes to this. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Yoshinaga, M; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Optimal Sizing and Placement of Battery Energy Storage in Distribution System Based on Solar Size for Voltage Regulation

    Nazaripouya, Hamidreza [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Yubo [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chu, Peter [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pota, Hemanshu R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gadh, Rajit [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-07-26

    This paper proposes a new strategy to achieve voltage regulation in distributed power systems in the presence of solar energy sources and battery storage systems. The goal is to find the minimum size of battery storage and its corresponding location in the network based on the size and place of the integrated solar generation. The proposed method formulates the problem by employing the network impedance matrix to obtain an analytical solution instead of using a recursive algorithm such as power flow. The required modifications for modeling the slack and PV buses (generator buses) are utilized to increase the accuracy of the approach. The use of reactive power control to regulate the voltage regulation is not always an optimal solution as in distribution systems R/X is large. In this paper the minimum size and the best place of battery storage is achieved by optimizing the amount of both active and reactive power exchanged by battery storage and its gridtie inverter (GTI) based on the network topology and R/X ratios in the distribution system. Simulation results for the IEEE 14-bus system verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost/large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of high-reliability CdS/CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Cost reduction for the above-named solar cells is the aim of this effort. On the basis of the results of past studies, a technology is established of fabricating a thin CdS film by subjecting a CdS film to organometal pyrolysis, and this brings about a decrease in photoabsorption loss in the range of waves shorter than 500nm and a decrease in in-film reflection loss for an increase in short-circuit current density. A proximity sublimation method is used for CdTe film fabrication, which improves on film quality and film adhesion. These efforts result in the achievement of a conversion efficiency of 16.0% which is the highest in the world. Studies are promoted in a process nearer to the ultimate form, and a 30cm times 60cm large CdTe solar cell is fabricated on the basis of a patterning technique, and the product attains a conversion efficiency of 9.8%. In fiscal 1998, studies center about the establishment of a film fabrication process for a medium-are substrate and about the enhancement of its conversion efficiency, and facilities capable of dealing with large-area substrates are introduced and operated. In a typical achievement, a CdTe solar cell is experimentally fabricated in a process which is wholly under normal pressure, and the product with an aperture area of 1376cm{sup 2} exhibits a conversion efficiency of 10.5% according to JQA (Japan Quality Assurance Organization). (NEDO)

  13. Study of a solar PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system for a remotely located population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a PV-diesel hybrid power system with battery backup for a village being fed with diesel generated electricity to displace part of the diesel by solar. The hourly solar radiation data measured at the site along with PV modules mounted on fixed foundations, four generators of different rated powers, diesel prices of 0.2-1.2US$/l, different sizes of batteries and converters were used to find an optimal power system for the village. It was found that a PV array of 2000 kW and four generators of 1250, 750, 2250 and 250 kW; operating at a load factor of 70% required to run for 3317 h/yr, 4242 h/yr, 2820 h/yr and 3150 h/yr, respectively; to produce a mix of 17,640 MWh of electricity annually and 48.33 MWh per day. The cost of energy (COE) of diesel only and PV/diesel/battery power system with 21% solar penetration was found to be 0.190$/kWh and 0.219$/kWh respectively for a diesel price of 0.2$/l. The sensitivity analysis showed that at a diesel price of 0.6$/l the COE from hybrid system become almost the same as that of the diesel only system and above it, the hybrid system become more economical than the diesel only system. (author)

  14. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Research and survey of peripheral element technologies (Research on practical application of set solar cell); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (shisshiki taiyo denchi jitsuyoka kanosei chosa)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Possibility of practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells (Graezel cells) is discussed. Fine titania particle preparation conditions and titania thin-film electrodes were optimized and an energy conversion efficiency of 7.7% was accomplished. The screen printing method was applied to the manufacture of dye-sensitized electrodes, and performance governing factors were grasped. The use of the screen printing method resulted in a conversion efficiency of 6-8.4% when the factors were optimized. Though lower than the 10% in the Graezel report, values near that were obtained. The status of latest research and development is compiled involving studies about electron transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells, manufacture of sensitizing dyes and mesoscopic metal oxide thin-film, electron transfer layers and their physical properties, and solidification of hole transfer layers. Research was conducted aiming at their practical application, and tasks and problems in each of the said items were point out. A logical approach to achieve high conversion efficiency was deliberated, and studies were made about how to propel forward endeavors involving design guidelines for high-performance sensitizing dyes, design and preparation guidelines for thin film for electrodes, analysis of stability, solidification of the redox electrolyte, etc. (NEDO)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on developing practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems under the New Sunshine Project. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules, and development of technologies to manufacture new type amorphous solar cells; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, shingata amorphous taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Development will be made on high-performance a-solar cells as part of developing practical application technology for a-solar cells for electric power use. Development will be also made on a low-cost process technology. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. Quality improvement has been realized by using a high RF power hydrogen dilution process on a-Si films for front cells of lamination type cells. Four times faster film forming speed was obtained even by using the VHF plasma CVD process, with film quality equivalent to those made by using the conventional RF process maintained. By optimizing the light enclosing construction, the short circuit current was enhanced by over 20%. Discussions were given on forming homogenous a-Si films by optimizing the conditions for forming films on large-area substrates, which resulted in forming film of 30 cm times 40 cm size with good homogeneity at a film forming speed three times faster than the conventional speed. A surface electrode was formed successfully with good uniformity on a substrate with a size of 60 cm times 90 cm. Productivity greater by over three times the conventional productivity was achieved in patterning of transparent electrodes by using high-output laser. Simultaneous and collective patterning and very small and long size collective patterning were realized in a-Si film selection patterning by using the plasma CVD process. (NEDO)

  16. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost and large-area module manufacturing technologies, and new type amorphous solar cell manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shingata amorphous taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to put amorphous solar cells for power use into practical use, research and development has been performed on a low-cost mass production technology for modules with large area and less deterioration using film substrates. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing an efficiency enhancing technology, development of an a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple cell structure was launched, and discussions were given on band gaps, film forming conditions, and film thickness. In developing a film forming speed enhancing technology, systematic experiments were performed, as well as theoretical analysis on the film forming mechanism in the plasma CVD process. In developing the process technology for film substrate solar cells, with regard to an a-Si production device of the multi-chamber arranged stepping roll system, six plasma CVD chambers were increased to 13 chambers to improve the electrode forming speed and such processes as drilling low-cost substrates, and laser patterning. In trial fabrication of a triple cell, a module in which one row of the SCAF cell is laminated provided an initial efficiency of 9.64%. (NEDO)

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell and of low-cost/large-area module (Manufacture of high-reliability CdTe solar module); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The target is a low-cost CdS/CdTe solar cell of a large area (60cm times 90cm), the establishment of mass-production technologies for the cell, and the enhancement of production efficiency. A thin film formation technology of subjecting CdS film organic metal to pyrolysis is established, which reduces photoabsorption loss in the shortwave domain of wavelength of not longer than 500nm, reduces reflection loss in the film, and improves on short-circuit current density. Improvement is also achieved on CdTe film quality and junction quality by use of a proximity sublimation method in a vacuum, when a conversion rate of 16.0% (1cm{sup 2}) is attained which is the highest in the world. Based on the results of the above-said efforts, a 3.3mm-thick glass substrate is employed for CdTe film to develop into a 30cm times 60cm-large size, with the film thereon uniformly thick over a large area thanks to a normal pressure proximity sublimation method. Studies are made toward a process nearer to the ultimate product and, using the patterning technique, a 30cm times 60cm-large CdTe solar cell is tentatively built realizing a conversion rate of 9.8%. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1997 Report on New Sunshine Project. International co-operative projects (Australia-Japan solar energy technology cooperation, etc); 1997 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Nichigonado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Described herein are the progresses, memorandum concluded for the new project, NEDO/MUERI project activities, among others, for, e.g., Australia-Japan solar energy technology co-operative project. The photovoltaic cell outdoor exposure test project has been progressing as expected in Australia since FY 1996. The test data have been collected for one year and analyzed successively. The second information exchange workshop is scheduled in June 1998 in Sydney for the thin-film, polycrystalline photovoltaic cell manufacturing technologies. The new type photovoltaic cell long-term exposure test project has been started in FY 1997 as the new project in Oman. The weather conditions of the test site are very severe, very high both in temperature and humidity. The new type photovoltaic cell modules, centered by the amorphous silicon, will be exposure-tested in the severe atmospheres, to verify long-term reliability of the photovoltaic cells. A total of 5 types of the modules are to be exposure-tested; 3 types of 6 amorphous silicon cells, one type of 2 CdS/CdTe cells, and one type of 2 thin-film polycrystalline cells. (NEDO)

  19. System optimization of solar hydrogen energy system based on hydrogen production cost. 2; Suiso seizo cost wo hyoka shihyo to shita taiyo suiso energy system no saiteki sekkei. 2

    Ota, D; Yamagami, Y; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In this paper, to evaluate the hydrogen production cost per unit volume, system optimization of solar hydrogen energy system is discussed. Based on the simulation of the I-V characteristics of amorphous Si (a-Si) photovoltaic array, the working point between the array and hydrogen generator was determined. The cost ratio of each design point was calculated. The optimum design points were 500 W/m{sup 2} for the single crystal Si system, and 600 W/m{sup 2} for the a-Si system. When the rating capacity of design point was constant, almost constant cost ratio was obtained independent of the type of photovoltaic cells. It was found that the photovoltaic cells can be fabricated in about 15% lower cost at maximum. It was also found that the optimum design point sifts to the lower insolation site due to reduction of the photovoltaic cell cost. Since the annual hydrogen generation quantity does not depend on the type of photovoltaic cells under the constant rating capacity of design point, hydrogen can be produced in lower cost by using photovoltaic cell of lower cost. 5 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Change of the equivalent circuit constants accompanied by the degradation and recovery of efficiency on a-Si solar cells; A-Si taiyo denchi no koritsu no rekka to kaifuku ni tomonau toka kairo teisu no henka

    Takahisa, K; Kojima, T; Nakamura, K; Koyanagi, T; Yanagisawa, T [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Investigations were given on how the equivalent circuit constants change when efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells changes with time in light degradation and temperature recovery. In the experiment, light irradiation tests under a constant temperature and light intensity condition, followed by recovery tests under a constant temperature and constant weak light intensity or constant temperature condition were repeated continuously. According to the result of an experiment on single layer type cells, the change in each equivalent circuit constant in association with degradation in efficiency and file factor and variation in recovery is reversible mostly. However, a slightly irreversible component was recognized only in the initial degradation process in series resistance and diode factor values. With regard to stacked cells, it was suggested that the main players to determine cell characteristics during the processes of deterioration and recovery take turns among the three layers as follows: the shape of the time-based change in the efficiency comes different and is not saturating; as the efficiency decreases, the extent of the change increases in the diode factor and series resistance; and the path the deterioration takes differs from that the recovery takes. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  1. 33rd Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 8th Photovoltaic Power Liaison Meeting. Report for fiscal 1995; Dai 33 kai taiyo energy suishin iinkai dai 8 kai taiyoko hatsuden renrakukai (1995 nendo hokoku)

    NONE

    1996-04-22

    The above-named events were convened in the period of April 22-24, 1996, when a total of 46 presentations were given on research achievements. In the session on crystalline Si systems, 9 essays were presented, and a discussion was held about 'Technological tasks for realizing 20% efficient module.' In the session on ultrahigh III-V group systems, 4 essays were presented, and a discussion was held on 'Tasks about technology development for ultrahigh efficiency III-V compound solar cell.' In the session on thin film (a-Si) systems, 14 essays were presented, including one about an approach toward the elucidation of photodegradation. In the symposium, a subject 'System-to-cell transverse task' was discussed. In the session on system related matters, 10 essays were presented, and a discussion was held about 'Architecture and photovoltaic system.' In the session on thin film (thin film polycrystalline Si, chalcopyrite) systems, 8 essays were presented, and a subject was discussed titled 'Toward the establishment of a system of widespread diffusion and massive introduction.' (NEDO)

  2. 33rd Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 8th Photovoltaic Power Liaison Meeting. Report for fiscal 1995; Dai 33 kai taiyo energy suishin iinkai dai 8 kai taiyoko hatsuden renrakukai (1995 nendo hokoku)

    NONE

    1996-04-22

    The above-named events were convened in the period of April 22-24, 1996, when a total of 46 presentations were given on research achievements. In the session on crystalline Si systems, 9 essays were presented, and a discussion was held about 'Technological tasks for realizing 20% efficient module.' In the session on ultrahigh III-V group systems, 4 essays were presented, and a discussion was held on 'Tasks about technology development for ultrahigh efficiency III-V compound solar cell.' In the session on thin film (a-Si) systems, 14 essays were presented, including one about an approach toward the elucidation of photodegradation. In the symposium, a subject 'System-to-cell transverse task' was discussed. In the session on system related matters, 10 essays were presented, and a discussion was held about 'Architecture and photovoltaic system.' In the session on thin film (thin film polycrystalline Si, chalcopyrite) systems, 8 essays were presented, and a subject was discussed titled 'Toward the establishment of a system of widespread diffusion and massive introduction.' (NEDO)

  3. Changes of the temperature coefficients of the characteristics which accompany degradation and recovery of a-Si solar cells; A-Si taiyo denchi no hikari (denryu) rekka oyobi kaifuku ni tomonau tokusei ondo keisu no henka

    Yanagisawa, T; Koyanagi, T; Nakamura, K; Takahisa, K; Kojima, T [electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Pursuant to the measuring of temperature dependency of the characteristics such as conversion efficiency, during the process of degradation in a-Si solar cells due to light and electric current and the process of recovery by annealing, this paper describes changes in temperature coefficients, correlation between the characteristic parameters and the degradation, and the results of the examination of their characteristics. The conversion efficiency {mu} degraded approximately by 45% of the initial value each by the irradiation under a light intensity with 3 SUN accelerated and by the infusion of current at 20mA/cm{sup 2}; and then, the efficiency recovered to 70-75% of the degradation by subsequent annealing. In addition, in the temperature dependency at 80{degree}C against at 20{degree}C, Isc slightly increased while Vcc greatly decreased. This slight increase in Isc was mainly due to the decrease in the width of the forbidden band, while the decrease in Vcc was due to the increase in the reverse saturation current. The temperature dependency of {mu}N was negative, becoming small in accordance with the degradation. The temperature dependency of FF/FFO was negative initially both in light and current, but it decreased with the degradation and turned to positive. The temperature coefficients of I-V parameters reversibly changed corresponding to the degradation and recovery of these parameters and stayed in a good correlation. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Duty-based control of maximum power point regulation for power converter in solar fan system with battery storage

    Kuo, J.-L.; Hong, P.-J. [National Kaohsiung First Univ. of Science and Technology, Nantze, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical and Automation Engineering; Chao, K.-L. [National Kaohsiung Univ. of Applied Sciences, Nantze, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Wang, T.-Y. [Chang-Gung Univ., Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Solar energy is a popular renewable energy source for the future because it does not produce any pollution. In addition, it is unlimited and a clean source of energy. This paper discussed a photovoltaic solar fan system that could be used inside the house with the potential of cooling the indoor temperature. The solar cell module is located at the eaves of the house and could block the sunlight directly into the house, and convert solar power into electric power through the battery. The paper described software implementation and hardware circuit design in detail. The paper also illustrated a different algorithm to calculate the maximum power point regulation. The conventional algorithm calculates the solar cell module output power by multiplying the input voltage and input current for the solar cell module directly. By changing the input voltage variable into duty variable, the voltage sensor is not required under the proposed scheme. Only the duty and current variables are needed to calculate the maximum power. The microchip dsPIC microcontroller was used to implement the algorithm. Different DC link levels were verified and implemented for comparison. It was concluded that the characteristics of the solar cell module could be measured automatically, and the maximum power point could be guaranteed by the proposed algorithm. 9 refs., 6 tabs., 14 figs.

  5. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and development of technologies to manufacture amorphous silicon/thin film poly-crystalline silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (amorphous silicon / usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Developmental research has been performed on large-area low-cost manufacturing technologies on hybrid thin film solar cells of amorphous silicon and poly-crystalline silicon. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a texture construction formed naturally on silicon surface, and thin film poly-crystalline silicon cells with STAR structure having a rear side reflection layer to increase light absorption. The research achievements during the current fiscal year may be summarized as follows: the laser scribing technology for thin film poly-crystalline silicon was established, which is important for modularization, making fabrication of low-cost and large-area modules possible; a stabilization efficiency of 11.3% was achieved in a hybrid mini module comprising of ten-stage series integrated amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystalline silicon; structures different hybrid modules were discussed, whereas an initial efficiency of 10.3% (38.78W) was achieved in a sub-module having a substrate size of 910 mm times 455 mm; and feasibility of forming large-area hybrid modules was demonstrated. (NEDO)

  6. Feasibility study of international cooperation in the research/development of a solar energy utilization system by the innovative solar thermochemical process; Kakushinteki solar netsukagaku process ni yoru taiyo energy riyo system no kaihatsu kenkyu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    At COP3 in 1997, an agreement was made to the innovative technical development/promotion by international cooperation, and the promotion of transfer of environmental technology to developing countries. Under the agreement, a feasibility study of international cooperation was made, and especially a study was conducted of the utilization/development of solar energy by the innovative solar thermochemical process. The main reason for global warming is emissions of a large amount of CO2 caused by the direct combustion of fossil fuels. Therefore, a CO2 recycle system taken up in the study enables a more substantial decline in CO2 emission (kg/kWh) per unit generation than the conventional thermal power system by composing solar methanol or solar dimethyl ether using fossil fuels including coal, water, CO2, etc. as raw materials and using solar energy as heat source, and by using this as fuel (solar fuel). CO2 can be reduced by 13% to 14% by substituting solar methanol or solar dimethyl ether produced from petroleum/methane equivalent-mol mixed raw materials for the equivalent mol coal and natural gas of the thermal power plant (CO2 recovery is not necessary). 34 refs., 47 figs., 34 tabs.

  7. FY 1993 report on the results of the technology development for the commercialization of the photovoltaic power system. Development of the solar cell use compound semiconductor production system - development of flight use testing machine; 1993 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchiyo kagobutsu handotai seizo sochi kaihatsu (hikoyo shikenki no kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For a new breakthrough of the technology of the photovoltaic power generation, the paper aims at developing a combined heating furnace, a focal heating furnace and a single heating furnace which are necessary to produce crystals of the substrate of compound semiconductors for high quality solar cell under the microgravity environment obtained in the space, and also the systems related to the functions indispensable to the operation of the above-mentioned furnaces. This report is Vol. 2/3, and described the mission operation in Chapter 7, repair of PFM battery in Chapter 8, mechanical system ground support equipment and maintenance/inspection in Chapter 9, and electrical system ground support equipment and maintenance/repair in Chapter 10. In Chapter 7, described were the arrangement of operation of electrical furnace, operation manual of electrical furnace, procedures for operation, database, training, rehearsal plan, etc. In Chapter 8, of the battery repair plan, the paper carried out the repair design/repair work of battery, and described the state where a test to accept the test specifications is possible. In Chapter 9, indicated were the documents for application and reference of the maintenance/inspection of MGSE. In Chapter 10, the paper reported on the repairs for adaptation for the maintenance and lunching work of EGSE. (NEDO)

  8. Performance of U.S. hybrid distributed energy systems: Solar photovoltaic, battery and combined heat and power

    Shah, Kunal K.; Mundada, Aishwarya S.; Pearce, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulated PV + battery + CHP hybrid systems deployed in three U.S. regions. • Used hybrid optimization model for electric renewable pro microgrid analysis. • Limited size of each sub-module to singe family house size. • Results show that the electricity generated meets residential load demand. • Hybrid systems are technically viable in hot, moderate and cold climates in U.S. - Abstract: Until recently, the relatively high levelized cost of electricity from solar photovoltaic (PV) technology limited deployment; however, recent cost reductions, combined with various financial incentives and innovative financing techniques, have made PV fully competitive with conventional sources in many American regions. In addition, the costs of electrical storage have also declined enough to make PV + battery systems potentially economically viable for a mass-scale off-grid low-emission transition. However, many regions in the U.S. (e.g. Northern areas) cannot have off-grid PV systems without prohibitively large battery systems. Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems provide a potential solution for off-grid power backup of residential-scale PV + battery arrays, while also minimizing emissions from conventional sources. Thus, an opportunity is now available to maximize the use of solar energy and gain the improved efficiencies possible with CHPs to deploy PV + battery + CHP systems throughout the U.S. The aim of this study is to determine the technical viability of such systems by simulating PV + battery + CHP hybrid systems deployed in three representative regions in the U.S., using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) Pro Microgrid Analysis tool. The results show that the electricity generated by each component of the hybrid system can be coupled to fulfill the residential load demand. A sensitivity analysis of these hybrid off grid systems is carried out as a function capacity factor of both the PV and CHP units. The

  9. The 100 kW space station. [regenerative fuel cells and nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium batteries for solar arrays

    Mckhann, G.

    1977-01-01

    Solar array power systems for the space construction base are discussed. Nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen batteries are equally attractive relative to regenerative fuel cell systems at 5 years life. Further evaluation of energy storage system life (low orbit conditions) is required. Shuttle and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology appears adequate; large units (approximately four times shuttle) are most appropriate and should be studied for a 100 KWe SCB system. A conservative NiH2 battery DOD (18.6%) was elected due to lack of test data and offers considerable improvement potential. Multiorbit load averaging and reserve capacity requirements limit nominal DOD to 30% to 50% maximum, independent of life considerations.

  10. The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for high-altitude long-endurance solar-powered aircraft on energy storage

    Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Fan, Rong-Fei; Chen, Xiao-Qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The scope of this paper is to apply solar energy to achieve the high-altitude long-endurance flight. • The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery is discussed. • Four kinds of factors have been discussed to compare the two method of energy storage. • This work can provide some governing principles for the application of solar-powered aircraft. - Abstract: Applying solar energy is one of the most promising methods to achieve the aim of High-altitude Long-endurance (HALE) flight, and solar-powered aircraft is usually taken by the research groups to develop HALE aircraft. However, the crucial factor which constrains the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the aim of HALE is the problem how to fulfill the power requirement under weight constraint of rechargeable batteries. Motivated by the birds store energy from thermal by gaining height, the method of energy stored by gravitational potential for solar-powered aircraft have attracted great attentions in recent years. In order to make the method of energy stored in gravitational potential more practical in solar-powered aircraft, the equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for aircraft on energy storage has been analyzed, and four kinds of factors are discussed in this paper: the duration of solar irradiation, the charging rate, the energy density of rechargeable battery and the initial altitude of aircraft. This work can provide some governing principles for the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the unlimited endurance flight, and the endurance performance of solar-powered aircraft may be greatly improved by the application of energy storage using gravitational potential

  11. A DFT Study of Multimode Switching in a Combined DHA/VHF-DTE/DHB System for Use in Solar Heat Batteries

    Gertsen, Anders Skovbo; Olsen, Stine Tetzschner; Broman, Søren Lindbæk

    2017-01-01

    solvents before discussing its suitability for use in solar heat batteries. An energy storage capacity of 0.17 MJ/kg is calculated which corresponds to a specific energy of 46 Wh/kg—slightly larger than that of a common lead–acid car battery (∼40 Wh/kg) but still only one-fourth of lithium-ion batteries......Development of photochromic molecules for solar energy storage has two major challenges: (i) to store a sufficient amount of energy in the metastable isomer and (ii) to control the energy-releasing step, i.e., setting it on hold until the energy is needed. Combining the dihydroazulene......, the spectral data indeed imply a possibility of controlling the back-reaction from the energy-rich metastable isomer by light stimulus, thus enabling one to release the stored energy upon request. This work thereby represents important progress toward efficient long-time solar energy storage in photochromic...

  12. Exploring the Potential Competitiveness of Utility-Scale Photovoltaics plus Batteries with Concentrating Solar Power, 2015–2030

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stekli, Joseph [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2016-08-01

    Declining costs of both solar photovoltaics (PV) and battery storage have raised interest in the creation of “solar-plus-storage” systems to provide dispatchable energy and reliable capacity. There has been limited deployment of PV-plus-energy storage systems (PV+ESS), and the actual configuration and performance of these systems for dispatchable energy are in the early stages of being defined. In contrast, concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP+TES) has been deployed at scale with the proven capability of providing a dispatchable, reliable source of renewable generation. A key question moving forward is how to compare the relative costs and benefits of PV+ESS and CSP+TES. While both technologies collect solar radiation and produce electricity, they do so through very different mechanisms, which creates challenges for direct comparison. Nonetheless, it is important to establish a framework for comparison and to identify cost and performance targets to aid meeting the nation’s goals for clean energy deployment. In this paper, we provide a preliminary assessment comparing the cost of energy from CSP+TES and PV+ESS that focuses on a single metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE). We begin by defining the configuration of each system, which is particularly important for PV+ESS systems. We then examine a range of projected cost declines for PV, batteries, and CSP. Finally, we summarize the estimated LCOE over a range of configuration and cost estimates. We conclude by acknowledging that differences in these technologies present challenges for comparison using a single performance metric. We define systems with similar configurations in some respects. In reality, because of inherent differences in CSP+TES and PV+ESS systems, they will provide different grid services and different value. For example, depending on its configuration, a PV+ESS system may provide additional value over CSP+TES by providing more flexible operation, including certain

  13. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. International joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems; 1998 nendo sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo energy riyo system kokusai kyodo gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The solar energy utilizing technologies having been developed under the Sunshine Project were used to have executed the international joint technology development on the 'solar heat utilizing drying system' in the Republic of Indonesia. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1998. In operating the pilot plant, three operational experiments out of seven experiments were carried out only by Indonesian engineers. As a result of the drying experiments, the heat collecting characteristics of the collector were as about half at 19 to 30% as the efficiency assumed in the design of 50%. The reason for this can be attributed to the fact that the cover glass used in the demonstration test in Japan had light permeability of about 87%, but the cover glass used in the test plant was made of frosted glass whose light permeability was about 37%. This glass is the only glass available for a heat collector in the solar heat hot water device in Indonesia, but is unsuitable for the heat collector. Another cause was that the insolation at the site was lower by about 30% than the one used at the design stage. (NEDO)

  14. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. International joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems; 1998 nendo sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo energy riyo system kokusai kyodo gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The solar energy utilizing technologies having been developed under the Sunshine Project were used to have executed the international joint technology development on the 'solar heat utilizing drying system' in the Republic of Indonesia. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1998. In operating the pilot plant, three operational experiments out of seven experiments were carried out only by Indonesian engineers. As a result of the drying experiments, the heat collecting characteristics of the collector were as about half at 19 to 30% as the efficiency assumed in the design of 50%. The reason for this can be attributed to the fact that the cover glass used in the demonstration test in Japan had light permeability of about 87%, but the cover glass used in the test plant was made of frosted glass whose light permeability was about 37%. This glass is the only glass available for a heat collector in the solar heat hot water device in Indonesia, but is unsuitable for the heat collector. Another cause was that the insolation at the site was lower by about 30% than the one used at the design stage. (NEDO)

  15. Optimal integration of a hybrid solar-battery power source into smart home nanogrid with plug-in electric vehicle

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Teng, Yanqiong; Qian, Shide; Cheng, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid solar-battery power source is essential in the nexus of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), renewables, and smart building. This paper devises an optimization framework for efficient energy management and components sizing of a single smart home with home battery, PEV, and potovoltatic (PV) arrays. We seek to maximize the home economy, while satisfying home power demand and PEV driving. Based on the structure and system models of the smart home nanogrid, a convex programming (CP) problem is formulated to rapidly and efficiently optimize both the control decision and parameters of the home battery energy storage system (BESS). Considering different time horizons of optimization, home BESS prices, types and control modes of PEVs, the parameters of home BESS and electric cost are systematically investigated. Based on the developed CP control law in home to vehicle (H2V) mode and vehicle to home (V2H) mode, the home with BESS does not buy electric energy from the grid during the electric price's peak periods.

  16. Renewable energy management through microgrid central controller design: An approach to integrate solar, wind and biomass with battery

    Zaheeruddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an isolated microgrid comprising of renewable energy (RE sources like wind, solar, biogas and battery is considered. Provision of utility grid insertion is also given if total microgrid sources falls short of supplying the total load. To establish an efficient energy management strategy, a central controller takes the decision based on the status of the loads and sources. The status is obtained with the assistance of multi-agent concept (treating each source and load as an agent. The data acquisition system of these renewable sources and loads consists of multiple sensors interconnected through Low Power Radio over one of many GPRS communication. The Microgrid Central Controller (MGCC would use an embedded energy management algorithm to take decisions, which are then transmitted to the controllable RE systems to manage the utilization of their power outputs as per the load-supply power balance. A control strategy is adopted to regulate the power output from the battery in case of supply shortage, which results in a floating battery scheme in steady state.

  17. Extending the Endurance, Missions and Capabilities of Most UAVs Using Advanced Flexible/Ridged Solar Cells and New High Power Density Batteries Technology

    2011-03-01

    Charge Controller is also a DC- to-DC power (boost) converter with MPPT function and was used in the previous thesis [3]. Figure 51. GV26-4 solar...NUMBER OF PAGES 197 14. SUBJECT TERMS Thin-Film Photovoltaics , CIGS, UAV Systems, Solar Array, Maximum Power Point Tracker ( MPPT ), Energy Storage...to a suitable level for charging the battery. The charging process is then optimized by using the MPPT as a power -conditioning unit that

  18. Application of DC-AC Hybrid Grid and Solar Photovoltaic Generation with Battery Storage Using Smart Grid

    Shoaib Rauf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid for the past few years has been the prime focus of research in power systems. The aim is to eliminate load shedding and problematic blackout conditions, further offering cheap and continuous supply of electricity for both large and small consumers. Another benefit is to integrate renewable energy resources with existing dump grid in more efficient and cost-effective manner. In past few years, growing demand for sustainable energy increases the consumption of solar PV. Since generation from solar PV is in DC and most of the appliances at home could be operated on DC, AC-DC hybrid distribution system with energy management system is proposed in this paper. EMS helps to shift or control the auxiliary load and compel the users to operate specific load at certain time slots. These techniques further help to manage the excessive load during peak and off peak hours. It demonstrates the practical implementation of DC-AC network with integration of solar PV and battery storage with existing infrastructure. The results show a remarkable improvement using hybrid AC-DC framework in terms of reliability and efficiency. All this functioning together enhances the overall efficiency; hence, a secure, economical, reliable, and intelligent system leads to a smart grid.

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system (development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (surveys and researches on analyzing practical application )). Volume 1; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is intended to identify and analyze quickly and accurately the technological trends inside and outside the country on thin film solar cells, to reflect the results effectively on research and development of practical application of the thin film solar cells for power use, and to aid the research on practical application of the technology to manufacture the thin film solar cells. This fiscal year introduced the new project of researching and developing the poly-crystal silicon-based thin film solar cells. Discussions were given on designing the solar cells, including setting of thickness of an active layer required to improve efficiency of the silicon-based thin film solar cells, the light confining technology, and surface passivation. Comparisons and discussions were given on the new amorphous/poly-crystal silicon thin film manufacturing method and the conventional plasma CVD process. A research development program was introduced for a super laboratory to aid establishing the practical application technology for the silicon-based thin film solar cells. Chalcopyrite compounds including CuInSe2, and CdTe have not shown deterioration even in a long-term outdoor exposure test, hence they are noted as materials for high-efficiency solar cells and studied actively. Although still small in area, the net conversion efficiency was found in the order of 17%. Technological development has started to search mass production processes and commercialization possibility in the future. (NEDO)

  20. Direct battery-driven solar LED lighting using constant-power control

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsu, Po-Chien; Tseng, Wei-Min; Wu, Min-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    A direct battery-driven LED lighting technique using constant-power control is proposed in the present study. A system dynamics model of LED luminaire was derived and used in the design of the feedback constant-power control system. The test result

  1. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices

    Li, Wenjie; Fu, Hui-chun; Li, Linsen; Cabá n-Acevedo, Miguel; He, Jr-Hau; Jin, Song

    2016-01-01

    photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly

  2. Modeling and simulation performance of photovoltaic system integration battery and supercapacitor paralellization of MPPT prototipe for solar vehicle

    Ajiatmo, Dwi; Robandi, Imam

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a control scheme photovoltaic, battery and super capacitor connected in parallel for use in a solar vehicle. Based on the features of battery charging, the control scheme consists of three modes, namely, mode dynamic irradian, constant load mode and constant voltage charging mode. The shift of the three modes can be realized by controlling the duty cycle of the mosffet Boost converter system. Meanwhile, the high voltage which is more suitable for the application can be obtained. Compared with normal charging method with parallel connected current limiting detention and charging method with dynamic irradian mode, constant load mode and constant voltage charging mode, the control scheme is proposed to shorten the charging time and increase the use of power generated from the PV array. From the simulation results and analysis conducted to determine the performance of the system in state transient and steady-state by using simulation software Matlab / Simulink. Response simulation results demonstrate the suitability of the proposed concept.

  3. Performance Analysis of Solar-Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Energy System for KLIA Sepang Station of Malaysia

    Shezan, S. K. A.; Saidur, R.; Hossain, A.; Chong, W. T.; Kibria, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    A large number of populations of the world live in rural or remote areas those are geographically isolated. Power supply and uninterrupted fuel transportation to produce electrical power for these remote areas poses a great challenge. Using renewable energy in hybrid energy system might be a pathway to solve this problem. Malaysia is a large hilly land with the gift of renewable energy resources. There is a good chance to utilize these renewable resources to produce electrical power and to limit the dependency on the fossil fuel as well as reduce the carbon emissions. In this perspective, a research is carried out to analyze the performance of a solar-wind-diesel-battery hybrid energy system for a remote area named “KLIA Sepang station” in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. In this study, a 56 kW hybrid energy system has been proposed that is capable to support more than 50 households and 6 shops in that area. Real time field data of solar radiation and wind speed is used for the simulation and optimization of operations using “Homer” renewable energy software. The proposed system can reduce CO2 emission by about 16 tons per year compared to diesel generator only. In the same time the Cost of energy (COE) of the optimized system is USD 5.126/kWh.The proposed hybrid energy system might be applicable for other parts of the world where the climate conditions are similar.

  4. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar energy system (weather survey). Part 3. Observation data on global solar radiation and sunshine duration; 1974 nendo zenten nissharyo, nissho jikan no kansoku shiryo. 3. Taiyo energy system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kisho chosa)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report includes observation data on global solar radiation and sunshine duration for R and D on solar energy system. The global solar radiation data include the following measured by bimetal pyranometer in 1954-1970: Monthly and yearly mean value, average value, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and maximum and minimum value. The sunshine duration data include the following measured by Jordan's heliograph in 1941-1970: Monthly and yearly total value, 10-year mean value, average value, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and maximum and minimum value. Annual variations of the global solar radiation at 16 typical sites all over the country are illustrated using the average values, and secular variations of the monthly and yearly mean values at 16 sites are also illustrated. Annual variations of the sunshine duration at 17 typical sites are illustrated using the average values, and secular variations of the monthly and yearly total values at 17 sites are also illustrated. Profiles of the global solar radiation and sunshine duration, and their coefficients of variation are illustrated for every country. (NEDO)

  5. Becoming a Lunari or Taiyo expert: learned attention to parts drives holistic processing of faces.

    Chua, Kao-Wei; Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Faces are processed holistically, but the locus of holistic processing remains unclear. We created two novel races of faces (Lunaris and Taiyos) to study how experience with face parts influences holistic processing. In Experiment 1, subjects individuated Lunaris wherein the top, bottom, or both face halves contained diagnostic information. Subjects who learned to attend to face parts exhibited no holistic processing. This suggests that individuation only leads to holistic processing when the whole face is attended. In Experiment 2, subjects individuated both Lunaris and Taiyos, with diagnostic information in complementary face halves of the two races. Holistic processing was measured with composites made of either diagnostic or nondiagnostic face parts. Holistic processing was only observed for composites made from diagnostic face parts, demonstrating that holistic processing can occur for diagnostic face parts that were never seen together. These results suggest that holistic processing is an expression of learned attention to diagnostic face parts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. On the fluctuations of density and temperature in outer space atmosphere obtained from orbital shift of TAIYO

    Kato, Yoshio; Onishi, Nobuto; Shimizu, Osamu; Enmi, Sachiko; Hirao, Kunio.

    1976-01-01

    The temperature and density in outer space atmosphere were obtained from the change of the orbital period of the artificial satellite TAIYO which was launched on February 24, 1975, from Kagoshima. An equation to calculate atmospheric density with the characteristic values of the satellite is presented in the first part together with the observed variation of the orbital elements of TAIYO. The weekly changes of temperature and density in outer space atmosphere at the altitude of 250 km, which is the perigee of the satellite, from April 1975 to May 1976 were obtained. The relations between outer space temperature and sigma KP, F10.7, and the position of the perigee were also obtained. The outer space temperature as a function of local time is presented, and it is observed that the temperature change in relation to the local time agrees with the atmospheric model, and that the ratio of maximum or minimum temperature within a day becomes nearly 1.3. It is commented that more data will be available for the further detailed analysis because TAIYO is still orbiting normally. (Aoki, K.)

  7. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of solar systems for condominiums); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shugo jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1978-06-01

    This project is aimed at technological development of economical solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply for condominiums. The major items for the FY 1977 programs include (1) designs and fabrication of equipment for a test building, (2) development of the equipment materials, and (3) system analysis. The jobs for item (1) include management of the designs and construction, placing an order for the building, and fabrication of an air conditioner expander and heat pump; those for item (2) include simplification of a condensing type and plate type heat collector structures, weather-resistance of the plate type heat collector structure, and materials for selective absorbing membranes and reflectors; and those for item (3) include estimation of heat loads in a model building, first to third floors as the test building, and fourth to 14th floors as the conventional box-shaped building. The heat collector installation area is investigated for a multistory building, for which solar radiation intensity at the heat-receiving plane and the like are taken into account. It is found that the solar system can be installed, when an area of 50m{sup 2} can be allocated to the system in each story. There is a limit to story number for the solar system to economically work for air conditioning and hot water supply. Sufficient insulation of the system and reduction in pipe length by zoning are the necessary measures against heat losses. (NEDO)

  8. Hybrid Microgrid Model based on Solar Photovoltaics with Batteries and Fuel Cells system for intermittent applications

    Patterson, Maxx

    Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home is collected for use elsewhere within the microgrid footprint. The surplus power that would have been discarded becomes a community asset, and is used to run intermittent services. In this paper, the modeled community does not have parking adjacent to each home allowing for the installment of a privately owned slower Level 2 charger, making EV ownership option untenable. A solution is to provide a Level 3 DC Quick Charger (DCQC) as the intermittent service. The addition of batteries and Fuel Cells are meant to increase load leveling, reliability, and instill limited island capability.

  9. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on graphene paper as electrodes in lithium-ion batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells

    Li, Shisheng; Yu, Wanjing; Hou, Pengxiang; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Hui-Ming [Shenyang National Laboratory of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lv, Wei; Wu, Sida; Yang, Quanhong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are grown directly on a free-standing graphene paper (GP). The desirable carrier transport ability of the VACNTs, good conductivity and mechanical properties of the GP, and strong bonding between the VACNTs and the GP endow the hybrid structure with superior performance when utilized as the electrodes of lithium-ion batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system /development of technology to manufacture solar cells/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture materials and substrates (development of technology to manufacture silicon crystal based high-quality materials and substrates)); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (silicon kesshokei kohinshitsu zairyo kiban no seizo gujutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is intended to develop thin film solar cells capable of mass production with high photo-stability and at low cost. Thus, the objective of the present research is to analyze the growth process of micro crystal silicon based thin films, the crystal being a high quality silicon crystal based material, and develop technology to manufacture high-quality micro crystal silicon thin films based on the findings therefrom. It was found that, when silicon source is available in cathode, pure hydrogen plasma forms micro crystal silicon films by using the plasma as a result of the chemical transportation effect from the silicon source. It was revealed that the crystal formation due to hydrogen plasma exposure is performed substantially by the crystals forming the films due to the chemical transportation effect, rather than crystallization in the vicinity of the surface. The crystal formation under this experiment was concluded that the formation takes place during film growth accompanied by diffusion of film forming precursors on the surface on which the film grows. According to the result obtained so far, the most important issue in the future is particularly the control of crystal growing azimuth by reducing the initially formed amorphous layer by controlling the stress in the initial phase for film formation, and by controlling the film forming precursors. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of solar systems for existing residential buildings); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1978-05-31

    As part of the research and development of the solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply for existing residential buildings, the following efforts are made: (1) system analysis, (2) studies on devices and materials, and (3) installation and operation of the facilities in test buildings, and collection of the data. For the item (1), the sensible heat type heat-accumulating tank is replaced by the latent heat type to reduce heat losses and auxiliary power requirements by improving heat-accumulating tank efficiency and revising the control procedure. For the item (2), the devices installed in the test buildings are tested to improve their performance and reliability, in which, e.g., results of operation, under commercial conditions, of the Rankine cycle refrigerator installed in the test building are taken into consideration. The empirical correlation {eta} 0.66 - 1.7{delta}T/I is obtained for instantaneous heat-collecting efficiency of a vacuum collector, made on a trial basis. Its heat loss is sufficiently small, which is in agreement with the results of the nighttime heat release tests. For the latent heat type heat-accumulating tank, stability of the materials therefor are investigated. For the Rankine cycle refrigerator, development of its parts is continued. For the item (3), the facilities are tested for around 7 months, and problems involved in each device are clarified. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1998 Report on development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power systems. International co-operative project (Information collected for IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. IEA taiyo reidanbo kyuto program ni kansuru joho shushu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The IEA/ Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHCP) committee members were dispatched to the IEA/SHCP Executive Committee and Expert Meetings, to collect information, present the reports and hold the discussions, among others. Described herein are the results. The third Expert Meeting of the IEA/SHCP Task 23 prepared the document covering the examples of solar energy use in large buildings and distributed them in Subtask A, and proposed and discussed the comprehensive performance evaluation methods and simulation-based design tools in Subtask C. The second workshop of the IEA/SHCP Task 25 discussed evaluation of the current technologies for solar assisted air conditioning, design of the solar assisted cooling systems, economic evaluation and market researches, investigations of cooling system hardware, and development of simulation programs and design tools. The examples of solar cooling are mostly found in Japan, and European countries are conducting experiments and field tests, because of lack of commercial grade freezers. (NEDO)

  13. Design of a Novel Voltage Controller for Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Clean Fuels Using the Integration of a Vanadium Redox Battery with Solar Energy

    Ting-Chia Ou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a design for a novel voltage controller (NVC which can exhibit three different reactions using the integration of a vanadium redox battery (VRB with solar energy, and uses only electrochemical potentials with optimal external bias voltage control to carry out hydrogen production and the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2 into methane and methanol. This NVC is simply constructed by using dynamic switch and control strategies with a time-variant control system. In this design, the interval voltage bias solutions obtained by the proposed NVC exhibit better voltage ranges and good agreement with the practical scenarios, which will bring significant benefits to operation for continuous reduction of CO2 into value-added clean fuels using the integration of a VRB with solar energy or any other renewable energy resource for future applications.

  14. Estimating the Size of the Renewable Energy Generators in an Isolated Solar-Biodiesel Microgrid with Lead-Acid Battery Storage

    GRAMA Alin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, fossil fuel decline, expensive power grid extensions focused the attention of scientist in developing electrical power systems that use as primary resources renewable energy generators. Romania has a high renewable energy potential and presents interest in developing renewable energy microgrids using: solar energy, wind energy, biomass Hydro, etc. The paper presents a method of estimating the size of the renewable energy generators in an isolated solar-biodiesel microgrid with lead-acid battery storage. The mathematical model is first presented and then an algorithm is developed to give an estimation of the size of the microgrid. The microgrid is installed in the region of Oradea, Romania. The results are validated through comparison with existing sizing software programs like: PV*Sol and PVSyst.

  15. Proceedings of JSES/JWEA Joint Conference (1997); Taiyo/Furyoku energy koen ronbunshu (1997)

    NONE

    1997-11-25

    The paper includes 114 papers made public in the JSES/JWEA Conference held in Toyohashi University of Technology on November 28 and 29, 1997. In the field of the photovoltaic power system, included were papers titled Photovoltaic system at Nagaoka College of Technology, Generation characteristics of photovoltaic power generation equipment at TEPCO R and D Center. As to solar cell modules, Change of photovoltaic module conversion efficiency with the environmental factors in different site, Change of environmental factors in different site which effect the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic module, etc. In relation to the solar hot water system, Investigation of the simulation for the solar DHW system by TRNSYS, etc. Concerning the hydrogen production, Experimental study of hydrogen generation by water electrolysis using solar battery, etc. About solar houses/buildings, Study on indoor pollution by microbes grown in a solar house in Tokyo, etc. Besides, papers in the following fields were included: wind power, wave power, hybrid systems, space heating/cooling and air conditioning, solar energy collection, heat pumps, etc

  16. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of photovoltaic power generation systems. (Research and development of solar cells of II-VI group compound semiconductor); 1977 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. II-VI zoku kagobutsu handotai taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at establishment of techniques for pollution-free production of II-VI group compound semiconductor type solar cells. The research items are (1) measures against aging, (2) methods for production of II-VI group compound semiconductors and for forming their joints, and (3) method for assembling solar cell devices.For the item (1), the aging tests are conducted for sintered film type CdS/CdTe solar cells. The C electrode is found to be less aged than the others. The aging tests for the CdS/Cu{sub 2}S cells indicate that it takes 10 years or longer for the performance to be halved under commercial conditions. For the item (2), the sintered film type CdS/CdTe solar cells can be produced by a mass-producible process of screen printing and belt furnace. This production method is promising for producing the solar cells at low cost. For the item (3), it is found that series resistance of the solar cell devices increases as the assembly area increases, resulting in decreased conversion efficiency. The divided structure of the CdTe layer is desired to avoid the above problem. Dividing each unit device increases intrinsic conversion efficiency, but decreases effective power generation area ratio. It is therefore necessary to improve printing precision. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of commercialization technology of the photovoltaic power system. International cooperation project (Collection of the information on the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program); 2000 nendo seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai jigyo kyoryoku (IEA taiyo reidanbo kyuto program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    By sending specialists including mostly members of the IEA (International Energy Agency)/SHCP (Solar Heating and Cooling Program) to the Executive Committee Meeting of SHCP and the Task Specialist Meeting, information was collected, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. The mission of this implementing agreement by 2004 was to positively support the creation of the future environmentally sustainable by using solar design/technology to a high degree. For it, the following were to be carried out: development of solar technology including the cost reduction through the joint research with enterprises, construction of the international market, supply of the required information, quantification of the effectiveness of solar technology for the environment, tackling with the international standardization for expansion of the use in the building sector, promotion of solar technology utilization in developing countries, etc. In this fiscal year, finished were Task 19: Solar air/heat collecting system and Task 21: Natural lighting in buildings. Activities of Tasks 22-26, which started in the previous fiscal year, were continued. Activities of Tasks 27, 28 and 29 were newly started in this fiscal year. (NEDO)

  18. Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems.

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Sanreun, Cherd

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also screened 18 of 92 houses in these 2 villages for the presence of environmental lead. The overall prevalence of EBLL (> or = 10 microg/dl) was 43.3% and the mean lead level among study subjects was 9.8 +/- 5.1 microg/dl. The blood lead levels significantly decreased with increasing age. Fifty point eight percent of children who lived in a house with vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL while 23.3% of children who lived in a house without vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of vented lead-acid batteries and EBLL, after adjusting for other variables. Forty-two point nine percent of house floor dust samples collected near the batteries had elevated lead levels, 7.1% of house floor dust samples collected from other areas in the house had elevated lead levels and 0% of the house floor dust samples collected in houses without vented lead-acid batteries had elevated lead levels. In the sampled houses with vented lead-acid batteries, lead contamination was found in the drinking-water kept in household containers, but not in the tap water or other village sources of water. Improper care and placement of vented lead-acid batteries can result in lead contamination in the home environment causing EBLL in exposed children.

  19. System for electric power generation with photovoltaic solar modules for charging the batteries of an electric wheelchair; Sistema de geracao de energia eletrica com modulos solares fotovoltaicos para o carregamento de baterias de uma cadeira de rodas eletrica

    Mesquita, Rafael Pimenta; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratinguta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: pimentamesquita@gmail.com, teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy is all kind of energy produced from a natural source that not diminish because its utilization is 'renewable'. More and more renewable energy resources are used, because they offer multiple advantages such as the energy output facility in small scale and because they are entirely compatible with the environment. The renewable energy used in this project is the photovoltaic solar energy, obtained by the direct conversion of the solar energy in electric energy through the use of solar cells, that can be of several kinds, being the most common of silicon. The main advantage of photovoltaic system is the generation of clean electric energy, or either, generates energy without emitting pollutant and without destroying the environment, moreover is an inexhaustible source of energy. The main disadvantage is, nowadays, the high cost and its low efficiency, so to continue developing it is necessary establish capable mechanisms to make it possible. The search of these mechanisms of incentive becomes-itself a lot important, because the renewable energy and not conventional do not produce a financial return to the investor properly said, but brings lots of benefits to the community, the society and to the environment. This project has the purpose of create an electric energy generation system through solar photovoltaic modules to carry batteries of a motorized wheelchair. An electric wheelchair is moved by electric motors of direct current that are feed by batteries, permitting a medium autonomy of 10 km by load. The batteries are recharged by a battery supplier. This operation should be carried out daily in a space of 6 to 8 hours. According to the Demographic Census realized in 2000 carried out by the IBGE, Brazil has around 1.416.060 physical deficient, which 861.196 are men and 554.864 are women. From a request of a user of electric wheelchair the idea of this project was shown up. The user complained that he stayed a long time carrying his seat

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1992 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research and development of high-efficiency solar cells (Research on forbidden band width optimization); 1992 nendo kokoritsu taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kinsei taifuku no saitekika no kenkyu

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    Research is carried out on technologies concerning CuInSe{sub 2} thin-film solar cell manufacturing, thin film formation, thin film characterization, CdS, (CdZn)S formation, CuInSe{sub 2} single junction, analysis of the a-Si/CuInSe{sub 2} tandem solar cell operating theory, etc. In relation with the encapsulated selenization method for film formation for CuInSe{sub 2} thin-film solar cells, film constitution, film thickness, selenization temperature, etc., are studied for optimization. In relation with the vaporized selenization method, vaporized selenization is tested in a vacuum chamber aiming at improved homogeneity and reproducibility. In research on CdS and (CdZn)S which are window layer materials for CuInSe{sub 2} thin-film solar cells, CdS thin films are formed in a solution growth method using CdSO{sub 4} and (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS. In relation with the solution growth of the (CdZn)S crystal film, control of the Zn content in the film is now practicable. In the study of a-Si/CuInSe{sub 2} tandem solar cells, an analytical program is formulated, and calculation is made concerning the impacts of CuInSe{sub 2} forbidden band width and a-Si i-layer thickness. (NEDO)

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Research on mesh-based estimation of natural energy for Southeast Asia as represented by Myanmar (Assessment of wind power and solar energy using numerical weather model); 1999 nendo Myanmar koku wo rei ni shita Tonan Asia ni okeru shizen energy no mesh suitei ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suchi kisho model ni yoru furyoku taiyo energy hyoka

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As the first step for the introduction of wind power systems and photovoltaic power systems into developing countries in Southeast Asia etc. and for their diffusion in them for the exploitation of natural energy, a numerical weather model useable in Southeast Asia is developed to make up for the insufficiency of weather data in the region. A technique is developed, to explain which the case of Myanmar is cited, for estimating with accuracy such natural conditions as wind direction, wind velocity, and solar radiation in the past one-year period for the assessment of power to be generated using wind turbines and solar panels. The results of the observation of wind conditions indicate that wind directions are mainly northerly or westerly and that wind speeds are as week as 1-3m/s on the average. As for total solar radiation per diem in December through March, it is found that there is 17-23MJ/m{sup 2}/day, which is twice the level to be measured in Tokyo. A comparison is made between the weather observation results and a model calculation, and it is found that the latter sufficiently reproduces the actual weather conditions. Based on the values of wind conditions and solar radiation estimated in Myanmar, the amount of power to be obtained from an assumed arrangement of wind power systems and solar panels is assessed. (NEDO)

  2. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on system for multiple dwelling); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shugo jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This R and D was intended to develop the following technologies for the purpose of putting into practice an innovative system that performs cooling/heating and hot-water supply for a multiple dwelling economically by solar energy: development of equipment constituting solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system, and development of a system which uses such equipment and which is inexpensive and safe as well as easy for inspection and maintenance. In fiscal 1979, a study was implemented in which emphasis was placed on the experiment of a test housing with a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system incorporated for the purpose of proving the results of the research since fiscal 1974. In the overall flow of this project, the following research contents were partially performed or being performed successively during the period of seven years. (1) Examination of various methods, (2) Development of thermally driven freezer, (3) High performance heat collecter, (4) Heat storage device, (5) Types of multiple dwelling suitable for solar energy utilization, (6) Construction of experimental multiple dwelling, (7) Experiment in houses actually in use by people, (8) Confirmation of system improvements and results on the basis of experimental measurements, and (9) Evaluation as a solar system for multiple dwelling. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for new detached houses); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. shinchiku kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    R and D was made on solar systems for new detached houses, and design and construction of the experimental house were carried out. In system analysis, assessment of solar cooling/heating systems, improvement of a simulation model based on measured data, and improvement of cooling/heating systems by simulation were conducted. In development of equipment and materials for the experimental house, R and D was made on component materials, connection method and installation method on houses for vacuum glass tube type solar collectors, and a solar collector was fabricated. R and D was also made on combination of absorbent and coolant, drop type coolant generator and performance experiment for absorption refrigerators, and a refrigerator was fabricated. The experimental house is 2-stored RC wall construction of 79.94m{sup 2} in building area, and 133.26m{sup 2} in total floor area. From the viewpoint of energy saving, outside insulation, double window, and insulating rain shutter door were adopted. The newly developed vacuum glass tube type solar collector is applicable to existing houses because of its higher flexibility. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1991 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research and development of amorphous silicon solar cells (Research on amorphous silicon interface); 1991 nendo amorphous silicon taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Amorphous silicon no kaimen no kenkyu

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The amorphous solar cell interface has been under study for the enhancement of efficiency and reliability in amorphous solar cells, and this is the compilation of the results achieved in fiscal 1991. In the effort to enhance delta-doped amorphous silicon solar cell efficiency, an amorphous Si solar cell is built using a ZnO film as the transparent conductive film. As the result, an a-Si solar cell with a conversion efficiency of 11.5% is obtained. In the research on the suppression of photodegradation in a-Si, from the viewpoint that a reduction in the amount of hydrogen contained excessively in the film will be effective in decelerating photodegradation, a photoexcited hydrogen radical treatment method is newly proposed, and basic studies are conducted on it. As the result, it is found that an a-Si film processed by a 20-second hydrogen treatment at a substrate temperature of 460 degrees C exhibits a lower photodegradation rate than an ordinary a-Si film. In the research on the deposition of amorphous Si film, a VHF frequency is used instead of 13.56MHz for plasma, and an amorphous Si film is deposited efficiently at a lower voltage at which ions cause less damage. (NEDO)

  5. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic power system commercialization technology (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Surveys and studies of peripheral key technologies/Surveys of environmentally-friendliness enhancement for next-generation solar cell development); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu chosa, Jisedai taiyodenchi kaihatsu kankyo tekioka chosa)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Though the trends of solar cell development are becoming increasingly diverse across the world, yet none has emerged to promise a stable solar cell supply in the future. Under the circumstances, studies were conducted to clarify strategies for solar cell technology development which would be well adapted to Japan's social environments, with the trends of development in the United States and European countries taken into consideration. The surveys covered the research and development and diffusion of photovoltaic power generation in the United States and European countries, and their solar cell research and development strategies and trends of development were put together. Surveys were also conducted into the research and development of unconventional types of solar cells, such as the dye-sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell, conjugate polymer solar cell, and the polymer/C{sub 60} based solar cell, and into the status of resources of materials for solar cells such as gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium, indium, selenium, and germanium. Regarding the future of photovoltaic power generation research and development, it was concluded that commercialization technology development and basic research and development should continue. Also pointed out was the importance of the enlargement of the market for photovoltaic power generation systems. (NEDO)

  6. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic power system commercialization technology (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Surveys and studies of peripheral key technologies/Surveys of environmentally-friendliness enhancement for next-generation solar cell development); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu chosa, Jisedai taiyodenchi kaihatsu kankyo tekioka chosa)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Though the trends of solar cell development are becoming increasingly diverse across the world, yet none has emerged to promise a stable solar cell supply in the future. Under the circumstances, studies were conducted to clarify strategies for solar cell technology development which would be well adapted to Japan's social environments, with the trends of development in the United States and European countries taken into consideration. The surveys covered the research and development and diffusion of photovoltaic power generation in the United States and European countries, and their solar cell research and development strategies and trends of development were put together. Surveys were also conducted into the research and development of unconventional types of solar cells, such as the dye-sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell, conjugate polymer solar cell, and the polymer/C{sub 60} based solar cell, and into the status of resources of materials for solar cells such as gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium, indium, selenium, and germanium. Regarding the future of photovoltaic power generation research and development, it was concluded that commercialization technology development and basic research and development should continue. Also pointed out was the importance of the enlargement of the market for photovoltaic power generation systems. (NEDO)

  7. Overview of photovoltaic and battery applications

    Murrell, J. D.; Hellman, Karl H.

    1989-10-01

    The use of solar cells and batteries for power generation and vehicle propulsion is examined. Issues such as energy uses and fuel sources, solar electric power, energy storage for solar photovoltaic systems, batteries for electric cars and applications for other mobile sources are also discussed.

  8. A load predictive energy management system for supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system in solar application using the Support Vector Machine

    Chia, Yen Yee; Lee, Lam Hong; Shafiabady, Niusha; Isa, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel energy management system (EMS) for supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system is implemented. • It is a load predictive EMS which is implemented using Support Vector Machine (SVM). • An optimum SVM load prediction model is obtained, which yields 100% accuracy in 0.004866 s of training time. • The implemented load predictive EMS is compared with the conventional sequential programming control. • This methodology reduces the number of power electronics used and prolong battery lifespan. - Abstract: This paper presents the use of a Support Vector Machine load predictive energy management system to control the energy flow between a solar energy source, a supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage combination and the load. The supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system is deployed in a solar energy system to improve the reliability of delivered power. The combination of batteries and supercapacitors makes use of complementary characteristic that allow the overlapping of a battery’s high energy density with a supercapacitors’ high power density. This hybrid system produces a straightforward benefit over either individual system, by taking advantage of each characteristic. When the supercapacitor caters for the instantaneous peak power which prolongs the battery lifespan, it also minimizes the system cost and ensures a greener system by reducing the number of batteries. The resulting performance is highly dependent on the energy controls implemented in the system to exploit the strengths of the energy storage devices and minimize its weaknesses. It is crucial to use energy from the supercapacitor and therefore minimize jeopardizing the power system reliability especially when there is a sudden peak power demand. This study has been divided into two stages. The first stage is to obtain the optimum SVM load prediction model, and the second stage carries out the performance comparison of the proposed SVM-load predictive

  9. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Research and development of elemental technologies for thin-type solar cells; Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Usugata takessho taiyo denchi jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka

    Sekikawa, T; Shimokawa, R; Yui, N; Takato, H; Takahashi, T; Ishii, K; Suzuki, E; Nagai, K; Kawanami, H; Tanimoto, J; Sakuta, H; Iwata, Y; Saito, N; Koyama, K; Sawada, S [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for analysis and evaluation for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells. In order to analyze the structures of the grain boundaries in and interfaces with the cell substrate, and their effects on electrical activity, the photoluminescence (PL) measurement which enables spectroscopic analysis is applied to electromagnetically cast Si crystals. There are good correlations among PL luminous intensity, MBIC output and dislocation density for the grain boundary which contains many strains and serves as the dislocation source, because carriers in such a grain boundary easily disappear to reduce its luminous intensity at the band ends. Concrete scenarios for realizing thin-film silicon solar cells of high efficiency are presented, based on the analysis of the light-contained thin-film silicon solar cells of high output current, made in the previous year on a trial basis. An alumina substrate of high reflectivity is produced by the experiments of combining various devices. It is expected to realize high output current for the thin-film solar cells. 3 figs.

  10. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for extra-high efficiency solar cells (research on new concentrator modules); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu no tame no kaiseki hyoka (shingata shuko module)

    Tanimoto, J; Sakuta, K; Sawada, S; Yaoita, A [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for analysis and evaluation of concentrator modules for extra-high efficiency solar cells. The outdoor exposure tests have been under way for 3 years for fluorescent plates, as part of the research program for development of materials and elementary techniques, and essentially no degradation has been observed by the perylene pigment test. Coupling of the fluorescent concentrator and solar cell units is investigated for the coupling position and method, to theoretically analyze geometrical coupling efficiency, where they are coupled at the bottom faces in consideration of easiness of module fabrication. It is demonstrated that a high coupling efficiency can be realized when the cell is sufficiently wide relative to thickness of the fluorescent plate. The coupling method is experimentally examined using transparent silicon gel. A prototype module having the same size as the commercial module (420mm by 960mm) is made on a trial basis, where a total of nine 20mm-thick cells are cut out of a single-crystalline silicon solar cell, 100mm by 100mm in size, and are connected to concentrators at the bottom faces. It shows 2.3 times increased output by the test using a large-area solar simulator. 2 figs.

  11. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for apartment houses); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shugo jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system for apartment houses. In the system research, comparative study was made on facility costs and operation costs per heat load between previous and solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for apartment houses. In the working design for apartment houses, various calculation necessary for start of work, and preparation of detail drawings and specifications were made. In development of solar collector, the test loop and collector were prepared using full-scale collector elements for medium-scale performance tests. In development of heat accumulator, inorganic hydrate was selected as heat storage material using latent heat for the confirmation test of basic physical properties. In development of solar cooling/heating equipment, the confirmation test of Rankine engine's performance, controllability and durability was made under real load. In addition, the refrigerator of nearly 20 tons of refrigeration driven by Rankine engine was fabricated, (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on photovoltaic power generation system (R and D on 2-6 group compound semiconductor solar cells); 1974 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2-6 zoku kagobutsu handotai taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1975-05-31

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1974 research result on 2- 6 group compound semiconductor solar cells. To obtain a probability of the technology for producing photovoltaic power generation systems at a cost less than 1/100 of those by current technology, this research aims at establishment of the pollution-free production technology of the titled solar cells, and development of an innovative photovoltaic power generation system using such solar cells. The research is composed of (1) study on deterioration mechanism, (2) measures against pollution, and (3) basic study on the production system of such semiconductors. In the 1st research, the analysis result showed that deterioration under solar radiation or by short circuit is derived from an increase in resistance around a positive electrode and a decrease around a junction caused by change in Cu{sub 2}S composition due to migration of Cu ions in a Cu{sub 2}S layer by photo current. In the 2nd research, study was made on preventive technology of Cd pollution. In the 3rd research, basic study was made on the production systems of semiconductors such as sintering, chemical separating and vapor-phase growth for cost reduction. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for new detached houses); 1994 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shinchiku kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 result on the solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system. The report includes the system analysis result (collection of existing technical data, analysis of weather conditions, profitability assessment, concept design of the primary experimental house), and the research result on equipment and materials (view and evaluation of existing technologies, selective transparent and absorption materials, the primary prototype solar heat collector model, refrigerator). As the study result, the spheroidal experimental house was adopted. The solar heat utilization system is a central air-conditioning equipment composed of heating by hot water obtained from the solar heat collector, and cooling by absorption refrigerator. Heat collection efficiencies were measured for (1) stainless steel substrate collector, (2) copper substrate collector, and (3) glass pipe collector prepared as prototype collectors. (2) was higher in heat collection efficiency than (1). The efficiency of (3) hardly increased by rise in heat collection temperature due to vacuum structure and selective absorption membrane. Further measurement of such characteristics is necessary at higher temperatures. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey and research on practical application - Volume 1); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsauden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - 1)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A 'Sub-committee for investigation of crystalline compound semiconductor solar cells' was established with the participation of experts from the industrial, bureaucratic, and academic circles to support the manufacture of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cells, and a survey was conducted about technical trends relating to III-V group compound solar cells. In the study of the trends and tasks of the state of the art technology, it is stated that the III-V group compound semiconductor multi-junction solar cell was steadily improving in efficiency, that the InGaP/GaAs 2-junction cell on a Ge substrate and InGaP/GaAs/Ge 3-junction cell in particular were moving toward mass production, and that the target for the 4-junction cell to achieve was 40% or higher in efficiency. For cost reduction, investigations were made into the heteroepitaxial technology, dimensional enlargement, mass production, raw material cost reduction, feasibility of the polycrystalline thin-film technology, light concentration, etc. For efficiency improvement, boundary layer control, structure designs, etc., were studied. Investigations were also conducted into nitride semiconductors, superlattice construction, etc., which related to new materials for thin films. TPV (thermophotovoltaic) power, etc., were reviewed for their practical application. (NEDO)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on the development of silicon manufacturing process rationalizing energy utilization. Research and study on analysis to put silicon raw material manufacturing technology for solar cells into practical use; 1999 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchi silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In order to support the development and practical application of a mass production technology for manufacturing silicon raw materials for solar cells, research and study were performed on trends of developing the related technologies, and movements in markets and industries. This paper reports the achievements thereof in fiscal 1999. Markets for solar cells are growing favorably, and the worldwide solar cell production in 1999 was 200 MWp, of which 80% or more is occupied by crystalline silicon solar cell. While development of the manufacturing technology for SOG-Si mass-production is in the stage of operation research of pilot plants, it has been verified that problems of impurity contamination was resolved, and high-purity silicon can be manufactured. In developing the silicon scrap utilization technology and a technology to integrate silicon refinement with casting, a conversion efficiency of 14% or higher was acquired in prototype sample substrates. It has been verified that a variety of raw materials can be dealt with by using the above technology, which has a possibility of cost reduction. In developing a substrate manufacturing technology, a great progress has been made in enhancing the productivity and reducing the cost by developing the continuous casting in the electromagnetic casting and the automation technology. (NEDO)

  16. Button batteries

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries

    for Solar Power Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries

  18. Rapid prototyping of solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, sugar-cube size microplasma on hybrid, 3D chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer

    Zhang, X.; Karanassios, V.

    2012-06-01

    A solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting microplasma the size of a sugar-cube developed on a hybrid, 3d-chip is described. Rapid prototyping of the 3d-chip; some fundamental aspects and a brief characterization of its background spectral emission using a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer are discussed.

  19. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Anto, Budhi; Hamdani, Edy; Abdullah, Rizki

    2014-01-01

    A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power ...

  20. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  1. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    Huang, B.J.; Hsu, P.C.; Wu, M.S.; Ho, P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    . This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first

  2. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on glass system materials); 1974 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Glass kei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1975-05-26

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 research result on glass system materials of plane collectors for solar cooling/heating. A barrel lens type collector was poorer in efficiency than conventional ones. A one-directional Fresnel lens type one was promising for improvement of solar radiation collection. The prototype In{sub 2}O{sub 3} selective transmission cover glass was prepared by vacuum deposition. Although selective characteristics including a solar transmissivity of 74% and an IR reflectance of 75-80% were obtained, further improvement of more than 10% is necessary. The evaluation results of some collectors are as follows. A vacuum type is poor because of its low efficiency and necessary vacuum sealing. A multi-layer type shows unsatisfactory performance at some temperatures. A glass honeycomb type is most likely because of its uppermost collection efficiency, however, development of production technology of heat-resistant honeycombs and its profitability remain to be solved. A deformed multi-layer type is practical because of its high efficiency, simple structure and low cost. Further improvement of the transmissivity and IR reflectance of cover glass by more than 10% is necessary. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for apartment houses); 1974 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shugo jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1975-05-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 R and D result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for apartment houses. In system analysis, the system plan was selected through basic data survey, modeling by combining some kinds of such systems and energy flow calculation. On solar heat collector, theoretical analysis was made on a stationary plane collector, and study was made on cover glass material and absorption surface performances. On Rankine's engine, studies on advanced selective absorption film, transmissive film, prevention of heat radiation and converging collector were necessary. As solar heat driving refrigerators, absorptive one and Rankine's one were promising. As heat media for refrigerators, R-11 and 113, and R-114 and 11 were suitable for turbo one and displacement one, respectively. Since a displacement compressor is featured by high-efficiency lower-speed operation than that of turbo one without any constraint, its direct connection with a motor or generator is possible. Screw compressor belonging to displacement one was promising. Rotary displacement one was also promising in a small-capacity range within 20-50RT. (NEDO)

  4. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999. Development of energy usage rationalizing silicon manufacturing process (Development of manufacturing technology for mass production of silicon for solar cells); 1999 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchiyo silicon ryosanka seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Discussions were given on manufacture of raw material silicon for solar cells with regard to boron removal, solidification, finishing and refining of metallic impurities, refining of unutilized silicon scraps, and making them into wafers and solar cells after refining. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. With regard to purity deterioration due to contamination by boron containing silica powder generated during the boron removal in the manufacturing process, the facilities were modified resulting in the reduction thereof to 0.04 ppmw or less. Regarding the repetitive use of boron removing crucibles, the experiment identified the possibility of using them for more than three times. In trial fabrication of samples by using the solidification refining and cast integrated process, ingots of 550 mm square and about 300 mm high were obtained, which were sliced into 10-cm square materials for use as wafers. Measurement of the conversion efficiency has resulted in 13% or more which is almost equivalent in the center and edges of the ingot. It was revealed that solar cell wafers may be fabricated by using this process, which can use either the p-type low-resistance silicon scraps or the metallic silicon as the starting material. (NEDO)

  5. Development in fiscal 1998 of silicon manufacturing process to rationalize energy usage. Surveys and researches on analysis of practical application of technology to manufacture silicon raw materials for solar cells; 1998 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchi silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to develop a mass production technology to manufacture silicon raw materials for solar cells, and assist its practical application, surveys and analyses were performed on trends in development of the related technologies, the problems therein , market trends and industrial trends thereof. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1998. The worldwide production amount of solar cells in 1998 is estimated to have achieved 150 MW, and the silicon consumption reached the level of 2,300 tons. In spite of the economic recession environment, there was no change in the expansion trend. In developing an SOG-Si mass production and manufacturing technology, construction of pilot plants for each process has been completed, and entered into the operation research phase. In developing a technology to manufacture high quality poly-crystalline silicon substrates, fabrication has been completed on the on-line ingot cutting equipment and the plasma heating equipment, and the stage is now in operation research of continuous electromagnetic casting process. The conversion efficiency of the poly-crystalline silicon solar cells is 14 to 16% at the mass production level, whose enhancement requires indispensably the improvement in quality of the substrate. Discussions are required on the ingot manufacturing conditions in coordination with improvement in the cell manufacturing technology. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report on Sunshine Program research and development for fiscal 1981. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Optical research of electronic state in amorphous silicon); 1981 nendo amorphous silicon no denshi jotai no kagakuteki kenkyu seika hokokusho. Amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The basic physical properties of glow discharge-decomposed amorphous silicon film are studied. The performance of an a-Si p-i-n (amorphous silicon positive-intrinsic-negative) junction solar cell is found to be greatly affected by the binding of carriers along the p-i or i-n interface. A new concept is introduced, which is useful in the study of the photo-produced carrier collection process. The distance between the plasma excitation center and the substrate and the intensity of the electric field just above the substrate are changed systematically for the evaluation of film quality and for the study of film formation mechanism. It is found that plasma excitation as a mechanism of film deposition, the transportation of excited seeds to the substrate, and the incorporation of film constituting atoms into the film are important. A high-speed ion beam technique is used for the analysis of impurities. In the case of a-Si or a-SiC deposition by glow discharge decomposition, metallic Sn or In is deposited along the interface and diffused into the deposited film. The diffusion is closely related to the performance of solar cells, and a 2-layer structure incorporating the merits of both ITO (indium-tin oxide) and SnO{sub 2} films is found suitable for this purpose. Using an a-SiC:H/a-Si:H heterojunction solar cell, a conversion efficiency of 8.04% is achieved. (NEDO)

  7. Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Survey on the high-durability and low-cost materials for constructing the solar-cell module and its structure; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system no kenkyu. Taiyo denchi module yo kotaikyusei tei cost zairyo, kozo ni kansuru chosa

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the results obtained during fiscal 1994 on a survey on the high-durability and low-cost materials for constructing the solar-cell module and on its structure. With respect to forms and materials used in the present solar-cell modules, identification was made on the current status of products commercially available and developed inside and outside Japan. Main types of solar cells used for electric power are of crystal-based silicon. Amorphous silicon and CdS-CdTe are used for consumer applications of indoor and outdoor use. As regards transparent resin materials, fluorine resin, PET, acryl, and polyimide are used as surface materials, and EVA, silicon and PVB are often used as fillers. Developments inside and outside Japan are limited to systems of polycarbonate, methacryl, fluorine, polyurethane, acryl and polyester. Butyl rubber and polyurethane are used as sealing materials. Developments are being performed on silicon rubber, polychloroprene rubber and EPT rubber for shaped materials, and silicon systems, urethane systems and polysulfide systems for non-shaped materials. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Tandem type solar cells are developed, in which solar cells with different band gaps are stacked for effectively utilizing optical energy across the entire range of solar spectrum. A material gas supply control device for multiple epitaxial growth was added to a large-area GaAs film epitaxial growth unit, and a film thickness homogeneity of {+-}1% was achieved. A GaInP epitaxial layer fabricated in the same way was also enhanced in homogeneity. A low-carrier concentration layer was inserted into the top cell GaInP p-n junction for the construction of a p-i-n structure, and this improved on the short-circuit current. Furthermore, a p-p-i-n structure was constructed having two emitter layers, and this improved on spectral sensitivity for the achievement of a conversion efficiency of 13.6%. Studies were conducted about the tunnel junction which plays an important role in the stacking of cells, and the tunnel peak current was increased to 7.41A/cm{sup 2}. Fabrication is now under way of a GaInP/GaAs stacked cell, which is expected to exhibit a conversion efficiency of 25% or higher. In the case of a GaInAs cell to serve as the bottom cell, a conversion efficiency of 5.1% was achieved. Consequently, it is safely expected that a 3-junction stack of GaInP/GaAs//GaInAs will exhibit a conversion efficiency of 30% or higher. (NEDO)

  9. Research on PV system application on residences. Part 1. Report on the systems and PV measurement results of an experimental passive solar house; Taiyoko hatsuden system no jutaku eno oyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Taisho tatemono taiyo to taiyoko hatsuden system keisoku kekka

    Ishihara, O.; Sakai, K.; Hirakawa, M. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    System of the house is outlined, and warming performance and photovoltaic power generation system energy performance are taken up. It is a one-storied meeting hall situated in an apartment area, whose heat loss factor is 2.59kcal/m2hdegC. Ninety hybrid solar cells provided with circulating air heat collectors are installed on the east-side of the roof, interconnected to the commercial power system. In the daytime in summer, the house is fully insulated from solar radiation, with the room temperature kept a little lower than the open air temperature. The range of daily change in the room temperature is narrow, providing a comfortable residential space. When the windows are opened in the evening, cool air comes into the room to replace the warm air inside, reducing the difference in temperature between the inside and outside of the room. In winter, insolation time is short on the east side of the roof which finds itself out of the sun. Under the circumstances, the system outputs but a little and the quantity sold is quite small in winter. But, in summer, sale of power can be practicable, thanks to exposure to sufficient sunshine. The inverter rated at 3.5kW attains a 90% or higher operating rate in the presence of an input of power of 0.5kW or more. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on metal system materials); 1974 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kinzokukei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 research result on metal system materials for solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems. Study was made on cathodic protection of a roll bond heat collection board promising as Al plane collector. The protection is dependent on sacrificial anode materials. Al-Zn system alloy including minute amounts of In and Sn was effective in protection by transferring natural electrode potential to a base side largely, however, excess addition of In and Sn increased self-corrosion, remaining some issues to be solved. The prototype water flow corrosion test equipment was prepared for corrosion analysis of an Al roll bond collector natural circulation hot water supplier. Preliminary study was made to give selective absorption power (large short-wave absorption and small long-wave radiation from collector surfaces) to a collector. Deposition of Cu, Ni, Co and Sn oxides as black semiconductors into Al anodic oxidation film porous layers by secondary electrolysis was invalid as well as a painting method. Glossy Ni plating onto Al and black Cr and Ni plating onto the surface more elevated solar exposure surface temperature by more than 20% than black painting. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on photovoltaic power generation system (R and D on 2-6 group compound semiconductor solar cells); 1976 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2-6 zoku kagobutsu handotai taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1977-03-31

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on 2-6 group compound semiconductor solar cells for photovoltaic power generation systems. The research aims at the system less than 1/100 in cost. Vapor deposition resulted in failure to obtain high-efficiency cells. Vapor-phase growth revealed Cd-Te single-crystal solar cell is promising, however, resulted in failure to obtain high-efficiency thin film elements. Both chemical deposition and sintering succeeded in mass production of prototype high-efficiency elements equal in performance. However, since chemically deposited CdS film is too thin having higher serial resistance, it requires In{sub 2}O{sub 3} auxiliary transmissive electrodes on glass substrates. Since CdTe film and CdS film also require completely different vapor deposition processes in hetero- junction, chemical deposition is more disadvantageous in cost than sintering. CdTe thin film fabricated by screen printing/sintering is most promising. Since Cd is harmful to human bodies, study was made on pollution preventive measures in its production or use stage, and accidents or fires, obtaining some results. (NEDO)

  12. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on system for large-sized building); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1980-03-31

    In fiscal 1977, studies were carried out jointly with a research group assigned by the Government Research Institute using a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system for a large-sized building (i.e., various devices such as a heat collecting device, heat storing device, refrigerator, etc., and their attached equipment, hereinafter the 'test equipment'), a system installed in the building of the energy technology section, Department of engineering, Oita University. The studies were as follows. (1) Meteorological observation was conducted concerning meteorological items such as insolation, temperature, wind direction and wind velocity which were necessary for the operation and evaluation of the test equipment. (2) The test equipment was operated by the Oita University technical assistants in cooperation with the research group so that R and D was smoothly carried out for the practicability of an innovative system, in which cooling/heating and hot-water supply for a large-sized building were economically performed by the solar energy using the test equipment; and also, maintenance and management for the overall facilities were carried out within a pre-determined range. (3) Temperature, wind velocity, etc., around the heat collecting device were continuously measured in the winter time for preventive measures against freezing, with the data accumulated. The facilities consisted of 40 units of 2 m x 7.5 m large heat collecting device, 30USRT absorption refrigerating machine, and 45 m{sup 3} heat storage tank. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Research and development of photovoltaic system evaluation technology (Research, development, and survey of crystalline solar cell evaluation system); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system hyoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (kesshokei taiyo denchi hyoka system no kenkyu kaihatsu chosa)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In the basic study of ultrahigh-efficiency cells, the technology of ribbon crystal growing is again attracting attention for shortage of Si material supply. The new technology and problems to solve for cost reduction for it are discussed. Concerning the bulk type crystalline Si which is a core material, recent trends are mentioned involving studies of basic substrate properties such as the photoabsorption coefficient and crystal defects for achieving higher efficiency, development of gettering and surface passivation technologies, enhancement of processing speeds, radiation concentration behavior, etc. Newly obtained findings about photodegradation are mentioned, and some remedial measures are described. Recent reports on the application of porous Si to solar cells are compiled. In connection with the development of low-cost quantity-production process technologies, a remarkable progress recently marked by polycrystalline Si solar cells is described. Furthermore, it is stated that new process technologies will be required in the fields of material refining, substrate manufacturing, and cell fabrication. A proposition is presented aiming at developing cell modules compatible with application systems and practicalizing modules that may be integrated with roofing materials. Reference is also made to surveys overseas. (NEDO)

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Research on amorphous silicon interface); 1984 nendo amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Amorphous silicon no kaimen no kenkyu

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    As for the formation of amorphous semiconductors by photo-CVD (chemical vapor deposition) processes, details are examined of a-Si formed by the excimer laser-excited photo-CVD process, a-SiC formed by the directly excited photo-CVD process, a-SiGe formed by the mercury sensitized reaction photo-CVD process, and {mu}c-Si formed by the mercury-sensitized reaction photo-CVD process. It is then found that all of the said materials are superior to a product of the plasma CVD process in terms of film quality. As for the fabrication of amorphous Si solar cells by a photo-CVD process, a 3-separate-chamber unit is built, in which all the p-, I-, and n-layer are formed by photo-CVD. It is then found that the introduction of a buffer layer into the p/I interface is a powerful tool to enhance efficiency and that the use of the buffer zone brings about an increase of 9% or more in conversion efficiency. In the case of an amorphous solar cell using monosilane, buffer layer introduction results in a conversion efficiency of 9.05%. (NEDO)

  15. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on system for large-sized building); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    Equipment was developed constituting a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system, as was the system using such equipment as well as being safe and easy to carry out inspection and maintenance, with the purpose of putting into practice an innovative system capable of cooling/heating and hot-water supply for a large-sized building economically by means of solar energy. An analysis was conducted on the test result in an experimental system having a practical size, with the effect confirmed of the improvement work of fiscal 1978. An inspection was made for the cause of piping corrosion, as were the examination and proposal for anti-corrosion measures. Heat and weather resistance tests were carried out on selective absorption films and a convection preventive structure. A selective absorption film processing was performed on a heat collecting plate for a large heat-collecting device, with a durability test conducted for the device by assembling the film in it. A test equipment was designed and manufactured for a latent heat type heat-collecting system of a practical size, performing various experiments and an automatically controlled operation. Displayed in the test by the practical size experiment system (in the Oita University laboratory) were the cooling/heating operation mode, summary of a whole day operation, daily fluctuation of electrical power and kerosene consumption, and a graph of accumulating totals. A long-term/short-term instrumentation analysis were also performed. (NEDO)

  16. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on system for newly built private housing); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinchiku kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This report is for the results of fiscal 1979 on a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system for newly-built private housing. The research reports for fiscal 1974 to 1978 are as reported so far; for example, the research on energy-saving construction including thermal insulation method was used in an experimental housing completed in fiscal 1976. The solar heat collecting device was built in the experimental housing by increasing the scale of and utilizing the heat collecting device of a vacuum glass tube type on which research was done before fiscal 1975. The absorption refrigerating machine incorporated in the housing was of a forced circulation type which was high in temperature stability using the result of the research carried out until then. In fiscal 1979, as in fiscal 1978, one year residential experiment was conducted in which a family of a couple and two children lived in a house under an improved system as a result of a system variation and the like, and made an evaluation on the performance. Simultaneously, a control management system was developed in which a micro-computer was introduced for the purpose of improving the system performance, with the operation carried out under the micro-computer control. In addition, a fundamental experiment was also completed concerning a long-term heat accumulation by underground heat reserve. (NEDO)

  17. Achievement Report for fiscal 1997 on developing a silicon manufacturing process with reduced energy consumption. Development of silicon mass-production manufacturing technology for solar cells; 1997 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu. Taiyo denchiyo silicon ryosanka seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In order to manufacture silicon for solar cells, development is intended on a technology to manufacture silicon (SOG-Si) for solar cells by means of metallurgical methods using metallic silicon with purity generally available as an interim starting material. The silicon is required of p-type electric conductivity characteristics with specific resistance of 0.5 to 1.5 ohm per cm, to be sufficient even with 6-7N as compared to silicon for semiconductors (11-N), and to be low in cost. While the NEDO fluid bed process and the metallurgical NEDO direct reduction process have been developed based on the technology to manufacture silicon for semiconductors, the basic policy was established to develop a new manufacturing method using commercially available high-purity metallic silicon as an interim starting material, with an objective to achieve cost as low as capable of responding to small-quantity phase production for proliferation purpose. Removal of boron and phosphor has been the main issue in the development, whereas SOG-Si was manufactured in a laboratory scale by combining with the conventional component technologies in fiscal 1991 and 1992. The scale was expanded to 20 kg since fiscal 1993, and a five year plan starting fiscal 1996 was decided to develop the technology for industrial scale. Fiscal 1997 has promoted the development by using the 20-kg scale device, and introduced facilities to develop technology for mass-production scale. (NEDO)

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on developing a silicon manufacturing process with reduced energy consumption. Investigation and research on analyzing practical application of a technology to manufacture solar cell silicon raw materials; 1997 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu. Taiyo denchi silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the achievement in fiscal 1997 of analyzing practical application of a technology to manufacture solar cell silicon raw materials. Silicon consumption for solar cells in fiscal 1997 has increased to 2000-ton level, and the supply has been very tight. For drastic improvement in the demand and supply situation, development of SOG-Si manufacturing technology and its early practical application are desired. The development of the NEDO mass-production technology using melting and refining has completed constructing the process facilities in fiscal 1998, and will enter the stage of operational research. However, insufficiency in the basic data about behavior of impurities is inhibiting the development. In the substrate manufacturing technology, discussions have shown progress on use of diversifying silicons outside the standard by using the electromagnetic casting process. For slicing and processing the substrates, development of a high-performance slicing equipment and automatic rough rinsing machine is under way. Properties required on silicon raw materials vary considerably widely because of difference in cell making systems and conditions, which is attributable to unknown impurity behavior. When 1GW production is assumed, the cell module manufacturing cost is calculated as 137 yen/W, for which low-cost mass production for its realization, slicing productivity enhancement, and cost reduction are required. The paper also describes site surveys in overseas countries. (NEDO)

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research and development of photovoltaic power system (Research and development of amorphous solar cells - Research on defect density in amorphous silicon); 1984 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu (amorphous silicon no kekkan mitsudo no kenkyu)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    For the development of high-efficiency, large-area, long-life, and low-cost solar cells, research is conducted on new methods of film formation and defect evaluation. Concerning the kinetics of Si thin film, a radical beam deposition method is proposed as a new low-temperature thin film growth method. Using the new method, a {mu}c-Si film is manufactured, through only a purely radical substrate surface reaction of chemically active, electrically neutral excited species. In research on the amorphous semiconductor superlattice, a new study is conducted on a multilayer, cyclic-structure superlattice consisting of thin films of a-Si:H and a-Si{sub 1-x}N{sub x}:H. In the research on an a-Si:H film formed by the direct photo-CVD (chemical vapor deposition) of disilane, the unit is improved and B and P are successfully doped by means of decompressed photo-CVD. In the evaluation of new materials for solar cells, research is conducted on the after-annealing characteristics of a-Si:H grown at a high speed, electrical characteristics of post-hydrogenated low boron-doped CVD a-Si, and microcrystalline SiGe alloys made by the spattering plasma CVD method. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of systems for large buildings); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at development of (1) devices for solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply, and (2) low-cost, safe systems incorporating the above devices, which are easily inspected and maintained, in which optimum buildings for effective utilization of solar energy are also investigated. Precision of the system analysis is improved by feeding back the results obtained by the basic studies conducted so far into the simulation. The technical supports for commercialization of heat collectors, refrigerators, heat-storage tanks and radiation type ceilings are also obtained. These results are combined for the designs of a real-size test building. In this year, works to install the facilities in the Oita University's test building are completed. These facilities include 40 units of large-size heat collectors (each approximately 2 m by 7.5 m in size); an absorption refrigerator of 30 uSRT in which single- and double-effect systems are combined; 2 piston-flow type heat-storage tanks, each 45 m{sup 3} in capacity; and others including analyzer, associated piping, duct, instrumentation and electrical systems. The test runs are conducted for the control systems, and long- and short-term instrumentation systems to draw the test schedules for optimizing the full-scale runs to be conducted in the next year. The operating and instrumentation manuals, and operating schedules are also drawn. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on synthetic resin system materials); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Gosei jushikei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on synthetic resin system materials for solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems. In fiscal 1976, study was made on evaluation of the practical performance of photo-selective transmissive films, photo-selective absorptive films, reflective films and collector materials. In the study on photo-selective transmissive films, study was mainly promoted on indium oxide film, and a solar radiation transmissivity of 78% and an IR reflectance of 78% were obtained at 4000(angstrom)/min in deposition rate by reactive sputtering under the existence of oxygen gas mixture. In the study on photo-selective absorptive films, study was made on conditions for the basic prescription of paints for semiconductor dispersing coated films. The exposure test result of CuO and CuO-MnO{sub 2} system materials showed excellent heat resistances with less change in optical property after 720h at 140 degreesC and 350h at 180 degreesC. In the study on reflective films, evaluation was made on the durability of reflective films obtained by vacuum deposition of Ag and Al onto synthetic resin films through outdoor exposure. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for large buildings); 1974 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    Large buildings such as government office building, private office building and gymnasium are consuming a huge amount of fossil fuel as energy for cooling/heating and hot water supply. The final target of this project is a use of solar heat as energy for such systems in place of fossil fuel. The fiscal 1974 target of this project is as follows. The main part of the computation program was developed for system analysis on the whole thermal system composed of building structure, thermal load, and cooling and heating equipment. The small experimental thermal equipment and artificial light source were prepared to clarify the mechanism of solar heat collectors experimentally. As the first step of innovative refrigerator development, the small trial experimental equipment was prepared to clarify heat transfer characteristics for coolant recycling, and to develop an ideal structure heat exchanger possible to reduce the temperature difference between heating medium and heated liquid. Prior to development of a heat storage equipment, basic study was made on heat storage materials, heat insulation methods and characteristics of heat storage tanks. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on metal system materials); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kinzokukei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on high-efficiency high-durability inexpensive metallic collectors, equipment and materials for solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems. In the study on metal materials for heat collector plates, corrosion-proofing experiment was made on Al-Zn, Al-Zn-In and Al-Zn-Fe-In alloys treated by bainite under 7 kinds of environmental conditions, resulting in no formation of any through hole. Study was also made on water flow corrosion test of A1100 material, and water- corrosion retardant for Al. In the study on selective absorption films, study was made on secondary electrochemically coated film and vacuum deposition film. Fabrication, test operation and preliminary experiment were made on the large secondary electrolysis facility for full- scale solar panels. The selective absorptivity of secondary electrochemically coated films was a maximum of 0.95 in absorptivity and 0.10 in emissivity, showing the favorable selective absorptivity of both Ni and Co. The durability test result showed favorable heat resistance, light resistance and moisture resistance. (NEDO)

  4. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on metallic materials ); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kinzokukei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1980-03-31

    The following technologies were developed for the purpose of materializing various methods of a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system using aluminum and other metallic materials: (1) research on improving corrosion resistance of metallic materials for a heat collector plate and (2) research on a selective absorbing film. The results in fiscal 1979 were as follows. (1) A practicality running test for a solar panel, which started in fiscal 1977, was continuously carried out at eight places in the nation. After approximately two years and a half passed, each panel was cut open and analyzed. As a result, despite a difference in the degree of corrosion by the regions, an Al-Zn-Fe-In alloy had a larger corrosion area than two other alloys, but the corrosion depth was shallower, with the corrosion remained only in the clad layer, which seemed to eliminate the fear that it might grow to be a through-hole for the time being. This research was completed. (2) Research for the selective absorbing film was carried out in fiscal 1979 on a chrome black membrane by a high frequency excited ion plating method and on a carbide and nitride membranes. In addition, a durability test and an Auger analysis were performed for a titanium nitride selective absorbing film that was obtained by a DC bipolar reactive ion plating method. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of glass-based materials); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Glass kei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1978-05-01

    This project is aimed at development of the following collector techniques for various types of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply: (1) selective transmission glass, (2) reflection-preventive glass, (3) glass-based selective absorption film, and (4) high-performance collector. For the item (1), the STG coated with a reflection-preventive film of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and that with MgF{sub 2} attain the target performance, and high-speed sputtering is investigated for development of the mass production techniques and promising results are produced. For the item (2), formation of a uniform reflection-preventive film on the glass's front surface and improvement of the reproducibility are investigated, and promising results are produced. For the item (3), a selective absorption plane having a solar radiation absorptivity of 0.90 or more and infrared emissivity of 0.30 or less is produced by baking a SnO{sub 2} film on a soft steel plate undercoated with a black glaze as the glass-based film. For the item (4), a total of 4 types of collectors are fabricated on a trial basis and tested for their heat-collecting performance; a honeycomb type with the selective absorption film, modified laminated type with changed pipe arrangement, one using a large-size reflection-preventive glass, and another one with changed method for supporting the heat-collecting plate. Attainable performance level of the flat plate type collector for commercial purposes is estimated, and the specifications of the commercial collector as the research target are determined. (NEDO)

  6. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on system for existing private house); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1980-05-31

    The following technologies were developed for the purpose of putting into practice an innovative system that performs cooling/heating and hot-water supply for an existing private house economically by solar energy: (1) development of equipment constituting solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system, and (2) development of a system which uses such equipment and which is inexpensive and safe as well as easy for inspection and maintenance. The results of the research were as follows. A latent heat type heat storage tank was developed in a small low-loss type in which ammonium alum was selected for a high temperature heat storage tank and in which NaCH{sub 3}COO(center dot)3H{sub 2}O were selected for a combination latent heat/cold water heat storage tank. A refrigerator was developed driven by a small Rankine cycle engine of a result coefficient of 0.47. A flat plate type heat collecting device was developed in a type having a BrNi selective absorbing film and materials of copper tube, aluminum plate and double glass. A vacuum heat collecting device was developed in a high efficient type with the outside dimension of {phi} (diameter) 70 x 1,270 mm, selective absorbing film BrNi, and a degree of vacuum of 10{sup -3}Torr. A heat receiving/releasing storm shutter was developed in a type using a latent heat storing material of paraffin wax. A heat absorbing/insulating outside wall panel was developed using FRP and aluminum as the materials. The system analysis also achieved success. (NEDO)

  7. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shingata amorufasu taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for the development of amorphous solar cell modules for power generation, high in performance and low in production cost. In the effort to develop high-performance solar cells, optimum device designs including an advanced light confinement structure or the like were studied, and a 25% reduction in the total power generation layer thickness and a 7% increase in efficiency in power generation were consistently achieved in an a-Si/a-SiGe solar cell. In the effort to develop low-cost process technologies, as the result of studies involving the optimization of high-speed film fabrication requirements such as hydrogen dilution and a high-speed/high-precision patterning method and the like, an initial conversion efficiency of 11.2% was attained, which was the world high for a 90 cm times 90 cm-large a-Si/a-SiGe solar cell. This being equivalent to a post-stabilization efficiency of 10%, the fiscal 2000 target was achieved. A solar cell module production cost assessment was performed based on the result, and a module cost of 133 yen/W (in case of 100 MW/year production) was realized, which again meant the achievement of the fiscal 2000 target. (NEDO)

  8. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use - Development of solar beam power generation and utilization systems and ancillary technologies (Research and development of new building material integrated solar cell modules - investigation and research on analysis of practical application); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shinkenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi module no kenkyu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu))

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to promote the research to put new building material integrated solar cell modules into practical use, the following items were investigated: (1) functions and specifications for harmonizing with buildings, (2) new module materials that can respond to building materials, (3) marketability, (4) standardization of the assessment methods, (5) consistency with relevant legislation and related institutions, (6) effects on environment as building materials, and (7) investigation on technological trends inside and outside the country. In Item (1), the significance of developing the new building material integrated solar cell modules was made clear. In Item (2), the performance requirements on the currently used module materials were put into order. In Item (3), the market size was investigated, and assignments to establishing the market were put into order, such as the distribution and construction institutions, and assistance to the system introduction. In Item (4), standardization and unification of the assessment methods were discussed, and the items to be standardized were extracted. In Item (6), LCA on the currently used modules was performed. In Item (7), participation was made to the second solar beam power generation conference and EUROSUN '98; investigations were made on trends of developing the new building material integrated solar cell modules and how the recycling related legislation is being progressed; and the achievements in the development activities were confirmed, and the assignments were investigated at the new building material integrated solar cell module subcommittee. (NEDO)

  9. Perancangan Solar Charge Controller dan Inverter pada Aplikasi Solar Panel Berbasis Atmega8535 secara Software

    Larasati, Devi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this final project is to apply the codevision AVR ATMega 8535 to process the data on the storage accumulator battery charging current from the solar panels. Value current is processed in the microcontroller is in the current detection using current sensor ACS-712. To prevent backflow from batteries to solar panels when the solar panel voltage is less than accumulator battery voltage, current flows from the solar panels through solar charge controller to the battery before. C...

  10. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    Yang, Y.; Jeong, S.; Hu, L.; Wu, H.; Lee, S. W.; Cui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent

  11. Piezoelectric, Solar and Thermal Energy Harvesting for Hybrid Low-Power Generator Systems With Thin-Film Batteries

    2012-01-01

    are approximately 93 mm × 25 mm × 1.5 mm (while the region with the battery layers has slightly different thickness as compared to that with the piezo ...temperature difference between the sink and the ambient for the maximum power transfer). Having chosen the heat sink, resistor sweep measurements are...of resistors in each curve). range from 5.0 to 40.7 ◦C. The term average is used for the T values because the temperature difference across the

  12. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report (Drawings). R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for apartment houses); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho zumenshu. Shugo jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Working design was made on an apartment house for R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system, and its drawings were prepared. The design was made on the experimental medium-rise square pyramid apartment house (3- storied, 28 dwelling units, RC structure, 1,566.63m{sup 2} in building area, 2,309.05m{sup 2} in total floor area). The house was equipped with normal high-voltage receiving panel, indoor cubicle of 300kVA, common antenna TV, telephone piping, door chime, direct water supply system with individual meters, LPG gas piping with individual meters, central hot water supply system with individual meters, and central cooling/heating system with individual fan coil units. The exterior of the house was finished with asphalt-waterproofing normal concrete-finished roofs of 1/50 in gradient, epoxy system resin-coated exposed concrete exterior walls, Al sash slide pair-glass window and alumite-finished Al door openings, and foamed polystyrene insulation plates (60mm, 50mm and 50mm thick for roofs, floors and walls, respectively). (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on glass system materials); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Glass kei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on solar heat collectors using glass system materials. In fiscal 1976, study was made on improvement of selective transmission films by vacuum deposition and large prototype films, prototype coated glass by chemical treatment and its quality stability, prototype full-scale honeycomb collector, practical heat collection property, and evaluation of some problems. As the study result, characteristics of this selective transmission glass were equivalent to those of the other selective transmission films with a transmissivity of 0.90 and a reflectivity of 0.10. As the study result of production cost by vacuum deposition and resistance heating, the film treatment cost was estimated to be 2,300yen/m{sup 2}. 40 prototype coated glass plates of 1,000 x 1,000 x 3mm, and 300 prototype coated glass pipes of 16mm diameter, 870mm long and 0.6mm thick were prepared for prototype collectors. Two kinds of full-scale collectors prepared by using these selective absorption heat collection plates and coated glass showed favorable performance in heat collection experiment. (NEDO)

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program research and development of photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Research on amorphous silicon defect density); 1981 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu (Amorphous silicon no kekkan mitsudo no kenkyu)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    So as to determine the energy distribution of defect level density in a-Si, which is indispensable for an optimum solar cell design, the hitherto unclear theoretical relationship between the field effect method and MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) capacity method is made clear, and a unified theory is newly established. A high-speed totally automatic evaluation system is developed, capable of high-accuracy determination of defect levels. For the realization of an a-Si MOS structure required for fulfilling the above purpose, a-Si is grown and then diborane and ammonia are subjected to a glow discharge decomposition process for the formation of a new insulation film. It is found that the material may be utilized for MOS structure construction for defect density evaluation. Studies are conducted on plasma emission spectroscopy and infrared absorption analysis for the elucidation of growth mechanism for the growth of high-quality a-Si. Key radicals in plasma that govern film growth are investigated. It is disclosed that excited hydrogen in plasma plays an important part in microcrystalline phase deposition. It is also disclosed that hydrogenation greatly improves on CVD (chemical vapor deposition) a-Si doping efficiency. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for large buildings); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1977-03-30

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for large buildings. Although the small experimental single/double effect absorption refrigerator system didn't satisfy the initial design specifications, if the large system is used, it probably satisfies them. Its wide operation range was confirmed by adding LiCl to water-LiBr system coolant. Concentration by reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for recycling absorbent resulted in failure. The storage tank volume of coolant and absorbent necessary for a heat storage refrigerator reached 4 times as large as refrigerator unit one. The primary basic plan of a single/double effect refrigerator system with plane collectors was prepared for Oita University. For system simulation, more practical characteristic equations are showed by reconsidering equations for single effect systems. The characteristic equations for double effect and single/double effect systems were obtained on the basis of the 1976 research result. The control method of hot water and absorbent effective for refrigerators was clarified. Absorbent circulation of 3.5-4% in concentration difference was optimum. (NEDO)

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1991 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research and development of high-efficiency solar cells (Research on forbidden band width optimization); 1991 nendo kokoritsu taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kinsei taifuku no saitekika no kenkyu

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Research is conducted on film formation technologies etc. for the chalcopyritic compound semiconductors represented by CuInSe{sub 2} which is the most excellent of the materials for thin-film solar cells. As for the development of a encapsulated selenization method, research is conducted on an In formation method, temperature program for heat treatment, and Cu-In alloy film selenization, and then a CuInSe{sub 2} film less to suffer phase separation is obtained. In the development of a vaporized selenization method, the reactor tube and the temperature program are improved, and this results in a CuInSe{sub 2} film excellent in homogeneity. As for the evaluation of CuInSe{sub 2} film, photoluminescence is measured using a solid-phase selenized film, vapor-phase selenized film, and 3-source vapor-deposited film, and the result shows that photoluminescence-assisted CuInSe{sub 2} film evaluation is quite promising. In the development of ZnO film formation technologies, the MOCVD (metalorganic chemical vapor deposition) technology is almost complete, and film formation on a 10cm-square substrate is now practical. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for large buildings); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1977-03-30

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for large buildings. Although the small experimental single/double effect absorption refrigerator system didn't satisfy the initial design specifications, if the large system is used, it probably satisfies them. Its wide operation range was confirmed by adding LiCl to water-LiBr system coolant. Concentration by reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for recycling absorbent resulted in failure. The storage tank volume of coolant and absorbent necessary for a heat storage refrigerator reached 4 times as large as refrigerator unit one. The primary basic plan of a single/double effect refrigerator system with plane collectors was prepared for Oita University. For system simulation, more practical characteristic equations are showed by reconsidering equations for single effect systems. The characteristic equations for double effect and single/double effect systems were obtained on the basis of the 1976 research result. The control method of hot water and absorbent effective for refrigerators was clarified. Absorbent circulation of 3.5-4% in concentration difference was optimum. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for existing detached houses); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1977-05-27

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for existing detached houses. In system analysis, various evaluation items of the primary experimental house to be constructed and the titled thermal system were determined, and its measurement/control online program was developed. In the R and D on equipment and materials, the performance of the vacuum collector prepared in last fiscal year was tested, and based on its result and study on optimum structure, the new prototype vacuum collector was fabricated. In the study on heat transfer and heat storage system equipment, the medium-scale latent heat type heat storage tank (1 x 10{sup 4}kcal in thermal capacity, 8 x 10{sup 3}kcal/h in thermal output) using ammonium alum was prepared. For a preventive mechanism against supercooling, reconsideration of structure of a crystal nucleus formation plate was necessary. In the study on refrigerator driven by Rankine cycle engine, the prototype compressor more than 3,000kcal/h in refrigeration capacity was fabricated. Construction of the experimental house and trial operation of the cooling/heating system were promoted. (NEDO)

  19. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of silicon manufacturing process to rationalize energy usage (Development of mass production technology for solar-grade silicon); 1998 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchiyo silicon ryosanka seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In the proliferation stage of solar cells, a technology is required to manufacture low-cost SOG-Si that can handle small quantity production. Development is being made on a manufacturing technology using high purity metallic silicon (99.5%) as the raw material. Considering that the subject impurities are P, B and metallic impurities (Fe, Ti and Al), a manufacturing method consisting of the following processes is being developed: metallic silicon/phosphorus removal, solidification and rough refining/boron removal, solidification and fine refining. Discussions are being advanced on phosphorus removal by using a large electron beam fusion equipment, and at the same time, the discussions are supported by fabricating and installing a large equipment intended of removing boron and the metallic impurities. Boron is removed by oxidizing it with steam. Therefore, the basic mechanism of the equipment is to spray argon plasma added with steam onto the molten silicon surface. In boron removal, diffusion of boron onto the reaction interface in the primary reaction determines the rate. A boron removal rate for B/10 to 0.1 ppm of 45 kg/h as maximum was achieved. The derived silicon has met the requirement. (NEDO)

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Optical research on electronic state in amorphous silicon. (Research and development of amorphous solar cells); 1984 nendo amorphous silicon no denshi jotai no kogakuteki kenkyu seika hokokusho. Amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    For realizing a high-performance amorphous solar cell, research is conducted on how to evaluate the amorphous silicon film formed by glow discharge decomposition as regards its optical and photoelectric characteristics, basic physical properties of its electronic states, and its film quality and film forming conditions. Research is conducted on the mechanism of glow discharge decomposition reaction using plasma spectroscopic techniques and on the conditions of film formation, when low-temperature SiO{sub 2} film growth is caused to occur by a directly excited photo-CVD (chemical vapor deposition) method in which a deuterium lamp and Xe lamp are the exciting light sources and SiH{sub 4} and O{sub 2} are the source gases. In research on the mechanism of photoelectric conversion in an a-Si film p-I-n junction system, a method is developed of evaluating physical property parameters in accordance with a field drift type photovoltaic effect model. In research on the evaluation of the optical properties of a-Si films using modulation spectroscopy and polarization analysis, electronic states in the vicinity of the a-Si based thin film band end is examined using an ER method which is one of the modulation spectrometric methods. The constitution and electronic states of a-Si films are studied using a high-speed ion beam scattering method and electronic spectrometry. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for existing detached houses); 1974 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for existing detached houses. The program for calculating heat collection rates was prepared by integrating peripheral conditions and every calculation step of heat collection rate, mean value, accumulated value and changes caused by disturbance. The cooling/heating load calculation program was also prepared for unsteady dynamic thermal analysis of houses. Another program was prepared for hot water supply load because of a large difference in life pattern. The profitability and energy conservation of 644 systems different in heat source, heat discharge, heat collection, heat storage, auxiliary heat source and equipment were evaluated by heat balance calculation program. Survey and study were also made on various heat engines such as heat pump, absorption refrigerator and Rankine cycle engine. Based on the survey result on existing technology for plane collectors, the optimum design method of collectors were established through various characteristic tests. Some kinds of suitable fusion latent heat type heat media were selected, and their operation stabilities were studied. (NEDO)

  2. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and dessolution deposition process); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu (yokai sekishutsuho))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to manufacture low-cost large-area solar cell modules, developmental research has been performed on a film manufacturing technology using the dessolution deposition process. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a technology to form a thin silicon film directly on carbon substrates being substrates of different kinds, without using seed crystals. The researches made up to the previous fiscal year has made possible to form the film onto a substrate of about 5-cm square, has fabricated cells although with a small area, and indicated the importance of reducing concentrations of impurities in the solvent metals used. The researches performed during the current fiscal year executed modifications to reduce the temperature distribution in the substrate surfaces, including size increase in the heater, and improvement in the cooling heat conduction mechanism. As a result, films were formed successfully on 7.5-cm square substrates. In reducing the process temperatures, it was made clear that films can be formed at lower than 700 degrees C by using zinc as a solvent metal. Furthermore, the purity enhancement in the solvent metal achieved a conversion efficiency of 11.6% although the area is as small as 3.73 cm{sup 2}. (NEDO)

  3. Achievement Report for fiscal 1997 on developing a silicon manufacturing process with reduced energy consumption. Development of technology to manufacture high quality solar cell silicon substrates; 1997 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu. Kohinshitsu taiyo denchiyo silicon kiban seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is intended to establish an energy saving type mass production technology to manufacture solar cell substrates by using the electromagnetic casting process. This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1997. Preliminary experiments were performed for high-performance slicing processing and post-slicing rinsing to reduce the cost by enhancing productivity in the slicing process. Since there is a problem of mixing of contaminating raw materials due to diversification in raw materials, resistance and impurity concentration must be determined on each raw material as the materials for the Czochralski method. Then, the raw materials are sorted out referring to the determination results, and they can be used for the electromagnetic casting process upon optimizing them. As a result of having sliced an ingot of 15-cm square with a length of 40 cm by using a mass-production wire saw, an accuracy of 22.8 {mu}m was attained as intra-face variance when the required cutting time was 476 minutes and the substrate thickness is 348 {mu}, thus having obtained prospect for achieving the standard. Development was made on a water jetting rough cleaning machine to separate and remove slurries (oil and grinding particles) from the substrates after slicing, and an arm robot to accommodate substrates into cassettes, which provided processing velocity of 9 second per substrate. A problem of raising the speed remains to be solved. (NEDO)

  4. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 7. Examination on design and control of the system partially recovering exhaust heat of heat pump; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 7. Bubuntekina hainetsu kaishu wo koryoshita baai no sekkei seigyoho no kento

    Tanaka, H; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The capacity and performance of the existing system that recovers the overall heating and cooling exhaust heat completely into a seasonal storage tank and the system that discharges the exhaust heat slightly to the outside and recovers it partially were compared and investigated. The system uses a central single-duct discharge system as an air-conditioning system. A heat pump and a flat-plate solar collector installed on the roof of a building are used as the heat source. The seasonal storage tank in the ground just under the building is a cylindrical water tank of 5 m deep with the concrete used as body. The upper surface of a storage tank is heat-insulated by a stylo-platform of 200 mm, and the lower side surface by a stylo-platform of 100 mm. Calculation when the difference in temperature used in a seasonal storage tank is set to 35{degree}C and 25{degree}C was performed for the system that has two control methods. The overall exhaust heat recovery system is almost the same in energy performance as the partial exhaust heat recovery system. The partial exhaust heat recovery system is more advantageous on the economic side. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Dissolution/deposition method); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (yokai sekishutsuho)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim is to manufacture the above at low cost by a dissolution/deposition method. Under this method, a film is fabricated containing crystals high in quality and large in size though the film area is very small. In fiscal 1998, an effort to fabricate a film to cover a 10cm square substrate failed. The failure is explained by that the heater was too small for the substrate area and that the failure to uniformly heat the substrate resulted in an inplane temperature distribution greater than expected. The furnace was modified in a minor way to narrow substrate temperature distribution as much as possible. Another attempt was made to fabricate a larger-area film on a 5cm square substrate, and then crystals grew to cover approximately the whole surface of the 5cm square substrate. Efforts will continue to achieve the goal. As for the mechanism of film fabrication on substrates of different kinds, self-coating is now described by difference in heat conductivity between a carbon substrate and silicon substrate. Thanks to individual control in a small film fabricating unit, a film thickness of approximately 100 micrometers was achieved. The distance of diffusion was 30 micrometers or more in the case of a small area, and the efficiency of a solar cell using this film was found at 10.2%. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of systems for new residential buildings); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinchiku kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at development of devices for solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply, in order to commercialize innovative systems for economic air conditioning and hot water supply for new residential buildings. The research items are (1) development of materials for the devices (e.g., heat collectors and absorption refrigerators), (2) operation of the systems in the test building, and measurement (methods for measurement and evaluation of the systems in the test building, instrumentation systems and operation thereof, and analysis of the measured data), and (3) system analysis (system simulation, comparison of the simulated results with the observed results, and system variations). The item (1) studies economic efficiency, durability and stability of the vacuum glass tube type collectors. The item (2) studies a dripping type generator, refrigerant recycling type generator and generator with a built-in auxiliary heat source for the absorption refrigerators. These types have their own advantages and disadvantages, and it is necessary to establish how these results are to be included in the products. The item (3) changes the collector arrangement, based on the observed data, and improves heat-collecting pump starting/stopping conditions, refrigerator operating conditions and insulation around the primary heat-storage tank. It is necessary to analyze the improved systems. (NEDO)

  7. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules (dissolution and deposition process); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (yokai sekishutsuho)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was performed by noticing on the plasma spraying method as a process that can manufacture thin poly-crystalline silicon films at a high speed. Fiscal 1997 has established a technology that can form a silicon film directly without using seed crystals in an area of 2-cm square on a carbon supported substrate by using a small film manufacturing equipment using the dissolution and deposition process. The size of the crystal is as very large as several hundred {mu}m, by which a possibility of making high-performance solar cells was verified. Discussions were given to apply this technology to large-area substrates, whereas a device was developed, which is capable of forming a film in an area corresponding to 10-cm square. According to a film forming experiment using this device, the film has begun being formed on part of a 10-cm square substrate, verifying the effectiveness of this method. While the film thickness is about 100 {mu}m, it was confirmed that the crystal size will not change even if the thickness is made mechanically as thin as about 50 {mu}m. Further discussions were given on enhancement of wettability by means of coating, and light enclosing structure. (NEDO)

  8. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on synthetic resin materials); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Gosei jushikei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    Research has been carried out on various collector members using synthetic resins for a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system. In the research on a light selective transmitting film, a technology was established in which an In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SnO{sub 2} film was processed on a polyester film at a spatter speed of 4,000 (angstrom)/min by using a conventional spattering device and a method of running the film while it was cooled. In the research on transparent heat insulating materials, a plastic heat insulator molding test device was used, molding and evaluating the straight groove type bent molded product of various plastic films, with the best results obtained using a polyester film. The selective absorbing film proved that the synthesizing time of Co{sub 3}O{sub 3} was reduced by about 30% and that no performance was lowered by the mixture of inexpensive metallic oxides, which enabled a prospect of the cost reduction. The base material for the heat collecting body was produced using a three-layer film containing a metallic foil and a water channel of a molded sheet structure by a heat joining method, but no improvement was seen in the pressure resistance. In the general evaluation of the practicality of a high performance collector, the selective transmitting film was found insufficient in the contributing effect to the improvement of heat collecting efficiency. The transparent heat insulating material contributed to the efficiency increase through the improvement of the light transmissivity. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology; 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Efforts are made to develop a GaInP/GaAs-based compound semiconductor solar cell built on an Si substrate, the Si substrate being lower in cost, higher in mechanical strength, lighter in weight, and higher in heat conductivity than a GaAs or Ge substrate. Fiscal 1999 studies involved improvement on GaAs/Si heteroepitaxial growth and the evaluation of crystallinity in thus grown layers, improvement on cell characteristics, fabrication and evaluation of an n{sup +}/p structure cell, and so forth. As for crystal growing technologies, a 980 degree C 5-heat-cycle annealing method was applied, and the density of dislocation was reduced to 5 times 10{sup 6}cm{sup -2}. In the fabrication of cells, an n{sup +}/p structure cell was studied, and the cell achieved 12.5mAcm{sup -2} in short-circuit photoelectric current over 9mAcm{sup -2} of the conventional p{sup +}/n structure GaInP cell. Without any special effort to optimize the structure, a GaInP/GaAs layer-built cell on a GaAs substrate achieved 23.7% in conversion efficiency. When it is taken into consideration that conversion efficiency on an Si substrate is approximately 80% of what is achieved on a GaAs substrate, it is deemed that the achievement of 23.7% suggests that near 20% in conversion efficiency may become available on an Si substrate. (NEDO)

  10. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shingata amorufasu taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for the development of amorphous solar cell modules for power generation, high in performance and low in production cost. In the effort to improve cell efficiency, experiments were conducted for enhancing bottom a-SiGe cell efficiency for the embodiment of an enhanced-efficiency multi-junction cell, for improving crystallinity in microcrystalline silicon through the application of VHF (very high frequency) plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition), for texturizing metal electrodes on a film substrate, and so forth. In the effort to increase the film fabrication rate, a VHF plasma CVD device was used for studying the effect of the discharge frequency on film deposition and quality, Vpp between the electrodes, and so forth. Studies about the high-throughput production technology centered on the film substrate solar cell process technology and the designing of an optimum geometrical pattern for SCAF (series-connection through apertures formed on film) cells. Production cost was estimated for the SCAF structure film substrate solar cell manufacturing process, and a production cost of 147.1 yen/W (in case of 100 MW/year production) was obtained as achievable under the currently available conditions. (NEDO)

  11. Energy storage: feasibility study to collect, store and release energy from solar origin, using a kinetic battery stockage

    Tatry, B

    1976-02-01

    The feasibility of using solar energy to feed an autonomous station providing electric current continuously was studied. As an energy storage device a 'superflywheel' (rotor with composite fibers - magnetic bearings) would be used. Results show that such an experiment can be reasonably envisaged only in highly sunny countries and that it becomes non profitable at our latitudes, despite the very good performance of the flywheel storage device.

  12. Battery Modeling

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  13. Lithium Batteries

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  14. Space photovoltaic power generation. Uchu taiyo hatsuden ni tsuite

    Kudo, I [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-07-20

    Introduction is made of space photovoltaic power generation which is the ultimate clean energy source. This is a system to obtain electric energy from the solar cells placed on a geostatic orbit and transmit the power onto the earth by microwave. The US formulates a plan of placing 60[times]5GW power generation satellites to obtain 300GW power on the earth in 2000. As for the scale of space structure, the array of solar cells is dimensionally 10km[times]5km and the power transmitting antenna is 1km in diameter. The electric energy is amplified to microwave and power-transmitted by wireless onto the earth. The ground rectenna which receives it is dimensionally 10km[times]13km. The biggest difficulty consists in transportation of construction materials onto the orbit. In Japan, activity comprises three matters, which are research committee organized three years ago by the Agency of Industrial Science and technology, 10MW class model conceptually designed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, and experiment conducted by Kyoto University on the power transmission by wireless. Pertaining to the research on the space power generation, the following two points are judged still unclarified: Reason for which the electric power companies did not apply the power transmission by wireless regarded as high in transmission efficiency. Influence of the microwave on the ionosphere and biosystem. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  15. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of high-reliability CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for reliable CdTe solar cell modules, large in area and high in efficiency. In the study of large-area CdS thin film fabrication, a conversion efficiency of 12.5-14.2% was achieved in a cell in a large-area substrate using a mist method-aided process of continuous CdS film fabrication. In the study of large-area CdTe thin film fabrication, the optimization was studied of the base-forming CdS film fabrication conditions and of the CdTe film fabrication conditions in a method using a CdTe powder processed by dry kneading, and a conversion efficiency peak was found to exist when the CdS film thickness was in the range of 700-900 angstrom. In the fabrication of large-area submodules, a large-area substrate was taken up, and TCO (transparent conducting oxide) film was fabricated by the mist method, CdTe film by the normal pressure CSS method, electrodes by the screen printing method, and CdTe film patterns by the blast method. As the result, a conversion efficiency of 11.0% was achieved. In a cost estimation for large-area CdTe solar cell modules, 140 yen/Wp (conversion efficiency: 11.0%, annual production: 100 MW) was obtained. (NEDO)

  16. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic power system commercialization technology (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Survey and research of analysis of commercialization - Separate Volume: Survey of next-generation ultrahigh-efficiency solar cell system); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - Bessatsu : Jisedai chokokoritsu taiyodenchi system ni kansuru chosa)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the preparation of a proposition concerning future research and development, surveys and studies were conducted centering about efficiency enhancement and cost reduction for the next generation ultrahigh-efficiency solar cell system. For improving the efficiency of the crystalline compound solar cell, studies were made about the prospects of the embodiment of a 3-junction and 4-junction types and of an increase in conversion efficiency expected to realize thanks to their light condensation behavior. It was inferred that anticipation of 29-47% conversion efficiency in 1 to 4-joint cells was theoretically acceptable. Four-joint structure cell fabrication would be a challenging task but would bring about an conversion efficiency of approximately 47% thanks to enhanced light condensation capability. As for cost reduction through the use of light condensation technology, surveys of overseas trends showed that the condensation-enhanced photovoltaic power system was characteristically fit for lower-price production. As for condensation and tracking systems, studies were made about cost calculation models of organizations involved in the United States and Europe, and then it was found that cost reduction in the optical system for condensation and in the tracking mechanism would be mandatory for the achievement of 75 yen/W. (NEDO)

  17. Energy Systems Based on Polyacetylene: Rechargeable Batteries and Schottky Barrier Solar Cells. Final Report, March 1, 1981-February 29, 1984

    MacDiarmid, A. G.

    1984-02-01

    The chief thrust of the research has been directed towards the evaluation of polyacetylene (CH){sub x}, the prototype conducting polymer as an electrode- active material in novel, rechargeable batteries employing nonaqueous electrolytes. The p-doped material, [(CH{sup +y})A{sub y}{sup -}]{sub x}, (where A{sup -} is an anion) in conjunction with a Li anode, shows excellent discharge characteristics, e.g., very little change in discharge voltage with change in discharge current and a high power density. Its energy density is also good but it shows poor shelf life. When (CH){sub x} is used as a cathode (Li anode), which results in the formation of the n-doped polymer, [Li{sub y} {sup +}(CH/sup -y/)]{sub x}, during discharge, good discharge plateaus and power densities are obtained together with excellent shelf life and good recyclability. The energy density is, however only moderate. Cells employing an [M{sub y}{sup +}(CH/sup -y/)]{sub x} (where M = Li, Na) anode and a TiS{sub 2} cathode show very good discharge and recycling characteristics but their energy density is poor.

  18. Droop Control of Solar PV, Grid and Critical Load using Suppressing DC Current Injection Technique without Battery Storage

    Dama Mr., Jayachandra; (Mrs. , Lini Mathew, Dr.; Srikanth Mr., G.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents design of a sustainable solar Photo voltaic system for an Indian cities based residential/community house, integrated with grid, supporting it as supplementary sources, to meet energy demand of domestic loads. The role of renewable energy sources in Distributed Generation (DG) is increasingly being recognized as a supplement and an alternative to large conventional central power supply. Though centralized economic system that solely depends on cities is hampered due to energy deficiency, the use of solar energy in cities is never been tried widely due to technical inconvenience and high installation cost. To mitigate these problems, this paper proposes an optimized design of grid-tied PV system without storage which is suitable for Indian origin as it requires less installallation cost and supplies residential loads when the grid power is unavailable. The energy requirement is mainly fulfilled from PV energy module for critical load of a city located residential house and supplemented by grid/DG for base and peak load. The system has been developed for maximum daily household demand of 50kWp and can be scaled to any higher value as per requirement of individual/community building ranging from 50kWp to 60kWp as per the requirement. A simplified control system model has been developed to optimize and control flow of power from these sources. The simulation work, using MATLAB Simulink software for proposed energy management, has resulted in an optimal yield leading efficient power flow control of proposed system.

  19. Present condition and the future of photovoltaic generating systems. Part 5. Future perspective of photovoltaic power systems; Taiyo hikarihatsuden system no genjo to shorai. 5. Taiyo hikarihatsuden system no shorai tenbo

    Horigome, T

    1994-12-20

    In this paper, as the future perspective of photovoltaic power systems, the establishment of the legal environment for the popularization of the photovoltaic power systems in large amounts and the future prediction of the popularization of power generation are described. Specially the following grand ideas are introduced: building in high seas regeneratable energy transformation plants with solar energy as the main energy, generating combined power of photovoltaic, solar heat, wave and temperature difference of the sea water, biomass, solar-bio power generating without CO2 exhaustion, building hard solar plants to produce electricity, hydrogen, methanol and fresh water from regeneratable energy, and breeding fish, shells and see weed in the sea pasture land under the plants, which are the so called `Energy sea pasture high breed plants (REPO Plan)` and also space power generating i.e. setting up special satellites for solar power generation in synchronous orbits, generating power through solar batteries or solar heat and then transmitting it to the earth through microwave. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Elite silicon and solar power

    Yasamanov, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The article is of popular character, the following issues being considered: conversion of solar energy into electric one, solar batteries in space and on the Earth, growing of silicon large-size crystals, source material problems relating to silicon monocrystals production, outlooks of solar silicon batteries production [ru

  1. Microcontroller Based Solar Charge Controller for Power Application

    Mr. Vikas Khare

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic cell converts solar energy directly into electricity. This paper describes a design of microcontroller based solar charge controller for power application.[2] The work of the Paper is to charge a 12 volt battery by using a 50 watt solar panel with maximum power. This circuit regulates the charging of battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reached a preset value.[1] The microprocessor based charge ...

  2. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use - Development of solar beam power generation and utilization systems and ancillary technologies (Research and development of building material integrated solar cell modules - high-durability roof modules); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shinkenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi module no kenkyu kaihatsu (kotaikyusei yane module))

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With the target set on a system with a roof array efficiency of 8.5%, and a system cost of 170 yen/W, development is being made on a large roof panel and its construction technology, which is capable of AC output by integrating into a large roof panel the compound thin film solar cells having glass/CdS/CdTe/rear air chamber/rear metal, and the inverter. In the cell constituting materials and the structure design, sealants were evaluated, the painting process was developed, and two kinds of structures were prepared. The frameless type has a lamination structure, and a prototype module of 886 times 664 mm was fabricated, and the frame type has a double sealing structure, and a prototype module 600 times 900 mm was fabricated. Prototype modules that can be fixed on a rail type fixing stand were fabricated and constructed, having demonstrated sufficient workability. In addition, a prototype small inverter with system coordination protection was operated actually, and the initial stage malfunctions were corrected. Two demonstration buildings were built, and the whole process was performed from assembly and transportation of the modules and to the installation thereof at the construction site. (NEDO)

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture materials and substrates (development of technology to manufacture high-quality amorphous materials and substrates)); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu amorphous kei zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    These technological developments are intended to develop technologies to manufacture with improved quality the silicon-based thin film solar cells. In order to analyze manufacturing conditions for micro crystal silicon thin films as the narrow-gap amorphous silicon-based films, films were manufactured in the vicinity of borders of amorphous/micro crystal silicon film manufacturing conditions. The present film manufacturing did not present effects of suppressing deterioration of hydrogen diluted light. In order to elucidate the light deterioration mechanism in hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and study the suppression thereof, discussions were given on impurities in the film, including oxygen. By using an ultra high vacuum plasma CVD having a thoroughgoing baking system, an oil-free exhaust mechanism, and a raw material gas refining mechanism, impurities were added to and removed from a reaction vessel, and an ultra-high purity Si:H film was manufactured, which has been removed of impurities from the raw material gas, resulting in reduction of O, C and N standing no comparison. According to the result of a light irradiation experiment on an ultra-high purity film obtained under an accelerated deteriorating condition by using a pulse laser, the model assuming the light induced defect and the pair of impure atoms has been denied. (NEDO)

  4. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Volume 1. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules and survey and research on analyzing how to put products into practical use); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to assist research and development to put thin film solar cells for power use into practical use and a research to put thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies into practical use, survey and research have been performed on trends in the technologies inside and outside the country. Characteristic points in thin film solar cells during the current fiscal year include: expansion of production scale of amorphous silicon solar cells, rapid progress in poly-crystalline silicon thin film solar cell technologies, and enhancement of performance in large-area modules in the a-Si, CIGS, and CdTe systems. In the trends in research and development of amorphous systems, expectation is heightening on elucidation of optical deterioration phenomena, and establishment of suppression technologies thereof. Although the highest efficiency was not renewed in thin film solar cells of small areas, progress was seen in the post-stabilization efficiency in large-area modules. A thin film solar cell manufacturing plant having an annual production capacity of 20 MW was put into operation in October in Japan. Micro (poly) crystalline silicon based solar cells have high possibility of being compatible in cost reduction and performance improvement, and energetic researches are being carried out on them in recent years as the most promising candidate of the next generation solar cells. (NEDO)

  5. Physical Integration of a Photovoltaic-Battery System : A Thermal Analysis

    Vega Garita, V.E.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Bauer, P.

    2017-01-01

    Solar-battery systems are still expensive, bulky, and space consuming. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel device that combines all the components of a solar-battery system in one device. This device might help reduce installation cost compared to the current solar-battery systems as well as

  6. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  7. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    Nandar Oo; Kyaw Soe Lwin; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart...

  8. FY 1999 research and development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of technologies for fabrication of thin-film solar cells/materials and substrates (Development of technologies for fabrication of high-quality amorphous materials and substrates); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu amorphous kei zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for the amorphous/microcrystalline solar cells with the thin microcrystalline silicon film as the i layer, and the FY 1999 results are reported. The fabrication technologies are investigated for the microcrystalline silicon solar cells of pin or nip structure by RF or VHF plasma CVD using SiH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} as the stock gases. The tests are conducted for evaluating characteristics of the thin microcrystalline silicon film, to investigate the effects of film-making pressure, power and hydrogen dilution rate on the characteristics at a constant film-making temperature of 180 degrees C. The researches on the fabrication technologies for the microcrystalline solar cell of pin structure confirm that use of VHF plasma CVD improves crystallinity, electrical and optical characteristics of the p-type thin microcrystalline silicon film. The researches on the fabrication technologies for the microcrystalline solar cell of nip structure covers transparent substrates, film-making speed of the p layer, power and substrates, and a conversion efficiency of 7.5% is realized by the solar cell formed on a texture substrate. (NEDO)

  9. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    Orilall, M. Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various

  10. Into the battery, not into the grid. Personal use of solar power; In den Akku, nicht ins Netz. Eigenverbrauch von Sonnenstrom

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    At Intersolar PV systems dominate with integrated storage systems. Now grows together what belongs together: inverters, energy managers and batteries. [German] Auf der Intersolar dominieren Photovoltaiksysteme mit integrierten Speichern. Jetzt waechst zusammen, was zusammen gehoert: Wechselrichter, Energiemanager und Batterien.

  11. Solar thermal aircraft

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  12. Decentralised Solar Power at Homes

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Decentralised Solar Power at Homes. Solar PV gives DC Power. But load is AC; Needs a DC-AC convertor. Now if we add a battery. Battery stores only DC. Require a AC-DC convertor for charging; Require a DC-AC convertor during discharging. For low power, each ...

  13. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Research and development of photovoltaic power utilizing system and peripheral technologies (Research and development of novel type solar cell module integratable with building materials - Highly durable roof module); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shinkenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi module no kenkyu kaihatsu - kotaikyusei yane module)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A thin-film solar array, a large roof panel, and an interconnecting power conditioner are integrated into one and single structural member for the development of a residential photovoltaic power system in which a unit AC (alternating current) output is collected from each panel. In fiscal 1999, in the study of highly durable materials for solar cell modules and of their structure, a thin film compound solar cell module was enlarged to 82cm times 71cm, evaluated for performance, and installed on the third test house. In the study of collecting AC power from the solar cell module, a compact power conditioner for a roof panel which had been in test operation on the roof of the laboratory since 1998 was checked for practical performance, improved, and evaluated for system generation efficiency. In the study of a highly durable roof module structure, problems pertaining to heat radiation from the rear side steel sheet, the burning of the junction box, etc., were solved, and the module passed a verification test under the Building Standard Law. In the validation of the roof module for which power generation performance and meteorological conditions had already been continuously measured for 19 months, it was found that the roof module suffered no troubles such as water leak or deformation. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Research and development of photovoltaic power utilizing system and peripheral technologies (Research and development for enhancing reliability of photovoltaic power generation - Research on environmental measures for compound solar cell modules); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (taiyoko hatsuden no shinraisei kojo ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu - kagobutsu taiyo denchi module no kankyo taisaku no chosa kenkyu)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research is conducted to properly deal with environmental problems, such as compromised solar cell safety, which may follow the mass introduction and diffusion of photovoltaic power systems. In the research of fiscal 1999 on technical literature on environmental measures against lead and animal tests, a need was found to reduce lead in power systems and to grasp lead elution characteristics for the establishment of environmental measures. In a safety test conducted for thin-film CIS (copper indium diselenide) based solar cells, basic data were collected about the vaporization rate of Se, the effect of moisture on the Se vaporization rate, etc. Basic data were also collected about the relationship between the combustion temperature and the amount of scattered lead in particular from the solder used as the conducting material in silicon based solar cells. In the evaluation of the environmental impact of thin-film CIS solar cells in case of fire, it was found that Se concentration below 10-20m in the plume was near the permissible concentration of 0.1mg/m{sup 3} as recommended by Japan Society for Occupational Health and that the concentration levels predicted for the periphery were two orders of magnitude smaller than the mandatory level. (NEDO)

  15. Effect of wind speed and solar irradiation on the optimization of a PV-Wind-Battery system to supply a telecommunications station

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Lujano, Juan; Zubi, Ghassan [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Electrical Engineerign Dept.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the optimization of a PV-Wind hybrid system with batteries storage to supply the electrical power to a small telecommunications station. The load demanded by the station is 100 W continuously. We have considered 6 different wind speed profiles, from 2 m/s average speed (low wind speed in many places in Spain) to 8 m/s average (very high wind speed, in few places in Spain) and 3 different irradiation profiles, from the lowest average daily irradiation in Spain, about 2.5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day, to the highest one in Spain, about 5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day. Therefore we have considered 6 x 3 = 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles. For each combination of wind speed and irradiation profiles, we have optimized the PV-Wind-Battery system to supply the power demand, considering some different PV panels, wind turbines and batteries. We have also considered in the optimization non-hybrid systems (PV-Battery systems and Wind-Battery systems). The simulation of the system performance has been done hourly. The optimal system for each combination of wind speed and irradiation is the one which can supply the whole demand of the telecommunications station with the lowest Net Present Cost of the system. Simulation and optimization has been done using HOGA (Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithms) software, developed by some of the authors. The results show that, with actual prices of PV panels and wind turbines, in 13 of the 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles the optimal system is a hybrid system (it includes PV panels, wind turbine and batteries). In the other 5 combinations (the ones with lowest wind speed and/or highest irradiation), the optimal system is PV-Battery, i.e., without wind turbine. We conclude that, in most of the places in Spain, the optimal system to supply the demand of a communications station (with continous demand profile) is a hybrid system (PV-Wind-Batteries) instead of a PV-Batteries system or a Wind-Batteries

  16. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    M.Vasugi; Prof R.Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged o...

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program research and development of photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Research and development of high-quality amorphous silicon film formation technologies using plasma separation); 1981 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu (plasma bunri ni yoru kohinshitsu amorphous silicon maku seimaku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    When discharge plasma is applied for film formation, ions affect the quality of the resultant film. In the case of plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition) method, there exists correspondence between the radicals ratio SiH/H and solar cell conversion efficiency, and plasma measurement may be used for the control of film formation conditions. The state of distribution of radicals in discharge plasma is dependent on the type of radicals, and there is an optimum substrate position. Photoelectric characteristics are improved when a grid electrode is used for plasma separation. The surface of a transparent conductive film (ITO: indium-tin oxide) to be the substrate for film formation needs to be flat, and part of its Si is oxidized into SiO{sub 2} by generated oxygen. An ITO film coated by chemically stable SnO{sub 2} is useful. When the ion plating method is employed, film formation conditions are first selected, and then, in a heat treatment to follow, resistance films of various surface conditions are obtained. Carbon-added a-Si film formation conditions and the relationship between film qualities and solar cell characteristics are elucidated. In a solar cell of the p-i-n structure with an a-Si:C:H film acting as the p-layer, a conversion efficiency of 7.6% is achieved. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Research and development of fast-acting innovative energy-environment technology (Development of fast-acting high-efficiency solar cell technology - Development of high-quality ingot manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko itaku kenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (Sokkogata kokoritsu taiyo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu - Kohinshitsu ingot seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted of a technology for manufacturing an ultrathin polycrystalline silicon solar cell capable of efficiency enhancement and cost reduction earlier than the types of polycrystalline solar cells now available on the market. In this fiscal year, a silicon melt/solidification experimenting apparatus was built for manufacturing high-quality silicon ingots. Using an apparatus with its performance similar to the newly built one, a preliminary experiment was conducted involving high-purity silicon ingot manufacturing. In the experiment, boron was added to 75 kg of silicon for semiconductor devices so that its resistivity may be 0.5 ohm-cm. The silicon was melted in a quartz mold, and then subjected to unidirectional coagulation at 0.13 mm/min that started at the bottom to proceed upward. The result was a silicon ingot 44 cm times 44 cm times 17 cm (height). The ingot thus obtained exhibited 0.4-0.8 ohm-cm in resistivity distribution. Solar cells produced from the ingot showed a conversion rate of 16.9%. (NEDO)

  19. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  20. Empirical survey of the application of commercial-graded Lithium Polymer batteries in military systems in conjunction with solar panels and fuel cells

    Roux, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an empirical survey into the comparative characteristics of commercial NiCd, Lithium-ion and Lithium Polymer batteries when applied in a range of man portable military radios. The focus is on when the expected load...

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell and of low-cost/large-area module (Formation of low-temperature film); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usukau taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (teion maku keisei gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A polycrystalline Si thin film formation technology is developed, which uses the flux process in which a reaction occurs between the target crystal and a flux component which is eutectic. Using this process, a crystal grain relatively large in diameter is obtained at a relatively low temperature. This method is now attracting attention as one of the technologies for producing crystalline Si film for use in thin-film polycrystalline Si solar cells. Especially when Al is used for flux, since Al is automatically doped into the target crystalline Si film, it is expected that the resulting film will serve as the ground for a photoactive layer provided with the BSF (back surface field) function which is important for the improvement of solar cell efficiency. A polycrystalline Si thin film is formed on a 2cm times 2cm-large glass substrate at a temperature not higher than 600 degrees C. It is recognized that films selectively oriented towards the (111) or (100) plane are acquired when other processes are employed. It is expected that the said Al-doped film provides a ground on which a BSF function-provided photoactive layer will be formed. (NEDO)

  2. Development of nuclear battery using isotope sources

    Chang, Won Jun

    2004-02-01

    Until now, the development of the useful micro electromechanical systems has the problems because previous batteries (solar, chemical, etc) did not satisfy the requirements related to power supply. At this point of time, nuclear battery using isotope sources is rising the solution of this problem. Nuclear battery can provide superior out-put power and lifetime. So a new type of micro power source (nuclear battery) for micro electromechanical systems has been designed and analyzed. In this work, I designed the three parts, isotope source, conversion device, and shielding. I chose suitable sources, and designed semiconductor using the chosen isotope sources. Power is generated by radiation exciting electrons in the semiconductor depletion region. The efficiency of the nuclear battery depends upon the pn-junction. In this study the several conceptual nuclear batteries using radioactive materials are described with pn-junction. And for the safety, I designed the shielding to protect the environment by reducing the kinetic energy of beta particles

  3. Use of proton beam of the EPG-10 tandem accelerator at the Kyiv Institute for nuclear research for radiation imitation of solar battery photoconverters of spacecraft equipment (technique and first results)

    Soroka, V.Yi.; Artsimovich, M.V.; Gorban', A.P.; Kostil'ov, V.P.; Sachenko, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of radiation damage imitation of spacecraft equipment solar battery photoconverters is called forth by design of new technologies of silicon photoconverters manufacture for new generation spacecraft equipment (Microsatellite class) at the Institute of Semiconductor Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kyiv). The technique of imitation testing has been designed. Protons of 4 MeV were used to irradiate samples. The radiation dose was between 10 11 and 10 14 protons/cm 2 . The inhomogeneity of the dose to the samples surface was ≤ 1 %. The effect of radiation damage on photoenergy parameters of photoconverters was studied. Feasible mechanisms of the radiation damage effect on such parameters as the short-circuit current, the open-circuit voltage, the fill factor of the volt-ampere characteristic and the efficiency were considered. The degradation of the photoenergy parameters with increased dose was revealed. The studies are planned to be continued

  4. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  5. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of immediately effective and innovative energy environment technology. Part 1. Development of immediately effective and high-efficiency solar cells, and development of technology to slice and manufacture thin-type large-area polycrystalline substrates; 1999 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sokkogata kokoritsu taiyo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu (usugata daimenseki takessho kiban slice seizo gijutsu kaihatsu 1)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective of decreasing silicon usage quantity for the purpose of reducing the solar cell production cost, development is being performed on an ingot cutting technology to cut a silicon ingot to Kerf loss of 150 {mu} m and thickness of 150 {mu} m, and in which the produced wafers can withstand the cell making. Investigations revealed that a wire saw is suitable as the cutting system, and the wire used must have a diameter of less than 120 {mu} m, and a strength of more than 3850 N/mm{sup 2}. A prototype wire was fabricated, whose diameter is 120 {mu} m, and in which the strength is distributed between 3870 and 4110 N/mm{sup 2}. It was found possible that a wire of 160 {mu} m can be used to slice an ingot having a cross section surface of 150 mm square and a length of 300 mm into a slice having a Kerf loss of 200 {mu} m and a thickness of 180 {mu} m. This wafer had the in-plane distribution of the substrate thickness at {+-} 12.5 {mu}, swell of 120 {mu} at maximum, and surface roughness of 5 {mu}. Making ten of these wafers into a cell resulted in a yield of 60%. Assignments are the clarification of the properties of the cutting wire, the preparation of a thin wire with homogeneous quality, and the establishment of a technology to cut Kerf loss of 150 {mu} and substrate thickness of 150 {mu}. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of material/substrate manufacturing technology - Development of high-quality amorphous material/substrate manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu amorphous kei zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A microcrystalline Si thin film is used to form the i-layer of a narrow gap a-Si based thin film solar cell. Since a microcrystalline p-layer is to act as the seeding crystal layer for the microcrystalline i-layer, it has to be very high in crystallinity and therefore is produced under high hydrogen dilution conditions. In this process, a problem arises of the darkening of the underlying transparent SnO{sub 2} electrode. Since this is due to chemical reaction on the SnO{sub 2} surface layer, blackening is prevented by shortening the film fabrication time, and then an excellently microcrystalline p-layer is obtained. Furthermore, by inserting a microcrystalline i-film buffer layer of low fabrication rate into the p/i boundary, plasma damage on the microcrystalline p-layer is inhibited for the fabrication of a microcrystalline i-layer high in crystallinity at high film fabrication rates. A high Voc is then obtained even when the microcrystalline p-layer is very thin. If the hydrogen dilution rate is too low when the i-layer film fabrication rate is high, the initially fabricated layer turns out to be thick to the detriment of film performance. On the other hand, the p-layer or the buffer layer will be etched when the hydrogen dilution rate is too high. The problem is solved by continuously varying the hydrogen dilution rate from high to low during i-layer fabrication. (NEDO)

  7. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells (alloy-base amorphous materials, PIN layers, strains in the interface, and effects of impurities); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Usumaku taiyo denchi jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka (gokinkei amorphous zairyo pin kakuso kaimen ni okeru yugami fujunbutsu nado no eikyo)

    Matsuda, A; Oeda, H; Yamasaki, S; Hata, N; Kondo, M; Toshima, Y; Sakata, I; Ganguly, G; Suzuki, A; Kamei, T; Okushi, H; Nonaka, H; Oda, N; Katagiri, H; Ichimura, N; Kokubu, K; Nakamura, K; Sekikawa, T; Yamanaka, M [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for analysis and evaluation for thin film solar cells. The study on quantitative analysis of hydrogen atoms in a plasma determines quantity of hydrogen atoms in the plasma of monosilane diluted with hydrogen. It is found, contrary to expectation, that quantity of hydrogen atoms in the plasma decreases as it is more diluted with hydrogen. The study on light-induced degradation of the thin chlorine-base amorphous silicon films confirms that the plasma CVD method with 20% of dichlorosilane gas added to monosilane gas produces the thin amorphous silicon film 3 times faster than the conventional method. The thin film has essentially the same defect density as the one prepared by the conventional method, showing good photoelectric characteristics. The thin film of chlorinated amorphous silicon has a 1 digit lower defect density than the conventional one of amorphous silicon, as revealed by the accelerated degradation test with irradiated laser light and the constant current method to determine saturated defect density. 3 figs.

  8. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of material/substrate manufacturing technology - Development of amorphous silicon-based high-quality material/substrate manufacturing technology); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - amorphous silicon kei kohinshitsu zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The project aims to enhance the stability of amorphous solar cells. For elevating TCO (transparent conductive oxide) substrate transmittance to an ultrahigh level and for obtaining amorphous layers less to suffer photodegradation, efforts were made to develop substrate materials stable upon exposure to plasma and low in defect density. In the study of TCO, a high-transmittance glass substrate was employed and TCO was made thinner, and the specimen achieved transmittance of 91.3% or 6.3% over that of the conventional type. In the study of low reflection films, it was found that their transmittance came to be stable and remain so after 150 days after a weatherproof test. In the study for stability enhancement, optimization was carried out for a plasma resisting Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-added ZnO film for the manufacture of a substrate material capable of properly behaving in a high-speed a-Si film fabrication process. Low-temperature film fabrication was studied to enable low-cost manufacturing, and it was learned that a 4 times 10{sup -4} ohm/cm low-resistance film was obtained by sputtering Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-added ZnO where magnetism was intensive at room temperature, that films excellent in crystallinity were obtained by the same method even at low temperatures, and so forth. (NEDO)

  9. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999. Research and development of immediately effective and innovative energy environment technology (Development of immediately effective and high-efficiency solar cell technology, development of high-quality ingot manufacturing technology, and development of high-efficiency cell making technology); 1999 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sokkogata kokoritsu taiyo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu ingot seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / kohinshitsu cell ka gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been made on improving quality of ingots for substrates, manufacturing high-quality thin type substrates, and making high-efficiency cells. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing the high-quality ingot manufacturing technology, discussions were given on a method for assessing impurities and crystal defects by using the total reflection scattering type infrared tomography, and on the optimal solidifying and cooling conditions during the ingot manufacturing by using simulation calculation for solidification. As a result of analyses and discussions, such findings were found effective that the ingot should be solidified through making the solid-liquid interface shape flat, and the temperature falling rate in an ingot should be maintained constant. In developing the high-efficiency cell making technology, discussions were given on the optimal construction based on a simulation that assumes the light sealing structure using the RIE method, and on the optimal construction of polycrystalline silicon solar cells by using a device simulator (PCID). The important factors in achieving a conversion efficiency of 20% are the light sealing structure, surface passivation, and substrate thickness. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Research and development of photovoltaic power utilizing system and peripheral technologies (Research and development of novel type solar cell module integratable with building materials - Novel multilayer structure module); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shinkenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi module no kenkyu kaihatsu - shinfukuso kozo module)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The project aims to develop solar cell modules of a novel multilayer structure, based on the resin filling structure, hollow structure, and the laminate structure, and integratable with building materials. In fiscal 1999, for the development of cells and submodule structures, cells and submodules were fabricated which were usable with various specimens. In the case of design oriented cells, electrode structures and linkage methods were improved for the enhancement of power generation performance, and a hollow structure and a laminate structure were fabricated. As for the 4m{sup 2}-large module (laminate structure), a specimen with dummy cells arranged along its periphery was fabricated. For cost reduction, a study was made about a module (laminate structure) integrated with an ALC (autoclaved lightweight concrete) board, and the kind of surface glass, cell arrangement, and back sheet types and their respective designs were evaluated. It was then concluded that the module was fit for practical application. The module was then checked for wind endurance in a wind endurance test, for electric characteristics, and for flame inhibition capability in a fire prevention/resistance test. (NEDO)

  11. Concept development and techno-economic assessment for a solar home system using lithium-ion battery for developing regions to provide electricity for lighting and electronic devices

    Zubi, Ghassan; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Pardo, Nicolás; Pasaoglu, Guzay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar home systems using light emitting diode lamps could substitute kerosene lamps. • This implies major improvement in life quality in developing regions. • The economic advantage of solar home systems is substantial and incremental. • This shift implies a cut of more than 200 mega tons of carbon dioxide annually. • Implementation barriers can be overcome by early consideration in system engineering. - Abstract: Around 18% of the world’s population still don’t have access to electricity, most of them living in rural areas in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Kerosene lamps are widely used for lighting in these regions, but imply a big number of disadvantages including low light quality, reduced indoor air quality and safety concerns. Furthermore, the consumption of kerosene for lighting is very energy inefficient and implies a relatively high cost for the added value it provides, while its price volatility is a major concern for dependant developing regions. Global carbon dioxide emissions from kerosene lamps exceed 200 mega tons annually. A solar home system using light emitting diode lamps provides an effective solution for this problem. This paper elaborates such a solar home system while focusing on overcoming implementation barriers including lack of technical support and affordability. An evolutionary techno-economic assessment, considering the time period 2015–2030, is provided for the proposed system. This emphasizes not only the existing but also the increasing advantage of solar home systems over kerosene lamps.

  12. Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Stand-Alone Power System Based on Solar Power/Batteries for Global System for Mobile Communications Base Stations

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for photovoltaics are making cellular base stations (BSs; a key source of energy consumption in cellular networks powered by solar energy sources a long-term promising solution for the mobile cellular network industry. This paper addresses issues of deployment and operation of two solar-powered global system for mobile communications (GSM BSs that are being deployed at present (GSM BS 2/2/2 and GSM BS 4/4/4. The study is based on the characteristics of South Korean solar radiation exposure. The optimum criteria as well as economic and technical feasibility for various BSs are analyzed using a hybrid optimization model for electric renewables. In addition, initial capital, replacement, operations, maintenance, and total net present costs for various solar-powered BSs are discussed. Furthermore, the economic feasibility of the proposed solar system is compared with conventional energy sources in urban and remote areas.

  13. SUNRAYCE 95: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Group

    1994-05-27

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  14. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Shimizu, A; Hatakeyama, S; Sugiura, S; Shinoda, S; Daigo, Y; Fujihara, Y; Yano, K; Kasuga, M [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  15. Testing activities at the National Battery Test Laboratory

    Hornstra, F.; Deluca, W. H.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    The National Battery Test Laboratory (NBTL) is an Argonne National Laboratory facility for testing, evaluating, and studying advanced electric storage batteries. The facility tests batteries developed under Department of Energy programs and from private industry. These include batteries intended for future electric vehicle (EV) propulsion, electric utility load leveling (LL), and solar energy storage. Since becoming operational, the NBTL has evaluated well over 1400 cells (generally in the form of three- to six-cell modules, but up to 140-cell batteries) of various technologies. Performance characterization assessments are conducted under a series of charge/discharge cycles with constant current, constant power, peak power, and computer simulated dynamic load profile conditions. Flexible charging algorithms are provided to accommodate the specific needs of each battery under test. Special studies are conducted to explore and optimize charge procedures, to investigate the impact of unique load demands on battery performance, and to analyze the thermal management requirements of battery systems.

  16. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  17. Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster

    2012-01-01

    On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.

  18. 晶硅太阳能光伏电池生产的职业危害特点及其防控对策%Characteristics and Control Strategies of Occupational Hazards in Crystal Silicon Solar Energy Photovoltaic Battery Production

    戴云; 朱素蓉; 陈喆; 王强毅

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To investigate the status and features of occupational hazards in crystal silicon solar energy photovoltaic battery production, and to explore solutions for the improvement of occupational hazard control strategies. [ Methods ] A survey on technology, hygienic engineering measures, occupational health surveillance and management was conducted in 4 crystal silicon solar energy photovoltaic battery manufacturing plants in Shanghai, where the concentration (level) of occupational hazard factor was also monitored. [ Results ] The technology of solar energy photovoltaic battery was complicated and involved more than 20 kinds of materials. The workers were exposed to various irritant chemicals and dusts, half of which were severe or moderate poisons. All of the 4 plants took certain hygienic engineering measures and basically established health surveillance and hygienic management system. All the occupational hazard concentrations (levels) were significantly below the national allowable occupational exposure levels (OELs) except that of carborundum in sand-blast shop. [ Conclusion ] The occupational health management of the 4 manufacturing plants is in line with the regulatory requirements, but potential hazards of occupational diseases should not be ignored. It is necessary to further improve the prevention and control measures for occupational hazards.%[目的]调查晶硅太阳能光伏电池生产的职业危害特点和现状,并对进一步健全和完善职业危害防控策略进行探讨.[方法]对上海市4家从事晶硅太阳能光伏电池生产企业的生产工艺、卫生工程防护措施、职业健康监护和职业卫生管理制度等现状进行调查,并对作业场所职业病危害因素浓度(强度)进行检测.[结果]晶硅太阳能光伏电池生产工艺较为复杂,涉及的原、辅料多达20余种,员工在生产过程中可能接触到多种刺激性化学毒物和多种粉尘,且其中一半以上为中毒或高毒物

  19. Hierarchical 3D ZnIn2S4/graphene nano-heterostructures: their in situ fabrication with dual functionality in solar hydrogen production and as anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Kale, Sayali B; Kalubarme, Ramchandra S; Mahadadalkar, Manjiri A; Jadhav, Harsharaj S; Bhirud, Ashwini P; Ambekar, Jalinder D; Park, Chan-Jin; Kale, Bharat B

    2015-12-21

    Hierarchical 3D ZnIn2S4/graphene (ZnIn2S4/Gr) nano-heterostructures were successfully synthesized using an in-situ hydrothermal method. The dual functionality of these nano-heterostructures i.e. for solar hydrogen production and lithium ion batteries has been demonstrated for the first time. The ZnIn2S4/Gr nano-heterostructures were optimized by varying the concentrations of graphene for utmost hydrogen production. An inspection of the structure shows the existence of layered hexagonal ZnIn2S4 wrapped in graphene. The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to graphene was confirmed by Raman and XPS analyses. The morphological analysis demonstrated that ultrathin ZnIn2S4 nanopetals are dispersed on graphene sheets. The optical study reveals the extended absorption edge to the visible region due to the presence of graphene and hence is used as a photocatalyst to transform H2S into eco-friendly hydrogen using solar light. The ZnIn2S4/Gr nano-heterostructure that is comprised of graphene and ZnIn2S4 in a weight ratio of 1 : 99 exhibits enhanced photocatalytically stable hydrogen production i.e. ∼6365 μmole h(-1) under visible light irradiation using just 0.2 g of nano-heterostructure, which is much higher as compared to bare hierarchical 3D ZnIn2S4. The heightened photocatalytic activity is attributed to the enhanced charge carrier separation due to graphene which acts as an excellent electron collector and transporter. Furthermore, the usage of nano-heterostructures and pristine ZnIn2S4 as anodes in lithium ion batteries confers the charge capacities of 590 and 320 mA h g(-1) after 220 cycles as compared to their initial reversible capacities of 645 and 523 mA h g(-1), respectively. These nano-heterostructures show high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability, and high-rate capability indicating their potential as promising anode materials for LIBs. The excellent performance is due to the nanostructuring of ZnIn2S4 and the presence of a graphene layer, which

  20. No need for an electric battery. Solar gadgets for walks and hikes; Staendig unter Strom. Solargeraete fuer kleine und grosse Wanderungen

    Siemer, Jochen

    2010-06-15

    While it is just a minor nuisance when a MP3 player breaks down during a short sunday's cycle tour, it may be more of a problem when a lamp or GPS cell phone does not have sufficient electricity supply on a mountain hike of several days. The contribution presents a number of commercially available solar emergency power supplies. While some of these are no more than amusing, others are power supplies to be reckoned with. (orig.)

  1. Battery Safety Basics

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  2. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  3. Nickel - iron battery. Nikkel - jern batteri

    Petersen, H. A.

    1989-03-15

    A newer type of nickel-iron battery, (SAFT 6v 230 Ah monobloc), which could possibly be used in relation to electrically driven light road vehicles, was tested. The same test methods used for lead batteries were utilized and results compared favourably with those reached during other testings carried out, abroad, on a SAFT nickle-iron battery and a SAB-NIFE nickel-iron battery. Description (in English) of the latter-named tests are included in the publication as is also a presentation of the SAFT battery. Testing showed that this type of battery did not last as long as had been expected, but the density of energy and effect was superior to lead batteries. However energy efficiency was rather poor in comparison to lead batteries and it was concluded that nickel-iron batteries are not suitable for stationary systems where recharging under a constant voltage is necessary. (AB).

  4. Radioactive battery

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  5. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    Orilall, M. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells.

    Orilall, M Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices.

  7. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    Nandar Oo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart is also provided.

  8. Statistical study of solar radiation aimed to desalinisation unit project using photovoltaic panels without batteries; Estudo estatistico de radiacao solar visando o projeto de unidades de dessalinizacao acionadas por paineis fotovoltaicos sem baterias

    Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de; Pontes, Ricardo Silva The; Oliveira Junior, Demercil de Souza; Riffel, Douglas Bressan; Oliveira, Ricardo Gildo Vieira de; Mesquita, Samuelson Brito [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica

    2004-07-01

    Among several treatment processes suitable for the Northeastern semi-arid area of the Brazil, the reverse osmosis presents growing application. A plant of reverse osmosis that uses photovoltaic technology attends to the needs of that area, since it does not demand local electrical grid. The present paper shows a statistical study of radiation making use of data collected in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Federal University of Ceara, in Fortaleza, and it has the aim of be used in the project of a plant of reverse osmosis supplied by photovoltaic panels. The results of the study allow the comparison of different number of panels, radiation levels used to supply the plant and times of operation. The results are exposed in form of graphs such as: solar radiation, histograms of solar radiation, accumulated time and maximum continuous periods with solar radiation above 300 and 500 W/m2. It was observed considerable annual differences in the behaviour of the radiation, as well as a gradual variation along one year, what reflects the annual difference of the radiation behaviour in wet and dry periods, and this will influences directly the strategy of operation of the plant. (author)

  9. From battery modeling to battery management

    Notten, P.H.L.; Danilov, D.

    2011-01-01

    The principles of rechargeable battery operation form the basis of the electronic network models developed for Nickel-based aqueous battery systems, including Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), and non-aqueous battery systems, such as the well-known Li-ion. These electronic network models are based on

  10. Proceedings of JSES/JWEA Joint Conference (1996); Taiyo/furyoku energy koen ronbunshu (1996)

    NONE

    1996-10-27

    The proceedings has 10 papers on photovoltaic power systems, 9 on characteristics of solar cells, 5 on residential use photovoltaic power systems, 3 on solar cars, 6 on solar hybrids, 9 on solar energy storage, 5 on passive solar energy, 4 on power generation/hydrogen production, 5 on wind power, 5 on wind power/wave power, 7 on insolation/meteorology, 3 on heat collection, 9 on air cooling/conditioning, 4 on hot water supply systems, 6 on heat pumps, and 5 on the application to biotechnology. As a special lecture, `The development of a new electric vehicle, EcoVehicle, and the environment` was given by National Institute for Environmental Studies. This was taken notice of as a new concept of electric vehicles. Namely, technologies were collected which are useful for improving electric vehicle performance, and technologies which can use due to the electric vehicle were adopted. The vehicle was so designed as to make good use of characteristics of electric vehicles. As a result, born was `EcoVehicle,` a two-seater having a car width of 1.2m and a car length of 3.3m. The vehicle was installed with polycrystalline solar cells on the roof and spoiler, and has a maximum output of 60W. It can travel 1000km per year when assuming annual duration of sunshine to be 1800 hours.

  11. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  12. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries. PMID:21788483

  13. Application of solar chargers to prospection instruments

    Caille, G.

    1960-01-01

    The use of conventional batteries has certain disadvantages, and for this reason high-voltage batteries have been gradually replaced in all prospection instruments by transistor supply systems, using less cumbersome sources of energy. All the same low voltages are still necessary, and in hot or damp countries the use of these batteries leads to consumptions out of all proportion to the services rendered. This is why the use of solar energy possesses real advantages. After a brief review of the basic ideas on semiconductors, this article describes a selenium solar battery which was developed by the Westinghouse brakes and signals society. (author) [fr

  14. The game changing 'Battery'

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A new energy storage system with the potential to change the way the world utilises electricity has been developed in South Australia. “ With the capability and flexibility to store energy generated by solar or wind power or capture off-peak power for later use, the ZEN Freedom Power Bank offers benefits to householders, businesses and utilities,” ZEN Energy Systems chief executive officer Richard Turner said. He recently represented Australia by invitation at the International Cleantech Forum in San Fransisco and used the spotlight to feature the technology he believes is a world-first and the 'holy grail' of renewable energy. The system is comprised of hi-density storage lithium ion batteries linked to innovative 'active' battery balancing and control software, allowing both 'on-grid' and 'off-grid' management options. The electronic software has been designed in a joint development project with ZEN sister company, US-based Greensmith Energy Management Systems. The units will be assembled in Australia for supply to the local market as well as for export. “This technology enables low cost, large format 'dumb' lithium ion cells to perform as effectively as, or better than, high cost 'smart' cells, virtually halving the cost of the batteries or providing twice the storage capacity for the same cost,” Turner said. “The control software then enables centralised control of large communities of systems to manage peak demand or other issues within the public power grid. The base residential/business system will be capable of managing and storing 20 kilowatt hours of energy per day, which is the daily consumption of an average Australian home. For larger properties, additional 20kWh energy storage modules can be easily added,” Turner explained. “Reliance on the public grid is greatly reduced and it provides up to 24-hour energy backup if the grid goes down.” In the future, the Power Bank will be electric vehicle charge station-ready, allowing

  15. Battery waste management status

    Barnett, B.M.; Sabatini, J.C.; Wolsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper consists of a series of slides used in the conference presentation. The topics outlined in the slides are: an overview of battery waste management; waste management of lead acid batteries; lead acid recycling; typical legislation for battery waste; regulatory status in European countries; mercury use in cells; recent trends in Hg and Cd use; impact of batteries to air quality at MSW incinerators; impact of electric vehicles; new battery technologies; and unresolved issues

  16. Solar energy conversion

    Kistler, J.

    1981-08-05

    The photovoltaic generator is the central part of all solar systems. Flat solar cells embedded in glass are preferred which can also convert diffuse solar radiation. Hybrid modules generate electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. With decreasing generator cost, the cost of energy storage becomes critical. Development activities are mostly directed on the development of stationary lead accumulator batteries and the electronic charging and protective systems. The block diagram of the current converter is presented, and applications of solar systems in domestic heating engineering, transportation technology, communications, and hydrological engineering. Solar villages are recommended which, established in bilateral cooperation with Third World authorities, may demonstrate the advantages of solar energy in heat and electric power generation.

  17. Sunmotor Solar Shack 120

    Jensen, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article described a solar pump that was developed by Alberta-based Sunmotor International Ltd. The prototype Solar Shack 120 was recently deployed in central Alberta for a remediation project for Devon Canada. The portable solar pump unit is well suited for environmental remediation in the oilpatch where conventional electricity is not available. The solar panels automatically run the pump whenever there is enough sunlight and there is liquid in the sump. Devon Canada wanted a system that continues to pump during cloudy weather to avoid the accumulation of effluent in the sump. The Solar Shack 120 delivers 120 volts of alternating current (vac) power. Solar panels are used to charge a bank of large sealed batteries that supply direct power (DC) to an inverter, which converts it into AC. A thermostat control was added to shut off the pumps in cold weather to avoid battery discharging. The Solar Shack unit has possibilities in countries with unreliable electricity supplies. It could provide a backup power supply that automatically kicks in whenever the power grid goes down. Sunmotor International Ltd. can supply complete remote power systems for both AC and DC electrical requirements. The systems are designed for each application to ensure customer satisfaction. The company is currently building a unit that integrates solar power with a generator backup, thereby eliminating the annoying noise of a continually running generator. 1 fig

  18. The battery market

    Deshpande, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The worldwide battery market is estimated to be $21 billion annually at present. The geographical distribution of this market is shown in this paper. The American (North and South), Western Europe and Africa, and Asian and Australia represent equal markets of $6 billion each. The communist block countries (including Russia and China) are estimated to represent a $3 billion market. Automotive and consumer batteries constitute more than 80% of the world battery market. Industrial batteries make up the rest. Secondary (rechargeable) batteries (automotive, for example) have only 60% share of the world battery consumption. Primary batteries (most toy batteries that are the throw away type) exceed rechargeables by far in units. However, the larger size of rechargeable batteries makes their total value larger despite the small number of units

  19. Quick charge battery

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  20. Biomedical applications of batteries

    Latham, Roger [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Linford, Roger [The Research Office, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Schlindwein, Walkiria [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-31

    An overview is presented of the many ways in which batteries and battery materials are used in medicine and in biomedical studies. These include the use of batteries as power sources for motorised wheelchairs, surgical tools, cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators, dynamic prostheses, sensors and monitors for physiological parameters, neurostimulators, devices for pain relief, and iontophoretic, electroporative and related devices for drug administration. The various types of battery and fuel cell used for this wide range of applications will be considered, together with the potential harmful side effects, including accidental ingestion of batteries and the explosive nature of some of the early cardiac pacemaker battery systems.

  1. A new insight of recycling of spent Zn-Mn alkaline batteries: Synthesis of Zn{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O nanoparticles and solar light driven photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A using them

    Qu, Jiao, E-mail: qujiao@bhu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China); Feng, Yue; Zhang, Qian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013 (China); Cong, Qiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China); Luo, Chunqiu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013 (China); Yuan, Xing [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O nanoparticles synthesized using SABs were cylinder with 60 nm diameter. • Adsorption equilibrium of BPA on Zn{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O nanoparticles were achieved in 40 min. • Decomposition yields of BPA were increased with light irradiation and Zn{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O nanoparticles. • The findings have positive effects on solving the recycling of SABs. - Abstract: This work focuses on the synthesis of Zn{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 0.9}O, Zn{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O, and Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O nanoparticles using Zn-Mn spent alkaline batteries (SABs) as raw materials and their applications for photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A in water. Zn-Mn SABs were manually dismantled into scrap (including plastics, copper cap, zinc crust, and carbon rod) and powder. The mashed zinc crust and pretreated powder were successively added into H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}⋅H{sub 2}O, and the formed precipitates were characterized. The yield (wt) of synthesis of Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O (ZnMnO{sub 3}) nanoparticles was 57.1%. The synthesized Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O nanoparticles were cylinder, with a length of 60 nm. Afterwards, the removal efficiencies of bisphenol A (BPA) under solar light irradiation with the recovered Zn{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O nanoparticles were investigated: (1) the adsorption equilibrium of BPA on Zn{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O nanoparticles could be achieved after approximate 40 min. The saturation absorbance of BPA was about 32.40 ± 4.76 mg g{sup −1}, 20.40 ± 3.60 mg g{sup −1}, and 14.50 ± 4.55 mg g{sup −1} by Zn{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 0.9}O, Zn{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O, and Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O nanoparticles, respectively; (2) compared with the 21.7 ± 1.6% degradation of BPA (only solar light irradiation for 180 min), the combination of solar light irradiation and Zn{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 0.9}O, Zn{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O, and Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O nanoparticles could lead to 59.41 ± 4.32%, 83.43 ± 2.73%, and 71.22 ± 4

  2. Development of a Microcontroller-based Battery Charge Controller for an Off-grid Photovoltaic System

    Rina, Z. S.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Majid, M. S. A.; Rojan, M. A.; Zaman, I.

    2017-08-01

    A development of a microcontroller-based charge controller for a 12V battery has been explained in this paper. The system is designed based on a novel algorithm to couple existing solar photovoltaic (PV) charging and main grid supply charging power source. One of the main purposes of the hybrid charge controller is to supply a continuous charging power source to the battery. Furthermore, the hybrid charge controller was developed to shorten the battery charging time taken. The algorithm is programmed in an Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller that monitors the battery voltage and generates appropriate commands for the charging power source selection. The solar energy is utilized whenever the solar irradiation is high. The main grid supply will be only consumed whenever the solar irradiation is low. This system ensures continuous charging power supply and faster charging of the battery.

  3. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program. III

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report reviews the status of the Department of Energy Subelement on Electrochemical Storage Systems. It emphasizes material presented at the Fourth US Department of Energy Battery and Electrochemical Contractors' Conference, held June 2-4, 1981. The conference stressed secondary batteries, however, the aluminum/air mechanically rechargeable battery and selected topics on industrial electrochemical processes were included. The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to supported technologies: electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chromous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included

  4. Recent advances in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Chen, Lin; Shaw, Leon L.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention lately because they have very high theoretical specific energy (2500 Wh kg-1), five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. As a result, they are strong contenders for next-generation energy storage in the areas of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and storage systems for renewable energy such as wind power and solar energy. However, poor cycling life and low capacity retention are main factors limiting their commercialization. To date, a large number of electrode and electrolyte materials to address these challenges have been investigated. In this review, we present the latest fundamental studies and technological development of various nanostructured cathode materials for Li-S batteries, including their preparation approaches, structure, morphology and battery performance. Furthermore, the development of other significant components of Li-S batteries including anodes, electrolytes, additives, binders and separators are also highlighted. Not only does the intention of our review article comprise the summary of recent advances in Li-S cells, but also we cover some of our proposals for engineering of Li-S cell configurations. These systematic discussion and proposed directions can enlighten ideas and offer avenues in the rational design of durable and high performance Li-S batteries in the near future.

  5. Fuzzy logic-based battery charge controller

    Daoud, A.; Midoun, A.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaic power system are generally classified according to their functional and operational requirements, their component configurations, and how the equipment is connected to other power sources and electrical loads, photovoltaic systems can be designed to provide DC and/or AC power service, can operate interconnected with or independent of the utility grid, and can be connected with other energy sources and energy storage systems. Batteries are often used in PV systems for the purpose of storing energy produced by the PV array during the day, and to supply it to electrical loads as needed (during the night and periods of cloudy weather). The lead acid battery, although know for more than one hundred years, has currently offered the best response in terms of price, energetic efficiency and lifetime. The main function of controller or regulator in PV system is too fully charge the battery without permitting overcharge while preventing reverse current flow at night. If a no-self-regulating solar array is connected to lead acid batteries with no overcharge protection, battery life will be compromised. Simple controllers contain a transistor that disconnects or reconnects the PV in the charging circuit once a pre-set voltage is reached. More sophisticated controllers utilize pulse with modulation (PWM) to assure the battery is being fully charged. The first 70% to 80% of battery capacity is easily replaced, but the last 20% to 30% requires more attention and therefore more complexity. This complexity is avoided by using a skilled operators experience in the form of the rules. Thus a fuzzy control system seeks to control the battery that cannot be controlled well by a conventional control such as PID, PD, PI etc., due to the unavailability of an accurate mathematical model of the battery. In this paper design of an intelligent battery charger, in which the control algorithm is implemented with fuzzy logic is discussed. The digital architecture is implemented with

  6. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  7. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  8. Battery systems engineering

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  9. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  10. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  11. Ionospheric data for two solar cycles available online

    Bilitza, D.; Papitashvili, N.; Grebowsky, J.; Schar, W.

    2002-01-01

    We report about a project that has as its goal to make a large volume of ionospheric satellite insitu data from the sixties, seventies and early eighties easily accessible for public use The original data exist in various machine-specific, highly compressed, binary encoding on 7- or 9-track magnetic tapes. The intent is to decode the data format and convert all data sets to a common ASCII data format and add solar and magnetic indices for user convenience. The original intent of producing CD-ROMs with these data has meanwhile been overtaken by the rapid development of the internet. Most users now prefer to obtain the data directly online and greatly value web-interfaces to browse, plot and subset the data. Accordingly, the focus has shifted to making the data available online on the anonymous ftp site of NASA's National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at ftp://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft data/ and on the development of a web-interface (ATMOWeb, http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ atmoweb/) to help users study the data and select interesting time periods. The data considered by this project include data sets from the Alouette I, BE-B (Explorer 22), Alouette 2, DME-A (Explorer 31) , AE-B (Explorer 32), AE-C, -D, -E, OGO-6, ESRO-4, ISIS-I, -2, AEROS-I, -2 Taiyo, ISS-b, Hinotori and DE-2 satellites. The data are primarily electron and ion densities and temperatures measured by Langmuir Probes (LP), Retarding Potential Analyzers (RPA), and Ion Mass Spectrometers (IMS) flown on these satellites. The time resolution of the measurements is typically seconds to minutes. This data base covering almost two solar cycles is a unique asset for studies of the variation and variability of ionospheric parameters. It will be an important element in the quest for a better understanding of ionospheric plasma processes and for improved predictions of ionospheric Space Weather. Current models are still very limited in their predictive capabilities especially at equatorial and auroral

  12. State of health detection for Lithium ion batteries in photovoltaic system

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► DC resistances of batteries. ► Fuzzy logic inference. ► SOH detection for battery. - Abstract: In many photovoltaic systems, rechargeable batteries are required to even out irregularities in solar irradiation. However, the health conditions of the batteries are crucial for the reliability of the overall system. In this paper, the equivalent DC resistances of Lithium ion battery cells of various health conditions during charging under different temperatures have been collected and the relationships between equivalent DC resistance, health condition and working temperature have been identified. The equivalent DC resistance can easily be obtained during the charging period of a battery by switching off the charging current periodically for a very short duration of time. A simple and effective battery charger with state of health (SOH) detection for Lithium ion battery cell has been developed based on the identified equivalent DC resistance. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SOH determination scheme.

  13. Diagnosing battery behavior with an expert system in Prolog

    Kirkwood, N.; Weeks, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Power for the Hubble Space Telescope comes from a system of 20 solar panel assemblies (SPAs) and six nickel-cadmium batteries. The HST battery system is simulated by the HST Electrical Power System (EPS) testbed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is being used to diagnose faults of the testbed system, evaluate battery status and provide decision support for the engineer. Extensive telemetry of system operating conditions is relayed through a DEC LSI-11, and sent on to an IBM PC-AT. A BASIC program running on the PC monitors the flow of data, figures cell divergence and recharge ratio and stores these values, along with other selected data, for use by the expert system. The expert system is implemented in the logic programming language Prolog. It has three modes of operation: fault diagnosis, status and advice, and decision support. An alert or failure of the system will trigger a diagnosis by the system to assist the operator. The operator can also request battery status information as well as a number of plots and histograms of recent battery behavior. Trends in EOC and EOD voltage, recharge ratio and divergence are used by the expert system in its analysis of battery status. A future enhancement to the system includes the statistical prediction of battery life. Incorporating learning into the expert system is another possible enhancement; This is a difficult task, but one which could promise great rewards in improved battery performance

  14. Solar powered dugout aeration

    Murrell, S.

    2001-10-01

    Pasture dugouts are a significant source of water for livestock on the Canadian Prairies and as such, must maintain the best water quality possible. Aeration improves the water quality and is part of a good management plan to reduce overall water treatment costs. Although dugouts can be aerated naturally through wind and wave action and photosynthesis, this generally aerates only the top portion of the dugout. Artificial aeration by air injection into the lowest point of the dugout ensures that the water is oxygenated throughout the entire dugout. Solar aeration can be used in remote areas where grid power is not practical. With solar powered aeration systems, solar panels are used to generate the electrical power needed to run the compressor while storing excess energy in batteries. A solar aeration system includes solar panels, deep cycle batteries to store excess power, a control board with a regulator, a compressor, a weighed feeder hose, and an air diffuser. This publication presented the design of a solar aeration system and its cost. 1 tab., 3 figs

  15. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Ansart, F; Castillo, S; Laberty- Robert, C; Pellizon-Birelli, M [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  16. CERN... Solar Style

    2001-01-01

    Inventor William van Sprolant presenting the Solar Club's latest invention, the solar fountain. The CERN Solar Club is giving new meaning to the phrase 'fun in the sun' with their most recently developed contraption, the Solar Fountain. The Fountain was presented to the public just outside of Restaurant 1 on Wednesday October, 17th and uses solar energy to run a water pump at its base to propel a golden plastic ball up into the air. As lovely as the fountain is, the funny thing about it is that the height of the water jet and the ball are an artistic method of measuring the amount of solar power being captured by the photovoltaique panel (no batteries included). The day it was presented started out cloudy, but as the afternoon wore on, the weather brightened and the fountain jumped to life. William van Sprolant, the Solar Fountain's inventor, had great fun with the fountain in front of a group of visiting children swiveling the solar panel in multiple directions. 'Everyone who installs solar panels worrie...

  17. Standby-battery autonomy versus power quality

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications as an energy store to bridge gaps in the primary source of supplied power for a given period of time. In some cases this bridging time, the battery's "autonomy", is fixed by local legislation but it is also often set by historically common practices. However, even if common practice dictates a long autonomy time, we are entering a new era of "cost and benefit realism" underpinned by environmentally friendly policies and we should challenge these historical practices at every opportunity if it can lead to resource and cost savings. In some cases the application engineer has no choice in the design autonomy; either follow a piece of local legislation (e.g. 4 h autonomy for a "life safety" application), or actually work out what is needed! An example of the latter would be for a remote site, off-grid, using integrated wind/solar power (without emergency generator back-up) where you may have to design-in several days' battery autonomy. This short paper proposes that a battery's autonomy should be related to the time expected for the system to be without the primary power source, balanced by the capital costs and commercial risk of power failure. To discuss this we shall consider the factors in selecting the autonomy time and other related aspects for high voltage battery systems used in facility-wide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.

  18. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  19. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  20. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  1. PV glass curtain walls; Kenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi gaiheki no kaihatsu (glass curtain wall eno tekiyo)

    Yoshida, T.; Iwai, T.; Ouchi, T.; Ito, T.; Nagai, T.; Shu, I. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, T. [Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, N.; Tazawa, K.

    1997-12-20

    Reported in this article are PV (photovoltaic) modules now under development for integration into building walls. First of all, the power generating capability of PV modules and appropriate use of the generated power are studied, and the performance (resistance to fire or incombustibility, strength and durability, appearance and design, and dimensional standardization) that such outer wall materials are to be equipped with are determined. Next, module development, installation technique, computer graphics-aided facade designing, and real size module-using proof test are studied before installability, the power to be generated, and designs are finalized. In the development of modules, design evaluation involves the combining of various kinds of glass, solar cells, back sheets, and fillers, and the importance is confirmed of the prevention of insulation degradation around the modules. As for the methods of installation, the gasket method and aluminum sash method, etc., are tested. In the study of facade design, it is found that various expressions are possible by properly choosing gasket colors, module types, and kinds of glass to cover the openings. 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. A Desalination Battery

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. A desalination battery.

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. A Desalination Battery

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  6. Lithium battery management system

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  7. Hybrid Lithium-ion Capacitor / Lithium-ion Battery System for Extended Performance

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed task will involve the design of a hybrid power system with lithium-ion (li-ion) capacitors (LICs), li-ion batteries and solar cells. The challenge in...

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technologies to manufacture silicon crystal based high-quality materials and substrates / survey and research on analysis of practical application); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / silicon kesshokei kohinshitsu zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu))

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As a plan to develop technologies to manufacture materials and substrates for thin film solar cells, it is intended to reduce defect density, enhance film forming speed, largely improve the photo-electric conversion efficiency and increase manufacturing productivity. These goals will be realized by establishing methods to control defect density, crystal particle diameters and crystallization rate in silicon crystal systems. A technology to form micro-crystal silicon-based thin films will be developed, that have superior photo-stability, and are capable of realizing low cost and mass production. Discussions will be given on a high-density plasma control technology, a fundamental property evaluation technology for micro crystal silicon thin films, and a device design simulation technology. A technology will be developed to form amorphous silicon layer on a stainless steel substrate by using the plasma CVD process. At the same time, discussions will be given on optical annealing and thermal annealing as reformation methods. Fiscal 1997 has surveyed component technologies to identify and analyze quickly and accurately the technical trends inside and outside the country, and to mass produce thin film solar cells. The Material and Substrate System Technology Subcommittee (silicon crystals) was held to deliberate the four-year development program and its progress. (NEDO)

  9. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  10. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  11. Advanced solid state batteries

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  12. Ballistic negatron battery

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  13. Flexible Solar Cells

    1994-01-01

    Solar cell "modules" are plastic strips coated with thin films of photovoltaic silicon that collect solar energy for instant conversion into electricity. Lasers divide the thin film coating into smaller cells to build up voltage. Developed by Iowa Thin Film Technologies under NASA and DOE grants, the modules are used as electrical supply for advertising displays, battery rechargers for recreational vehicles, and to power model airplanes. The company is planning other applications both in consumer goods and as a power source in underdeveloped countries.

  14. The 1998 World Solar Rallye: Akita, Japan

    Shacklock, Andy; Duke, Mike; Burgess, Nigel

    In early August 1998, 81 solar/electric vehicles participated in a three day endurance race in Japan. The objective was to complete as many laps of the 31 km circuit as possible. Some of the cars used state-of-the-art motors, batteries, chassis, solar cells and tyres to produce vehicles which could travel at speeds of 70-80 km/h on about 1 kW of input power. With only 20 kg of battery, some solar cars were travelling around 450 km a day. This paper tells the story of the race and the technological developments behind the successful vehicles.

  15. Analysis of batteries for use in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    Podder, A; Kapner, M

    1981-02-01

    An evaluation of 11 types of secondary batteries for energy storage in photovoltaic electric power systems is given. The evaluation was based on six specific application scenarios which were selected to represent the diverse requirements of various photovoltaic systems. Electrical load characteristics and solar insulation data were first obtained for each application scenario. A computer-based simulation program, SOLSIM, was then developed to determine optimal sizes for battery, solar array, and power conditioning systems. Projected service lives and battery costs were used to estimate life-cycle costs for each candidate battery type. The evaluation considered battery life-cycle cost, safety and health effects associated with battery operation, and reliability/maintainability. The 11 battery types were: lead-acid, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, lithium-iron sulfide, calcium-iron sulfide, sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, Redox, and zinc-ferricyanide. The six application scenarios were: (1) a single-family house in Denver, Colorado (photovoltaic system connected to the utility line); (2) a remote village in equatorial Africa (stand-alone power system); (3) a dairy farm in Howard County, Maryland (onsite generator for backup power); (4) a 50,000 square foot office building in Washington, DC (onsite generator backup); (5) a community in central Arizona with a population of 10,000 (battery to be used for dedicated energy storage for a utility grid-connected photovoltaic power plant); and (6) a military field telephone office with a constant 300 W load (trailer-mounted auxiliary generator backup). Recommendations for a research and development program on battery energy storage for photovoltaic applications are given, and a discussion of electrical interfacing problems for utility line-connected photovoltaic power systems is included. (WHK)

  16. Battery energy storage system

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  17. Silicon Betavoltaic Batteries Structures

    V.N. Murashev; S.A. Legotin; O.I. Rabinovich; O.R. Abdulaev; U.V. Osipov

    2015-01-01

    For low-power miniature energy creation sources the particular interest is nickel Ni63. This paper discusses the main types of betavoltaic battery structures with the prospects for industrial application using - isotope of nickel Ni63. It is shown that the prospects for improving the effective efficiency are planar multijunction betavoltaic batteries.

  18. Deep diode atomic battery

    Anthony, T.R.; Cline, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A deep diode atomic battery is made from a bulk semiconductor crystal containing three-dimensional arrays of columnar and lamellar P-N junctions. The battery is powered by gamma rays and x-ray emission from a radioactive source embedded in the interior of the semiconductor crystal

  19. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    without dendrite formation. The SONY corporation used the LiCoO2/carbon battery to power their initial cellular telephone and launched the wireless revolution. As researchers developed 3D transition-metal hosts, manufacturers introduced spinel and olivine hosts in the Lix[Mn2]O4 and LiFe(PO4) cathodes. However, current Li-ion batteries fall short of the desired specifications for electric-powered automobiles and the storage of electrical energy generated by wind and solar power. These demands are stimulating new strategies for electrochemical cells that can safely and affordably meet those challenges.

  1. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  2. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  3. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  5. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  6. Optimal Sizing of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Systems for Residential Applications Based on Battery Electrochemical Characteristics

    Xinan Zhang; Yifeng Li; Maria Skyllas-Kazacos; Jie Bao

    2016-01-01

    The penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in residential areas contributes to the generation and usage of renewable energy. Despite its advantages, the PV system also creates problems caused by the intermittency of renewable energy. As suggested by researchers, such problems deteriorate the applicability of the PV system and have to be resolved by employing a battery energy storage system (BESS). With concern for the high investment cost, the choice of a cost-effective BESS with prop...

  7. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy...

  8. A metal-free organic-inorganic aqueous flow battery

    Huskinson, B.; Marshak, M.P.; Suh, C.; Er, S.; Gerhardt, M.R.; Galvin, C.J.; Chen, X.; Aspuru-Guzik, A.; Gordon, R.G.; Aziz, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    As the fraction of electricity generation from intermittent renewable sources-such as solar or wind-grows, the ability to store large amounts of electrical energy is of increasing importance. Solid-electrode batteries maintain discharge at peak power for far too short a time to fully regulate wind

  9. Optimal Sizing of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Systems for Residential Applications Based on Battery Electrochemical Characteristics

    Xinan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV systems in residential areas contributes to the generation and usage of renewable energy. Despite its advantages, the PV system also creates problems caused by the intermittency of renewable energy. As suggested by researchers, such problems deteriorate the applicability of the PV system and have to be resolved by employing a battery energy storage system (BESS. With concern for the high investment cost, the choice of a cost-effective BESS with proper sizing is necessary. To this end, this paper proposes the employment of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB, which possesses a long cycle life and high energy efficiency, for residential users with PV systems. It further proposes methods of computing the capital and maintenance cost of VRB systems and evaluating battery efficiency based on VRB electrochemical characteristics. Furthermore, by considering the cost and efficiency of VRB, the prevalent time-of-use electricity price, the solar feed-in tariff, the solar power profile and the user load pattern, an optimal sizing algorithm for VRB systems is proposed. Simulation studies are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  10. Experimental research on charging characteristics of a solar photovoltaic system by the pressure-control method

    Hua ZHU; Zhang-lu XU; Zi-juan CAO

    2011-01-01

    The charging characteristics of the valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery driven by solar energy were experimentally studied through the pressure-control method in this paper. The aims of the research were to increase charging efficiency to make the most of solar energy and to improve charging quality to prolong life of battery. The charging process of a 12 V 12 A.h VRLA battery has been tested under the mode of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. Results show that the pressure-control method can effectively control PV charging of the VRLA battery and make the best of PV cells through the maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The damage of VRLA battery by excess oxygen accumulation can be avoided through the inner pressure control of VRLA battery. Parameters such as solar radiation intensity, charging power, inner pressure of the battery, and charging current and voltage during the charging process were measured and analyzed.

  11. Room Temperature Sulfur Battery Cathode Design and Processing Techniques

    Carter, Rachel

    As the population grows and energy demand increases, climate change threatens causing energy storage research to focus on fulfilling the requirements of two major energy sectors with next generation batteries: (1) portable energy and (2) stationary storage.1 Where portable energy can decrease transportation-related harmful emissions and enable advanced next-generation technologies,1 and stationary storage can facilitate widespread deployment of renewable energy sources, alleviating the demand on fossil fuels and lowering emissions. Portable energy can enable zero-emission transportation and can deploy portable power in advanced electronics across fields including medical and defense. Currently fully battery powered cars are limited in driving distance, which is dictated by the energy density and weight of the state-of-the-art Li-ion battery, and similarly advancement of portable electronics is significantly hindered by heavy batteries with short charge lives. In attempt to enable advanced portable energy, significant research is aiming to improve the conventional Li-ion batteries and explore beyond Li-ion battery chemistries with the primary goal of demonstrating higher energy density to enable lighter weight cells with longer battery life. Further, with the inherent intermittency challenges of our most prominent renewable energy sources, wind and solar, discovery of batteries capable of cost effectively and reliably balancing the generation of the renewable energy sources with the real-time energy demand is required for grid scale viability. Stationary storage will provide load leveling to renewable resources by storing excess energy at peak generation and delivering stored excess during periods of lower generation. This application demands highly abundant, low-cost active materials and long-term cycle stability, since infrastructure costs (combined with the renewable) must compete with burning natural gas. Development of a battery with these characteristics will

  12. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  13. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  14. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  15. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-08

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  16. Probabilistic Analysis of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System

    Barney, P.; Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.; O' Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

    1998-11-24

    We developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system component;. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the rechargeable battery, and a load. Artificial neural networks are incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate damage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are combined into one set and solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework to evaluate the probabilistic character of measures of battery behavior.

  17. Thermal management of batteries

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  18. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  19. Long Term Analysis of Adaptive Low-Power Instrument Platform Power and Battery Performance

    Edwards, T.; Bowman, J. R.; Clauer, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Operation of the Autonomous Adaptive Low-Power Instrument Platform (AAL-PIP) by the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Science Team (MIST) at Virginia Tech has been ongoing for about 10 years. These instrument platforms are deployed on the East Antarctic Plateau in remote locations that are difficult to access regularly. The systems have been designed to operate unattended for at least 5 years. During the Austral summer, the systems charge batteries using solar panels and power is provided by the batteries during the winter months. If the voltage goes below a critical level, the systems go into hibernation and wait for voltage from the solar panels to initiate a restart sequence to begin operation and battery charging. Our first system was deployed on the East Antarctic Plateau in 2008 and we report here on an analysis of the power and battery performance over multiple years and provide an estimate for how long these systems can operate before major battery maintenance must be performed.

  20. Solar cell power source system

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  1. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  2. Progress in aqueous rechargeable batteries

    Jilei Liu; Chaohe Xu; Zhen Chen; Shibing Ni; Ze Xiang Shen

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, a series of aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs) were explored, investigated and demonstrated. Among them, aqueous rechargeable alkali-metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+) batteries, aqueous rechargeable-metal ion (Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+) batteries and aqueous rechargeable hybrid batteries are standing out due to peculiar properties. In this review, we focus on the fundamental basics of these batteries, and discuss the scientific and/or technological achievements and challenges. B...

  3. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  4. Technical model for optimising PV/diesel/battery hybrid power systems

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available A solar-based power supply system, such as a photovoltaic (PV)-diesel-battery system, is a particularly attractive option for decentralised power supply in southern Africa where solar radiation is ubiquitous in most countries. Such systems can make...

  5. A Rechargeable Hydrogen Battery.

    Christudas Dargily, Neethu; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Devendrachari, Mruthunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Gautam, Manu; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-04-27

    We utilize proton-coupled electron transfer in hydrogen storage molecules to unlock a rechargeable battery chemistry based on the cleanest chemical energy carrier molecule, hydrogen. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and spectroelectrochemical analyses evidence the participation of protons during charge-discharge chemistry and extended cycling. In an era of anthropogenic global climate change and paramount pollution, a battery concept based on a virtually nonpolluting energy carrier molecule demonstrates distinct progress in the sustainable energy landscape.

  6. Solar building

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  7. Construction and operation of a solar lighting system | Asuquo ...

    A solar lighting system which can make a 3w lamp glow continuously for about one hour if the battery is fully charged has been constructed. The device can be used for small-scale lighting applications in remote areas that are far away from the power grid. The system has a panel to collect the sun's energy, a battery to store ...

  8. Solar energy

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  9. Optimizing the size of a solar cell array; Optimiser la taille d'un panneau solaire

    Shannon, J. [Linear Technology, 94 - Rungis (France)

    2006-06-15

    The electronic power conversion system is a strategic part of solar power supply systems. An ideal diode controller combined to a compensated switching regulator allows to optimize the operation of the battery and to optimize the dimensioning of the solar cells array. The ideal diode controller limits the discharge of the battery inside the non-exposed solar cells and limits the related direct voltage drop and loss of power. The switching regulator charger lowers the solar cells voltage to charge the battery and ensures the optimum operation of the solar elements. (J.S.)

  10. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  11. Proceedings of the IASTED international conference on solar energy : SOE 2009

    Hamza, M.H. [International Association of Science and Technology for Development, Calgary, AB (Canada)] (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    This solar energy conference was attended by international researchers and practitioners working with leading edge solar energy technology as well as related areas such as renewable energy and clean energy. The topics of discussion included nanotechnologies for solar energy; photovoltaic energy; solar fuel cells; solar-powered vehicles; solar thermal energy; thin film batteries; desalination systems; solar cooling; clean energy; renewable energy; biomass energy; sustainability; flexible solar cells; hybrid power generation; organic solar cells; remote sensing of solar radiation; solar thermal conversion; sustainable buildings; and thin film silicon solar cells. Some of the presentations discussed the application of solar energy in agriculture, environment, economics and home construction. The sessions were entitled: grid connection and energy conversion; photovoltaic and nanotechnology; solar energy and applications; and solar thermal energy. Seventeen of the 18 presentations have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  12. Lithium use in batteries

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Solar and Hydrogen

    Kadirgan, F.; Beyhan, S.; Oezenler, S.

    2006-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that the only sustainable and environmentally friendly energy is the solar energy and hydrogen energy, which can meet the increasing energy demand in the future. Solar Energy may be used either for solar thermal or for solar electricity conversion. Solar thermal collectors represent a wide-spread type of system for the conversion of solar energy. Radiation, convection and conduction are strongly coupled energy transport mechanisms in solar collector systems. The economic viability of lower temperature applications of solar energy may be improved by increasing the quantity of usable energy delivered per unit area of collector. This can be achieved by the use of selective black coatings which have a high degree of solar absorption, maintaining high energy input to the solar system while simultaneously suppressing the emission of thermal infrared radiation. Photovoltaic solar cells and modules are produced for: (1) large scale power generation, most commonly when modules are incorporated as part of a building (building integrated photovoltaic s) but also in centralised power stations, (2) supplying power to villages and towns in developing countries that are not connected to the supply grid, e.g. for lighting and water pumping systems, (3) supplying power in remote locations, e.g. for communications or weather monitoring equipment, (4) supplying power for satellites and space vehicles, (5) supplying power for consumer products, e.g. calculators, clocks, toys and night lights. In hydrogen energy systems, Proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cells are promising candidates for applications ranging from portable power sources (battery replacement applications) to power sources for future electric vehicles because of their safety, elimination of fuel processor system, thus, simple device fabrication and low cost. Although major steps forward have been achieved in terms of PEMFC design since the onset of research in this area, further

  14. Latest position in battery techniques

    Staeger, H J

    1960-03-17

    A short survey of the development of electrochemical properties as batteries is followed by an account of the construction, properties, and fields of application of lead, iron--nickel, and silver--zinc batteries, and their more recent developments, such as the hollow-rod plates in lead batteries, sintered plates, and sealed batteries. The work in progress on fuel cells is discussed and different practical cells are compared. There is no battery which is the best for all applications, each system has its own advantages or disadvantages. The lead battery in its different forms still remains the most universally applied.

  15. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-02-24

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  16. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    Mousa, Mustafa; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  17. SSTI- Lewis Spacecraft Nickel-Hydrogen Battery

    Tobias, R. F.

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: NASA-Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) objectives, SSTI-Lewis overview, battery requirement, two cells Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) design summary, CPV electric performance, battery design summary, battery functional description, battery performance.

  18. Circulating current battery heater

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  19. Used batteries - REMINDER

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  20. All-Fullerene-Based Cells for Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries.

    Friedl, Jochen; Lebedeva, Maria A; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Stimming, Ulrich; Chamberlain, Thomas W

    2018-01-10

    Redox flow batteries have the potential to revolutionize our use of intermittent sustainable energy sources such as solar and wind power by storing the energy in liquid electrolytes. Our concept study utilizes a novel electrolyte system, exploiting derivatized fullerenes as both anolyte and catholyte species in a series of battery cells, including a symmetric, single species system which alleviates the common problem of membrane crossover. The prototype multielectron system, utilizing molecular based charge carriers, made from inexpensive, abundant, and sustainable materials, principally, C and Fe, demonstrates remarkable current and energy densities and promising long-term cycling stability.

  1. Cost and Performance Report: Solar-Powered Remediation and pH Control

    2017-04-01

    parallel, with two batteries in each series, providing a 24 V DC power supply. A solar charge controller regulated the charging of the batteries when...ER-201033) Solar -Powered Remediation and pH Control April 2017 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution Statement A...Technol. 32:1817-1824. CB&I Federal Services. 2017. Final Report. Solar Powered Remediation and pH Control . ESTCP Project ER-201033. April. Cheng, S

  2. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  3. Recent Development of Carbonaceous Materials for Lithium–Sulphur Batteries

    Xingxing Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change are just beginning to be felt, and as such, society must work towards strategies of reducing humanity’s impact on the environment. Due to the fact that energy production is one of the primary contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, it is obvious that more environmentally friendly sources of power are required. Technologies such as solar and wind power are constantly being improved through research; however, as these technologies are often sporadic in their power generation, efforts must be made to establish ways to store this sustainable energy when conditions for generation are not ideal. Battery storage is one possible supplement to these renewable energy technologies; however, as current Li-ion technology is reaching its theoretical capacity, new battery technology must be investigated. Lithium–sulphur (Li–S batteries are receiving much attention as a potential replacement for Li-ion batteries due to their superior capacity, and also their abundant and environmentally benign active materials. In the spirit of environmental harm minimization, efforts have been made to use sustainable carbonaceous materials for applications as carbon–sulphur (C–S composite cathodes, carbon interlayers, and carbon-modified separators. This work reports on the various applications of carbonaceous materials applied to Li–S batteries, and provides perspectives for the future development of Li–S batteries with the aim of preparing a high energy density, environmentally friendly, and sustainable sulphur-based cathode with long cycle life.

  4. Optimal power flow management for distributed energy resources with batteries

    Tazvinga, Henerica; Zhu, Bing; Xia, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A PV-diesel-battery hybrid system is proposed. • Model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs. • Power flows are analysed in a 24-h period. • Results provide a practical platform for decision making. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimal energy management model of a solar photovoltaic-diesel-battery hybrid power supply system for off-grid applications. The aim is to meet the load demand completely while satisfying the system constraints. The proposed model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs and finds the optimal power flow, taking into account photovoltaic power availability, battery bank state of charge and load power demand. The optimal solutions are compared for cases when the objectives are weighted equally and when a larger weight is assigned to battery wear. A considerable increase in system operational cost is observed in the latter case owing to the increased usage of the diesel generator. The results are important for decision makers, as they depict the optimal decisions considered in the presence of trade-offs between conflicting objectives

  5. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of application type novel-structure thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of static micro-concentrator solar cell manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (micro shukogata taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An acorn type concentrator is a 2-dimensional system and realizes relatively high magnification power, but it requires a special assembly process for modularization because the cells and the concentration system are quite small. Under the circumstances, studies are conducted on a prism array concentrator (PAC) which will demand a smaller burden for modularization. A PAC system is basically a 1-dimensional concentrator in terms of light collection performance. The cell to be attached to one plane in the longitudinal direction of the long triangular prism is so small as 5mm in width, yet it may be as long as 50-100mm, and the conventional flat plate assembly process may be made use of. A concentration efficiency of 82% and a conversion efficiency of 10.9% were obtained from a minimodule with a light intercepting area of 5cm times 4cm. Furthermore, a conversion efficiency of 19.7-21.4% was obtained when a small 5mm-wide cell applicable to a PAC type concentration was used. Since a prism type concentrator optical system will cost much for its molding and strengthening when it is built of glass, inexpensive EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer) was utilized as an adhesive filler. (NEDO)

  6. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-07

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  7. Battery Monitoring and Charging System

    Thivierge, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    A battery monitoring device for a battery having cells grouped in modules. The device includes a monitoring circuit for each module which monitors the voltage in each cell and the overall module voltage...

  8. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  9. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  10. Lithium-ion batteries

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  11. Automotive battery technology

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  12. Solar water lifter

    Khandurdyyev, A; Daykhanov, S

    1982-01-01

    A water lifter is proposed which contains a piston pump, whose rod of the piston is connected to the drive element having periodic contact with the solar heater storage battery. In order to expand the range of operation and to simplify design, the drive element is made in the form of a hollow tube with closed ends equipped with mobile supports, and a ridged HE attached to its middle part, hydraulically connected to the cavity of the tube, and the latter is made of material which has the memory of the shape in the hot state.

  13. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  14. Recycling of batteries after storage

    Posthumus, W.

    1997-06-01

    An overview is given of the types and composition of batteries and their waste processing techniques that are operational or under development. Attention is paid to the demands of the waste processing techniques with respect to the quality of the collected batteries. Finally the storage of batteries is discussed. 18 refs

  15. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  16. University of Calgary solar car set for American solar challenge

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    This article described a solar car designed by a team from the University of Calgary for the 2010 American Solar Challenge, a 1100 mile race that starts in Tulsa, Oklahoma and ends 5 days later in Chicago, Illinois. The Shulich Axiom car is comprised of 2000 solar cells with batteries that can store enough power to drive the car for a 4-hour period. The car has a top speed of 140 km per hour and is totally powered by solar energy. The team has taken the car on a 5-day tour of Alberta, stopping in 7 communities across the province before heading back to Calgary. The team is one of only 2 Canadian teams competing in the challenge this year. 1 fig.

  17. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  18. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  19. Experimental and numerical investigation on thermal management of an outdoor battery cabinet

    Meng, X.Z.; Lu, Z.; Jin, L.W.; Zhang, L.Y.; Hu, W.Y.; Wei, L.C.; Chai, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of electronic equipment such as battery packs and telecom equipment must be stored in harsh outdoor environment. It is essential that these facilities be protected from a wide range of ambient temperatures and solar radiation. Temperature extremes greatly reduce lead-acid based battery performance and shorten battery life. Therefore, it is important to maintain the cabinet temperature within the optimal values between 20 °C and 30 °C to ensure battery stability and to extend battery lifespan. To this end, cabinet enclosures with proper thermal management have been developed to house such electronic equipment in a highly weather tight manner, especially for battery cabinet. In this paper, the flow field and temperature distribution inside an outdoor cabinet are studied experimentally and numerically. The battery cabinets house 24 batteries in two configurations namely, two-layer configuration and six-layer configuration respectively. The cabinet walls are maintained at a constant temperature by a refrigeration system. The cabinet's ability to protect the batteries from an ambient temperature as high as 50 °C is studied. An experimental facility is developed to measure the battery surface temperatures and to validate the numerical simulations. The differences between the experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) results are within 5%. - Highlights: • Battery placement has significant effect on temperature field in battery cabinet. • The six-layer configuration achieves better temperature uniformity. • Internal air circulation depends on battery configuration. • Natural convection could be an effective solution satisfying safety concerns.

  20. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  1. Solar energy and ecosystem. ; Simulation system for the ecological system (Bios-3 as an example). Taiyo energy to ecosystem. ; Seitaikei mogi system (Bios-3 wo rei to shite)

    Nitta, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-11-30

    The present report gives inspectional opinions about the Bios-3 which is a Russian artificial ecological system and explains the simulation system for the ecological system. The Bios-3 installed in a semi-underground dome of Biophysics Research Institute, Krasnoyarsk is a stainless steel-made enclosed box which is 120m[sup 2] and 3m in total area and height, respectively. Such an internal volume is structurally divided into two botanical cultivation rooms, oxygen supply use chlorella cultivation room and living room where the human living experiment can be done without interruption during half a year. It is judged that the ecological environment can not sufficiently condition both the autotrophic substances which are plants and mosses, and hetrotrophic ones which are animals and microbes. As for the conditional control of ecological system, neither BS-II, USA nor Bios-3 can arbitrarily change the environmental condition. However by utilizing buffers, air blowers and other physico-chemical controllers, development must be done of a new simulator which can change the environment, and elucidate the correlation between the environment and biological beings. That simulator may play an important role also for preparing the IGBP's global model. 5 figs.

  2. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  3. Remote RF Battery Charging

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  4. Intelligent automotive battery systems

    Witehira, P.

    A single power-supply battery is incompatible with modern vehicles. A one-cmbination 12 cell/12 V battery, developed by Power Beat International Limited (PBIL), is described. The battery is designed to be a 'drop in' replacement for existing batteries. The cell structures, however, are designed according to load function, i.e., high-current shallow-discharge cycles and low-current deep-discharge cycles. The preferred energy discharge management logic and integration into the power distribution network of the vehicle to provide safe user-friendly usage is described. The system is designed to operate transparent to the vehicle user. The integrity of the volatile high-current cells is maintained by temperature-sensitive voltage control and discharge management. The deep-cycle cells can be fully utilized without affecting startability under extreme conditions. Electric energy management synchronization with engine starting will provide at least 6% overall reduction in hydrocarbon emissions using an intelligent on-board power-supply technology developed by PBIL.

  5. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  6. Weston Standard battery

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  7. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  8. Solar Resources for Universities | State, Local, and Tribal Governments |

    stakeholders to develop deployment solutions, and empower decision makers. Text version To assist organizations Federal Tax Incentives for Battery Storage Systems Non-Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) Options to Financing Power Purchase Agreements for Solar Deployment at Universities Writing Solar Requests for Proposals

  9. The future of solar is now

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    For nearly half a century, the photovoltaic cell, generating DC power solely from the sun, has represented one avenue to independence of the electric power grid. Developments in renew able energy systems have finally made it easier to live with the limitations of solar power while maintaining quality of life. This article presents an overview of advances in solar power. Topics include advances in photovoltaic technology and other power sources; technology improvements in sun trackers; battery technology; unanswered questions; and energy conservation

  10. Redox Species of Redox Flow Batteries: A Review.

    Pan, Feng; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-18

    Due to the capricious nature of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar, large-scale energy storage devices are increasingly required to make the best use of the renewable power. The redox flow battery is considered suitable for large-scale applications due to its modular design, good scalability and flexible operation. The biggest challenge of the redox flow battery is the low energy density. The redox active species is the most important component in redox flow batteries, and the redox potential and solubility of redox species dictate the system energy density. This review is focused on the recent development of redox species. Different categories of redox species, including simple inorganic ions, metal complexes, metal-free organic compounds, polysulfide/sulfur and lithium storage active materials, are reviewed. The future development of redox species towards higher energy density is also suggested.

  11. Redox Species of Redox Flow Batteries: A Review

    Feng Pan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the capricious nature of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar, large-scale energy storage devices are increasingly required to make the best use of the renewable power. The redox flow battery is considered suitable for large-scale applications due to its modular design, good scalability and flexible operation. The biggest challenge of the redox flow battery is the low energy density. The redox active species is the most important component in redox flow batteries, and the redox potential and solubility of redox species dictate the system energy density. This review is focused on the recent development of redox species. Different categories of redox species, including simple inorganic ions, metal complexes, metal-free organic compounds, polysulfide/sulfur and lithium storage active materials, are reviewed. The future development of redox species towards higher energy density is also suggested.

  12. Six years of operational experience with a lead acid battery in the autonomous PV-hydrogen plant phoebus Juelich

    Meurer, C.; Brocke, W.A.; Emonts, B.; Heuts, G.; Mai, H.; Croe, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany). Inst. for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems IWV-3

    1999-07-01

    A set of 110 lead acid battery cells with a capacity of 1380 Ah was operated for six years in the PV-hydrogen plant PHOEBUS Juelich under realistic consumer and solar conditions. The plant is controlled by an energy management system that is specially designed for the use of a battery combined with a hydrogen long-term storage. The energy management system uses the state of charge SOC, which is determined by measurements of the battery current using validated models of the gassing current and the equilibrium voltage. It was found that after six years of operation there is hardly any fading of battery capacity. (orig.)

  13. 1480 W Plts Solar Power Plant Architecture With Solar Tracker For Controlling Microcontroller-Based Solar Panel In Tigaraja Village Sub-District Of Tigadolok Regency Of Simalungun

    Robert Samosir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy has become a basic need for human being. In some remote areas however electricity is unreachable and poses a taboo subject and cannot be enjoyed by local people such as in Tigaraja Village Sub-District of Tigadolok Regency of Simalungun. The sun is a renewable energy that it is beneficial for power plant use. With PLTS solar energy can be changed into the sun through the solar panel. Battery Charge Regulator BCR operates stabilizing voltage from solar panel to battery. The battery will save electrical power to be distributed for household consumption. Since battery power has direct current however Inverter operates changing its direct current into alternating current. To optimize absorption of solar energy a servo motor is used to make solar panel moving by following the suns path. Arduino Uno as direct control of solar panel using solar sensor gives current for servo motor. Then the servo motor can move in reverse and forward. Therefore Household goods like water pumps lamps and televisions have been worked when people come home from their work.

  14. Technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells. Technological development of solar-high efficiency singlecrystalline silicon solar cells (high quality singlecrystalline silicon substrates); Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu. Chokokoritsu tankessho silicon taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu tankessho silicon kiban no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on technological development for high quality efficiency singlecrystalline silicon substrates in fiscal 1994. (1) On electromagnetic casting/once FZ bath method, a Si single crystal of 600mm long was successfully obtained by improvement of power source frequency and furnace parts. High carbon content resulted in no single crystal including solids. In undoped electromagnetic casting ingots, resistivities over 1500ohm-cm were obtained because of effective preventive measures from contaminants. (2) On electromagnetic melting CZ method, since vibration and temperature control of melt surface by magnetic shield was insufficient for stable pulling of single crystals, its practical use was hopeless. (3) On electron beam melting CZ method, a Si single crystal of 25mm in diameter was obtained by preventive measures from evaporation of Si and influence of deposits, and improved uniform deposition distribution in a furnace. The oscillation circuit constant of power source, and water-cooling copper crucible structure were also analyzed for the optimum design of electromagnetic melting furnaces. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Passive hybridization of a photovoltaic module with lithium-ion battery cells: A model-based analysis

    Joos, Stella; Weißhar, Björn; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2017-04-01

    Standard photovoltaic battery systems based on AC or DC architectures require power electronics and controllers, including inverters, MPP tracker, and battery charger. Here we investigate an alternative system design based on the parallel connection of a photovoltaic module with battery cells without any intermediate voltage conversion. This approach, for which we use the term passive hybridization, is based on matching the solar cell's and battery cell's respective current/voltage behavior. A battery with flat discharge characteristics can allow to pin the solar cell to its maximum power point (MPP) independently of the external power consumption. At the same time, upon battery full charge, voltage increase will drive the solar cell towards zero current and therefore self-prevent battery overcharge. We present a modeling and simulation analysis of passively hybridizing a 5 kWp PV system with a 5 kWh LFP/graphite lithium-ion battery. Dynamic simulations with 1-min time resolution are carried out for three exemplary summer and winter days using historic weather data and a synthetic single-family household consumer profile. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system. The passive hybrid allows for high self-sufficiencies of 84.6% in summer and 25.3% in winter, which are only slightly lower than those of a standard system.

  16. Rural electrification with photovoltaic solar technology using solar home system; Eletrificacao rural com tecnologia solar fotovoltaica utilizando sistemas isolados autonomos

    Salviano, Carlos Jose Caldas

    1999-02-01

    The utilization of solar energy, inexhaustible on the earthly scale of time, as heat and light source, today is one of the energetics alternatives more to confront the challenges of the new millennium. Remarkable is the impulse that power generation photovoltaic has received in Brazil. In Pernambuco, state of Brazil, the CELPE - Electric Power Company of Pernambuco, already implanted more than 750 photovoltaic solar home system (95 kW installed) for power supply to rural communities far from the grid connection that come across in commercial operation since 1994. Eight configurations were studied with modifications in their components (panel, battery and charge) with the objective to evaluate the performance and the adequacy of the size these configurations. The parameters utilized for this evaluation were: solar energy diary incident on the panel plat, diary efficiency generator, output voltage on the generator and state of charge the batteries bank. A system of data acquisition automated was fined to measure in real conditions the function of each components, the following parameters: solar radiation incident and temperature on the photovoltaic generator, voltage and generator current, batteries bank and charge and ambient temperature. About the configurations studied, it follows that analysis the operational of characteristics capacity and battery capacity of the SHS utilized, simulating the rural electrification conditions. It was possible to certify the adequate configurations for the load profile will be supply. (author)

  17. Photorechargeable High Voltage Redox Battery Enabled by Ta3 N5 and GaN/Si Dual-Photoelectrode.

    Cheng, Qingmei; Fan, Weiqiang; He, Yumin; Ma, Peiyan; Vanka, Srinivas; Fan, Shizhao; Mi, Zetian; Wang, Dunwei

    2017-07-01

    Solar rechargeable battery combines the advantages of photoelectrochemical devices and batteries and has emerged as an attractive alternative to artificial photosynthesis for large-scale solar energy harvesting and storage. Due to the low photovoltages by the photoelectrodes, however, most previous demonstrations of unassisted photocharge have been realized on systems with low open circuit potentials (5 mA cm -2 ). The photoelectrode system makes it possible to operate a 1.2 V alkaline anthraquinone/ferrocyanide redox battery with a high ideal solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency of 3.0% without externally applied potentials. Importantly, the photocharged battery is successfully discharged with a high voltage output. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator

    Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

  19. A novel iron-lead redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-04-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies for the massive utilization of intermittent renewables especially wind and solar energy. This work presents a novel redox flow battery that utilizes inexpensive and abundant Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples as redox materials. Experimental results show that both the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples have fast electrochemical kinetics in methanesulfonic acid, and that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the battery are, respectively, as high as 96.2% and 86.2% at 40 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the battery exhibits stable performance in terms of efficiencies and discharge capacities during the cycle test. The inexpensive redox materials, fast electrochemical kinetics and stable cycle performance make the present battery a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage applications.

  20. Financial analysis of utility scale photovoltaic plants with battery energy storage

    Rudolf, Viktor; Papastergiou, Konstantinos D.

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage is a flexible and responsive form of storing electrical energy from Renewable generation. The need for energy storage mainly stems from the intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources. System integrators are investigating ways to design plants that can provide more stable output power without compromising the financial performance that is vital for investors. Network operators on the other side set stringent requirements for the commissioning of new generation, including preferential terms for energy providers with a well-defined generation profile. The aim of this work is to highlight the market and technology drivers that impact the feasibility of battery energy storage in a Utility-scale solar PV project. A simulation tool combines a battery cycling and lifetime model with a solar generation profile and electricity market prices. The business cases of the present market conditions and a projected future scenario are analyzed. - Highlights: • Generation shifting with batteries allows PV projects to generate additional revenues. • Battery lifetime, lifecycles and price are less relevant than electricity market prices. • Installed battery capacity of up to 50% of the daily PV energy boosts project economy. • A 25% higher premium for energy storage could improve NPV by approximately 65%

  1. Modeling for Battery Prognostics

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Goebel, Kai; Khasin, Michael; Hogge, Edward; Quach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    For any battery-powered vehicles (be it unmanned aerial vehicles, small passenger aircraft, or assets in exoplanetary operations) to operate at maximum efficiency and reliability, it is critical to monitor battery health as well performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL). To fulfil these needs, it is important to capture the battery's inherent characteristics as well as operational knowledge in the form of models that can be used by monitoring, diagnostic, and prognostic algorithms. Several battery modeling methodologies have been developed in last few years as the understanding of underlying electrochemical mechanics has been advancing. The models can generally be classified as empirical models, electrochemical engineering models, multi-physics models, and molecular/atomist. Empirical models are based on fitting certain functions to past experimental data, without making use of any physicochemical principles. Electrical circuit equivalent models are an example of such empirical models. Electrochemical engineering models are typically continuum models that include electrochemical kinetics and transport phenomena. Each model has its advantages and disadvantages. The former type of model has the advantage of being computationally efficient, but has limited accuracy and robustness, due to the approximations used in developed model, and as a result of such approximations, cannot represent aging well. The latter type of model has the advantage of being very accurate, but is often computationally inefficient, having to solve complex sets of partial differential equations, and thus not suited well for online prognostic applications. In addition both multi-physics and atomist models are computationally expensive hence are even less suited to online application An electrochemistry-based model of Li-ion batteries has been developed, that captures crucial electrochemical processes, captures effects of aging, is computationally efficient

  2. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  3. A Hydrogen-Evolving Hybrid-Electrolyte Battery with Electrochemical/Photoelectrochemical Charging from Water Oxidation.

    Jin, Zhaoyu; Li, Panpan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-02-08

    Decoupled hydrogen and oxygen production were successfully embedded into an aqueous dual-electrolyte (acid-base) battery for simultaneous energy storage and conversion. A three-electrode configuration was adopted, involving an electrocatalytic hydrogen-evolving electrode as cathode, an alkaline battery-type or capacitor-type anode as shuttle, and a charging-assisting electrode for electro-/photoelectrochemically catalyzing water oxidation. The conceptual battery not only synergistically outputs electricity and chemical fuels with tremendous specific energy and power densities, but also supports various approaches to be charged by pure or solar-assisted electricity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Solar Refrigerators Store Life-Saving Vaccines

    2014-01-01

    Former Johnson Space Center engineer David Bergeron used his experience on the Advanced Refrigeration Technology Team to found SunDanzer Refrigeration Inc., a company specializing in solar-powered refrigerators. The company has created a battery-free unit that provides safe storage for vaccines in rural and remote areas around the world.

  5. Solar Energy.

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  6. Batteries and accumulators in France

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  7. Solar energy

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  8. Solar Combisystems

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  9. Thermo-electro-chemical storage (TECS) of solar energy

    Wenger, Erez; Epstein, Michael; Kribus, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar plant with thermally regenerative battery unifies energy conversion and storage. • Storage is a flow battery with thermo-chemical charging and electro-chemical discharging. • Sodium-sulfur and zinc-air systems are investigated as candidate storage materials. • Theoretical solar to electricity efficiencies of over 60% are predicted. • Charging temperature can be lowered with hybrid carbothermic reduction. - Abstract: A new approach for solar electricity generation and storage is proposed, based on the concept of thermally regenerative batteries. Concentrated sunlight is used for external thermo-chemical charging of a flow battery, and electricity is produced by conventional electro-chemical discharge of the battery. The battery replaces the steam turbine, currently used in commercial concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, potentially leading to much higher conversion efficiency. This approach offers potential performance, cost and operational advantages compared to existing solar technologies, and to existing storage solutions for management of an electrical grid with a significant contribution of intermittent solar electricity generation. Here we analyze the theoretical conversion efficiency for new thermo-electro-chemical storage (TECS) plant schemes based on the electro-chemical systems of sodium-sulfur (Na-S) and zinc-air. The thermodynamic upper limit of solar to electricity conversion efficiency for an ideal TECS cycle is about 60% for Na-S at reactor temperature of 1550 K, and 65% for the zinc-air system at 1750 K, both under sunlight concentration of 3000. A hybrid process with carbothermic reduction in the zinc-air system reaches 60% theoretical efficiency at the more practical conditions of reaction temperature <1200 K and concentration <1000. Practical TECS plant efficiency, estimated from these upper limits, may then be much higher compared to existing solar electricity technologies. The technical and economical

  10. Solar Systems

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  11. The nuclear battery

    Kozier, K.S.; Rosinger, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work. 19 refs

  12. Batteries not included

    Cooper, M.

    2001-09-08

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge.

  13. Batteries not included

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  14. Battery charging stations

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  15. Block copolymer battery separator

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  16. Bending-Tolerant Anodes for Lithium-Metal Batteries.

    Wang, Aoxuan; Tang, Shan; Kong, Debin; Liu, Shan; Chiou, Kevin; Zhi, Linjie; Huang, Jiaxing; Xia, Yong-Yao; Luo, Jiayan

    2018-01-01

    Bendable energy-storage systems with high energy density are demanded for conformal electronics. Lithium-metal batteries including lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen cells have much higher theoretical energy density than lithium-ion batteries. Reckoned as the ideal anode, however, Li has many challenges when directly used, especially its tendency to form dendrite. Under bending conditions, the Li-dendrite growth can be further aggravated due to bending-induced local plastic deformation and Li-filaments pulverization. Here, the Li-metal anodes are made bending tolerant by integrating Li into bendable scaffolds such as reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films. In the composites, the bending stress is largely dissipated by the scaffolds. The scaffolds have increased available surface for homogeneous Li plating and minimize volume fluctuation of Li electrodes during cycling. Significantly improved cycling performance under bending conditions is achieved. With the bending-tolerant r-GO/Li-metal anode, bendable lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen batteries with long cycling stability are realized. A bendable integrated solar cell-battery system charged by light with stable output and a series connected bendable battery pack with higher voltage is also demonstrated. It is anticipated that this bending-tolerant anode can be combined with further electrolytes and cathodes to develop new bendable energy systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Miniaturized nuclear battery

    Adler, K.; Ducommun, G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a miniaturized nuclear battery, consisting of several in series connected cells, wherein each cell contains a support which acts as positive pole and which supports on one side a β-emitter, above said emitter is a radiation resisting insulation layer which is covered by an absorption layer, above which is a collector layer, and wherein the in series connected calls are disposed in an airtight case

  18. Batteries. Fundamentals and theory, present state of the art of technology and trends of developments. 5. ed.; Batterien. Grundlagen und Theorie, aktueller technischer Stand und Entwicklungstendenzen

    Kiehne, H.A.; Berndt, D.; Fischer, W.; Franke, H.; Koenig, W.; Koethe, H.K.; Preuss, P.; Sassmannshausen, G.; Stahl, U.C.; Wehrle, E.; Will, G.; Willmes, H.

    2003-07-01

    This volume gives a comprehensive survey of the present state of the electrochemical power storage with special consideration of their technical characteristics of application. The volume is structured as follows: 1) Electrochemical energy storage, general fundamentals; 2) Batteries for electric-powered industrial trucks; 3) Energy supply concepts for driverless industrial trucks; 4) Batteries for electric-powered road vehicles; 5) Battery-fed electric drive from the user's point of view (=charging, maintenance); 6) Safety standards for stationary batteries and battery systems; 7) Batteries for stationary power supplies; 8) Battery operation from the user's point of view; 9) Starter batteries of vehicles; 10) High-energy batteries (e.g. Zn/Br{sub 2}-, Na/S-, Li/FeS-cells, fuel cells); 11) Solar-electric power supply with batteries; 12) Charging methods and charging technique; 13) Technology of battery chargers and current transformer, monitoring methods; 14) Standards and regulations for batteries and battery systems.

  19. Batteries. Fundamentals and theory, present state of the art of technology and trends of development. 4. compl. rev. ed.; Batterien. Grundlagen und Theorie, aktueller technischer Stand und Entwicklungstendenzen

    Kiehne, H.A.; Berndt, D.; Fischer, W. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This volume gives a comprehensive survey of the present state of the electrochemical power storage with special consideration of their technical characteristics of application. The volume is structured as follows: 1) Electrochemical energy storage, general fundamentals; 2) Batteries for electric-powered industrial trucks; 3) Energy supply concepts for driverless industrial trucks; 4) Batteries for electric-powered road vehicles; 5) Battery-fed electric drive from the user's point of view (=charging, maintenance); 6) Safety standards for stationary batteries and battery systems; 7) Batteries for stationary power supplies; 8) Battery operation from the user's point of view; 9) Starter batteries of vehicles; 10) High-energy batteries (e.g. Zn/Br{sub 2}-, Na/S-, Li/FeS-cells, fuel cells); 11) Solar-electric power supply with batteries; 12) Charging methods and charging technique; 13) Technology of battery chargers and current transformer, monitoring methods; 14) Standards and regulations for batteries and battery systems.

  20. Solar radiophysics

    McLean, D.J.; Labrum, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats all aspects of solar radioastronomy at metre wavelengths, particularly work carried out on the Australian radioheliograph at Culgoora, with which most of the authors have been associated in one way or another. After an introductory section on historical aspects, the solar atmosphere, solar flares, and coronal radio emission, the book deals with instrumentation, theory, and details of observations and interpretations of the various aspects of metrewave solar radioastronomy, including burst types, solar storms, and the quiet sun. (U.K.)