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Sample records for sol medial gastrocnemius

  1. Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Yan Kit; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-02-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear is very rare. It can involve the superficial posterior compartment alone or progress to involve all the 4 compartments of the lower legs. Those patients with high pain tolerance and minor trauma can lead to delayed presentation. Immediate fasciotomy is the treatment of choice. Therapeutic Level IV, Case Study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  2. Medial gastrocnemius myoelectric control of a robotic ankle exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaird, Catherine R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2009-02-01

    A previous study from our laboratory showed that when soleus electromyography was used to control the amount of plantar flexion assistance from a robotic ankle exoskeleton, subjects significantly reduced their soleus activity to quickly return to normal gait kinematics. We speculated that subjects were primarily responding to the local mechanical assistance of the exoskeleton rather than directly attempting to reduce exoskeleton mechanical power via decreases in soleus activity. To test this observation we studied ten healthy subjects walking on a treadmill at 1.25 m/s while wearing a robotic exoskeleton proportionally controlled by medial gastrocnemius activation. We hypothesized that subjects would primarily decrease soleus activity due to its synergistic mechanics with the exoskeleton. Subjects decreased medial gastrocnemius recruitment by 12% ( p exoskeleton (soleus). These findings indicate that anatomical morphology needs to be considered carefully when designing software and hardware for robotic exoskeletons.

  3. Isolated partial tear and partial avulsion of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon presenting as posterior medial knee pain

    OpenAIRE

    Watura, Christopher; Ward, Anthony; Harries, William

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of medial head of gastrocnemius tendon tear. The type of injury widely reported in the literature is tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle or ‘tennis leg’. We previously reported an isolated partial tear and longitudinal split of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius at its musculotendinous junction. The case we now present has notable differences; the tear was interstitial and at the proximal (femoral attachment) part of the tendon, the patient’s symptoms...

  4. Diagnosis and Follow-up US Evaluation of Ruptures of the Medial Head of the Gastrocnemius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Hyo-Sung; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Yong; Kim, Ki-Nam; Chung, Gyung Ho

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the ultrasonographic (US) findings of rupture and the healing process of the medial head of the gastrocnemius ('Tennis Leg'). Twenty-two patients (age range: 30 to 45 years) with clinically suspected ruptures of the medial head of the gastrocnemius were referred to us for US examination. All the patients underwent US of the affected limb and the contralateral asymptomatic limb. Follow-up clinical evaluation and US imaging of all patients were performed at two-week intervals during the month after injury and at one-month intervals during the following six months. Of the 22 patients who had an initial US examination after their injury, partial rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle was identified in seven patients (31.8%); the remaining 15 patients were diagnosed with complete rupture. Fluid collection between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle was identified in 20 patients (90.9%). The thickness of the fluid collection, including the hematoma in the patients with complete rupture (mean: 9.7 mm), was significantly greater than that seen in the patients with partial tear (mean: 6.8 mm) (p < 0.01). The primary union of the medial head of the gastrocnemius with the soleus muscle in all the patients with muscle rupture and fluid collection was recognized via the hypoechoic tissue after four weeks. Ultrasonography is a useful imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up examination for the patients suffering with rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius

  5. Acute compartment syndrome after rupture of the medial head of gastrocnemius in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vasu; Pai, Vishal

    2007-01-01

    Rupture of the gastrocnemius muscle is an uncommon injury, with most cases occurring in athletes and, typically, presenting with the acute onset of focal calf pain and ecchymosis after injury. Although gastrocnemius ruptures are usually treated symptomatically with good results, we present an unusual case of a medial head of gastrocnemius muscle tear complicated by acute compartment syndrome in a 7-year-old boy whose right calf was crushed in a fall. After confirmation of the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, the patient underwent emergency fasciotomy with evacuation of hematoma, and, thereafter, he recovered unremarkably. Clinicians and surgeons need to maintain a high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome associated with gastrocnemius muscle injury, so that timely surgical decompression can be undertaken and complications related to delayed diagnosis and treatment can be avoided.

  6. Rupture of the medial gastrocnemius muscle during namaz praying: an unusual cause of tennis leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cengiz; Orgenc, Yaman; Ergenc, Ruken; Erkan, Nazif

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to report a unique group of patients in whom rupture of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (tennis leg) occurred during namaz praying. We reviewed the sonographic and/or MR imaging findings of 543 patients who were referred for the evaluation of leg pain and swelling during the last 7 years. Fourteen patients with a final diagnosis of tennis leg that occured during namaz praying were included in this study. Nine of 14 (64.2%) patients had incomplete and the remainder 5 (35.8%) patients had a partial tear at the musculotendinous junction (MTJ). Four of 14 (28.6%) patients were mistaken for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) on the basis of clinical findings and presentation. Associated fluid collection between the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle was noted in 11 (78.5%) patients. Isolated fluid collection between the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle without disruption of the gastrocnemius muscle was seen in 1 patient. Rupture of the medial gastrocnemius muscle may occur during namaz praying. The clinical presentation is not always characteristic and may simulate DVT. US and MRI are useful diagnostic tools to establish the correct diagnosis and prompt further treatment.

  7. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injury described in this area is tearing of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, sometimes referred to as "tennis leg". We conclude that an isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a lump or swelling in the upper medial area of the calf and we recommend ultrasound or MRI as the investigations of choice.

  8. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf

    OpenAIRE

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injur...

  9. Diagnosis and Follow-up US Evaluation of Ruptures of the Medial Head of the Gastrocnemius ("Tennis Leg")

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Hyo-Sung; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Yong; Kim, Ki-Nam; Chung, Gyung Ho

    2006-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the ultrasonographic (US) findings of rupture and the healing process of the medial head of the gastrocnemius ("Tennis Leg"). Materials and Methods Twenty-two patients (age range: 30 to 45 years) with clinically suspected ruptures of the medial head of the gastrocnemius were referred to us for US examination. All the patients underwent US of the affected limb and the contralateral asymptomatic limb. Follow-up clinical evaluation and US im...

  10. Attenuated increase in maximal force of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after concurrent peak power and endurance training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furrer, R.; Jaspers, R.T.; Baggerman, H.L.; Bravenboer, N.; Lips, P.; de Haan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM) is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task

  11. Acute compartment syndrome after rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G V; Pearsall, A W; Caylor, M T; Nimityongskul, P

    2000-02-01

    Rupture of the gastrocnemius muscle is an uncommon injury, with most cases occurring in athletically active individuals. The presentation of a gastrocnemius rupture is the acute onset of calf pain and subsequent ecchymosis. Most of these injuries can be treated symptomatically with good results. We present an unusual case of gastrocnemius muscle tear complicated by acute compartment syndrome. Physicians need to be aware of this potentially devastating complication of gastrocnemius rupture.

  12. Motor units in the human medial gastrocnemius muscle are not spatially localized or functionally grouped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Martin E; Brown, Harrison J; Inglis, J Timothy; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-08-15

    Human medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor units (MUs) are thought to occupy small muscle territories or regions, with low-threshold units preferentially located distally. We used intramuscular recordings to measure the territory of muscle fibres from MG MUs and determine whether these MUs are grouped by recruitment threshold or joint action (ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion). The territory of MUs from the MG muscle varied from somewhat localized to highly distributed, with approximately half the MUs spanning at least half the length and width of the muscle. There was also no evidence of regional muscle activity based on MU recruitment thresholds or joint action. The CNS does not have the means to selectively activate regions of the MG muscle based on task requirements. Human medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor units (MUs) are thought to occupy small muscle territories, with low-threshold units preferentially located distally. In this study, subjects (n = 8) performed ramped and sustained isometric contractions (ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion; range: ∼1-40% maximal voluntary contraction) and we measured MU territory size with spike-triggered averages from fine-wire electrodes inserted along the length (seven electrodes) or across the width (five electrodes) of the MG muscle. Of 69 MUs identified along the length of the muscle, 32 spanned at least half the muscle length (≥ 6.9 cm), 11 of which spanned all recording sites (13.6-17.9 cm). Distal fibres had smaller pennation angles (P recruitment threshold or contraction type, nor was there a relationship between MU territory size and recruitment threshold (Spearman's rho = -0.20 and 0.13, P > 0.18). MUs in the human MG have larger territories than previously reported and are not localized based on recruitment threshold or joint action. This indicates that the CNS does not have the means to selectively activate regions of the MG muscle based on task requirements. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of

  13. Behavior of medial gastrocnemius motor units during postural reactions to external perturbations after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C L; Ivanova, T D; Hunt, M A; Garland, S J

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the behavior of medial gastrocnemius (GM) motor units (MU) during external perturbations in standing in people with chronic stroke. GM MUs were recorded in standing while anteriorly-directed perturbations were introduced by applying loads of 1% body mass (BM) at the pelvis every 25-40s until 5% BM was maintained. Joint kinematics, surface electromyography (EMG), and force platform measurements were assessed. Although external loads caused a forward progression of the anterior-posterior centre of pressure (APCOP), people with stroke decreased APCOP velocity and centre of mass (COM) velocity immediately following the highest perturbations, thereby limiting movement velocity in response to perturbations. MU firing rate did not increase with loading but the GM EMG magnitude increased, reflecting MU recruitment. MU inter spike interval (ISI) during the dynamic response was negatively correlated with COM velocity and hip angular velocity. The GM utilized primarily MU recruitment to maintain standing during external perturbations. The lack of MU firing rate modulation occurred with a change in postural central set. However, the relationship of MU firing rate with kinematic variables suggests underlying long-loop responses may be somewhat intact after stroke. People with stroke demonstrate alterations in postural control strategies which may explain MU behavior with external perturbations. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Passive Muscle-Tendon Unit Gearing is Joint Dependent in Human Medial Gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F Hodson-Tole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscles change length and develop force both passively and actively. Gearing allows muscle fibre length changes to be uncoupled from those of the whole muscle-tendon unit. During active contractions this process allows muscles to operate at mechanically favorable conditions for power or economical force production. Here we ask whether gearing is constant in passive muscle; determining the relationship between fascicle and muscle-tendon unit length change in the bi-articular medial gastrocnemius and investigating the influence of whether motion occurs at the knee or ankle joint. Specifically, the same muscle-tendon unit length changes were elicited by rotating either the ankle or knee joint whilst simultaneously measuring fascicle lengths in proximal and distal muscle regions using B-mode ultrasound. In both the proximal and distal muscle region, passive gearing values differed depending on whether ankle or knee motion occurred. Fascicle length changes were greater with ankle motion, likely reflecting anatomical differences in proximal and distal passive tendinous tissues, as well as shape changes of the adjacent mono-articular soleus. This suggests that there is joint-dependent dissociation between the mechanical behaviour of muscle fibres and the muscle-tendon unit during passive joint motions that may be important to consider when developing accurate models of bi-articular muscles.

  15. Effects of treadmill grade and speed on medial gastrocnemius muscle activity in chronic stroke patients

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    Roghayeh Mohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plantarflexor muscles produce propulsive force in the second half of stance phase; deficient motor output from these muscles would lead to inadequate propulsion at push off phase of gait following stroke. It is important to develop strategies to improve plantarflexor output. This study examined the effects of walking on a treadmill at varying gradients and speeds on medial gastrocnemius (MG muscle activation in stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: Nineteen stroke survivors (13M/6F: average age 55.37±7.54 years; body mass index 29.10±4.52kg/m2 participated in the study. Participants walked  on  a  standard  treadmill  at  three  different positive inclines (0°, 3°, and 6°  and speeds (self-selected, self-selected+20%, self-selected+40%. The electromyographic activity of MG recorded at push off phase of the gait. Results: A linear mixed model regression analysis was used to analysis. The paretic MG muscle activity increased at faster speeds irrespective of incline (p0.05. Conclusion: It would appear that stroke survivors employ distinct muscle activation strategies on the paretic and non-paretic sides in response to different walking speeds and inclines

  16. Age Related Differences in Diffusion Tensor Indices and Fiber Architecture in the Medial and Lateral Gastrocnemius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Usha; Csapo, Robert; Malis, Vadim; Xue, Yanjie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate age related changes in diffusion tensor indices and fiber architecture of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) muscles using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods The lower leg of five young and five senior subjects was scanned at 3T and DTI indices extracted using three methods: ROI, histogram and tract based. Tracked fibers were automatically edited to ensure physiologically relevant tracks. Pennation angles were measured with respect to the deep and superficial aponeuroses of both muscles. Results The three methods provided internally consistent measures of the DTI indices (correlation coefficient in the range of 0.90-0.99). The primary, secondary and tertiary eigenvalues in the MG and LG increased significantly in the senior cohort (p<0.05), while the small increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) with age was not significant (MG/LG: p=0.39/0.85; 95% CI:[ −0.059/-0.056, 0.116/0.064]). Fiber lengths of MG fibers originating distally were significantly decreased in seniors (p<0.05) while pennation angles decreased with age in the MG and LG but this was not significant. Conclusion Fiber atrophy and increased fibrosis have opposing effects on the diffusion indices resulting in a complicated dependence with aging. Fiber architectural changes could play a role in determining aging muscle function. PMID:24771672

  17. Medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscle-tendon unit, fascicle, and tendon interaction during walking in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Lee; Carty, Chris; Modenese, Luca; Walsh, John; Boyd, Roslyn; Lichtwark, Glen

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the in vivo function of the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscle-tendon units (MTU), fascicles, and tendons during walking in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and an equinus gait pattern. Fourteen children with CP (9 males, 5 females; mean age 10y 6mo, standard deviation [SD] 2y 11mo; GMFCS level I=8, II=6), and 10 typically developing (6 males, 4 females; mean age 10y, SD 2y 1mo) undertook full body 3D gait analysis and simultaneous B-mode ultrasound images of the medial gastrocnemius and soleus fascicles during level walking. Fascicle lengths were analysed using a semi-automated tracking algorithm and MTUs using OpenSim. Statistical parametric mapping (two-sample t-test) was used to compare differences between groups (ppower during push-off (p=0.015) and positive work (ppower and positive work in the children with CP may be attributed to reduced active medial gastrocnemius fascicle shortening. These findings suggest a reliance on passive force generation for forward propulsion during equinus gait. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Within- and between-session reliability of medial gastrocnemius architectural properties

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    JJ McMahon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the within- and between-session reliability of medial gastrocnemius (MG architecture (e.g. muscle thickness (MT, fascicle length (FL and pennation angle (PA, as derived via ultrasonography followed by manual digitization. A single rater recorded three ultrasound images of the relaxed MG muscle belly for both legs of 16 resistance trained males, who were positioned in a pronated position with their knees fully extended and the ankles in a neutral (e.g. 90° position. A subset of participants (n = 11 were retested under the same conditions ~48-72 hours after baseline testing. The same rater manually digitized each ultrasound image on three occasions to determine MG MT, FL and PA before pooling the data accordingly to allow for within-image (n = 96, between-image (n = 32 and between-session reliability (n = 22 to be determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs demonstrated excellent within-image (ICCs = 0.99-1.00, P < 0.001 and very good between-image (ICCs = 0.83-0.95, P < 0.001 and between-session (ICCs = 0.89- 0.95, P < 0.001 reliability for MT, FL and PA. Between-session coefficient of variation was low (≤ 3.6% for each architectural parameter and smallest detectible difference values of 10.6%, 11.4% and 9.8% were attained for MT, FL and PA, respectively. Manually digitizing ultrasound images of the MG muscle at rest yields highly reliable measurements of its architectural properties. Furthermore, changes in MG MT, FL and PA of ≥ 10.6%, 11.4% and 9.8% respectively, as brought about by any form of intervention, should be considered meaningful.

  19. US evaluation and diagnosis of rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius (tennis leg).

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    Flecca, D; Tomei, A; Ravazzolo, N; Martinelli, M; Giovagnorio, F

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle, also called "tennis leg" (TL). Thirty-five consecutive patients with acute traumatic injury of the calf underwent US examination. There were 25 men and 10 women; mean age 47.5 years (range 35-60 years). All examinations were performed using a 5-12 MHz broadband electronic linear array probe. Thirty-three out of 35 patients had TL; 24 cases of partial rupture and nine cases of complete rupture were diagnosed. In the remaining two cases, both with symptoms suggesting TL, one patient had a tear of the proximal musculotendinous junction and one had a ruptured Baker's cyst. Fluid collections caused by the muscular rupture were visible as hypoechoic areas; in 80% of cases associated by a hyperechoic oval area due to hematoma and local inflammation. The degree of fluid collection in the patients with complete rupture (6-16 mm; mean: 9.7 mm) was significantly greater than the one seen in patients with partial rupture (4-8 mm; mean: 6.8 mm). US is the imaging modality of choice in clinical suspicion of TL, both in the initial workup of the patient and in the follow-up. US is easy to perform and is particularly useful to distinguish TL from other pathologies, especially ruptured Baker's cyst and deep vein thrombosis, which require a different therapeutic management.

  20. Adaptation of motor unit contractile properties in rat medial gastrocnemius to treadmill endurance training: Relationship to muscle mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryściak, Katarzyna; Majerczak, Joanna; Kryściak, Jakub; Łochyński, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Drzymała-Celichowska, Hanna; Krutki, Piotr; Gawedzka, Anna; Guzik, Magdalena; Korostynski, Michał; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Pyza, Elżbieta; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wiesława; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Celichowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of 2, 4 and 8 weeks of endurance training on the contractile properties of slow (S), fast fatigue resistant (FR) and fast fatigable (FF) motor units (MUs) in rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) in relation to the changes in muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. The properties of functionally isolated MUs were examined in vivo. Mitochondrial biogenesis was judged based on the changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA), the content of the electron transport chain (ETC) proteins and PGC-1α in the MG. Moreover, the markers of mitochondria remodeling mitofusins (Mfn1, Mfn2) and dynamin-like protein (Opa1) were studied using qPCR. A proportion of FR MUs increased from 37.9% to 50.8% and a proportion of FF units decreased from 44.7% to 26.6% after 8 weeks of training. The increased fatigue resistance, shortened twitch duration, and increased ability to potentiate force were found as early as after 2 weeks of endurance training, predominantly in FR MUs. Moreover, just after 2 weeks of the training an enhancement of the mitochondrial network remodeling was present as judged by an increase in expression of Mfn1, Opa1 and an increase in PGC-1α in the slow part of MG. Interestingly, no signs of intensification of mitochondrial biogenesis assessed by ETC proteins content and mtDNA in slow and fast parts of gastrocnemius were found at this stage of the training. Nevertheless, after 8 weeks of training an increase in the ETC protein content was observed, but mainly in the slow part of gastrocnemius. Concluding, the functional changes in MUs' contractile properties leading to the enhancement of muscle performance accompanied by an activation of signalling that controls the muscle mitochondrial network reorganisation and mitochondrial biogenesis belong to an early muscle adaptive responses that precede an increase in mitochondrial ETC protein content.

  1. Correlations and coherence of monopolar EMG-currents of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in proximal and distal compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinzenz eVon Tscharner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The penniform gastrocnemius muscle contains multiple heads in the proximal regions and the aponeuroses are attached to the Achilles tendon. The multiple head structure lead to the assumption that different regions of the muscle must be activated compartment wise. The purpose of this study was to compare the correlation and coherence of EMG-currents within and between proximal and distal compartments of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, which reflect underling synchronization of motor units. It was hypothesized and shown that phase-inverted signals represent a property that discriminates compartments. However, the phase-inverted and non-inverted signals showed values of correlations that were indicative for highly synchronized signals. The correlation increased with the complexity of the task and was higher for the calf-rising movement than while balancing in a tiptoe position. Because the muscle fibers do not span the whole length of the muscles one has to conclude that the MUs were synchronized by synchronizing the various motor nerves. This study shows that it is essential to measure monopolar signals and use non-isometric contractions to observe synchronization of the EMG-signals. One could speculate that compartmental differences can only be observed if more complex movements that generate rotational forces at the knee or ankle are used.

  2. Motor unit recruitment and firing rate in medial gastrocnemius muscles during external perturbations in standing in humans.

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    Pollock, C L; Ivanova, T D; Hunt, M A; Garland, S J

    2014-10-01

    There is limited investigation of the interaction between motor unit recruitment and rate coding for modulating force during standing or responding to external perturbations. Fifty-seven motor units were recorded from the medial gastrocnemius muscle with intramuscular electrodes in response to external perturbations in standing. Anteriorly directed perturbations were generated by applying loads in 0.45-kg increments at the pelvis every 25-40 s until 2.25 kg was maintained. Motor unit firing rate was calculated for the initial recruitment load and all subsequent loads during two epochs: 1) dynamic response to perturbation directly following each load drop and 2) maintenance of steady state between perturbations. Joint kinematics and surface electromyography (EMG) from lower extremities and force platform measurements were assessed. Application of the external loads resulted in a significant forward progression of the anterior-posterior center of pressure (AP COP) that was accompanied by modest changes in joint angles (recruitment, motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop was significantly lower than during subsequent load drops or during the steady state at the same load. There was a modest increase in motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop on subsequent load drops associated with regaining balance. There was no effect of maintaining balance with increased load and forward progression of the AP COP on steady-state motor unit firing rate. The medial gastrocnemius utilized primarily motor unit recruitment to achieve the increased levels of activation necessary to maintain standing in the presence of external loads. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Recruitment of motor units in the medial gastrocnemius muscle during human quiet standing: is recruitment intermittent? What triggers recruitment?

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    Vieira, Taian M M; Loram, Ian D; Muceli, Silvia; Merletti, Roberto; Farina, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment and the rate of discharge of motor units are determinants of muscle force. Within a motoneuron pool, recruitment and rate coding of individual motor units might be controlled independently, depending on the circumstances. In this study, we tested whether, during human quiet standing, the force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is predominantly controlled by recruitment or rate coding. If MG control during standing was mainly due to recruitment, then we further asked what the trigger mechanism is. Is it determined internally, or is it related to body kinematics? While seven healthy subjects stood quietly, intramuscular electromyograms were recorded from the MG muscle with three pairs of wire electrodes. The number of active motor units and their mean discharge rate were compared for different sway velocities and positions. Motor unit discharges occurred more frequently when the body swayed faster and forward (Pearson R = 0.63; P motor unit potentials was explained chiefly by the recruitment of additional units. During forward body shifts, the median number of units detected increased from 3 to 11 (P motor units did not discharge continuously throughout standing. They were recruited within individual, forward sways and intermittently, with a modal rate of two recruitments per second. This modal rate is consistent with previous circumstantial evidence relating the control of standing to an intrinsic, higher level planning process.

  4. Attenuated Increase in Maximal Force of Rat Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle after Concurrent Peak Power and Endurance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Furrer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task specifically, we hypothesised that the adaptive responses to peak power training were unaffected by additional endurance training. Thirty rats were subjected to either no training (control, peak power training (PT, or both peak power and endurance training (PET, which was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Maximal running velocity increased 13.5% throughout the training and was similar in both training groups. Only after PT, GM maximal force was 10% higher than that of the control group. In the low oxidative compartment, mRNA levels of myostatin and MuRF-1 were higher after PT as compared to those of control and PET groups, respectively. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein levels remained unchanged, suggesting that the elevated myostatin levels after PT did not inhibit mTOR signalling. In conclusion, even by using task-specific recruitment of the compartmentalized rat GM, additional endurance training interfered with the adaptive response of peak power training and attenuated the increase in maximal force after power training.

  5. Age-related differences in diffusion tensor indices and fiber architecture in the medial and lateral gastrocnemius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Usha; Csapo, Robert; Malis, Vadim; Xue, Yanjie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2015-04-01

    To investigate age related changes in diffusion tensor indices and fiber architecture of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) muscles using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The lower leg of five young and five senior subjects was scanned at 3 Tesla and DTI indices extracted using three methods: region of interest, histogram, and tract based. Tracked fibers were automatically edited to ensure physiologically relevant tracks. Pennation angles were measured with respect to the deep and superficial aponeuroses of both muscles. The three methods provided internally consistent measures of the DTI indices (correlation coefficient in the range of 0.90-0.99). The primary, secondary, and tertiary eigenvalues in the MG and LG increased significantly in the senior cohort (P < 0.05), while the small increase in fractional anisotropy with age was not significant (MG/LG: P = 0.39/0.85; 95% confidence interval: [-0.059/-0.056, 0.116/0.064]). Fiber lengths of MG fibers originating distally were significantly decreased in seniors (P < 0.05) while pennation angles decreased with age in the MG and LG but this was not significant. Fiber atrophy and increased fibrosis have opposing effects on the diffusion indices resulting in a complicated dependence with aging. Fiber architectural changes could play a role in determining aging muscle function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Changes in contractile properties and action potentials of motor units in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzynska, Z; Celichowski, J

    2016-02-01

    The early phase of development of muscles stops following the disappearance of embryonic and neonatal myosin and the elimination of polyneuronal innervation of muscle fibres with the formation of motor units (MUs), but later the muscle mass still considerably increases. It is unknown whether the three types are visible among newly formed MUs soon after the early postnatal period and whether their proportion is similar to that in adult muscle. Moreover, the processes responsible for MU-force regulation by changes in motoneuronal firing rate as well as properties of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) during maturation are unknown. Three groups of Wistar rats were investigated - 1 month old, 2 months old and the adult, 9 months old. The basic contractile properties and action potentials of MUs in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle were analysed. The three types of MUs were distinguishable in all age groups, but higher proportion of slow MUs was noticed in young rats (29%, 18% and 11% in 1, 2 and 9 months rats, respectively). The fatigue index for fast fatigable MUs in 1 month old rats was about 2 times higher than in 9 months old rats. The twitch time parameters of fast MUs were shortened during the maturation; for these units, the force-frequency curves in young rats were shifted towards lower frequencies, which suggested that fast motoneurons of young animals generate lower firing rates. Higher twitch-to-tetanus ratios noted for the three MU types in young rats suggested the smaller role of rate coding in force regulation processes, and the higher role of MU recruitment in young rats. No significant differences in MUAP parameters between two groups of young and adult animals were observed. Concluding, the maturation process evokes deeper changes in fast MUs than in slow ones.

  7. Relationship of medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion and ankle joint power and work performance during gait in typically developing children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Lorenzo, Teresa; Albi Rodríguez, Gustavo; Rocon, Eduardo; Martínez Caballero, Ignacio; Lerma Lara, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    Muscle fascicles lengthen in response to chronic passive stretch through in-series sarcomere addition in order to maintain an optimum sarcomere length. In turn, the muscles' force generating capacity, maximum excursion, and contraction velocity is enhanced. Thus, longer fascicles suggest a greater capacity to develop joint power and work. However, static fascicle length measurements may not be taking sarcomere length differences into account. Thus, we considered relative fascicle excursions through passive ankle dorsiflexion may better correlate with the capacity to generate joint power and work than fascicle length. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine if medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursions correlate with ankle joint power and work generation during gait in typically developing children. A sample of typically developing children (n = 10) were recruited for this study and data analysis was carried out on 20 legs. Medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion from resting joint angle to maximum dorsiflexion was estimated from trigonometric relations of medial gastrocnemius pennation angle and thickness obtained from B-mode real-time ultrasonography. Furthermore, a three-dimensional motion capture system was used to obtain ankle joint work and power during the stance phase of gait. Significant correlations were found between relative fascicle excursion and peak power absorption (-) r(14) = -0.61, P = .012 accounting for 31% variability, positive work r(18) = 0.56, P = .021 accounting for 31% variability, and late stance positive work r(15) = 0.51, P = .037 accounting for 26% variability. The large unexplained variance may be attributed to mechanics of neighboring structures (e.g., soleus or Achilles tendon mechanics) and proximal joint kinetics which may also contribute to ankle joint power and work performance, and were not taken into account. Further studies are encouraged to provide greater insight

  8. Magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging analyses indicate heterogeneous strains along human medial gastrocnemius fascicles caused by submaximal plantar-flexion activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuzu, Agah; Pamuk, Uluç; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Acar, Burak; Yucesoy, Can A

    2017-05-24

    Sarcomere length changes are central to force production and excursion of skeletal muscle. Previous modeling indicates non-uniformity of that if mechanical interaction of muscle with its surrounding muscular and connective tissues is taken into account. Hence, quantifying length changes along the fascicles of activated human muscle in vivo is crucial, but this is lacking due to technical complexities. Combining magnetic resonance imaging deformation analyses and diffusion tensor imaging tractography, the aim was to test the hypothesis that submaximal plantar flexion activity at 15% MVC causes heterogeneous length changes along the fascicles of human medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscle. A general fascicle strain distribution pattern shown for all subjects indicates that proximal track segments are shortened, whereas distal ones are lengthened (e.g., by 13% and 29%, respectively). Mean fiber direction strains of different tracts also shows heterogeneity (for up to 57.5% of the fascicles). Inter-subject variability of amplitude and distribution of fascicle strains is notable. These findings confirm the hypothesis and are solid indicators for the functionally dependent mechanics of human muscle, in vivo. Heterogeneity of fascicle strains can be explained by epimuscular myofascial force transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study, which quantified local deformations along human skeletal muscle fascicles caused by sustained submaximal activation. The present approach and indicated fascicle strain heterogeneity has numerous implications for muscle function in health and disease to estimate the muscle's contribution to the joint moment and excursion and to evaluate mechanisms of muscle injury and several treatment techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gastrocnemius recession leads to medial shift of gait line, impairment of muscle strength and improved dorsal extension in forefoot overload syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Walther, Markus; Hirschmüller, Anja

    2018-01-01

    . A strength power analysis of plantar flexors and a pedobarography was performed. Clinical outcome was measured by Foot Function Index (FFI). RESULTS: Plantarflexors are impaired about 40% six weeks and around 10% 24 weeks following GR compared to the contralateral side. Patients experienced a pain relief...... and an improvement of ankle dorsiflexion from 2° to 15°. An increased contact time of the heel (15%) and a shift of metatarsal plantar pressure from lateral to medial could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that GR leads to pain reduction by an increase in heel contact time and a shift of gait line...

  10. Reliability and validity of a dual-probe personal computer-based muscle viewer for measuring the pennation angle of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in patients who have had a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ji-Eun; Cho, Ki Hun; Yoo, Jun Sang; Lee, Su Jin; Lee, Wan-Hee

    2018-01-01

    Background A dual-probe personal computer-based muscle viewer (DPC-BMW) is advantageous in that it is relatively lightweight and easy to apply. Objective To investigate the reliability and validity of the DPC-BMW in comparison with those of a portable ultrasonography (P-US) device for measuring the pennation angle of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle at rest and during contraction. Methods Twenty-four patients who had a stroke (18 men and 6 women) participated in this study. Using the DPC-BMW and P-US device, the pennation angle of the MG muscle on the affected side was randomly measured. Two examiners randomly obtained the images of all the participants in two separate test sessions, 7 days apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), confidence interval, standard error of measurement, Bland-Altman plot, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to estimate their reliability and validity. Results The ICC for the intrarater reliability of the MG muscle pennation angle measured using the DPC-BMW was > 0.916, indicating excellent reliability, and that for the interrater reliability ranged from 0.964 to 0.994. The P-US device also exhibited good reliability. A high correlation was found between the measurements of MG muscle pennation angle obtained using the DPC-BMW and that obtained using the P-US device (p < 0.01). Conclusion The DPC-BMW can provide clear images for accurate measurements, including measurements using dual probes. It has the advantage of rehabilitative US imaging for individuals who have had a stroke. More research studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of the DPC-BMW in rehabilitation.

  11. Colgajo de avance en V-Y de gastrocnemio medial basado en perforante para cierre de defectos del tercio medio de la pierna V-Y advancement gastrocnemius perforant based flap for closure of defects of the medial third of the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Spröhnle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los colgajos de avance en V-Y han sido una alternativa popular para el cierre de heridas profundas, pero su movilidad es limitada. Los colgajos basados en perforantes son especialmente útiles cuando se necesita un mayor avance y cobertura. Diseñamos un colgajo de gastrocnemio que utiliza ambas técnicas para cubrir los defectos del tercio medio y superior de la pierna en sus caras lateral y posterolateral. Evaluamos en forma retrospectiva 5 pacientes con heridas en el tercio medio y superior de la pierna, tratados entre enero de 2005 y septiembre de 2007 en un solo centro y por un mismo cirujano. Todos fueron varones, con un promedio de edad de 48 años y la etiología fue traumática en todos los casos. El vaso perforante se evaluó preoperatoriamente por medio de doppler color en todos los casos. Valoramos telefónicamente la satisfacción del paciente en el postoperatorio tardío. En todos los casos, encontramos los vasos perforantes identificados en el preoperatorio; el tiempo operatorio promedio fue de 1.8 horas. No hubo complicaciones; la cobertura fue exitosa en todos los casos y los pacientes se mostraron satisfechos en la encuesta realizada. El tiempo medio de seguimiento postoperatorio fue de 19 meses. En conclusión, creemos que el colgajo de avance en V-Y de gastrocnemio basado en perforante se presenta como una alternativa segura para el cierre de defectos del tercio medial y superior de la pierna, en un sólo tiempo quirúrgico y con buenos resultados estéticos y funcionales a largo plazo.Advancement V-Y flaps have been a popular choice for closure of deep wounds but their mobility is limited. Perforant based flaps are specially useful when greater advancement and bigger coverage are needed. We designed a gastrocnemius based flap that uses both techniques for covering the defects of the medial third of the leg. We follow a retrospective evaluation of 5 patients that had their wounds in the medial and superior third of the leg

  12. Reciprocal activation of gastrocnemius and soleus motor units is associated with fascicle length change during knee flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Benedikt; Lichtwark, Glen A; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2014-06-01

    While medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) are considered synergists, they are anatomically exclusive in that SOL crosses only the ankle, while MG crosses both the knee and ankle. Due to the force-length properties of both active and passive structures, activation of SOL and MG must be constantly regulated to provide the required joint torques for any planned movement. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate the neural regulation of MG and SOL when independently changing their length by changing only the knee joint angle, thus exclusively altering the length of MG fibers. MG and SOL motor units (MU) were recorded intramuscularly along with ultrasound imaging of MG and SOL fascicle lengths, while moving the knee through 60° of rotation and maintaining a low level of voluntary plantar flexor torque. The results showed a reciprocal activation of MG and SOL as the knee was moved into flexion and extension. A clear reduction in MG MU firing rates occurred as the knee was flexed (MG fascicles shortening), with de-recruitment of most MG MU occurring at close to full knee flexion. A concomitant increase in SOL MU activity was observed while no change in the length of its fascicles was found. The opposite effects were found when the knee was moved into extension. A strong correlation (ICC = 0.78) was found between the fascicle length at which MG MUs were de-recruited and subsequently re-recruited. This was stronger than the relationship of de-recruitment and re-recruitment with knee angle (ICC = 0.52), indicating that in this instance, muscle fascicle length rather than joint angle is more influential in regulating MG recruitment. Such a reciprocal arrangement like the one presented here for SOL and MG is essential for human voluntary movements such as walking or cycling. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  13. Diagnosis and rehabilitation of gastrocnemius muscle tear: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsitem, Virginia

    2013-12-01

    This case study presents the epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic interventions for a common clinical condition - gastrocnemius injury. A 44-year old male presented with acute calf pain with a palpable defect, loss of range of motion, and loss of strength after sustaining a soft tissue injury to the lower leg. The differential diagnosis of tear of the medial head of the gastrocnemius was confirmed by physical examination and diagnostic ultrasound imaging. The patient was treated over a 6 week period. Initially, rehabilitation was approached using the PRICE principles for symptomatic relief, followed by stretching, strengthening, proprioception, and conditioning exercises. At 9-month follow-up post injury, there was no residual impairment in the gastrocnemius muscle function. This case demonstrates the importance of epidemiology, clinical assessment, and the use of diagnostic ultrasound and MRI imaging in the diagnosis of a tear of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. With an accurate diagnosis and comprehension of classification of muscle injuries, management of gastrocnemius tears is straightforward.

  14. Association of gastrocnemius tendon calcification with chondrocalcinosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foldes, K. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Lenchik, L. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Jaovisidha, S. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Clopton, P. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States); Sartoris, D.J. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Objective. Chondrocalcinosis of the knee is a common radiological finding in the elderly. However, visualization of chondrocalcinosis may be difficult in patients with advanced cartilage loss.The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of gastrocnemius tendon calcification that might serve as a radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with painful knees. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 37 knee radiographs in 30 consecutive patients (29 men, 8 women; mean age 67 years, age range 37-90 years) with painful knees who had radiographic evidence of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and gastrocnemius tendon calcification was determined. For a control group, we evaluated knee radiographs in 65 consecutive patients with knee pain (54 men, 11 women; mean age 59 years, age range 40-93 years) who had no radiological signs of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of gastrocnemius tendon calcification in the control group was determined. Results. Gastrocnemius tendon calcification was 41% sensitive, 100% specific, and 78% accurate in predicting chondrocalcinosis. The gastrocnemius tendon was calcified on 15 of 37 (41%) radiographs in the experimental group and on 0 of 67 radiographs in the control group. In the chondrocalcinosis group, 23 (62%) had posterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 14 (38%) had anterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 31 (84%) had medial meniscus calcification, and 36 (97%) had lateral meniscus calcification. Conclusions. Our results show that gastrocnemius tendon calcification is an accurate radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with knee pain. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Association of gastrocnemius tendon calcification with chondrocalcinosis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foldes, K.; Lenchik, L.; Jaovisidha, S.; Clopton, P.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. Chondrocalcinosis of the knee is a common radiological finding in the elderly. However, visualization of chondrocalcinosis may be difficult in patients with advanced cartilage loss.The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of gastrocnemius tendon calcification that might serve as a radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with painful knees. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 37 knee radiographs in 30 consecutive patients (29 men, 8 women; mean age 67 years, age range 37-90 years) with painful knees who had radiographic evidence of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and gastrocnemius tendon calcification was determined. For a control group, we evaluated knee radiographs in 65 consecutive patients with knee pain (54 men, 11 women; mean age 59 years, age range 40-93 years) who had no radiological signs of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of gastrocnemius tendon calcification in the control group was determined. Results. Gastrocnemius tendon calcification was 41% sensitive, 100% specific, and 78% accurate in predicting chondrocalcinosis. The gastrocnemius tendon was calcified on 15 of 37 (41%) radiographs in the experimental group and on 0 of 67 radiographs in the control group. In the chondrocalcinosis group, 23 (62%) had posterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 14 (38%) had anterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 31 (84%) had medial meniscus calcification, and 36 (97%) had lateral meniscus calcification. Conclusions. Our results show that gastrocnemius tendon calcification is an accurate radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with knee pain. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome caused by a rare anomalous slip of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Patrick T.; Moyer, Adrian C.; Huettl, Eric A.; Fowl, Richard J.; Stone, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome can result in calf claudication, aneurysm formation, distal arterial emboli, or popliteal vessel thrombosis. The most commonly reported causes of this syndrome have been anomalies of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle as it relates to the course of the popliteal artery. We report two cases of rare anomalous slips of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle causing popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome. (orig.)

  17. Ganglion cysts at the gastrocnemius origin: a series of ten cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.L.J.; Connell, D.A.; Saifuddin, A.; Bell, J.

    2007-01-01

    To describe ganglion cysts arising close to the origin of the medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius as identified on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present a series of ten cases of ganglion cysts arising close to the gastrocnemius origin from the medial and lateral femoral condyles. These were collected over a 6-year period from our imaging database. All patients attended for routine MR imaging of the knee with a variety of clinical presentations. Data collected included patient demographics, ganglion size, ganglion site, clinical presentation and ancillary MR imaging findings. The ten patients in this series consisted of seven males and three females, five right and five left knees, age range 27-68 years, mean age 40.6 years. The mean maximal dimension of the ganglion cysts was 26 mm, range 15-40 mm. The medial gastrocnemius origin was involved in eight patients and the lateral origin in two patients. The MR imaging findings consisted of both uni- and multi-loculated cysts, often containing numerous septations with fluid signal characteristics. The cysts were extra-capsular with no clear communication with the joint. One patient presented with a popliteal soft tissue mass and none of the cases required surgical intervention for cyst removal. MR imaging may identify ganglion cysts arising in an intra- or extra-articular site around the knee. This series documents the MR imaging characteristics of ganglion cysts arising close to the gastrocnemius origin and discusses the relevance of this imaging finding. (orig.)

  18. Clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of gastrocnemius musculotendinopathy in various dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Susanne M; Harms, Oliver; Konar, Martin; Staudacher, Anne; Langer, Anna; Thiel, Cetina; Kramer, Martin; Schaub, Sebastian; von Pückler, Kerstin H

    2016-11-23

    To describe clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 16 dogs diagnosed with gastrocnemius musculotendinopathy. Retrospective evaluation of medical records, radiographs, and MRI results, as well as follow-up completed by telephone questionnaire. Most dogs had chronic hindlimb lameness with no history of trauma or athletic activities. Clinical examination revealed signs of pain on palpation without stifle joint instability. Seven dogs had radiographic signs of osteophyte formation on the lateral fabella. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed T2 hyperintensity and uptake of contrast agent in the region of the origin of the gastrocnemius muscle. Changes were found in the lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius. Conservative treatment resulted in return to full function in 11 dogs. Two dogs showed partial restoration of normal function, one dog showed no improvement. Two dogs were lost to follow-up. Gastrocnemius musculotendinopathy is a potential cause of chronic hindlimb lameness in medium to large breed dogs. A history of athletic activity must not necessarily be present. Magnetic resonance imaging shows signal changes and uptake of contrast agent in the region of the origin of the gastrocnemius muscle. A combination of T1 pre- and post-contrast administration and T2 weighted sequences completed by a fat-suppressed sequence in the sagittal plane are well-suited for diagnosis. Conservative treatment generally results in return to normal function.

  19. Effects of muscle activation on shear between human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finni, T; Cronin, N J; Mayfield, D; Lichtwark, G A; Cresswell, A G

    2017-01-01

    Lateral connections between muscles provide pathways for myofascial force transmission. To elucidate whether these pathways have functional roles in vivo, we examined whether activation could alter the shear between the soleus (SOL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles. We hypothesized that selective activation of LG would decrease the stretch-induced shear between LG and SOL. Eleven volunteers underwent a series of knee joint manipulations where plantar flexion force, LG, and SOL muscle fascicle lengths and relative displacement of aponeuroses between the muscles were obtained. Data during a passive full range of motion were recorded, followed by 20° knee extension stretches in both passive conditions and with selective electrical stimulation of LG. During active stretch, plantar flexion force was 22% greater (P stronger (stiffer) connectivity between the two muscles, at least at flexed knee joint angles, which may serve to facilitate myofascial force transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A gastrocnemius heterotopical transplant model with end-to-side neurorraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Marcos Ricardo de Oliveira; Silva, Jefferson Luis Braga; Bain, James; Ely, Pedro Bins; Pires, Jefferson André; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2014-01-01

    To present an animal model to assess the effects of end-to-side innervation in the heterotopically transplanted model with reduced chances of neural contamination. The medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle in wistar male rats was isolated and its pedicle dissected and performed a flap in the abdominal portion. To prevent neural contamination in the abdominal region, the muscle was wrapped with a Goretex(r) sheet. The specimens were divided into 2 groups (G). In G1 was performed an end-to-end suture between tibial nerve of the gastrocnemius and femoral motor nerve and between the saphenous sensory nerve and the motor nerve. In G2 was performed a end-to-side suture between the tibial nerve and the motor femoral and between the tibial nerve and saphenous motor nerve. The specimens were evaluated 60 days later to check the structure of the neurorraphy. Sections were obtained proximal and distal to the coaptation site. The medial gastrocnemius muscle had the advantage of maintaining visible mass after 60 days. No disruption of the coaptation site was found. No major injury to the donor nerve was seen in group 2. The proposed model is simple, reproduciple and prevent the neural contamination in the flap in end-to-side suture.

  1. Results after gastrocnemius recession in 73 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molund, Marius; Paulsrud, Øyvind; Ellingsen Husebye, Elisabeth; Nilsen, Fredrik; Hvaal, Kjetil

    2014-12-01

    Very few studies describe the clinical results and complications following the surgical procedure of gastrocnemius recession. To survey the patient reported outcomes in patients operated with gastrocnemius recession as single procedure for various foot conditions. 93 patients operated with gastrocnemius recession as single procedure between 2006 and 2011 were detected in the database. 73 patients responded to the invitation for study participation. Questionnaires containing patient reported satisfaction, complications, plantar flexion power and visual analog pain score were used for evaluation of the postoperative result. 45/73 (62%) patients reported a good or excellent result. 8/73 (11%) patients reported a significant postoperative complication. 16/73 (22%) patients noted reduced or severely reduced plantar flexion power after surgery. VAS pain score significantly decreased from 7.0 before surgery to 1.8 (p=0.015) after surgery for patients with plantar fasciitis (n=18) and from 5.6 to 2.3 (p<0.01) for patients with metatarsalgia (n=28). Patients treated with gastrocnemius recession for plantar fasciitis demonstrated good clinical results. The complication rate was higher than reported by others. Copyright © 2014 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Concomitant Contracture of the Knee and Ankle Joint After Gastrocnemius Muscle Rupture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dong Jin; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Bom Soo

    Injury of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, also called "tennis leg," is known to heal uneventfully in most cases with compression and immobilization therapy. Failure to heal or long-term complications, including ongoing pain and pes equinus, have been documented in only a limited number of case reports. To the best of our knowledge, a severe concomitant contracture of the knee and ankle joint as a consequence of a maltreated gastrocnemius muscle rupture has not been previously reported in English-language reports. The purpose of the present study was to report a serious complication of neglected tennis leg with a review of the published data. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Variability of the morphology of gastrocnemius muscle in an African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... palpation of popliteal arterial pulse, popliteal nerve block and the assessment of gastrocnemius muscle for autografting. The additional variant heads also bear evolutionary importance. Keywords: Gastrocnemius; Multi-Pinnate; Popliteal Entrapment Syndrome; Variations; Four-Headed, Third Head Of Gastrocnemius ...

  4. Capillarity, oxidative capacity and fibre composition of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of rats in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillau, A H

    1985-01-01

    Muscle capillarity, mean and maximal diffusion distances and muscle fibre composition were evaluated in frozen sections stained for myosin ATPase of the soleus and the white area of the gastrocnemius medial head (gastrocnemius) of rats made hypothyroid by the injection of propylthiouracil (PTU) (50 mg kg-1) every day for 21 or 42 days. Oxygen consumption in the presence of excess ADP and Pi with pyruvate plus malate as substrates and the activity of cytochrome c oxidase were measured in muscle homogenates. Treatment with PTU decreased body oxygen consumption and the concentration of triiodothyronine in plasma. The capacity of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles' homogenates to oxidize pyruvate plus malate and their cytochrome c oxidase activity were reduced after 21 or 42 days of treatment with PTU. Fibre composition in the soleus muscle was changed by treatment with PTU. There was a decrease in the proportion of type IIa or fast glycolytic oxidative fibres and an increase in type I or slow oxidative fibres. After 21 days of PTU administration there was also an increase in the proportion of fibres classified as IIc. The changes in fibre composition are believed to be the result of changes in the types of myosin synthesized by the fibres. Therefore, the fibres classified as IIc are, most probably, IIa fibres in the process of changing their myosin to that of the type I fibres. No changes in fibre composition were evident in the white area of the gastrocnemius medial head, an area made up of IIb or fast glycolytic fibres. The indices of capillarity: capillary density and capillary to fibre ratio, as well as mean and maximal diffusion distances from the capillaries, were not changed by the treatment with PTU in the muscles studied. The lack of changes in capillarity in spite of significant changes in oxidative capacity indicates that in skeletal muscle capillarity is not necessarily related to the oxidative capacity of the fibres. PMID:3989729

  5. Effects of 2 weeks lower limb immobilization and two separate rehabilitation regimens on gastrocnemius muscle protein turnover signaling and normalization genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Anders; Jespersen, Jakob G; Pingel, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    of resistance training and continued protein/carbohydrate supplementation (Study 2). We obtained muscle biopsies from the medial gastrocnemius prior to immobilization (PRE), post-immobilization (IMMO) and post-rehabilitation (REHAB) and measured protein expression and phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, S6k, 4E-BP1...

  6. A gastrocnemius heterotopical transplant model with end-to-side neurorraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, Marcos Ricardo de Oliveira; Braga Silva, Jefferson [UNIFESP; Bain, James; Ely, Pedro Bins; Pires, Jefferson André; Ferreira, Lydia Masako [UNIFESP

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE:To present an animal model to assess the effects of end-to-side innervation in the heterotopically transplanted model with reduced chances of neural contamination.METHODS: The medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle in wistar male rats was isolated and its pedicle dissected and performed a flap in the abdominal portion. To prevent neural contamination in the abdominal region, the muscle was wrapped with a Goretex(r) sheet. The specimens were divided into 2 groups (G). In G1 was per...

  7. Intramuscular dissection of a large ganglion cyst into the gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke T; Freedman, Harold L

    2012-07-01

    Ganglion cysts are lesions resulting from the myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue associated with joint capsules and tendon sheaths. Most common around the wrist joint, ganglion cysts may be found elsewhere in the body, including in and around the knee joint. Uncommonly, ganglion cysts can present intramuscularly. Previous reports document the existence of intramuscular ganglia, often without histologic confirmation. This article describes a case of an intramuscular ganglion cyst in the medial gastrocnemius muscle of a 53-year-old woman. The patient initially presented for discomfort associated with the lesion. Examination was consistent with intramuscular cystic lesion of unknown etiology. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the origin of the mass at the semimembranosus-gastrocnemius bursa. Because of its location, the mass was initially suspected to be a dissecting Baker's cyst, an uncommon but previously reported diagnosis. The patient underwent surgical excision, and examination of the intact specimen revealed a thin, fibrous, walled cyst with no lining epithelium, which was consistent with a ganglion cyst. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in the orthopedic literature of a ganglion cyst dissecting into the gastrocnemius muscle. Because ganglion cysts commonly require excision for definitive treatment and do not respond well to treatment measures implemented for Baker's cysts, including resection of underlying meniscal tears, the authors believe it is important for orthopedic surgeons to be able to distinguish between Baker's and other cysts associated with the knee joint, including ganglion cysts, which may require more definitive treatment. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Anatomical aspects of the gastrocnemius muscles: A study in 47 fresh cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelkov, Katarina; Atanasijevic, Tatjana C; Popovic, Vesna M; Sforza, Marcos; Atkinson, Connor J; Soldatovic, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    This study offers objective dimensions of the gastrocnemius muscle and analyzes correlations between dimensional variables, with a view to providing guidance on the proportions of a healthy gastrocnemius muscle for both genders. This anatomical study was conducted at the Institute of Forensic Medicine Faculty of Medicine University of Belgrade, Serbia, from May until November 2014. We included 47 fresh cadavers (up to 12-h postmortem interval) both male and female. The inclusion criteria were absence of any trauma or degenerative findings in lower limbs, normally weighed, and age between 18 and 60 years. The exclusion criteria were significant difference in dimensions between legs and overweighed cadavers. After statistical analysis of gathered data, we were able to define the exact shape and average measures of the medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle in male and female. Factors affecting muscle dimensions are also defined in this study. The method of dissection that we applied could be recommended for exploration of different anatomical structures of calf region. The reported dimensions and correlations are useful guide in planning cosmetic and reconstructive procedures with high accuracy. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood flow distribution in dog gastrocnemius muscle at rest and during stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piiper, J.; Pendergast, D.R.; Marconi, C.; Meyer, M.; Heisler, N.; Cerretelli, P.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of blood flow within the isolated perfused dog gastrocnemius muscle (weight 100-240 g) was studied by intra-arterial injection of radioactively labeled microspheres (diameter 15 micron) at rest and during supramaximal stimulation to rhythmic isotonic tetanic contractions of varied frequency against varied loads. After the experiment the muscle was cut into 180-250 pieces of approximately 0.75 g each, and the blood flow to each muscle piece was determined from its radioactivity. The inhomogeneity of blood flow was represented as the frequency distribution of the ratios of regional specific blood flow, i.e., blood flow per unit tissue weight of the piece, QR, to the overall specific blood flow of the muscle, Q. The QR/Q values for the individual pieces of a muscle were found to vary widely both at rest and during stimulation. With rising work load the frequency distribution had a tendency to broaden and flatten, indicating increasing perfusion inhomogeneity. On the average of the experiments, there was no significant difference in specific blood flow between the three anatomic components of the gastrocnemius (lateral and medial heads of gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum superficialis) nor between the superficial and deep portions within these anatomic components, only the distal third of the muscle was relatively less perfused compared with the proximal two-thirds. The considerable inhomogeneity of blood flow as revealed by microsphere embolization and by other methods is expected to exert important limiting effects on local O 2 supply, particularly during exercise

  10. Expedition sol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?......Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?...

  11. The effect of the gastrocnemius on the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Although anatomic and functional relationship has been established between the gastrocnemius muscle, via the Achilles tendon, and the plantar fascia, the exact role of gastrocnemius tightness in foot and plantar fascia problems is not completely understood. This article summarizes past and current literature linking these 2 structures and gives a mechanical explanation based on functional models of the relationship between gastrocnemius tightness and plantar fascia. The effect of gastrocnemius tightness on the sagittal behavior of the foot is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pedicled Gastrocnemius Flap: Clinical Application in Limb Sparing Surgical Resection of Sarcoma Around the Knee Region and Popliteal Fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-SHERBINY, M.

    2008-01-01

    To highlight on the versatility of superiorly based pedicled gastrocnemius muscle flap in the limb-sparing surgery for bone or soft tissue sarcoma around the knee and popliteal fossa. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with localized bone or soft tissue sarcoma around the knee and popliteal fossa were treated with limb-salvage procedure. The study included 5 cases with bone sarcoma of the distal femur, 15 cases having bone sarcoma of proximal tibia and 10 cases having soft tissue sarcoma around the knee region and popliteal fossa. Routine preoperative staging studies were done for every patient and included local plain radiography, local MRI, isotopic bone scan and CT chest. Local MRA or angiography was done in selected cases. According to the Enneking staging system, 19 patients had stage IIB and 11 had stage IIA. Patients having bone sarcoma of the proximal tibia were subjected to wide resection, endo prosthetic reconstruction and reconstruction of the extensor mechanism by the medial gastrocnemius muscle flap. Patients having bone sarcoma of the distal femur were subjected to wide resection, endo prosthetic reconstruction and coverage of the prosthesis and re balance of the patellar tendon by the medial gas-trocnemius flap. Patients having soft tissue sarcoma were subjected to wide resection and soft tissue coverage with either medial or lateral myocutaneous gastrocnemius flap or muscle flap with grafting. Limb function was evaluated according to MSTS functional scores. Adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy was given according to nationally agreed protocols. Results: There were 18 males and 12 females with a mean age of 29 years at the time of surgery (range 11-44 years). The mean follow-up period was 52 months (range 25-72 months). Resection with a negative bony and soft tissue margins could be achieved in all cases. A total of 30 flaps were used and included medial gastrocnemius muscle flaps in 21 cases (15 cases had proximal tibia endoprothesis, 5

  13. Gastrocnemius fascicle and achilles tendon length at the end of the eccentric phase in a single and multiple countermovement hop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidstone, Daniel E; van Werkhoven, Herman; Needle, Alan R; Rice, Paige E; McBride, Jeffrey M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare fascicle and tendon length of the gastrocnemius at the end of the eccentric phase during a hop utilizing a single countermovement (sCM) versus multiple countermovement (mCM1, mCM2, mCM3) strategy. Seventeen healthy males performed nine hopping trials of sCM and nine trials of mCM. Ankle and knee joint angle and lower leg length from videography and muscle ultrasound were used to calculate muscle-tendon unit (MTU), fascicle and tendon length. Sacral marker data was used to determine hopping height. Force- and displacement-time curves were utilized to calculate work. Muscle activity of the lateral and medial gastrocnemius was also measured. Fascicle length was significantly shorter (mCM3: 6.2 ± 1.5 cm, sCM: 7.3 ± 2.0 cm) and tendon length was significantly longer (mCM3: 36.5 ± 3.6 cm, sCM: 35.5 ± 3.8 cm) at the end of the eccentric phase in mCM3 in comparison to sCM. Maximal hopping height (mCM: 14.6 ± 3.1 cm, sCM: 13.1 ± 2.5 cm), eccentric phase gastrocnemius muscle activity (mCM medial gastrocnemius: 0.10 ± 0.03 mV, mCM lateral gastrocnemius: 0.08 ± 0.04 mV, sCM medial gastrocnemius: 0.07 ± 0.03 mV, sCM lateral gastrocnemius: 0.05 ± 0.04 mV), and both eccentric (mCM3: 46.6 ± 19.4 J, sCM: 38.5 ± 15.9 J) and concentric work (mCM3: 87.6 ± 26.5 J, sCM: 80.9 ± 27.6 J) were significantly higher for mCM3 compared to sCM. The results indicate that a multiple countermovement hop strategy results in shorter fascicle length and longer tendon length at the end of the eccentric phase. In addition, greater eccentric phase muscle activity during the third countermovement (mCM3) in comparison to a single countermovement hop (sCM) was observed. A multiple countermovement strategy appears to result in higher hopping height and greater work done in both the eccentric and concentric phase indicating possible contribution of stored

  14. Altered fibre types in gastrocnemius muscle of high wheel-running selected mice with mini-muscle phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderley, Helga; Joanisse, Denis R; Mokas, Sophie; Bilodeau, Geneviève M; Garland, Theodore

    2008-03-01

    Selective breeding of mice for high voluntary wheel running has favoured characteristics that facilitate sustained, aerobically supported activity, including a "mini-muscle" phenotype with markedly reduced hind limb muscle mass, increased mass-specific activities of oxidative enzymes, decreased % myosin heavy chain IIb, and, in the medial gastrocnemius, reduced twitch speed, reduced mass-specific isotonic power, and increased fatigue resistance. To evaluate whether selection has altered fibre type expression in mice with either "mini" or normal muscle phenotypes, we examined fibre types of red and white gastrocnemius. In both the medial and lateral gastrocnemius, the mini-phenotype increased activities of oxidative enzymes and decreased activities of glycolytic enzymes. In red muscle samples, the mini-phenotype markedly changed fibre types, with the % type I and type IIA fibres and the surface area of type IIA fibres increasing; in addition, mice from selected lines in general had an increased % type IIA fibres and larger type I fibres as compared with mice from control lines. White muscle samples from mini-mice showed dramatic structural alterations, with an atypical distribution of extremely small, unidentifiable fibres surrounded by larger, more oxidative fibres than normally present in white muscle. The increased proportion of oxidative fibres and these atypical small fibres together may explain the reduced mass and increased mitochondrial enzyme activities in mini-muscles. These and previous results demonstrate that extension of selective breeding beyond the time when the response of the selected trait (i.e. distance run) has levelled off can still modify the mechanistic underpinnings of this behaviour.

  15. Sonographic evaluation of the immediate effects of eccentric heel drop exercise on Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle stiffness using shear wave elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wilson K.C.; Chu, KL

    2017-01-01

    Background Mechanical loading is crucial for muscle and tendon tissue remodeling. Eccentric heel drop exercise has been proven to be effective in the management of Achilles tendinopathy, yet its induced change in the mechanical property (i.e., stiffness) of the Achilles tendon (AT), medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles (MG and LG) was unknown. Given that shear wave elastography has emerged as a powerful tool in assessing soft tissue stiffness with promising intra- and inter-operator reliability, the objective of this study was hence to characterize the stiffness of the AT, MG and LG in response to an acute bout of eccentric heel drop exercise. Methods Forty-five healthy young adults (36 males and nine females) performed 10 sets of 15-repetition heel drop exercise on their dominant leg with fully-extended knee, during which the AT and gastrocnemius muscles, but not soleus, were highly stretched. Before and immediately after the heel drop exercise, elastic moduli of the AT, MG and LG were measured by shear wave elastography. Results After the heel drop exercise, the stiffness of AT increased significantly by 41.8 + 33.5% (P eccentric heel drop exercise. The findings from this pilot study shed some light on how and to what extent the AT and gastrocnemius muscles mechanically responds to an isolated set of heel drop exercise. Taken together, appropriate eccentric load might potentially benefit mechanical adaptations of the AT and gastrocnemius muscles in the rehabilitation of patients with Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:28740756

  16. Changes in Muscular Lipids in Unilateral Isolated Hypertrophy of Gastrocnemius Muscle Can Be Revealed by 1H MR Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, Klaus; Machann, Juergen; Pick, Margarete; Schaefer, Juergen F.; Claussen, Claus D.; Schick, Fritz [University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    To test whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) reveals changes in the lipid content of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and soleus muscle (SOL) of a patient with unilateral isolated hypertrophy of the right GM. {sup 1}H-MRS was performed on a 1.5 Tesla (T) wholebody unit. Muscular lipids inside SOL and GM were assessed in both calves of the patient by a STEAM (stimulated echo acquisition mode) localization sequence. Results were compared to a control group of four healthy volunteers. Total amount of muscular lipids in the hypertrophic GM of the patient was clearly increased compared to the controls (38.7 versus 21.8{+-}3.5 a.u.) while intramyocellular lipids of the adjacent SOL were lower compared to the contralateral healthy leg. Muscular lipids are substrates for metabolism and can be assessed non-invasively by {sup 1}H-MRS. {sup 1}H-MRS is considered to be a helpful tool in clinical assessment of muscle metabolism in cases with muscular hypo- or hypertrophy.

  17. Changes in Muscular Lipids in Unilateral Isolated Hypertrophy of Gastrocnemius Muscle Can Be Revealed by 1H MR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechtel, Klaus; Machann, Juergen; Pick, Margarete; Schaefer, Juergen F.; Claussen, Claus D.; Schick, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    To test whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) reveals changes in the lipid content of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and soleus muscle (SOL) of a patient with unilateral isolated hypertrophy of the right GM. 1 H-MRS was performed on a 1.5 Tesla (T) wholebody unit. Muscular lipids inside SOL and GM were assessed in both calves of the patient by a STEAM (stimulated echo acquisition mode) localization sequence. Results were compared to a control group of four healthy volunteers. Total amount of muscular lipids in the hypertrophic GM of the patient was clearly increased compared to the controls (38.7 versus 21.8±3.5 a.u.) while intramyocellular lipids of the adjacent SOL were lower compared to the contralateral healthy leg. Muscular lipids are substrates for metabolism and can be assessed non-invasively by 1 H-MRS. 1 H-MRS is considered to be a helpful tool in clinical assessment of muscle metabolism in cases with muscular hypo- or hypertrophy

  18. Gastrocnemius myoelectric control of a robotic hip exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Lorenzo; Crea, Simona; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Cortese, Mario; Giovacchini, Francesco; Cempini, Marco; Pasquini, Guido; Micera, Silvestro; Vitiello, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel EMG-based assistive control strategy for lower-limb exoskeletons. An active pelvis orthosis (APO) generates torque profiles for the hip flexion motion assistance, according to the Gastrocnemius Medialis EMG signal. The strategy has been tested on one healthy subject: experimental results show that the user is able to reduce his muscular activation when the assistance is switched on with respect to the free walking condition.

  19. Gastrocnemius muscle contracture after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diong, Joanna; Harvey, Lisa A; Kwah, Li Khim; Clarke, Jillian L; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in passive length and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in people after spinal cord injury. In a prospective longitudinal study, eight wheelchair-dependent participants with severe paralysis were assessed 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. Passive torque-angle data were obtained as the ankle was slowly rotated through range at six knee angles. Differences in passive ankle torque-angle data recorded at different knee angles were used to derive passive length-tension curves of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit. Ultrasound imaging was used to determine fascicle and tendon contributions to the muscle-tendon unit length-tension curves. The participants had ankle contractures (mean [SD] maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion angle, 88 [9] degrees) 3 mos after spinal cord injury. Ankle range did not worsen significantly during the subsequent 9 mos (mean change, -5 degrees; 95% confidence interval, -16 to 6 degrees). There were no changes in the mean slack length or the stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit or in the slack lengths of the fascicles or the tendon between 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. There were no consistent patterns of the change in slack length or stiffness with the changes in ankle range in the data from the individual participants. This study, the first longitudinal study of muscle length and stiffness after spinal cord injury, showed that the length and the stiffness of the gastrocnemius did not change substantially between 3 and 12 mos after injury.

  20. Protein synthesis rates in atrophied gastrocnemius muscles after limb immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, K. R.; Seider, M. J.; Booth, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    Noting that protein synthesis declines in the gastrocnemius 6 hr after immobilization, the study sought to detect an increase of protein synthesis when the limb was freed, and to examine the effects of exercise on the rate of increase. Rats were used as subjects, with their hind legs in plaster of Paris in plantar flexion to eliminate strain on the gastrocnemius. Periods of immobilization were varied and samples of blood from the muscle were taken to track protein synthesis rates for different groups in immobilization and exercise regimens (running and weightlifting). Synthesis rates declined 3.6% during time in the cast, then increased 6.3%/day after the casts were removed. Both running and weightlifting were found to increase the fractional rate of protein formation in the gastrocnemius muscle when compared with contralateral muscles that were not exercised and were used as controls, suggesting that the mechanism controlling protein synthesis in skeletal muscles is rapidly responsive to changes in muscular contractile activity.

  1. A new approach to assess the gastrocnemius muscle volume in rodents using ultrasound; comparison with the gastrocnemius muscle index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim H J Nijhuis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a new non-invasive ultrasound technique to measure gastrocnemius muscle atrophy after nerve denervation in an animal model. METHODS: In sixteen rodents an eight mm sciatic nerve gap was created. In the following 8 weeks, each week, two rodents were euthanized and the gastrocnemius muscle was examined using two different ultrasound systems and two investigators. The standardized ultrasound measurement protocol consisted of identifying pre-defined anatomical landmarks: 1 the fibula, 2 the fibular nerve, and 3 the junction between the most distal point of the semitendinosus muscle and gastrocnemius muscle. Consequently, we measured the muscle thickness as the length of the line between the fibula and the junction between the two muscles, perpendicular to the fibular nerve. After the ultrasound recording, the muscle mass was determined. RESULTS: A steep decline of muscle weight of 24% was observed after one week. In the following weeks, the weight further decreased and then remained stable from 6 weeks onwards, resulting in a maximal muscle weight decrease of 82%. The correlation coefficient was >0.96 between muscle diameter and weight using both ultrasound systems. The inter-rater reliability was excellent for both devices on the operated side (ICC of 0.99 for both ultrasound systems and good for the non-operated site (ICC's: 0.84 & 0.89. The difference between the muscle mass ratio and the muscle thickness ratio was not more than 5% with two outliers of approximately 13%. DISCUSSION: We have developed an innovative, highly reliable technique for quantifying muscle atrophy after nerve injury. This technique allows serial measurements in the same animal over time. This is a significant advantage compared to the conventional technique for quantifying muscle atrophy, which requires sacrificing the animal.

  2. MR imaging assessment of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle: prevalence of segmental anomalous origins in children and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Racadio, Judy M.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in the lower extremity musculature have been identified, including an anomalous origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Anomalies of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (LGN) have been less frequently described, especially in children. To describe the MR imaging appearance, frequency and clinical symptoms associated with anatomic variations of the LGN in children and young adults. A retrospective review of 465 knee MR imaging examinations was performed. The site of origin of the LGN was identified as either normal, lateral segmental anomalous origin (LSAO), or medial accessory anomalous origin (MAAO). The clinical indication for imaging was recorded. An anatomic variation of the LGN was identified in 16 patients (3.4%). Nine patients had LSAO, and five of these had symptoms referable to or abnormalities of the patella. Seven patients had MAAO, and three of these had chronic nontraumatic knee pain. Anatomic variations of the LGN are not rare in young patients, occurring with a frequency of 3.4% in our series. It is unknown whether these anomalies play a role in the etiology of patellofemoral pain or unexplained joint pain in children. (orig.)

  3. MR imaging assessment of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle: prevalence of segmental anomalous origins in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Racadio, Judy M

    2008-12-01

    Variations in the lower extremity musculature have been identified, including an anomalous origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Anomalies of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (LGN) have been less frequently described, especially in children. To describe the MR imaging appearance, frequency and clinical symptoms associated with anatomic variations of the LGN in children and young adults. A retrospective review of 465 knee MR imaging examinations was performed. The site of origin of the LGN was identified as either normal, lateral segmental anomalous origin (LSAO), or medial accessory anomalous origin (MAAO). The clinical indication for imaging was recorded. An anatomic variation of the LGN was identified in 16 patients (3.4%). Nine patients had LSAO, and five of these had symptoms referable to or abnormalities of the patella. Seven patients had MAAO, and three of these had chronic nontraumatic knee pain. Anatomic variations of the LGN are not rare in young patients, occurring with a frequency of 3.4% in our series. It is unknown whether these anomalies play a role in the etiology of patellofemoral pain or unexplained joint pain in children.

  4. MR imaging assessment of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle: prevalence of segmental anomalous origins in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Racadio, Judy M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Variations in the lower extremity musculature have been identified, including an anomalous origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Anomalies of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (LGN) have been less frequently described, especially in children. To describe the MR imaging appearance, frequency and clinical symptoms associated with anatomic variations of the LGN in children and young adults. A retrospective review of 465 knee MR imaging examinations was performed. The site of origin of the LGN was identified as either normal, lateral segmental anomalous origin (LSAO), or medial accessory anomalous origin (MAAO). The clinical indication for imaging was recorded. An anatomic variation of the LGN was identified in 16 patients (3.4%). Nine patients had LSAO, and five of these had symptoms referable to or abnormalities of the patella. Seven patients had MAAO, and three of these had chronic nontraumatic knee pain. Anatomic variations of the LGN are not rare in young patients, occurring with a frequency of 3.4% in our series. It is unknown whether these anomalies play a role in the etiology of patellofemoral pain or unexplained joint pain in children. (orig.)

  5. Reversible sol-gel-sol medium for enzymatic optical biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safaryan, S.; Yakovlev, A.; Pidko, E.A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, V.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we for the first time report a reversible sol-gel-sol approach to obtain optical enzymatic biosensors with improved enzyme stability and good sensitivity by using desktop inkjet printing. The developed technique is based on the bio-inorganic inks allowing for a sol-gel-sol transition

  6. Ipsilateral Medial and Lateral Discoid Meniscus with Medial Meniscus Tear

    OpenAIRE

    Shimozaki, Kengo; Nakase, Junsuke; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Discoid meniscus is a well-documented knee pathology, and there are many cases of medial or lateral discoid meniscus reported in the literature. However, ipsilateral concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus. Case Report: A 27-year-old Japanese man complained of pain on medial joint space in his right knee that was diagnosed as a complete medial ...

  7. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  8. ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE- A DISSECTION-BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Dutta Roy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In human, the bulk of the posterior compartment of the leg is formed by the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle. The superficially-placed gastrocnemius is a bipennate muscle, but according to available literature, it exhibits numerous anatomical variations. The aim of the present study is to find out the anatomical variations of the gastrocnemius muscle in this part of Assam. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study undertaken in the Department of Anatomy, Jorhat Medical College, from August 2014 to August 2017 included 30 lower limbs from 15 embalmed cadavers of known sexes. These cadavers were provided to the first year MBBS students for routine dissection procedure. After carrying out the dissection as per Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy, the gastrocnemius muscle was examined for its two heads of origin. Any accessory heads found were noted and recorded. RESULTS Out of the 30 lower limb specimens, 28 (93.33% limbs presented with the normal two-headed gastrocnemius muscle, while 2 (6.66% limbs (1 right and 1 left, presented with four-headed gastrocnemius muscle. Both these limbs belonged to male cadavers. CONCLUSION The precise knowledge of occurrence of multi-headed gastrocnemius muscle should be kept in mind, while performing myocutaneous flaps around the knee joint and also during limb salvage procedures or limb sparing surgery.

  9. The medial patellofemoral complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Alexander E; Tanaka, Miho J

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the current understanding of the medial patellofemoral complex, including recent anatomic advances, evaluation of indications for reconstruction with concomitant pathology, and surgical reconstruction techniques. Recent advances in our understanding of MPFC anatomy have found that there are fibers that insert onto the deep quadriceps tendon as well as the patella, thus earning the name "medial patellofemoral complex" to allow for the variability in its anatomy. In MPFC reconstruction, anatomic origin and insertion points and appropriate graft length are critical to prevent overconstraint of the patellofemoral joint. The MPFC is a crucial soft tissue checkrein to lateral patellar translation, and its repair or reconstruction results in good restoration of patellofemoral stability. As our understanding of MPFC anatomy evolves, further studies are needed to apply its relevance in kinematics and surgical applications to its role in maintaining patellar stability.

  10. Short-Term Motor Compensations to Denervation of Feline Soleus and Lateral Gastrocnemius Result in Preservation of Ankle Mechanical Output during Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilutsky, Boris I.; Maas, Huub; Bulgakova, Margarita; Hodson-Tole, Emma F.; Gregor, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Denervation of selected ankle extensors in animals results in locomotor changes. These changes have been suggested to permit preservation of global kinematic characteristics of the hindlimb during stance. The peak ankle joint moment is also preserved immediately after denervation of several ankle extensors in the cat, suggesting that the animal's response to peripheral nerve injury may also be aimed at preserving ankle mechanical output. We tested this hypothesis by comparing joint moments and power patterns during walking before and after denervation of soleus and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. Hindlimb kinematics, ground reaction forces and electromyographic activity of selected muscles were recorded during level, downslope (−50%) and upslope (50%) walking before and 1–3 weeks after nerve denervation. Denervation resulted in increased activity of the intact medial gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles, greater ankle dorsiflexion, smaller knee flexion, and the preservation of the peak ankle moment during stance. Surprisingly, ankle positive power generated in the propulsion phase of stance was increased (up to 50%) after denervation in all walking conditions (p ankle. The additional mechanical energy generated at the ankle during propulsion can result, in part, from increased activity of intact synergists, the use of passive tissues around the ankle and by the tendon action of ankle two-joint muscles and crural fascia. PMID:21411965

  11. Measurement of gastrocnemius muscle elasticity by shear wave elastography: association with passive ankle joint stiffness and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-04-01

    Passive joint stiffness is an important quantitative measure of flexibility, but is affected by muscle volume and all of the anatomical structures located within and over the joint. Shear wave elastography can assess muscle elasticity independent of the influences of muscle volume and the other nearby anatomical structures. We determined how muscle elasticity, as measured using shear wave elastography, is associated with passive joint stiffness and patient sex. Twenty-six healthy men (24.4 ± 5.9 years) and 26 healthy women (25.2 ± 4.8 years) participated in this study. The passive ankle joint stiffness and tissue elasticity of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) were quantified with the ankle in 30° plantar flexion (PF), a neutral anatomical position (NE), and 20° dorsiflexion (DF). No significant difference in passive joint stiffness by sex was observed with the ankle in PF, but significantly greater passive ankle joint stiffness in men than in women was observed in NE and DF. The MG elasticity was not significantly associated with joint stiffness in PF or NE, but it was significantly associated with joint stiffness in DF. There were no significant differences in MG elasticity by sex at any ankle position. Muscle elasticity, measured independent of the confounding effects of muscle volume and the other nearby anatomical structures, is associated with passive joint stiffness in the joint position where the muscle is sufficiently lengthened, but does not vary by sex in any joint position tested.

  12. Does ankle joint power reflect type of muscle action of soleus and gastrocnemius during walking in cats and humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Neil J; Prilutsky, Boris I; Lichtwark, Glen A; Maas, Huub

    2013-04-26

    The main objective of this paper is to highlight the difficulties of identifying shortening and lengthening contractions based on analysis of power produced by resultant joint moments. For that purpose, we present net ankle joint powers and muscle fascicle/muscle-tendon unit (MTU) velocities for medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SO) muscles during walking in species of different size (humans and cats). For the cat, patterns of ankle joint power and MTU velocity of MG and SO during stance were similar: negative power (ankle moment×angular velocityankle joint power and fascicle velocity patterns were observed for MG muscle. In humans, like cats, the patterns of ankle joint power and MTU velocity of SO and MG were similar. Unlike the cat, there were substantial differences between patterns of fascicle velocity and ankle joint power during stance in both muscles. These results indicate that during walking, only a small fraction of mechanical work of the ankle moment is either generated or absorbed by the muscle fascicles, thus confirming the contribution of in-series elastic structures and/or energy transfer via two-joint muscles. We conclude that ankle joint negative power does not necessarily indicate eccentric action of muscle fibers and that positive power cannot be exclusively attributed to muscle concentric action, especially in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of Gastrocnemius Muscle Stiffness With Passive Ankle Joint Stiffness and Sex-Related Difference in the Joint Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Kintaro; Takashi, Hideyuki

    2017-11-15

    Passive ankle joint stiffness is affected by all structures located within and over the joint, and is greater in men than in women. Localized muscle stiffness can be assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography, and muscle architecture such as fascicle length and pennation angle can be measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Thus, we assessed localized muscle stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) with consideration of individual variability in the muscle architecture, and examined the association of the muscle stiffness with passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness. Localized muscle stiffness of the MG in 16 men and 17 women was assessed at 10° and 20° plantar flexion, neutral anatomical position, 10° and 20° dorsiflexion. Fascicle length and pennation angle of the MG were measured at these joint positions. Passive ankle joint stiffness was determined by the ankle joint angle-torque relationship. Localized MG muscle stiffness was not significantly correlated with passive ankle joint stiffness, and did not show significant sex-related difference, even when considering the muscle architecture. This finding suggest that muscle stiffness of the MG would not be a prominent factor to determine passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness.

  14. Medial temporal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.J.; Cross, D.T.; Friedman, D.P.; Bello, J.A.; Hilal, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    To better define the MR appearance of hippocampal sclerosis, the authors have reviewed over 500 MR coronal images of the temporal lobes. Many cysts were noted that analysis showed were of choroid-fissure (arachnoid) origin. Their association with seizures was low. A few nontumorous, static, medial temporal lesions, noted on T2-weighted coronal images, were poorly visualized on T1-weighted images and did not enhance with gadolinium. The margins were irregular, involved the hippocampus, and were often associated with focal atrophy. The lesions usually were associated with seizure disorders and specific electroencephalographic changes, and the authors believe they represented hippocampal sclerosis

  15. Bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films prevent pin tract and periprosthetic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haibo; Knabe, Christine; Burke, Megan; Radin, Shula; Garino, Jonathan; Schaer, Thomas; Ducheyne, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Orthopedic injuries constitute the majority of wounds sustained by U.S. soldiers in recent conflicts. The risk of infection is considerable with fracture fixation devices. In this pilot study, we examined the use of unique bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films on fracture fixation devices and their ability to prevent and eradicate infections. External fixation was studied with micron-thin sol-gel coated percutaneous pins releasing triclosan and inserted medially into rabbit tibiae. A total of 11 rabbits received percutaneous pins that were either uncoated or sol-gel/triclosan coated. Internal fracture fixation was also studied using sol-gel coated intramedullary (IM) nails releasing vancomycin in the intramedullary tibiae. Six sheep received IM nails that were coated with a sol-gel film that either contained vancomycin or did not contain vancomycin. All animals were challenged with Staphylococcus aureus around the implant. Animals were euthanized at 1 month postoperative. Rabbits receiving triclosan/sol-gel coated percutaneous pins did not show signs of infection. Uncoated percutaneous pins had a significantly higher infection rate. In the sheep study, there were no radiographic signs of osteomyelitis with vancomycin/sol-gel coated IM nails, in contrast to the observations in the control cohort. Hence, the nanostructured sol-gel controlled release technology offers the promise of a reliable and continuous delivery system of bactericidals from orthopedic devices to prevent and treat infection. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  17. Atraumatic medial collateral ligament oedema in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergin, D.; Keogh, C.; O'Connell, M.; Zoga, A.; Rowe, D.; Shah, B.; Eustace, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe and determine the prevalence of atraumatic medial collateral oedema identified in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis. Design and patients: Sixty patients, 30 patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 to 4) and 30 age-matched patients with atraumatic knee pain without osteoarthritis, referred for MR imaging over a 2 year period were included in the study. In each case, severity of osteoarthritis was recorded on radiographs and correlated with the presence or absence of medial collateral ligament oedema at MR imaging. Results: Medial collateral oedema was identified in 27 of the 30 patients with osteoarthritis, of whom 14 had grade 1 oedema and 13 had grade 2 oedema compared with the presence of medial collateral ligament oedema (grade 1) in only two of the 30 control patients without osteoarthritis (P<<0.0001). Conclusion: Medial collateral oedema is common in patients with osteoarthritis in the absence of trauma. When identified, medial collateral ligament oedema should be considered to be a feature of osteoarthritis and should not be incorrectly attributed to an acute traumatic injury. (orig.)

  18. Evoked electromyography to rocuronium in orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius in facial nerve injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yian; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2013-11-01

    Muscles innervated by the facial nerve show different sensitivities to muscle relaxants than muscles innervated by somatic nerves, especially in the presence of facial nerve injury. We compared the evoked electromyography (EEMG) response of orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius in with and without a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant in a rabbit model of graded facial nerve injury. Differences in EEMG response and inhibition by rocuronium were measured in the orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius muscles 7 to 42 d after different levels of facial nerve crush injuries in adult rabbits. Baseline EEMG of orbicularis oris was significantly smaller than those of the gastrocnemius. Gastrocnemius was more sensitive to rocuronium than the facial muscles (P rocuronium was negatively correlated with the magnitude of facial nerve injury but the sensitivity to rocuronium was not. No significant difference was found in the onset time and the recovery time of rocuronium among gastrocnemius and normal or damaged facial muscles. Muscles innervated by somatic nerves are more sensitive to rocuronium than those innervated by the facial nerve, but while facial nerve injury reduced EEMG responses, the sensitivity to rocuronium is not altered. Partial neuromuscular blockade may be a suitable technique for conducting anesthesia and surgery safely when EEMG monitoring is needed to preserve and protect the facial nerve. Additional caution should be used if there is a risk of preexisting facial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Slack length of gastrocnemius medialis and Achilles tendon occurs at different ankle angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, François; Lacourpaille, Lilian; Maïsetti, Olivier; Nordez, Antoine

    2013-09-27

    Although muscle-tendon slack length is a crucial parameter used in muscle models, this is one of the most difficult measures to estimate in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine the onset of the rise in tension (i.e., slack length) during passive stretching in both Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius medialis. Muscle and tendon shear elastic modulus was measured by elastography (supersonic shear imaging) during passive plantarflexion (0° and 90° of knee angle, 0° representing knee fully extended, in a random order) in 9 participants. The within-session repeatability of the determined slack length was good at 90° of knee flexion (SEM=3.3° and 2.2° for Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius medialis, respectively) and very good at 0° of knee flexion (SEM=1.9° and 1.9° for Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius medialis, respectively). The slack length of gastrocnemius medialis was obtained at a significantly lower plantarflexed angle than for Achilles tendon at both 0° (Pslack can be experimentally determined using supersonic shear imaging. The slack length of gastrocnemius medialis and Achilles tendon occurred at different joint angles. Although reporting this result is crucial to a better understanding of muscle-tendon interactions, further experimental investigations are required to explain this result. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tension-referenced measures of gastrocnemius slack length and stiffness in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Benedict; Double, Kay L; Burne, John; Diong, Joanna

    2016-12-01

    It is not known how passive muscle length and stiffness contribute to rigidity in Parkinson's disease. The objective of this study was to compare passive gastrocnemius muscle-tendon slack length and stiffness at known tension in Parkinson's disease subjects with ankle rigidity and in able-bodied people. Passive ankle torque-angle curves were obtained from 15 Parkinson's disease subjects with rigidity and 15 control subjects. Torque-angle data were used to derive passive gastrocnemius length-tension data and calculate slack length and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle. Between-group comparisons were made with linear models. Gastrocnemius muscle-tendon slack lengths (adjusted between-group difference, 0.01 m; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.04 m; P = 0.37) and stiffness (adjusted between-group difference, 15.7 m -1 ; 95% CI, -8.5 to 39.9 m -1 ; P = 0.19) were not significantly different between groups. Parkinson's disease subjects with ankle rigidity did not have significantly shorter or stiffer gastrocnemius muscles compared with control subjects. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. GASTROCNEMIUS TUBERCLE IN INDIAN POPULATION: A NEW ANATOMICAL ENTITY?. Tubérculo gastrocnemio en la población india: Una nueva entidad anatómica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Gosavi

    2016-03-01

    was named as gastrocnemius tubercle. The medial head of gastrocnemius muscle and posterior oblique ligament were attached close to it. We observed three hundred and ninety six (right-204 and left-192 dry femora belonging to Indian population. The medial condyle was observed for the presence of third bony prominence - gastrocnemius tubercle (GCT along with adductor tubercle and medial epicondyle. The presence or absence of GCT was noted. The size of GCT and AT was compared. The distance between the most prominent point on AT and GCT and between GCT and MEP was measured using digital Vernier caliper accurate up to 0.01 mm. The percentage, mean, range and standard deviation was calculated for the data. Presence of GCT was noted in 207 bones (52.27% (right-109 and left-98. In majority (80.7% of the femora AT was larger than GCT. Mean distance between GCT and AT on right side was 10.8 ± 2.4 mm and on left side it was 10.9 ± 2.3.  Distance between GCT and MEP on right side was observed as 14.8 ± 0.5 mm and on left side 14.9 ± 2.9. The bilateral differences were not significant statistically. It is important for clinicians to identify GCT to avoid non-anatomical repair of medial knee injuries.

  2. Fragmented medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Cs.; Juhasz, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process: (FCP) is often considered to be part of the osteochondrosis dissecans complex, but trauma and growth discrepancies between the radius and ulna are proposed as causes. There is little to clinically differentiate FCP, from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow. Pain on, flexion-extension of the elbow and lateral rotation of the paw is a little more consistent in FCP. Radiographic examination of the elbow is important despite the, fact that radiographic signs of the FCP are often nonspecific. Excessive osteoarthrosis and superimposition of the radial head and coronoid process make identification of the FCP difficult. Craniocaudal, flexed mediolateral and 25 degree craniocaudal-lateromedial views are necessary for diagnosis. Osteophyte production is more dramatic with FCP than with OCD and suggests therefore the occurrence of OCP in many cases. Although the detached process may be seen on any view, the oblique projection offers the least obstructed view. Exposure of the joint is identical to that for OCD, that means a medial approach with osteotomy of the epicondyle. In most cases the process is loose enough to be readily apparent, but in some it is necessary to exert force on the process in order to find the cleavage plane. It is necessary to remove the osteophytes as well and to inspect and irrigate the joint carefully to remove cartilage fragments before closure. Confinement is advisable for 4 weeks before returning the dog to normal activity. The outlook for function is good if the FCP is removed before secondary degenerative joint disease is well established

  3. Thoria sol-gel processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.B.

    1978-10-01

    Alternate fuel fabrication techniques are being developed at WNRE as part of the thorium fuel cycle program. The sol-gel techniques are attractive and this report assembles and summarizes information relating to thoria sol-gel fuels. Some background information on the behaviour and advantages of sol-gel fuel forms is presented, followed by a review of relevant colloid chemistry and an explanation of the fundamental steps of sol-gel processes. Finally, several variants to the basic process are reviewed and evaluated. (author)

  4. Nils Silfverskiöld (1888-1957) and gastrocnemius contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dishan

    2013-06-01

    Nils Silfverskiöld was an orthopaedic surgeon, Swedish aristocrat, bon vivant, Olympic gymnast, left wing intellectual and anti-Nazi who described that the force required to dorsiflex the ankle in spastic equinus contracture decreased with knee flexion in isolated gastrocnemius contracture. He advocated detaching the origins of the gastrocnemii from the femur and reattaching them to the tibia. The Silfverskiöld knee flexion test has now also been adapted to distinguish between isolated gastrocnemius contracture and combined shortening of the gastrocnemius-soleus complex in non-spastic contracture by measuring the range of ankle dorsiflexion with the knee flexed and the knee straight. Copyright © 2012 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor L [Los Alamos, NM

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  6. The relationship of lateral anatomic structures to exiting guide pins during femoral tunnel preparation utilizing an accessory medial portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Lutul D; Parker, Richard D

    2010-06-01

    Anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament through an accessory medial portal has become increasingly popular. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship of guide pin exit points to the lateral anatomic structures when preparing the anterior cruciate ligament femoral tunnel through an accessory medial portal. We utilized seven fresh frozen cadaveric knees. Utilizing an anteromedial approach, a guide wire was placed into the center of each bundle's footprint. Each guide wire was advanced through the lateral femoral cortex. The guide pins were passed at 90, 110, and 130 degrees of knee flexion. The distances from each guide pin to the closest relevant structures on the lateral side of the knee were measured. At 90 degrees the posterolateral bundle guide pin was closest to the lateral condyle articular cartilage (mean 5.4 +/- 2.2 mm) and gastrocnemius tendon (mean 5.7 +/- 2.1 mm). At 110 degrees the posterolateral bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 4.5 +/- 3.4 mm). At 130 degrees the posterolateral bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 7.2 +/- 5.5 mm) and lateral collateral ligament (mean 6.8 +/- 2.1 mm). At 90 degrees the anteromedial bundle guide pin was closest to the articular cartilage (mean 2.0 +/- 2.0 mm). At 110 degrees the anteromedial bundle pin was closest to the articular cartilage (mean 7.4 +/- 3.5 mm) and gastrocnemius tendon (mean 12.3 +/- 3.1 mm). At 130 degrees the AM bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 8.2 +/- 3.2 mm) and LCL (mean 15.1 +/- 2.9 mm). Neither guide pin (anteromedial or posterolateral bundle) put the peroneal nerve at risk at any knee flexion angle. At low knee flexion angles the anteromedial and posterolateral bundle guide pins closely approximated multiple lateral structures when using an accessory medial arthroscopic portal. Utilizing higher flexion angles increases the margin of error when preparing both femoral tunnels. During preparation of

  7. Gastrocnemius Recession Leads to Increased Ankle Motion and Improved Patient Satisfaction After 2 Years of Follow-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtmann, Julia Alessandra; Südkamp, Norbert P; Schmal, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    The isolated gastrocnemius contracture present in neurologic healthy patients results in a significant limitation of ankle dorsiflexion causing pathologic gait patterns and a greater risk of further foot disorders. Gastrocnemius recession is an established procedure to increase ankle dorsiflexion....... However, little evidence is available of the use of gastrocnemius recession in these patients. Complication rates, recurrence of gastrocnemius contracture, and the prevalence of additional foot disorders needs further evaluation. A study group of 64 operated limbs undergoing gastrocnemius recession...... was evaluated to determine the prevalence of foot disorders, pre- and postoperative ankle dorsiflexion, and incidence of complications. A subgroup of 15 (23.4%) patients without additional operative procedures was examined regarding ankle dorsiflexion, strength (Janda method), sensitivity in the operated limb...

  8. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Passive mechanical properties of gastrocnemius muscles of people with ankle contracture after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Li Khim; Herbert, Robert D; Harvey, Lisa A; Diong, Joanna; Clarke, Jillian L; Martin, Joshua H; Clarke, Elizabeth C; Hoang, Phu D; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of contracture after stroke by comparing passive mechanical properties of gastrocnemius muscle-tendon units, muscle fascicles, and tendons in people with ankle contracture after stroke with control participants. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory in a research institution. A convenience sample of people with ankle contracture after stroke (n=20) and able-bodied control subjects (n=30). Not applicable. Stiffness and lengths of gastrocnemius muscle-tendon units, lengths of muscle fascicles, and tendons at specific tensions. At a tension of 100N, the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit was significantly shorter in participants with stroke (mean, 436mm) than in able-bodied control participants (mean, 444mm; difference, 8mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-15mm; P=.04). Muscle fascicles were also shorter in the stroke group (mean, 44mm) than in the control group (mean, 50mm; difference, 6mm; 95% CI, 1-12mm; P=.03). There were no significant differences between groups in the mean stiffness or length of the muscle-tendon units and fascicles at low tension, or in the mean length of the tendons at any tension. People with ankle contracture after stroke have shorter gastrocnemius muscle-tendon units and muscle fascicles than control participants at high tension. This difference is not apparent at low tension. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of step-height and body mass on gastrocnemius muscle fascicle behavior during stair ascent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjaard, M.; Reeves, N.D.; van Dieen, J.H.; Baltzopoulos, V.; Maganaris, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the role of the ankle plantar flexor muscles in stair negotiation, we examined the effects of manipulation of kinematic and kinetic constraints on the behavior of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle during stair ascent. Ten subjects ascended a four-step staircase at four

  11. Glycogen synthesis in human gastrocnemius muscle is not representative of whole-body muscle glycogen synthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, M.J.; Haan, J.H.A. de; Tack, C.J.J.; Verberne, H.J.; Ackermans, M.T.; Heerschap, A.; Sauerwein, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has enabled noninvasive measurement of muscle glycogen synthesis in humans. Conclusions based on measurements by the MRS technique assume that glucose metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle is representative for all skeletal muscles and thus

  12. Glycogen synthesis in human gastrocnemius muscle is not representative of whole-body muscle glycogen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, Mireille J. M.; de Haan, Jacco H.; Tack, Cees J.; Verberne, Hein J.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Heerschap, Arend; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of C-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has enabled noninvasive measurement of muscle glycogen synthesis in humans. Conclusions based on measurements by the MRS technique assume that glucose metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle is representative for all skeletal muscles and thus

  13. Tracking errors in tractography of the gastrocnemius muscle. A comparison between the transverse and sagittal planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takako; Tohdoh, Yukihiro; Tawara, Noriyuki; Okuwaki, Toru; Horiuchi, Akira; Itagaki, Takuma; Niitsu, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    In scans taken in conventional direction, tracking errors may occur when using a streamline-based algorithm for the tractography of the gastrocnemius muscle. To solve errors in tracking, we applied tractography to the musculotendinous junction and performed fiber tracking on the gastrocnemius muscle of 10 healthy subjects with their written informed consent. We employed a spin-echo diffusion tensor imaging (SE-DTI) sequence with 6-direction diffusion gradient sensitization and acquired DTI images at 1.5 tesla using a body array coil with parallel imaging. We compared tractography obtained in the transverse and sagittal planes using anatomical reference and found that the gastrocnemius muscle and musculotendinous junction were significantly better visualized on sagittal scans and in 3 regions of interest. We utilized Mann-Whitney U-test to determine significant differences between rates of concordance (P 2 value of skeletal muscle is around 50 ms, and TE should be as short as possible. A streamline-based algorithm is based on the continuity of a vector. It is easy to take running of the muscle fiber in sagittal scan. Therefore, tracking error is hard to occur. In conclusion, sagittal scanning may be one way to eliminate tracking errors in the tractography of the gastrocnemius muscle. Tracking errors were smaller with sagittal scans than transverse scans, and sagittal scans allow better fiber tracking. (author)

  14. Vascular anatomy of the medial sural artery perforator flap: a new classification system of intra-muscular branching patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusseldorp, Joseph R; Pham, Quy J; Ngo, Quan; Gianoutsos, Mark; Moradi, Pouria

    2014-09-01

    The medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap is a versatile fasciocutaneous flap. The main difficulty encountered when raising the MSAP flap is in obtaining adequate pedicle length during intra-muscular dissection. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of intra-muscular course of the MSAP flap pedicle. 14 cadaveric specimens were dissected and CT angiograms of 84 legs were examined. The intra-muscular branching pattern and depths of the medial sural artery branches were analyzed. The number of perforators, position of the dominant perforator and both intra-muscular and total pedicle length were also recorded and compared to existing anatomical data. Three types of arterial branching pattern were identified within the medial gastrocnemius, demonstrating one (31%), two (59%) or three or more (10%) main branches. A dominant perforator from the medial sural artery was present in 92% of anatomical specimens (13/14). Vertically, the location of the perforator from the popliteal crease was on average 13 cm (±2 cm). Transversely, the perforator originated 2.5 cm (±1 cm) from the posterior midline. Using CT angiography it was possible in 10 consecutive patients to identify a more superficial intra-muscular branch and determine the leg with the optimal branching pattern type for flap harvest. This study is the first to describe the variability of the intra-muscular arterial anatomy of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle. Surgeons utilizing the MSAP flap option should be aware of the possible branching pattern types and consequently the differing perforator distribution and depths of intra-muscular branches. Routine use of pre-operative CT angiogram may help determine which leg has the most favorable branching pattern type and intra-muscular course for flap harvest. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Task-dependent inhibition of slow-twitch soleus and excitation of fast-twitch gastrocnemius do not require high movement speed and velocity-dependent sensory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky eMehta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although individual heads of triceps surae, soleus (SO and medial gastrocnemius (MG muscles, are often considered close functional synergists, previous studies have shown distinct activity patterns between them in some motor behaviors. The goal of this study was to test two hypotheses explaining inhibition of slow SO with respect to fast MG: (1 inhibition occurs at high movement velocities and mediated by velocity-dependent sensory feedback and (2 inhibition depends on the ankle-knee joint moment combination and does not require high movement velocities. The hypotheses were tested by comparing the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio during fast and slow motor behaviors (cat paw shake responses vs. back, straight leg load lifting in humans, which had the same ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; and during fast and slow behaviors with the ankle extension-knee extension moment combination (human vertical jumping and stance phase of walking in cats and leg load lifting in humans. In addition, SO EMG/MG EMG ratio was determined during cat paw shake responses and walking before and after removal of stretch velocity-dependent sensory feedback by self-reinnervating SO and/or gastrocnemius. We found the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG below 1 (p<0.05 during fast paw shake responses and slow back load lifting, requiring the ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; whereas the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG was above 1 (p<0.05 during fast vertical jumping and slow tasks of walking and leg load lifting, requiring ankle extension-knee extension moments. Removal of velocity-dependent sensory feedback did not affect the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio in cats. We concluded that the relative inhibition of SO does not require high muscle velocities, depends on ankle-knee moment combinations, and is mechanically advantageous for allowing a greater MG contribution to ankle extension and knee flexion moments.

  16. TIME COURSE CHANGE OF IGF1/AKT/MTOR/P70S6K PATHWAY ACTIVATION IN RAT GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE DURING REPEATED BOUTS OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Ochi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway activity is altered by chronic eccentric exercise in rat medial gastrocnemius muscle. Male Wistar rats (n = 24 were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups: eccentric exercise (ECC group or sham-operated control (CON group. Rats in the ECC group were trained every second day for 10 days (5 sessions in total or 20 days (10 sessions in total. After either 5 or 10 exercise sessions, muscle specimens were dissected and weighed. The mRNA expression of IGF-1 and its variant, mechano growth factor (MGF, was evaluated using real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Tissue concentrations of Akt (P, mTOR (P, and p70S6K (P were measured by using western blot analysis. The medial gastrocnemius muscle mass of the ECC group did not show any significant difference after 5 exercise sessions, whereas the muscle mass increased significantly after 10 exercise sessions with a concomitant increase in the cross-sectional area of muscle fibers (p < 0.05. The expression of IGF-1 mRNA and the tissue concentrations of Akt (P and p70S6K (P after 10 exercise sessions was significantly higher than those of the age-matched controls and the rats that received 5 exercise sessions. The expression of MGF mRNA in both ECC5S and ECC10S were significantly higher than that in each period-matched control (p < 0.01. The tissue concentration of mTOR (P after 10 sessions showed a significant increase when compared with period-matched controls (p < 0.01. These results suggest that activation of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway becomes dominant in the later phase of chronic exercise, when significant muscular hypertrophy is observed

  17. The relationship between chondromalacia patella, medial meniscal tear and medial periarticular bursitis in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resorlu Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears.

  18. Injerto libre braquial medial Free medial arm graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martos Díaz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Entre las reconstrucciones de defectos titulares de cabeza y cuello, el injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial no ha adquirido mucha popularidad debido a las variaciones anatómicas que se reflejan en la vascularización de éste. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una descripción de la anatomía y técnica quirúrgica, así como una revisión de la literatura describiendo las ventajas y desventajas de este tipo de injerto. Material y método. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con carcinoma epidermoide de mucosa yugal izquierda con afectación ganglionar ipsilateral. Se procedió a su resección con márgenes más disección cervical funcional. La reconstrucción del defecto se llevó a cabo mediante un injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial de brazo izquierdo. Discusión. Pensamos que el injerto libre braquial medial de brazo se trata de una opción más segura a la hora de la reconstrucción de defectos cervicofaciales, aportando una serie de ventajas entre las que destacan: no sacrificio de una arteria terminal, cierre primario de la zona donante, mínimo defecto estético, y poseer una piel fina, elástica y sin vello.Introduction. Free medial microvascularized arm grafts have not become very popular for the reconstruction of head and neck defects due to anatomic variations in their vascularization. Our objective was to describe the anatomy and surgical technique and to review the literature on the advantages and disadvantages of free medial arm grafts. Material and methods. We report the case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the left jugal mucosa with same-side lymph node involvement. The tumor was resected with margins and a functional cervical dissection was performed. The defect was reconstructed using a free medial microvascularized graft from the left arm. Discussion. We believe that free medial arm grafts are a safer option for the reconstruction of cervicofacial defects and that they offer

  19. Architecture and functional ecology of the human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erin E; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2016-04-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit (MTU) is central to human locomotion. Structural variation in the human gastrocnemius MTU is predicted to affect the efficiency of locomotion, a concept most often explored in the context of performance activities. For example, stiffness of the Achilles tendon varies among individuals with different histories of competitive running. Such a finding highlights the functional variation of individuals and raises the possibility of similar variation between populations, perhaps in response to specific ecological or environmental demands. Researchers often assume minimal variation in human populations, or that industrialized populations represent the human species as well as any other. Yet rainforest hunter-gatherers, which often express the human pygmy phenotype, contradict such assumptions. Indeed, the human pygmy phenotype is a potential model system for exploring the range of ecomorphological variation in the architecture of human hindlimb muscles, a concept we review here. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  20. Gastrocnemius tendon strain in a dog treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells and a custom orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, J Brad; Palmer, Ross; Valdes-Martinez, Alex; Egger, Erick L; Haussler, Kevin K

    2013-05-01

    To report clinical findings and outcome in a dog with gastrocnemius tendon strain treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells and a custom orthosis. Clinical report. A 4-year-old spayed female Border Collie. Bone-marrow derived, autologous mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the tendon core lesion. A custom, progressive, dynamic orthosis was fit to the tarsus. Serial orthopedic examinations and ultrasonography as well as long-term force-plate gait analysis were utilized for follow up. Lameness subjectively resolved and peak vertical force increased from 43% to 92% of the contralateral pelvic limb. Serial ultrasonographic examinations revealed improved but incomplete restoration of normal linear fiber pattern of the gastrocnemius tendon. Findings suggest that autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation with custom, progressive, dynamic orthosis may be a viable, minimally invasive technique for treatment of calcaneal tendon injuries in dogs. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Human SolCD39 Inhibits Injury-induced Development of Neointimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosopoulos, Joan H. F.; Kraemer, Rosemary; Shen, Hao; Upmacis, Rita K.; Marcus, Aaron J.; Musi, Elgilda

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood platelets provide the initial response to vascular endothelial injury, becoming activated as they adhere to the injured site. Activated platelets recruit leukocytes, and initiate proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) within the injured vessel wall, leading to development of neointimal hyperplasia. Endothelial CD39/NTPDase1 and recombinant solCD39 rapidly metabolize nucleotides, including stimulatory ADP released from activated platelets, thereby suppressing additional platelet reactivity. Using a murine model of vascular endothelial injury, we investigated whether circulating human solCD39 could reduce platelet activation and accumulation, thus abating leukocyte infiltration and neointimal formation following vascular damage. Intraperitoneally-administered solCD39 ADPase activity in plasma peaked 1 hr post-injection, with an elimination half-life of 43 hr. Accordingly, mice were administered solCD39 or saline 1 hr prior to vessel injury, then either sacrificed 24 hr post-injury or treated with solCD39 or saline (3X weekly) for an additional 18 days. 24 hr post-injury, solCD39-treated mice displayed a reduction in platelet activation and recruitment, P-selectin expression, and leukocyte accumulation in the arterial lumen. Furthermore, repeated administration of solCD39 modulated the late stage of vascular injury by suppressing leukocyte deposition, macrophage infiltration and SMC proliferation/migration, resulting in abrogation of neointimal thickening. In contrast, injured femoral arteries of saline-injected mice exhibited massive platelet thrombus formation, marked P-selectin expression, and leukocyte infiltration. Pronounced neointimal growth with macrophage and SMC accretion was also observed (intimal-to-medial area ratio 1.56±0.34 at 19 days). Thus, systemic administration of solCD39 profoundly affects injury-induced cellular responses, minimizing platelet deposition and leukocyte recruitment, and suppressing

  2. Gastrocnemius mitochondrial respiration: are there any differences between men and women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jonathan R; Swanson, Stanley A; Casale, George P; Johanning, Jason M; Papoutsi, Evlampia; Koutakis, Panagiotis; Miserlis, Dimitrios; Zhu, Zhen; Pipinos, Iraklis I

    2013-11-01

    Work on human and mouse skeletal muscle by our group and others has demonstrated that aging and age-related degenerative diseases are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, which may be more prevalent in males. There have been, however, no studies that specifically examine the influence of male or female sex on human skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. The purpose of this study was to compare mitochondrial respiration in the gastrocnemius of adult men and women. Gastrocnemius muscle was obtained from male (n = 19) and female (n = 11) human subjects with healthy lower-extremity musculoskeletal and arterial systems and normal ambulatory function. All patients were undergoing operations for the treatment of varicose veins in their legs. Mitochondrial respiration was determined with a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles. Complex I-, II-, III-, and IV-dependent respiration was measured individually and normalized to muscle weight, total protein content, and citrate synthase (CS, index of mitochondrial content). Male and female patients had no evidence of musculoskeletal or arterial disease and did not differ with regard to age, race, body mass index, or other clinical characteristics. Complex I-, II-, III-, and IV-dependent respiration normalized to muscle weight, total protein content, and CS did not statistically differ for males compared with females. Our study evaluates, for the first time, gastrocnemius mitochondrial respiration of adult men and women who have healthy musculoskeletal and arterial systems and normal ambulatory function. Our data demonstrate there are no differences in the respiration of gastrocnemius mitochondria between men and women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Brian C.; Belkin, Nicole S.; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P.; Potter, Hollis G.; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. Purpose: To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and ...

  4. Glycogen accumulation in normal and irradiated minced muscle autografts on frog gastrocnemius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, R.K.; Kaul, R.; Malhotra, N.

    1989-01-01

    Alterations induced in glycogen content and phosphorylase activity have been studied in normal and irradiated minced muscle autografts on frog gastrocnemius at days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 30 postgrafting. The changes observed in the glycogen content and phosphorylase activity conform to the degeneration and regeneration phases of muscle repair. An attempt has been made to explain the altered glycogen utilizing capacities of the frog skeletal muscle during its repair and regeneration. (author)

  5. The fate of neurotization techniques on reinnervation after denervation of the gastrocnemius muscle: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, I; Sabuncuoglu, B T; Yormuk, E; Saray, A

    2001-07-01

    In nerve injuries, if it is not possible to reinnervate muscle by using neurorrhaphy and nerve grafting technique, reinnervation should be provided by the use of neuroization-directly implanting motor nerve into muscle. A comparative study of three techniques of neurotization is presented in rabbits. In this experimental study, a total of 40 white New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into four groups, each including 10 rabbits. In the first group (control--Group 1), only surgical exposure of the gastrocnemius muscle, main muscle nerve (tibial nerve), and peroneal nerve was done, without any injury to the nerves. In the second group (direct neurotization group--Group 2), the tibial nerve was transected, and the peroneal nerve, which had already been divided into fascicles, was implanted into the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle aneural zone. In the third group (dual neurotization group--Group 3), the tibial nerve which had been transected and re-anastomosed, and the peroneal nerve were implanted into the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle. In the last experimental group (hyperneurotization group--Group 4), fascicles of the peroneal nerve were implanted into the lateral head of the gastrocnemius, preserving the tibial nerve. Six months later, changes in the histologic pattern and the functional recovery of the gastrocnemius muscle were investigated. It was found that functional recovery was achieved in all neurotization groups. Groups with the tibial nerve transected had less muscular weights than those of groups with the tibial nerve intact. EMG recordings showed that polyphasic and late potentials were frequently seen in groups with the tibial nerve transected. Degeneration and regeneration of myofibrils was observed in such groups as well. New motor end-plates, including vesicles, were formed in a scattered manner in all neurotization groups. As a result, the authors conclude that direct and dual neurotization techniques are useful in peripheral

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  8. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. Puesto remisión de V. sol puesto a sol puesto, de.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Definición del término Puesto remisión de V. sol puesto a sol puesto, de. en el diccionario Dicter. [EN] Definition of the word Puesto remisión de V. sol puesto a sol puesto, de. in the dictionary Dicter.

  10. Medial Canthoplasty Combined with Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy for the Treatment of Delayed Medial Telecanthal Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Sun

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Medial canthoplasty combined with CDCR is an effective surgical method for treatment of patients with medial telecanthal deformity and lacrimal drainage system obstruction. The study indicates that medial canthoplasty combined with CDCR surgery rebuilds normal appearance of eyelid and contour of the medial canthus and successfully repairs the function of the lacrimal drainage system.

  11. Muscle stiffness of posterior lower leg in runners with a history of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, J; Nakamura, M; Nakao, S; Fujita, K; Yanase, K; Ichihashi, N

    2018-01-01

    Previous history of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a risk factor for MTSS relapse, which suggests that there might be some physical factors that are related to MTSS development in runners with a history of MTSS. The relationship between MTSS and muscle stiffness can be assessed in a cross-sectional study that measures muscle stiffness in subjects with a history of MTSS, who do not have pain at the time of measurement, and in those without a history of MTSS. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear elastic modulus, which is an index of muscle stiffness, of all posterior lower leg muscles of subjects with a history of MTSS and those with no history and investigate which muscles could be related to MTSS. Twenty-four male collegiate runners (age, 20.0±1.7 years; height, 172.7±4.8 cm; weight, 57.3±3.7 kg) participated in this study; 14 had a history of MTSS, and 10 did not. The shear elastic moduli of the lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis posterior were measured using shear wave elastography. The shear elastic moduli of the flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior were significantly higher in subjects with a history of MTSS than in those with no history. However, there was no significant difference in the shear elastic moduli of other muscles. The results of this study suggest that flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior stiffness could be related to MTSS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Medial tibial “spackling” to lessen chronic medial tibial soft tissue irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan Martin, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a unique, utilitarian reconstructive treatment option known as tibial “spackling” for chronic, localized medial joint line pain corresponding with progressive radiographic peripheral medial tibial bone loss beneath a well-fixed revision total knee arthroplasty tibial baseplate. It is believed that this localized pain is due to chronic irritation of the medial capsule and collateral ligament from the prominent medial edge of the tibial component. In the setting of failed nonoperative treatment, our experience with utilizing bone cement to reconstruct the medial tibial bone defect and create a smooth medial tibial surface has been successful in eliminating chronic medial soft tissue irritation.

  13. Sol-Gel Derived Hafnia Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Blum, Yigal; Sacks, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sol-gel derived hafnia coatings are being developed to provide an oxidation protection layer on ultra-high temperature ceramics for potential use in turbine engines (ultra-efficient engine technology being developed by NASA). Coatings using hafnia sol hafnia filler particles will be discussed along with sol synthesis and characterization.

  14. Modeling SOL evolution during disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien, T.D.; Cohen, R.H.; Crotinger, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    We present the status of our models and transport simulations of the 2-D evolution of the scrape-off layer (SOL) during tokamak disruptions. This evolution is important for several reasons: It determines how the power from the core plasma is distributed on material surfaces, how impurities from those surfaces or from gas injection migrate back to the core region, and what are the properties of the SOL for carrying halo currents. We simulate this plasma in a time-dependent fashion using the SOL transport code UEDGE. This code models the SOL plasma using fluid equations of plasma density, parallel momentum (along the magnetic field), electron energy, ion energy, and neutral gas density. A multispecies model is used to follow the density of different charge-states of impurities. The parallel transport is classical but with kinetic modifications; these are presently treated by flux limits, but we have initiated more sophisticated models giving the correct long-mean-free path limit. The cross-field transport is anomalous, and one of the results of this work is to determine reasonable values to characterize disruptions. Our primary focus is on the initial thermal quench phase when most of the core energy is lost, but the total current is maintained. The impact of edge currents on the MHD equilibrium will be discussed

  15. Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Glucose Disposal in the Gastrocnemius Muscles of Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Kumar, Sathish

    2017-01-01

    Gestational low-protein (LP) diet causes hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in adult offspring, but the mechanism is not clearly understood. In this study, we explored the role of insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP-exposed female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed a control (20% protein) or an isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery. Normal diet was given to mothers after delivery and to pups after weaning until necropsy. Offspring were euthanized at 4 months, and gastrocnemius muscles were treated with insulin ex vivo for 30 minutes. Messenger RNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months. LP females were smaller at birth but showed rapid catchup growth by 4 weeks. Glucose tolerance test in LP offspring at 3 months showed elevated serum glucose levels (P insulin levels. In gastrocnemius muscles, LP rats showed reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 upon insulin stimulation due to the overexpression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, but serine phosphorylation was unaffected. Furthermore, insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)–3α, and GSK-3β was diminished in LP rats, and they displayed an increased basal phosphorylation (inactive form) of glycogen synthase. Our study shows that gestational protein restriction causes peripheral insulin resistance by a series of phosphorylation defects in skeletal muscle in a mechanism involving insulin receptor substrate 1, SHP-2, Akt, GSK-3, and glycogen synthase causing dysfunctional GSK-3 signaling and increased stored glycogen, leading to distorted glucose homeostasis. PMID:28324067

  16. Acute Medial Plantar Fascia Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Stephanie C; Mazzola, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old man who participated in competitive soccer came to physical therapy via direct access for a chief complaint of plantar foot pain. The clinical examination findings and mechanism of injury raised a concern for a plantar fascia tear, so the patient was referred to the physician and magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. The magnetic resonance image confirmed a high-grade, partial-thickness, proximal plantar fascia tear with localized edema at the location of the medial band. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):495. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0409.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Redox proteomic analysis of the gastrocnemius muscle from adult and old mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McDonagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The data provides information in support of the research article, “Differential Cysteine Labeling and Global Label-Free Proteomics Reveals an Altered Metabolic State in Skeletal Muscle Aging”, Journal of Proteome Research, 2014, 13 (11, 2008–21 [1]. Raw data is available from ProteomeXchange [2] with identifier PDX001054. The proteome of gastrocnemius muscle from adult and old mice was analyzed by global label-free proteomics and the relative quantification of specific reduced and reversibly oxidized Cysteine (Cys residues was performed using Skyline [3]. Briefly, reduced Cysteine (Cys containing peptides was alkylated using N-ethylmalemide (d0-NEM. Samples were desalted and reversibly oxidized Cys residues were reduced using tris(2-carboxyethylphosphine (TCEP and the newly formed reduced Cys residues were labeled with heavy NEM( d5-NEM. Label-free analysis of the global proteome of adult (n=5 and old (n=4 gastrocnemius muscles was performed using Peaks7™ mass spectrometry data analysis software [4]. Relative quantification of Cys containing peptides that were identified as reduced (d(0 NEM labeled and reversibly oxidized d(5–NEM labeled was performed using the intensity of their precursor ions in Skyline. Results indicate that muscles from old mice show reduced redox flexibility particularly in proteins involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism, indicating a loss in the flexibility of the redox energy response.

  19. Lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap transposition to the midlateral femur: extending the arc of rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rishi Raj; Broder, Kevin; Kulidjian, Anna; Bodor, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We report the successful use of an extended lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap for coverage of the midlateral femur using successive delayed elevations. A 62-year-old man underwent wide resection of a liposarcoma of the right anterior thigh with free flap reconstruction and subsequent radiation therapy 10 years before. Four years later, the patient fractured his irradiated femur and was treated with a retrograde intramedullary nail, which subsequently became infected, causing osteomyelitis of the distal femur, septic arthritis of the knee joint, and nonunion of his pathologic fracture. Although advised by numerous surgeons to undergo above-knee amputation, we offered our motivated patient a multidisciplinary approach to clear his infection and pathology; implanted new orthopedic hardware; performed delayed flap reconstruction; and rehabilitated him back to painless, unassisted ambulation. The extended lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap used provided perfused soft tissues and durable coverage for the patient's exposed orthopedic hardware of the midlateral femur, 14 cm above the joint line of the knee. By using this flap to cover a femur defect well above published heights, our patient avoided amputation after years of worsening incapacitation.

  20. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  1. Assessment of gastrocnemius tensiomyographic neuromuscular characteristics as risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury in male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Ramon, Silvia; Marin, Miguel; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Rius, Marta; Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Cugat, Ramon

    2015-09-01

    There is a large number of publications evaluating neuromuscular risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in athletes. However, most of them have involved the female athlete and, in addition, the gastrocnemius muscles have been less investigated by far compared with the quadriceps and hamstring. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the gastrocnemius muscles as neuromuscular risk factors for ACL injury in male soccer players, through tensiomyography (TMG). All competitive male soccer players with confirmed ACL tear included in this study underwent resting TMG assessment of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the uninjured side. The same values were obtained from a sex-, and sports level-matched control group in both sides. The maximal displacement (D m), delay time (T d), contraction time (T c), sustained time (T s), and half-relaxation time (T r) were obtained for both muscles. TMG values of the uninjured side in ACL-injured group were compared with the mean values between both sides in the control subjects. There were no significant between-group differences in demographic characteristics. Most TMG parameters of the gastrocnemius muscles were not significantly different between the two groups. Only the GM-T r (p = 0.02) and GM-D m (p = 0.006) were significantly higher in the ACL-injured group compared with control group. Neuromuscular characteristics in terms of mechanical and contractile properties of the gastrocnemius muscles may not be significant risk factors for ACL injury in male soccer players.

  2. Snapping Knee Caused by Medial Meniscal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ohishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Snapping phenomenon around the medial aspect of the knee is rare. We present this case of snapping knee caused by the sartorius muscle over a large medial meniscal cyst in a 66-year-old female. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a large medial meniscal cyst with a horizontal tear of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopic cyst decompression with limited meniscectomy resulted in the disappearance of snapping, and no recurrence of the cyst was observed during a 2-year follow-up period.

  3. Functional coatings: the sol-gel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    CEA's sol-gel laboratory is specialized in the development of innovative sol-gel optical coatings and has extended its application field to membrane materials and coatings for energy conversion, to electric coatings for microelectronics devices and to thin films for gas sensing. This article describes, by way of examples, the laboratory's research on sol-gel functional coatings, including nano-material synthesis, organic-inorganic hybrid-based solution preparation as well as deposition process development and prototyping. (author)

  4. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Potter, Hollis G; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and any correlation between imaging findings and prolonged return to play. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of all acute calf muscle injuries on a single NFL team from 2003 to 2015 was performed. Player demographics and return-to-play data were obtained from the medical records. All available magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist for specific imaging findings that correlated with return to play. A total of 27 calf injuries in 24 NFL players were reviewed, yielding an incidence of 2.3 acute calf injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these 27 injuries, 20 (74%) were isolated injuries to the gastrocnemius muscle, 4 (15%) were isolated injuries to the soleus muscle, and the remaining 3 injuries (11%) involved both. Defensive players were more likely to sustain injuries ( P = .043). The mean time to return to play for all 27 players was 17.4 ± 14.6 days (range, 3-62 days). MRIs were available in 14 of the 27 injuries. The average size of the fascial defect ( P = .032) and the presence of a fluid collection ( P = .031) both correlated with return to play of longer than 2 weeks. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps muscle injuries, calf muscle injuries occur with relative frequency in the NFL, and more so in defensive players. The majority of these injuries occur in the gastrocnemius and result in significant disability, with at least 2 weeks of missed playing time on average. MRI may have an important role in the evaluation

  5. Immediate combined effect of gastrocnemius stretching and sustained talocrural joint mobilization in individuals with limited ankle dorsiflexion: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Weon, Jong-Hyuk; An, Duk-Hyun; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-12-01

    Although gastrocnemius stretching and talocrural joint mobilization have been suggested as effective interventions to address limited ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion (DF PROM), the effects of a combination of the two interventions have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization and gastrocnemius stretching alone. A randomized controlled trial. In total, 24 individuals with limited ankle DF PROM were randomized to undergo gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization (12 feet in 12 individuals) or gastrocnemius stretching alone (12 feet in 12 individuals) for 5 min. Ankle kinematics during gait (time to heel-off and ankle DF before heel-off), ankle DF PROM, posterior talar glide, and displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) of the gastrocnemius were assessed before and after the interventions. The groups were compared using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Greater increases in the time to heel-off and ankle DF before heel-off during gait and posterior talar glide were observed in the stretching combined with joint mobilization group versus the stretching alone group. Ankle DF PROM and displacement of the MTJ of the gastrocnemius were increased significantly after the interventions in both groups, with no significant difference between them. These findings suggest that gastrocnemius stretching with joint mobilization needs to be considered to improve ankle kinematics during gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  7. Medial subtalar dislocation: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subtalar dislocation (SI is a term that refers to an injury in which there is dislocation of the talonavicular and talocalcanear joint, although the tibiotalar joint is intact. Case Outline. A case of medial subtalar dislocation as a result of basketball injury, so-called 'basketball foot', is presented. Closed reposition in i.v. anaesthesia was performed with the patient in supine position and a knee flexed at 90 degrees. Longitudinal manual traction in line of deformity was carried out in plantar flexion. The reposition continued with abduction and eversion simultaneously increasing dorsiflexion. It was made in the first attempt and completed instantly. Rehabilitation was initiated after 5 weeks of immobilization. One year after the injury, the functional outcome was excellent with full range of motion and the patient was symptom-free. For better interpretation of roentgenogram, bone model of subtalar dislocation was made using the cadaver bone. Conclusion. Although the treatment of such injury is usually successful, diagnosis can be difficult because it is a rare injury, and moreover, X-ray of the injury can be confusing due to superposition of bones. Radiograms revealed superposition of the calcaneus, tarsal and metatarsal bones which was radiographically visualized in the anterior-posterior projection as one osseous block inward from the talus, and on the lateral view as in an osteal block below the tibial bone. Prompt recognition of these injuries followed by proper, delicately closed reduction under anaesthesia is crucial for achieving a good functional result in case of medial subtalar dislocation.

  8. Determination of adenosine phosphates in rat gastrocnemius at various postmortem intervals using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong; Yan, Youyi; Zuo, Zhong; Yang, Lin; Li, Bin; Song, Yu; Liao, Linchuan

    2010-09-01

    Although the change in adenosine phosphate levels in muscles may contribute to the development of rigor mortis, the relationship between their levels and the onset and development of rigor mortis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, levels of the adenosine phosphates including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in gastrocnemius at various postmortem intervals of 180 rats from different death modes were detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the levels of ATP and ADP significantly decreased along with the postmortem period of rats from different death mode whereas the AMP level remained the same. In addition, it was found that changes in the ATP levels in muscles after death correlated well with the development of rigor mortis. Therefore, the ATP level could serve as a reference parameter for the deduction of rigor mortis in forensic science.

  9. Effects of treadmill running on rat gastrocnemius function following botulinum toxin A injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sen-Wei; Chen, Chun-Jung; Chen, Hsiao-Lin; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Chang, Yin-Yi

    2012-02-01

    Exercise can improve and maintain neural or muscular function, but the effects of exercise in physiological adaptation to paralysis caused by botulinum toxin A has not been well studied. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned into control and treadmill groups. The rats assigned to the treadmill group were trained on a treadmill three times per week with the running speed set at 15 m/min. The duration of training was 20 min/session. Muscle strength, nerve conduction study and sciatic functional index (SFI) were used for functional analysis. Treadmill training improved the SFI at 2, 3, and 4 weeks (p = 0.01, 0.004, and 0.01, respectively). The maximal contraction force of the gastrocnemius muscle in the treadmill group was greater than in the control group (p properties of muscle contraction strength, CMAP amplitude, and the recovery of SFI. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  10. Outside-In Deep Medial Collateral Ligament Release During Arthroscopic Medial Meniscus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Adrian; Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel

    2016-08-01

    Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy is a very common orthopaedic procedure performed for symptomatic, irreparable meniscus tears. It is usually associated with a very good outcome and minimal complications. In some patients with tight medial compartment, the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can be difficult to visualize, and access in this area with instruments may be challenging. To increase the opening of the medial compartment, after valgus-extension stress position of the knee, different techniques of deep medial collateral ligament release have been described. The outside-in pie-crusting technique shown in this technical note has documented effectiveness and good outcomes with minimal or no morbidity.

  11. Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Julian K S; Zhu, Zhen; Casale, George; Koutakis, Panagiotis; McComb, Rodney D; Swanson, Stanley; Thompson, Jonathan; Miserlis, Dimitrios; Johanning, Jason M; Haynatzki, Gleb; Pipinos, Iraklis I

    2013-08-06

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by myofiber degeneration and loss of function in muscles of the lower limbs. Human enterovirus (HEV) infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of muscle diseases. However, its association with PAD has not been studied. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that infectious HEV is present in skeletal muscle of patients with PAD and is associated with severity of disease. Gastrocnemius biopsies from 37 patients with PAD and 14 controls were examined for the presence of HEV RNA, viral capsid protein, viral RNA copy number, and viral infectivity. HEV RNA was detected in 54% of the biopsies from patients with PAD but was not detected in muscle biopsies from control patients. This difference in prevalence among PAD and control patients was significant at P<0.001. Viral RNA copy numbers were increased significantly at the later stages of disease; Fontaine Stage IV (10(5.50) copies/mg muscle wet weight, at P<0.005) and Stage III (10(4.87) copies/mg, at P<0.010) compared to Stage II (10(2.50) copies/mg). Viral replication was confirmed by the presence of the negative-strand of viral RNA in all specimens positive for HEV RNA. Cultures of HeLa and human skeletal muscle cells treated with muscle homogenates showed HEV replication and the presence of HEV capsid protein. Our data identified infectious HEV in the gastrocnemius of PAD patients but not in controls. Viral copy number and prevalence of infection were higher in the later stages of disease. Our data point to the need for further studies to determine the contribution of HEV infection to the pathophysiology of PAD.

  12. Modulation effects of cordycepin on the skeletal muscle contraction of toad gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li-Hua; Meng, Wei; Song, Rong-Feng; Xiong, Qiu-Ping; Sun, Wei; Luo, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Wen-Wen; Li, Yu-Ping; Li, Xin-Ping; Li, Hai-Hang; Xiao, Peng

    2014-03-05

    Isolated toad gastrocnemius muscle is a typical skeletal muscle tissue that is frequently used to study the motor system because it is an important component of the motor system. This study investigates the effects of cordycepin on the skeletal muscle contractile function of isolated toad gastrocnemius muscles by electrical field stimulation. Results showed that cordycepin (20 mg/l to 100 mg/l) significantly decreased the contractile responses in a concentration-dependent manner. Cordycepin (50 mg/l) also produced a rightward shift of the contractile amplitude-stimulation intensity relationship, as indicated by the increases in the threshold stimulation intensity and the saturation stimulation intensity. However, the most notable result was that the maximum amplitude of the muscle contractile force was significantly increased under cordycepin application (122±3.4% of control). This result suggests that the skeletal muscle contractile function and muscle physical fitness to the external stimulation were improved by the decreased response sensitivity in the presence of cordycepin. Moreover, cordycepin also prevented the repetitive stimulation-induced decrease in muscle contractile force and increased the recovery amplitude and recovery ratio of muscle contraction. However, these anti-fatigue effects of cordycepin on muscle contraction during long-lasting muscle activity were absent in Ca2+-free medium or in the presence of all Ca2+ channels blocker (0.4 mM CdCl2). These results suggest that cordycepin can positively affect muscle performance and provide ergogenic and prophylactic benefits in decreasing skeletal muscle fatigue. The mechanisms involving excitation-coupled Ca2+ influxes are strongly recommended.

  13. Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghua Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Calpain 3 (CAPN3, also known as p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family that is involved in muscular dystrophy; however, the roles of CAPN3 in muscular atrophy and regeneration are yet to be understood. In the present study, we attempted to explain the effect of CAPN3 in muscle atrophy by evaluating CAPN3 expression in rat gastrocnemius muscle following reversible sciatic nerve injury. After nerve injury, the wet weight ratio and cross sectional area (CSA of gastrocnemius muscle were decreased gradually from 1–14 days and then recovery from 14–28 days. The active form of CAPN3 (~62 kDa protein decreased slightly on day 3 and then increased from day 7 to 14 before a decrease from day 14 to 28. The result of linear correlation analysis showed that expression of the active CAPN3 protein level was negatively correlated with muscle wet weight ratio. CAPN3 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA injection improved muscle recovery on days 7 and 14 after injury as compared to that observed with control siRNA treatment. Depletion of CAPN3 gene expression could promote myoblast differentiation in L6 cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that the expression pattern of the active CAPN3 protein is linked to muscle atrophy and regeneration following denervation: its upregulation during early stages may promote satellite cell renewal by inhibiting differentiation, whereas in later stages, CAPN3 expression may be downregulated to stimulate myogenic differentiation and enhance recovery. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the role of CAPN3 protein in muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

  14. Block Gas Sol Unit in Haderslev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark.......Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark....

  15. Fast Processing of Sol-Gel TCO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Rem, M.; Arfsten, N.; Buskens, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    TCOs are usually deposited using sputtering or chemical vapor deposition, which have a yield of typically 50-75%. The sol gel method does not need low pressure and can be done with a high precursor yield in the range of 90 – 100%. Sol gel enables also the TCO function as a planarization or

  16. Permanent Habitats in Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol Orbit Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspon, J.

    Project Outpost is a manned Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol platform that enables permanent occupation in deep space. In order to develop the program elements for this complex mission, Project Outpost will rely primarily on existing/nearterm technology and hardware for the construction of its components. For the purposes of this study, four mission requirements are considered: 1. Outpost - Man's 1st purpose-produced effort of space engineering, in which astructure is developed/constructed in an environment completely alien to currentpractices for EVA guidelines. 2. Newton - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development ofa modified Hohmann personnel orbital transport operating between Earth andMars. Newton would serve as the primary crew delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization. 3. Cruis - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development of amodified Hohmann cargo orbital transport operating between Earth and Mars.Cruis would serve as the primary equipment delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization, and 4. Ares/Diana - a more conventional space platform configuration for Lunar andMars orbit is included as a construction baseline. The operations of these assetsare supported, and used for the support, of the outpost. Outpost would be constructed over a 27-year period of launch opportunities into Earth-Sol or Mars-Sol Lagrange orbit (E-S/M-S L1, 4 or 5). The outpost consists of an operations core with a self-contained power generation ability, a docking and maintenance structure, a Scientific Research complex and a Habitation Section. After achieving initial activation, the core will provide the support and energy required to operate the outpost in a 365

  17. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy breaking new frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management of benign sino-nasal tumours. We present our experience of endoscopic medial maxillectomy in the management of sinonasal pathologies.

  18. Complex Medial Meniscus Tears Are Associated With a Biconcave Medial Tibial Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H; Berry, Kathy L

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether an association exists between a biconcave medial tibial plateau and complex medial meniscus tears. A consecutive series of stable knees undergoing arthroscopy were evaluated retrospectively with the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and arthroscopy documented by intraoperative videos. Investigators independently performed blinded reviews of the MRI or videos. Based on the arthroscopy findings, medial tibial plateaus were classified as either biconcave or not biconcave. A transverse coronal plane ridge, separating the front of the tibial plateau from the back near the inner margin of the posterior body of the medial meniscus, was defined as biconcave. The medial plateau slope was calculated with MRI sagittal views. General demographic information, body mass index, and arthroscopically confirmed knee pathology were recorded. A total of 179 consecutive knees were studied from July 2014 through August 2015; 49 (27.2%) biconcave medial tibial plateaus and 130 (72.8%) controls were identified at arthroscopy. Complex medial meniscus tears were found in 103. Patients with a biconcave medial tibial plateau were found to have more complex medial meniscus tears (69.4%) than those without a biconcavity (53.1%) (P = .049) despite having lower body mass index (P = .020). No difference in medial tibial plateau slope was observed for biconcavities involving both cartilage and bone, bone only, or an indeterminate group (P = .47). Biconcave medial tibial plateaus were present in 27.4% of a consecutive series of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. A biconcave medial tibial plateau was more frequently associated with a complex medial meniscus tear. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  19. Sol-gel technology for biomedical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podbielska, H.; Ulatowska-Jarza, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sol-gel derived silica possess many promising features, including low-temperature preparation procedure, porosity, chemical and physical stability. Applications exploiting porous materials to encapsulate sensor molecules, enzymes and many other compounds, are developing rapidly. In this paper some potential applications, with emphasis on biomedical and environmental ones, are reviewed. The material preparation procedure is described and practical remarks on silica-based sol-gels are included. It is reported that sol-gels with entrapped various molecules may be used in construction of implants and coatings with bioactive properties. It is shown how to exploit the sol-gel production route for construction of sol-gel coated fiberoptic applicators for laser therapy. The applications of bioactive materials are discussed, as well. It is demonstrated that it is possible to immobilize photosensitive compounds in sol-gel matrix without loosing their photoactivity. Some examples of sol-gel based biosensors are demonstrated, as well, showing their potential for detecting various gases, toxic substances, acidity, humidity, enzymes and biologically active agents. (authors)

  20. Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.J.; Cassidy, D.J.; Triani, G.; Latella, B.A.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Finnie, K.S.; Short, K.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.; Collins, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Sol-gel bonds have been produced between smooth, clean silicon substrates by spin-coating solutions containing partially hydrolysed silicon alkoxides. The two coated substrates were assembled and the resulting sandwich fired at temperatures ranging from 60 to 600 deg. C. The sol-gel coatings were characterised using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy, while the corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were characterised using both microindentation and tensile testing. Bonding of silicon wafers has been successfully achieved at temperatures as low as 60 deg. C. At 300 deg. C, the interfacial fracture energy was 1.55 J/m 2 . At 600 deg. C, sol-gel bonding provided superior interfacial fracture energy over classical hydrophilic bonding (3.4 J/m 2 vs. 1.5 J/m 2 ). The increase in the interfacial fracture energy is related to the increase in film density due to the sintering of the sol-gel interface with increasing temperature. The superior interfacial fracture energy obtained by sol-gel bonding at low temperature is due to the formation of an interfacial layer, which chemically bonds the two sol-gel coatings on each wafer. Application of a tensile stress on the resulting bond leads to fracture of the samples at the silicon/sol-gel interface

  1. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  2. GENE RESPONSE OF THE GASTROCNEMIUS AND SOLEUS MUSCLES TO AN ACUTE AEROBIC RUN IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McKenzie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes can be activated or inhibited by signals within the tissues in response to an acute bout of exercise. It is unclear how a particular aerobic exercise bout may influence two muscles with similar actions to the activity. Therefore, the purposes of this investigation was to determine the gene response of selected genes involved in the "stress" response of the gastrocnemius (fast-twitch and soleus (slow-twitch muscles to a single two hour aerobic exercise bout in female Sprague-Dawley Rats at the 1 hour time point after the exercise. Exercised rats were run (n=8 for 2 hours at 20 m.min-1 and one hour after the completion of the bout had their soleus (S and gastrocnemius (G muscles removed. Age and timed matched sedentary control rats had both S and G muscles removed also. RNA was isolated from all muscles. Real-time PCR analysis was performed on the following genes: NFκB, TNFα, and Atf3. GAPDH was used as the housekeeping gene for both muscles. S muscle showed more genes altered (n = 52 vs G (n = 26. NFκB gene expression was 0.83 ± 0.14 in the exercised S but was + 1.36 ± 0.58 in the exercised G and was not significantly different between the muscles. TNFα was altered 1.30 ± 0. 34 in the exercised S and 1.36 ± 0.71 in the exercised G and was not significantly different between the muscles. The gene Atf3 was significantly altered at 4.97 ± 1.01 in the exercised S, while it was not significantly altered in the exercised G (0.70 ± 0.55. This study demonstrates that an acute bout of aerobic exercise can alter gene expression to a different extent in both the S and G muscles. It is highly likely that muscle recruitment was a factor which influenced the gene expression in theses muscles. It is interesting to note that some genes were similarly activated in these two muscles but other genes may demonstrate a varied response to the same exercise bout depending on the type of muscle

  3. Endoscopic Medial Maxillectomy Breaking New Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M.

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management ...

  4. The relationship between chondromalacia patella, medial meniscal tear and medial periarticular bursitis in patients with osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Resorlu Mustafa; Doner Davut; Karatag Ozan; Toprak Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed al...

  5. Applications of sol gel ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, D.

    1996-01-01

    The sol gel method is a chemical technique in which polycrystalline ceramic films are fabricated from a solution of organometallic precursors. The technique is attractive for many industrial applications because it is a simple (films are processed in air), flexible (can be used to coat complex geometries) and cost effective (does not require expensive equipment) process. In addition, dense, high quality coatings can be achieved at much lower temperatures than is generally required for sintering bulk ceramics. In this paper the conventional sol gel method and the new datec process are reviewed and potential applications of sol gel coatings in automotive, aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear and electronic industries are discussed. (orig.)

  6. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  7. Dynamic measurement of pennation angle of gastrocnemius muscles during contractions based on ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yongjin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle fascicle pennation angle (PA is an important parameter related to musculoskeletal functions, and ultrasound imaging has been widely used for measuring PA, but manually and frame by frame in most cases. We have earlier reported an automatic method to estimate aponeurosis orientation based on Gabor transform and Revoting Hough Transform (RVHT. Methods In this paper, we proposed a method to estimate the overall orientation of muscle fascicles in a region of interest, in order to complete computing the orientation of the other side of the pennation angle, but the side found by RVHT. The measurements for orientations of both fascicles and aponeurosis were conducted in each frame of ultrasound images, and then the dynamic change of pennation angle during muscle contraction was obtained automatically. The method for fascicle orientation estimation was evaluated using synthetic images with different noise levels and later on 500 ultrasound images of human gastrocnemius muscles during isometric plantarflexion. Results The muscle fascicle orientations were also estimated manually by two operators. From the results it’s found that the proposed automatic method demonstrated a comparable performance to the manual method. Conclusions With the proposed methods, ultrasound measurement for muscle pennation angles can be more widely used for functional assessment of muscles.

  8. Content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle during experimental hypothyroidism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołyński Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid hormones affect protein turnover, and in the case of hypothyroidism a decrease in protein synthesis and reduced release of certain amino acids from skeletal muscles are observed. Changes in the amino acid system of skeletal muscles may be responsible for the occurrence of muscle disorders. Material and Methods: The study measured the content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats during experimental hypothyroidism induced by oral administration of methimazole at a concentration of 0.05% in drinking water for 90 d. The rats were divided into four groups: E1 (n = 6 - experimental males, E2 (n = 6 - experimental females, C1 (n = 6 - control males, and C2 (n = 6 control females. Results: A statistically significant reduction occurred in leucine, isoleucine, and 1-methylhistidine levels in males, and 1-methylhistidine in females, in comparison to the control groups. Conclusion: The hypothyroidism-induced changes in amino acid content may be responsible for the occurrence of skeletal muscle function disorders.

  9. Muscle architecture and fibre characteristics of rat gastrocnemius and semimembranosus muscles during isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijing, P A; van Lookeren Campagne, A A; Koper, J F

    1989-01-01

    Rat gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles have a very different morphology. GM is a very pennate muscle, combining relatively short muscle fibre length with sizable fibre angles and long muscle and aponeurosis lengths. SM is a more parallel-fibred muscle, combining a relatively long fibre length with a small fibre angle and short aponeurosis length. The mechanisms of fibre shortening as well as angle increase are operational in GM as well as SM. However, as a consequence of isometric contraction, changes of fibre length and angle are greater for GM than for SM at any relative muscle length. These differences are particularly notable at short muscle lengths: at 80% of optimum muscle length, fibre length changes of approximately 30% are coupled to fibre angle changes of 15 degrees in GM, while for SM these changes are 4% and 0.6 degrees, respectively. A considerable difference was found for normalized active slack muscle length (GM approximately 80 and SM approximately 45%). This is explained by differences of degree of pennation as well as factors related to differences found for estimated fibre length-force characteristics. Estimated normalized active fibre slack length was considerably smaller for SM than for GM (approximately 40 and 60%, respectively). The most likely explanation of these findings are differences of distribution of optimum fibre lengths, possibly in combination with differences of myofilament lengths and/or fibre length distributions.

  10. Soleus and lateral gastrocnemius H-reflexes during standing with unstable footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Lepers, Romuald; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2015-05-01

    Unstable footwear has been shown to increase lower extremity muscle activity, but the reflex response to perturbations induced by this intervention is unknown. Twenty healthy subjects stood in stable and unstable footwear conditions (presented randomly) while H-reflex amplitude and background muscle activity were measured in the soleus and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles. Wearing unstable footwear resulted in larger H-reflexes (normalized to the maximal M-wave) for the LG (+12%; P = 0.025), but not for the soleus (+4%; P > 0.05). Background activity of both muscles was significantly higher in the unstable condition. The H-reflex facilitation observed with unstable footwear was unexpected, as challenging postural conditions usually result in reflex depression. Increased muscle activity, decreased presynaptic inhibition, and/or more forward postural position may have (over-)compensated the expected reflex depression. Differences between LG and soleus H-reflex modulation may be due to diverging motor unit recruitment thresholds. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of carnitine supplementation on fatigue level in the gastrocnemius muscle of trained and sedentary rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Anelice Gomez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p324 L-carnitine, considered to be of great value in metabolic processes, plays an important role in the mitochondrial β-oxidation process. It may be used to improve athletic performance and to maintain a higher workload during exercise. This study aimed to investigate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle fatigue in sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle preparations in sedentary and trained rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: non-supplemented sedentary (NSS, supplemented sedentary (SS, non-supplemented trained (NST, and supplemented trained (ST rats. The animals were trained in daily 1-h sessions (5 days/week and received chronic oral L-carnitine supplementation (1 mg/mL for 4 weeks. Muscle fatigue was determined by supramaximal tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (50 Hz. Time values for strength reduction were significantly different (p<0.05 between NSS vs. SS and NST vs. ST rats. No significant differences were observed between SS vs. ST and NST vs. NSS rats. These findings demonstrate that L-carnitine lengthen the time required for induction of muscle fatigue.

  12. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  13. Third Order Susceptibility of Platinum Sulfide Sol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaiHing, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    .... Experimentally this is determined using degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM). Pure sulfur sol was prepared by dissolving the solid sulfur in hydrazine, followed by addition of distilled water with vigorous stirring...

  14. Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles on MR images in patients with achilles tendon abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Adrienne; Mamisch, Nadja; Buck, Florian M.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Zanetti, Marco; Espinosa, Norman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities. Forty-five consecutive patients (mean 51 years; range 14-84 years) with achillodynia were examined with magnetic resonance (MR) images of the calf. The frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles was determined in patients with normal tendons, tendinopathy and in patients with a partial tear or a complete tear of the Achilles tendon. Oedema was encountered in 35% (7/20) of the patients with tendinopathy (n = 20; range 13-81 years), and in 47% (9/19) of the patients with partial tears or complete tears (n = 19; 28-78 years). Fatty degeneration was encountered in 10% (2/20) of the patients with tendinopathy, and in 32% (6/19) of the patients with tears. The prevalence of fatty degeneration was significantly more common in patients with a partial or complete tear compared with the patients with a normal Achilles tendon (p = 0.032 and p = 0.021, respectively). Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles are common in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities. (orig.)

  15. Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles on MR images in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Adrienne; Mamisch, Nadja; Buck, Florian M; Espinosa, Norman; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Zanetti, Marco

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities. Forty-five consecutive patients (mean 51 years; range 14-84 years) with achillodynia were examined with magnetic resonance (MR) images of the calf. The frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles was determined in patients with normal tendons, tendinopathy and in patients with a partial tear or a complete tear of the Achilles tendon. Oedema was encountered in 35% (7/20) of the patients with tendinopathy (n = 20; range 13-81 years), and in 47% (9/19) of the patients with partial tears or complete tears (n = 19; 28-78 years). Fatty degeneration was encountered in 10% (2/20) of the patients with tendinopathy, and in 32% (6/19) of the patients with tears. The prevalence of fatty degeneration was significantly more common in patients with a partial or complete tear compared with the patients with a normal Achilles tendon (p = 0.032 and p = 0.021, respectively). Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles are common in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities.

  16. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Bhatia, Rimple; Singh, Anup K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  17. En-clave de Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Manfield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ha pasado más de medio año desde que tuviera lugar el estallido reivindicativo del 16-M y las sucesivas explosiones en las que derivó este movimiento asambleario. Ninguno de los que asistieron a la manifestación del domingo, 15 de mayo, podía imaginarse que estaban pisando el centro de lo que iba a ser el escenario de la protesta colectiva más mediática de este país. Pero la Acampada ha sido algo más que el material de relleno para los medios de (desinformación y trend topic en redes sociales. Para los que nos dedicamos, en este caso, a la sociología, SOL se nos presenta como un juguete. Un sofisticado artefacto (su compleja y espesa red organizativa así lo atestiguan para poner a prueba, in situ y participando, la plasticidad y elasticidad social de la creatividad contestataria que ha convertido a un movimiento definido como indignado en un modelo autónomo de organización horizontal. Una cámara del tiempo donde el corto, el medio y largo plazo se entrecruzan con el corto, medio y largo alcance. Una ventana desde la que observar y anticipar el cambio que ya se está produciendo en el seno de la sociedad.

  18. Characteristics of myogenic response and ankle torque recovery after lengthening contraction-induced rat gastrocnemius injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hongsun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although muscle dysfunction caused by unfamiliar lengthening contraction is one of most important issues in sports medicine, there is little known about the molecular events on regeneration process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal and spatial expression patterns of myogenin, myoD, pax7, and myostatin after acute lengthening contraction (LC-induced injury in the rat hindlimb. Methods We employed our originally developed device with LC in rat gastrocnemius muscle (n = 24. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with isoflurane (aspiration rate, 450 ml/min, concentration, 2.0%. The triceps surae muscle of the right hindlimb was then electrically stimulated with forced isokinetic dorsi-flexion (180°/sec and from 0 to 45°. Tissue contents of myoD, myogenin, pax7, myostatin were measured by western blotting and localizations of myoD and pax7 was measured by immunohistochemistry. After measuring isometric tetanic torque, a single bout of LC was performed in vivo. Results The torque was significantly decreased on days 2 and 5 as compared to the pre-treatment value, and recovered by day 7. The content of myoD and pax7 showed significant increases on day 2. Myogenin showed an increase from day 2 to 5. Myostatin on days 5 and 7 were significantly increased. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that myoD-positive/pax7-positive cells increased on day 2, suggesting that activated satellite cells play a role in the destruction and the early recovery phases. Conclusion We, thus, conclude that myogenic events associate with torque recovery after LC-induced injury.

  19. Mechano- and metabosensitive alterations after injection of botulinum toxin into gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Guillaume; Rouzi, Talifujiang; Grelot, Laurent; Magalon, Guy; Marqueste, Tanguy; Decherchi, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate effects of motor denervation by Clostridium botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A) on the afferent activity of fibers originating from the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Animals were randomized in two groups, 1) untreated animals acting as control and 2) treated animals in which the toxin was injected in the left muscle. Locomotor activity was evaluated once per day during 12 days with a test based on footprint measurements of walking rats (sciatic functional index). At the end of the functional assessment period, electrophysiological tests were used to measure muscle properties, metabosensitive afferent fiber responses to chemical (KCl and lactic acid) injections, electrically induced fatigue (EIF), and mechanosensitive responses to tendon vibrations. Additionally, ventilatory response was recorded during repetitive muscle contractions. Then, rats were sacrificed, and the BoNT/A-injected muscles were weighed. Twelve days postinjection we observed a complete motor denervation associated with a significant muscle atrophy and loss of force to direct muscle stimulation. In the BoNT/A group, the metabosensitive responses to KCl injections were unaltered. However, we observed alterations in responses to EIF and to 1 mM of lactic acid (which induces the greatest activation). The ventilatory adjustments during repetitive muscle activation were abolished, and the mechanosensitive fiber responses to tendon vibrations were reduced. These results indicate that BoNT/A alters the sensorimotor loop and may induce insufficient motor and physiological adjustments in patients in whom a motor denervation with BoNT/A was performed. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mesure de la vitesse d'infiltration des eaux dans le sol : Cas des sols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C'est donc une infiltration superficielle qui ne peut pas modifier la composition des eaux de l'aquifère. Ces sols sont alors favorables à une telle agriculture. Mots clés: mesure, vitesse, infiltration, sols, pollutions, eau, Niari, Congo. English Title: Measuring the speed of the water infiltration into the soil: case of the soil of the ...

  1. The SOL width and the MHD interchange instability in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, W [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pogutse, O [Kurchatov institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Instabilities in the SOL plasma can strongly influence the SOL plasma behaviour and in particular the SOL width. The SOL stability analysis shows that there exists a critical ratio of the thermal energy and the magnetic energy. If the SOL beta is greater than this critical value, the magnetic field cannot prevent the plasma displacement and a strong MHD instability in the SOL occurs. In the opposite case only slower resistive instabilities can develop. A theoretical investigation of the SOL plasma stability is presented for JET single-null and double-null divertor configurations. The dependence of the stability threshold on the SOL beta and on the sheath resistance is established. Applying a simple mixing length argument gives the scaling of the SOL width. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Musculus gastrocnemius tetanus kinetics in alcohol-intoxicated rats with experimentally-induced hindlimb vascular ischemia under conditions of low-frequence muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Melnychuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol intoxication and ischemic injury of skeletal muscles often accompany each other. It is shown that patients hospitalized with chronic alcoholism develop muscle fatigue. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients is caused by ethanol-associated myofibrillar atrophy and metabolic disbalance, while compression-ischemic lesions result from unconsciousness of the patient, in case of taking the critical alcohol dose. Therefore, the aim of this study is to discover typical m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetics changes in alcohol intoxicated rats with experimentally induced vascular ischemia of hindlimb muscles under conditions of low-frequency progressive muscle fatigue. Experiments were carried out on 10 young male Wistar rats (149.5 ± 5.8 g kept under standard vivarium conditions and diet. The investigation was conducted in two phases: chronic (30 days and acute (3 hours experiment. All surgical procedures were carried out aseptically under general anesthesia. Ishemic m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetic changes and force productivity in alcohol intoxicated rats were investigated in the isometric mode, with direct electrical stimulation. The fatigue of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. was evaluated by three characteristic criteria: the first sag effect, the secondary force rise, the second sag effect. There have been 10 similar experiments: 5 series in each study group with 10 tetanic runs in each series. The highest amplitude of the native m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus relative to isoline was taken as 100% force response. The same pattern of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. low-frequency fatigue development was found in both rat groups under study. It is evidenced by the absence of substantial m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus kinetics differences in alcohol intoxicated rats, compared with non-alcohol intoxicated rats during fatigue test. However, the appreciable m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic force reduction

  3. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear.

  4. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Results Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. Conclusions We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear. PMID:29333118

  5. Digging Movie from Phoenix's Sol 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander recorded the images combined into this movie of the lander's Robotic Arm enlarging and combining the two trenches informally named 'Dodo' (left) and 'Goldilocks.' The 21 images in this sequence were taken over a period of about 2 hours during Phoenix's Sol 18 (June 13, 2008), or the 18th Martian day since landing. The main purpose of the Sol 18 dig was to dig deeper for learning the depth of a hard underlying layer. A bright layer, possibly ice, was increasingly exposed as the digging progressed. Further digging and scraping in the combined Dodo-Goldilocks trench was planned for subsequent sols. The combined trench is about 20 centimeters (about 8 inches) wide. The depth at the end of the Sol 18 digging is 5 to 6 centimeters (about 2 inches). The Goldilocks trench was the source of soil samples 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear,' which were collected on earlier sols and delivered to instruments on the lander deck. The Dodo trench was originally dug for practice in collecting and depositing soil samples. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Medial structure generation for registration of anatomical structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Sergio; Gil, Debora; Kjer, Hans Martin

    2017-01-01

    structures. Methods for generation of medial structures, however, are prone to the generation of medial artifacts (spurious branches) that traditionally need to be pruned before the medial structure can be used for further computations. The act of pruning can affect main sections of the medial surface......Medial structures (skeletons and medial manifolds) have shown capacity to describe shape in a compact way. In the field of medical imaging, they have been employed to enrich the description of organ anatomy, to improve segmentation, or to describe the organ position in relation to surrounding...

  7. Influence of different degrees of bilateral emulated contractures at the triceps surae on gait kinematics: The difference between gastrocnemius and soleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, M; Bonnefoy-Mazure, A; De Coulon, G; Cheze, L; Armand, S

    2017-10-01

    Ankle plantarflexion contracture results from a permanent shortening of the muscle-tendon complex. It often leads to gait alterations. The objective of this study was to compare the kinematic adaptations of different degrees of contractures and between isolated bilateral gastrocnemius and soleus emulated contractures using an exoskeleton. Eight combinations of contractures were emulated bilaterally on 10 asymptomatic participants using an exoskeleton that was able to emulate different degrees of contracture of gastrocnemius (biarticular muscle) and soleus (monoarticular muscle), corresponding at 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30° ankle plantarflexion contracture (knee-flexed and knee-extended). Range of motion was limited by ropes attached for soleus on heel and below the knee and for gastrocnemius on heel and above the knee. A gait analysis session was performed to evaluate the effect of these different emulated contractures on the Gait Profile Score, walking speed and gait kinematics. Gastrocnemius and soleus contractures influence gait kinematics, with an increase of the Gait Profile Score. Significant differences were found in the kinematics of the ankles, knees and hips. Contractures of soleus cause a more important decrease in the range of motion at the ankle than the same degree of gastrocnemius contractures. Gastrocnemius contractures cause greater knee flexion (during the stance phase) and hip flexion (during all the gait cycle) than the same level of soleus contractures. These results can support the interpretation of the Clinical Gait Analysis data by providing a better understanding of the effect of isolate contracture of soleus and gastrocnemius on gait kinematics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  9. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni; Marcia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  10. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, Maarten H.; Tol, Johannes L.; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; de Winter, Theodorus C.

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise,

  11. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette

    2014-01-01

    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupanski, M.D.; Lucena, M.P.P.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been established as the calcium phosphate based compound with most applications in the biological field. Among the numerous techniques for synthesis of HAp, the sol-gel processing route affords great control over purity and formed phases using low processing temperatures. In addition, the sol-gel approach offers an option for homogeneous HAp coating on metal substrates, as well as the ability to generate nanocrystalline powders. In this work, the sol-gel synthesis of HAp was investigated employing triethyl phosphate and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate as phosphorous and calcium precursors, respectively. The aging effect on phase composition and powder morphology of the final product was studied in terms of temperature and aging time. The powders were studied by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size distribution by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  15. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n VDE instabilities observed when vertical control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  16. Upgrades for TwinSol facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Malley, P.D.; Bardayan, D.W.; Kolata, J.J.; Hall, M.R.; Hall, O.; Allen, J. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Becchetti, F.D. [Physics Department, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    TwinSol, a pair of coupled, superconducting solenoids, was one of the first devices capable of producing beams of radioactive nuclei at energies near the Coulomb barrier. A primary beam from University of Notre Dame (UND) tandem accelerator is used to bombard a primary target producing a secondary beam in flight. TwinSol is used to gather, separate, and focus the recoils. Since it was commissioned at the UND in 1997, at least 58 publications have reported data from its use and there have been hundreds of collaborators from many different countries that use this device. Currently, plans are in place at the UND to provide several upgrades to TwinSol, including a multi-cell gas production target and the possible addition of a third solenoid. Upgrades currently in progress will be discussed along with future plans.

  17. Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transport Mechanisms in Gastrocnemius Muscles of Adult Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Sathishkumar, Kunju; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Type II diabetes originates from various genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies showed that an adverse uterine environment such as that caused by a gestational low-protein (LP) diet can cause insulin resistance in adult offspring. The mechanism of insulin resistance induced by gestational protein restriction is not clearly understood. Our aim was to investigate the role of insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP diet–exposed male offspring to understand their role in LP-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery and a normal diet after weaning. Only male offspring were used in this study. Glucose and insulin responses were assessed after a glucose tolerance test. mRNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months in gastrocnemius muscles. Muscles were incubated ex vivo with insulin to evaluate insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), Insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and AS160. LP diet-fed rats gained less weight than controls during pregnancy. Male pups from LP diet–fed mothers were smaller but exhibited catch-up growth. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were elevated in LP offspring when subjected to a glucose tolerance test; however, fasting levels were comparable. LP offspring showed increased expression of IR and AS160 in gastrocnemius muscles. Ex vivo treatment of muscles with insulin showed increased phosphorylation of IR (Tyr972) in controls, but LP rats showed higher basal phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr608, Tyr895, Ser307, and Ser318) and AS160 (Thr642) were defective in LP offspring. Further, glucose transporter type 4 translocation in LP offspring was also impaired. A gestational LP diet leads to insulin resistance in adult offspring by a mechanism involving inefficient insulin-induced IR, Insulin receptor

  18. Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Rode, Christian; Wick, Carolin; Stutzig, Norman; Schubert, Harald; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation) is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle) and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle) muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle). Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length) of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or

  19. Time-Course of Muscle Mass Loss, Damage, and Proteolysis in Gastrocnemius following Unloading and Reloading: Implications in Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Cabrera, Alba; Lund-Palau, Helena; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background Disuse muscle atrophy is a major comorbidity in patients with chronic diseases including cancer. We sought to explore the kinetics of molecular mechanisms shown to be involved in muscle mass loss throughout time in a mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy and recovery following immobilization. Methods Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle phenotype (fiber type composition and morphometry and muscle structural alterations), proteolysis, contractile proteins, systemic troponin I, and mitochondrial content were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days) of non-invasive hindlimb immobilization (plastic splint, I cohorts) and in those exposed to reloading for different time-points (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R cohorts) following a seven-day period of immobilization. Groups of control animals were also used. Results Compared to non-exposed controls, muscle weight, limb strength, slow- and fast-twitch cross-sectional areas, mtDNA/nDNA, and myosin content were decreased in mice of I cohorts, whereas tyrosine release, ubiquitin-proteasome activity, muscle injury and systemic troponin I levels were increased. Gastrocnemius reloading following splint removal improved muscle mass loss, strength, fiber atrophy, injury, myosin content, and mtDNA/nDNA, while reducing ubiquitin-proteasome activity and proteolysis. Conclusions A consistent program of molecular and cellular events leading to reduced gastrocnemius muscle mass and mitochondrial content and reduced strength, enhanced proteolysis, and injury, was seen in this non-invasive mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy. Unloading of the muscle following removal of the splint significantly improved the alterations seen during unloading, characterized by a specific kinetic profile of molecular events involved in muscle regeneration. These findings have implications in patients with chronic diseases including cancer in whom physical activity may be severely compromised. PMID

  20. Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Siebert

    Full Text Available The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle. Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components, enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic

  1. Medial frontal cortex and response conflict: Evidence from human intracranial EEG and medial frontal cortex lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Haupt, S.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been implicated in the monitoring and selection of actions in the face of competing alternatives, but much remains unknown about its functional properties, including electrophysiological oscillations, during response conflict tasks. Here, we recorded intracranial

  2. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  3. Collisionality dependent transport in TCV SOL plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Odd Erik; Pitts, R.A.; Horacek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from probe measurements in the low field side scrape-off layer (SOL) region of TCV during plasma current scan experiments. It is shown that with decreasing plasma current the radial particle density profile becomes broader and the fluctuation levels and turbulence driven...... radial particle flux increase. In the far SOL the fluctuations exhibit a high degree of statistical similarity and the particle density and flux at the wall radius scale inversely with the plasma current. Together with previous TCV density scan experiments, this indicates that plasma fluctuations...

  4. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  5. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, John M.; Wallace, Steven A.; Dai, Sheng

    1999-01-01

    An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

  7. Stimulation of the medial amygdala enhances medial preoptic dopamine release: implications for male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, J M; Hull, E M

    2001-11-02

    Increased dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) facilitates male sexual behavior. A major source of innervation to the MPOA is the medial amygdala (MeA). We now report that chemical stimulation of the MeA enhanced levels of extracellular MPOA DA in anesthetized male rats. These results suggest that DA activity in the MPOA can be regulated by input from the MeA to the MPOA.

  8. Natural history of medial clavicle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salipas, Andrew; Kimmel, Lara A; Edwards, Elton R; Rakhra, Sandeep; Moaveni, Afshin Kamali

    2016-10-01

    Fractures of the medial third of the clavicle comprise less than 3% of all clavicle fractures. The natural history and optimal management of these rare injuries are unknown. The aim of our study is to describe the demographics, management and outcomes of patients with medial clavicle fractures treated at a Level 1 Trauma Centre. A retrospective review was conducted of patients presenting to our institution between January 2008 and March 2013 with a medial third clavicle fracture. Clinical and radiographic data were recorded including mechanism of injury, fracture pattern and displacement, associated injuries, management and complications. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E) scores from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). Shoulder outcomes were assessed using two patient reported outcomes scores, the American Shoulder and Elbow Society Score (ASES) and the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Sixty eight medial clavicle fractures in 68 patients were evaluated. The majority of patients were male (n=53), with a median age of 53.5 years (interquartile range (IQR) 37.5-74.5 years). The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident (n=28). The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.4%. The fracture pattern was almost equally distributed between extra articular (n=35) and intra-articular (n=33). Fifty-five fractures (80.9%) had minimal or no displacement. Associated injuries were predominantly thoracic (n=31). All fractures were initially managed non-operatively, with a broad arm sling. Delayed operative fixation was performed for painful atrophic delayed union in two patients (2.9%). Both patients were under 65 years of age and had a severely displaced fracture of the medial clavicle. One intra-operative vascular complication was seen, with no adverse long-term outcome. Follow-up was obtained in 85.0% of the surviving cohort at an average of three years post injury (range 1-6 years). The mean ASES

  9. Opportunity's View After Drive on Sol 1806

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 60.86 meters (200 feet) on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 21, 2009). North is at the center; south at both ends. Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Engineers designed the Sol 1806 drive to be driven backwards as a strategy to redistribute lubricant in the rovers wheels. The right-front wheel had been showing signs of increased friction. The rover's position after the Sol 1806 drive was about 2 kilometer (1.2 miles) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 14.74 kilometers (9.16 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 2.96 kilometers (1.84 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008). This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. SOL: INNOVACIÓN ON-LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Faúndez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Las aplicaciones de simulación tienden a ser cada vez más cercanas a usuarios e industrias. Sin embargo, muchas de ellas no poseen ni la capacidad ni el conocimiento como para desarrollar internamente sus modelos de simulación. Por este motivo, y como una forma de apoyar la toma de decisiones basándose en modelos de simulación, se presenta la plataforma SOL (Simulación On Line. La metodología completa de trabajo, así como la interacción entre SOL, Empresa y Asesor, son presentadas. Su base de datos, los niveles de usuarios, sus funcionalidades, y la creación automatizada de información grafica y visual, también son explicadas. En el caso de aplicación, el uso de SOL para apoyar la toma de decisiones en una operación de movimiento de material, permite a los tomadores de decisión acceder a análisis robustos basados en información extraída de los modelos de simulación. SOL, al almacenar información, funcionar vía web, generar análisis automatizados y crear visualizaciones, permite cumplir con las expectativas de los usuarios respecto a una solución integral en simulación.

  11. Sol-Gel Synthesis Of Aluminoborosilicate Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Leiser, Daniel; Selvaduray, Guna

    1992-01-01

    Application of sol-gel process to synthesis of aluminoborosilicate powders shows potential for control of microstructures of materials. Development of materials having enhanced processing characteristics prove advantageous in extending high-temperature endurance of fibrous refractory composite insulation made from ceramic fibers.

  12. Fluorescence metrology of silica sol-gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have developed a new method for measuring in-situ the growth of the nanometre-size silica particles which lead to the formation of sol-gel glasses. This technique is based on the decay of fluorescence polarisation anisotropy due to Brownian rotation of dye molecules bound to the particles. Results to date give near ...

  13. The pediculated gastrocnemius muscle flap as a treatment for soft tissue problems of the knee – indication, placement and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moebius, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of endoprosthetic knee replacements, there is also an increase of critical wounds to the knee due to a high incidence of soft tissue problems (ranging from wound healing defects to severe wound infections. The literature describes a general rate of soft tissue complications of up to 20% [1], [2], with 5% [3] involving exposed bone. These complications are an increasingly important problem for surgeons. Since sufficient coverage of bones, tendons and prosthetic material with soft tissue is a necessity, the use of a pediculated muscle flap is the only solution in some cases. The gastrocnemius muscle is very useful for this purpose. It is an elaborate procedure which is associated with a high rate of complications. However, this procedure can establish a secure coverage with soft tissue, and the function of the prosthesis and the patient’s extremity can be saved. We have treated 23 patients with a gastrocnemius rotation flap after knee prosthesis or knee arthrodesis infection with consecutive soft tissue damage at our hospital from 8/2004 through 3/2011. The overall rate of healing of the knee infections with stable soft tissue status is almost 87%. The revision rate with lifting of the flap and revision of the sutures at the point of insertion as well as the point of extraction was about 35% with long-term conservative or additional surgical treatments.

  14. Effects of gastrocnemius recession on ankle motion, strength, and functional outcomes: a systematic review and national healthcare database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianakos, Arianna; Yasui, Youichi; Murawski, Christopher D; Kennedy, John G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to report the effects of gastrocnemius recession on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, function, and push-off power. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed with terms "gastrocnemius recession". The inclusion criteria were: (1) clinical studies, (2) published in a peer-reviewed journal within the past 10 years, and (3) published in English. Excluded were: (1) review articles, (2) cadaveric studies, (3) studies including patients under the age of 18 years, (4) studies evaluating a neurologic condition, (5) level of evidence 5, and (6) Quality of Evidence Score fashion with variable results, but of these, no study reported a return to normal power. The mean complication rate was 14%. The available evidence supports that GR improves functional outcomes and increases dorsiflexion range of motion. Furthermore, GR affects gait kinematics, which may cause compensatory effects at the knee, ankle, and subtalar joints. Evidence has shown that power does not return to normal levels. Clinicians may utilize these data clinically to determine whether patients may benefit from GR or not. IV.

  15. Pediatric Glial Heterotopia in the Medial Canthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min; Amponsah, Emmanuel Kofi; Eo, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ju; Lee, Suk Keun

    2017-11-01

    Glial heterotopias are rare, benign, congenital, midline, and nonteratomatous extracranial glial tissue. They may be confused as encephalocele or dermoid cysts and are mostly present in the nose.An 8-month-old African female child presented with a slow growing paranasal mass. The mass had been present at the left upper medial canthus since birth and had slowly and progressively enlarged. There was no communication between the mass and the cranial cavity during the operational procedure. The mass was immunohistochemically positive for S-100 protein as well as for glial fibrillary acidic protein, but negative for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. This suggested that the mass was composed of benign glial tissues with many astrocytes.The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the first patient with pediatric glial heterotopic tissue in the medial canthus and to report the clinical importance of its immunohistochemical findings.

  16. Neuromuscular Exercise Post Partial Medial Meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a 12-week, home-based, physiotherapist-guided neuromuscular exercise program on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral knee load distribution) in people with a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the past 3-12 months. METHODS......: An assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial including people aged 30-50 years with no to mild pain following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated to either a 12-week neuromuscular exercise program that targeted neutral lower limb alignment...... or a control group with no exercise. The exercise program included eight individual sessions with one of seven physiotherapists in private clinics, together with home exercises. Primary outcomes were the peak external knee adduction moment during normal pace walking and during a one-leg sit-to-stand. Secondary...

  17. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Boysen, Lisbeth; Haugaard, Stine

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate (1) if subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrate increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait compared with healthy subjects, and (2) the relationship between medial longitudinal-arch ...

  19. Unicameral Bone Cyst of the Medial Cuneiform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Faith A; Daniel, Joseph N; Miller, Juliane S

    2016-09-02

    A unicameral bone cyst is a relatively uncommon, benign bone tumor found in the metaphysis of long bones, such as the humerus and the femur, in skeletally immature persons. In the foot, these benign, fluid-filled cavities are most commonly found within the os calcis. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female with a unicameral bone cyst of the medial cuneiform.

  20. Osteoligamentous injuries of the medial ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötscher, P; Lang, T H; Zwicky, L; Hintermann, B; Knupp, M

    2015-12-01

    Injuries of the ankle joint have a high incidence in daily life and sports, thus, playing an important socioeconomic role. Therefore, proper diagnosis and adequate treatment are mandatory. While most of the ligament injuries around the ankle joint are treated conservatively, great controversy exists on how to treat deltoid ligament injuries in ankle fractures. Missed injuries and inadequate treatment of the medial ankle lead to inferior outcome with instability, progressive deformity, and ankle joint osteoarthritis.

  1. Sol-gel additive for systems with inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstinat, M.; Antenen, D.; Suter, W.

    1996-01-01

    A sol-gel additive for inorganic binder systems and sol-gel process for producing air-placed concrete and mortar by using such sol-gel additives are disclosed. Sol-gel additives for gel-derived inorganic binder systems (for example plaster, cement, lime, special slags, etc.) marked improve the consistency of such binder systems during processing or allow their consistency to be regulated. In addition, these sol-gel additives regulate setting times and substantially improve durability (chemical resistance, reduced permeability) and the mechanical properties of the set binder system. (author)

  2. OPTIMAL SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF HIGH VELOCITY POSTERIOR TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURE SUBLUXATIONS (DUPARC, REVISED CLASSIFICATION, GROUP – V: POSTERO - MEDIAL FRACTURE BY DIRECT, DORSAL APPROACH – A CHANGING TREND: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardhasaradhi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : High - energy tibial plateau fractures are infrequent and technically demanding to treat especially if those are shearing type, coronal plane, displaced fractures. The most widely used the Schatzker system of classification , [1] ( B ased on the AP radiograph is more than likely to miss postero - medial and postero - lateral shear fractures, best visible on the lateral, than the AP radiograph. These fractures have recently been characterised by two studies, highlighti ng their clinical relevance [ 2,3] and showing that less invasive surgery and indirect reduction techniques are often inadequate. Hohl described unicondylar c oronal plane splitting fractures of the medial tibial plateau, noted that these injuries be considered as fracture - dislocations. Connolly and others have suggested that the mechanism involved in this fracture pattern is one of knee flexion, varus, and inter nal rotation of the medial femoral condyle . [4,5,6 ] Consistent among these and other authors is that the occurrence of this fragment is relatively unusual and that the use of a posteriorly based exposure with direct fracture visualization, anatomic reductio n and absolute stability appears to result in satisfactory outcomes. Though variations of a postero - medial approach been previously described ( by Trickey et al and also by Burks et al.,, more recently, Lobenhoffer et al described direct posterior exposure , Wang et al described postero - medial approach and Luo et al. described the approach for the management of posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures . [7,8] These approaches have been used in isolation or as a dual - incision approach for treating tibial plateau fractures . [9,10,11,12,13,14, 15] PURPOSE : The purpose of this study is to describe this unfamiliar direct posterior surgical (Medial Gastrocnemius approach to a general orthopod, highlighting the relevant anatomy and presenting our experience using this approach in treating a

  3. Radiographic evaluation of the canine elbow joint with special reference to the medial humeral condyle and the medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhout, G.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The results of radiographic examination of clinically affected elbow joints in 14 young, large-breed dogs, including standard and oblique projections and linear tomography, were compared with the findings of medial arthrotomy. Radiographs revealed arthrosis (13 dogs), osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle (2 dogs), fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (5 dogs), and a combination of osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle and fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (2 dogs). In one dog fissures in the medial coronoid process and in another dog a linear radiopacity along the articular surface of the medial coronoid process were found. In three dogs both medial humeral condyle and medial coronoid process appeared normal. The radiographic findings were confirmed during surgery in 11 dogs. Cartilage erosion of the medial humeral condyle in two dogs and of the medial coronoid process in one dog had not resulted in radiographically visible abnormalities. Radiographic examination of the elbow joints in young, large-breed dogs should include standard mediolateral and craniocaudal projections, a mediolateral projection with the joint maximally extended and the leg supinated 15°, and a craniolateral-to-caudomedial projection

  4. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  5. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  7. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  8. Impediment to Spirit Drive on Sol 1806

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, (January 31, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. The wheel at the bottom right of the image is Spirit's right-front wheel. Because that wheel no longer turns, Spirit drives backwards dragging that wheel. The drive on Sol 1806 covered about 30 centimeters (1 foot). The rover team had planned a longer drive, but Spirit stopped short, apparently from the right front wheel encountering the partially buried rock visible next to that wheel. The hazard avoidance cameras on the front and back of the rover provide wide-angle views. The hill on the horizon in the right half of this image is Husband Hill. Spirit reached the summit of Husband Hill in 2005.

  9. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  10. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Phoenix Robotic Arm's Workspace After 90 Sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the first 90 Martian days, or sols, after its May 25, 2008, landing on an arctic plain of Mars, NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander dug several trenches in the workspace reachable with the lander's robotic arm. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager camera recorded this view of the workspace on Sol 90, early afternoon local Mars time (overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26, 2008). The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide. The workspace is on the north side of the lander. The trench just to the right of center is called 'Neverland.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. South is at the center; north is at both ends. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  14. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  15. Ring-Resonator/Sol-Gel Interferometric Immunosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gregory; Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    A proposed biosensing system would be based on a combination of (1) a sensing volume containing antibodies immobilized in a sol-gel matrix and (2) an optical interferometer having a ring resonator configuration. The antibodies would be specific to an antigen species that one seeks to detect. In the ring resonator of the proposed system, light would make multiple passes through the sensing volume, affording greater interaction length and, hence, greater antibody- detection sensitivity.

  16. Whirlwind Drama During Spirit's 496th Sol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This movie clip shows a dust devil growing in size and blowing across the plain inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The clip consists of frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the morning of the rover's 496th martian day, or sol (May 26, 2005). Contrast has been enhanced for anything in the images that changes from frame to frame, that is, for the dust moved by wind.

  17. Transparent Hydrophobic Coating by Sol Gel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hamzah Harun; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mahathir Mohamed; Mohd Sofian Alias

    2016-01-01

    Transparent hydrophobic coating of inorganic based tetra orthosilicate (TEOS) was prepared by sol gel method by varying fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) content which works as hydrophobic agent. Surface contact angle, transmittance degree and surface morphology were characterized for each sample. All samples show good transparency which was confirmed by UV visible spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity obtained increases with FAS content indicates that FAS is best candidate to induce hydrophobicity for inorganic coating. (author)

  18. Operant conditioning of the soleus H-reflex does not induce long-term changes in the gastrocnemius H-reflexes and does not disturb normal locomotion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Yukiko; Segal, Richard L; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Thompson, Aiko K

    2014-09-15

    In normal animals, operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or the H-reflex has lesser effects on synergist muscle reflexes. In rats and people with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), soleus H-reflex operant conditioning can improve locomotion. We studied in normal humans the impact of soleus H-reflex down-conditioning on medial (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) H-reflexes and on locomotion. Subjects completed 6 baseline and 30 conditioning sessions. During conditioning trials, the subject was encouraged to decrease soleus H-reflex size with the aid of visual feedback. Every sixth session, MG and LG H-reflexes were measured. Locomotion was assessed before and after conditioning. In successfully conditioned subjects, the soleus H-reflex decreased 27.2%. This was the sum of within-session (task dependent) adaptation (13.2%) and across-session (long term) change (14%). The MG H-reflex decreased 14.5%, due mainly to task-dependent adaptation (13.4%). The LG H-reflex showed no task-dependent adaptation or long-term change. No consistent changes were detected across subjects in locomotor H-reflexes, EMG activity, joint angles, or step symmetry. Thus, in normal humans, soleus H-reflex down-conditioning does not induce long-term changes in MG/LG H-reflexes and does not change locomotion. In these subjects, task-dependent adaptation of the soleus H-reflex is greater than it is in people with SCI, whereas long-term change is less. This difference from results in people with SCI is consistent with the fact that long-term change is beneficial in people with SCI, since it improves locomotion. In contrast, in normal subjects, long-term change is not beneficial and may necessitate compensatory plasticity to preserve satisfactory locomotion. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Sol-Gel Chemistry for Carbon Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfatti, Luca; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2018-03-14

    Carbon dots are an emerging class of carbon-based nanostructures produced by low-cost raw materials which exhibit a widely-tunable photoluminescence and a high quantum yield. The potential of these nanomaterials as a substitute of semiconductor quantum dots in optoelectronics and biomedicine is very high, however they need a customized chemistry to be integrated in host-guest systems or functionalized in core-shell structures. This review is focused on recent advances of the sol-gel chemistry applied to the C-dots technology. The surface modification, the fine tailoring of the chemical composition and the embedding into a complex nanostructured material are the main targets of combining sol-gel processing with C-dots chemistry. In addition, the synergistic effect of the sol-gel precursor combined with the C-dots contribute to modify the intrinsic chemo-physical properties of the dots, empowering the emission efficiency or enabling the tuning of the photoluminescence over a wide range of the visible spectrum. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). The view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses. Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This panorama combines right-eye and left-eye views presented as cylindrical-perspective projections with geometric seam correction.

  1. Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.J.; Cassidy, D.J.; Triani, G.; Latella, B.A.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Finnie, K.S.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.; Collins, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Low temperature bonding of silicon wafers was achieved using sol-gel technology. The initial sol-gel chemistry of the coating solution was found to influence the mechanical properties of the resulting bonds. More precisely, the influence of parameters such as the alkoxide concentration, water-to-alkoxide molar ratio, pH, and solution aging on the final bond morphologies and interfacial fracture energy was studied. The thickness and density of the sol-gel coating were characterised using ellipsometry. The corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy to monitor their chemical composition, infrared imaging to control bond integrity, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy to study their microstructure. Their interfacial fracture energy was measured using microindentation. An optimum water-to-alkoxide molar ratio of 10 and hydrolysis water at pH = 2 were found. Such conditions led to relatively dense films (> 90%), resulting in bonds with a fracture energy of 3.5 J/m 2 , significantly higher than those obtained using classical hydrophilic bonding (typically 1.5-2.5 J/m 2 ). Ageing of the coating solution was found to decrease the bond strength

  2. Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2005-05-17

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  3. Sol-gel growth of vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis examines the chemical reactivity of vanadium (IV) tetrakis(t-butoxide) as a precursor for the sol-gel synthesis of vanadium dioxide. Hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxide was studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical modification of the vanadium tetraalkoxide by alcohol interchange was studied using 51 V NMR and FTIR. Vanadium dioxide thin films and powders were made from vanadium tetrakis(t-butoxide) by standard sol-gel techniques. Post-deposition heating under nitrogen was necessary to transform amorphous gels into vanadium dioxide. Crystallization of films and powders was studied by FTIR, DSC, TGA, and XRD. Gel-derived vanadium dioxide films undergo a reversible semiconductor-to-metal phase transition near 68C, exhibiting characteristic resistive and spectral changes. The electrical resistance decreased by two to three orders of magnitude and the infrared transmission sharply dropped as the material was cycled through this thermally induced phase transition. The sol-gel method was also used to make doped vanadium dioxide films. Films were doped with tungsten and molybdenum ions to effectively lower the temperature at which the transition occurs

  4. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Carnevali Jr

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5, HI-IT (N = 10, and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10. The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT and a 5% (MI-CT overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01, as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01 and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05. Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min-1·mg protein-1 in HI-IT (around 83%. We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a "time-efficient" strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  5. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevali, L.C. Jr. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro Universitário Ítalo-Brasileiro (Unítalo), São Paulo SP (Brazil); Eder, R.; Lira, F.S. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lima, W.P. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação,Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, D.C. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Zanchi, N.E. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisa do Genoma Humano, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Nicastro, H. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lavoie, J.M. [Department of Kinesiology, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Seelaender, M.C.L. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-29

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a 5% (MI-CT) overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min{sup −1}·mg protein{sup −1}) in HI-IT (around 83%). We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a “time-efficient” strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  6. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevali, L.C. Jr.; Eder, R.; Lira, F.S.; Lima, W.P.; Gonçalves, D.C.; Zanchi, N.E.; Nicastro, H.; Lavoie, J.M.; Seelaender, M.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a 5% (MI-CT) overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min −1 ·mg protein −1 ) in HI-IT (around 83%). We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a “time-efficient” strategy inducing metabolic adaptation

  7. The Effect of 8 Weeks High-intensity Interval Training on Myostatin and Follistatin Gene Expression in Gastrocnemius Muscle of the Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Biglari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of 8 weeks High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT on the expression of two muscle growth regulating genes (myostatin and follistatin in gastrocnemius muscle of healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: 16 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups in the same number: control and HIIT. HIIT program was underwent 40 min each session, three sessions in a week for eight weeks. Each exercise training session consisted of 5 min warm-up and cool-down at 40-50 % VO2max, 30 min interval running including 4 min high-intensity (85-90% VO2max and 2 min active recovery (at 50-60% VO2max. Rats in control group did not do any exercise training program. 48 h after the last training session, rats` gastrocnemius muscle was extracted and the expression of myostatin and follistatin genes was determined by Real Time-PCR. For statistical data analysis, independent t-test was used. Results: The expression of myostatin was significantly reduced 68% in HIIT group in comparison with the control group (p0.05. Gastrocnemius muscle weight was significantly increased 23% in the HIIT group compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results indicated that HIIT lead to significant reduction in the expression of myostatin gene and increase in the weight of gastrocnemius muscle in rats.

  8. Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of ice therapy in patients with an acute tear in the gastrocnemius muscle: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.C.M.; Stubbe, J.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van; Scheffers, F.A.; Dongen, M.C.J.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial and the preliminary effectiveness of ice therapy in the acute phase of a gastrocnemius tear for the quality of functional recovery. Design: A pilot version of an intended prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was

  9. Sol-gel processing to form doped sol-gel monoliths inside hollow core optical fiber and sol-gel core fiber devices made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry C. (Inventor); Ott, Melanie N. (Inventor); Manuel, Michele V. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A process of fabricating a fiber device includes providing a hollow core fiber, and forming a sol-gel material inside the hollow core fiber. The hollow core fiber is preferably an optical fiber, and the sol-gel material is doped with a dopant. Devices made in this manner includes a wide variety of sensors.

  10. Sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite; Sintese de hidroxiapatita via sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupanski, M.D.; Lucena, M.P.P.; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: michelledunin@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been established as the calcium phosphate based compound with most applications in the biological field. Among the numerous techniques for synthesis of HAp, the sol-gel processing route affords great control over purity and formed phases using low processing temperatures. In addition, the sol-gel approach offers an option for homogeneous HAp coating on metal substrates, as well as the ability to generate nanocrystalline powders. In this work, the sol-gel synthesis of HAp was investigated employing triethyl phosphate and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate as phosphorous and calcium precursors, respectively. The aging effect on phase composition and powder morphology of the final product was studied in terms of temperature and aging time. The powders were studied by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size distribution by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  11. Ionogel Electrolytes through Sol-Gel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Ariel I.

    Electrical energy needs have intensified due to the ubiquity of personal electronics, the decarbonization of energy services through electrification, and the use of intermittent renewable energy sources. Despite developments in mechanical and thermal methods, electrochemical technologies are the most convenient and effective means of storing electrical energy. These technologies include both electrochemical cells, commonly called batteries, and electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or "supercapacitors", which store energy electrostatically. Both device types require an ion-conducting electrolyte. Current devices use solutions of complex salts in organic solvents, leading to both toxicity and flammability concerns. These drawbacks can be avoided by replacing conventional electrolytes with room-temperature molten salts, known as ionic liquids (ILs). ILs are non-volatile, non-flammable, and offer high conductivity and good electrochemical stability. Device mass can be reduced by combining ILs with a solid scaffold material to form an "ionogel," further improving performance metrics. In this work, sol-gel chemistry is explored as a means of forming ionogel electrolytes. Sol-gel chemistry is a solution-based, industrially-relevant, well-studied technique by which solids such as silica can be formed in situ. Previous works used a simple acid-catalyzed sol-gel reaction to create brittle, glassy ionogels. Here, both the range of products that can be accomplished through sol-gel processing and the understanding of interactions between ILs and the sol-gel reaction network are greatly expanded. This work introduces novel ionogel materials, including soft and compliant silica-supported ionogels and PDMS-supported ionogels. The impacts of the reactive formulation, IL identity, and casting time are detailed. It is demonstrated that variations in formulation can lead to rapid gelation and open pore structures in the silica scaffold or slow gelation and more dense silica

  12. Rheo: Japanese sound art interrogating digital mediality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandsø Anette

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist, Ryoichi Kurokawa’s audiovisual installation, Rheo: 5 Horisonz (2010, is “digital.” Using professor Lars Elleström’s concept of “mediality,” the main claim in this article is that Rheo not only uses digital technology but also interrogates digital mediality as such. This argument is pursued in an analysis of Rheo that draws in various descriptions of digital media by N. Catherine Hayles, Lev Manovic, Bolter, and Grusin among other. The article will show how the critical potential in Rheo is directed both towards digital media as a language (Meyrowitz (or a place for representation and towards the digital as a milieu (Meyrowitz or as our culture (Gere. The overall goal of the article is not just analyse this singular art work, but also to show how such a sound art work can contribute to our understanding of our own contemporary culture as a digital culture.

  13. Arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic type D medial plica

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Mustafa; Asik, Mehmet; Akpinar, Sercan; Ciftci, Feyyaz; Cesur, Necip; Tandogan, Reha N.

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to review the results of subtotal arthroscopic resection of symptomatic type D medial plica. We retrospectively evaluated 23 knees with symptomatic type D medial plica in 22 patients without other intra-articular pathology. All patients complained of chronic knee pain that had not been alleviated by medical treatment or physical therapy. In only three (13%) of the patients studied was the plica diagnosed pre-operatively with magnetic resonance imaging. The type D medial plicae in our...

  14. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  15. Bioactive materials for biomedical applications using sol-gel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Radha; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    This review paper focuses on the sol-gel technology that has been applied in many of the potential research areas and highlights the importance of sol-gel technology for preparing bioactive materials for biomedical applications. The versatility of sol-gel chemistry enables us to manipulate the characteristics of material required for particular applications. Sol-gel derived materials have proved to be good biomaterials for coating films and for the construction of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles, bioactive glasses and fiberoptic applicators for various biomedical applications. The introduction of the sol-gel route in a conventional method of preparing implants improves the mechanical strength, biocompatibility and bioactivity of scaffolds and prevents corrosion of metallic implants. The use of organically modified silanes (ORMOSILS) yields flexible and bioactive materials for soft and hard tissue replacement. A novel approach of nitric-oxide-releasing sol-gels as antibacterial coatings for reducing the infection around orthopedic implants has also been discussed

  16. Functional results after external vocal fold medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; Denk, Doris-Maria; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang

    2003-04-01

    A persistent insufficiency of glottal closure is mostly a consequence of a unilateral vocal fold movement impairment. It can also be caused by vocal fold atrophy or scarring processes with regular bilateral respiratory vocal fold function. Because of consequential voice, breathing, and swallowing impairments, a functional surgical treatment is required. The goal of the study was to outline the functional results after medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant according to Friedrich. In the period of 1999 to 2001, an external vocal fold medialization using the titanium implant was performed on 28 patients (12 women and 16 men). The patients were in the age range of 19 to 84 years. Twenty-two patients had a paralysis of the left-side vocal fold, and six patients, of the right-side vocal fold. Detailed functional examinations were executed on all patients before and after the surgery: perceptive voice sound analysis according to the "roughness, breathiness, and hoarseness" method, judgment of the s/z ratio and voice dysfunction index, voice range profile measurements, videostroboscopy, and pulmonary function tests. In case of dysphagia/aspiration, videofluoroscopy of swallowing was also performed. The respective data were statistically analyzed (paired t test, Wilcoxon-test). All patients reported on improvement of voice, swallowing, and breathing functions postoperatively. Videostroboscopy revealed an almost complete glottal closure after surgery in all of the patients. All voice-related parameters showed a significant improvement. An increase of the laryngeal resistance by the medialization procedure could be excluded by analysis of the pulmonary function test. The results confirm the external medialization of the vocal folds as an adequate method in the therapy of voice, swallowing, and breathing impairment attributable to an insufficient glottal closure. The titanium implant offers, apart from good tissue tolerability, the

  17. Vanadium dioxide formed by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potember, R.S.; Speck, K.R.; Hu, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the deposition of a crystalline vanadium dioxide thin film. It comprises: providing a solution comprising a vanadium tetraalkoxide and solvent; allowing hydrolysis and condensation reactions to progressively form a homogeneous sol from the solution, applying a coating of the sol to the substrate; allowing a gel to form from the sol on the substrate by evaporating the solvent; dehydrating the gel by heat treatment under an inert atmosphere to form the crystalline vanadium dioxide film

  18. Abstracts of International Conference on Sol-Gel Materials' 04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    International Conference on Sol-Gel Materials '04 was an important forum for discussion on problems related to sol-gel processes applied for preparation materials with special physical properties and assignment. The application of sol-gel materials as phosphors, surface coatings, sensors, waveguides, medical implants, joints etc. has been presented. Preparation conditions, methods of physical characterization as well as optimal chemical composition of such materials have been also discussed in detail

  19. Current and future possibilities of sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Sumio

    2004-01-01

    The sol-gel method is characterized by the low temperature processing. Since this method starts from solutions, the product is essentially nanomaterials. So far, various kinds of microstructures, including dense, porous, hybrid, amorphous and crystalline microstructures have been realized. Accordingly, sol-gel materials cover a wide range of functions, such as optical, electronic, mechanical, chemical and bio-functions. Future perspectives of the sol-gel method are described in the article. (author)

  20. Sol-gel-state of hydrated zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakchiev, L.G.; Lyakhov, N.Z.

    1995-01-01

    The change in viscosity and density of a system in the course of sol-gel-xerogel has been traced. The size and molecular mass of particles in sol have been determined. Initial sol is practically a monodisperse system. Gel is a spatial net of similar particles. Reversible character of sol-gel transition with a change in water content in the system suggests instability of the bond between the particles in the structure of the solid state body formed. 11 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Highly concentrated zinc oxide nanocrystals sol with strong blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafaee, M.; Sasani Ghamsari, M.; Radiman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highly concentrated ZnO sol was synthesized by an improved sol-gel method. Water was used as a modifier to control the sol-gel reaction and provide a way to increase the sol concentration. Concentration of ZnO in the prepared sol is higher than from other methods. Optical absorption and photoluminescence were used to investigate optical properties of the prepared sol. FTIR test was performed to study the influence of water on the compounds of as-prepared sol. The size and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles have been studied by HRTEM. The prepared colloidal ZnO nanocrystals have narrow size distribution (5-8 nm) and showed strong blue emission. The prepared sol has enough potential for optoelectronic applications. - Research highlights: → Novel sol-gel route has been employed to prepare highly concentrated ZnO colloidal nanocrystals. → Water has been used to control the sources of emission in synthesized material. → A strong blue luminescent material has been obtained.

  2. Method of making ionic liquid mediated sol-gel sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abdul; Shearrow, Anne M.

    2017-01-31

    Ionic liquid (IL)-mediated sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic materials present enormous potential for effective use in analytical microextraction. One obstacle to materializing this prospect arises from high viscosity of ILs significantly slowing down sol-gel reactions. A method was developed which provides phosphonium-based, pyridinium-based, and imidazolium-based IL-mediated advanced sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid materials for capillary microextraction. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrate that ILs can serve as porogenic agents in sol-gel reactions. IL-mediated sol-gel coatings prepared with silanol-terminated polymers provided up to 28 times higher extractions compared to analogous sol-gel coatings prepared without any IL in the sol solution. This study shows that IL-generated porous morphology alone is not enough to provide effective extraction media: careful choice of the organic polymer and the precursor with close sol-gel reactivity must be made to ensure effective chemical bonding of the organic polymer to the created sol-gel material to be able to provide the desired sorbent characteristics.

  3. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  4. Effect of sol-age on the surface and optical properties of sol-gel derived mesoporous zirconia thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous ZrO2 thin films have been deposited by a modified sol-gel dip coating technique using HCl as catalyst. Effects of sol-age on the surface and on the optical properties are studied. Transmission electron micrographs of the films reveal the pore dimensions in mesoporous regime. A strong correlation in surface topography with sol-age has been observed where increase in sol-age induces a systematic enhancement in the value of root mean square roughness of the films. Optical study shows that deposited films have high transmittance and an enhancement of 5.6 times in porosity in films prepared with sol-age of 10 days with respect to that of 1 day. Band gap estimation by Tauc's plots of films is observed to 5.74 eV, which shows invariance with the sol-age.

  5. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. sol y playa: el caso de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Díaz Armas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El turismo del vino tiene una concepción distinta en un destino masivo de sol y playa. En este caso el enoturismo convive con ese modelo turístico y es un producto complementario que favorece la diversificación en la oferta actual. El turismo del vino puede complementar la ya existente oferta turística, con lo que las regiones, turísticas y a la vez viníferas, podrían apoyarse en las experiencias y conocimiento del vino por parte del visitante y utilizarlas como hecho diferencial competitivo frente a otros destinos de sol y playa que no poseen esta particularidad. Con ello además se favorecerá el lanzamiento del producto turístico del vino, pues la demanda latente ya esta en las zonas turísticas que rodean el área vinícola. En este sentido, una vez que se descubren las motivaciones para acudir al destino Tenerife, se localiza un mercado sensible a la ruta del vino Tacoronte-Acentejo en el asentamiento turístico del Puerto de la Cruz (una de las principales zonas turísticas de Tenerife. Así, tras conocer los beneficios buscados por el visitante del Puerto de la Cruz, se ha contrastado la existencia de dos segmentos latentes que pueden ser atraídos hacia la oferta actual de la ruta del vino en Tacoronte-Acentejo, al verificar que persiguen, además del clima y el sol y playa (principales motivaciones para viajar al destino Tenerife, otros beneficios que son susceptibles de ser ofertados por la ruta del vino.

  7. Mesure de la vitesse d'infiltration des eaux dans le sol : Cas des sols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 avr. 2016 ... Pour ceux, il est nécessaire d'opter pour une agriculture moderne ... à une telle agriculture. Mots clés : mesure, vitesse, infiltration, sols, pollutions, eau, Niari, Congo .... une porosité tubulaire d'origine biologique. Toutes ces.

  8. Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christian; Steensen, Robert; Gföller, Peter; Lawton, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Critically evaluate the published literature related to quadriceps tendon (QT) medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Hamstring tendon (HT) MPFL reconstruction techniques have been shown to successfully restore patella stability, but complications including patella fracture are reported. Quadriceps tendon (QT) reconstruction techniques with an intact graft pedicle on the patella side have the advantage that patella bone tunnel drilling and fixation are no longer needed, reducing risk of patella fracture. Several QT MPFL reconstruction techniques, including minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches, have been published with promising clinical results and fewer complications than with HT techniques. Parallel laboratory studies have shown macroscopic anatomy and biomechanical properties of QT are more similar to native MPFL than hamstring (HS) HT, suggesting QT may more accurately restore native joint kinematics. Quadriceps tendon MPFL reconstruction, via both open and MIS techniques, have promising clinical results and offer valuable alternatives to HS grafts for primary and revision MPFL reconstruction in both children and adults.

  9. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11781 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11781 NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this stereo, full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. South is at the center; north is at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up

  10. Industrial applications of sol-gel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuloch, S.M.; Tulloch, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper has been to provide a broad, rather than comprehensive view. We have presented a range of applications and only a selection of involved companies and researchers and have relied to a large extent on published information. Nevertheless, we are sure that our view of the importance of Sol-gel technology as an emerging technology, with enormous impact across a wide range of manufacturing, is demonstrated. Applications which are either in production or have been foreshadowed include four broad categories: coatings, fibres, powders and monoliths

  11. Preparation of counterion stabilized concentrated silver sols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Sylas; Halaciuga, Ionel; Goia, Dan V

    2011-07-01

    A strategy for obtaining stable concentrated silver dispersions without dedicated stabilizing agents is presented. This approach consists of rapidly mixing aqueous solutions of silver salicylate and ascorbic acid. By using salicylate as Ag(+) counterion, it is possible to prepare stable sols with metal concentrations up to two orders of magnitude higher than with silver nitrate. The stabilizing effect of the counterion is the result of a decreased ionic strength due to salicylate protonation and its adsorption on the surface of silver. Both effects increase the range of the electrostatic repulsive forces by expanding the electrical double layer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress fracture of the medial clavicle secondary to nervous tic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Sugiura, H.; Suzuki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The clinical and radiological characteristics of swelling in the region of the medial clavicle may suggest the presence of a neoplastic or inflammatory lesion. This report describes a 27-year-old man with a painful tumor-like lesion over the medial clavicle, which was found to be a stress fracture caused by a nervous tic resulting from mental stress. (orig.)

  13. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint also known as the deltoid ligament, is a multifascicular group of ligaments. It can be divided into a superficial and deep group of fibers originating from the medial malleolus to insert in the talus, calcaneus, and navicular bones. Wide variations have been noted in ...

  14. Medial shoe-ground pressure and specific running injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brund, René B K; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2017-01-01

    pressure. Foot balance was categorized into those which presented a higher lateral shod pressure (LP) than medial pressure, and those which presented a higher medial shod pressure (MP) than lateral pressure during the stance phase. A time-to-event model was used to compare differences in incidence between...

  15. Trochleoplasty and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for recurrent patellar dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Raghuveer Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of recurrent patellar dislocation with high-grade trochlear dysplasia which persisted despite two previous operations. We did a Dejour′s sulcus deepening trochleoplasty, medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction, and lateral retinacular release. Trochleoplasty and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction is required in patients with high grade trochlear dysplasia.

  16. Low implant migration of the SIGMA® medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppens, Daan; Stilling, Maiken; Munk, Stig

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate implant migration of the fixed-bearing Sigma® medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). UKA is a regularly used treatment for patients with medial osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. UKA has a higher revision rate than total knee arthroplasty. Implant...

  17. Intrinsic factors associated with medial tibial stress syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrinsic factors associated with medial tibial stress syndrome in athletes: A large case-control study. ... Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is the most common lower-leg injury in athletes, and is thought to be caused by ... from 32 Countries:.

  18. Medial Amygdala and Aggressive Behavior : Interaction Between Testosterone and Vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Roozendaal, B.; Boorsma, F.; Van Den Brink, T.H.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers the functional significance of the testosterone-dependent vasopressinergic neurons of the medial amygdala (Ame) in intermale aggressive behavior of rats. Local microinfusion of vasopressin into the medial amygdala causes an increase in offensive behavior both in gonadally intact

  19. Traumatic posterior root tear of the medial meniscus in patients with severe medial instability of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Ho Jong; Ha, Jeong Ku; Jang, Ho Su; Kim, Jin Goo

    2015-10-01

    To examine the incidence and diagnostic rate of traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear associated with severe medial instability and to evaluate the effectiveness of pullout repair. From 2007 to 2011, 51 patients who underwent operation due to multiple ligament injuries including medial collateral ligament rupture were reviewed retrospectively. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective and Lysholm score were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and if indicated, a second-look arthroscopic examination was conducted. Fourteen out of 51 patients were associated with severe medial instability. Seven patients were diagnosed with traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear and underwent arthroscopic pullout repair. Five of them were missed at initial diagnosis using MRI. In seven patients, the mean Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores improved from 74.6 ± 10.3 and 47.6 ± 7.3 to 93.0 ± 3.7 and 91.6 ± 2.6, respectively. All showed complete healing of meniscus root on follow-up MRI and second-look arthroscopy. Medial meniscus posterior root tear may occur in severe medial instability from trauma. It is a common mistake that surgeons may not notice on the diagnosis of those injuries using MRI. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for the diagnosis of medial meniscus posterior root tear in this type of injuries. The traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear could be healed successfully using arthroscopic pullout repair technique. The possibility of the medial meniscus posterior root tear should be considered in severe medial instability and arthroscopic pullout repair can be an effective option for treatment. Case series with no comparison group, Level IV.

  20. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this stereo, 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). By combining images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera, the view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. Sol-gel precursors and products thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Scott C.; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Weisner, Ulrich B.

    2017-02-14

    The present invention provides a generalizable single-source sol-gel precursor capable of introducing a wide range of functionalities to metal oxides such as silica. The sol-gel precursor facilitates a one-molecule, one-step approach to the synthesis of metal-silica hybrids with combinations of biological, catalytic, magnetic, and optical functionalities. The single-source precursor also provides a flexible route for simultaneously incorporating functional species of many different types. The ligands employed for functionalizing the metal oxides are derived from a library of amino acids, hydroxy acids, or peptides and a silicon alkoxide, allowing many biological functionalities to be built into silica hybrids. The ligands can coordinate with a wide range of metals via a carboxylic acid, thereby allowing direct incorporation of inorganic functionalities from across the periodic table. Using the single-source precursor a wide range of functionalized nanostructures such as monolith structures, mesostructures, multiple metal gradient mesostructures and Stober-type nanoparticles can be synthesized. ##STR00001##

  4. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  5. Dip coating of sol-gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, P. R.; Hurd, A. J.; Brinker, C. J.

    Dip coating is the primary means of depositing sol-gel films for precision optical coatings. Sols are typically multicomponent systems consisting of an inorganic phase dispersed in a solvent mixture, with each component differing in volatility and surface tension. This, together with slow coating speeds (less than 1cm/s), makes analysis of the coating process complicated; unlike most high-speed coating methods, solvent evaporation, evolving rheology, and surface tension gradients alter significantly the fluid mechanics of the deposition stage. These phenomena were studied with computer-aided predictions of the flow and species transport fields. The underlying theory involves mass, momentum, and species transport on a domain of unknown shape, with models and constitutive equations for vapor-liquid equilibria and surface tension. Due accounting is made for the unknown position of the free surface, which locates according to the capillary hydrodynamic forces and solvent loss by evaporation. Predictions of the effects of mass transfer, hydrodynamics, and surface tension gradients on final film thickness are compared with ellipsometry measurements of film thickness on a laboratory pilot coater. Although quantitative agreement is still lacking, both experiment and theory reveal that the film profile near the drying line takes on a parabolic shape.

  6. Opportunity's Sol 446 Position, with Relative Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Coding for Information About Relative Elevations This mosaic of navigation-camera frames from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, presented in a vertical projection, shows the rover's position after it dug itself to wheel-hub depth in a small dune during its 446th martian day, or sol (April 26, 2005). In figure 1, the colors are coding for information about relative elevations in the surrounding area. Red areas are the highest in the image, green areas the lowest. The difference between red and green is about 70 centimeters (28 inches). The elongated dune, or ripple, is about one-third of a meter (one foot) tall and 2.5 meters (8 feet) wide. Opportunity had completed nearly 40 meters (131 feet) of a planned 90-meter (295-foot) drive that sol when its wheels began slipping. The rover was driving backwards at the time. The rover team frequently alternates between backwards and forwards driving to keep wheel lubrication well distributed. The wheels kept rotating enough times to have covered the rest of the distance if they hadn't been slipping, but the rover eventually barely inched forward. After a turn at the end of the planned drive, Opportunity sensed that it had not turned properly and stopped moving. The rover team spent more than a week designing and conducting tests under simulated Mars conditions on Earth before choosing the best way for Opportunity to drive out of the dune.

  7. Sol-gel coatings on carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S.M.; Krabill, R.M.; Dalzell, W.J. Jr.; Chu, P.Y.; Clark, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The need for structural materials that can withstand severe environments up to 4000 0 F has promulgated the investigation of sol-gel derived ceramic and composite coatings on carbon/carbon composite materials. Alumina and zirconia sols have been deposited via thermophoresis on carbon/carbon substrates

  8. Structural evolution of silica sols modified with formamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenza R.F.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the influence of formamide on the acid-catalyzed sol-gel process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Three silica sols were studied: Sol catalyzed with nitric acid without formamide, sol catalyzed with nitric acid containing formamide and sol catalyzed with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid and modified with formamide. Following the time evolution of both the Si-(OH stretching vibration at around 950 cm-1 and the Si-O-(Si vibration between 1040 cm-1 and 1200 cm-1 we were able to describe the structural evolution of each sol. The curve of evolution of Si-(OH stretching vibration corresponding to sol A has a simple asymptotic evolution. In the case of formamide containing sol, we observed a two-step structural evolution indicating that for the system containing formamide the polymerization goes through a temporary stabilization of oligomers, which can explain the non-variation of the Si-O(H bond wavenumber for a certain time. Gelation times were of several days for gels without formamide and few hours for gels containing additive. The presence of additive resulted in a highly interconnected gel.

  9. Biocatalysis with Sol-Gel Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-gel matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-gel beads that were prepared from the precursor…

  10. Application of the docking program SOL for CSAR benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulimov, Alexey V; Kutov, Danil C; Oferkin, Igor V; Katkova, Ekaterina V; Sulimov, Vladimir B

    2013-08-26

    This paper is devoted to results obtained by the docking program SOL and the post-processing program DISCORE at the CSAR benchmark. SOL and DISCORE programs are described. SOL is the original docking program developed on the basis of the genetic algorithm, MMFF94 force field, rigid protein, precalculated energy grid including desolvation in the frame of simplified GB model, vdW, and electrostatic interactions and taking into account the ligand internal strain energy. An important SOL feature is the single- or multi-processor performance for up to hundreds of CPUs. DISCORE improves the binding energy scoring by the local energy optimization of the ligand docked pose and a simple linear regression on the base of available experimental data. The docking program SOL has demonstrated a good ability for correct ligand positioning in the active sites of the tested proteins in most cases of CSAR exercises. SOL and DISCORE have not demonstrated very exciting results on the protein-ligand binding free energy estimation. Nevertheless, for some target proteins, SOL and DISCORE were among the first in prediction of inhibition activity. Ways to improve SOL and DISCORE are discussed.

  11. Self-Healing Corrosion Protective Sol-Gel Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdolah Zadeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the state of the art and the recent advances in the field of self-healing corrosion protective coatings, the thesis entitled “Self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings” addresses novel routes to self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings via extrinsic and intrinsic

  12. Analyses of laser and furnace treated sol-gel coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, JT; De Haas, M; Sudarshan, TS; Jeandin, M; Khor, KA

    1998-01-01

    Here we explore a new method that allows thin films to be made with almost any composition and degree of porosity by means of a combination of sol-gel and laser technology. Results are presented for furnace and laser treated TEOTI-(tetraethylorthotitanate as sol precursor) coated silicon samples.

  13. Centralization of extruded medial meniscus delays cartilage degeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Nobutake; Muneta, Takeshi; Kawabata, Kenichi; Koga, Hideyuki; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Saito, Ryusuke; Udo, Mio; Yanagisawa, Katsuaki; Ohara, Toshiyuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-05-01

    Meniscus extrusion often observed in knee osteoarthritis has a strong correlation with the progression of cartilage degeneration and symptom in the patients. We recently reported a novel procedure "arthroscopic centralization" in which the capsule was sutured to the edge of the tibial plateau to reduce meniscus extrusion in the human knee. However, there is no animal model to study the efficacy of this procedure. The purposes of this study were [1] to establish a model of centralization for the extruded medial meniscus in a rat model; and [2] to investigate the chondroprotective effect of this procedure. Medial meniscus extrusion was induced by the release of the anterior synovial capsule and the transection of the meniscotibial ligament. Centralization was performed by the pulled-out suture technique. Alternatively, control rats had only the medial meniscus extrusion surgery. Medial meniscus extrusion was evaluated by micro-CT and macroscopic findings. Cartilage degeneration of the medial tibial plateau was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. By micro-CT analysis, the medial meniscus extrusion was significantly improved in the centralization group in comparison to the extrusion group throughout the study. Both macroscopically and histologically, the cartilage lesion of the medial tibial plateau was prevented in the centralization group but was apparent in the control group. We developed medial meniscus extrusion in a rat model, and centralization of the extruded medial meniscus by the pull-out suture technique improved the medial meniscus extrusion and delayed cartilage degeneration, though the effect was limited. Centralization is a promising treatment to prevent the progression of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Fast temperature fluctuation measurements in SOL of tokamak TCV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horacek, J.; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Pitts, R.A.

    to compare the statistical character of turbulence in the SOL particle flux on TCV with results from the 2D fluid electrostatic model ESEL [2][4]. Using results from the fast sweeping, similar comparisons can now be made with the fluctuating Te and will be described in this contribution. We also present...... basic statistics derived from the Te time series obtained at different radii in the SOL plasma and show, in particular, that the relationship between higher moments of the probability distribution function from both experimental and simulated Te’s may be well described by the Beta probability...... distribution function, introduced for SOL turbulence in [5]. The fast Te capability also allows the SOL response to Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) to be studied and new results will be presented for the far SOL Te response during Type III ELMs....

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of sol-gel-derived ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Crooks, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the physical, optical, and chemical characteristics of electrophoretically and dip-coated sol-gel ceramic films are compared. The results indicate that electrophoresis may allow a higher level of control over the chemistry and structure of ceramic coatings than dip-coating techniques. For example, controlled-thickness sol-gel coatings can be prepared by adjusting the deposition time or voltage. Additionally, electrophoretic coatings can be prepared in a four-component alumino-borosilicate sol display interesting optical characteristics. For example, the ellipsometrically-measured refractive indices of electrophoretic coatings are higher than the refractive indices of dip-coated films cast from identical sols, and they are also higher than any of the individual sol components. This result suggests that there are physical and/or chemical differences between films prepared by dip-coating and electrophoresis

  17. Seasonal variations of cellular stress response in the heart and gastrocnemius muscle of the water frog (Pelophylax ridibundus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Anestis, Andreas; Vasara, Eleni; Kyriakopoulou-Sklavounou, Pasqualina; Michaelidis, Basile

    2012-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the seasonal cellular stress response in the heart and the gastrocnemius muscle of the amphibian Pelophylax ridibundus (former name Rana ridibunda) during an 8 month acclimatization period in the field. Processes studied included heat shock protein expression and protein kinase activation. The cellular stress response was addressed through the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 and the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases and particularly p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3). Due to a general metabolic depression during winter hibernation, the induction of Hsp70 and Hsp90 and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, JNKs and ERKs are retained at low levels of expression in the examined tissues of P. ridibundus. Recovery from hibernation induces increased levels of the specific proteins, probably providing stamina to the animals during their arousal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Forced use as a potential cause of gastrocnemius tears during neurologic rehabilitation: a report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steve R; Wiggs, Laura L; Ivanhoe, Cindy B

    2007-03-01

    Broadly defined, forced-use therapy uses specific techniques designed to engage the patient with brain injury in activities that disallow overcompensation with the noninvolved or less involved body segments while forcing the use of the more involved segments. Some applications may involve placing the patient's hemiparetic extremity in a closed-chain weight-bearing activity with therapist support. We describe 2 cases of gastrocnemius muscle tears that occurred during inpatient neurologic rehabilitation that may be attributed to forced use of the hemiplegic lower extremity. Each presented with signs and symptoms indicative of deep vein thrombosis of the calf but was later confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging to be muscle tears. Some closed-chain, forced-use activities may be ill advised in the early stages of rehabilitation or if force generation of the muscle is inadequate to provide a protective response to overstretching. Gastroc-soleus tears should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral or even bilateral lower-extremity swelling and pain in neurologically impaired patients who are undergoing forced-use therapy.

  19. Fragmentation of the medial malleolus of dogs with and without tarsal osteochondrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, S.M.; Mahaffey, M.B.; Aron, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    Fragmentation of the medial malleolus of the tibia was found radiographically in 5 canine tarsi which did not have evidence of osteochondrosis of the medial trochlear ridge. An additional 5 tarsi were found where both medial malleolar fragmentation and osteochondrosis of the medial trochlear ridge were present. Radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease was present in 3 of 5 dogs with medial malleolar fragmentation alone, and 5 of 5 dogs with medial malleolar fragmentation and medial trochlear ridge osteochondrosis. Eight of the 9 dogs were Rottweilers. Considering the sites of occurrence of osteochondrosis in other species, the authors propose that medial malleolar fragmentation could be secondary to osteochondrosis of the medial malleolus. Osteochondrosis of the medial malleolus has not been previously reported in dogs. Histological examination of the medial malleolar fragmentation was unavailable because surgery was not performed, therefore the hypothesis that the medial malleolar fragmentation is due to osteochondrosis was not proven

  20. Optimal hysteretic control for a B M A P &sol; S M &sol; 1 &sol; N queue with two operation modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin Alexander N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider B M A P &sol; S M &sol; 1 type queueing system with finite buffer of size N . The system has two operation modes, which are characterized by the matrix generating function of B M A P -input, the kernel of the semi-Markovian service process, and utilization cost. An algorithm for determining the optimal hysteresis strategy is presented.

  1. Gender variability in electromyographic activity, in vivo behaviour of the human gastrocnemius and mechanical capacity during the take-off phase of a countermovement jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Jacobo Ángel; Ramos-Campo, Domingo Jesús; Peña Amaro, José; Esteban, Paula; Mendizábal, Susana; Jiménez, José Fernando

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse gender differences in neuromuscular behaviour of the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis during the take-off phase of a countermovement jump (CMJ), using direct measures (ground reaction forces, muscle activity and dynamic ultrasound). Sixty-four young adults (aged 18-25 years) participated voluntarily in this study, 35 men and 29 women. The firing of the trigger allowed obtainment of data collection vertical ground reaction forces (GRF), surface electromyography activity (sEMG) and dynamic ultrasound gastrocnemius of both legs. Statistically significant gender differences were observed in the jump performance, which appear to be based on differences in muscle architecture and the electrical activation of the gastrocnemius muscles and vastus lateralis. So while men developed greater peak power, velocity take-offs and jump heights, jump kinetics compared to women, women also required a higher electrical activity to develop lower power values. Additionally, the men had higher values pennation angles and muscle thickness than women. Men show higher performance of the jump test than women, due to significant statistical differences in the values of muscle architecture (pennation angle and thickness muscle), lower Neural Efficiency Index and a higher amount of sEMG activity per second during the take-off phase of a CMJ. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of ice therapy in patients with an acute tear in the gastrocnemius muscle: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Jan C M; Stubbe, Janine H; van Meeteren, Nico L U; Scheffers, Frans A; van Dongen, Martien C J M

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial and the preliminary effectiveness of ice therapy in the acute phase of a gastrocnemius tear for the quality of functional recovery. A pilot version of an intended prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted. A total of 19 patients with an acute tear in the gastrocnemius muscle were randomly allocated to either active or control treatment. The intervention consisted of the repeated application of crushed ice. Primary outcome measures were functional capacity and reconvalescence time. Secondary outcome measures were pain and work absenteeism. The number of patients we could include within the 6-hour time window and dropping out from the pilot study were regarded as indicators of the feasibility of ice therapy. A total of 16 patients were excluded from the study because diagnosis was not made within 6 hours after onset of the complaint. The 19 patients included completed the treatment. For functional capacity, reconvalescence time, work absenteeism and pain relief, no significant differences between the intervention and control group were found. The execution of a randomized controlled trial on ice therapy for acute gastrocnemius tear is feasible though quite an enterprise. First, it is recommended to improve the recruitment processes. Second, power analysis demands inclusion of 396 participants. Preliminary effectiveness in our limited-sized trial indicates that the use of ice is not beneficial for people who receive ice therapy.

  3. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia K; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Mitchell, Karen J; Levin, Yael

    2009-12-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity associated with self-reflection in depressed [current major depressive episode (MDE)] and healthy control participants, focusing on medial cortex areas previously shown to be associated with self-reflection. Both the MDE and healthy control groups showed greater activity in anterior medial cortex (medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus) when cued to think about hopes and aspirations compared with duties and obligations, and greater activity in posterior medial cortex (precuneus, posterior cingulate) when cued to think about duties and obligations (Experiment 1). However, the MDE group showed less activity than controls in the same area of medial frontal cortex when self-referential cues were more ambiguous with respect to valence (Experiment 2), and less deactivation in a non-self-referential condition in both experiments. Furthermore, individual differences in rumination were positively correlated with activity in both anterior and posterior medial cortex during non-self-referential conditions. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation of anterior and posterior medial cortex depending on the focus of self-relevant thought. They also provide neural evidence consistent with behavioral findings that depression is associated with disruption of positively valenced thoughts in response to ambiguous cues, and difficulty disengaging from self-reflection when it is appropriate to do so.

  4. Episodic reinstatement in the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Henson, Richard N A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Alink, Arjen

    2012-12-12

    The essence of episodic memory is our ability to reexperience past events in great detail, even in the absence of external stimulus cues. Does the phenomenological reinstatement of past experiences go along with reinstating unique neural representations in the brain? And if so, how is this accomplished by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain region intimately linked to episodic memory? Computational models suggest that such reinstatement (also termed "pattern completion") in cortical regions is mediated by the hippocampus, a key region of the MTL. Although recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated reinstatement of coarse item properties like stimulus category or task context across different brain regions, it has not yet been shown whether reinstatement can be observed at the level of individual, discrete events-arguably the defining feature of episodic memory-nor whether MTL structures like the hippocampus support this "true episodic" reinstatement. Here we show that neural activity patterns for unique word-scene combinations encountered during encoding are reinstated in human parahippocampal cortex (PhC) during retrieval. Critically, this reinstatement occurs when word-scene combinations are successfully recollected (even though the original scene is not visually presented) and does not encompass other stimulus domains (such as word-color associations). Finally, the degree of PhC reinstatement across retrieval events correlated with hippocampal activity, consistent with a role of the hippocampus in coordinating pattern completion in cortical regions.

  5. Appearance of medial plica of the knee on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.; Pope, C.F.; Jokl, P.; Lynch, K.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the appearance of the abnormal plica, a rare but important cause of knee pain, the authors have reviewed 1.5-T MR images of 17 patients (mean age, 33 years) who had arthroscopically confirmed abnormal plicae involving the medial aspect of the patella pouch. Asymmetry in the medial wall of the patella pouch was seen in 17 of 17; 10 of 17 had a discernible edge, and four of 17 had sufficient fluid to surround the plica. When sufficient intraarticular fluid was present, the plica was easily detected. Asymmetry in the medial wall of the patella pouch was a helpful MR characteristic to account for unexplained knee pain

  6. Cartilage Delamination Flap Mimicking a Torn Medial Meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Zhi-Wei Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a chondral delamination lesion due to medial parapatellar plica friction syndrome involving the medial femoral condyle. This mimicked a torn medial meniscus in clinical and radiological presentation. Arthroscopy revealed a chondral delamination flap, which was debrided. Diagnosis of chondral lesions in the knee can be challenging. Clinical examination and MRI have good accuracy for diagnosis and should be used in tandem. Early diagnosis and treatment of chondral lesions are important to prevent progression to early osteoarthritis.

  7. Modified tension band wiring of medial malleolar ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, G M; White, D B

    1995-02-01

    Twenty-two displaced medial malleolar ankle fractures that were treated surgically using the modified tension band method of Cleak and Dawson were retrospectively reviewed at an average follow-up of 25 months. The technique involves the use of a screw to anchor a figure-of-eight wire. There were no malreductions and all fractures healed. Problems with the technique included technical errors with hardware placement, medial ankle pain, and asymptomatic wire migration. Despite this, modified tension band wiring remains an acceptable method for fixation of selected displaced medial malleolar fractures. It is especially suited for small fracture fragments and osteoporotic bone.

  8. Radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Takiguchi, M.; Schrader, S.C.; Biller, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Mediolateral, flexed mediolateral, mediocaudal-laterocranial 15 degrees oblique (extended and supinated mediolateral), and craniolateral-caudomedial 20 degrees to 30 degrees oblique radiographs of 16 elbow-joint specimens were produced to study the radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process. On the mediolateral view, the cranial point of the coronoid process was at the level of the distal one-third of the radial epiphysis. Degree of superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna determined how the medial coronoid process was projected on the radiographs. Mediocaudal-laterocranial oblique radiographs best showed the cranial outline of the medial coronoid process with moderate superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna

  9. Superconductive ceramics obtained with sol gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, A.; Mosci, A.; Nardi, A.; Vatteroni, R.; Zondini, C.

    1988-01-01

    Several sol gel routes have been considered, studied and developed to produce large quantities of granulates which can be processed to obtain ceramics having good superconducting characteristics. In the considered process a mixture of commercial nitrates is atomized, at room temperature, in a solution 1:1 of Primene JMT and Benzene and a pale blue gel of the starting elements is suddently formed. The granulates obtained are free flowing, very reactive and well suited for pressing. For their intrinsic characteristics they could be very good precursors for the production of large quantities of superconductive ceramics in different forms. The precipitated gel is dried, calcinated, pressed in the form of cylindrical pellets which are sintered up to 960 degrees C. No griding or different thermal treatments are needed. The sintered material has low electric resistence, shows a clear Meissner effect and has a transition temperature of between 91 and 95 K

  10. Edificio Playa, en la Costa del Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, Fernando

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available This apartment block has been built on the Costa del Sol, in Almeria, only a few metres from the seashore. It is meant to provide the following facilities. Changing rooms for bathers, and a night club, in the basement. Restaurant and bar on the ground floor. Twelve living apartments on the six standard floor levels; two apartments per storey. Porter's house in the attic. As the foundations are in the sand, and the building is exposed to strong coastal winds, the structural design has, as interesting features, the foundation ribbed slab and the transversal portal frames, which are W shaped on the ground level. This arrangement makes the edifice look lighter and it acquires a more dynamic plasticity.En la Costa del Sol de Almería y a muy pocos metros de la orilla del mar, se ha construido este edificio de apartamentos. Su programa es el siguiente: casetas de baño y sala de fiestas, en sótano; restaurante-bar, en planta baja; doce viviendas, en las seis plantas tipo, con dos viviendas por planta; y vivienda del portero en ático. Cimentado sobre arena y expuesto a los fuertes vientos que azotan la costa, la solución estructural ofrece el interés de su tipo de cimentación por placa nervada, y de sus pórticos transversales que en planta baja adoptan forma de W, con lo que el edificio adquiere un aspecto de mayor ligereza y de dinamismo plástico.

  11. Silica Sol-Gel Entrapment of the Enzyme Chloro peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T.; Chan, S.; Ebaid, B.; Sommerhalter, M.

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme chloro peroxidase (CPO) was immobilized in silica sol-gel beads prepared from tetramethoxysilane. The average pore diameter of the silica host structure (∼3 nm) was smaller than the globular CPO diameter (∼6 nm) and the enzyme remained entrapped after sol-gel maturation. The catalytic performance of the entrapped enzyme was assessed via the pyrogallol peroxidation reaction. Sol-gel beads loaded with 4 μg CPO per mL sol solution reached 9-12% relative activity compared to free CPO in solution. Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed a decrease in K_cat but no changes in K_M or K_I . Product release or enzyme damage might thus limit catalytic performance. Yet circular dichroism and visible absorption spectra of transparent CPO sol-gel sheets did not indicate enzyme damage. Activity decline due to methanol exposure was shown to be reversible in solution. To improve catalytic performance the sol-gel protocol was modified. The incorporation of 5, 20, or 40% methyltrimethoxysilane resulted in more brittle sol-gel beads but the catalytic performance increased to 14% relative to free CPO in solution. The use of more acidic casting buffers (ph 4.5 or 5.5 instead of 6.5) resulted in a more porous silica host reaching up to 18% relative activity

  12. Modified silica sol coatings for surface enhancement of leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahltig, Boris; Vossebein, Lutz; Ehrmann, Andrea; Cheval, Nicolas; Fahmi, Amir

    2012-06-01

    The presented study reports on differently modified silica sols for coating applications on leather. Silica sols are prepared by acidic hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane and modified by silane compounds with fluorinated and non-fluorinated alkylgroups. In contrast to many earlier investigations regarding sol-gel applications on leather, no acrylic resin is used together with the silica sols when applying on leather. The modified silica particles are supposed to aggregate after application, forming thus a modified silica coating on the leather substrate. Scanning electron microscopy investigation shows that the applied silica coatings do not fill up or close the pores of the leather substrate. However, even if the pores of the leather are not sealed by this sol-gel coating, an improvement of the water repellent and oil repellent properties of the leather substrates are observed. These improved properties of leather by application of modified silica sols can provide the opportunity to develop sol-gel products for leather materials present in daily life.

  13. Silica scintillating materials prepared by sol-gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werst, D.W.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Cromack, K.R.; Lin, Y.; Tartakovsky, E.A.; Trifunac, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    Silica was investigated as a rad-hard alternative to organic polymer hosts for organic scintillators. Silica sol-gels were prepared by hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in alcohol solutions. organic dyes were incorporated into the gels by dissolving in methanol at the sol stage of gel formation. The silica sol-gel matrix is very rad-hard. The radiation stability of silica scintillators prepared by this method is dye-limited. Transient radioluminescence was measured following excitation with 30 ps pulses of 20 MeV electrons

  14. Sol, Tierra y Luna. Movimientos relativos y sus consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Cardenete García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se pregunta a los estudiantes por la causa de las estaciones suelen responder: "en verano estamos más próximos al Sol y en invierno estamos más lejos del Sol". La persistencia de esta idea y el hecho de su generalización entre los estudiantes y muchos adultos me ha inducido a escribir este artículo, en el cual se trata de explicar, de una forma clara y simple, el motivo de este y otros fenómenos debidos al movimiento de la Luna alrededor de la Tierra y de ésta alrededor del Sol.

  15. Ceramic protective coatings applied by sol-gel or electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sol-gel and electrophoresis are the complementary techniques which may be used for obtaining the ceramic coatings. The composition of such a coatings depends on the composition of electrophoresis bath or sol solution. Thermal treatment is used for densifying the coating and promoting the adherence of coating to the substrate. In presented work silica, silica-alumina or alumina coatings are applied by sol-gel dip coating procedure on steel, aluminium or ceramic substrates. Electrophoresis is employed for obtaining zirconia, alumina or hydroxyapatite coatings on stainless steel. (author). 7 refs

  16. Sol-gel preparation of uranium oxide spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, J.; Urbanek, V.

    1978-01-01

    Information is presented on problems of preparing nuclear fuel by the sol-gel method. Basic data on different process types are given. A more detailed description of the method of preparation of spherical particles of uranium oxide gel developed and used at the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez is given. Advantages and disadvantages of sol-gel materials are discussed in comparison with fuel materials prepared by classical precipitation methods. The feasibility of the sol-gel methods for preparing other materials is shortly mentioned and their application outlined. (author)

  17. Spatially resolved speckle-correlometry of sol-gel transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, A. A.; Isaeva, E. A.; Pantyukov, A. V.; Zimnyakov, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Sol-gel transition was studied using the speckle correlometry method with a localized light source and spatial filtering of backscattered radiation. Water solutions of technical or food gelatin with added TiO2 nanoparticles were used as studied objects. Structural transformation of "sol-gel" system was studied at various temperatures from 25°C to 50°C using analysis of the correlation and structure functions of speckle intensity fluctuations. The characteristic temperatures of "sol - gel" transition were evaluated for studied systems. Obtained results can be used for various applications in biomedicine and food industry.

  18. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness.

  19. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  20. Gastrocnemius Myoelectric Control of a Robotic Hip Exoskeleton Can Reduce the User's Lower-Limb Muscle Activities at Push Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Lorenzo; Crea, Simona; Parri, Andrea; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Micera, Silvestro; Vitiello, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG) strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human–robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted) and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted). A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque), and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons. PMID:29491830

  1. Gastrocnemius Myoelectric Control of a Robotic Hip Exoskeleton Can Reduce the User's Lower-Limb Muscle Activities at Push Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Lorenzo; Crea, Simona; Parri, Andrea; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Micera, Silvestro; Vitiello, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG) strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human-robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted) and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted). A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque), and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons.

  2. Gastrocnemius Myoelectric Control of a Robotic Hip Exoskeleton Can Reduce the User's Lower-Limb Muscle Activities at Push Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Grazi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human–robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted. A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque, and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons.

  3. Effect of sol concentration on the properties of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, M.; Mridha, S.; Basak, D.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO thin films are deposited on the glass substrates by sol-gel drain coating technique by varying the concentration of the sol. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were used to investigate the effect of sol concentration on the crystallinity and surface morphology of the films. The results show that with increase in sol concentration, the value of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (0 0 2) peak decreases while the strain first increases and then decreases. The sol with higher concentration results in the increase in the grain size. The studies on the optical properties show that the band gap value increases from 3.27 to 3.3 eV when the sol concentration changes from 0.03 to 0.1 M. The photoconductivity studies reveal that the film for 0.05 M sol shows the maximum photoresponse for ultraviolet (UV) wavelength (<400 nm) which is co-related with the deep-level defects. The growth and decay of the photocurrent is found to be slowest for the same film

  4. Effect of Chelating Agents on the Stability of Nano-TiO2 Sol Particles for Sol-Gel Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Wan Young; Yoo, Mi

    2015-11-01

    Agglomeration of sol particles in a titanium alkoxide (tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT), > 97%) solution during the hydrolysis and condensation steps makes the sol solution difficult to use for synthesizing homogeneous sol-gel coating. Here, we have investigated the effect of stabilizing agents (acetic acid and ethyl acetoacetate (EAcAc)) on the agglomeration of Ti alkoxide particles during hydrolysis and condensation in order to determine the optimized conditions for controlling the precipitation of TiO2 particles. The study was conducted at R(AC) ([acetic acid]/[TBOT]) = 0.1-5 and R(EAcAc)([EAcAc]/[TBOT]) = 0.05-0.65. We also studied the effects of a basic catalyst ethanolamine (ETA), water, and HCl on sol stability. The chelating ligands in the precursor sol were analyzed with FT-IR. The coating properties were examined by focused ion beam. The stabilizing agents (acetic acid and EAcAc) significantly influenced the agglomeration and precipitation of TBOT precursor particles during hydrolysis. As R(AC) and R(EAcAc) increased, the agglomeration remarkably decreased. The stability of the sol with acetic acid and EAcAc arises from the coordination of the chelating ligand to TBOT that hinders hydrolysis and condensation. A uniform fine coating (thickness: 30 nm) on stainless steel was obtained by using an optimized sol with R(AC) = 0.5 and R(EAcAc) = 0.65.

  5. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mohamadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and medial preoptic area (MPOA via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we hypothesized damage to the nuclei of this circuit can cause reproductive dysfunctions. Therefore in this project we assessed diabetic effect on these nuclei. For this purpose neuron tracing technique and TUNEL assay were used. We injected HRP in the MPOA and counted labeled cells in the Me and BNST to evaluate the reduction of neurons in diabetic animals. Also, coronal sections were analyzed with the TMB histochemistry method. Animals in this study were adult male Wistar rats (230 ± 8g divided to control and 10-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups. After data analysis by SPSS 16 software, a significant reduction of HRP-labeled neurons was shown in both Me and BNST nuclei in the diabetic group. Moreover, apoptotic cells were significantly observed in diabetic animals in contrast to control the group. In conclusion, these alterations of the circuit as a result of diabetes might be one of the reasons for reproductive dysfunctions.

  6. The medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floris, S; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Dalstra, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed. On morph......Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed...

  7. Sol-gel optical coatings for lasers: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floch, H.G.; Belleville, P.F.; Priotton, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Many manufacturers and users claim that optical coatings are best prepared by physical vapor deposition technology. Others believe that sol-gel technology is an effective and competitive alternative. This article, the first of three, emphasizes sol-gel thin-film history and relates it to high-power laser technology, chemistry of the sol-gel process, production of optical coatings and deposition techniques. The second and third articles describe the preparation and performance of antireflective and highly reflective sol-gel optical coatings, respectively, that have been developed for the 1.8-MJ/500-TW (351-nm) pulsed neodymium-glass laser. This powerful laser is to be used in France's Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. It will demonstrate, at the laboratory scale, ignition of deuterium-tritium fusion fuel

  8. Safe and Environmentally Acceptable Sol-Gel-Derived Pyrophoric Pyrotechnics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Randall L; Hubble, William; Stevenson, Bradley; Gash, Alexander; Satcher, Joe; Metcalf, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    ...% H2 in Ar, N2, CO2, or CO) at intermediate temperatures (350 C to 700 C). All of the resulting sol-gel-derived metallic iron powders were ignitable by thermal methods, however none were pyrophoric...

  9. Safe and Environmentally Acceptable Sol-Gel-Derived Pyrophoric Pyrotechnics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Randall L; Hubble, William; Stevenson, Bradley; Gash, Alexander; Satcher, Joe; Metcalf, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    It was demonstrated that highly porous sol-gel derived iron (III) oxide materials could be reduced to sub-micron-sized metallic iron by heating the materials to intermediate temperatures in a hydrogen atmosphere...

  10. Production of continuous mullite fiber via sol-gel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Sparks, J. Scott; Esker, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a continuous ceramic fiber which could be used in rocket engine and rocket boosters applications was investigated at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Methods of ceramic fiber production such as melt spinning, chemical vapor deposition, and precursor polymeric fiber decomposition are discussed and compared with sol-gel processing. The production of ceramics via the sol-gel method consists of two steps, hydrolysis and polycondensation, to form the preceramic, followed by consolidation into the glass or ceramic structure. The advantages of the sol-gel method include better homogeneity and purity, lower preparation temperature, and the ability to form unique compositions. The disadvantages are the high cost of raw materials, large shrinkage during drying and firing which can lead to cracks, and long processing times. Preparation procedures for aluminosilicate sol-gel and for continuous mullite fibers are described.

  11. Sol-Gel Derived, Nanostructured Oxide Lubricant Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    In this program, we deposited oxide coatings of titanium and nickel by wet-chemical deposition methods, also referred to as sol-gel, which showed excellent tribological properties in previous investigations...

  12. Sol-gel materials for optofluidics - process and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm

    2011-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis is concerned with the use of sol-gel materials in optofluidic applications and the physics of DNA molecules in nanoconfinement. The bottom-up formation of solid material, which is provided by the sol-gel process, enables control of the chemical composition and porosity...... of the material. At early stages of gelation, thin gel coatings can be structured by nanoimprint lithography, and purely inorganic silica materials can be obtained by subsequent thermal annealing. The sol-gel process thus constitutes a unique method for nanofabrication of silica materials of special properties....... In this work, sol-gel silica is introduced as a new material class for the fabrication of lab-on-a-chip devices for DNA analysis. An imprint process with a rigid, non-permeable stamp was developed, which enabled fabrication of micro- and nanofluidic silica channels in a single process step without use of any...

  13. Preparing microspheres of actinide nitrides from carbon containing oxide sols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggiani, L.V.

    1975-01-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium nitride, uranium oxynitride, and uranium carboxynitride microspheres and the microspheres as compositions of matter. The microspheres are prepared from carbide sols by reduction and nitriding steps. (Official Gazette)

  14. La microflore des sols du vignoble de Touraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Cuinier

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available L'étude microbiologique des sols du vignoble porte sur trois années. Les déterminations quantitatives des bactéries, champignons, actinomycètes et des groupes fonctionnels des cycles de l'azote, du carbone et du soufre sont effectuées au cours de trois périodes du cycle végétatif de la vigne. Des variations saisonnières et annuelles sont observées. La microflore des sols viticoles est comparée à celle d'autres sols. Elle est au moins aussi riche et se distingue par son caractère plus aérobie. De grands écarts dans la composition microbiologique sont apparus entre des sols viticoles différant par leurs caractéristiques physiques et chimiques.

  15. Differential roles for medial prefrontal and medial temporal cortices in schema-dependent encoding: From congruent to incongruent

    OpenAIRE

    Kesteren, M.T.R. van; Beul, S.F.; Takashima, A.; Henson, R.N.; Ruiter, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Information that is congruent with prior knowledge is generally remembered better than incongruent information. This effect of congruency on memory has been attributed to a facilitatory influence of activated schemas on memory encoding and consolidation processes, and hypothesised to reflect a shift between processing in medial temporal lobes (MTL) towards processing in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To investigate this shift, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare ...

  16. Sol-gel process for thermal reactor fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerjee, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Sol-gel processes have revolutionized conventional ceramic technology by providing extremely fine and uniform powders for the fabrication of ceramics. The use of this technology for nuclear fuel fabrication has also been explored in many countries. Unlike the conventional sol-gel process, sol-gel process for nuclear fuels tries to eliminate the preparation of powders in view of the toxic nature of the powders particularly those of plutonium and 233 U. The elimination of powder handling thus makes this process more readily amenable for use in glove boxes or for remote handling. In this process, the first step is the preparation of microspheres of the fuel material from a solution which is then followed by vibro-compaction of these microspheres of different sizes to obtain the required smear density of fuel inside a pin. The maximum achievable packing density of 92 % makes it suitable for fast reactors only. With a view to extend the applicability of sol-gel process for thermal reactor fuel fabrication the concept of converting the gel microspheres derived from sol-gel process, to the pellets, has been under investigation for several years. The unique feature of this process is that it combines the advantages of sol-gel process for the preparation of fuel oxide gel microspheres of reproducible quality with proven irradiation behavior of the pellet fuel. One of the important pre-requisite for the success of this process is the preparation of soft oxide gel microspheres suitable for conversion to dense pellets free from berry structure. Studies on the internal gelation process, one of the many variants of sol-gel process, for obtaining soft oxide gel microspheres suitable for gel pelletisation is now under investigation at BARC. Some of the recent findings related to Sol-Gel Microsphere Pelletisation (SGMP) in urania-plutonia and thoria-urania systems will be presented

  17. SOL: A Library for Scalable Online Learning Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yue; Hoi, Steven C. H.; Liu, Chenghao; Lu, Jing; Sahoo, Doyen; Yu, Nenghai

    2016-01-01

    SOL is an open-source library for scalable online learning algorithms, and is particularly suitable for learning with high-dimensional data. The library provides a family of regular and sparse online learning algorithms for large-scale binary and multi-class classification tasks with high efficiency, scalability, portability, and extensibility. SOL was implemented in C++, and provided with a collection of easy-to-use command-line tools, python wrappers and library calls for users and develope...

  18. Proyecto integral Marina del Sol S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Palacios Barra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available El megaproyecto Marina del Sol del Gran Concepción, se emplaza en el sector del canal Ifarle a espaldas del Aeropuerto Carriel Sur en la comuna de Talcahuano. Recientemente entró a funcionar el Casino Marina del Sol, el que está inscrito en el marco de los 15 proyectos autorizados en el 2006 por la Superintendencia de Juego que buscan promover el desarrollo de este sector a nivel del país.

  19. Optical Studies on Sol-Gel Derived Lead Chloride Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Nithyaja, B; Nampoori, P.N V; Radhakrishnan, P

    2013-01-01

    Optical characterization of lead chloride crystals prepared by sol-gel method is reported. The relevant sol-gel technique is used for the preparation of PbCl2 samples with five different types. In this paper, we report the absorption and fluorescence behaviour of pure, UV& IR irradiated and electric & magnetic field applied lead chloride crystal samples in solution phase at two different concentrations. Optical bandgap and emission studies of these crystals are also done.

  20. [SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF "RIPPLE SIGN" OF MEDIAL FEMORAL CONDYLE UNDER ARTHROSCOPE IN MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL MENISCAL TEARS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren Shiyou; Sun, Limang; Chen, Guofei; Jiang, Changqing; Zhang, Xintao; Zhang Wentao

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of the "ripple sign" on the upper surface of the medial femoral condyle in the diagnosis of medial longitudinal meniscal tears under arthroscope. Between June 2013 and June 2014, 56 patients with knee injuries were included. There were 35 males and 21 females with an average age of 22.2 years (range, 12-38 years). The causes of injury were sports in 40 cases, falling in 10 cases, and traffic accident in 6 cases. The injury was located at the left knee in 22 cases and at the right knee in 34 cases. The disease duration was 10-40 days (mean, 20.2 days). Of 56 patients, 15 cases had simple medial meniscal injury; 41 cases had combined injuries, including anterior cruciate ligament injury in 38 cases, posterior cruciate ligament injury in 2 cases, and patellar dislocation in 1 case. The "ripple sign" was observed under arthroscope before operation. Repair of medial meniscal injury and reconstruction of cruciate ligament were performed. The positive "ripple sign" was seen under arthroscope in all patients, who were diagnosed to have longitudinal meniscal tears, including 23 cases of mild "ripple sign" , 28 cases of moderate "ripple sign", and 5 cases of severe "ripple sign". The "ripple sign" on the upper surface of the medial femoral condyle is a reliable diagnostic evidence of medial longitudinal meniscal tears.

  1. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Sol-gel-based biosensing applied to medicinal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Felismina T C; Moreira-Tavares, Ana P; Sales, M Goreti F

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors have opened new horizons in biomedical analysis, by ensuring increased assay speed and flexibility, and allowing point-of-care applications, multi-target analyses, automation and reduced costs of testing. This has been a result of many studies merging nanotechnology with biochemistry over the years, thereby enabling the creation of more suitable environments to biological receptors and their substitution by synthetic analogue materials. Sol-gel chemistry, among other materials, is deeply involved in this process. Sol-gel processing allows the immobilization of organic molecules, biomacromolecules and cells maintaining their properties and activities, permitting their integration into different transduction devices, of electrochemical or optical nature, for single or multiple analyses. Sol-gel also allows to the production of synthetic materials mimicking the activity of natural receptors, while bringing advantages, mostly in terms of cost and stability. Moreover, the biocompatibility of sol-gel materials structures of biological nature allowed the use of these materials in emerging in vivo applications. In this chapter, biosensors for biomedical applications based on sol-gel derived composites are presented, compared and described, along with current emerging applications in vivo, concerning drug delivery or biomaterials. Sol-gel materials are shown as a promising tool for current, emerging and future medical applications.

  3. New insights into uranium (VI) sol-gel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R.; King, R.B.; Garber, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) investigations on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO 2 ), has been extremely useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. 13 C, 15 N, and 1 H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C 6 H 12 N 4 ) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. 17 O NMR of uranyl (UO 2 ++ ) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, [(UO 2 ) 3 (μ 3 -O)(μ 2 -OH) 3 ] + , induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results will be presented to illustrate that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH + is occluded as an ''intercalation'' cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH 4 ) 2 [(UO 2 ) 8 O 4 (OH) 10 ] · 8H 2 O. This compound is the precursor to sintered UO 2 ceramic fuel. 23 refs., 10 figs

  4. Turbulent transport regimes and the SOL heat flux width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks, and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. Simulation and theory results using reduced edge/SOL turbulence models have produced SOL widths and scalings in reasonable accord with experiments in many cases. In this work, we attempt to qualitatively and conceptually understand various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport in establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. Recent SOLT turbulence code results are employed to understand the roles of these considerations and to develop analytical scalings. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with older results reviewed in. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the heuristic drift mechanism is considered, together with implications for future experiments. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  5. SAXS study of silica sols, gels and glasses obtained by the sol gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.I. dos; Aegerter, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Systematic SAXS studies have been performed at the LURE Synchrotron, Orsay, using an intense beam of point like cross-section to obtain information about the sol -> humid gel -> dried gel -> silica glass transformation. The intensity curves have been analysed in term of power law in log-log plots, whose exponent is related to mass and surface fractal dimensions of the structure. It was found that almost all phases present fractal structures and for the case of basic gels, is of hierarchical nature. The aerogels are formed by a dense matrix, with a smooth surface and exhibit a very narrow auto-similarity range that gives a mass fractal dimension. (author) [pt

  6. Texto e imagen en España de sol a sol de Alfonso Armada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Champeau, Geneviève

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available España de sol a sol (2001 by Alfonso Armada gives an example of the development of the «travel narrative» genre in Spain today. Faced with the «end of travel» (Marc Augé, he proposes a renovation of the perception of the familiar by travelling across Spain and Portugal and by substituting «endotic» (Georges Pérec for exotic.The poetics in the narrative differs greatly from that by travelling writers of «social realism», in the Spain of the sixties. Interpretation replaces information, the poetic image prevails over the referential function of language, and polysemy, omnipresent intertexuality and metatextuality play an important part. The change also affects the links between text and image, which are now more complementary than redundant. Playing with stereotypes, the photography actively contributes to establishing argumentative strategies meant to make the reader-viewer adhere to the message, all while affirming itself as an autonomous aesthetic experience.España de sol a sol (2001 de Alfonso Armada proporciona una muestra de la evolución del género del «libro de viajes» en la España contemporánea. Ante la imposibilidad del viaje (Marc Augé, propone renovar la percepción de lo familiar recorriendo el espacio nacional y sustituyendo el «endotismo» (Georges Pérec al exotismo. La poética del viaje que propone el relato difiere profundamente de la de los escritores viajeros del «realismo social», en la España de los años sesenta, anteponiendo la interpretación a la información, la imagen poética a la función referencial del lenguaje, cultivando la polisemia, una intertextualidad masiva y una reflexión metatextual. Distintos son también los vínculos que se establecen entre texto e imagen, de complementariedad más que de redundancia. La fotografía participa activamente, por la reelaboración de tópicos, del dispositivo argumentativo destinado a favorecer la adhesión del lector-espectador al mensaje y se afirma

  7. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  8. Electrophoretic Porosimetry of Sol-Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, L. A.; Smith, D. D.; Sibille, L.; Hunt, A. J.; Ng, J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that gravity has an effect on the formation and resulting microstructure of sol-gels. In order to more clearly resolve the effect of gravity, pores may be non-destructively analyzed in the wet gel, circumventing the shrinkage and coarsening associated with the drying procedure. We discuss the development of an electrophoretic technique, analogous to affinity chromatography, for the determination of pore size distribution and its application to silica gels. Specifically a monodisperse charged dye is monitored by an optical densitometer as it moves through the wet gel under the influence of an electric field. The transmittance data (output) represents the convolution of the dye concentration profile at the beginning of the run (input) with the pore size distribution (transfer function), i.e. linear systems theory applies. Because of the practical difficulty in producing a delta function input dye profile we prefer instead to use a step function. Average pore size is then related to the velocity of this dye front, while the pore size distribution is related to the spreading of the front. Preliminary results of this electrophoretic porosimetry and its application to ground and space-grown samples will be discussed.

  9. TCDD alters medial epithelial cell differentiation during palatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widely distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that is teratogenic in mice, where it induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate. The incidence of clefting has been shown to be dose dependent after exposure on either gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12, although the embryo is more susceptible on GD 12. TCDD-exposed palatal shelves meet but do not fuse, and programmed cell death of the medial epithelial cells is inhibited. The mechanism of action through which TCDD alters the program of medial cell development has not been examined in earlier studies, and it is not known whether the mechanism is the same regardless of the dose or developmental stage of exposure. In this study, C57BL/6N mice, a strain sensitive to TCDD, were dosed orally on GD 10 or 12 with 0, 6, 12, 24, or 30 micrograms/kg body wt, in 10 ml corn oil/kg. Embryonic palatal shelves were examined on GD 14, 15, or 16. The degree of palatal closure, epithelial surface morphology, and cellular ultrastructure, the incorporation of [3H]TdR, the expression of EGF receptors, and the binding of 125I-EGF were assessed. After exposure on GD 10 or 12, TCDD altered the differentiation pathway of the medial epithelial cells. The palatal shelves were of normal size and overall morphology, but fusion of the medial epithelia of the opposing shelves did not occur. TCDD prevented programmed cell death of the medial peridermal cells. The expression of EGF receptors by medial cells continued through Day 16 and the receptors were able to bind ligand. The medial cells differentiated into a stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelium. The shift in phenotype to an oral-like epithelium occurred after exposure on either GD 10 or 12. At the lower dose (6 micrograms/kg), fewer cleft palates were produced, but those shelves which did respond had a fully expressed shift in differentiation

  10. Polymeric-silica-based sols for membrane modification applications: sol-gel synthesis and characterization with SAXS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Rob; de Lange, R.S.A.; Hekkink, J.H.A.; Hekkink, J.H.A.; Keizer, Klaas; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Polymeric SiO2 and binary SiO2/TiO2, SiO2/ZrO2 and SiO2/Al2O3 sols, for ceramic membrane modification applications, have been prepared by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of alkoxides in alcohol. The sols were characterized with small angle X-ray scattering, using synchrotron radiation.

  11. Voluntary wheel running increases satellite cell abundance and improves recovery from disuse in gastrocnemius muscles from mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew J; Hajira, Ameena; Mohamed, Junaith S; Alway, Stephen E

    2018-02-22

    Reloading of atrophied muscles after hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) can induce injury and prolong recovery. Low-impact exercise, such as voluntary wheel running, has been identified as a non-damaging rehabilitation therapy in rodents, but its effects on muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell activity after HSU are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that low impact wheel running would increase satellite cell proliferation and improve recovery of muscle structure and function after HSU in mice. Young adult male and female C57BL/6 mice (n=6/group) were randomly placed into 5 groups. These included HSU without recovery (HSU), normal ambulatory recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+NoWR), and voluntary wheel running recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+WR). Two control groups were used: non-suspended mice-cage controls (Control) and voluntary wheel running controls (ControlWR). Satellite cell activation, was evaluated by providing mice 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in their drinking water. As expected, HSU significantly reduced in vivo maximal force and decreased the in vivo fatigability and decreased type I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MHC) abundance in plantarflexor muscles. HSU+WR mice significantly improved plantarflexor fatigue resistance, increased type type I and IIa MHC abundance, increased fiber cross sectional area (CSA), and an increased the percentage of type I and IIA muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle. HSU+WR mice also had a significantly greater percentage of BrdU-positive and Pax 7 positive nuclei inside muscle fibers and a greater MyoD to Pax 7 protein ratio when compared to HSU+NoWR mice. The mechanotransduction protein Yes-associated protein (YAP) was elevated with reloading after HSU, but HSU+WR had lower levels of the inactive phosphorylated YAP serine127 which may have contributed to increased satellite cell activation creased with reloading after HSU. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running increased YAP

  12. Epidemiology of lateral and medial epicondylitis in a military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Mountcastle, Sally; Burks, Robert; Sturdivant, Rodney X; Owens, Brett D

    2010-05-01

    To determine the epidemiology of lateral and medial epicondylitis in the U.S. military. The Defense Medical Epidemiology Database was queried for ICD-9 codes 726.32 (lateral epicondylitis) and 726.33 (medial epicondylitis) for the years 1998-2006. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (RR) among demographic groups. The IRs for lateral and medial epicondylitis were 2.98 and 0.81 per 1000 person-years. For lateral epicondylitis, women had a higher incidence (RR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.19-1.26). In both groups, analysis by age showed higher incidence in the > or = 40-year-old group. White compared with black race was a risk factor for both lateral (RR = 1.68, 95% CI, 1.63-1.74) and medial epicondylitis (RR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.17). Female gender was a risk factor for lateral but not medial epicondylitis. Age greater than 40 and white race were significant risk factors for both conditions.

  13. [Mirror movement due to the medial frontal lobe lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N; Kawamura, M; Hirayama, K

    1995-01-01

    We reported a case with acquired mirror movement in upper limbs due to the lesion of right medial frontal lobe including supplementary motor area, and also discussed a possible mechanism underlying it. A 59-year-old right-handed woman developed left hemiparesis caused by cerebral hemorrhage in the right frontoparietal lobe, on April 5, 1981. She had right hemiparesis and right hemianopsia due to cerebral hemorrhage in the left parieto-occipital lobe, 13 days later. As the patient was recovering from paresis, mirror movement appeared on upper limbs. The features of the mirror movement of this case are summarized as follows: (1) it appeared when using both proximal and distal region of upper limbs; (2) it appeared on left upper limb when the patient intended to move right upper limb or on right upper limb when intended to move left upper limb, while it appeared predominantly in the former; and (3) it was more remarkably found in habitual movement using gesture and pantomimic movement for the use of objects, and it was found in lower degree when actual object was used or when the patient tried to imitate the gesture of the examiner. The lesions in MRI were found in medial region of right frontal lobe (supplementary motor area, medial region of motor area, and cingulate gyrus), right medial parietal lobe, posterior region of right occipital lobe, and medial regions of left parietal and occipital lobes. There was no apparent abnormality in corpus callosum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Morphometry of medial gaps of human brain artery branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Peter B; Finlay, Helen M

    2004-05-01

    The bifurcation regions of the major human cerebral arteries are vulnerable to the formation of saccular aneurysms. A consistent feature of these bifurcations is a discontinuity of the tunica media at the apex of the flow divider. The objective was to measure the 3-dimensional geometry of these medial gaps or "medial defects." Nineteen bifurcations and 2 junctions of human cerebral arteries branches (from 4 male and 2 female subjects) were formalin-fixed at physiological pressure and processed for longitudinal serial sectioning. The apex and adjacent regions were examined and measurements were made from high-magnification photomicrographs, or projection microscope images, of the gap dimensions at multiple levels through the bifurcation. Plots were made of the width of the media as a function of distance from the apex. The media at each edge of the medial gap widened over a short distance, reaching the full width of the media of the contiguous daughter vessel. Medial gap dimensions were compared with the planar angle of the bifurcation, and a strong negative correlation was found, ie, the acute angled branches have the more prominent medial gaps. A discontinuity of the media at the apex was seen in all the bifurcations examined and was also found in the junction regions of brain arteries. We determined that the gap width is continuous with well-defined dimensions throughout its length and average length-to-width ratio of 6.9. The gaps were generally centered on the prominence of the apical ridge.

  15. Bilateral Vocal Fold Medialization: A Treatment for Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Karuna; Berke, Gerald S

    2017-11-10

    Abductor spasmodic dysphonia, a difficult-to-treat laryngologic condition, is characterized by spasms causing the vocal folds to remain abducted despite efforts to adduct them during phonation. Traditional treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-botulinum toxin injection into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle-can be both technically challenging and uncomfortable. Due to the difficulty of needle placement, it is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this investigation is to present a previously undescribed treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-bilateral vocal fold medialization. A retrospective case review of all cases of abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated in a tertiary care laryngology practice with bilateral vocal fold medialization over a 10-year period was performed. The Voice Handicap Index and the Voice-Related Quality of Life surveys were utilized to assess patient satisfaction with voice outcome. Six patients with abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated with bilateral vocal fold medialization were identified. Disease severity ranged from mild to severe. All six patients reported statistically significant improvement in nearly all Voice Handicap Index and Voice-Related Quality of Life parameters. They reported fewer voice breaks and greater ease of communication. Results were noted immediately and symptoms continue to be well controlled for many years following medialization. Bilateral vocal fold medialization is a safe and effective treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia. It is performed under local anesthesia and provides phonation improvement in the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrastructure of medial rectus muscles in patients with intermittent exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J; Wang, X; Ren, H; Liu, G; Lu, P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To study the ultrastructure of the medial rectus in patients with intermittent exotropia at different ages.PATIENTS AND METHODS The medial recti were harvested surgically from 20 patients with intermittent exotropia. Patients were divided into adolescent (age18 years, n=10). The normal control group included five patients without strabismus and undergoing eye enucleation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize the medial recti. Western blot was used to determine the levels of myosin and actin.RESULTS Varying fiber thickness, atrophy, and misalignment of the medial recti were visualized under optical microscope in patients with exotropia. Electron microscopy revealed sarcomere destruction, myofilament disintegration, unclear dark and light bands, collagen proliferation, and fibrosis. The adolescent group manifested significantly higher levels of myosin and actin than the adult group (Pstronger contraction of the medial recti compared with older patients. Our findings suggest that childhood was the appropriate time for surgery as the benefit of the intervention was better than in adulthood.

  17. An in vitro analysis of medial structures and a medial soft tissue reconstruction in a constrained condylar total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athwal, Kiron K; El Daou, Hadi; Inderhaug, Eivind; Manning, William; Davies, Andrew J; Deehan, David J; Amis, Andrew A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the medial soft tissue contributions to stability following constrained condylar (CC) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and determine whether a medial reconstruction could restore stability to a soft tissue-deficient, CC-TKA knee. Eight cadaveric knees were mounted in a robotic system and tested at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion with ±50 N anterior-posterior force, ±8 Nm varus-valgus, and ±5 Nm internal-external torque. The deep and superficial medial collateral ligaments (dMCL, sMCL) and posteromedial capsule (PMC) were transected and their relative contributions to stabilising the applied loads were quantified. After complete medial soft tissue transection, a reconstruction using a semitendinosus tendon graft was performed, and the effect on kinematic behaviour under equivocal conditions was measured. In the CC-TKA knee, the sMCL was the major medial restraint in anterior drawer, internal-external, and valgus rotation. No significant differences were found between the rotational laxities of the reconstructed knee to the pre-deficient state for the arc of motion examined. The relative contribution of the reconstruction was higher in valgus rotation at 60° than the sMCL; otherwise, the contribution of the reconstruction was similar to that of the sMCL. There is contention whether a CC-TKA can function with medial deficiency or more constraint is required. This work has shown that a CC-TKA may not provide enough stability with an absent sMCL. However, in such cases, combining the CC-TKA with a medial soft tissue reconstruction may be considered as an alternative to a hinged implant.

  18. Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, L; Sun, X L; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2014-12-01

    The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrimethoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6-10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01-3.77 d), while esters of 6-12 carbons had the shortest (1.53-2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≍17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≍24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. Sol-gel encapsulation for controlled drug release and biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jonathan

    The main focus of this dissertation is to investigate the use of sol-gel encapsulation of biomolecules for controlled drug release and biosensing. Controlled drug release has advantages over conventional therapies in that it maintains a constant, therapeutic drug level in the body for prolonged periods of time. The anti-hypertensive drug Captopril was encapsulated in sol-gel materials of various forms, such as silica xerogels and nanoparticles. The primary objective was to show that sol-gel silica materials are promising drug carriers for controlled release by releasing Captopril at a release rate that is within a therapeutic range. We were able to demonstrate desired release for over a week from Captopril-doped silica xerogels and overall release from Captopril-doped silica nanoparticles. As an aside, the antibiotic Vancomycin was also encapsulated in these porous silica nanoparticles and desired release was obtained for several days in-vitro. The second part of the dissertation focuses on immobilizing antibodies and proteins in sol-gel to detect various analytes, such as hormones and amino acids. Sol-gel competitive immunoassays on antibody-doped silica xerogels were used for hormone detection. Calibration for insulin and C-peptide in standard solutions was obtained in the nM range. In addition, NASA-Ames is also interested in developing a reagentless biosensor using bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (bPBPs) to detect specific biomarkers, such as amino acids and phosphate. These bPBPs were doubly labeled with two different fluorophores and encapsulated in silica xerogels. Ligand-binding experiments were performed on the bPBPs in solution and in sol-gel. Ligand-binding was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the two fluorophores on the bPBP. Titration data show that one bPBP has retained its ligand-binding properties in sol-gel.

  20. Pemodelan Desain Sol Sepatu dengan Inovasi Penambahan Wave Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redyarsa Dharma Bintara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Desain sepatu sport berkembang pesat dengan tujuan mengurangi cedera dan meningkatkankenyamanan pengguna. Pengurangan cedera dilakukan dengan cara memperbesar energi yangdiserap dari beban akibat pengguna berlari atau melompat. Pada penelitian ini dilakukanpenambahan wave spring yang digunakan sebagai mekanisme penyerap beban.Pemodelandilakukan pada sol sepatu dengan menggunakan bantuan software finite element method (FEMAnsys 14.5 Academic. Model awal dilakukan untuk mengetahui batas deformasi sol sepatu yangakan dimanfaatkan sebagai input model berikutnya yaitu model dengan diberikan inovasipenambahan wave spring. Analisa difokuskan pada sol sepatu bagian belakang (tumit kaki.Darihasil simulasi, didapatkan bahwa penyerapan energi sol sepatu dengan penambahan wave springlebih besar daripada penyerapan energi sol sepatu tanpa penambahan wave spring, sehinggapenambahan wave spring memungkinkan untuk diaplikasikan pada sol sepatu sport.Kata kunci: Penyerapan energi, wave spring, sol sepatu. Sport shoe design had been developed rapidly with the purpose to reduce injuries and increaseuser comfort. Reduction of injury is done by enlarging the energy absorbed from the user running orjumping load. In this study, the addition of the wave spring is used as the load absorbingmechanism. The shoes sole is modeled by using finite element method (FEM software Ansys 14.5Academic. Initial model was conducted to determine the deformation boundary in soles which willbe used as input to the next model for the wave spring addition innovation. Analysis focused onshoe sole on heel foot. From the simulation results, it was found that the energy absorption shoessoles with the addition of the wave spring is greater than the energy absorption soles without theaddition of wave spring. It can be concluded that the addition of a spring wave can be applied to thesoles of sports shoes.Keywords: Energy absorb, wave spring, shoe sole, deformation boundary

  1. Typing of MRI in medial meniscus degeneration in relation to radiological grade in medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Nobuhito; Koshino, Tomihisa; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Naotaka; Takagi, Toshitaka; Takeuchi, Ryohei [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-10-01

    The advancement of degeneration of 50 medial menisci in patients with medial compartmental osteoarthritic knees (OA) were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The average age of the patients was 66.6 years (range, 39 to 86). According to a radiographical grading system, 6 knees were classified as Grade 1, 24 as Grade 2, 16 as Grade 3, and 4 as Grade 4. The extent and the location of a high intensity region in MRI were observed in 3 parts of the meniscus, namely, the anterior, middle and posterior part. In Grade 1, no high intensity region was observed in 3 knees, and a high intensity region was observed only in the posterior part in 2 knees. A high intensity region was observed from the medial to the posterior part in 13 knees, and only in the posterior part in 10 knees of Grade 2; from the medial to the posterior part in 12 knees, and only in the posterior part in 3 knees of Grade 3, and from the anterior to the posterior part in 2 knees of Grade 4. The shape of the high intensity region in the medial meniscus was classified into 5 types, as follows: Type 1, there was no high intensity region; Type 2, the high intensity region was observed to be restricted within the meniscus; Type 3, the high intensity region resembled a horizontal tear; Type 4, the high intensity region was observed as all of the medial joint space without a marginal area; Type 5, the high intensity region was observed as all of the medial joint space. In Grade 1, 3 knees were classified as Type 1, and 2 knees as Type 2; in Grade 2, 7 knees as Type 2, and 13 knees as Type 3, and 4 knees into Type 4; in Grade 3, 6 knees as Type 3, and 7 knees as Type 4; and in Grade 4, 2 knees as Type 4, and 2 knees as Type 5. These findings might suggest that the degeneration of medial meniscus in the medial type of OA was accelerated by mechanical stress due to varus deformity. (author)

  2. Typing of MRI in medial meniscus degeneration in relation to radiological grade in medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Nobuhito; Koshino, Tomihisa; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Naotaka; Takagi, Toshitaka; Takeuchi, Ryohei

    1998-01-01

    The advancement of degeneration of 50 medial menisci in patients with medial compartmental osteoarthritic knees (OA) were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The average age of the patients was 66.6 years (range, 39 to 86). According to a radiographical grading system, 6 knees were classified as Grade 1, 24 as Grade 2, 16 as Grade 3, and 4 as Grade 4. The extent and the location of a high intensity region in MRI were observed in 3 parts of the meniscus, namely, the anterior, middle and posterior part. In Grade 1, no high intensity region was observed in 3 knees, and a high intensity region was observed only in the posterior part in 2 knees. A high intensity region was observed from the medial to the posterior part in 13 knees, and only in the posterior part in 10 knees of Grade 2; from the medial to the posterior part in 12 knees, and only in the posterior part in 3 knees of Grade 3, and from the anterior to the posterior part in 2 knees of Grade 4. The shape of the high intensity region in the medial meniscus was classified into 5 types, as follows: Type 1, there was no high intensity region; Type 2, the high intensity region was observed to be restricted within the meniscus; Type 3, the high intensity region resembled a horizontal tear; Type 4, the high intensity region was observed as all of the medial joint space without a marginal area; Type 5, the high intensity region was observed as all of the medial joint space. In Grade 1, 3 knees were classified as Type 1, and 2 knees as Type 2; in Grade 2, 7 knees as Type 2, and 13 knees as Type 3, and 4 knees into Type 4; in Grade 3, 6 knees as Type 3, and 7 knees as Type 4; and in Grade 4, 2 knees as Type 4, and 2 knees as Type 5. These findings might suggest that the degeneration of medial meniscus in the medial type of OA was accelerated by mechanical stress due to varus deformity. (author)

  3. Subquadratic medial-axis approximation in $\\mathbb{R}^3$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scheffer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an algorithm that approximates the medial axis of a smooth manifold in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ which is given by a sufficiently dense point sample. The resulting, non-discrete approximation is shown to converge to the medial axis as the sampling density approaches infinity. While all previous algorithms guaranteeing convergence have a running time quadratic in the size $n$ of the point sample, we achieve a running time of at most $\\mathcal{O}(n\\log^3 n$. While there is no subquadratic upper bound on the output complexity of previous algorithms for non-discrete medial axis approximation, the output of our algorithm is guaranteed to be of linear size.

  4. Efficiency of Medial Rectus Advancement Surgery in Consecutive Exotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Yar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of medial rectus advancement surgery in consecutive exotropia. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 20 cases, 10 male, 10 female, who were diagnosed as consecutive exotropia and underwent surgery between 2008-2013 at Cukurova University Medical Faculty Ophthalmology Department. Records of the patients were investigated retrospectively. We evaluated best corrected visual acuity, existence of ambliopia, postoperative duration following the first surgery and applied surgical procedures. Postoperative deviation lower than 10 PD were assesed as successful. Mean follow up period was 29,8 +/- 21,36 (8-80 months, patients with inadequate follow up period were dismissed from the study group. Results: We only applied bilateral medial rectus advancement surgery to 6 and unilateral medial rectus advancement surgery to 5 patients and obtained intended surgical result in these 11 cases. The other patients underwent lateral rectus recession or/and medial rectus resection operations inorder to reach projected deviation degrees. Deviation was found to be 46,4+/-9,24 (40-70 PD in cases who only underwent advancement surgery and was 65,56 +/- 18,78 (40-90 PD in cases who underwent additional surgical procedure. 16 (%80 of the cases had hypermetropi various dioptries and 7 (%35 had ambliopia. Discussion: Consecutive exotropia can appear years after surgery and is an important late period complication. In this study achievement of %55 success with medial rectus advancement surgery indicates that this is a preferable procedure. But in wide angle deviations additional lateral rectus recession or/and medial rectus resection operations can be applied inorder to reach intended adjustment. Accurrate prediction of the propotion of advancement surgery and adjustment is not always possible because of intensive fybrosis in operated muscles and enviroment tissue. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 707-713

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with medial epicondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Smet, Arthur A. De [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison (United States)

    2005-04-01

    To compare the MR imaging findings of 13 patients with clinically diagnosed medial epicondylitis with the MR imaging findings of 26 patients of similar age with no clinical evidence of medial epicondylitis. The study group consisted of 13 patients with clinically diagnosed medial epicondylitis. The control group consisted of 26 patients of similar age with no clinical evidence of medial epicondylitis. The medical records and MR imaging findings of these patients were retrospectively reviewed by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. Eleven of the 13 patients in the study group had thickening and increased signal intensity of the common flexor tendon on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The remaining two patients in the study group had soft tissue edema around a normal-appearing common flexor tendon. Twenty-one of the 26 patients in the control group had a normal-appearing common flexor tendon on MR imaging. Three patients in the control group had a thickened common flexor tendon which was of intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images but of uniform low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Two patients in the control group had a thickened common flexor tendon which was of intermediate signal intensity on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. None of the patients in the control group had soft tissue edema around the common flexor tendon. MR imaging findings of patients with clinically diagnosed medial epicondylitis included thickening and increased T1 and T2 signal intensity of the common flexor tendon and soft tissue edema around the common flexor tendon. The presence of intermediate to high T2 signal intensity or high T2 signal intensity within the common flexor tendon and the presence of paratendinous soft tissue edema were the most specific findings of medial epicondylitis on MR imaging. (orig.)

  6. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap.

  7. Communication between radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial nerve is usually a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It innervates triceps, anconeous, brachialis, brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus muscles and gives the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm, lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm; without exhibiting any communication with the medial cutaneous nerve of forearm or any other nerve. We report communication between the radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm on the left side in a 58-year-old male cadaver. The right sided structures were found to be normal. Neurosurgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of axilla and upper arm.

  8. Medial vs lateral unicompartmental knee arthrroplasty: clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Andrea; Condello, Vincenzo; Madonna, Vincenzo; Bonomo, M; Zorzi, Claudio

    2017-06-07

    Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA) is a common procedure for the management of isolated osteoarthritis. UKA is considered less invasive compared to total knee arthroplasty, associated with less operative time, blood loss and faster recovery. Isolated lateral osteoarthritis is a relatively uncommon clinical problem, with an incidence about ten times lower than the medial compartment. In fact, lateral UKA are about 5-10% of the total amount of the UKAs. In addition, it's historically considered more challenging and with poorer results. The aim of this paper was to compare current indications, modes of failure, survivorship and clinical results of medial and lateral UKA by a narrative review of the latest literature.

  9. Medial patellofemoral ligament: Research progress in anatomy and injury imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lei; Zhao Bin

    2013-01-01

    The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is considered as the most important soft tissue restraint providing medial stability of the patellofemoral joint. During patellar dislocation, the MPFL is subjected to severe stretching forces, resulting in injuries of the ligament in the most patients. With the development of medical imaging technology, a variety of non-invasive diagnostic imaging methods have been becoming important means in diagnosis of MPFL injury. In this paper, MPFL anatomy, the applications of medical imaging technology in diagnosis of MPFL injury and the distributions of MPFL injury site were reviewed. (authors)

  10. Structural Evolution and Stability of Sol-Gel Biocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.E.; Foster, L.J.R.; Holden, P.J.; Knott, R.B.; Bartlett, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Immobilisation strategies for catalytic enzymes are important as they allow reuse of the biocatalysts. Sol-gel materials have been used to immobilise Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB), a commonly used industrial enzyme with a known crystal structure. The sol-gel bioencapsulate is produced through the condensation of suitable metal alkoxides in the presence of CALB, yielding materials with controlled pore sizes, volume and surface chemistry. Sol-gel matrices have been shown to prolong the catalytic life and enhance the activity of CALB, although the molecular basis for this effect has yet to be elucidated due to the limitations of analysis techniques applied to date. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) allows such multicomponent systems to be characterised through contrast matching. In the sol-gel bioencapsulate system, at the contrast match point for silica, residual scattering intensity is due to the CALB and density fluctuations in the matrix. A SANS contrast variation series found the match point for the silica matrix, both with and without enzyme present, to be around 35 percent. The model presented here proposes a mechanism for the interaction between CALB and the surrounding sol-gel matrix, and the observed improvement in enzyme activity and matrix strength. The SANS protocol developed here may be applied more generally to bioencapsulates. (authors)

  11. Opportunity's View After Long Drive on Sol 1770 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 104 meters (341 feet) on the 1,770th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (January 15, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Prior to the Sol 1770 drive, Opportunity had driven less than a meter since Sol 1713 (November 17, 2008), while it used the tools on its robotic arm first to examine a meteorite called 'Santorini' during weeks of restricted communication while the sun was nearly in line between Mars and Earth, then to examine bedrock and soil targets near Santorini. The rover's position after the Sol 1770 drive was about 1.1 kilometer (two-thirds of a mile) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 13.72 kilometers (8.53 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 1.94 kilometers (1.21 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008).

  12. Opportunity's View After Long Drive on Sol 1770 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 104 meters (341 feet) on the 1,770th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (January 15, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Prior to the Sol 1770 drive, Opportunity had driven less than a meter since Sol 1713 (November 17, 2008), while it used the tools on its robotic arm first to examine a meteorite called 'Santorini' during weeks of restricted communication while the sun was nearly in line between Mars and Earth, then to examine bedrock and soil targets near Santorini. The rover's position after the Sol 1770 drive was about 1.1 kilometer (two-thirds of a mile) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 13.72 kilometers (8.53 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 1.94 kilometers (1.21 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008).

  13. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate.

  14. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate.

  15. Opportunity's View After Long Drive on Sol 1770

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 104 meters (341 feet) on the 1,770th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (January 15, 2009). Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Prior to the Sol 1770 drive, Opportunity had driven less than a meter since Sol 1713 (November 17, 2008), while it used the tools on its robotic arm first to examine a meteorite called 'Santorini' during weeks of restricted communication while the sun was nearly in line between Mars and Earth, then to examine bedrock and soil targets near Santorini. The rover's position after the Sol 1770 drive was about 1.1 kilometer (two-thirds of a mile) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 13.72 kilometers (8.53 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 1.94 kilometers (1.21 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008). This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11973 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11973 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Fast wave power flow along SOL field lines in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.; Maingi, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Sabbagh, S.

    2012-10-01

    On NSTX, a major loss of high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power can occur along open field lines passing in front of the antenna over the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL). Up to 60% of the RF power can be lost and at least partially deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling [1,2]. The flow of HHFW power from the antenna region to the divertor is mostly aligned along the SOL magnetic field [3], which explains the pattern of heat deposition as measured with infrared (IR) cameras. By tracing field lines from the divertor back to the midplane, the IR data can be used to estimate the profile of HHFW power coupled to SOL field lines. We hypothesize that surface waves are being excited in the SOL, and these results should benchmark advanced simulations of the RF power deposition in the SOL (e.g., [4]). Minimizing this loss is critical optimal high-power long-pulse ICRF heating on ITER while guarding against excessive divertor erosion.[4pt] [1] J.C. Hosea et al., AIP Conf Proceedings 1187 (2009) 105. [0pt] [2] G. Taylor et al., Phys. Plasmas 17 (2010) 056114. [0pt] [3] R.J. Perkins et al., to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett. [0pt] [4] D.L. Green et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 145001.

  18. Sol-gel applications for ceramic membrane preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, I.

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic membranes possessing superior properties compared to polymeric membranes are more durable under severe working conditions and therefore their service life is longer. The ceramic membranes are composed of some layers. The support is the layer composed of coarser ceramic structure and responsible for mechanical durability under filtration pressure and it is prepared by consolidation of ceramic powders. The top layer is composed of a finer ceramic micro-structure mainly responsible for the separation of components present in the fluid to be filtered and sol-gel method is a versatile tool to prepare such a tailor-made ceramic filtration structure with finer pores. Depending on the type of filtration (e.g. micro-filtration, ultra-filtration, nano-filtration) aiming separation of components with different sizes, sols with different particulate sizes should be prepared and consolidated with varying precursors and preparation conditions. The coating of sol on the support layer and heat treatment application to have a stable ceramic micro-structure are also important steps determining the final properties of the top layer. Sol-gel method with various controllable parameters (e.g. precursor type, sol formation kinetics, heat treatment conditions) is a practical tool for the preparation of top layers of ceramic composite membranes with desired physicochemical properties.

  19. TIME COURSE ALTERATIONS OF SATELLITE CELL EVENTS IN RESPONSE TO LIGHT MODERATE ENDURANCE TRAINING IN WHITE GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE OF THE RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Yan Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated satellite cells and their related molecular events adapted to light moderate endurance training in the white gastrocnemius muscle of the rat. The white gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague-Dawley rats that had been trained for 4 weeks and 8 weeks, with control rats being analysed alongside them, was selected for analysis (n=3 per group. The training protocol consisted of treadmill running at 20 m · min-1 for 30 min on a 0% grade, for 3 days · week-1. Immunohistochemical staining coupled with image analysis was used for quantification. To provide deeper insight into the cell layer, 40 sections per rat, corresponding to 120 values per group, were obtained as a mean value for statistical comparison. The results indicated that at week 4, training effects increased the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF content and c-met positive satellite cell numbers. At week 8, the training effect was attenuated for VEGF and c-met satellite cell numbers, but it increased in the muscle fibre area. Additionally, c-met positive satellite cell numbers correlated with VEGF content (r = 0.79, p<0.05. In conclusion, this study suggests that light moderate endurance training could stimulate satellite cell activation that might be related to VEGF signalling. Additionally, the satellite cells activated by moderate endurance training might contribute to slight growth in myocytes.

  20. Osteoconducting bioglass synthesis via sol-gel process; Biovidro osteocondutor sintetizado pelo processo sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R.V.; Aragones, A.; Barra, G.O.M.; Salmoria, G.V.; Fredel, M.C., E-mail: rafaelavpereira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The presence of bioglasses in scaffolds has been studied as they promote the osteoconduction in bones. The scaffolds are developed in order to induce the repair and regeneration in bone tissue. An absorbable bioglass from SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system was synthesized by sol-gel process with the intent of producing these scaffolds. Bioglass 58S was define for these work once it presents ions (Ca and P) which assist at the carbonated apatite layer formation when released. The apatite layer presents an important role at the bone regeneration and metabolism, being involved at grow and mineralization of bones. FTIR was realized to characterize the synthesized bioglass on its chemical composition, XRD to analyze the crystalline structure, solubility test to observe the weight variance and SEM to observe the particles morphology. The obtained results confirmed the production of a bioglass with the desired composition to produce osteoconducting scaffolds. (author)

  1. Recent progress towards a quantitative description of filamentary SOL transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carralero, D.; Siccinio, M.; Komm, M.

    2017-01-01

    A summary of recent results on filamentary transport, mostly obtained with the ASDEX-Upgrade tokamak (AUG), is presented and discussed in an attempt to produce a coherent picture of scrape-off layer (SOL) filamentary transport. A clear correlation is found between L-mode density shoulder formation...... in the outer midplane and a transition between the sheath-limited and the inertial filamentary regimes. Divertor collisionality is found to be the parameter triggering the transition. A clear reduction of the ion temperature takes place in the far SOL after the transition, both for the background......-mode plasmas, although a secondary threshold related to deuterium fueling is observed. EMC3-EIRENE simulations of neutral dynamics show that an ionization front near the main chamber wall is formed after the shoulder formation. Finally, a clear increase of SOL opacity to neutrals is observed, associated...

  2. Uranium Dioxide Powder Flow ability Improvement Using Sol-Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanda, D.; Sambodo Daru, G.

    1998-01-01

    The improvement of flow ability characteristics of uranium dioxide powder has been done using sol-gel process. To anticipate a pellet mass production with uniform pellet dimension, the uranium dioxide powder must be have a spherical form. Uranium dioxide spherical powder has been diluted in acid transformed into sol colloidal solution. To obtain uranium dioxide spherical form, the uranium sol-colloidal solution has been dropped in a hot paraffin ( at the temperature of 90 0 C) to form gelatinous colloid and then dried at 800 0 C, and sintered at the temperature of 1700 0 C. The flow ability of spherical uranium dioxide powder has been examined by using Flowmeter Hall (ASTM. B. 213-46T). The measurement result reveals that the spherical uranium dioxide powder has a flow ability twice than that of unprocessed uranium dioxide powder

  3. Effects of parameters of sol-gel process on the phase evolution of sol-gel-derived hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Chahkandi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    It has been established that hydroxyapatite powders can be produced using an alkoxide-based sol-gel technique. Nanocrystalline powders of hydroxyapatite (HA) were prepared from Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and PO(OC 2 H 5 ) 3 as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively, using a sol-gel route. For a number of samples, sol of phosphorus was first hydrolyzed for 24 h with distilled water. The sol temperature, aging time and heat treatment temperature on apatite formation were systematically studied. Increasing the aging time affected the reducing of CaO. Also, increasing the mixed sol solution temperature up to 80 deg. C had a positive effect on the disappearance of impurity phases. With the increase of the calcination temperature >600 deg. C, calcium phosphate impurity phases disappeared. Structural evolution during the synthesis of hydroxyapatite is investigated by using infrared (IR) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal behavior (DTA), and elemental analysis of electron microscopy examination (SEM). X-ray diffraction with the aid of Scherrer and Williamson-Hall equations has been used to characterize the distributions of crystallite size and micro-strain of HA powders .The results indicated that mean crystallite size increased and micro-strain decreased significantly with the rise in firing temperature

  4. Characterisation of a new alkoxide sol-gel hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.D.; Kannangara, G.S.K.; Milev, A.; Ben-Nissan, B.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings have been used to promote bone growth and fixation towards implant surfaces to encourage faster recovery times for the recipient. Current coating processing techniques, capable of producing thin HAp layers are pulsed-laser deposition and sputtering (high-temperature processing). Other technologies are in vitro methods, electrodeposition and sol-gel, due to the fact that these techniques utilise lower processing temperatures they avoid structural instabilities of HAp at elevated temperatures. The term sol-gel encompasses any process of producing ceramic materials (single and mixed oxides, as well as non-oxides e.g. nitrides) from solutions. The sol-gel process was first identified by Ebelman, and has been used to produce ceramic powders, coatings, and bulk materials including glasses. The implementation of a sol-gel methodology enables increased stoichiometry and homogeneity, while having the ability to coat complex shapes. Sol-gel hydroxyapatite reported by Chai et al. employed tri ethyl phosphite [ P(OEt) 3 ] as the staring phosphorus alkoxide precursor, whereby it was established that in order to obtain monophasic hydroxyapatite upon firing there must be a 24 hour ripening period. The ripening period was determined to be an equilibrium step whereby the equilibrium intermediate phase lied in favour of a diethyl phosphite arrangement (species) within the sol. Therefore, the work here under taken was to produce hydroxyapatite using diethyl phosphite [HOP(OEt) 2 ] as a starting alkoxide precursor with a final aim to reduce or eliminate the ageing period as observed by Chai et al in P(OEt) 3 solutions

  5. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Optical Sensors for Biomolecules Using Nanoporous Sol-Gel Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jonathan; Zhou, Jing C.; Lan, Esther H.; Dunn, Bruce; Gillman, Patricia L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    An important consideration for space missions to Mars is the ability to detect biosignatures. Solid-state sensing elements for optical detection of biological entities are possible using sol-gel based biologically active materials. We have used these materials as optical sensing elements in a variety of bioassays, including immunoassays and enzyme assays. By immobilizing an appropriate biomolecule in the sol-gel sensing element, we have successfully detected analytes such as amino acids and hormones. In the case of the amino acid glutamate, the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase was the immobilized molecule, whereas in the case of the hormone cortisol, an anti-cortisol antibody was immobilized in the sensing element. In this previous work with immobilized enzymes and antibodies, excellent sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated in a variety of formats including bulk materials, thin films and fibers. We believe that the sol-gel approach is an attractive platform for bioastronautics sensing applications because of the ability to detect a wide range of entities such as amino acids, fatty acids, hopanes, porphyrins, etc. The sol-gel approach produces an optically transparent 3D silica matrix that forms around the biomolecule of interest, thus stabilizing its structure and functionality while allowing for optical detection. This encapsulation process protects the biomolecule and leads to a more "rugged" sensor. The nanoporous structure of the sol-gel matrix allows diffusion of small target molecules but keeps larger, biomolecules immobilized in the pores. We are currently developing these biologically active sol-gel materials into small portable devices for on-orbit cortisol detection

  7. Transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy in recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Reda H; Abdel Fattah, Ahmed F; Awad, Ayman G

    2014-12-01

    Maxillary sinus inverted papilloma entails medial maxillectomy and is associated with high incidence of recurrence. To study the impact of prior surgery on recurrence rate after transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Eighteen patients with primary and 33 with recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma underwent transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Caldwell-Luc operation was the primary surgery in 12 patients, transnasal endoscopic resection in 20, and midfacial degloving technique in one. The follow-up period ranged between 2 to 19.5 years with an average of 8.8 years. Recurrence was detected in 8/51 maxillary sinus inverted papilloma patients (15.7 %), 1/18 of primary cases (5.5 %), 7/33 of recurrent cases (21.2 %); 3/20 of the transnasal endoscopic resection group (15%) and 4/12 of the Caldwell-Luc group (33.3%). Redo transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy was followed by a single recurrence in the Caldwell-Luc group (25%), and no recurrence in the other groups. Recurrence is more common in recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma than primary lesions. Recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma after Caldwell-Luc operation has higher incidence of recurrence than after transnasal endoscopic resection.

  8. Default network connectivity in medial temporal lobe amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2012-10-17

    There is substantial overlap between the brain regions supporting episodic memory and the default network. However, in humans, the impact of bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage on a large-scale neural network such as the default mode network is unknown. To examine this issue, resting fMRI was performed with amnesic patients and control participants. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed robust default network connectivity in amnesia in cortical default network regions such as medial prefrontal cortex, posterior medial cortex, and lateral parietal cortex, as well as evidence of connectivity to residual MTL tissue. Relative to control participants, decreased posterior cingulate cortex connectivity to MTL and increased connectivity to cortical default network regions including lateral parietal and medial prefrontal cortex were observed in amnesic patients. In contrast, somatomotor network connectivity was intact in amnesic patients, indicating that bilateral MTL lesions may selectively impact the default network. Changes in default network connectivity in amnesia were largely restricted to the MTL subsystem, providing preliminary support from MTL amnesic patients that the default network can be fractionated into functionally and structurally distinct components. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the default network in amnesia.

  9. Medial peritalar fracture dislocation of the talar body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob B. Stirton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Peritalar fracture dislocations typically involve the talar neck and are classified according to Hawkins. To our knowledge, peritalar fracture dislocation involving the talar body has not been formally reported. In this article, we describe a case of peritalar fracture dislocation of the talar body. Keywords: Peritalar dislocation, Talus fracture, Talar body fracture dislocation, Medial subtalar dislocation

  10. MR imaging findings of medial tibial crest friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Akoumianakis, Ioannis D.; Vagios, Ilias; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Medial tibial condyle bone marrow edema (BME), associated with soft tissue edema (STe) surrounding the medial collateral ligament, was incidentally observed in MRI examinations of young and athletic individuals. The aim of the present study was to 1. Prospectively investigate the association between these findings and coexistence of localized pain, and 2. Explore the possible contribution of the tibial morphology to its pathogenesis. Methods: The medial tibial condyle crest was evaluated in 632 knee MRI examinations. The angle and depth were measured by two separate evaluators. The presence of STe and BME was recorded. A third evaluator blindly assessed the presence of pain at this site. Results: BME associated with STe was found in 24 patients (with no history of previous trauma, osteoarthritis, tumor or pes anserine bursitis). The mean crest angle was 151.3° (95%CI 147.4–155.3°) compared to 159.4° (95%CI 158.8–160°) in controls (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.0001). MRI findings were highly predictive of localized pain (sensitivity 92% specificity 99%, Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Friction at the medial tibial condyle crest is a painful syndrome. MRI is a highly specific and sensitive imaging modality for its diagnosis

  11. Comparison of Medial and Posterior Surgical Approaches in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... extremity fractures in the pediatric population aged 3-10 years old. ... pins wire fixation was applied with either a medial or ... The grading system defined by Flynn et al.[15] .... control of both aspects of fracture site (anterior and.

  12. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome : Diagnosis, Treatment and Outcome Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, M.

    2017-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), also known as shin splints, is one of the most common sports injuries. Although 20% of the jumping and running athletes have MTSS at some point while engaging in sporting activities, we know little about it. There is a lack of knowledge regarding making the

  13. Aetiology, imaging and treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The work contained is this thesis discusses aetiology, imaging and treatment of a common leg injury: medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Although a common injury, the number of scientific articles on this topic is relatively low as is explained in chapter 1. This chapter also highlights that the

  14. Anatomical segmentation of the human medial prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcoles-Parada, M.; Müller, N.C.J.; Ubero, M.; Serrano-Del-Pueblo, V.M.; Mansilla, F.; Marcos-Rabal, P.; Artacho-Perula, E.; Dresler, M.; Insausti, R.; Fernandez, G.; Munoz-Lopez, M.

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal areas 32, 24, 14, and 25 (mPFC) form part of the limbic memory system, but little is known about their functional specialization in humans. To add anatomical precision to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we aimed to identify these mPFC subareas

  15. [Medial unicompartmental knee prosthesis for patients with unicompartmental gonarthrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, N.P.; Deutman, R.; Raay, J.J. van; Horn, J.R. van

    2004-01-01

    The function and survival time of unicompartmental knee prostheses for patients with severe gonarthrosis have been improved the past few years by developments in their design, the instrumentarium and the surgical technique. A medial unicompartmental knee prosthesis may be indicated in patients with

  16. Ecological divergence and medial cuneiform morphology in gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocheri, Matthew W; Solhan, Christyna R; Orr, Caley M; Femiani, John; Frohlich, Bruno; Groves, Colin P; Harcourt-Smith, William E; Richmond, Brian G; Shoelson, Brett; Jungers, William L

    2011-02-01

    Gorillas are more closely related to each other than to any other extant primate and are all terrestrial knuckle-walkers, but taxa differ along a gradient of dietary strategies and the frequency of arboreality in their behavioral repertoire. In this study, we test the hypothesis that medial cuneiform morphology falls on a morphocline in gorillas that tracks function related to hallucial abduction ability and relative frequency of arboreality. This morphocline predicts that western gorillas, being the most arboreal, should display a medial cuneiform anatomy that reflects the greatest hallucial abduction ability, followed by grauer gorillas, and then by mountain gorillas. Using a three-dimensional methodology to measure angles between articular surfaces, relative articular and nonarticular areas, and the curvatures of the hallucial articular surface, the functional predictions are partially confirmed in separating western gorillas from both eastern gorillas. Western gorillas are characterized by a more medially oriented, proportionately larger, and more mediolaterally curved hallucial facet than are eastern gorillas. These characteristics follow the predictions for a more prehensile hallux in western gorillas relative to a more stable, plantigrade hallux in eastern gorillas. The characteristics that distinguish eastern gorilla taxa from one another appear unrelated to hallucial abduction ability or frequency of arboreality. In total, this reexamination of medial cuneiform morphology suggests differentiation between eastern and western gorillas due to a longstanding ecological divergence and more recent and possibly non-adaptive differences between eastern taxa. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Medial Malleolar Fractures: An Anatomic Survey Determining the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the literature lacks a defined method for selecting lag screw length, relying more ... Aim: The aim of this study is to help define the ideal lag screw length for medial melleolar fracture fixation. .... Biometrics 1977;33:159‑74. 8. Ricci WM ...

  18. MR imaging findings of medial tibial crest friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Akoumianakis, Ioannis D., E-mail: ioannis.akoumianakis@gmail.com; Vagios, Ilias, E-mail: iliasvagios@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Medial tibial condyle bone marrow edema (BME), associated with soft tissue edema (STe) surrounding the medial collateral ligament, was incidentally observed in MRI examinations of young and athletic individuals. The aim of the present study was to 1. Prospectively investigate the association between these findings and coexistence of localized pain, and 2. Explore the possible contribution of the tibial morphology to its pathogenesis. Methods: The medial tibial condyle crest was evaluated in 632 knee MRI examinations. The angle and depth were measured by two separate evaluators. The presence of STe and BME was recorded. A third evaluator blindly assessed the presence of pain at this site. Results: BME associated with STe was found in 24 patients (with no history of previous trauma, osteoarthritis, tumor or pes anserine bursitis). The mean crest angle was 151.3° (95%CI 147.4–155.3°) compared to 159.4° (95%CI 158.8–160°) in controls (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.0001). MRI findings were highly predictive of localized pain (sensitivity 92% specificity 99%, Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Friction at the medial tibial condyle crest is a painful syndrome. MRI is a highly specific and sensitive imaging modality for its diagnosis.

  19. Medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Fronek, Jan [Scripps Healthcare, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    We report the occurrence of a medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher. To our knowledge, this fracture has not been described in the literature, and awareness of this entity allows initiation of therapy and precludes further unnecessary work-up. The radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging appearances are reviewed and the mechanism of injury is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Profiles and fluctuations in edge and SOL turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Xu, G.; Vianello, N.

    2012-01-01

    propagating structures and parallel transport sets up the observed profiles and how intermittency influences edge conditions. The filamentary blob structures also transport and generate currents in the SOL, which can be investigated by means of local magnetic diagnostics. Finally, the ratio of ion to electron...... temperature in the SOL is an important measure for the influence of finite larmor radius effects on the propagation properties of blobs. Numerical investigations indicate that these effects can lead to an increased self confinement and radial reach of these structures. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa...

  1. Transport barrier fluctuations governed by SOL turbulence spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Sarazin, Y.; Ciraolo, G.; Darmet, G.; Garbet, X.; Grangirard, V.; Tamain, P.; Benkadda, S.; Beyer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Turbulence spreading, namely turbulent transport extending into a stable region is reported both for the flat density profiles in the far SOL and into a modeled H-mode barrier. It is shown that due to turbulence penetration, the pedestal width fluctuates and that its effective width is a factor 2 smaller than the linear predicted width. Turbulence overshooting throughout the pedestal leads to a non-vanishing turbulent transport within the barrier and provides a coupling of core and SOL turbulence despite the transport barrier

  2. Functionalization of sol-gel zirconia composites with europium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchova, Nina; Gutzov, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Different sol-gel strategies based on functionalization of ZrO 2 :Eu microparticles with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and incorporation of colloidal Eu(phen) 2 (NO 3 ) 3 into zirconia have been used to obtain hybrid sol-gel composites with controlled optical properties. The process leads to materials with quantum yields of about 48 % monitoring the 615 nm emission line at 350 nm excitation. Excitation/luminescence spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to characterize the hybrid zirconia composites. (orig.)

  3. Analysis on the factors affecting the preparation of TIO2-ADUN composite sol by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Yin Rongcai; Liu Jinhong

    2010-01-01

    With C 2 H 2 O 5 and water as solvent and TBT as precursor and HNO 3 as the activator and valorize, the process for preparing TiO 2 -ADUN composite Sol method was studied. The influence of different reaction conditions on Sol-Gel time was analyzed in this study. The optimal reaction condition are: reaction temperature 20-25 degree C; pH value of reaction mixture 2-5; HNO 3 value of reaction mixture 0.3-0.5 ml; molar rations of alcohol to TBT 10, of water to TBT 2-3, respectively. A concentrated ADUN solution with Ti Sol , urea, water as additive is dispersed into uniform which are prepared by external mlii. (authors)

  4. Identification, expression, and immuno-reactivity of Sol i 2 & Sol i 4 venom proteins of queen red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Stephanie A; Haghipour-Peasley, Jilla; Hoffman, Donald R; Deslippe, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    We report on two low-molecular weight proteins that are stored in the venom of queen red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). Translated amino acid sequences identified one protein to have 74.8% identity with the Sol i 2w worker allergen, and the other protein was found to have 96/97% identity with Sol i 4.01w/4.02w worker allergens. Both Sol i 2 and Sol i 4 queen and worker proteins were expressed using pEXP1-DEST vector in SHuffle™ T7 Express lysY Escherichia coli. Proteins were expressed at significant concentrations, as opposed to the μg/ml amounts by our previous expression methods, enabling further study of these proteins. Sol i 2q protein bound weakly to human IgE, sera pooled from allergic patients, whereas Sol i 2w, Sol i 4.01w, and Sol i 4q proteins bound strongly. Despite Sol i 2w and Sol i 2q proteins having 74.8% identity, the queen protein is less immuno-reactive than the worker allergen. This finding is consistent with allergic individuals being less sensitive to queen than worker venom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis of phthalocyanine doped sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of sol-gel silica materials doped with three different types of metallophthalocyanines has been studied. Homogeneous materials of good optical quality were prepared and the first optical limiting measurements of dyes in sol-gel hosts were carried out. The properties of these solid state limiters are similar to limiters based on phthalocyanine (Pc) in solution. Sol-gel silica materials containing copper, tin and germanium phthalocyanines were investigated. The initial step in all cases was to prepare silica sols by the sonogel method using tetramethoxy silane (TMOS), HCl and distilled water. Thereafter, the synthesis depended upon the specific Pc and its solubility characteristics. Copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt (CuPc4S) is soluble in water and various doping levels (1 x 10 (exp -4) M to 1 x 10 (exp -5) M) were added to the sol. The group IV Pc's, SnPc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2 and GePc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2, are insoluble in water and the process was changed accordingly. In these cases, the compounds were dissolved in THF and then added to the sol. The Pc concentration in the sol was 2 x 10(exp -5)M. The samples were then aged and dried in the standard method of making xerogel monoliths. Comparative nanosecond optical limiting experiments were performed on silica xerogels that were doped with the different metallophthalocyanines. The ratio of the net excited state absorption cross section (sigma(sub e)) to the ground state cross section (sigma(sub g)) is an important figure of merit that is used to characterize these materials. By this standard the SnPc sample exhibits the best limiting for the Pc doped sol-gel materials. Its cross section ratio of 19 compares favorably with the value of 22 that was measured in toluene. The GePc materials appear to not be as useful as those containing SnPc. The GePc doped solids exhibit a higher onset energy (2.5 mj and lower cross section ratio, 7. The CuPc4S sol-gel material has a still lower cross

  6. The medial tibial stress syndrome score: Item generation for a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The medial tibial stress syndrome score: Item generation for a new patient reported outcome measure. ... instrument that evaluates injury severity and treatment effects for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) patients. ... from 32 Countries:.

  7. Sol-gel based oxidation catalyst and coating system using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Anthony N. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An oxidation catalyst system is formed by particles of an oxidation catalyst dispersed in a porous sol-gel binder. The oxidation catalyst system can be applied by brush or spray painting while the sol-gel binder is in its sol state.

  8. Bio-indicateurs de la fertilité des sols et la perception paysanne à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 mai 2015 ... d'identifier des bio-indicateurs des sols fertiles et des sols dégradés selon la perception paysanne et des paramètres ..... effet, une augmentation du stock hydrique du sol à ... Fonctionnement et gestion des écosystèmes.

  9. Kombinerede sol/varmepumpeanlæg i praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    I rapporten analyseres målinger fra kombinerede sol/varmepumpeanlæg i praksis. Anlæggene er installeret af Nordic Energy Group og målingerne er ligeledes foretaget af Nordic Energy Group. Analysen viser at energiforbruget og energiprisen kan reduceres betragteligt ved at installere et kombianlæg ...

  10. Laboratory Testing of Silica Sol Grout in Coal Measure Mudstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Pan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of silica sol grout on mudstones is reported in this paper. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD, the study investigates how the silica sol grout modifies mudstone mineralogy. Micropore sizes and mechanical properties of the mudstone before and after grouting with four different materials were determined with a surface area/porosity analyser and by uniaxial compression. Tests show that, after grouting, up to 50% of the mesopore volumes can be filled with grout, the dominant pore diameter decreases from 100 nm to 10 nm, and the sealing capacity is increased. Uniaxial compression tests of silica sol grouted samples shows that their elastic modulus is 21%–38% and their uniaxial compressive strength is 16%–54% of the non-grouted samples. Peak strain, however, is greater by 150%–270%. After grouting, the sample failure mode changes from brittle to ductile. This paper provides an experimental test of anti-seepage and strengthening properties of silica sol.

  11. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, James W [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-17

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  12. Linking the Virginia SOL Assessments to NWEA MAP Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) is committed to providing partners with useful tools to help make inferences from the Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) interim assessment scores. Recently, NWEA completed a concordance study to connect the scales of the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) reading and math tests with those of the MAP…

  13. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING SOL-GEL SYNTHESIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the effectiveness of TiO2 nanoparticles in arsenic adsorption was examined. TiO2 particles (LS) were synthesized via sol-gel techniques and characterized for their crystallinity, surface area and pore volume. Batch adsorption studies were perf...

  14. Sol gel synthesis for preparation of yttrium aluminium garnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, J.W.G.A.; Willems, J.W.M.M.; Metselaar, R.; With, de G.; Terpstra, R.A.; Metselaar, R.

    1989-01-01

    Sol-gel—synthesis for preparation of pure yttrium aluminium garnet powder with small grain size is subject of this ongoing study. Starting materials were sulfates and chlorides of yttrium and aluminium. To obtain pure YAG (Y3A1SO1Z) pH during hydrolysis as well as temperature during calcination and

  15. Opportunity's View After Drive on Sol 1806 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 60.86 meters (200 feet) on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 21, 2009). North is at the center; south at both ends. Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Engineers designed the Sol 1806 drive to be driven backwards as a strategy to redistribute lubricant in the rovers wheels. The right-front wheel had been showing signs of increased friction. The rover's position after the Sol 1806 drive was about 2 kilometer (1.2 miles) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 14.74 kilometers (9.16 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 2.96 kilometers (1.84 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. Opportunity's View After Drive on Sol 1806 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 60.86 meters (200 feet) on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 21, 2009). North is at the center; south at both ends. Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Engineers designed the Sol 1806 drive to be driven backwards as a strategy to redistribute lubricant in the rovers wheels. The right-front wheel had been showing signs of increased friction. The rover's position after the Sol 1806 drive was about 2 kilometer (1.2 miles) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 14.74 kilometers (9.16 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 2.96 kilometers (1.84 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Stoichiometric hydroxyapatite obtained by precipitation and sol gel processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman V, C.; Pina B, C.; Munguia, N. [IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: caroguz@servidor.unam.mx

    2005-07-01

    Three methods for obtaining hydroxyapatite (HA) are described. HA is a very interesting ceramic because of its many medical applications. The first two precipitation methods start from calcium and phosphorous compounds, whereas the third method is a sol-gel process that uses alkoxides. The products were characterized and compared. The observed differences are important for practical applications. (Author)

  18. Neutron detector based on lithiated sol-gel glass

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, S; Miller, L F; Dai, S

    2002-01-01

    A neutron detector technology is demonstrated based on sup 6 Li/ sup 1 sup 0 B doped sol-gel glass. The detector is a sol-gel glass film coated silicon surface barrier detector (SBD). The ionized charged particles from (n, alpha) reactions in the sol-gel film enter the SBD and are counted. Data showing that gamma-ray pulse amplitudes interfere with identifying charged particles that exit the film layer with energies below the gamma-ray energy is presented. Experiments were performed showing the effect of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays on the SBD detector. The reaction product energies of the triton and alpha particles from sup 6 Li are significantly greater than the energies of the Compton electrons from high-energy gamma rays, allowing the measurement of neutrons in a high gamma background. The sol-gel radiation detection technology may be applicable to the characterization of transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel and to the monitoring of stored plutonium.

  19. Sol-gel matrices for direct colorimetric detection of analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charych, Deborah H.; Sasaki, Darryl; Yamanaka, Stacey

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the direct detection of analytes using color changes that occur in immobilized biopolymeric material in response to selective binding of analytes to their surface. In particular, the present invention provides methods and compositions related to the encapsulation of biopolymeric material into metal oxide glass using the sol-gel method.

  20. Morphology and the isoelectric point of nanosized aqueous ceria sols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulicovski, Jelena J.; Bračko, Ines; Milonjić, Slobodan K.

    2014-01-01

    Ceria sols were synthesized by a forced hydrolysis method using cerium sulphate or cerium nitrate as precursors. High-resolution TEM was used to determine the microstructure and particle size of CeO 2 . A polycrystalline structure of ceria sols with crystallite sizes of 4.4 and 8.6 nm was obtained. The particles had a well-defined polyhedral shape. Direct bandgaps for ceria nanoparticles were 2.80 and 3.31 eV, respectively. The isoelectric point, pH iep , of ceria sols in KNO 3 solutions was investigated. The isoelectric point of ceria was found to be pH iep  = 7.6 ± 0.2. The obtained results indicate that the isoelectric point in the presence of SO 4 2− ions shifts to lower pH value. The particle size of ceria increases with pH, reaching the maximum value at pH iep as the result of agglomeration . - Highlights: • Ceria sols with cubic phase nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized. • The isoelectric point of ceria oxide in KNO 3 solutions was p Hiep  = 7.6 ± 0.2. • The specific adsorption of SO 4 2− ions causes a shift in IEP to lower pH (pH iep  = 6.7). • The correlation between IEP and the maximum diameter of particles was observed

  1. Synthesis of uranium and thorium dioxides by Complex Sol-Gel Processes (CSGP). Synthesis of uranium oxides by Complex Sol-Gel Processes (CSGP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptula, A.; Brykala, M.; Lada, W.; Olczak, T.; Wawszczak, D.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Modolo, G.; Daniels, H.

    2010-01-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT), a new method of synthesis of uranium and thorium dioxides by original variant of sol-gel method - Complex Sol-Gel Process (CSGP), has been elaborated. The main modification step is the formation of nitrate-ascorbate sols from components alkalized by aqueous ammonia. Those sols were gelled into: - irregularly agglomerates by evaporation of water; - medium sized microspheres (diameter <150) by IChTJ variant of sol-gel processes by water extraction from drops of emulsion sols in 2-ethylhexanol-1 by this solvent. Uranium dioxide was obtained by a reduction of gels with hydrogen at temperatures >700 deg. C, while thorium dioxide by a simple calcination in the air atmosphere. (authors)

  2. Posterior horn medial meniscal root tear: the prequel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, H. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, W. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DiFelice, G.S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Vaidya, N. [Crystal Run Healthcare, Middletown, NY (United States); Winalski, C.S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To determine whether subarticular marrow changes deep to the posterior horn medial meniscal root anchor might predict subsequent medial meniscal root tear. Fifteen patients with MR-diagnosed posterior horn medial meniscal root (PHMMR) tear and a knee MRI antecedent to the tear were identified at three imaging centers over a 7-year period. The pre- and post-tear MR images were evaluated for marrow signal changes deep to the root anchor, meniscal root signal intensity, medial compartment articular cartilage thinning, and meniscal body extrusion. Images of 29 age- and gender-matched individuals with two MRIs of the same knee were reviewed as a control group. MRI in 11 of 15 (73 %) cases with subsequent PHMMR tear demonstrated linear subcortical marrow edema deep to the meniscal root anchor on the antecedent MRI compared to only 1 of 29 (3 %) non-tear controls (p < 0.0001). The abnormal signal resolved on post-tear MRI in all but two patients. Cyst-like changes deep to the PHMMR were present on initial MRI in three of 15 (23 %) cases and three of 29 (10 %) controls, persisting in all but one case on follow-up imaging. The PHMMR was gray on the initial MRI in seven of 15 (47 %) of cases that developed tears compared to four of 29 (14 %) controls (p < 0.0001). There was medial meniscal extrusion (MME) prior to tear in two of 15 (13 %) patients and in ten of 15 (67 %) patients after PHMMR failure. In the control group, MME was present in one (3 %) and three (10 %) of 29 subjects on the initial and follow-up MRIs, respectively. Articular cartilage loss was noted in two of 15 (15 %) cases before tear and nine of 15 (69 %) on follow-up imaging, as compared to one (3 %) and four (14 %) of 29 subjects in the control group. Subcortical marrow edema deep to the PHMMR may result from abnormal stresses and thus be a harbinger of meniscal root failure. This hypothesis is supported by resolution of these marrow signal changes after root tear. Following tear, extrusion of the

  3. A preliminary study of the effect of restricted gastrocnemius length on foot kinematics and plantar pressure patterns during gait in children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek

    2008-01-01

      Summary/conclusion Kinematic foot modelling and pedobarography are complementary measurement methods for measuring foot biomechanics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Pedobarography appears to be the most sensitive instrument measuring significantly decreased hindfoot and increased lateral......, range, 9-18 yrs) was tested twice using an EMED pedobarograph and a Vicon motion analysis system using the Oxford kinematic foot model to test the repeatability of the measurement methods and generate normal data. 8 children (4 girls, 4 boys, mean ± SD, 12 ± 2 yrs, range 8-15yr) with spastic CP...... forefoot mean plantar pressure and force in the children with gastrocnemius contracture, whilst the corresponding changes in foot kinematics were non-significant.   Introduction Foot deformity is common in CP and is often due to hypertonia and contracture in spastic muscles. The aim of this study...

  4. Effect of homeopathic preparations of Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica on gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and high fructose-induced type-2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Sathish; Narasimhan, Akilavalli; Chinta, Raveendar; Nair, K R Janardanan; Khurana, Anil; Nayak, Debadatta; Kumar, Alok; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2013-07-01

    Homeopathy is a holistic method of treatment that uses microdoses of natural substances originating from plants, minerals, or animal parts. Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica are used in homeopathy for treatment of type-2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for such effects are not known. Homeopathic preparations of S. jambolanum and C. indica in mother tincture, 6c and 30c were used to examine the molecular mechanism of antidiabetic effects in the skeletal muscle of rats with high fat and fructose-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus. After 30 days treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and insulin signaling molecules in the skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) were measured. Diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in serum insulin and lipid profile as well as low levels of insulin receptor (IR), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt), p-Akt(ser473) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein expression (p Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Opportunity's View After Long Drive on Sol 1770 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11791 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11791 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 104 meters (341 feet) on the 1,770th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (January 15, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Prior to the Sol 1770 drive, Opportunity had driven less than a meter since Sol 1713 (November 17, 2008), while it used the tools on its robotic arm first to examine a meteorite called 'Santorini' during weeks of restricted communication while the sun was nearly in line between Mars and Earth, then to examine bedrock and soil targets near Santorini. The rover's position after the Sol 1770 drive was about 1.1 kilometer (two-thirds of a mile) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 13.72 kilometers (8.53 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 1.94 kilometers (1.21 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008). This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi

    2011-01-01

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T 3 and T 4 in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H 2 O 2 , hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: ► DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. ► Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. ► Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. ► Vitamins C and E alter ROS, glucose uptake, oxidation and insulin signaling molecules.

  7. Using gastrocnemius sEMG and plasma α-synuclein for the prediction of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is a complicated gait disturbance in Parkinson's disease (PD and a relevant subclinical predictor algorithm is lacking. The main purpose of this study is to explore the potential value of surface electromyograph (sEMG and plasma α-synuclein levels as predictors of the FOG seen in PD. 21 PD patients and 15 normal controls were recruited. Motor function was evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS and Freezing of gait questionnaire (FOG-Q. Simultaneously, gait analysis was also performed using VICON capture system in PD patients and sEMG data was recorded as well. Total plasma α-synuclein was quantitatively assessed by Luminex assay in all participants. Recruited PD patients were classified into two groups: PD patients with FOG (PD+FOG and without FOG (PD-FOG, based on clinical manifestation, the results of the FOG-Q and VICON capture system. PD+FOG patients displayed higher FOG-Q scores, decreased walking speed, smaller step length, smaller stride length and prolonged double support time compared to the PD-FOG in the gait trial. sEMG data indicated that gastrocnemius activity in PD+FOG patients was significantly reduced compared to PD-FOG patients. In addition, plasma α-synuclein levels were significantly decreased in the PD+FOG group compared to control group; however, no significant difference was found between the PD+FOG and PD-FOG groups. Our study revealed that gastrocnemius sEMG could be used to evaluate freezing gait in PD patients, while plasma α-synuclein might discriminate freezing of gait in PD patients from normal control, though no difference was found between the PD+FOG and PD-FOG groups.

  8. Accuracy of gastrocnemius muscles forces in walking and running goats predicted by one-element and two-element Hill-type models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S M; Arnold, Allison S; Miara, Maria de Boef; Biewener, Andrew A; Wakeling, James M

    2013-09-03

    Hill-type models are commonly used to estimate muscle forces during human and animal movement-yet the accuracy of the forces estimated during walking, running, and other tasks remains largely unknown. Further, most Hill-type models assume a single contractile element, despite evidence that faster and slower motor units, which have different activation-deactivation dynamics, may be independently or collectively excited. This study evaluated a novel, two-element Hill-type model with "differential" activation of fast and slow contractile elements. Model performance was assessed using a comprehensive data set (including measures of EMG intensity, fascicle length, and tendon force) collected from the gastrocnemius muscles of goats during locomotor experiments. Muscle forces predicted by the new two-element model were compared to the forces estimated using traditional one-element models and to the forces measured in vivo using tendon buckle transducers. Overall, the two-element model resulted in the best predictions of in vivo gastrocnemius force. The coefficient of determination, r(2), was up to 26.9% higher and the root mean square error, RMSE, was up to 37.4% lower for the two-element model than for the one-element models tested. All models captured salient features of the measured muscle force during walking, trotting, and galloping (r(2)=0.26-0.51), and all exhibited some errors (RMSE=9.63-32.2% of the maximum in vivo force). These comparisons provide important insight into the accuracy of Hill-type models. The results also show that incorporation of fast and slow contractile elements within muscle models can improve estimates of time-varying, whole muscle force during locomotor tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of injection of Chinese botulinum toxin type A on the histomorphology and myosin heavy chain composition of rat gastrocnemius muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bin; Chen, Min; Hu, Xing-yue

    2013-11-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) is a metalloprotease that blocks synaptic transmission via the cleavage of a synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25). It has gained widespread use as a treatment for cerebral palsy and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In China, Chinese botulinum toxin type A (CBTX-A), a type of BoNT/A, is in widespread clinical use. However, the changes in the morphological and biochemical properties of treated muscles and in remote muscles from the CBTX-A injection site are relatively unknown. Therefore, we investigated the changes in histomorphology and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition and distribution in rat gastrocnemius muscles after intramuscular injection of CBTX-A. The weakness of the injected muscles was assessed periodically to identify their functional deficiency. Muscle slices were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). MyHC isoform composition was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to uncover changes in morphological and biochemical properties. Our findings demonstrate that following injection of CBTX-A 5 U into rat gastrocnemius muscles, shifts in MyHC isoform composition emerged on the third day after injection and peaked in the fourth week. The composition remained distinctly different from that of the control group after the twelfth week. More specifically, there was a decrease in the proportion of the type IIb isoform and an increase in the proportions of type IIx, type IIa, and type I isoforms. Data revealed that CBTX-A led to a shift in MyHC composition towards slower isoforms and that the MyHC composition remained far from normal six months after a single injection. However, no noticeable remote muscle weakness was induced.

  10. Multiple running speed signals in medial entorhinal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, James R.; Brandon, Mark P.; Climer, Jason R.; Chapman, G. William; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) can be modeled using oscillatory interference or attractor dynamic mechanisms that perform path integration, a computation requiring information about running direction and speed. The two classes of computational models often use either an oscillatory frequency or a firing rate that increases as a function of running speed. Yet it is currently not known whether these are two manifestations of the same speed signal or dissociable signals with potentially different anatomical substrates. We examined coding of running speed in MEC and identified these two speed signals to be independent of each other within individual neurons. The medial septum (MS) is strongly linked to locomotor behavior and removal of MS input resulted in strengthening of the firing rate speed signal, while decreasing the strength of the oscillatory speed signal. Thus two speed signals are present in MEC that are differentially affected by disrupted MS input. PMID:27427460

  11. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy for zygomatic implant salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph S; Tajudeen, Bobby A; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an epidemiologically important disease process due, in part, to the increasingly commonplace use of dental restorative procedures such as zygomatic implantation. Traditional management of this clinical entity typically entails extraction of the infected hardware via an open or endoscopic approach. We describe a novel management strategy of odontogenic CRS following bilateral zygomatic implantation for oral rehabilitation that we surgically salvaged via a modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy. We describe the presentation and management of a case of metachronous development of bilateral CRS subsequent to zygomatic implantation. The patient's postoperative course was characterized by marked endoscopic, radiologic, and symptomatic improvement as measured by the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test. We describe a novel treatment strategy for the management of odontogenic sinusitis resulting from erroneous zygomatic implant placement. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy in this clinical context facilitates mucosal normalization of the affected sinus, while permitting preservation of oral function through salvage of the displaced implant.

  12. Kinematic analysis of a televised medial ankle sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca E. Wade

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ankle sprains are one of the most prevalent athletic injuries. Prior work has investigated lateral ankle sprains, but research on generally more severe medial sprains is lacking. This case report performs a kinematic analysis using novel motion analysis methods on a non-contact medial ankle sprain. Peak eversion (50° occurred 0.2 seconds following ground contact, maximum velocity of 426°/s, while peak dorsiflexion (64° occurred with a greater maximum velocity (573°/s. The combination of dorsiflexion at ground contact and rapid eversion is associated with a non-contact eversion sprain. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the eversion ankle sprain injury mechanism. Keywords: Athletic injury, Biomechanics, Ankle injury, Kinematics

  13. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy for odontogenic cysts and tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tsugihama; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Asaka, Daiya; Okushi, Tetsushi; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Odontogenic maxillary cysts and tumours originate from the tooth root and have traditionally been treated through an intraoral approach. Here, we report the efficacy and utility of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for the treatment of odontogenic maxillary cysts and a tumour. We undertook EMMM under general anaesthesia in six patients: four had radicular cysts, one had a dentigerous cyst, and one had a keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The cysts and tumours were completely excised and the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct were preserved in all patients. There were no peri- or postoperative complications, and no incidences of recurrence. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy appears to be an effective and safe technique for treating odontogenic cysts and tumours.

  14. Anomalous Medial Branch of Radial Artery: A Rare Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Wadhwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Radial artery is an important consistent vessel of the upper limb. It is a useful vascular access site for coronary procedures and its reliable anatomy has resulted in an elevation of radial forearm flaps for reconstructive surgeries of head and neck. Technical failures, in both the procedures, are mainly due to anatomical variations, such as radial loops, ectopic radial arteries or tortuosity in the vessel. We present a rare and a unique anomalous medial branch of the radial artery spiraling around the flexor carpi radialis muscle in the forearm with a high rising superficial palmar branch of radial artery. Developmentally it probably is a remanent of the normal pattern of capillary vessel maintenance and regression. Such a case is of importance for reconstructive surgeons and coronary interventionists, especially in view of its unique medial and deep course.

  15. Preauricular full-thickness skin grafting in medial canthal reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Corredor-Osorio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma in medial canthal is a surgical challenge to oculoplastic surgeon. We report a case an 80 –year-old woman who presented with a vegetative tumor in the right inferior medial canthus that increased slowly in size over the past two years. An excisional biopsy from the tumor was suggestive of a basal cell carcinoma. A full-thickness excision of the tumor within the oncologic safety limits, was performed. A wide range of reconstruction techniques should be customized to the individual patient. In this case, the use of a preauricular full. Thickness skin graft was a favorable option, without complications, and with acceptable functional and cosmetic results. The aim of the treatment is to restore anatomy, functional and cosmetic of the patients.

  16. Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baer MR

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael R. Baer, Jeffrey A. Macalena Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Patellofemoral instability is a painful and often recurring disorder with many negative long-term consequences. After a period of failed nonoperative management, surgical intervention has been used to reduce the incidence of patellar subluxation and dislocations. Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL reconstruction successfully addresses patellofemoral instability by restoring the deficient primary medial patellar soft tissue restraint. When planning MPFL reconstruction for instability, it is imperative to consider the patient’s unique anatomy including the tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove (TT–TG distance, trochlear dysplasia, and patella alta. Additionally, it is important to individualize surgical treatment in the skeletally immature, hypermobile, and athletic populations. Keywords: MPFL, indications, considerations, contraindications

  17. Unicameral Bone Cyst of the Medial Cuneiform: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Faith A; Daniel, Joseph N; Miller, Juliane S

    2016-02-17

    A unicameral bone cyst is a relatively uncommon, benign bone tumor found in the metaphysis of long bones, such as the humerus and the femur, in skeletally immature persons. In the foot, these benign, fluid-filled cavities are most commonly found within the os calcis. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female with a unicameral bone cyst of the medial cuneiform.

  18. Aetiology, imaging and treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The work contained is this thesis discusses aetiology, imaging and treatment of a common leg injury: medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Although a common injury, the number of scientific articles on this topic is relatively low as is explained in chapter 1. This chapter also highlights that the most probable cause of MTSS is bone overload and not traction induced periostitis. In chapter 2 a review of the literature on MTSS is provided until 2009. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss different common a...

  19. Failed medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: Causes and surgical strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Montesinos-Berry, Erik; Ramirez-Fuentes, Cristina; Leal Blanquet, Joan; Gelber, Pablo-Eduardo; Monllau García, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common clinical problem encountered by orthopedic surgeons specializing in the knee. For patients with chronic lateral patellar instability, the standard surgical approach is to stabilize the patella through a medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Foreseeably, an increasing number of revision surgeries of the reconstructed MPFL will be seen in upcoming years. In this paper, the causes of failed MPFL reconstruction are analyzed: (1) incorrect surgical ...

  20. 'Cable-maker's clavicle': stress fracture of the medial clavicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peebles, C.R.; Sulkin, T.; Sampson, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a non-traumatic painful swelling over the medial clavicle. Radiographs showed a poorly defined fracture and the possibility of an underlying pathology was raised. Computed tomography suggested a stress fracture. This prompted a further, more detailed occupational history to be obtained from the patient, which revealed a hitherto undescribed cause of clavicular stress fracture and obviated the need for further imaging or biopsy. (orig.)

  1. The Sizing and Optimization Language, (SOL): Computer language for design problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Stephen H.; Scotti, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    The Sizing and Optimization Language, (SOL), a new high level, special purpose computer language was developed to expedite application of numerical optimization to design problems and to make the process less error prone. SOL utilizes the ADS optimization software and provides a clear, concise syntax for describing an optimization problem, the OPTIMIZE description, which closely parallels the mathematical description of the problem. SOL offers language statements which can be used to model a design mathematically, with subroutines or code logic, and with existing FORTRAN routines. In addition, SOL provides error checking and clear output of the optimization results. Because of these language features, SOL is best suited to model and optimize a design concept when the model consits of mathematical expressions written in SOL. For such cases, SOL's unique syntax and error checking can be fully utilized. SOL is presently available for DEC VAX/VMS systems. A SOL package is available which includes the SOL compiler, runtime library routines, and a SOL reference manual.

  2. Medial temporal lobe damage impairs representation of simple stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Warren

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Medial temporal lobe damage in humans is typically thought to produce a circumscribed impairment in the acquisition of new enduring memories, but recent reports have documented deficits even in short-term maintenance. We examined possible maintenance deficits in a population of medial temporal lobe amnesics, with the goal of characterizing their impairments as either representational drift or outright loss of representation over time. Patients and healthy comparisons performed a visual search task in which the similarity of various lures to a target was varied parametrically. Stimuli were simple shapes varying along one of several visual dimensions. The task was performed in two conditions, one presenting a sample target simultaneously with the search array and the other imposing a delay between sample and array. Eye-movement data collected during search revealed that the duration of fixations to items varied with lure-target similarity for all participants, i.e., fixations were longer for items more similar to the target. In the simultaneous condition, patients and comparisons exhibited an equivalent effect of similarity on fixation durations. However, imposing a delay modulated the effect differently for the two groups: in comparisons, fixation duration to similar items was exaggerated; in patients, the original effect was diminished. These findings indicate that medial temporal lobe lesions subtly impair short-term maintenance of even simple stimuli, with performance reflecting not the complete loss of the maintained representation but rather a degradation or progressive drift of the representation over time.

  3. Medial maxillectomy in recalcitrant sinusitis: when, why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Constantinidis, Jannis

    2014-02-01

    We reviewed all journal articles relevant to endoscopic medial maxillectomy in patients with recalcitrant chronic maxillary sinusitis in order to present all indications, the underlying pathophysiology and the developed surgical techniques. Despite the high success rate of middle meatal antrostomy, cases with persistent maxillary sinus disease exist and often need a more extended endoscopic procedure for the better control of the disease. Such surgical option uses gravity for better sinus drainage and offers better saline irrigation, local application of medications and follow-up inspection. An endoscopic medial maxillectomy and its modified forms offer a wider surgical field and access to all 'difficult' areas of the maxillary sinus. Patients with previous limited endoscopic sinus surgery or extended open surgery, cystic fibrosis, extensive mucoceles, allergic fungal sinusitis, odontogenic infections, foreign bodies and so on may suffer from recurrent disease requiring an endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Depending on the disease, various modifications of the procedure can be performed preserving the anterior buttress, nasolacrimal duct and inferior turbinate if possible.

  4. Medial blepharosynechioplasty: a new surgical concept for severe dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsugihisa Sasaki,1,2 Taeko Ota,3 Youko Ookura,4 Kazuhisa Sugiyama11Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Tonami General Hospital, Tonami-city, Toyama; 4Department of Ophthamology, Saiseikai Kanazawa Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: The purpose of this work was to report on the performance of medial blepharosynechioplasty (MBSP, a newly devised technique for treating severe dry eye.Methods: In this retrospective, nonrandomized clinical trial, three cases with severe dry eye (Sjögren’s syndrome associated with repeated punctal plug loss were treated using MBSP to create a synechia between the upper and lower lid medial borders of the puncta to suppress the lacrimal pump.Results: Postoperative follow-up showed improvement in the corneal condition in all three cases that persisted for 12–35 months. None of the patients had visual impairment.Conclusion: MBSP is a promising treatment for severe dry eye and merits further study.Keywords: dry eye, lacrimal pump suppression, medial blepharosynechioplasty

  5. Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Blanchard, Jane; Morin, Lawrence P.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) receives input from all vestibular endorgans and provides extensive projections to the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated projections from the MVe to the circadian rhythm system. In addition, there are known projections from the MVe to regions considered to be involved in sleep and arousal. In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. The results demonstrate MVe connections with regions mediating visuomotor and postural control, as previously observed in other mammals. The data also identify extensive projections from the MVe to regions mediating arousal and sleep-related functions, most of which receive immunohistochemically identified projections from the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. These include the locus coeruleus, dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and lateral preoptic area. The MVe itself receives a projection from hypocretin cells. CTB tracing demonstrated reciprocal connections between the MVe and most brain areas receiving MVe efferents. Virus tracing confirmed and extended the MVe afferent connections identified with CTB and additionally demonstrated transneuronal connectivity with the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the medial habenular nucleus. These anatomical data indicate that the vestibular system has access to a broad array of neural functions not typically associated with visuomotor, balance, or equilibrium, and that the MVe is likely to receive information from many of the same regions to which it projects.

  6. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current state-of-the-art sampling-based techniques as they typically focus on simply finding any path. Despite this difficulty, sampling-based techniques have shown great success in planning for a wide range of applications. Among such planners, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) search the planning space by biasing exploration toward unexplored regions. This paper introduces a novel RRT variant, Medial Axis RRT (MARRT), which biases tree exploration to the medial axis of free space by pushing all configurations from expansion steps towards the medial axis. We prove that this biasing increases the tree\\'s clearance from obstacles. Improving obstacle clearance is useful where path safety is important, e.g., path planning for robots performing tasks in close proximity to the elderly. Finally, we experimentally analyze MARRT, emphasizing its ability to effectively map difficult passages while increasing obstacle clearance, and compare it to contemporary RRT techniques.

  7. Dopamine in the medial amygdala network mediates human bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzil, Shir; Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Rudy, Tali; Salcedo, Stephanie; Feldman, Ruth; Hooker, Jacob M; Dickerson, Bradford C; Catana, Ciprian; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-02-28

    Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers' dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the "medial amygdala network") that supports social functioning. We also measured the mothers' behavioral synchrony with their infants and plasma oxytocin. The results of this study suggest that synchronous maternal behavior is associated with increased dopamine responses to the mother's infant and stronger intrinsic connectivity within the medial amygdala network. Moreover, stronger network connectivity is associated with increased dopamine responses within the network and decreased plasma oxytocin. Together, these data indicate that dopamine is involved in human bonding. Compared with other mammals, humans have an unusually complex social life. The complexity of human bonding cannot be fully captured in nonhuman animal models, particularly in pathological bonding, such as that in autistic spectrum disorder or postpartum depression. Thus, investigations of the neurochemistry of social bonding in humans, for which this study provides initial evidence, are warranted.

  8. An Isolated Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction with Patellar Tendon Autograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Witoński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of the medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with a medial strip of patellar tendon autograft after a minimum 2-year followup. Ten patients (10 knees were operated on by one surgeon, according to the modified technique, described by Camanho, without any bone plug at free graft end. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 years (ranging from 18 to 42 years. The mean follow-up period was 3 years and 7 months. All patients were reviewed prospectively. At the last follow-up visit, all the patients demonstrated a significant improvement in terms of patellofemoral joint stability, all aspects of the KOOS questionnaire, and Kujala et al.’s score (59.7 points preoperatively and 84.4 points at the last followup. No patient revealed recurrent dislocation. The SF-36 score revealed a significant improvement in bodily pain, general health, physical role functioning, social role functioning, and physical functioning domains. The described MPFL reconstruction with the use of the medial 1/3rd of patella tendon is an effective procedure that gives satisfactorily patellofemoral joint functions, improves the quality of life, and provides much pain relief. It is relatively simple, surgically not extensive, and economically cost-effective procedure.

  9. Incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture following pediatric elbow dislocation: 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Seth D; Flanagin, Brody A; Bohl, Daniel D; DeLuca, Peter A; Smith, Brian G

    2014-09-01

    To describe outcomes after surgical management of pediatric elbow dislocation with incarceration of the medial epicondyle. We conducted a retrospective case review of 11 consecutive children and adolescents with an incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture after elbow dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction internal fixation using a similar technique. We characterized outcomes at final follow-up. Average follow-up was 14 months (range, 4-56 mo). All patients had clinical and radiographic signs of healing at final follow-up. There was no radiographic evidence of loss of reduction at intervals or at final follow-up. There were no cases of residual deformity or valgus instability. Average final arc of elbow motion was 4° to 140°. All patients had forearm rotation from 90° supination to 90° pronation. Average Mayo elbow score was 99.5. Four of 11 patients had ulnar nerve symptoms postoperatively and 1 required a second operation for ulnar nerve symptoms. In addition, 1 required a second operation for flexion contracture release with excision of heterotopic ossification. Three patients had ulnar nerve symptoms at final follow-up. Two of these had mild paresthesia only and 1 had both mild paresthesia and weakness. Our results suggest that open reduction internal fixation of incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures after elbow dislocation leads to satisfactory motion and function; however, the injury carries a high risk for complications, particularly ulnar neuropathy. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilateral Medial Medullary Stroke: A Challenge in Early Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Torabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral medial medullary stroke is a very rare type of stroke, with catastrophic consequences. Early diagnosis is crucial. Here, I present a young patient with acute vertigo, progressive generalized weakness, dysarthria, and respiratory failure, who initially was misdiagnosed with acute vestibular syndrome. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that was done in the acute phase was read as normal. Other possibilities were excluded by lumbar puncture and MRI of cervical spine. MR of C-spine showed lesion at medial medulla; therefore a second MRI of brain was requested, showed characteristic “heart appearance” shape at diffusion weighted (DWI, and confirmed bilateral medial medullary stroke. Retrospectively, a vague-defined hyperintense linear DWI signal at midline was noted in the first brain MRI. Because of the symmetric and midline pattern of this abnormal signal and similarity to an artifact, some radiologists or neurologists may miss this type of stroke. Radiologists and neurologists must recognize clinical and MRI findings of this rare type of stroke, which early treatment could make a difference in patient outcome. The abnormal DWI signal in early stages of this type of stroke may not be a typical “heart appearance” shape, and other variants such as small dot or linear DWI signal at midline must be recognized as early signs of stroke. Also, MRI of cervical spine may be helpful if there is attention to brainstem as well.

  11. Bucket handle tears of the medial meniscus: meniscal intrusion rather than meniscal extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlossberg, S.; Umans, H.; Flusser, G.; DiFelice, G.S.; Lerer, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of medial meniscal extrusion (MME) versus ''medial meniscal intrusion'' in the setting of bucket handle tears. Images were evaluated for previously reported risk factors for MME, including: medial meniscal root tear, radial tear, degenerative joint disease and joint effusion. Forty-one consecutive cases of bucket handle tear of the medial meniscus were reviewed by consensus by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Imaging was performed using a 1.5 GE Signa MR unit. Patient age, gender, medial meniscal root integrity, MME, medial meniscal intrusion, degenerative joint disease, effusion and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear were recorded. Thirteen females and 27 males (age 12-62 years, median=30 years) were affected; one had bucket handle tear of each knee. Effusion was small in 13, moderate in 9 and large in 18. Degenerative joint disease was mild in three, moderate in two and severe in one. 26 ACL tears included three partial and three chronic. Medial meniscal root tear was complete in one case and partial thickness in two. None of the 40 cases with an intact or partially torn medial meniscal root demonstrated MME. MME of 3.1 mm was seen in the only full-thickness medial meniscal root tear, along with chronic ACL tear, moderate degenerative joint disease and large effusion. Medial meniscal intrusion of the central bucket handle fragment into the intercondylar notch was present in all 41 cases. Given an intact medial meniscal root in the setting of a ''pure'' bucket handle tear, there is no MME. (orig.)

  12. Medial joint space widening of the ankle in displaced Tillaux and Triplane fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourineni, Prasad; Gupta, Asheesh

    2011-10-01

    Tillaux and Triplane fractures occur in children predominantly from external rotation mechanism. We hypothesized that in displaced fractures, the talus would shift laterally along with the distal fibula and the distal tibial epiphyseal fragment increasing the medial joint space. Consecutive cases evaluated retrospectively. Level I and Level II centers. Twenty-two skeletally immature patients with 14 displaced Triplane fractures and eight displaced Tillaux fractures were evaluated for medial joint space widening. Measurement of fracture displacement and medial joint space widening before and after intervention. Thirteen Triplane and six Tillaux fractures (86%) showed medial space widening of 1 to 9 mm and equal to the amount of fracture displacement. Reduction of the fracture reduced the medial space to normal. There were no known complications. Medial space widening of the ankle may be a sign of ankle fracture displacement. Anatomic reduction of the fracture reduces the medial space and may improve the results in Tillaux and Triplane fractures.

  13. INKJET PRINTING OF ALUMOOXIDE SOL FOR DEPOSITION OF ANTIREFLECTING COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Eremeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. This work describes for the first time the formation of antireflective coating on the base of boehmite phase of AlOOH with low refractive index (1.35 by inkjet printing on the nonporous substrate. This method gives the possibility to increase the contrast of colorful interfering images by 32% obtaining by inkjet printing of titanium dioxide sol. The usage of this technology enables to obtain patterns with wide viewing angle and makes them highly stable. Methods. Traditional sol-gel method with peptizing agents and heating for 90oC was applied for sol synthesis. Then the mixture was under sonic treatment for the obtaining of viscous sol. The viscosity was determined by Brookfield HA/HB viscometer, and the surface tension by Kyowa DY-700 tensiometer. Aluminum oxide ink was deposited on polished slides (26×76 mm2, Paul Marienfeld, Germany, over titanium oxide layer. To print titania ink, we use a desktop office printer Canon Pixma IP 2840 and Dimatix DMP-2831. The thickness of an inkjet AlOOH layer after drying in the air and removal of the solvents did not exceed 150 nm with an RI not less than 1.35 in the entire visible range. Results. The stable colloidal ink was obtained for the first time on the base of aluminum oxide matrix with neutral pH. The rheology was regulated by controlling parameters of sol-gel method in the system of aqueous titanium dioxide sol and by adding ethanol that affects the charge of double electrical layer of disperse phase. The controllable coalesce of drops enables to apply antireflection coating within the thickness accuracy of 10 nm. The morphology of particles and the topology of printed structures were analyzed by optical, scanning electron and atomic-force microscopes. Practical Relevance. We have proposed the approach to obtain colorful, interference patterns using two types of high refractive inks with different refractive indexes. The inkjet printing method opens new opportunities for

  14. Sol-gel processes. January 1970-September 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the development and utilization of sol-gel processes and techniques. Topics include antireflective coatings, studies of sol-gel transitions, sol-gel synthesis and polymerization, sol-gel derived thin films and glasses, and sol-gel production of microspheres. Applications in nuclear waste management, nuclear-fuel manufacturing, glass optical waveguide development, and solar-energy collection are presented. (This updated bibliography contains 179 citations, 39 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. Luminescent hybrid porphyrinosilica obtained by sol gel chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Cláudio Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a methodology used to obtain organic-inorganic hybrid solids, which open new possibilities in the field of material science. The sol-gel technique offers a low temperature attractive approach for introducing organic molecules into amorphous materials. In order to introduce tetrakis (2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylporphyrin covalently bounded to a silicate matrix, the inorganic precursor 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane was added (molar ratio 2:1 to the porphyrin solution in anhydrous dimethylformamide and triethylamine. The isolated porphyrin and the hybrid porphyrinosilica have excitation maximum centred at 400 nm and 424 nm, respectively and the emission spectra for both materials has bands centred at 650 nm and 713 nm. The formation of hybrid matrix was investigated by FTIR.

  16. Dust Devil in Spirit's View Ahead on Sol 1854

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,854th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 21, 2009). The rover had driven 13.79 meters (45 feet) westward earlier on Sol 1854. West is at the center, where a dust devil is visible in the distance. North on the right, where Husband Hill dominates the horizon; Spirit was on top of Husband Hill in September and October 2005. South is on the left, where lighter-toned rock lines the edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Tough ceramic coatings: Carbon nanotube reinforced silica sol-gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A. J.; Rico, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Rams, J.

    2010-08-01

    Silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes were produced via sol-gel route using two mixing techniques of the sol-gel precursors, mechanical and ultrasonic mixing, and dip-coating as deposition process on magnesium alloy substrates. Effective incorporation and distribution of 0.1 wt.% of carbon nanotubes in the amorphous silica matrix of the coatings were achieved using both techniques. Fabrication procedure determines the morphological aspects of the coating. Only mechanical mixing process produced coatings dense and free of defects. Nanoindentation technique was used to examine the influence of the fabrication process in the mechanical features of the final coatings, i.e. indentation fracture toughness, Young's modulus and hardness. A maximum toughening effect of about 24% was achieved in silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes produced by the mechanical mixing route. Scanning electron microscopy investigation revealed that the toughening of these reinforced coatings was mainly due to bridging effect of the reinforcement.

  18. Color Views of Soil Scooped on Sol 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    These three color views show the Robotic Arm scoop from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image shows a handful of Martian soil dug from the digging site informally called 'Knave of Hearts,' from the trench informally called 'Dodo,' on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). 'Dodo' is the same site as the earlier test trench dug on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The Robotic Arm Camera took the three color views at different focus positions. Scientists can better study soil structure and estimate how much soil was collected by taking multiple images at different foci. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Tunable Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticle Sol-Gel Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Snow, Lanee A.; Sibille, Laurent; Ignont, Erica

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that the linear and non-linear optical properties of sol-gels containing metal nanoparticles are highly tunable with porosity. Moreover, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to inhomogeneous hosts, such as aerogels, and determine rigorous bounds for the average fractional composition of each component, i.e., the porosity of the aerogel, or equivalently, for these materials, the catalytic dispersion. Sol-gels containing noble metal nanoparticles were fabricated and a significant blue-shift in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was observed upon formation of an aerogel, as a result of the decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix upon supercritical extraction of the solvent. However, as a result of chemical interface damping and aggregation this blue-shift does not strictly obey standard effective medium theories. Mitigation of these complications is achieved by avoiding the use of alcohol and by annealing the samples in a reducing atmosphere.

  20. Medial collateral ligament healing one year after a concurrent medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament injury: an interdisciplinary study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, T; Levine, R E; Woo, S L; Niyibizi, C; Kavalkovich, K W; Weaver-Green, C M

    1996-03-01

    The optimal treatment for concurrent injuries to the medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligaments has not been determined, despite numerous clinical and laboratory studies. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of surgical repair of the medial collateral ligament on its biomechanical and biochemical properties 52 weeks after such injuries. In the left knee of 12 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, the medial collateral ligament was torn and the anterior cruciate ligament was transected and then reconstructed. This is an experimental model previously developed in our laboratory. In six rabbits, the torn ends of the medial collateral ligament were repaired, and in the remaining six rabbits, the ligament was not repaired. Fifty-two weeks after injury, we examined varus-valgus and anterior-posterior knee stability; structural properties of the femur-medial collateral ligament-tibia complex; and mechanical properties, collagen content, and mature collagen crosslinking of the medial collateral ligament. We could not detect significant differences between repair and nonrepair groups for any biomechanical or biochemical property. Our data support clinical findings that when the medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligaments are injured concurrently and the anterior cruciate ligament is reconstructed, conservative treatment of the ruptured medial collateral ligament can result in successful healing.

  1. Epoxy-silica hybrids by nonaqueous sol-gel process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ponyrko, Sergii; Kobera, Libor; Brus, Jiří; Matějka, Libor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 23 (2013), s. 6271-6282 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1459 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200500903 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : epoxy-silica hybrid * nonaqueous sol-gel process * gelation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.766, year: 2013

  2. Opportunity's View After Drive on Sol 1806 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11816 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11816 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 60.86 meters (200 feet) on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 21, 2009). North is at the center; south at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Engineers designed the Sol 1806 drive to be driven backwards as a strategy to redistribute lubricant in the rovers wheels. The right-front wheel had been showing signs of increased friction. The rover's position after the Sol 1806 drive was about 2 kilometer (1.2 miles) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 14.74 kilometers (9.16 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 2.96 kilometers (1.84 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008). This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. Nourrir le sol : la roche comme engrais phosphate | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 juil. 2011 ... Les paysans qui pratiquent l'agriculture de subsistance en Afrique subsaharienne n'ont pas d'argent de trop à consacrer à l'achat d'engrais. Pourtant, les engrais sont indispensables pour enrichir le sol tropical, pauvre en phosphate, de cette région. Le phosphore favorise l'enracinement précoce, la santé ...

  4. Measurement of inner wall limiter SOL widths in KSTAR tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Bak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrape-off layer (SOL widths λq are presented from the KSTAR tokamak using fast reciprocating Langmuir probe assembly (FRLPA measurements at the outboard mid-plane (OMP and the infra-Red (IR thermography at inboard limiter tiles in moderately elongated (κ = 1.45 – 1.55 L-mode inner wall-limited (IWL plasmas under experimental conditions such as BT = 2.0 T, PNBI = 1.4 – 1.5 MW, line averaged densities 2.5 – 5.1 × 1019 m−3 and plasma current Ip = 0.4 − 0.7 MA. There is clear evidence for a double exponential structure in q||(r from the FRLPA such that, for example at Ip = 0.6 MA, a narrow feature, λq,near (=3.5 mm is found close to the LFCS, followed by a broader width, λq,main (=57.0 mm. Double exponential profiles (λq,near = 1.5 – 2.8 mm, λq,main = 17.0 – 35.0 mm can be also observed in the IR heat flux mapped to the OMP throughout the range of Ip investigated. In addition, analysis of SOL turbulence statistics obtained with the FRLPA shows high relative fluctuation levels and positively skewed distributions in electron temperature and ion particle flux across the SOL, with both properties increasing for longer distance from the LCFS, as often previously observed in the tokamaks. Interestingly, the fluctuation character expressed in terms of spectral distributions remains unchanged in passing from the narrow to the broad SOL heat flux channel.

  5. Sol-Gel Thin Films for Plasmonic Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Martucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic gas sensors are optical sensors that use localized surface plasmons or extended surface plasmons as transducing platform. Surface plasmons are very sensitive to dielectric variations of the environment or to electron exchange, and these effects have been exploited for the realization of sensitive gas sensors. In this paper, we review our research work of the last few years on the synthesis and the gas sensing properties of sol-gel based nanomaterials for plasmonic sensors. PMID:26184216

  6. Morphology and the isoelectric point of nanosized aqueous ceria sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulicovski, Jelena J. [The Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Bračko, Ines [Advanced Materials Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Milonjić, Slobodan K., E-mail: smiloni@vinca.rs [The Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    Ceria sols were synthesized by a forced hydrolysis method using cerium sulphate or cerium nitrate as precursors. High-resolution TEM was used to determine the microstructure and particle size of CeO{sub 2}. A polycrystalline structure of ceria sols with crystallite sizes of 4.4 and 8.6 nm was obtained. The particles had a well-defined polyhedral shape. Direct bandgaps for ceria nanoparticles were 2.80 and 3.31 eV, respectively. The isoelectric point, pH{sub iep}, of ceria sols in KNO{sub 3} solutions was investigated. The isoelectric point of ceria was found to be pH{sub iep} = 7.6 ± 0.2. The obtained results indicate that the isoelectric point in the presence of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions shifts to lower pH value. The particle size of ceria increases with pH, reaching the maximum value at pH{sub iep} as the result of agglomeration{sub .} - Highlights: • Ceria sols with cubic phase nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized. • The isoelectric point of ceria oxide in KNO{sub 3} solutions was p{sub Hiep} = 7.6 ± 0.2. • The specific adsorption of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions causes a shift in IEP to lower pH (pH{sub iep} = 6.7). • The correlation between IEP and the maximum diameter of particles was observed.

  7. Mécanique des sols et des roches

    CERN Document Server

    Vullier, Laurent; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    La mécanique des sols et la mécanique des roches sont des disciplines généralement traitées séparément dans la littérature. Pour la première fois, un traité réunit ces deux spécialités, en intégrant également les connaissances en lien avec les écoulements souterrains et les transferts thermiques. A la fois théorique et pratique, cet ouvrage propose tout d'abord une description détaillée de la nature et de la composition des sols et des roches, puis s'attache à la modélisation de problèmes aux conditions limites et présente les essais permettant de caractériser les sols et les roches, tant d'un point de vue mécanique qu'hydraulique et thermique. La problématique des sols non saturés et des écoulements multiphasiques est également abordée. Une attention particulière est portée aux lois de comportement mécanique et à la détermination de leurs paramètres par des essais in situ et en laboratoire, et l'ouvrage offre également une présentation détaillée des systèmes de classi...

  8. Production of porous titanate microspheres by spray-drying of sols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizgek, E.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Porous, multi-component titanate microspheres (20 to 50 μm in diameter) have been produced on a 10 kg scale by spray-drying a precursor sol containing titania, zirconia and alumina, and calcining the resulting powders at 723 K. The mixed TiO 2 /ZrO 2 sols were produced by hydrolysing tetraisopropyltitanate and peptising the hydrolysate slurry with zirconyl nitrate solution. TiO 2 /ZrO 2 sols with oxide concentrations in excess of 900 g dm -3 were produced. These sols were subsequently mixed with dispersible δ-Al 2 O 3 to produce well-dispersed TiO 2 /ZrO 2 /Al 2 O 3 (TZA) sols. The rheology and degree of aggregation of the multi-component sols were controlled by the addition of Al(NO 3 ) 3 solution. At relatively low electrolyte concentrations, the sols exhibited Newtonian behaviour, and the viscosity increased with increasing addition of electrolyte. However, at higher electrolyte concentrations, the colloidal dispersions exhibited shear-thinning behaviour. Hollow spheres were produced by spray-drying well-dispersed sols. In contrast, 'solid' spheres were produced by using dilute Al(NO 3 ) 3 to produce partially-aggregated TZA sols, prior to spray-drying. Calcined microspheres produced from partially-aggregated sols had total porosities of ∼ 50 %, with average pore diameters of ∼ 8 nm. These particles exhibited a high sorption capacity for simulated High Level Nuclear Waste

  9. Functionalizable Sol-Gel Silica Coatings for Corrosion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorek, Jolanta; Babiarczuk, Bartosz; Kaleta, Jerzy; Jones, Walis; Krzak, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion is constantly a major problem of the world economy in the field of metal products, metal processing and other areas that utilise metals. Previously used compounds utilizing hexavalent chromium were amongst the most effective materials for corrosion protection but regulations have been recently introduced that forbid their use. Consequently, there is a huge drive by engineers, technologists and scientists from different disciplines focused on searching a new, more effective and environmentally-friendly means of corrosion protection. One novel group of materials with the potential to solve metal protection problems are sol-gel thin films, which are increasingly interesting as mitigation corrosion barriers. These environmentally-friendly and easy-to-obtain coatings have the promise to be an effective alternative to hexavalent chromium compounds using for anti-corrosion industrial coatings. In this review the authors present a range of different solutions for slow down the corrosion processes of metallic substrates by using the oxides and doped oxides obtained by the sol-gel method. Examples of techniques used to the sol-gel coating examinations, in terms of anti-corrosion protection, are also presented. PMID:29373540

  10. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Functionalizable Sol-Gel Silica Coatings for Corrosion Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Gąsiorek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is constantly a major problem of the world economy in the field of metal products, metal processing and other areas that utilise metals. Previously used compounds utilizing hexavalent chromium were amongst the most effective materials for corrosion protection but regulations have been recently introduced that forbid their use. Consequently, there is a huge drive by engineers, technologists and scientists from different disciplines focused on searching a new, more effective and environmentally-friendly means of corrosion protection. One novel group of materials with the potential to solve metal protection problems are sol-gel thin films, which are increasingly interesting as mitigation corrosion barriers. These environmentally-friendly and easy-to-obtain coatings have the promise to be an effective alternative to hexavalent chromium compounds using for anti-corrosion industrial coatings. In this review the authors present a range of different solutions for slow down the corrosion processes of metallic substrates by using the oxides and doped oxides obtained by the sol-gel method. Examples of techniques used to the sol-gel coating examinations, in terms of anti-corrosion protection, are also presented.

  12. Bright Soil Churned by Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove 22.7 meters (74 feet) toward the southwest on the 1,861st Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on Mars (March 28, 2009). After the drive, the rover took this image with its front hazard-avoidance camera, looking back at the tracks from the drive. As usual since losing the use of its right-front wheel in 2006, Spirit drove backwards. The immobile right-front wheel churned up a long stripe of bright soil during this drive. Where Spirit has found such bright soil in the past, subsequent analysis of the composition found concentrations of sulfur or silica that testified to past action of water at the site. When members of the rover team saw the large quantity of bright soil exposed by the Sol 1861 drive, they quickly laid plans to investigate the composition with Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. The Sol 1861 drive took the rover past the northwest corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate,' making progress on a route around the western side of Home Plate. The edge of Home Plate forms the horizon on the right side of this image. Husband Hill is on the horizon on the left side. For scale, the parallel rover wheel tracks are about 1 meter (40 inches) apart. The rover's hazard-avoidance cameras take 'fisheye' wide-angle images.

  13. Functionalizable Sol-Gel Silica Coatings for Corrosion Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorek, Jolanta; Szczurek, Anna; Babiarczuk, Bartosz; Kaleta, Jerzy; Jones, Walis; Krzak, Justyna

    2018-01-26

    Corrosion is constantly a major problem of the world economy in the field of metal products, metal processing and other areas that utilise metals. Previously used compounds utilizing hexavalent chromium were amongst the most effective materials for corrosion protection but regulations have been recently introduced that forbid their use. Consequently, there is a huge drive by engineers, technologists and scientists from different disciplines focused on searching a new, more effective and environmentally-friendly means of corrosion protection. One novel group of materials with the potential to solve metal protection problems are sol-gel thin films, which are increasingly interesting as mitigation corrosion barriers. These environmentally-friendly and easy-to-obtain coatings have the promise to be an effective alternative to hexavalent chromium compounds using for anti-corrosion industrial coatings. In this review the authors present a range of different solutions for slow down the corrosion processes of metallic substrates by using the oxides and doped oxides obtained by the sol-gel method. Examples of techniques used to the sol-gel coating examinations, in terms of anti-corrosion protection, are also presented.

  14. Sol-gel processing of bioactive glass nanoparticles: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2017-11-01

    Silicate-based bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGN) are gaining increasing attention in various biomedical applications due to their unique properties. Controlled synthesis of BGN is critical to their effective use in biomedical applications since BGN characteristics, such as morphology and composition, determining the properties of BGN, are highly related to the synthesis process. In the last decade, numerous investigations focusing on BGN synthesis have been reported. BGN can mainly be produced through the conventional melt-quench approach or by sol-gel methods. The latter approaches are drawing widespread attention, considering the convenience and versatility they offer to tune the properties of BGN. In this paper, we review the strategies of sol-gel processing of BGN, including those adopting different catalysts for initiating the hydrolysis and condensation of silicate precursors as well as those combining sol-gel chemistry with other techniques. The processes and mechanism of different synthesis approaches are introduced and discussed in detail. Considering the importance of the BGN morphology and composition to their biomedical applications, strategies put forward to control the size, shape, pore structure and composition of BGN are discussed. BGN are particularly interesting biomaterials for bone-related applications, however, they also have potential for other biomedical applications, e.g. in soft tissue regeneration/repair. Therefore, in the last part of this review, recently reported applications of BGN in soft tissue repair and wound healing are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation, purification, and characterization of aminopropyl-functionalized silica sol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálmai, Marcell; Nagy, Lívia Naszályi; Mihály, Judith; Varga, Zoltán; Tárkányi, Gábor; Mizsei, Réka; Szigyártó, Imola Csilla; Kiss, Teréz; Kremmer, Tibor; Bóta, Attila

    2013-01-15

    A new, simple, and "green" method was developed for the surface modification of 20 nm diameter Stöber silica particles with 3-aminopropyl(diethoxy)methylsilane in ethanol. The bulk polycondensation of the reagent was inhibited and the stability of the sol preserved by adding a small amount of glacial acetic acid after appropriate reaction time. Centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and dialysis were compared in order to choose a convenient purification technique that allows the separation of unreacted silylating agent from the nanoparticles without destabilizing the sol. The exchange of the solvent to acidic water during the purification yielded a stable colloid, as well. Structural and morphological analysis of the obtained aminopropyl silica was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), (13)C and (29)Si MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, as well as small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our investigations revealed that the silica nanoparticle surfaces were partially covered with aminopropyl groups, and multilayer adsorption followed by polycondensation of the silylating reagent was successfully avoided. The resulting stable aminopropyl silica sol (ethanolic or aqueous) is suitable for biomedical uses due to its purity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamics Research on the Gelling Course of Silica Sol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUYi-chun; LIZai-geng

    1995-01-01

    Dreipping electrolytes into silica sol ,gelling reaction will occur,The research indicates:this is a complicated physicemistry course,which consists of a pre-reaction and a polymerizaion,The former controls the whole course,and in which electronic layers of the sol's particles be-come more and more thiner,but with incresing of the sol concentration,its control force will be diminished ,till the fast-coagulation ,the gelling couse becomes o-controlled,The latter is an in-finite polymeric chani-reaction.The result of gelatination is to produce a very big plymeric molecule-gel,which involves in all space,includes all water ,and its molecular weight is in-definite big.The researh also indicates:the dy-namic course of the gelling could be described quantitaively by an experience formula:lgt=-nlgc+B,All of the characteristic values have definite physical meaning,Electronic value of the contrary-inos is the biggest influential factor ,the natures of the contrary-ions and the natures of the same-electronic-inos have a few influential forces on the characteristic values,The temperature increasing makes the gelling reaction fast.

  17. The Influence of Microgravity on Silica Sol-Gel Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, L.; Smith, D. D.; Cronise, R.; Hunt, A. J.; Wolfe, D. B.; Snow, L. A.; Oldenberg, S.; Halas, N.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We discuss space-flight experiments involving the growth of silica particles and gels. The effect of microgravity on the growth of silica particles via the sol-gel route is profound. In four different recipes spanning a large range of the parameter space that typically produces silica nanoparticles in unit-gravity, low-density gel structures were instead formed in microgravity. The particles that did form were generally smaller and more polydisperse than those grown on the ground. These observations suggest that microgravity reduces the particle growth rate, allowing unincorporated species to form aggregates and ultimately gel. Hence microgravity favors the formation of more rarefied structures, providing a bias towards diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation. These results further suggest that in unit gravity, fluid flows and sedimentation can significantly perturb sol-gel substructures prior to gelation and these deleterious perturbations may be "frozen" into the resulting microstructure. Hence, sol-gel pores may be expected to be smaller, more uniform, and less rough when formed in microgravity.

  18. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  19. Synthesis of cadmium tungstate films via sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennstrom, Kirk; Limmer, Steven J.; Cao Guozhong

    2003-06-23

    Cadmium tungstate is a scintillator material with excellent intrinsic photoluminescent properties. It is highly resistant to gamma radiation, has an almost non-existent afterglow and is highly efficient. Cadmium tungstate is also non-hydroscopic, unlike the more prevalent thallium-doped alkali halide scintillators. In order to create thin films of cadmium tungstate with precise stoichiometric control, a sol-gel processing technique has been applied to produce this material for the first time. In addition to lower processing temperatures, sol-gel-derived cadmium tungstate is cheaper and easier than other technologies, particularly for thin films. Furthermore, it has the potential to produce nanostructured materials with good optical quality. X-Ray diffraction results of sol-gel-derived materials fired at various temperatures imply crystallization of cadmium tungstate without the intermediate formation of either tungsten oxide or cadmium oxide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows the formation of nano-sized particles prior to heat treatment, which form meso-sized particles after the heat treatment. Photoluminesce analysis indicates emission of derived films at 480 nm, which agrees with other published data. Finally, the efficiency of derived films was approximately 6%{+-}1.8%.

  20. Medial patellar ossification after patellar instability: a radiographic finding indicative of prior patella subluxation/dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerabek, Seth A. [Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program, Boston, MA (United States); Asnis, Peter D.; Poon, Steven K.; Gill, Thomas J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A.; Ouellette, Hugue A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    To describe the correlation between medial patellar ossification and prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. A retrospective billing database search identified 544 patients who had been diagnosed with patellar instability over a 13-year period. One hundred twenty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. After review by a staff orthopedic surgeon and two musculoskeletal radiologists, 28 patients were found to have medial patellar ossification. The size and location of medial patellar ossification was recorded. Of the 28 patients (20 males, eight females, age 13-66 years, mean 28 years) who were found to have medial patellar ossification, 22 had radiographs, 16 had magnetic resonance imaging, and ten had both. The medial patellar ossification ranged in size from 2 to 18 mm with an average of 6.8 mm. Twelve were located in the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), 14 in the medial joint capsule, and two in both the MPFL and joint capsule. Twenty-seven of 28 patients had a single ossification, and one patient had two ossifications. The timing from injury to first imaging of the lesion ranged from 10 days to a chronic history ({>=}35 years) of patellar instability. Medial patellar ossification correlates with a history of prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. The medial ossification can be seen within the MPFL or the medial joint capsule, suggesting remote injury to these structures. The presence of this lesion will prompt physicians to evaluate for patellar instability. (orig.)

  1. Medial patellar ossification after patellar instability: a radiographic finding indicative of prior patella subluxation/dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerabek, Seth A.; Asnis, Peter D.; Poon, Steven K.; Gill, Thomas J.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Ouellette, Hugue A.

    2009-01-01

    To describe the correlation between medial patellar ossification and prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. A retrospective billing database search identified 544 patients who had been diagnosed with patellar instability over a 13-year period. One hundred twenty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. After review by a staff orthopedic surgeon and two musculoskeletal radiologists, 28 patients were found to have medial patellar ossification. The size and location of medial patellar ossification was recorded. Of the 28 patients (20 males, eight females, age 13-66 years, mean 28 years) who were found to have medial patellar ossification, 22 had radiographs, 16 had magnetic resonance imaging, and ten had both. The medial patellar ossification ranged in size from 2 to 18 mm with an average of 6.8 mm. Twelve were located in the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), 14 in the medial joint capsule, and two in both the MPFL and joint capsule. Twenty-seven of 28 patients had a single ossification, and one patient had two ossifications. The timing from injury to first imaging of the lesion ranged from 10 days to a chronic history (≥35 years) of patellar instability. Medial patellar ossification correlates with a history of prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. The medial ossification can be seen within the MPFL or the medial joint capsule, suggesting remote injury to these structures. The presence of this lesion will prompt physicians to evaluate for patellar instability. (orig.)

  2. Fracture of an unossified humeral medial epicondyle: use of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Katsuhisa; Miyamoto, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Fracture of the humeral medial epicondyle is a relatively common injury in children. Surgery is a good option for treatment, but correct diagnosis is important. Most fractures occur after the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. If a fracture occurs before the ossification of the medial epicondyle, it is undetectable by radiographs. Here we report a case of an unossified medial epicondyle fracture of the humerus. A 9-year-old boy had persistent pain in the medial side of the right elbow after a fall. Despite his pain, he could move his injured elbow with a range from 60 to 90 . Radiographs and computed tomography showed neither fracture nor dislocation in the injured elbow, and soft tissue swelling was the only finding. Neither the trochlea nor the medial epicondyle was ossified. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the medial epicondyle was separated from the medial metaphysis and displaced. This clear finding led us to surgical fixation. Under general anesthesia, valgus stress showed gross instability of the injured elbow. Two years after the operation, he had no complaints and could play sports with the same range of motion as the left elbow. It is important to keep in mind that medial epicondylar fractures may be hidden in a normal radiograph before the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. (orig.)

  3. Fracture of an unossified humeral medial epicondyle: use of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Katsuhisa; Miyamoto, Nao [Nishinomiya Municipal Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Fracture of the humeral medial epicondyle is a relatively common injury in children. Surgery is a good option for treatment, but correct diagnosis is important. Most fractures occur after the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. If a fracture occurs before the ossification of the medial epicondyle, it is undetectable by radiographs. Here we report a case of an unossified medial epicondyle fracture of the humerus. A 9-year-old boy had persistent pain in the medial side of the right elbow after a fall. Despite his pain, he could move his injured elbow with a range from 60 to 90 . Radiographs and computed tomography showed neither fracture nor dislocation in the injured elbow, and soft tissue swelling was the only finding. Neither the trochlea nor the medial epicondyle was ossified. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the medial epicondyle was separated from the medial metaphysis and displaced. This clear finding led us to surgical fixation. Under general anesthesia, valgus stress showed gross instability of the injured elbow. Two years after the operation, he had no complaints and could play sports with the same range of motion as the left elbow. It is important to keep in mind that medial epicondylar fractures may be hidden in a normal radiograph before the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. (orig.)

  4. The effect of different depths of medial heel skive on plantar pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonanno Daniel R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot orthoses are often used to treat lower limb injuries associated with excessive pronation. There are many orthotic modifications available for this purpose, with one being the medial heel skive. However, empirical evidence for the mechanical effects of the medial heel skive modification is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect that different depths of medial heel skive have on plantar pressures. Methods Thirty healthy adults (mean age 24 years, range 18–46 with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture and no current foot pain or deformity participated in this study. Using the in-shoe pedar-X® system, plantar pressure data were collected for the rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot while participants walked along an 8 metre walkway wearing a standardised shoe. Experimental conditions included a customised foot orthosis with the following 4 orthotic modifications: (i no medial heel skive, (ii a 2 mm medial heel skive, (iii a 4 mm medial heel skive and (iv a 6 mm medial heel skive. Results Compared to the foot orthosis with no medial heel skive, statistically significant increases in peak pressure were observed at the medial rearfoot – there was a 15% increase (p = 0.001 with the 4 mm skive and a 29% increase (p  Conclusions This study found that a medial heel skive of 4 mm or 6 mm increases peak pressure under the medial rearfoot in asymptomatic adults with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture. Plantar pressures at the midfoot and forefoot were not altered by a medial heel skive of 2, 4 or 6 mm. These findings provide some evidence for the effects of the medial heel skive orthotic modification.

  5. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  6. Modulating Phonation Through Alteration of Vocal Fold Medial Surface Contour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Ted; Muhlestein, Joseph; Callahan, Sean; Chan, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1. To test whether alteration of the vocal fold medial surface contour can improve phonation. 2. To demonstrate that implant material properties affect vibration even when implant is deep to the vocal fold lamina propria. Study Design Induced phonation of excised human larynges. Methods Thirteen larynges were harvested within 24 hours post-mortem. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and flow (PTF) were measured before and after vocal fold injections using either calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Small-volume injections (median 0.0625 mL) were targeted to the infero-medial aspect of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. Implant locations were assessed histologically. Results The effect of implantation on PTP was material-dependent. CaHA tended to increase PTP, whereas HA tended to decrease PTP (Wilcoxon test P = 0.00013 for onset). In contrast, the effect of implantation on PTF was similar, with both materials tending to decrease PTF (P = 0.16 for onset). Histology confirmed implant presence in the inferior half of the vocal fold vertical thickness. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggested the implants may have altered the vocal fold medial surface contour, potentially resulting in a less convergent or more rectangular glottal geometry as a means to improve phonation. An implant with a closer viscoelastic match to vocal fold cover is desirable for this purpose, as material properties can affect vibration even when the implant is not placed within the lamina propria. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions and implies greater need for surgical precision in implant placement and care in material selection. PMID:22865592

  7. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi, E-mail: kbala82@rediffmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. Black

  8. Bilateral Endoscopic Medial Maxillectomy for Bilateral Inverted Papilloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Inverted papilloma (IP) is a benign tumor of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that is unilateral in most cases. Bilateral IP, involving both sides of the nasal cavity and sinuses, is extremely rare. This paper describes a large IP that filled in both sides of the nasal cavity and sinuses, mimicking association with malignancy. The tumor was successfully treated by bilateral endoscopic medial maxillectomy (EMM). The patient is without evidence of the disease 24 months after surgery. If preoperative diagnosis does not confirm the association with malignancy in IP, endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) should be selected, and ESS, including EMM, is a good first choice of the treatment for IP. PMID:22953103

  9. Current advances in the treatment of medial and lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpada, Sandip P; Morris, Matthew T; Lian, Jayson; Rashidi, Sina

    2018-03-01

    Despite advances elucidating the causes of lateral and medial epicondylitis, the standard of care remains conservative management with NSAIDs, physical therapy, bracing, and rest. Scar tissue formation provoked by conservative management creates a tendon lacking the biomechanical properties and mechanical strength of normal tendon. The following review analyzes novel therapies to regenerate tendon and regain function in patients with epicondylitis. These treatments include PRP injection, BMAC, collagen-producing cell injection, and stem cell treatments. While these treatments are in early stages of investigation, they may warrant further consideration based on prospects of pain alleviation, function enhancement, and improved healing.

  10. Bilateral Medial Medullary Infarction with Nondominant Vertebral Artery Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Gui-lian; Du, Ju-mei; Ma, Zhu-lin

    2015-09-01

    Bilateral medial medullary infarction (MMI) is a rare stroke subtype. Here, we report a case with bilateral MMI caused by nondominant vertebral artery occlusion confirmed by brain digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging basi-parallel-anatomical-scanning. We highlight that anterior spinal arteries could originate from a unilateral vertebral artery (VA). Radiologists and neurologists should pay attention to the nondominant VA as bilateral MMI may be induced by occlusion of nondominant VA that supplies the bilateral anteromedial territories of the medulla. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Arthroscopic meniscectomy in medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Joji; Shimoyama, Gishichiro; Shinozaki, Toshiro; Nagata, Kensei

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the results of arthroscopic meniscectomy in medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. The operation was performed on 25 knee joints (8 male, 17 female) with the mean age of 67 years. The mean period of follow-up was 19 months. Clinical results were more or less excellent, but radiological assessment suggested slight osteoarthritic changes. In addition, two cases progressed to subchondral bone collapse. Of 12 cases which had no bone marrow edema on MRI before surgery, six (50%) cases showed it at follow-up. These findings suggest a possible relationship between arthroscopic meniscectomy and later appearance of osteonecrosis in some cases. (author)

  12. The influence of sol on the behavior of melting and nonisothermal crystallization kinetic of radiation cross-linking HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Pengyang; Xie Hongfeng; Deng Mingxiao; Zhong Xiaoguang

    2000-01-01

    By using DSC, the behavior of second melting and nonisothermal crystallization of pure gel pure sol and sol-gel blend of radiation crosslinking HDPE was studied. The authors found that, because of the existence of sol, there is notable difference between pure gel and pure sol or sol-gel blend. Under the same dose, the melting point and crystallization temperature of pure sol and sol-gel blend are higher than that of pure gel. At the same time, the authors also found that the Avrami exponent of original PE, pure sol and sol-gel blend is the similar to each other and different to that of pure gel, which means that the procedure of nucleation and growth of these samples is the same and also different to that of pure gel

  13. Kinematics of partial and total ruptures of the medial collateral ligament of the elbow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eygendaal, D; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Jensen, Steen Lund

    2000-01-01

    In this study the kinematics of partial and total ruptures of the medial collateral ligament of the elbow are investigated. After selective transection of the medial collateral ligament of 8 osteoligamentous intact elbow preparations was performed, 3-dimensional measurements of angular displacement......, increase in medial joint opening, and translation of the radial head were examined during application of relevant stress. Increase in joint opening was significant only after complete transection of the anterior part of the medial collateral ligament was performed. The joint opening was detected during...... valgus and internal rotatory stress only. After partial transection of the anterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament was performed, there was an elbow laxity to valgus and internal rotatory force, which became significant after transection of 100% of the anterior bundle of the medial collateral...

  14. Safety based on organisational learning (SOL) - Conceptual approach and verification of a method for event analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.; Wilpert, B.; Fahlbruch, B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for analysing safety-relevant events in NPP which is known as 'SOL', safety based on organisational learning. After discussion of the specific organisational and psychological problems examined in the event analysis, the analytic process using the SOL approach is explained as well as the required general setting. The SOL approach has been tested both with scientific experiments and from the practical perspective, by operators of NPPs and experts from other branches of industry. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon combined with reconstruction of medial patellotibial ligament using patellar tendon: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Bremer Hinckel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe a surgical technique for anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon; and to present the initial results from a case series. METHOD: The proposed technique was used on a series of cases of patients with diagnoses of patellofemoral instability and indications for surgical treatment, who were attended by the Knee Group of HC-IOT, University of São Paulo. The following were evaluated before and after the operation: range of motion (ROM, apprehension test, lateral translation test, patellar inclination test, inverted J sign, subluxation upon extension, pain from compression of the patella and pain from contraction of the quadriceps. After the operation, the patients were asked whether any new episode of dislocation had occurred, what their degree of satisfaction with the surgery was (on a scale from 0 to 10 and whether they would be prepared to go through this operation again. RESULTS: Seven knees were operated, in seven patients, with a mean follow-up of 5.46 months (±2.07. Four patients who presented apprehension before the operation did not show this after the operation. The lateral translation test became normal for all the patients, while the patellar inclination test remained positive for two patients. The patients with an inverted J sign continued to be positive for this sign. Five patients were positive for subluxation upon extension before the operation, but all patients were negative for this after the operation. None of the patients presented any new episode of dislocation of the patella. All of them stated that they were satisfied: five gave a satisfaction score of 9 and two, a score of 10. All of them said that they would undergo the operation again. Only one patient presented a postoperative complication: dehiscence of the wound. CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of the

  16. Arterial injury promotes medial chondrogenesis in Sm22 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianbin; Yang, Maozhou; Jiang, Hong; Ju, Donghong; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Xu, Zhonghui; Liao, Tang-Dong; Li, Li

    2011-04-01

    Expression of SM22 (also known as SM22alpha and transgelin), a vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) marker, is down-regulated in arterial diseases involving medial osteochondrogenesis. We investigated the effect of SM22 deficiency in a mouse artery injury model to determine the role of SM22 in arterial chondrogenesis. Sm22 knockout (Sm22(-/-)) mice developed prominent medial chondrogenesis 2 weeks after carotid denudation as evidenced by the enhanced expression of chondrogenic markers including type II collagen, aggrecan, osteopontin, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and SRY-box containing gene 9 (SOX9). This was concomitant with suppression of VSMC key transcription factor myocardin and of VSMC markers such as SM α-actin and myosin heavy chain. The conversion tendency from myogenesis to chondrogenesis was also observed in primary Sm22(-/-) VSMCs and in a VSMC line after Sm22 knockdown: SM22 deficiency altered VSMC morphology with compromised stress fibre formation and increased actin dynamics. Meanwhile, the expression level of Sox9 mRNA was up-regulated while the mRNA levels of myocardin and VSMC markers were down-regulated, indicating a pro-chondrogenic transcriptional switch in SM22-deficient VSMCs. Furthermore, the increased expression of SOX9 was mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species production and nuclear factor-κB pathway activation. These findings suggest that disruption of SM22 alters the actin cytoskeleton and promotes chondrogenic conversion of VSMCs.

  17. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiki Tajima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2O  15 positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11. Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue.

  18. Medial prefrontal cortex role in recognition memory in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2015-10-01

    The study of the neurobiology of recognition memory, defined by the integration of the different components of experiences that support recollection of past experiences have been a challenge for memory researches for many years. In the last twenty years, with the development of the spontaneous novel object recognition task and all its variants this has started to change. The features of recognition memory include a particular object or person ("what"), the context in which the experience took place, which can be the arena itself or the location within a particular arena ("where") and the particular time at which the event occurred ("when"). This definition instead of the historical anthropocentric one allows the study of this type of episodic memory in animal models. Some forms of recognition memory that require integration of different features recruit the medial prefrontal cortex. Focusing on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rodents, this review concentrates on the description of previous works that have examined the role that the medial prefrontal cortex has on the different steps of recognition memory. We conclude that this structure, independently of the task used, is required at different memory stages when the task cannot be solved by a single item strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MRI parcellation of ex vivo medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinack, Jean C; Magnain, Caroline; Reuter, Martin; van der Kouwe, André J W; Boas, David; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Recent advancements in radio frequency coils, field strength and sophisticated pulse sequences have propelled modern brain mapping and have made validation to biological standards - histology and pathology - possible. The medial temporal lobe has long been established as a pivotal brain region for connectivity, function and unique structure in the human brain, and reveals disconnection in mild Alzheimer's disease. Specific brain mapping of mesocortical areas affected with neurofibrillary tangle pathology early in disease progression provides not only an accurate description for location of these areas but also supplies spherical coordinates that allow comparison between other ex vivo cases and larger in vivo datasets. We have identified several cytoarchitectonic features in the medial temporal lobe with high resolution ex vivo MRI, including gray matter structures such as the entorhinal layer II 'islands', perirhinal layer II-III columns, presubicular 'clouds', granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus as well as lamina of the hippocampus. Localization of Brodmann areas 28 and 35 (entorhinal and perirhinal, respectively) demonstrates MRI based area boundaries validated with multiple methods and histological stains. Based on our findings, both myelin and Nissl staining relate to contrast in ex vivo MRI. Precise brain mapping serves to create modern atlases for cortical areas, allowing accurate localization with important applications to detecting early disease processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous avascular necrosis of both medial and lateral femoral condyles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of a femoral condyle is a common orthopaedic condition. While both medial and lateral femoral condyles may be involved either singly or sequentially the simultaneous occurrence of AVN of both femoral condyles is extremely uncommon. A 57-year-old male is presented who developed the onset of severe left sided knee pain suddenly at rest. Plain and tomographic radiography was unremarkable and a bone scan was performed. Markedly increased vascularity was demonstrated in the left knee with intense osteoblastic activity in the left medial and femoral condyles more marked in the lateral femoral condyle. A diagnosis of AVN of both femoral condyles was made and a MRI exam was performed to confirm this unusual diagnosis. The MRI showed a diffuse increase in intensity bilaterally with subtle bony change in the subarticular bone consistent with AVN more marked in the left lateral femoral condyle. The patients' symptoms resolved with supportive treatment. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  1. Medial-lateral organization of the orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Erin L; Wallis, Jonathan D

    2014-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that specific cognitive functions localize to different subregions of OFC, but the nature of these functional distinctions remains unclear. One prominent theory, derived from human neuroimaging, proposes that different stimulus valences are processed in separate orbital regions, with medial and lateral OFC processing positive and negative stimuli, respectively. Thus far, neurophysiology data have not supported this theory. We attempted to reconcile these accounts by recording neural activity from the full medial-lateral extent of the orbital surface in monkeys receiving rewards and punishments via gain or loss of secondary reinforcement. We found no convincing evidence for valence selectivity in any orbital region. Instead, we report differences between neurons in central OFC and those on the inferior-lateral orbital convexity, in that they encoded different sources of value information provided by the behavioral task. Neurons in inferior convexity encoded the value of external stimuli, whereas those in OFC encoded value information derived from the structure of the behavioral task. We interpret these results in light of recent theories of OFC function and propose that these distinctions, not valence selectivity, may shed light on a fundamental organizing principle for value processing in orbital cortex.

  2. Working memory for conjunctions relies on the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ingrid R; Page, Katie; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Chatterjee, Anjan; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2006-04-26

    A prominent theory of hippocampal function proposes that the hippocampus is importantly involved in relating or binding together separate pieces of information to form an episodic representation. This hypothesis has only been applied to studies of long-term memory because the paradigmatic view of the hippocampus is that it is not critical for short-term forms of memory. However, relational processing is important in many working memory tasks, especially tasks using visual stimuli. Here, we test the hypothesis that the medial temporal lobes are important for relational memory even over short delays. The task required patients with medial temporal lobe amnesia and controls to remember three objects, locations, or object-location conjunctions over 1 or 8 s delays. The results show that working memory for objects and locations was at normal levels, but that memory for conjunctions was severely impaired at 8 s delays. Additional analyses suggest that the hippocampus per se is critical for accurate conjunction working memory. We propose that the hippocampus is critically involved in memory for conjunctions at both short and long delays.

  3. Comparison Of Medial Arch-Supporting Insoles And Heel Pads In The Treatment Of Plantar Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkoc Melih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantar fasciitis is a disorder caused by inflammation of the insertion point of the plantar fascia over the medial tubercle of the calcaneus. Foot orthotics are used to treat plantar fasciitis. Heel pads medialise the centre of force, whereas medial arch supporting insoles lateralise the force. We assessed the clinical results of the treatment of plantar fasciitis with silicone heel pads and medial arch-supported silicone insoles.

  4. The Prevalence of Medial Epicondylitis Among Patients With C6 and C7 Radiculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aaron Taylor; Lee-Robinson, Ayse L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Medial epicondylitis, or golfer’s/pitcher’s elbow, develops as a result of medial stress overload on the flexor muscles at the elbow and presents as pain at the medial epicondyle. Cervical radiculopathy has been associated with lateral epicondylitis, but few associations between the cervical spine and medial epicondylitis have been made. Researchers propose that there is an association, suggesting that the weakness and imbalance in the elbow flexor and extensor muscles from C6 and C7 radiculopathy allow for easy onset of medial epicondylitis. Hypothesis: Medial epicondylitis will present in over half the patients diagnosed with C6 and C7 radiculopathy. Methodology: A total of 102 patients initially presenting with upper extremity or neck symptoms were diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy. They were then examined for medial epicondylitis. Data were collected by referring to patient charts from February 2008 until June 2009. Results: Fifty-five patients were diagnosed with medial epicondylitis. Of these, 44 had C6 and C7 radiculopathy whereas 11 presented with just C6 radiculopathy. Conclusion: Medial epicondylitis presented with cervical radiculopathy in slightly more than half the patients. Weakening of the flexor carpi radialis and pronator teres and imbalance of the flexor and extensor muscles from the C6 and C7 radiculopathy allow for easy onset of medial epicondylitis. Patients with medial epicondylitis should be examined for C6 and C7 radiculopathy to ensure proper treatment. Physicians dealing with golfers, pitchers, or other patients with medial epicondylitis should be aware of the association between these 2 diagnoses to optimize care. PMID:23015956

  5. The mechanical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. METHODS: Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. RESULTS: Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (P<0.0001. When the proximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P ≤ 0.0207. Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.

  6. Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Tuohy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum Neurotoxin A (BoNT-A injections have been used for the treatment of muscle contractures and spasticity. This study assessed the influence of (BoNT-A injections on passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GC was injected with BoNT-A (n = 18 or normal saline (n = 18 and passive, non-destructive, in vivo load relaxation experimentation was performed to examine how the muscle-tendon unit behaves after chemical denervation with BoNT-A. Injection of BoNT-A impaired passive muscle recovery (15% vs. 35% recovery to pre-stretching baseline, p < 0.05 and decreased GC stiffness (0.531 ± 0.061 N/mm vs. 0.780 ± 0.037 N/mm, p < 0.05 compared to saline controls. The successful use of BoNT-A injections as an adjunct to physical therapy may be in part attributed to the disruption of the stretch reflex; thereby modulating in vivo passive muscle properties. However, it is also possible that BoNT-A injection may alter the structure of skeletal muscle; thus modulating the in vivo passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit.

  7. Seasonal variations of anti-/apoptotic and antioxidant proteins in the heart and gastrocnemius muscle of the water frog Pelophylax ridibundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Anestis, Andreas; Michaelidis, Basile

    2013-10-01

    In the present work we investigated the seasonal variations of apoptotic and antioxidant proteins in the heart and gastrocnemius muscle of the amphibian Pelophylax ridibundus. Particularly processes studied included the evaluation of hypoxia through the levels of transcriptional factor Hif-1α, of apoptosis through the determination of Bcl-2 and Bax, ubiquitin conjugates levels and the antioxidant defense through the determination of the activity of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Due to a general metabolic depression during overwintering, levels of the above mentioned proteins and enzymes are generally retained at low levels of expression and activity in the examined tissues of P. ridibundus. On the other hand recovery from overwintering induces oxidative stress, followed by increased levels of the specific proteins and enzymes. A milder up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes during overwintering probably prepares P. ridibundus for oxidative stress during arousal. The seasonal activation of these mechanisms seems to protect this species from these unfavourable conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure changes in the sol-gel systems of hydrated oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponov, Y.A.; Karakchiev, L.G.; Lyakhov, N.Z.; Tolochko, B.P.; Ito, K.; Amemiya, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Sols of hydrated aluminium oxide, hydrated zirconium oxide and their mixtures were investigated during the xerogel-amorphous-product-crystalline-product transition by SAXS using synchrotron radiation. In the different temperature regions certain changes in structure and morphology were observed. Some correlation between the characteristics of the initial sols and their mixtures (the size and shape of the pores) was observed. In the temperature region 298-1173 K the characteristics of the mixed sol are defined by the characteristics of the initial sols

  9. Characterization of the allergen Sol gem 2 from the fire ant venom, Solenopsis geminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sukprasert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sol i 2 is a potent allergen in Solenopsis invicta venom, and most humans exhibit reactivity to it. The Sol gem 2 allergen found in the venom of the Thai tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata was analysed in the present study. The protein was present in higher amounts than other proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, and presumably has allergenic properties similar to those of Sol i 2. Sol gem 2 molecular weight is 28 and 15 kDa, respectively, under non-reducing and reducing conditions, indicating that its native form is a dimer. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed its similarity to Sol i 2. The mono/dimeric form of Sol gem 2 was determined to be relevant by proteomic approach and immunoblotting. An anti-Sol gem 2 antibody was produced in mice, with a titer greater than 1:800 according to the Western blotting analysis. The Sol gem 2-neutralising activity of this antibody was determined in crickets. The paralytic dose 50 (PD50 of crude S. geminata venom was elevated from 0.18 mg/g of body weight to more than 0.90 mg/g of body weight after preincubation with antibody at a ratio of 1:1. These results suggest that Sol gem 2 plays an important role in mediating the effects of the piperidine derivatives in the venom.

  10. SOL-Gel microspheres and nanospheres for controlled release applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.; Beyer, R.; Kong, L.; Blackford, M.; Trautman, R.; Bartlett, J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the synthesis of inorganic sol-gel microspheres for encapsulating organic and bioactive molecules, and controlling their subsequent release kinetics. The bioactive species are incorporated, at ambient temperature, into the inorganic particles using an emulsion gelation process. Independent control of the release rate (by adapting the nanostructure of the internal pore network to the physico-chemical properties of the bioactive molecules) and particle size (by tailoring the emulsion chemistry) is demonstrated. Sol-gel chemistry has been shown to be a flexible technique for producing inorganic silica matrices with tailored microstructures, which can be used for the encapsulation and controlled release of organic and bioactive molecules. The present paper extends this concept by combining sol-gel chemistry with an emulsion approach for producing inorganic particles with controlled dimensions, and demonstrates how the particle size and microstructure can be independently controlled. Sol-Gel Chemistry and Encapsulation of Model Compounds. A stock solution of 4-(2-hydroxy-l-naphthylazo) benzene sulfonic acid (Orange II) was produced by dissolving Orange II in water (0.1 wt%), and adjusting the pH to the required value. Sol-gel solutions were subsequently prepared by mixing the aqueous solution with tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) and methanol (MeOH), to achieve H 2 O:TMOS (W] and MeOH:TMOS mole ratios (D) of four. The resulting solution was stirred and left to age at ambient temperature for one day. A transparent emulsion was prepared by mixing selected surfactants and organic solvents. The surfactants used included sorbitan monooleate, sorbitan monolaurate and bis-2-ethylhexylsulfo-succinate (AOT), while the organic phase was typically chosen from the group consisting of kerosene, hexane, heptane, octane, decane, dodecane and cyclohexane. The sol-gel solution was added to the emulsion, and the resulting mixture was stirred at 500 rpm for

  11. Early seizure propagation from the occipital lobe to medial temporal structures and its surgical implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Naotaka; Mihara, Tadahiro; Baba, Koichi; Matsuda, Kazumi; Tottori, Takayasu; Umeoka, Shuichi; Nakamura, Fumihiro; Terada, Kiyohito; Usui, Keiko; Inoue, Yushi

    2008-12-01

    Intracranial EEG documentation of seizure propagation from the occipital lobe to medial temporal structures is relatively rare. We retrospectively analyzed intracranial EEG recorded with electrodes implanted in the medial temporal lobe in patients who underwent occipital lobe surgery. Four patients with occipital lesions, who underwent intracranial EEG monitoring with intracerebral electrodes implanted in the medial temporal lobe prior to occipital lobe surgery, were studied. Subdural electrodes were placed over the occipital lobe and adjacent areas. Intracerebral electrodes were implanted into bilateral hippocampi and the amygdala in three patients, and in the hippocampus and amygdala ipsilateral to the lesion in one. In light of the intracranial EEG findings, the occipital lobe was resected but the medial temporal lobe was spared in all patients. The follow-up period ranged from six to 16 years, and seizure outcome was Engel Class I in all patients. Sixty six seizures were analyzed. The majority of the seizures originated from the occipital lobe. In complex partial seizures, ictal discharges propagated to the medial temporal lobe. No seizures originating from the temporal lobe were documented. In some seizures, the ictal-onset zone could not be identified. In these seizures, very early propagation to the medial temporal lobe was observed. Interictal spikes were recorded in the medial temporal lobe in all cases. Intracranial EEG revealed very early involvement of the medial temporal lobe in some seizures. Seizure control was achieved without resection of the medial temporal structures.

  12. Case report - curved femoral osteotomy for management of medial patellar luxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allpass, Maja; Miles, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    Medial patellaluxation kan forårsages af femoral varus hos hund. Førhen har patienter med excessiv femoralvarus været korrigeret ved en lateralt placeret femoral kile-ostektomi. Her præsenteres en case, hvor en buet osteotomi blev anvendt til behandling af medial patellaluxation.......Medial patellaluxation kan forårsages af femoral varus hos hund. Førhen har patienter med excessiv femoralvarus været korrigeret ved en lateralt placeret femoral kile-ostektomi. Her præsenteres en case, hvor en buet osteotomi blev anvendt til behandling af medial patellaluxation....

  13. Simultaneous MPFL and LPFL reconstruction for recurrent lateral patellar dislocation with medial patellofemoral instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kusano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare case of both recurrent lateral patella dislocation and medial patellofemoral instability, following prior operations to correct patella maltracking. Manual translation of the patella revealed medial and lateral instability with a positive apprehension sign. 3-D computer modelling of kinematics based on MRI data demonstrated that the patella deviated laterally at full extension and translated medially with knee flexion. The medial and lateral patellofemoral ligaments were reconstructed simultaneously with hamstring tendons, alleviating peripatellar pain and patellar instability in both directions.

  14. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  15. First Metatarsal Head and Medial Eminence Widths with and Without Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Robin C; Nagesh, Darshan; Park, Hannah K; Grady, John

    2016-09-02

    Resection of the medial eminence in hallux valgus surgery is common. True hypertrophy of the medial eminence in hallux valgus is debated. No studies have compared metatarsal head width in patients with hallux valgus and control patients. We reviewed 43 radiographs with hallux valgus and 27 without hallux valgus. We measured medial eminence width, first metatarsal head width, and first metatarsal shaft width in patients with and without radiographic hallux valgus. Medial eminence width was 1.12 mm larger in patients with hallux valgus (P hallux valgus (P hallux valgus. However, frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal likely accounts for this difference.

  16. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: 'SCOPEX', a randomised control trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V

    2012-01-01

    Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential...... to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have...

  17. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Embalagens alternativas para café solúvel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVES Rosa M. Vercelino

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a vida útil de café solúvel em novas opções de potes plásticos através de modelo matemático, que relaciona o aumento de umidade do produto, com a barreira à umidade da embalagem. Os potes plásticos foram caracterizados quanto às dimensões, à capacidade volumétrica, à taxa de permeabilidade ao vapor d'água (TPVA e ao torque de abertura. Caracterizou-se os dois tipos de café solúvel (aglomerado e em pó quanto à umidade inicial e crítica e à isoterma de sorção de umidade. Os potes plásticos de poliéster (PET mostraram-se cerca de dez vezes mais permeáveis que os de polipropileno (PP. Observou-se aglomeração nos produtos com 7,0% b.s. de umidade a 30ºC, mas a umidade crítica foi considerada como sendo de 5,0% b.s., que é o teor fixado pela legislação. Os resultados indicaram que, nos potes de PP, os períodos de vida útil dos cafés solúveis aglomerado e em pó foram superiores a 1,8 anos e 2,5 anos, respectivamente, a 30ºC/80%UR. Entretanto, o uso de potes de poliéster (PET não se mostrou viável devido aos baixos períodos de vida útil estimados a 30ºC/80%UR (inferiores a 4 meses.

  19. Iron porphyrins doped sol-gel glasses: a chemometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, Herica C.; Vidoto, Ednalva A.; Nascimento, Otaciro R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the optimized conditions for preparation of iron porphyrin-template doped silica Fe PDS-template) obtained by the sol-gel process. The following porphyrins (Fe P) were used: Fe TFPP Cl, Fe TDCSPP(Na) 4 Cl and Fe TCPP(Na) 4 Cl. Pyridine or 4-phenylimidazole was used as template. The variables that present significant influence on iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were identified and the values that maximize the iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were established . The variables (Solvent volume, fractional factorial design in two levels, 2 5-1 type, generating 16 total experiments for each Fe P studied. (author)

  20. Iron porphyrins doped sol-gel glasses: a chemometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco, Herica C.; Vidoto, Ednalva A.; Nascimento, Otaciro R. [Soap Paulo Univ (USP), Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Biazzotto, Juliana C.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Iamamoto, Yassuko [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Mello, Cesar A.; Oliveira, Daniela C. de [Universidade de Franca , SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the optimized conditions for preparation of iron porphyrin-template doped silica Fe (PDS-template) obtained by the sol-gel process. The following porphyrins (Fe P) were used: Fe TFPP Cl, Fe TDCSPP(Na){sub 4}Cl and Fe TCPP(Na){sub 4} Cl. Pyridine or 4-phenylimidazole was used as template. The variables that present significant influence on iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were identified and the values that maximize the iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were established. The variables Solvent volume, fractional factorial design in two levels, 2{sup 5-1} type, generating 16 total experiments for each Fe P studied. (author)