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Sample records for soil spectrographie gamma

  1. Scintillation {gamma} spectrography. Physical principles. Apparatus. Operation; Spectrographie {gamma} a scintillations. Principes physiques. Appareillage. Utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The scintillation detector forms the main part of the instrument used, the electronic unit presenting the results produced. After a brief description of the process of {gamma} photon absorption in the material, the particular case of NaI (T1), the scintillator used, is examined. The intensity of the scintillation caused by {gamma} ray absorption and the characteristics of the photomultiplier play a determining part in the energy resolution of the instrument. For the {gamma} recording spectrograph, we show to what extent the technique for using the electronic unit can modify the results. A detailed description is given of the activity measurement of a {gamma}-emitting radioelement by the spectrographic method. (author) [French] Dans l'appareillage utilise, le detecteur a scintillations constitue la piece maitresse, l'ensemble electronique presente les resultats issus du detecteur. Apres avoir brievement decrit le processus d'absorption des photons {gamma} dans la matiere, nous examinons le cas particulier du NaI(T1), le scintillateur utilise. L'intensite de la scintillation provoque par l'absorption des rayons {gamma} et les caracteristiques du photomultiplicateur jouent un role determinant dans la resolution en energie de l'appareil. Pour le spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur, nous indiquons dans quelle mesure la technique d'utilisation de l'ensemble electronique peut modifier les resultats. La-mesure de l'activite d'un radioelement emetteur {gamma} par spectrographie fait l'objet d'une description detaillee. (auteur)

  2. Scintillation {gamma} spectrography. Physical principles. Apparatus. Operation; Spectrographie {gamma} a scintillations. Principes physiques. Appareillage. Utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The scintillation detector forms the main part of the instrument used, the electronic unit presenting the results produced. After a brief description of the process of {gamma} photon absorption in the material, the particular case of NaI (T1), the scintillator used, is examined. The intensity of the scintillation caused by {gamma} ray absorption and the characteristics of the photomultiplier play a determining part in the energy resolution of the instrument. For the {gamma} recording spectrograph, we show to what extent the technique for using the electronic unit can modify the results. A detailed description is given of the activity measurement of a {gamma}-emitting radioelement by the spectrographic method. (author) [French] Dans l'appareillage utilise, le detecteur a scintillations constitue la piece maitresse, l'ensemble electronique presente les resultats issus du detecteur. Apres avoir brievement decrit le processus d'absorption des photons {gamma} dans la matiere, nous examinons le cas particulier du NaI(T1), le scintillateur utilise. L'intensite de la scintillation provoque par l'absorption des rayons {gamma} et les caracteristiques du photomultiplicateur jouent un role determinant dans la resolution en energie de l'appareil. Pour le spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur, nous indiquons dans quelle mesure la technique d'utilisation de l'ensemble electronique peut modifier les resultats. La-mesure de l'activite d'un radioelement emetteur {gamma} par spectrographie fait l'objet d'une description detaillee. (auteur)

  3. Quantitative analysis of fission products by {gamma} spectrography; Analyse quantitative des produits de fission par spectrographie {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, G

    1962-07-01

    The activity of the fission products present in treated solutions of irradiated fuels is given as a function of the time of cooling and of the irradiation time. The variation of the ratio ({sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr activity/{sup 137}Cs activity) as a function of these same parameters is also given. From these results a method is deduced giving the 'age' of the solution analyzed. By {gamma}-scintillation spectrography it was possible to estimate the following elements individually: {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru + {sup 106}Rh, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 95}Zr + {sup 95}Nb. Yield curves are given for the case of a single emitter. Of the various existing methods, that of the least squares was used for the quantitative analysis of the afore-mentioned fission products. The accuracy attained varies from 3 to 10%. (author) [French] L'activite des produits de fission presents dans les solutions de traitement de combustibles irradies est donnee en fonction du temps de refroidissement et du temps d'irradiation. On etudie de plus la variation du rapport Activite du {sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr /Activite du {sup 137}Cs en fonction de ces memes parametres. De ces resultats, on deduit une methode donnant l'age de la solution analysee. La spectrographie {gamma} a scintillation a permis le dosage individuel des produits suivants: {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru + {sup 106}Rh, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 95}Zr + {sup 95}Nb. Des courbes de rendement sont donnees dans le cas d'un emetteur unique. Des differentes methodes existantes, la methode des moindres carres a ete employee pour l'analyse quantitative des produits de fission precites. La precision obtenue varie entre 3 et 10 pour cent. (auteur)

  4. Use of gamma spectroscopy in activation analysis; Utilisation de la spectrographie gamma dans l'analyse par activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Brief review of the principles of activation analysis: calculation of activities, decay curves, {beta} absorption curves, examples of application. - Principle and description of the {gamma} spectrograph. - Practical utilisation of the {gamma} spectrograph: analysis by activation, analysis by {beta} - x fluorescence. - Sensitivity limit of the method and precision of the measurements. - Possible improvements to the method: {gamma} spectroscopy with elimination of the Compton effect. (author) [French] Bref rappel des principes de l'analyse par activation: calcul des activites, courbes de decroissance, courbes d'absorption {beta}, exemples d'utilisation. - Principe et description du spectrographe {gamma}. - Utilisation pratique de la spectrographie {gamma}: analyse par activation, analyse par fluorescence {beta} - x. - Limite de sensibilite de la methode et precision des mesures. - Ameliorations possibles de la methode: spectrographe {gamma} avec elimination de l'effet Compton. (auteur)

  5. High-sensitivity gamma spectroscopy for extended sources. Application to activity measurements on the human body, on glass, and on soil; Spectrographie gamma a grande sensibilite pour sources etendues. Application a la mesure de l'activite du corps humain, du verre et du sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouve, B

    1962-07-01

    The measurement and location by gamma spectroscopy of human body internal contaminations at maximum permissible levels, and, in certain cases, at lower activities such as that due to {sup 40}K was investigated. The characteristics of the high-sensitivity apparatus used are given, and several assemblies using large-volume NaI(Tl) scintillators are described. The relatively light shielding required for natural radioactivity permitted construction of mobile assembly. Conditions of use are described, and the results are given. All gamma emitting elements were measured in 15 min at levels lower than the tolerance dose. Gamma spectroscopy was also used to determine fission products in the earth and to study radioactive elements in the presence of other emitters. (author) [French] La spectrographie gamma du corps humain permet la mesure et la localisation des contaminations internes au niveau des doses de tolerance et, dans certains cas, celle d'activites plus faibles comme la radioactivite naturelle due principalement au potassium 40. Les caracteristiques des appareils a grande sensibilite permettant ces mesures sont exposees et on decrit plusieurs realisations originales utilisant un scintillateur NaI(Tl) de grand volume. L'epaisseur du blindage a ete limitee a 5 cm de plomb, ainsi, pour une protection suffisante contre les rayonnements ambiants, les appareils sont relativement legers et l'une des realisations a pu etre installee dans un laboratoire mobile. Les conditions d'utilisation (mouvement propre, etalonnage) et les resultats obtenus sont donnes; tous les radioelements emetteurs gamma sont mesurables en 15 minutes a un niveau inferieur a la dose de tolerance. On presente enfin des applications a la spectrographie gamma d'echantillons volumineux (poudres ou liquides) et de tres faible activite: elles interessent des domaines tres varies comme, par exemple, la geophysique (etude des retombees radioactives) ou l'industrie chimique (dosage du potassium dans les

  6. High-sensitivity gamma spectroscopy for extended sources. Application to activity measurements on the human body, on glass, and on soil; Spectrographie gamma a grande sensibilite pour sources etendues. Application a la mesure de l'activite du corps humain, du verre et du sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouve, B

    1962-07-01

    The measurement and location by gamma spectroscopy of human body internal contaminations at maximum permissible levels, and, in certain cases, at lower activities such as that due to {sup 40}K was investigated. The characteristics of the high-sensitivity apparatus used are given, and several assemblies using large-volume NaI(Tl) scintillators are described. The relatively light shielding required for natural radioactivity permitted construction of mobile assembly. Conditions of use are described, and the results are given. All gamma emitting elements were measured in 15 min at levels lower than the tolerance dose. Gamma spectroscopy was also used to determine fission products in the earth and to study radioactive elements in the presence of other emitters. (author) [French] La spectrographie gamma du corps humain permet la mesure et la localisation des contaminations internes au niveau des doses de tolerance et, dans certains cas, celle d'activites plus faibles comme la radioactivite naturelle due principalement au potassium 40. Les caracteristiques des appareils a grande sensibilite permettant ces mesures sont exposees et on decrit plusieurs realisations originales utilisant un scintillateur NaI(Tl) de grand volume. L'epaisseur du blindage a ete limitee a 5 cm de plomb, ainsi, pour une protection suffisante contre les rayonnements ambiants, les appareils sont relativement legers et l'une des realisations a pu etre installee dans un laboratoire mobile. Les conditions d'utilisation (mouvement propre, etalonnage) et les resultats obtenus sont donnes; tous les radioelements emetteurs gamma sont mesurables en 15 minutes a un niveau inferieur a la dose de tolerance. On presente enfin des applications a la spectrographie gamma d'echantillons volumineux (poudres ou liquides) et de tres faible activite: elles interessent des domaines tres varies comme, par exemple, la geophysique (etude des retombees radioactives) ou l'industrie chimique

  7. Sample preparations for spark source mass spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catlett, C.W.; Rollins, M.B.; Griffin, E.B.; Dorsey, J.G.

    1977-10-01

    Methods have been developed for the preparation of various materials for spark source mass spectrography. The essential features of these preparations (all which can provide adequate precision in a cost-effective manner) consist in obtaining spark-stable electrode sample pieces, a common matrix, a reduction of anomolous effects in the spark, the incorporation of a suitable internal standard for plate response normalization, and a reduction in time

  8. Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis of Soil Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Haseeb, S.M.A.; Hussein, Tanvir; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.H. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron moderation effects were measured in bulk soil samples through prompt gamma ray measurements from water and benzene contaminated soil samples using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering. The prompt gamma rays were measured using a cylindrical 76 mm x 76 mm (diameter x height) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. Since neutron moderation effects strongly depend upon hydrogen concentration of the sample, for comparison purposes, moderation effects were studied from samples containing different hydrogen concentrations. The soil samples with different hydrogen concentration were prepared by mixing soil with water as well as benzene in different weight proportions. Then, the effects of increasing water and benzene concentrations on the yields of hydrogen, carbon and silicon prompt gamma rays were measured. Moderation effects are more pronounced in soil samples mixed with water as compared to those from soil samples mixed with benzene. This is due to the fact that benzene contaminated soil samples have about 30% less hydrogen concentration by weight than the water contaminated soil samples. Results of the study will be presented. (authors)

  9. Passive Gamma-Ray Emission for Soil-Disturbance Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    technical reports published by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CRREL TR-16-10 August 2016...area should be relatively constant if landform and provenance are known and con- trolled . As the soil dries out, the gamma-ray spectra should change...attenuation-pathway con- trolled (Figure 3). The attenuation is a function of the mass attenuation coefficients of the soil constituents (i.e., soil, water

  10. Gamma radiation for the decontamination of soil containing dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhor, M.P.; Wethington, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Dioxin-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) contamination poses an environmental danger. Different methods for the cleanup of contaminated sites have been proposed. The G value for dioxin dispersed in soil wetted with ethanol is much greater than G values for typical aromatic hydrocarbons. Doses > 6.24 x 10 23 eV/kg lead to decreasing rates of destruction of TCDD, and doses > 24.97 x 10 23 eV/kg are not very effective. Gamma irradiation of contaminated soil apparently will not result in large (powers of 10) decontamination factor. The concept of using gamma radiation for the degradation of TCDD in contaminated soil is about as good or as bad as other methods being tested

  11. Effect of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation on urease activity in soil and gamma-sterilized soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotti, E.B.R.; Pidello, A.

    1999-01-01

    Azospirillum spp. is considered a PGPR (plant growth promoting rhyzobacteria) bacterium, besides this interest, there is little information about its effects on other functional microbial groups or on soil enzymes. In this paper, the impact that Azospirillum brasilense 7001 inoculation has on urease activity expression in a Typic Argiudoll was studied. Evolution of urease activity of soil and of gamma irradiation (25 KGy) sterilized soil, and the inoculated strain survival were tested. The relation between soil urease activity and soil NH 4 +-N was also determined. In γ-sterilized soil, urease activity of inoculated soil increased with time, showing significant differences with regard to the control soil without inoculum at day 15. In non-sterile soil, urease activity decreased during the studied period in all treatments; in inoculated soil, it showed higher or lower values than the control depending on sampling time. Azospirillum survival was important and different according to soil condition conditions. The negative relation between NH 4 +-N concentration and soil urease activity (r 2 = 0.62) was observed in inoculated soil. The role of the addition of autoclaved inoculum in the urease activity expression is discussed. The research proves that in both studied situations Azospirillum modified soil urease activity, and that the competition with native microorganisms and soil NH 4 +-N may affect this bacterium capacity. (author)

  12. Quantitative analysis of fission products by γ spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, G.

    1962-01-01

    The activity of the fission products present in treated solutions of irradiated fuels is given as a function of the time of cooling and of the irradiation time. The variation of the ratio ( 144 Ce + 144 Pr activity)/ 137 Cs activity) as a function of these same parameters is also given. From these results a method is deduced giving the 'age' of the solution analyzed. By γ-scintillation spectrography it was possible to estimate the following elements individually: 141 Ce, 144 Ce + 144 Pr, 103 Ru, 106 Ru + 106 Rh, 137 Cs, 95 Zr + 95 Nb. Yield curves are given for the case of a single emitter. Of the various existing methods, that of the least squares was used for the quantitative analysis of the afore-mentioned fission products. The accuracy attained varies from 3 to 10%. (author) [fr

  13. A gamma-source method of measuring soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jeboori, M.A.; Ameen, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    Water content in soil column was measured using NaI scintillation detector 5 mci Cs-137 as a gamma source. The measurements were done with a back scatter gauge, restricted with scattering angle less to than /2 overcome the effect of soil type. A 3 cm air gap was maintained between the front of the detector and the wall of the soil container in order to increase the counting rate. The distance between the center of the source and the center of the back scattering detector was 14 cm. The accuracy of the measurements was 0.63. For comparision, a direct rays method was used to measure the soil moisture. The results gave an error of 0.65. Results of the two methods were compared with the gravimetric method which gave an error of 0.18 g/g and 0.17 g/g for direct and back method respectively. The quick direct method was used to determine the gravimetric and volumetric percentage constants, and were found to be 1.62 and 0.865 respectively. The method then used to measure the water content in the layers of soil column.(6 tabs., 4 figs., 12 refs.)

  14. Radon emanation and soil moisture effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed to explain variations in airborne gamma-ray measurements over a calibration range near Ottawa, Ontario. The gamma-ray flux from potassium and the thorium decay series showed an expected decrease with increasing soil moisture. However, the gamma-ray flux from the uranium decay series was highest in the spring when the ground was water-saturated and even covered with snow. These results are explained through the build-up of radon and its associated gamma-ray-emitting decay products in the clay soil of the calibration range with increasing soil moisture. Similar results were found from airborne measurements over other clay soils. However, measurements over sandy soils showed that the count rates from all three radio elements increased with decreasing soil moisture. This difference between soil types was attributed to the lower radon emanation of the more coarse-grained sandy soils compared to finer-grained clay soils. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that any estimate of the natural gamma-ray field caused by radium in the ground must take into consideration the radon emanation coefficient of the soil. The radon diffusion coefficient of the soil must also be considered since it depends strongly on soil moisture. This has significant implications for the assessment of outdoor radiation doses using laboratory analyses of soil samples and the use of ground and airborne gamma-ray measurements for radon potential mapping

  15. Saturation and porosity measurements of different soil samples by gamma ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbal, S.; Filiz Baytas, A.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray transmission methods have been used accurately for the study of the properties of soil samples. In this study, the soil samples were collected from various regions of Turkey and a Nal (TI) detector measured the attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam (from Cs-137) through soil samples. The water saturation and porosity were therefore calculated from the transmission measurements for each soil sample. (authors)

  16. Gamma-emissions of some meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Evaluation of lunar soil radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.

    1966-01-01

    The gamma-emissions of some terrestrial rocks and of the following meteorites: Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes, and Dosso were studied by quantitative low background gamma spectrometry. These measurements and their interpretation lead to the evaluation of the possible gamma-emissions of several models of lunar soils. (author) [fr

  17. Gamma spectroscopy analysis of archived Marshall Island soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, S.; Hoffman, K.; Lavelle, K.; Trauth, A.; Glover, S.E.; Connick, W.; Spitz, H.; LaMont, S.P.; Hamilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    Four samples of archival Marshall Islands soil were subjected to non-destructive, broad energy (17 keV-2.61 MeV) gamma-ray spectrometry analysis using a series of different high-resolution germanium detectors. These archival samples were collected in 1967 from different locations on Bikini Atoll and were contaminated with a range of fission and activation products, and other nuclear material from multiple weapons tests. Unlike samples collected recently, these samples have been stored in sealed containers and have been unaffected by approximately 50 years of weathering. Initial results show that the samples contained measurable but proportionally different concentrations of plutonium, 241 Am, and 137 Cs, and 60 Co. (author)

  18. Some applications of x-ray fluorescence spectrography to the determination of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1959-04-01

    Several methods for the determination of uranium and thorium by X-ray fluorescence spectrography are described. In pure solutions the sensitivity for these elements is 5-10 ppm. For solutions containing gross concentrations of impurities, strontium is added as an internal standard. Precision and accuracy of the determinations are about 1% when working in the optimum concentration range. (author)

  19. Study of time variation of terrestrial gamma radiation due to depth distribution of soil moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Katsuhiro

    1994-01-01

    An empirical equation was deduced from studies of time variations of terrestrial gamma exposure rate and soil moisture content with depth distribution in the surface layer. It was definitely suggested that the variation of terrestrial gamma exposure rate is most strongly influenced by the change of soil moisture content at 5 cm depth. The seasonal variation with a relative maximum in early autumn and a relative minimum in early spring was clearly obtained in the consequence of long time measurements of terrestrial gamma exposure rate and degree of soil dryness. The diurnal change and phase difference due to the effect of depth were also obtained in the dynamic characteristics of soil moisture content at 3 different depths. From the comparison between measured terrestrial gamma exposure rate and that evaluated from soil moisture content using the empirical equation, it was seen that seasonal variations of the both agreed fairly well as a whole. (author)

  20. Gamma-ray remote sensing of soil properties in a forested area near Batlow, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierwirth, P.N.; Aspin, S.J.; Ryan, P.J.; McKenzie, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    In forested and agricultural areas, reflective remote sensing methods are of limited utility for soil studies due to the variable effects of vegetation. Airborne gamma-ray remote sensing is presented here as a useful technique for soils. Short wavelength gamma-rays are detected from the upper 0.30-0.45 m of the soil . They are emitted from radioactive elements in the soil and largely pass through vegetation cover. In this paper, images of gamma parent elements (K, Th and U) are presented and element associations with soil properties and vegetation are analysed for a forested area near Batlow, NSW. Effects of vegetation are evident in gamma-ray data and in Landsat TM along powerlines and in clearings. A technique for removing this effect in the gamma-ray data is demonstrated. Detailed soil and rock chemistry together with ground gamma-spectrometer measurements were collected to support the interpretation and analysis of the image data. The work focuses mainly on the variation of soil properties within areas mapped as granodiorite lithology. Many areas of deep red soils are accurately mapped by the radiometric K data. The precise origin of these soils is not clear and their parent materials may include contributions from aeolian deposition, in situ weathering of granodiorite, and remnant basalt. . In areas of granodiorite, K patterns are interpreted to be a function of the degree of mineral weathering and can be related to soil depth and erosion status. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of gamma-ray remote sensing for directly mapping soil units and properties (authors). Copyright (1998) Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Association of Australasia Ltd

  1. Determination of radon concentration in soil gas by gamma-ray spectrometry of olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration in soil gas have been carried out using a bubbling system in which the soil gas is drawn through an active pumping to bubble a liquid absorber (olive oil) for the deposition of the soil gas in it. After the bubbling process, the absorber is then taken for gamma-ray measurements. Gamma-ray photopeaks from the 214 Pb and the 214 Bi radon progeny are considered for the detection of the 222 Rn gas to study the concentration levels for radon soil gas. Results for some field measurements were obtained and compared with results obtained using AlphaGuard radon gas monitor. The technique provides a possible approach for the measurements of radon soil gas with gamma-ray spectrometry

  2. Mobility of gamma-emitting fission products in typical black and laterite soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on the movement of the gamma-emitting fission products 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce, surface deposited on columns of the black and laterite soils revealed that the mobility of these nuclides in the two soils depended mainly on the ionic form of the nuclide, soil reaction and predominant clay mineral type in the soil. Results showed a rapid breakthrough of 106 Ru in the black soil and considerable migration to the lower layers in the laterite soil on leaching with rain water, or moderately high calcium or sodium irrigation waters. While near complete fixation of 144 Ce and 137 Cs in the top contaminated layer of both soils was observed, a slight movement of 125 Sb only in the black soil was noticed. Incorporation of organic matter had no effects on the movement of fission products in both soil types, whereas ethylenediaminetraacetic acid (EDTA) induced variable movement of the different radionuclides in the two soil types. (author)

  3. Comparison of in situ gamma soil analysis and soil sampling data for mapping 241Am and 239Pu soil concentrations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, J.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Phelps, P.L.; Huckabay, G.W.; Markwell, F.; Barnes, M.

    1976-01-01

    Soil sampling and in situ 241 Am-gamma counting with an array of four high purity, planar, Ge detectors are compared as means of determining soil concentration contours of plutonium and their associated uncertainties. Results of this survey, which covered an area of approximately 300,000 m 2 , indicate that with one-third the number of sampling locations, the in situ gamma survey provided soil concentration contours with confidence intervals that were about one-third as wide as those obtained with soil sampling. The methods of the survey are described and a discussion of advantages and limitations of both methods is given

  4. Comparison of in situ gamma soil analysis and soil sampling data for mapping 241Am and 239Pu soil concentrations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, J.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Phelps, P.L.; Huckabay, G.W.; Markwell, F.R.; Barnes, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    Soil sampling and in situ 241 Am-gamma counting with an array of four high-purity, planar, Ge detectors are compared as means of determining soil concentration contours of plutonium and their associated uncertainties. Results of this survey, which covered an area of approximately 300,000 m 2 , indicate that with one-third the number of sampling locations, the in situ gamma survey provided soil concentration contours with confidence intervals that were about one-third as wide as those obtained with soil sampling. The methods of the survey are described and a discussion of advantages and limitations of both methods is given

  5. Critical analysis of soil hydraulic conductivity determination using monoenergetic gamma radiation attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portezan Filho, Otavio

    1997-01-01

    Three soil samples of different textures: LVA (red yellow latosol), LVE (dark red latosol) and LRd (dystrophic dark red latosol) were utilized for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(θ) measurements. Soil bulk densities and water contents during internal water drainage were measured by monoenergetic gamma radiation attenuation, using homogeneous soil columns assembled in the laboratory. The measurements were made with a collimated gamma beam of 0.003 m in diameter using a Nal(Tl) (3'' x 3 '') detector and a 137 Cs gamma source of 74 X 10 8 Bq and 661.6 KeV. Soil columns were scanned with the gamma beam from 0.01 to 0.20 m depth, in 0.01m steps, for several soil water redistribution times. The results show a great variability of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity relation K(θ), even though homogeneous soils were used. The variability among methods is significantly smaller in relation to variability in space. The assumption of unit hydraulic gradient during redistribution of soil water utilized in the methods of Hillel, Libardi and Sisson leads to hydraulic conductivity values that increase in depth. The exponential character of the K(θ) relationship, is responsible for the difficulty of estimating soil hydraulic conductivity, which is a consequence of small variations in the porous arrangement, even in samples supposed to be homogeneous. (author)

  6. Characterization of the gamma radioactive content in soils of the south cost of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Hector

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis results of measurements of 137C s in soils of the south cost of Guatemala are presented. The technique used is gamma spectroscopy using Ge(Hi) detector. The results shows that cesium is the main radionuclide present in the cultivated soils of Guatemala

  7. Determination of the hydraulic conductivity in column of undeformed soil by gamma rays transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Anderson C.; Cavalcante, Fabio H.M.; Portezan Filho, Otavio; Coimbra, Melayne M.; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2000-01-01

    The water infiltration process in undeformed soil column and the measurement of redistribution process by gamma rays transmission in different depth allow the determination of Hydraulic Conductivity K(Θ) function, using the Sisson et al. (1980) method. A LRd (dystrophic dark red soil) soil column with 60 cm of height, 10 cm of width and 5 cm of thickness, was analyzed in laboratory, reproducing the field conditions concerning to the water infiltration and redistribution in the soil. The soil moisture content data was obtained with a radioactivity source 241 Am (100 mCi; 59,6 keV), NaI (Tl) 2x2 detector, coupled to an gamma rays spectrometric electronic chain and a measurement table that allowed the vertical displacement of the soil column. The results indicate a growing behavior for K(Θ) in relation to the depth. The collimators had 2 mm and 5 mm diameter for radioactivity source and detector respectively. (author)

  8. HT oxidation activity of soil irradiated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, Noriyuki; Tjahaja, P.I.; Takashima, Yoshimasa

    1992-01-01

    The HT oxidation activity was examined for soils irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays at various doses. The HT oxidation rate decreased with increase of initial H 2 concentration, indicating a similar oxidation mechanism between HT and H 2 . Irradiated soils showed decrease of oxidation activity with dose suggests that HT and H 2 oxidation activities were affected by sterilization with γ-rays. The decline of the oxidation activity with dose was analyzed by a composite of two components with different radiosensitivity and they were considered to be activities of soil microorganisms and abiotic soil enzymes. The oxidation activity due to soil microorganisms would be important at low dose range and more radioresistant abiotic soil enzymes would be responsible for the oxidation activity observed at more than several kGy. In non-irradiated soil about half of the oxidation activity was considered resulting from abiotic soil enzymes. (author)

  9. Measurement of the vertical infiltration parameters and water redistribution in LRd and LEa soils by gamma-ray transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.D.B. de; Saito, H.; Appoloni, C.R.; Coimbra, M.M.; Parreira, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of soil water diffusivity and soil hydraulic conductivity of two horizons (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) from Latossolo Roxo distrofico (LRd) and Latossolo Vermelho escuro (LEa) soil samples, have been measured in laboratory through the vertical infiltration and redistribution of water in soil columns. The moisture profile as a function of time for each position in the soil column were obtained with the gamma-ray transmission technique, using a sup(241)Am gamma-ray source, a Na (I) T1 scintillation detector and gamma spectrometry standard electronic. (author)

  10. Evaluation of gamma activities of naturally occurring radioactive materials in uncontaminated surface soils of Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice Miller; Mitko Voutchkov

    2014-01-01

    In this study a geological, lithological or pedogenesis analysis is used to explain the values and distribution of the primordial specific gamma activities in the Jamaican soil environment. A random systematic sampling method resulted in Jamaica being divided into 50 square grids with a maximum sampling density of 225 square meters per sample. The resulting sixty-eight (68) samples were measured on a Canberra HPGe detector for 24 h and the photopeaks for the primordial gammas of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K analyzed. Spearman's correlation was used to investigate the relationships between the primordial specific activities and the geological features of the soil samples collected and the geographic information system, ArcGIS v10.1 used to graphically depict the gamma profile of the primordials across the island. The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that in general the variations of the primordial gamma specific activities over the underlying soil geologies were statistically significant. However, the pairwise Post-Hoc test results did not suggest a significant variation in mean specific for any of the primordial with all the underlying geology even when the unadjusted p value was used. This result along with the Spearman's coefficient correlation values suggested a moderate to weak relationship between the gamma profile of the top soil and its underlying geology. With the exception of a weak correlation with 232 Th (-0.295) no other primordial radionuclide correlated with the UNESCO/FAO soil categories for the island. The most significant correlations for soil characteristics and gamma activities were organic matters which were positive for 232 Th (0.518), 238 U (0.481) but negative for 40 K (-0.284). (author)

  11. Measurement of structured purple soil porosity by using gamma ray transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Elizabeth Cristina S. da; Rocha, Wilson Roberto Dejato da; Oliveira, Ricardo M. de; Silva, Luzeli Moreira da; Moreira, Anderson Camargo; Portezan, Otaio Portezan; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Coimbra, Melayne Martins

    2002-01-01

    The soil structure defines the particle arrangement which in turn largely determines the pore size distribution. In this work, we present the measurements of total, macro and microporosity for TRe soil with clayey texture. Soil samples were collected from a trench located at University of Londrina. The deformed and undeformed soil samples were collected from soil surface down to the depth of 0,50 m in 0,10 m intervals and separated into six aggregate size classes: 0.053; 0.125; 0.30; 0.71; 2 e 4 mm. We also prepared samples mixing different size classes, like as: (4+0.125), (2+0.125), (4+2+0.71), (4+2+0.30) e (4+0.30+0.125)mm. Measurements of particle density and aggregate bulk density using conventional method were performed to all depths. The linear soil attenuation coefficients and aggregate soil attenuation coefficients were measured with gamma-ray transmission system using an 241 Am (59,53 keV and 100 mCi) radiation source, a (2 x 2) in NaI scintillation detector, cylindric collimators (2 mm diameter to the source and 5 mm diameter to the detector) and gamma spectrometry standard electronics, connected to a multichannel. The obtained results for total, macro and microporosity are in a good agreement with the ones using the convention method, showing the applicability of the gamma-ray transmission method. (author)

  12. Application of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in soil/regolith mapping and applied geomorphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilford, J.R.; Bierwirth, P.N.; Craig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric surveys are an important source of information for soil, regolith and geomorphological studies, as demonstrated by the interpretation of airborne surveys in Western Australia, central New South Wales and north Queensland. Gamma-rays emitted from the ground surface relate to the primary mineralogy and geochemistry of the bedrock, and the secondary weathered materials. Weathering modifies the distribution and concentration of radioelements from the original bedrock source. Once the radioelement response of bedrock and weathered materials is understood, the gamma-ray data can provide information on geomorphic processes and soil/regolith properties, including their mineralogy, texture, chemistry and style of weathering. This information can contribute significantly to an understanding of the weathering and geomorphic history of a region and, therefore, has the potential to be used in developing more effective land-management strategies and refining geochemical models in support of mineral exploration. Gamma-ray imagery is enhanced when combined with Landsat TM bands and digital elevation models (DEM). This synergy enables geochemical information derived from the gamma-ray data to be interpreted within a geomorphic framework. Draping gamma-ray images over DEMs as 3D landscape perspective views aids interpretation and allows the interpreter to visualise complex relationships between the gamma-ray response and landform features. 44 refs.,1 tab., 11 figs

  13. Determination of moisture content and natural radioactivity in soils using gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Hady, E E [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Qater University (Qatar); El-Sayed, A M.A.; Alaa, H B [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The gamma-ray transmission method has been used to study the soil-water properties in the laboratory as well as in the field. The present measurements were performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy system based on a 5 x 5 cm Nal (T 1) scintillation detector and combined sources ({sup 137} Cs and {sup 241} Am). The two sources are placed in a suitable lead collimator to obtain a pin beam of 1 mm diameter. Suitable samples of clay and sandy soils obtained from the local field were prepared to determine the water content and the soil bulk densities by the combined method for different moisture stages. From the results obtained, it is clear that the soil density at both stages (saturated and after drainage) remains the same. this is because the soil particles do not rearrange during the wetting and drying process. The full results will be presented in the text. Natural radioactivity of the investigated samples was also studied using gamma-ray spectrometer having HPGe detector. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of natural gamma radiations revealed the presence of {sup 40} K, {sup 214} Bi, {sup 208} TI and {sup 228} Ac in meaningful concentrations. 3 figs.

  14. Measurements of Soil Carbon by Neutron-Gamma Analysis in Static and Scanning Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubova, Galina; Kavetskiy, Aleksandr; Prior, Stephen A; Torbert, H Allen

    2017-08-24

    The herein described application of the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) method for soil carbon analysis is based on the registration and analysis of gamma rays created when neutrons interact with soil elements. The main parts of the INS system are a pulsed neutron generator, NaI(Tl) gamma detectors, split electronics to separate gamma spectra due to INS and thermo-neutron capture (TNC) processes, and software for gamma spectra acquisition and data processing. This method has several advantages over other methods in that it is a non-destructive in situ method that measures the average carbon content in large soil volumes, is negligibly impacted by local sharp changes in soil carbon, and can be used in stationary or scanning modes. The result of the INS method is the carbon content from a site with a footprint of ~2.5 - 3 m 2 in the stationary regime, or the average carbon content of the traversed area in the scanning regime. The measurement range of the current INS system is >1.5 carbon weight % (standard deviation ± 0.3 w%) in the upper 10 cm soil layer for a 1 hmeasurement.

  15. Gamma-Ray Attenuation to Evaluate Soil Porosity: An Analysis of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Pereira, André B.

    2014-01-01

    Soil porosity (ϕ) is of a great deal for environmental studies due to the fact that water infiltrates and suffers redistribution in the soil pore space. Many physical and biochemical processes related to environmental quality occur in the soil porous system. Representative determinations of ϕ are necessary due to the importance of this physical property in several fields of natural sciences. In the current work, two methods to evaluate ϕ were analyzed by means of gamma-ray attenuation technique. The first method uses the soil attenuation approach through dry soil and saturated samples, whereas the second one utilizes the same approach but taking into account dry soil samples to assess soil bulk density and soil particle density to determine ϕ. The results obtained point out a good correlation between both methods. However, when ϕ is obtained through soil water content at saturation and a 4 mm collimator is used to collimate the gamma-ray beam the first method also shows good correlations with the traditional one. PMID:24616640

  16. Feasibility study of photodiodes utilization in the soil-moisture determination by gamma transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.A.P. dos.

    1992-08-01

    This study was done to verify the viability of photodiodes, as gamma radiation detector ( 241 Am - Energy=60 KeV), to measure soil water content. The photodiodes used had different mechanical and electrical characteristics, and were tested on soils of different textures. A good linear correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor and soil-moisture demonstrated such viability, and that the low photopeak efficiency of these devices is not a limitation to the measurement of soil water content. Furthermore, the stability, the portability, and low cost of such semiconductor devices, including its electronic system, represent relevant characteristics that may justify the development of a reliable gamma meter system for field studies. (author). 37 refs, 21 figs, 20 tabs

  17. STUDY CONCERNING THE POSSIBILITY OF GAMMA-SPECTROSCOPY METHOD TO DETERMINE THE TOTAL POTASSIUM IN SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Leah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It was proved the possibility of determination the total potassium in soils by gamma-spectroscopic method with subsequent calculation of total potassium content in according to value of 40K isotope (expressed in Becquerel, Bq, using the formula: К2О, % = С . А, where: C – conversion coefficient, A – activity of isotope 40K in soil, Bq/kg. Conversion coefficient for chernozems of Moldova – C=0,00337.

  18. Gamma-ray beam attenuation to assess the influence of soil texture on structure deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, L.F.; Bacchi, O.O.S.; Dias, N.M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray beam attenuation is a non-invasive technique that permits analysis of soil porosity without disturbing the region of interest of the core sample. The technique has as additional advantage to allow measurements point by point on a millimetric scale in contrast to other methodologies that are invasive and analyze the soil properties in the bulk sample volume. Soil porosity can be used as an important parameter to quantify soil structural damages, which affect soil aeration, water movement and retention. In this study, porosities of three soils different in texture were measured at various positions in order to analyze the impact of the sampling procedure on the structure of each particular soil texture. The gamma-ray attenuation system consisted of an 241 Am radioactive source having an activity of 3.7 GBq, collimated with cylindrical lead collimators of 2 mm diameter. The results obtained show the presence of dense regions near the edges of samples and that different soil textures can suffer distinct deformations at sampling. (author)

  19. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activities range 24-231, 20-70, and 242-1434 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The geographic distribution of (238)U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of (238)U than of (232)Th. The (238)U activities become lower than (232)Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. (137)Cs activity ranges 0.4-86.8 kBq m(-2). The lowest activity of (137)Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The (137)Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to (137)Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Soil solution dynamics of Cu and Zn in a Cu- and Zn-polluted soil as influenced by gamma-irradiation and Cu-Zn interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y M; Yan, W D; Christie, P

    2001-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study soil solution dynamics of Cu and Zn in a Cu/Zn-polluted soil as influenced by gamma-irradiation and Cu-Zn interaction. A slightly acid sandy loam was amended with Cu and Zn (as nitrates) either singly or in combination (100 mg Cu and 150 mg Zn kg(-1) soil) and was then gamma-irradiated (10 kGy). Unamended and unirradiated controls were included, and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Forrester) was grown for 50 days. Soil solution samples obtained using soil moisture samplers immediately before transplantation and every ten days thereafter were used directly for determination of Cu, Zn, pH and absorbance at 360 nm (A360). Cu and Zn concentrations in the solution of metal-polluted soil changed with time and were affected by gamma-irradiation and metal interaction. gamma-Irradiation raised soil solution Cu substantially but generally decreased soil solution Zn. These trends were consistent with increased dissolved organic matter (A360) and solution pH after gamma-irradiation. Combined addition of Cu and Zn usually gave higher soil solution concentrations of Cu or Zn compared with single addition of Cu or Zn in gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated soils, indicating an interaction between Cu and Zn. Cu would have been organically complexed and consequently maintained a relatively high concentration in the soil solution under higher pH conditions. Zn tends to occur mainly as free ion forms in the soil solution and is therefore sensitive to changes in pH. The extent to which gamma-irradiation and metal interaction affected solubility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn was a function of time during plant growth. Studies on soil solution metal dynamics provide very useful information for understanding metal mobility and bioavailability.

  1. Behaviour of lindane (gamma HCH) in soil under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, M.; Ghezal, F.; Coste, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The degradation of lindane in solid after multiple application was studied. The rate of disappearance of lindane increased at long periods after application. The dissipation of lindane was more rapid in soil collected from treated a plot than an untreated plot, owing to the degradation by micro-organisms suggesting that microorganisms had become adapted to degrade it. The rates of mineralization, mobility and degradation of lindane were also investigated under laboratory conditions using 14 C-labelled lindane. The results showed that most of the applied dose remained on the upper 6cm in the soil columns. Over a periods of three months, extractable residues, bound residues and evolution of 14 CO 2 were recorded. After 12 weeks, the soil contained about 50% of the initially applied 14 C and 20% was bound to the soil. The evolution of 14 CO 2 increased with time, amounting to 3.1% in non-sterile soil and less than 1% in sterile soil. The hexane 14 C-extractable residues were shown, by TLC, to contain lindane as the main product. (author). 5 refs, 4 tabs

  2. Effluent and gamma-irradiated digested sludge additions on calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee-Rodriguez, V.

    1978-01-01

    The long-term use of sewage effluent and the use of gamma-irradiated treated digested sewage sludge (RDSS) were studied under field and greenhouse conditions, respectively. The purpose of this investigation was to: (1) study the effect of long and short-term application of secondary sewage effluent and RDSS, respectively, on the buildup of iron and phytotoxicity problems on calcareous soils; (2) study the potential phytotoxicity of RDSS and observe the micronutrient fertilizer value of RDSS through three successive plantings on calcareous soil; (3) evaluate RDSS as a source of iron in a soil known to be severely iron-deficient

  3. Dried gamma-irradiated sewage solids use on calcareous soils: crop yields and heavy metals uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, B.D.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    The fertilizer values of gamma-irradiated digested sewage solids (RDSS) and gamma-irradiated undigested sewage solids (RUSS) have been examined on calcareous soils. Previously published data from Sandia Laboratories have shown that approximately 1 mega-rad of gamma-irradiation effectively destroys pathogenic bacteria, parasites and plant seeds in dried sewage solids. Greenhouse experiments directly comparing gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated undigested and digested dried sewage solids as fertilizers indicate little or no effect of 1 mega-rad gamma radiation treatment on plant yield or plant-nutrient uptake and demonstrated considerable benefit from using sewage solids on calcareous soils. Plant response to undigested sewage solids was considerably greater than to digested sewage solids when applied at levels that were isonitrogenous. The calcareous soils in New Mexico typically range in pH from 7.5 to 9.0, limiting the plant-availability of many elements, especially heavy metals. Soils irrigated with sewage-effluent for 40 years demonstrated beneficial use of supplied plant-nutrients with no apparent increase in plant-uptake of heavy metals. RDSS applied to a calcareous soil low in plant-available iron increased plant growth in the greenhouse considerably more than treatments with equal amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron applied as common fertilizer materials. Plant tissue concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu showed that RDSS was a good source of these nutrients. Results also indicated that the total soluble salt concentration of the RDSS was the factor most limiting plant growth. Chromium, Cd, Ni and Pd plant-tissue concentrations were apparently not increased by RDSS treatments. (Auth.)

  4. Improved soil particle-size analysis by gamma-ray attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.C.M.; Vaz, C.M.P.; Reichardt, K.; Swartzendruber, D.

    1997-01-01

    The size distribution of particles is useful for physical characterization of soil. This study was conducted to determine whether a new method of soil particle-size analysis by gamma-ray attenuation could be further improved by changing the depth and time of measurement of the suspended particle concentration during sedimentation. In addition to the advantage of nondestructive, undisturbed measurement by gamma-ray attenuation, as compared with conventional pipette or hydrometer methods, the modifications here suggested and employed do substantially decrease the total time for analysis, and will also facilitate total automation and generalize the method for other sedimentation studies. Experimental results are presented for three different Brazilian soil materials, and illustrate the nature of the fine detail provided in the cumulative particle-size distribution as given by measurements obtained during the relatively short time period of 28 min

  5. Standard guide for high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of soil samples

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the identification and quantitative determination of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in soil samples by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. It is applicable to nuclides emitting gamma rays with an approximate energy range of 20 to 2000 keV. For typical gamma-ray spectrometry systems and sample types, activity levels of about 5 Bq (135 pCi) are measured easily for most nuclides, and activity levels as low as 0.1 Bq (2.7 pCi) can be measured for many nuclides. It is not applicable to radionuclides that emit no gamma rays such as the pure beta-emitting radionuclides hydrogen-3, carbon-14, strontium-90, and becquerel quantities of most transuranics. This guide does not address the in situ measurement techniques, where soil is analyzed in place without sampling. Guidance for in situ techniques can be found in Ref (1) and (2). This guide also does not discuss methods for determining lower limits of detection. Such discussions can be found in Refs (3), (4), (5), and (6). 1.2 This guide can be us...

  6. Remote sensing of acid sulfate soils using multispectral and gamma-ray data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierwirth, P.N.; Graham, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Acid sulfate soils are a significant environmental problem in coastal regions of Australia. Drainage and disturbance of coastal lands can result in acid soil degradation and the release of sulfuric acid and toxic metals into coastal waters. Remote sensing can provide a useful tool for detection of these soils and monitoring of their disturbance. As acid sulfate soils become oxidised with exposure to air, iron-minerals are produced and precipitate at the surface. This results from the breakdown of pyrite to form hydrated iron minerals and elemental sulfur, the oxidation of which produces acidity. The concentration of iron minerals at the surface can be an indicator of the level of acid sulfate soil activity in the near subsurface. These iron minerals include goethite, ferrihydrite and jarosite. Space-borne remote sensing scanners such as Landsat TM are capable of detecting iron minerals as a result of ferric ion absorption of solar radiation. Hyperspectral scanners are capable of further discrimination of individual minerals. This paper will discuss spectral characteristics of active acid sulfate soils and demonstrate the use of spectral unmixing algorithms on Landsat TM to detect problem areas at the surface. This method matches multispectral data to material reflectance-spectra known as end-members. These end-members or materials are then resolved mathematically as to their respective contributions to the overall reflectance (Bierwirth, 1990). In this way, abundances for particular materials can be derived.Digital elevation data was used to distinguish between the iron minerals due to weathering of bedrock in upland areas and acid sulfate soils on the plains. Also, the results of a high resolution (200m linespacing) airborne gamma-ray survey are presented. This data senses the concentration of radioelements down to about 40 cm depth and is largely unaffected by vegetation. Concentrations of gamma-emitting elements can indicate the type and depth of alluvium that

  7. Alpha-beta-gamma spectrometer as an aid in directing decontamination of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This technique permits rapid assessment of alpha-beta-gamma-emitter contamination in soils at sufficiently low concentrations to direct field operations. Of particular importance is its applicability during initial decommissioning and decontamination surveys when characterization of alpha and beta contamination in the presence of a high gamma background is necessary. This system has not yet been made portable for in-situ use, but it is expected that results willbe favorable when operated as a field instrument, resulting in simplified standard decontamination operation

  8. Remediation of soil contaminated with pesticides by treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Janilson Silva

    2009-01-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern mainly by soil contamination. Nowadays, Brazil figures in third place among the leading world pesticide markets. An understanding of the processes that affect the transport and fate of pesticides is crucial to assess their potential for contamination of soil and groundwater, and to develop efficient and cost-effective site management and soil remediation strategies. Due to its impact on soil remediation has made sorption a major topic of research on soil-pesticide interactions. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the pesticides transferring from contaminated mixture of commercial polymeric packing of high-density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture to soil and their removal by gamma irradiation. Two soil samples of argyles compositions and media composition were exposed to a mixture of commercial polymeric packing contaminated with the pesticides methomyl, dimethoate, carbofuran, methidathion, triazine, thiophos, atrazine, ametryne, endosulfan, chloropyrifos, thriazophos and trifluralin. The pesticides leaching from packaging to soil was homogeneous considering a experimental research. The radiation treatment presented high efficiency on removal pesticides from both soil, but it depends on the physical-chemical characteristics of the contaminated soil. The higher efficiency was obtained in soils with higher organic material and humidity. The higher efficiency was obtained for the medium texture soil, with 20 kGy all present pesticides were removed in all layers. In the case of argyles texture soil, it was necessary a 30 kGy to remove the totality of present pesticides. (author)

  9. Correlation between gamma radiation levels and soil radium concentrations at the Edgemont uranium mill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.; Polehn, J.L.; Wilson, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's uranium mill in Edgemont, South Dakota, is being decommissioned. Approximately 4 million tons of contaminated tailings, building equipment, and contaminated soil and debris on the mill site will be removed to the disposal site located approximately 3 kilometers to the southeast. To minimize recontamination of cleaned areas, tailings removal will progress from the northwest corner to the southeast corner of the mill site. As specific areas are cleaned, surveys will be conducted to determine if the concentrations of radium-226 in soil are within the limits outlined in 40 CFR, Part 192. Conformance with the criteria will be demonstrated by a gamma survey of the area employing the differential, or delta-measurement, technique. This technique involves fitting the detector with a base and a receptacle for a removable high-density filter. By making measurements with and without the filter in place, a gamma radiation level proportional to the radium-226 concentration in soil can be determined. This paper describes the results obtained in the development of the correlation between the gamma survey measurements and the soil radium concentrations

  10. Correlation between gamma radiation levels and soil radium concentrations at the Edgemont uranium mill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.; Polehn, J.L.; Wilson, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's uranium mill in Edgemont, South Dakota is being decommissioned. Approximately 4 million tons of contaminated tailings, building equipment, and contaminated soil and debris on the mill site will be removed to the disposal site located approximately 3 kilometers to the southeast. To minimize recontamination of cleaned areas, tailings removal will progress from the northwest corner to the southeast corner of the mill site. As specific areas are cleaned, surveys will be conducted to determine if the concentrations of radium-226 in soil are within the limits outlined in 40 CFR, Part 192. Conformance with the criteria will be demonstrated by a gamma survey of the area employing the differential, or delta-measurement, technique. This technique involves fitting the detector with a base and a receptacle for a removable high-density filter. By making measurements with and without the filter in place, a gamma radiation level proportional to the radium-226 concentration in soil can be determined. This paper describes the results obtained in the development of the correlation between the gamma survey measurements and the soil radium concentrations

  11. Prediction of terrestrial gamma dose rate based on geological formations and soil types in the Johor State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; bin Hamzah, Khaidzir; Alajerami, Yasser; Moharib, Mohammed; Saeed, Ismael

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to predict and estimate unmeasured terrestrial gamma dose rate (TGDR) using statistical analysis methods to derive a model from the actual measurement based on geological formation and soil type. The measurements of TGDR were conducted in the state of Johor with a total of 3873 measured points which covered all geological formations, soil types and districts. The measurements were taken 1 m above the soil surface using NaI [Ti] detector. The measured gamma dose rates ranged from 9 nGy h(-1) to 1237 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 151 nGy h(-1). The data have been normalized to fit a normal distribution. Tests of significance were conducted among all geological formations and soil types, using the unbalanced one way ANOVA. The results indicated strong significant differences due to the different geological formations and soil types present in Johor State. Pearson Correlation was used to measure the relations between gamma dose rate based on geological formation and soil type (D(G,S)) with the gamma dose rate based on geological formation (D(G)) or soil type (D(s)). A very good correlation was found between D(G,S) and D(G) or D(G,S) and D(s). A total of 118 pairs of geological formations and soil types were used to derive the statistical contribution of geological formations and soil types to gamma dose rates. The contribution of the gamma dose rate from geological formation and soil type were found to be 0.594 and 0.399, respectively. The null hypotheses were accepted for 83% of examined data, therefore, the model could be used to predict gamma dose rates based on geological formation and soil type information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydraulic conductivity of indeformed soil columns determination by gamma ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Anderson Camargo; Moraes Cavalcante, Fabio Henrique de; Rocha, Marcos Correa da; Filho, Otavio Portezan; Quinones, Fernando Rodolfo Espinosa; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2000-01-01

    The spatial variation of the soil structure influences the water movement through its porous geometry, which could cause problems in the development of agricultural cultures and also accelerate processes of soil erosion. The gamma ray transmission method has established efficiency for the non-destructive measurement of moisture temporal and space evolution, and consequently in the determination of the hydraulic conductivity of the soil, K(θ). Columns of undisturbed soil (approximately 0.11 x 0.06 x 0.60 m) were removed from a trench in the Campus of Londrina State University. The used soil was classified like distrophic dark red soil (LRd). The indeformed soil columns were wrapped up with paraffin and gauze and were fixed on the table of measurement. The water vertical infiltration in the soil was accomplished by maintaining a water layer of approximately 0.01 m over an area of soil of 75 x 10 -4 m 2 . Layers of filter papers and foam controlled the flow of water in the soil surface. After the conclusion of the infiltration, began the process of redistribution of the water in the soil column, with the objective to determine the function K(θ) in relation to the depth in the column. The moisture profiles θ(z,t) are obtained using a radioactive source of 241 Am (3.7 x 10 9 Bq; 0.0596 MeV), spectrometric electronic chain, a 2x2'' NaI(Tl) detector and a measurements table , which allows the sample to move vertically. The hydraulic conductivity function was determined, applying the Sisson model , at 10 levels in the soil column and the results exhibit an increase of K(θ) with depth. (author)

  13. Validation of a model for calculating environmental doses caused by gamma emitters in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, X.; Rosell, J.R.; Dies, X.

    1991-01-01

    A model has been developed to calculate the absorbed dose rates caused by gamma emitters of both natural and artificial origin distributed in the soil. The model divides the soil into five compartments corresponding to layers situated at different depths, and assumes that the concentration of radionuclides is constant in each one of them. The calculations, following the model developed, are undertaken through a program which, based on the concentrations of the radionuclides in the different compartments, gives as a result the dose rate at a height of one metre above the ground caused by each radionuclide and the percentage this represents with respect to the total absorbed dose rate originating from this soil. The validity of the model has been checked in the case of sandy soils by comparing the exposure rates calculated for five sites with the experimental values obtained with an ionisation chamber. (author)

  14. Natural gamma radioactivity and of 137 Cs in soil of the Chimaltitan municipality, Jalisco, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay, A.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Rios, C.; Lugo, J.F.; Soriano, J.M.; Angoli, A.

    2003-01-01

    With the purpose of determining the activity due to the natural presence of the 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil samples, of the municipality of Chimaltitan Jalisco. A set of these samples was measured in a gamma ray spectrometric system based on a High-purity Germanium detector. It is well-known that approximately 87% of the dose of the received radiation by the population is due to sources of natural radiation and 13% of the anthropogenic radiation. The gamma radiation comes mainly from the 40 K and of those radionuclides of the series of radioactive decay of 238 U and 232 Th that its find dispersed thoroughly in the terrestrial crust. In this work its were analyzed twenty-two soil samples. It is enlarged the activity characterization for the radioisotopes of 226 Ra 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs. (Author)

  15. Gamma Radiation Dose from Radionuclides in Soil Samples of Udagamandalam (Ooty) in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvasekarapandian, S.; Muguntha Manikandan, N.; Sivakumar, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Meenakshisundram, V.; Ragunath, V.M.; Gajendran, V.

    1999-01-01

    The systematic study of background radiation and the distribution of radionuclides in the environment of Udagamandalam in Nilgiri District of Tamil Nadu has been made. Gamma spectrometric analysis of the soil samples of this area has been carried out. The measured gamma dose in air is in the range 31.6 nGy.h -1 - 221.1 nGy.h -1 with a mean value 121.8 nGy.h -1 . The average activities of the 232 Th series, 238 U series and 40 K in soil samples are 114.6 ± 52.5 Bq.kg -1 , 43.2 ± 23.2 Bq.kg -1 and 274.6 ± 86.7 Bq.kg -1 respectively. (author)

  16. A study for natural radioactivity levels in some soil samples using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Yousif Hassab El Rasoul

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a few selected soil samples and to study their natural radioactivity using gamma spectrometry. The first sample was a rock phosphate from Nuba mountains region which is being considered as a low cost fertilizer. Another sample came from Miri lake area (Nuba mountains) which is known to have elevated natural radioactivity level. The other four samples came from different other regions in Sudan for comparison. The idea was to identify the radioactive nuclides present in these soil samples, to trace their sources and to determine the activity present in them. (Author)

  17. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M.; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-01-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of 238 U, 232 Th, 137 Cs and 40 K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K activities range 24–231, 20–70, and 242–1434 Bq kg −1 respectively. The geographic distribution of 238 U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of 238 U than of 232 Th. The 238 U activities become lower than 232 Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. 137 Cs activity ranges 0.4–86.8 kBq m −2 . The lowest activity of 137 Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The 137 Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to 137 Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. - Highlights: • A monitoring campaign of agricultural soils was carried out in Lombardia, Italy. • 156 topsoils were sampled according to the European standard

  18. The use of gamma ray computed tomography to investigate soil compaction due to core sampling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Correchel, Vladia; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus; Brasil, Rene P. Camponez do

    2004-01-01

    Compaction processes can influence soil physical properties such as soil density, porosity, pore size distribution, and processes like soil water and nutrient movements, root system distribution, and others. Soil porosity modification has important consequences like alterations in results of soil water retention curves. These alterations may cause differences in soil water storage calculations and matrix potential values, which are utilized in irrigation management systems. Because of this, soil-sampling techniques should avoid alterations of sample structure. In this work soil sample compaction caused by core sampling devices was investigated using the gamma ray computed tomography technique. A first generation tomograph with fixed source-detector arrangement and translation/rotational movements of the sample was utilized to obtain the images. The radioactive source is 241 Am, with an activity of 3.7 GBq, and the detector consists of a 3 in. x 3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Soil samples were taken from an experimental field utilizing cylinders 4.0 cm high and 2.6 cm in diameter. Based on image analyses it was possible to detect compacted regions in all samples next to the cylinder wall due to the sampling system. Tomographic unit profiles of the sample permitted to identify higher values of soil density for deeper regions of the sample, and it was possible to determine the average densities and thickness of these layers. Tomographic analyses showed to be a very useful tool for soil compaction characterization and presented many advantages in relation to traditional methods. (author)

  19. The application of high-speed photography and spectrography for investigations of erosive pulsed plasma streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselevskiy, L.I.; Minko, L.Ja.

    The extensive information of pulsed plasma dynamic processes related to formation and interaction of plasma streams with a surrounding medium and obstacles is obtained with the help of high-speed photo and spectrography. The wave structure of pulsed supersonic under-expanded erosive plasma jets is studied. Some physical processes which are due to interactions of laser radiation with the laser-produced erosive plasma and of this plasma with a surrounding medium are investigated. The wide possibilities of frame photography of spectra quantitative spectroscopic investigations of fast-proceeding plasma processes are shown on the basis of joint use of high-speed photographic apparatus (type SFR) and standard spectrographs. The radial distribution of charged-particle concentrations at separate moments of time is obtained from the broadening of spectral lines at the brightness of the continuous spectrum of an erosive plasma jet from a pulsed accelerator

  20. Determination of residual boron in thermally treated controlled-porosity glasses, by colorimetry, spectrography and isotachophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawidowicz, A.L.; Matusewicz, J.; Wysocka-Lisek, J.

    1989-01-01

    Controlled-porosity glasses (CPGs) are often applied as sorbents in chromatography. Besides having high thermal, chemical and mechanical resistance they are characterized by a very narrow pore-size distribution and the choice of mean pore diameter and porosity covers a wide range. In spite of these advantages, their range of use in chromatography is restricted because of their strong adsorption properties, which are connected with the presence of residual boron atoms in the porous CPG skeleton. The boron concentration on the CPG surface can be increased by proper thermal treatment. When CPGs are heated in the range 400-800 0 the residual boron atoms in the network diffuse from the bulk to the surface. The paper discusses the boron content in porous glasses of different mean pore diameters and the determination of the enrichment of boron on the GPG surface, by three independent methods: colorimetry, spectrography and isotachophoresis. (author)

  1. Gamma radiation dose from radionuclides in Kong Kong soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    Calculations have been made of the γ dose rate at one metre above ground from the results of measurements of radionuclide concentrations in soil at various locations in Hong Kong and prior to the Chernobyl accident. The average dose rate is found to be 0.076 μGy h -1 , or 0.67 mGy year -1 . The contribution from fallout nuclides to the annual dose is shown to be small, at about 0.4% of the total. The calculated dose rate in this work is about 80% higher than the world average given by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, in Ionizing Radiation: Sources and Biological Effects, Annex B (Exposure to natural radiation sources). A United Nations Publication, 1982. (author)

  2. X-ray fluorescence and gamma-ray spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis for topographic studies in agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilhos, Natara D.B. de; Melquiades, Fábio L.; Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Bastos, Rodrigo Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of soils play a major role in the evaluation of different geochemical signature, soil quality, discrimination of land use type, soil provenance and soil degradation. The objectives of the present study are the soil elemental characterization and soil differentiation in topographic sequence and depth, using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) as well as gamma-ray spectrometry data combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The study area is an agricultural region of Boa Vista catchment which is located at Guamiranga municipality, Brazil. PCA analysis was performed with four different data sets: spectral data from EDXRF, spectral data from gamma-ray spectrometry, concentration values from EDXRF measurements and concentration values from gamma-ray spectrometry. All PCAs showed similar results, confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis, allowing the data grouping into top, bottom and riparian zone samples, i.e. the samples were separated due to its landscape position. The two hillslopes present the same behavior independent of the land use history. There are distinctive and characteristic patterns in the analyzed soil. The methodologies presented are promising and could be used to infer significant information about the region to be studied. - Highlights: • Characterization of topographic sequence of two hillslopes from agricultural soil. • Employment of EDXRF and gamma-ray spectrometry data combined with PCA. • The combination of green analytical methodologies with chemometric studies allowed soil differentiation. • The innovative methodology is promising for direct characterization of agricultural catchments

  3. Soil sample moisture content as a function of time during oven drying for gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, R.R.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    In routine gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of collected soil samples, procedure often calls to remove soil moisture by oven drying overnight at a temperature of 100 deg. C . Oven drying not only minimizes the gamma-ray self-attenuation of soil samples due to the absence of water during the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis, but also allows for a straightforward calculation of the specific activity of radionuclides in soil, historically based on the sample dry weight. Because radon exhalation is strongly dependent on moisture , knowledge of the oven-drying time dependence of the soil moisture content, combined with radon exhalation measurements during oven drying and at room temperature for varying soil moisture contents, would allow conclusions to be made on how the oven-drying radon exhalation rate depends on soil moisture content. Determinations of the oven-drying radon exhalation from soil samples allow corrections to be made for the immediate laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy of radionuclides in the natural uranium decay chain. This paper presents the results of soil moisture content measurements during oven drying and suggests useful empirical fits to the moisture data

  4. Prediction of terrestrial gamma dose rate based on geological formations and soil types in the Johor State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Hamzah, Khaidzir bin; Alajerami, Yasser; Moharib, Mohammed; Saeed, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to predict and estimate unmeasured terrestrial gamma dose rate (TGDR) using statistical analysis methods to derive a model from the actual measurement based on geological formation and soil type. The measurements of TGDR were conducted in the state of Johor with a total of 3873 measured points which covered all geological formations, soil types and districts. The measurements were taken 1 m above the soil surface using NaI [Ti] detector. The measured gamma dose rates ranged from 9 nGy h −1 to 1237 nGy h −1 with a mean value of 151 nGy h −1 . The data have been normalized to fit a normal distribution. Tests of significance were conducted among all geological formations and soil types, using the unbalanced one way ANOVA. The results indicated strong significant differences due to the different geological formations and soil types present in Johor State. Pearson Correlation was used to measure the relations between gamma dose rate based on geological formation and soil type (D G,S ) with the gamma dose rate based on geological formation (D G ) or soil type (D s ). A very good correlation was found between D G,S and D G or D G,S and D s . A total of 118 pairs of geological formations and soil types were used to derive the statistical contribution of geological formations and soil types to gamma dose rates. The contribution of the gamma dose rate from geological formation and soil type were found to be 0.594 and 0.399, respectively. The null hypotheses were accepted for 83% of examined data, therefore, the model could be used to predict gamma dose rates based on geological formation and soil type information. - Highlights: • A very good correlation coefficient was found between D G,S and D G or D G,S and D s . • The contribution of the gamma dose rate from geological formation (GDR) is 0.594. • The contribution of the GDR from soil type was found to be 0.399. • A 83% of examined data were accepted the null hypotheses. • The model

  5. Deposition of gamma emitters from Chernobyl accident and their transfer in lichen-soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Jukka; Paatero, Jussi; Pehrman, Reijo; Kulmala, Seija; Suksi, Juhani; Koivula, Teija; Jaakkola, Timo

    2008-10-01

    Lichen-soil column samples were taken from several locations in the Southern Finland between 1986 and 2006. Columns were divided into three parts, upper lichen, lower lichen and underlying soil, and their gamma emitting radionuclides, 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 95Zr, 106Ru, 110mAg, 125Sb and 144Ce, were measured with gamma spectrometry. Deposition values were calculated as Bq/m2 for each sampling site. Distribution of various radionuclides in the three compartments as a function of time was determined. Both effective and ecological half-lives of all radionuclides were calculated for upper lichen, whole lichen and whole lichen-soil column. A linear relation was derived between the physical half-lives and effective half-lives for whole lichen and for whole lichen-soil column. Reindeer meat activity concentrations of various radionuclides and ensuing radiation doses to reindeer-herding people were also estimated for a hypothetical case where a similar high radioactive pollution, as was taken place in the Southern Finland, would have occurred in the reindeer-herding areas in the Finnish Lapland.

  6. Assessment of gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soils along a subtropical river basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Dekun; Yu, Tao [Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China). Lab. of Marine Isotopic Technology and Environmental Risk Assessment

    2017-07-01

    The activities of natural radionuclides in the environment can be used to assess radiological effects. Monitoring the radiation level in soils is important for public health. It also has important geochemical implications as most of the sediment eroded from river basins is from soil. Therefore, we carried out a soil sampling campaign along a subtropical river basin in southeastern China (Jiulong River). Surface and depth profile soils were collected, and the natural radionuclide activities were measured. The activities of the natural radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in the surface soils varied from 31.6 to 132.1 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, 37.8 to 174.0 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, and 52.3 to 596.2 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, with average values of 56.7±30.3 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, 86.7±41.3 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, and 352.8±190.6 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, respectively. The absorbed gamma dose in air and the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) in surface soils along the river basin were both higher than the world average. In the depth profiles, excess {sup 210}Pb ({sup 210}Pbex) decreased with depth and significant correlation between {sup 210}Pbex and TOC was observed, suggesting that they are affected by similar processes (leaching and sorption).

  7. Soil nutrient content of old-field and agricultural ecosystems exposed to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Holt, B.R.; Bottino, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Soil nutrients (extractable P. and NO 3 -N, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K), exchangeable Al, pH and organic matter content were measured over the top six inches of the soils of the seven-year old-field portion and the cultivated portion of the Brookhaven gamma field. Although concentrations of all nutrient elements were higher in the agricultural soil, the distributions of Ca, P, Al, pH and organic matter were similar along the radiation gradient in both fields. There was also a regular reduction in the phosphorus with decreasing exposure, but distribution of other elements was not clearly related to radiation effects. The distribution of all elements except K was significantly correlated with pH in the agricultural soil. In the old-field only Ca, Mg and Al showed this relationship. The most conspicuous effects of nearly 25 yr of chronic irradiation of the site were a reduction in soil organic matter content and an increase in soil P in both fields. (author)

  8. Measurement of gamma-ray dose rate in soil and transfer of radionuclides from soil to vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.; Akhter, P.; Khan, H.M.; Ismail, M.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of natural radionuclides in soil, vegetation and vegetable samples collected from some Northern areas of Pakistan was carried out by gamma -ray spectrometry (HPGe detector). The activity concentrations in soil ranged from 24.7 to 78.5 Bqkg/sup -1/, 21.7 to 75.3 Bqkg/sup -1/ and 298.5 to 570.8 Bqkg/sup -1/ for /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 40/K with the mean values of 42.1, 43.3 and 418.3 Bqkg/sup -1/, respectively. In the present analysis, /sup 40/K was the major radionuclide present in soil, vegetation, fruit and vegetable samples. The transfer factors of these radionuclides from soil to vegetation, fruit and vegetable were found in the order: /sup 40/K>/sup 232/Th>/sup 226/Ra. The mean value of outdoor and indoor absorbed dose rate (D) in air was 64.61 and 77.54 nGyh/sup -1/. The activity concentrations of radionuclides found in all samples were nominal. Therefore, they are not associated with any potential source of health hazard to the general public. (Orig./A.B.)

  9. Radon survey and soil gamma doses in primary schools of Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla, Nevzat; Aldemir, Kamuran

    2014-06-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate levels of indoor radon and gamma doses in 42 primary schools located in Batman, southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Indoor radon measurements were carried out using CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector-based radon dosimeters. The overall mean annual (222)Rn activity in the surveyed area was found to be 49 Bq m(-3) (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 0.25 mSv). However, in one of the districts (Besiri) the maximum radon value turned out to be 307 Bq m(-3). The estimated annual effective doses are less than the recommended action level (3-10 mSv). It is found that the radon concentration decreases with increasing floor number. The concentrations of natural and artificial radioisotopes were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy for soil samples collected in close vicinity of the studied schools. The mean gamma activity concentrations in the soil samples were 31, 25, 329 and 12 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. The radiological parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent were calculated. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values.

  10. Monitoring of Natural Soil Radioactivity with Portable Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Løvborg, Leif; Kirkegaard, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Two portable NaI(Tl) spectrometers with four energy windows were used for the recording of gamma-ray counts over soil and rock of differing natural radioactivity. The exposure rates at the field sites were simultaneously measured with a high-pressure argon ionization chamber. Background measureme......Two portable NaI(Tl) spectrometers with four energy windows were used for the recording of gamma-ray counts over soil and rock of differing natural radioactivity. The exposure rates at the field sites were simultaneously measured with a high-pressure argon ionization chamber. Background...... measurements at sea were carried out in order to estimate the non-terrestrial contributions to the instrument readings. Counts recorded in the three high-energy windows of the spectrometers were converted into radiometrically equivalent concentrations of thorium, uranium, and potassium in the ground. Large....... The theoretical exposure rates deducible from the experimental radioelement concentrations at the field sites were in good agreement both with the ionization-chamber readings (corrected for cosmic-ray background) and with the exposure rates measured by total gamma-ray counting. From this and other results...

  11. Classification of soil samples according to their geographic origin using gamma-ray spectrometry and principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragovic, Snezana; Onjia, Antonije

    2006-01-01

    A principal component analysis (PCA) was used for classification of soil samples from different locations in Serbia and Montenegro. Based on activities of radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 238 U, 235 U, 4 K, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 7 Be) detected by gamma-ray spectrometry, the classification of soils according to their geographical origin was performed. Application of PCA to our experimental data resulted in satisfactory classification rate (86.0% correctly classified samples). The obtained results indicate that gamma-ray spectrometry in conjunction with PCA is a viable tool for soil classification

  12. Determination of soil parameters during the water horizontal infiltration and redistribution by gamma ray attenuation method and tensiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.C.M. de.

    1991-04-01

    The present work studies the water diffusivity and hydraulic conductivity in a Latossolo Roxo distrofico soil, during the water infiltration and redistribution processes. Variation water flow equations were utilized for the calculations. The data of wetting front positions and of soil water content profiles were obtained through the gamma ray attenuation from a 241-Am source, with 100 mCi activity detected by a standard electronic equipment of gamma spectrometry, with NaI CTD scintillation detector. From the soil water content data in function of space and time and from analytic models, the properties of soil water diffusivity and soil hydraulic conductivity were determined in the laboratory for the 0-10 cm and 10-25 soil layers. (author)

  13. SOILD: A computer model for calculating the effective dose equivalent from external exposure to distributed gamma sources in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.; Yu, C.; Schafetz, S.; Mehta, P.

    1991-01-01

    The SOLID computer model was developed for calculating the effective dose equivalent from external exposure to distributed gamma sources in soil. It is designed to assess external doses under various exposure scenarios that may be encountered in environmental restoration programs. The models four major functional features address (1) dose versus source depth in soil, (2) shielding of clean cover soil, (3) area of contamination, and (4) nonuniform distribution of sources. The model is also capable of adjusting doses when there are variations in soil densities for both source and cover soils. The model is supported by a data base of approximately 500 radionuclides. 4 refs

  14. Determination of 7BE in soil sample by gamma spectrometry for erosion researchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Alexander D.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Amaral, Angela M.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2015-01-01

    Cosmogenic 7 Be is a natural radiotracer produced in the stratosphere and troposphere and reached to the Earth surface via wet and dry fallout and hence its measurement for research of erosion in soils is very significant. The 7 Be radio analyse based on gamma spectrometry technique has been a routine methodology for decades and although is the reference procedure is not free of analytical interference. 7 Be is a β-γ emitting radionuclide (Eγ = 477.59 keV, T½ = 53.12d) and depending on the chemical profile of the soil its determination is susceptible to 228 Ac (E γ = 478.40 keV, T½ = 6.15h) interference. The aim of this work was to establish an analytical protocol for the 7 Be determination in soil samples from Juatuba-Mg region in different sampling periods of dry and rainy seasons for erosion studies and to establish some methodologies for evaluating and correcting the interference level of 228 Ac in the 7 Be activity measurements by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  15. Study of stability of humic acids from soil and peat irradiated by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wilson Tadeu Lopes da

    1995-01-01

    Humic acids samples (one deriving from a sedimentary soil and other from a peat), in aqueous media, were irradiated with gamma rays, in doses of 10, 50 and 100 kGy, in order to understand their chemical behavior after the irradiation. The material, before and after irradiation, was analyzed by Elemental Analysis, Functional Groups (carboxylic acids and phenols), UV/Vis Spectroscopy (E 4 /E 6 ratio), IR spectroscopy, CO 2 content and Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) ). The Elemental Analysis showed the humic acid derived from a peat had a most percentage quantity of Carbon and Hydrogen than the material from a sedimentary soil. From the UV/Vis Spectroscopy, it was observed a decrease of E 4 /E 6 ratio with an increase of the applied dose. The data from GPC are in agreement with this. The results showed that the molecular weight of the material increased by exposing it to a larger radiolitical dose. The peat material was less affected by the gamma radiation than the soil material. The carboxylic groups were responsible by radiochemical behavior of the material. (author)

  16. Natural {gamma}-radiation of rocks and soils from Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Mediteranean Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brai, M. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Ist. della Biocomunicazione; Hauser, S.; Bellia, S. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Mineralogia, Petrografia e Geochimica; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Nucleare

    1995-04-01

    Gamma-ray spectra of the main lithotypes and soils from Vulcano island (Mediterranean Sea) have been carried out in order to quantify the natural radioactivity. The {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K contents obtained are in agreement with the genesis of the rock formation. In fact, basaltic rocks showed the lowest content of radionuclides whereas the rhyolitic rocks showed the highest concentrations. The results are comparable with other volcanic areas of southern Italy. Measurements of absorbed dose in air by TL dosimeters were also performed. The values ranged between 0.5 and 2.0 mGy y{sup -1}. Comparison between these values and those computed from {gamma}-ray spectra showed a good correlation. (author).

  17. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy to predict soil properties using windows and full-spectrum analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hafiz Sultan; Hoogmoed, Willem B; van Henten, Eldert J

    2013-11-27

    Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer to predict several soil properties using energy-windows and full-spectrum analysis methods in two differently managed sandy loam fields: conventional and organic. In the conventional field, both methods predicted clay, pH and total nitrogen with a good accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.56) in the top 0-15 cm soil depth, whereas in the organic field, only clay content was predicted with such accuracy. The highest prediction accuracy was found for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.75) in the conventional field in the energy-windows method. Predictions were better in the top 0-15 cm soil depths than in the 15-30 cm soil depths for individual and combined fields. This implies that gamma-ray spectroscopy can generally benefit soil characterisation for annual crops where the condition of the seedbed is important. Small differences in soil structure (conventional vs. organic) cannot be determined. As for the methodology, we conclude that the energy-windows method can establish relations between radionuclide data and soil properties as accurate as the full-spectrum analysis method.

  18. Radon flux maps for the Netherlands and Europe using terrestrial gamma radiation derived from soil radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, S. N.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Herber, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, radon (222Rn) is a valuable tracer to study atmospheric processes and to validate global chemical transport models. However, the use of radon as a proxy in atmospheric and climate research is limited by the uncertainties in the magnitude and distribution of the radon flux density over the Earth's surface. Terrestrial gamma radiation is a useful proxy for generating radon flux maps. A previously reported radon flux map of Europe used terrestrial gamma radiation extracted from automated radiation monitoring networks. This approach failed to account for the influence of local artificial radiation sources around the detector, leading to under/over estimation of the reported radon flux values at different locations. We present an alternative approach based on soil radionuclides which enables us to generate accurate radon flux maps with good confidence. Firstly, we present a detailed comparison between the terrestrial gamma radiation obtained from the National Radiation Monitoring network of the Netherlands and the terrestrial gamma radiation calculated from soil radionuclides. Extending further, we generated radon flux maps of the Netherlands and Europe using our proposed approach. The modelled flux values for the Netherlands agree reasonably well with the two observed direct radon flux measurements (within 2σ level). On the European scale, we find that the observed radon flux values are higher than our modelled values and we introduce a correction factor to account for this difference. Our approach discussed in this paper enables us to develop reliable and accurate radon flux maps in countries with little or no information on radon flux values.

  19. Calibration of a Gamma Spectrometry System Used for the Determination of Cs-137 in Spanish Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreraa, M.; Romero, M. L.; Valino, F.

    2008-01-01

    The document describes the methodology used at CIEMAT in order to determine, by gamma spectrometry, the background levels of the radionuclide Cs-137 in soils of the Spanish peninsular territory. the work is a part of an extensive research project developed jointly by the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU) and the CIEMAT, endellite Content and migration of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Spanish soils, which is funded by the Plan I+D of the Spanish Nuclear Security Council (CSN). The objective of the project is to establish the reference levels of man-made radionuclides in Spanish soils, with respect to which the evaluation of a possible posterior accidental release of radioactive material could be appraised. The activity concentration of the fission products Cs-137 has been determined in 34 soil cores extracted from representative Spanish soils type zones. This publication describes the experimental system employed, its calibration, the particular conditions applied to perform the measurements, as well as the experimental validation of the methodology. The activity profiles and inventories of the radioactive element so obtained are also presented. The estimation of the background Cs-137 reference levels, will provide a basis for later applications as the study of the spatial distribution in the region, the determination of the correlation between the deposited activity and the meteorological conditions, or the calculation of the specific migration parameters of the radioactive elements in Mediterranean conditions. (Author) 15 refs

  20. Soil gamma ray spectrometry of the Buquira river basin, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Alice

    2002-12-01

    Natural radioactivity found in rocks and its evaluation been frequently used for studies of environmental geochemistry, particularly those of detection and control of pollutants and the consequent changes in environment after antropic interferences. In this work natural radioactivity in forty nine soil samples in the basin of Buquira river, at the Northeast region of Sao Paulo State, has been analysed and measured with a Ge-HP gamma ray spectrometer. A table with the most relevant results found in rocks is shown and discussed. (author)

  1. Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohai; Zhou, Jian; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Stauffer, Fritz

    2014-12-01

    The freezing temperature of water in soil is not constant but varies over a range determined by soil texture. Consequently, the amounts of unfrozen water and ice change with temperature in frozen soil, which in turn affects hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical properties of frozen soil. In this paper, an Am-241 gamma ray source and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) were combined to measure unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil simultaneously. The gamma ray attenuation was used to determine total water content. The TDR was used to determine the dielectric constant of the frozen soil. Based on a four-phase mixing model, the amount of unfrozen water content in the frozen soil could be determined. The ice content was inferred by the difference between total water content and unfrozen water content. The gamma ray attenuation and the TDR were both calibrated by a gravimetric method. Water contents measured by gamma ray attenuation and TDR in an unfrozen silt column under infiltration were compared and showed that the two methods have the same accuracy and response to changes of water content. Unidirectional column freezing experiments were performed to apply the combined method of gamma ray attenuation and TDR for measuring unfrozen water content and ice content. The measurement error of the gamma ray attenuation and TDR was around 0.02 and 0.01 m3/m3, respectively. The overestimation of unfrozen water in frozen soil by TDR alone was quantified and found to depend on the amount of ice content. The higher the ice content, the larger the overestimation. The study confirmed that the combined method could accurately determine unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil. The results of soil column freezing experiments indicate that total water content distribution is affected by available pore space and the freezing front advance rate. It was found that there is similarity between the soil water characteristic and the soil freezing characteristic of

  2. Spasmodic dysphonia follow-up with videolaryngoscopy and voice spectrography during treatment with botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marcello; Dubbioso, R; Apisa, P; Allocca, R; Santoro, L; Cesari, U

    2015-09-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a focal dystonia of laryngeal muscles seriously impairing quality of voice. Adductor SD (ADSD) is the most common presentation of this disorder that can be identified by specialized phoniatricians and neurologists firstly on a clinical evaluation and then confirmed by videolaryngoscopy (VL). Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection with electromyographic guidance in muscles around vocal cords is the most effective treatment. Voice Handicap Index (VHI) questionnaire is the main tool to assess dysphonia and response to treatment. Objective of this study is to perform VL and voice spectrography (VS) to confirm the efficacy of BTX injections over time. 13 patients with ADSD were studied with VHI, VL and VS before and after 4 consecutive treatment with onobotulinumtoxin-A. For each treatment vocal improvement was proved by a significant reduction of VHI score and increase of maximum time phonation and harmonic-to-noise ratio while VL showed the absence of spasm in most of patients. No change of the response to BTX was found between injections. This study supports the efficacy of the treatment of SD with BTX with objective measurements and suggests that the efficacy of recurring treatments is stable over time.

  3. Dried gamma-irradiated sewage solids use on calcareous soils: crop yeilds and heavy metals uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, B.D.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments designed to examine gamma-radiation effects on extractable and plant-available sludge elements and to examine the response of crops to sludge applications on two typical, calcareous soils in New Mexico are summarized. Information has been given indicating that the radiation process of reducing pathogens in sewage products being developed by Sandia Laboratories, does not significantly increase the chemical extractability and plant uptake of a broad range of nutrients and heavy metals. However, radiation treatment greatly facilitates handling sewage for experimentation, because pathogen contamination precautions are eliminated and weed seeds killed. Studies on the effects of sludge irradiation on plant nutrient uptake revealed no concentration increases, agreeing with results presented herein. Sewage products may have special potential for use on calcareous soils, such as in New Mexico. For instance, in New Mexico the lack of potassium in sewage products is not a problem and the naturally high pH of New Mexico soil greatly reduces plant availability of many problem heavy metals. Dramatic increases in yield are typified by the greenhouse and field results presented herein, especially for the known micronutrient deficient soils of New Mexico. Results indicate that sewage sludge is an excellent Zn and Fe fertilizer. More research needs to be done before the economics of sludge application can be calculated and more field information is needed before irradiated sewage products are used indiscriminately

  4. Dried gamma-irradiated sewage solids use on calcareous soils: crop yeilds and heavy metals uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaslin, B.D.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments designed to examine gamma-radiation effects on extractable and plant-available sludge elements and to examine the response of crops to sludge applications on two typical, calcareous soils in New Mexico are summarized. Information has been given indicating that the radiation process of reducing pathogens in sewage products being developed by Sandia Laboratories, does not significantly increase the chemical extractability and plant uptake of a broad range of nutrients and heavy metals. However, radiation treatment greatly facilitates handling sewage for experimentation, because pathogen contamination precautions are eliminated and weed seeds killed. Studies on the effects of sludge irradiation on plant nutrient uptake revealed no concentration increases, agreeing with results presented herein. Sewage products may have special potential for use on calcareous soils, such as in New Mexico. For instance, in New Mexico the lack of potassium in sewage products is not a problem and the naturally high pH of New Mexico soil greatly reduces plant availability of many problem heavy metals. Dramatic increases in yield are typified by the greenhouse and field results presented herein, especially for the known micronutrient deficient soils of New Mexico. Results indicate that sewage sludge is an excellent Zn and Fe fertilizer. More research needs to be done before the economics of sludge application can be calculated and more field information is needed before irradiated sewage products are used indiscriminately. (ERB)

  5. Gamma-emissions of some meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Evaluation of lunar soil radioactivity; Emissions gamma de quelques meteorites et roches terrestres. Evaluation de la radioactivite du sol lunaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordemann, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    The gamma-emissions of some terrestrial rocks and of the following meteorites: Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes, and Dosso were studied by quantitative low background gamma spectrometry. These measurements and their interpretation lead to the evaluation of the possible gamma-emissions of several models of lunar soils. (author) [French] Les emissions gamma des meteorites Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes et Dosso et de quelques roches terrestres ont ete etudiees par spectrometrie gamma quantitative a faible mouvement propre. Ces mesures et leur interpretation permettent d'evaluer les principales contributions des emissions gamma du sol lunaire pour des modeles de compositions possibles variees. (auteur)

  6. Gamma-emissions of some meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Evaluation of lunar soil radioactivity; Emissions gamma de quelques meteorites et roches terrestres. Evaluation de la radioactivite du sol lunaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordemann, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    The gamma-emissions of some terrestrial rocks and of the following meteorites: Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes, and Dosso were studied by quantitative low background gamma spectrometry. These measurements and their interpretation lead to the evaluation of the possible gamma-emissions of several models of lunar soils. (author) [French] Les emissions gamma des meteorites Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes et Dosso et de quelques roches terrestres ont ete etudiees par spectrometrie gamma quantitative a faible mouvement propre. Ces mesures et leur interpretation permettent d'evaluer les principales contributions des emissions gamma du sol lunaire pour des modeles de compositions possibles variees. (auteur)

  7. Radioactivity Levels And Gamma Dose Rate In Soil Samples From Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deljkic, D.; Kadic, I.; Ilic, Z.; Vidic, A.

    2015-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in soil samples collected from different regions of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides are compared with the reported data from different other countries and it is found that measured activity concentrations are comparable with the worldwide measured average values reported by the UNSCEAR. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma - ray spectrometry analysis system at Institute for Public Health FBiH (Radiation Protection Center). The measuring time of all soil samples was 86000 seconds. It was found that the soil specific activity ranges from 24.59 to 161.20 Bq/kg for 226Ra, from 17.60 to 66.45 Bq/kg for 232Th, from 179.50 to 598.04 Bq kg-1 for 40K and from 11.13 to 108.69 Bq/kg for 137Cs with the mean values of 62.34; 46.97; 392.76 and 51.49 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in all the soil samples is lower than the safe limit (370 Bq/kg), ranges from 63.58 to 287.03 Bq/kg with the mean value of 159.71 Bq/kg. Man-made radionuclide 137Cs is also present in detectable amount in all soil samples. Presence of 137Cs indicates that the samples in this area also receive some fallout from nuclear accident in Chernobyl power plant in 1986. The value of external radiation hazard indices is found to be less than unity (mean value of 0.43). Absorbed dose rates and effective dose equivalents are also determined for the samples. The concentration of radionuclides found in the soil samples during the present study does not pose any potential health hazard to the general public. (author).

  8. Gamma ray transmission for hydraulic conductivity measurement of undisturbed soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Camargo Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objective to determine the Hydraulic Conductivity K(theta function for different depth levels z, of columns of undisturbed soil, using the gamma ray transmission technique applied to the Sisson method. The results indicated a growing behavior for K(theta and a homogeneous soil density, both in relation to the increase of the depth. The methodology of gamma ray transmission showed satisfactory results on the determination of the hydraulic conductivity in columns of undisturbed soil, besides being very reliable and a nondestructive method.O estudo da condutividade hidráulica para solos não saturados é essencial quando aplicado às situações relacionadas à irrigação, drenagem e transporte de nutrientes no solo, é uma importante propriedade para desenvolvimentos de culturas agrícolas. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de determinar a função Condutividade Hidráulica K(teta, em diferentes níveis z de profundidade, em colunas de solo indeformado, utilizando a transmissão de raios gama aplicada ao método de Sisson. Os resultados indicam um comportamento crescente para K(teta e uma densidade de solo homogênea, ambos em relação ao aumento da profundidade. A metodologia de transmissão de raios gama mostrou resultados bastante satisfatórios na determinação da condutividade hidráulica em colunas de solo indeformado, além de ser muito confiável e não destrutivo.

  9. Gamma-ray measurements of natural radioactivity in cultivated and reclaimed soil, Upper Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.E.; Taha, S.

    2007-01-01

    Specific activity of primordial radionuclides in soil samples from 10 different locations in Qena governorate and wadi Elakita were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. A total of 50 soil samples were collected from different sorts of soil with depth ranged from 0 - 25 cm . The energy peaks used were: 352.0 KeV of 214 Pb and 609.3, 1120.3 and 1764.5 KeV of 214 Bi for 226 Ra. In the case of 232 Th the energy peaks used were: 238.6 KeV of 212 Pb, 2615 of 208 Ti and 911.1 KeV of 228 Ac. While the radioactivity of 40 K was obtained from the single photopeak of this isotope at 1460.75 KeV. The total uncertainty of the obtained values of the radioactivity was calculated from the systematic and the random error of the measurements. Concentrations of radionuclides in soils analyzed in this study ranged from 7.5 to 85.5, 7.2 to 19.3 and 77.3 to 267.5 with mean values are 18.8 ± 3.4, 11.4 ± 3.4 and 150.8 ±12.3 (Bq.kg -1 ) for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ,respectively. The results obtained were compared with those from other studies in the world. The radiological health implication to the population that may result from these values is found to be very low and almost insignificant. No artificial radionuclide, however, was detected in any of the samples, hence, measurements have been taken as representing baseline values of these radionuclides in the soil in studying areas

  10. Improvement of vitamin B-6 production by gamma radiation in bacterial isolates from soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trongpanich, Yanee; Anutrakunchai, Chitchanok; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    A vitamin B-6 producing bacterium, Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 was isolated from soil and produced vitamin B-6 (mainly pyridoxamine) 0.27 mg per liter. Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 is mesophile bacterium which was not able to grow at over 4 0C. The objective of this study was to improve vitamin B-6 production in high temperature by gamma radiation. The result showed that 677 mutant isolates which were obtained from irradiation dose 0.8 and 1 kGy, were able to grow at 5 0C. Only 4 isolates (08-361, 10-3, 10-94 and 10-98) showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed that isolate 08-361 showed higher amount of vitamin b-6 than wild type. However, this value of vitamin B-6 from this mutant was lower than that when screening. Forms of produced vitamin B-6 from mutant were identified by HPLC. The result showed produced vitamin B-6 were PM and PMP, similar with wild type. Effect of gamma radiation stability of mutant is further study.

  11. Comparison of in-situ gamma ray spectrometry measurements with conventional methods in determination natural and artificial nuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Doubal, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    Two nuclear analytical techniques (In-Situ Gamma ray spectrometry and laboratory gamma ray spectrometry) for determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in soil have been validated. The first technique depends on determination of radioactivity content of representative samples of the studied soil after laboratory preparation, while the second technique is based on direct determination of radioactivity content of soil using in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer. Analytical validation parameter such as detection limits, repeatability, reproducibility in addition to measurement uncertainties were estimated and compared for both techniques. Comparison results have shown that the determination of radioactivity in soil should apply the two techniques together where each of techniques is characterized by its low detection limit and uncertainty suitable for defined application of measurement. Radioactive isotopes in various locations were determined using the two methods by measuring 40 k, 238 U,and 137 Cs. The results showed that there are differences in attenuation factors due to soil moisture content differences; wet weight corrections should be applied when the two techniques are compared. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the synergistic effect of gamma irradiated Steinernema scapterisci and soil depth in controlling Bactrocera zonata Saunders (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Sayed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders is a serious devastating pest in Egypt. This pest spends in soil from full grown larvae till adult emergence. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the pathogenicity of Steinernema scapterisci against larvae and 1 day old pupae (at different soil depths, and to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on its virulence. The results revealed that adult emergence percentage decrease as the soil depth and S. scapterisci concentration increase. In contrast, the larval mortality increased with S. scapterisci concentration increased. In addition, this study showed that gamma irradiation of S. scapterisci juveniles with 2Gy increased its virulence against both larvae and pupae, which presented by lower LC50 values than unirradiated S. scapterisci. Subsequently, it could be concluded that 2Gy irradiated S. scapterisci can serve as a bio-tolerated control method for B. zonata.

  13. Determination of radionuclides and elemental composition of clay soils by gamma and X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isinkaye, O. M.; Shitta, O. M. B.; Oderinde, O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiochemical and elemental analysis of clay soils collected from different locations within Ekiti State have been performed in this study using gamma and XRF spectrometric measurements. The results of this study show that the mean concentration of 238 U ranged from 2.2±1.0ppm to 3.2±1.1ppm, 232 Th ranged from 4.0±0.5ppm to 5.7±1.7ppm, while 40 K presented in percent by weight ranged from 0.4±0.2 to 1.3±0.3. The XRF analysis revealed 4 major elements and 11 minor or trace elements present in the clay samples. The distribution of the various major and trace elements in all the sampling sites do not follow any systematic trend but vary from point to point. To assess the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the clay soils, the enrichment factor (EF) and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were estimated for some potential hazardous elements. The results indicate that Cu, Zn, Ni and Mn have EF<2 indicating minimal or no enrichment while Pb is moderately enriched in all the locations.

  14. Preliminary results on soil-emitted gamma radiation and its relation with the local atmospheric electric field at Amieira (Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, F; Barbosa, S M; Silva, H G; Bárias, S

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric electric field near the Earth's surface is dominated by atmospheric pollutants and natural radioactivity, with the latter directly linked to radon ( 222 Rn) gas. For a better comprehension on the temporal variability of both the atmospheric electric field and the radon concentration and its relation with local atmospheric variables, simultaneous measurements of soil-emitted gamma radiation and potential gradient (defined from the vertical component of the atmospheric electric field) were taken every minute, along with local meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and daily solar radiation). The study region is Amieira, part of the Alqueva lake in Alentejo Portugal, where an interdisciplinary meteorological campaign, ALEX2014, took place from June to August 2014. Soil gamma radiation is more sensitive to small concentrations of radon as compared with alpha particles measurements, for that reason it is more suited for sites with low radon levels, as expected in this case. Preliminary results are presented here: statistical and spectral analysis show that i) the potential gradient has a stronger daily cycle as compared with the gamma radiation, ii) most of the energy of the gamma signal is concentrated in the low frequencies (close to 0), contrary to the potential gradient that has most of the energy in frequency 1 (daily cycle) and iii) a short-term relation between gamma radiation and the potential gradient has not been found. Future work and plans are also discussed. (paper)

  15. Efficiency calibration and measurement of self-absorption correction of environmental gamma spectroscopy of soils samples using Marinelli beaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdi, M. R.; Mostajaboddavati, M.; Hassanzadeh, S.; Faghihian, H.; Rezaee, Kh.; Kamali, M.

    2006-01-01

    A nonlinear function in combination with the method of mixing activity calibrated is applied for fitting the experimental peak efficiency of HPGe spectrometers in 59-2614 keV energy range. The preparation of Marinelli beaker standards of mixed gamma and RG-set at secular equilibrium with its daughter radionuclides was studied. Standards were prepared by mixing of known amounts of 13B a, 241 Am, 152 Eu, 207 Bi, 24 Na, Al 2 O 3 powder and soil. The validity of these standards was checked by comparison with certified standard reference material RG-set and IAEA-Soil-6 Self-absorption was measured for the activity calculation of the gamma-ray lines about series of 238 U daughter, 232 Th series, 137 Cs and 40 K in soil samples. Self-absorption in the sample will depend on a number of factor including sample composition, density, sample size and gamma-ray energy. Seven Marinelli beaker standards were prepared in different degrees of compaction with bulk density ( ρ) of 1.000 to 1.600 g cm -3 . The detection efficiency versus density was obtained and the equation of self-absorption correction factors calculated for soil samples

  16. Elementary representative sizes of soil attributes via attenuation of gamma rays and computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Jaqueline Aparecida Ribaski

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the Computed Tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) techniques were used in the investigation of representative sample sizes for attributes related to soil structure. First of all, the representative elementary length (REL) for experimental measurements of soil mass attenuation coefficient (μes), of samples from a sandy and a clayey soil, was analyzed. The study was conducted with two radioactive sources ( 241 Am and 137 Cs), three collimators (2 - 4 mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2-5 cm). From these analyzes, it was possible to identify an ideal thickness range for each of the studied sources (2-4 cm and 12-15 cm for the sources of 241 Am and 137 Cs, respectively). The application of such results in representative elementary area evaluations, in clayey soil clods via CT, indicated that experimental soil mass attenuation coefficient average values obtained for x>4 cm and source 241 Am might induce the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations. Subsequently, μCT images with a total volume of 39×39×33 mm 3 and spatial resolution of 60 μm were used for macroporous system morphological characterization of a Rhodic Ferralsol with clayey texture, under no-till (NT) and conventional till (CT) systems. Attributes as macroporosity (MAP), number of macropores (NMAP), tortuosity (τ) and connectivity (C) of the pores were assessed. The C degree was estimated based on the Euler-Poincare characteristic (EPC). Once 3D images enable the study of these attributes in different sample volumes, the proposed study is ideal for the analysis of representative elementary volume (REV). Usually, the selection of subvolumes for REV analysis occurs concentrically to a small volume or in adjacent positions. Here, we introduced a new method for selecting the positions of subvolumes, which are randomly chosen within the total image volume (random selection). It was observed that higher fluctuations in amplitude of each

  17. Hymenobacter swuensis sp. nov., a gamma-radiation-resistant bacteria isolated from mountain soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Lee, Sang Hee; Kwon, Shin Ae; Kwon, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jin; Choi, Jin Ju; Lee, Hye Min; Auh, Young Kyung; Kim, Myung Kyum

    2014-03-01

    Gram stain-negative and non-motile bacteria, designated as DY53(T) and DY43, were isolated from mountain soil in South Korea prior exposure with 5 kGy gamma radiation. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strains belonged to the family Cytophagaceae in the class Cytophagia. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strains DY53(T) and DY43 was 100 %. The highest degrees of sequence similarities of strains DY53(T) and DY43 were found with Hymenobacter perfusus A1-12(T) (98.8 %), Hymenobacter rigui WPCB131(T) (98.5 %), H. yonginensis HMD1010(T) (97.9 %), H. xinjiangensis X2-1g(T) (96.6 %), and H. gelipurpurascens Txg1(T) (96.5 %). The DNA G+C content of the novel strains DY53(T) and DY43 were 59.5 mol%. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strains possessed major fatty acids such as C₁₅:₀ iso, C₁₅:₀ anteiso, C₁₆:₁ ω5c, summed feature 3 (16:1 ω7c/ω6c), summed feature 4 (17:1 anteiso B/iso I) and C₁₇:₀ iso, and major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The novel strains showed resistance to gamma radiation, with a D10 value (i.e., the dose required to reduce the bacterial population by tenfold) in excess of 5 kGy. Based on these data, strains DY53(T) and DY43 should be classified as representing a novel species, for which the name Hymenobacter swuensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DY53(T) (=KCTC 32018(T) = JCM 18582(T)) and DY43 (=KCTC 32010).

  18. Simultaneous determination of soil density and moisture by gamma ray attenuation from Cs137 and Am241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Ferraz, E.S. de.

    1974-09-01

    The method of simultaneous bulk density and soil moisture determination by attenuation of 241 Am and 137 Cs gamma-radiation is introduced and studied with details. Theoretical considerations are made about the attenuation process in the absorbers, the form of solving the problem of two unknowns; the sensitivity of the method; the influences of the resolution time of the electronic counting equipment, and of the compton scattering in the sample. From the methodological point of view studies are made about the influence of the geometry, adjustment of counting system, choice of radiation sources, attenuation coeficients and the manner of obtaining reliable measurements. It is also presented some applications of the method, its use in soil-water movement studies, in soil profile compaction studies, and specially in swelling soils

  19. Elemental analysis of water and soil environmental samples in Tabuk area by neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Aseery, Sh.M.; Alamoudi, Z.; Hassan, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The prompt and delayed gamma-rays due to neutron capture in the nuclei of the constituent elements of three soil samples and one drinking water sample have been measured. The 252 Cf and 226 Ra/Be isotopic neutron sources are used for neutron irradiation. Also, the hyper pure germanium detection system is used. The soil samples were from Astra, Tadco and El-Gammaz farms, while the water sample was taken from Tabuk city. In case of prompt gamma-ray analysis, a total of 16 elements were identified and the concentration percentage values by weight were calculated for: C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl,, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Sr ad Pb elements. A comparative study between the results obtained in this work and the results obtained by ICP-MS and EDX-Ray techniques for the same samples is given

  20. Evaluation of an automated assay system to measure soil radionuclides by L x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Crowell, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    An automated radionuclide assay system for conducting soil radioassays using L x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry was evaluated. Wet chemistry assay procedures were shown to be considerably more time consuming than similar analyses of soil on this radionuclide assay system. The detection limits of 241 Am and plutonium were determined, as well as the reproducibility of radionuclide assay results. The L x-ray spectrometric measurements were compared with radiochemical analyses on several tuff samples. The assay system's intrinsic germanium detector was found to respond linearly to varying low concentrations of 241 Am and plutonium, both of which were easily detected in the presence of elevated concentrations of 137 Cs

  1. Determination of 228Th, 226Ra and 40K in Soil Using In-Situ GammaSpectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunawas; Wahyudi; Syarbaini; Untara

    2000-01-01

    Determination of natural radionuclide in latosol soil at six locationsaround PPTN Serpong by using Inspector portable gamma spectrometer with highpurity Germanium detector (HPGe) which has 26% relative efficiency had beenobtained. Radionuclides data of 228 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K were obtained in4 hours, shorter than laboratories analysis which needed 3 weeks. Thedifferences between in-situ measurement and laboratory were 3.6% to 56.2% forsix conditions of soil measured. According to the specific activity dataanalysis using statistic hypothesis, the result shows that the activity of 228 Th and 226 Ra are independent on location, but 40 K is dependent onlocation. (author)

  2. Effect of collimator size and absorber thickness on soil bulk density evaluation by gamma-ray attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.C.; Borges, J.A.R.; Pires, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Representative measurements of the soil bulk density (ρ s ) can be affected depending on the geometry selected for gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) measurements. In this study, the effect of collimator size (2–4 mm diameters) and absorber thickness (2–15 cm) on ρ s measurements of sandy and clayey soils was investigated. In summary, the results obtained for the 137 Cs show that ρ s remained fairly constant for values of thickness larger than 7 cm (both soils). The very same result was observed for collimator sizes 2–4 mm. Regarding the 241 Am source, ρ s values presented variations with the collimator size (both soils) for the different thicknesses. The best values of ρ s were obtained for samples smaller than 5 cm and also for the small collimator diameters. - Highlights: ► Representative measurements of the soil bulk density by gamma-ray attenuation. ► For 137 Cs the best bulk density values were obtained for samples larger than 7 cm. ► For 241 Am the best bulk density values were obtained for samples smaller than 5 cm

  3. A first attempt to derive soil erosion rates from 137Cs airborne gamma measurements in two Alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bucher, Benno; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers is currently one of the most promising and effective approach for evaluating soil erosion magnitudes in mountainous grasslands. Conventional assessment or measurement methods are laborious and constrained by the topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. The 137Cs (half-life = 30.2 years) is the most frequently used FRN to study soil redistribution. However the application of 137Cs in alpine grasslands is compromised by the high heterogeneity of the fallout due to the origin of 137Cs fallout in the Alps, which is linked to single rain events occurring just after the Chernobyl accident when most of the Alpine soils were still covered by snow. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the 137Cs distribution in two study areas in the Central Swiss Alps: the Ursern valley (Canton Uri), and the Piora valley (Canton Ticino). In June 2015, a helicopter equipped with a NaI gamma detector flew over the two study sites and screened the 137Cs activity of the top soil. The use of airborne gamma measurements is particularly efficient in case of higher 137Cs concentration in the soil. Due to their high altitude and high precipitation rates, the Swiss Alps are expected to be more contaminated by 137Cs fallout than other parts of Switzerland. The airborne gamma measurements have been related to several key parameters which characterize the areas, such as soil properties, slopes, expositions and land uses. The ground truthing of the airborne measurements (i.e. the 137Cs laboratory measurements of the soil samples collected at the same points) returned a good fit. The obtained results offer an overview of the 137Cs concentration in the study areas, which allowed us to identify suitable reference sites, and to analyse the relationship between the 137Cs distribution and the above cited parameters. The authors also derived a preliminary qualitative and a quantitative assessment of soil redistribution

  4. Terrestrial gamma radioactivity levels and their corresponding external exposure of some soil samples from Elba protective area, Southeastern of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Arabi, A.M.; Ahmed, N.K.; Salahel Din, K.; Tykva, R.

    2007-01-01

    The study of natural gamma radioactivity was made to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil. Fifty four surface soil samples collected from three different cites (Wadi Daeeb , Wadi Sarara and Wadi Hodein) in Elba protective area, Southeastern of Egypt, were analyzed by Nal(Tl) detector to determine the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. The mean activity concentration of radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 20.9±1.6, 13.5 ± 1.1 and 477 ± 24 Bq kg -1 , respectively for Wadi Daeeb soils. The corresponding values for Wadi Sarara and Wadi Hodein soils are 27.8 ± 2.6, 17.8 ± 1.4 and 735.3 ± 29.8 Bq kg -1 and 20.3 ± 1.5, 12 ± 1 and 664.2 ± 20 Bq kg -1 , respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) and gamma activity concentration index (I) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The average annual effective doses outdoors, indoors and in total are estimated to be 0.046, 0.26 and 0.30 mSv, respectively for Wadi Daeeb soils. For Wadi Sarara and Wadi Hodein soils the corresponding values are 0.066, 0.37 and 0.44 mSv and 0.054, 0.30 and 0.36 mSv, respectively. Also the annual gonadal dose equivalent was calculated and found to be within safe limit

  5. Portable gamma spectrometry: measuring soil erosion in-situ at four Critical Zone Observatories in P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, N. K.; Green, S. M.; Chen, Z.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, R.; Yu, K.; Tu, C.; Jia, X.; Li, G.; Peng, X.; Quine, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting patterns of soil erosion, redistribution, and/soil nutrient loss is important for long-term soil conservation and agricultural sustainability. Caesium-137 (137Cs) and other fallout radionuclide inventories have been used over the the last 50 years to track soil erosion, transport and deposition on a catchment scale, and have been shown to be useful for informing models of temporal/spatial soil redistribution. Traditional sampling methods usually involves coring, grinding, sieving, sub-sampling and laboratory analysis using HPGe detectors, all of which can be costly and time consuming. In-situ measurements can provide a mechanism for assessment of 137Cs over larger areas that integrate the spatial variability, and expand turnover of analyses. Here, we assess the applicability of an in-situ approach based on radionuclide principles, and provide a comparison of the two approaches: laboratory vs. in-situ. The UK-China Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) programme provides an ideal research platform to assess the in-situ approach to measuring soil erosion: using a portable gamma spectrometer to determine 137Cs inventories. Four extensive field slope surveys were conducted in the CZO's, which covers four ecosystem types in China: karst, red soil, peri-urban, and loess plateau. In each CZO, 3-6 plots were measured along 2 slope transects, with 3 replicated 1 hour counts of 137Cs in each plot. In addition, 137Cs soil depth and bulk density profiles were also sampled for each plot, and lab-derived inventories calculated using traditional methods for comparison. Accurately and rapidly measuring 137Cs inventories using a portable field detector allows for a greater coverage of sampling locations and the potential for small-scale spatial integration, as well as the ability to re-visit sites over time and continually adapt and improve soil erosion/redistribution models, thus more effectively targeting areas of interest with reduced cost and time constraints.

  6. Natural gamma radiation levels, indoor and water 222RN Concentrations in soil division of Kerio valley, kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nderitu, S.K.; Maina, D.M.; Kinyua, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Human beings are constantly exposed to natural radioactivity. This radiation is mainly from natural gamma rays and radon and its decay products. The gamma rays are as a result of the decay of primordial nuclides and their daughter radioactive nuclides present in the earth's crust. Radon is produced from the decay of 226 Ra and it diffuses to the indoor environment through cracks on the floor or from building materials containing radium and hence radon problem is mainly indoors. In Kenya, some parts have been identified as having high gamma radiation causing exposure to the public. These areas include Mrima Hill (Kwale), Homa Bay, Bufayo, Weast Pokot, Kitui, Nanyuki, Kerio Valley and Tura. It is therefore necessary to carry out studies on the levels of radiation and determine whether they are within safe limits. Kerio valley, which is the area of study in this work, has been identified as one of the areas with uranium traces associated with fluorite mineralisation. In this study an assessment of the natural radiation levels in this area was carried out and in addition the radon concentrations indoor as well in water that the public is exposed were determined. To measure the radiation levels, soil samples were collected from the area of study, Kerio valley, and analysed for gamma levels using gamma spectroscopy technique. Indoor 222 Rn and radon in water concentrations were measured using the E-perm system. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides present, the doses as well as the annual effective dose equivalents were calculated for the soils using conversion factors adopted from the UNSCEAR (1988 and 1993) reports. Similarly, the dose equivalents and the annual effective doses for 222 Rn concentrations were evaluated. For natural gamma radiation 74 samples were analysed. The soil samples yielded activity concentrations ranging from 194.54??2.89 to 995.77??5.48 Bq Kg-1 for 40 K, 17.04??0.43 to 122.4??0.94 Bq Kg-1 for 232 Th which was evaluated from the 212

  7. Radionuclide analysis in the soil of Kumaun Himalaya, India, using gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R.C.; Prasad, Ganesh; Gusain, G.S.; Choubey, V.M.; Tosheva, Z.; Kies, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental release of low levels of radioactivity can occur as a consequence of normal radionuclides present in the earth's crust. We present here the results of a survey undertaken in 2003 on the radionuclide concentration in different rock formations in the eastern part of Kumaun Himalaya. The activity concentration and gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial radionuclides caused by 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined in the soil samples collected from the eastern part of Kumaun Himalaya. The mean concentration of 238 U and 232 Th in the earth's crust varied from 0.5 to 5 ppm (6 to 60 Bq/kg) and 2 to 20 ppm (8 to 80 Bq/kg) respectively. The reported activity concentration for the different rock formations varied from 32.6 to 1305.5 Bq/kg for 238 U, 16.3 to 136.3 Bq/kg for 232 Th and 124.6 to 1758.0 Bq/kg for 40 K. The distribution of the radionuclides varied with rock type due to different chemical properties of the measured radionuclides and the rocks. The result shows that high activity levels were found in Saryu Formation consisting of augen-gneiss, granite interbedded with schists and flaggy quartzite. The total air-absorbed dose rate in air above 1 m height was calculated from the three radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K), which varied from 39.1 to 226.8 nGy h -1 . The internal and external health-hazard indices were calculated based on the concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Strong positive correlations were observed between 235 U and 226 Ra, 232 Th and 226 Ra, 40 K and 232 Th as well as 40 K and 226 Ra. However, no significant correlation was observed between 238 U and 226 Ra because of radioactive disequilibrium between them. (author)

  8. A GIS model-based assessment of the environmental distribution of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane in European soils and waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno, P; Pistocchi, A

    2010-10-01

    The MAPPE GIS based multimedia model is used to produce a quantitative description of the behaviour of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) in Europe, with emphasis on continental surface waters. The model is found to reasonably reproduce gamma-HCH distributions and variations along the years in atmosphere and soil; for continental surface waters, concentrations were reasonably well predicted for year 1995, when lindane was still used in agriculture, while for 2005, assuming severe restrictions in use, yields to substantial underestimation. Much better results were yielded when same mode of release as in 1995 was considered, supporting the conjecture that for gamma-HCH, emission data rather that model structure and parameterization can be responsible for wrong estimation of concentrations. Future research should be directed to improve the quality of emission data. Joint interpretation of monitoring and modelling results, highlights that lindane emissions in Europe, despite the marked decreasing trend, persist beyond the provisions of existing legislation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gamma-ray and electrical resistivity measurements in soil with application of carbonatite and agricultural fertilizers in Distrito Federal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Carlos Tadeu Carvalho do; Gaspar, Jose Carlos; Pires, Augusto Cesar Bittencourt; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca; Andrade, Leide Rovenia Miranda de

    2008-01-01

    EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria) and Brasilia University developed a research project about the viability of carbonatite rock as agricultural fertilizer. As an initial experiment, several mixtures of carbonatite, limestone, phosphorous and potassium compounds were added as fertilizers in an oxisol area (red-latosol, according with Brazilian System of Soil Classification), in Distrito Federal, central Brazil. The experiment area was divided in 56 plots (4 x 7m) and each plot received a fertilizer mixture. The purpose of this work was to verify if the addition of fertilizer mixture to the soil modified its radiometric and resistivity properties and if it is possible to identify this change. Gamma-ray and electrical resistivity measurements were obtained in an experimental area and in a natural savannah type vegetation area. The results showed that the fertilizer addition modified soil natural properties causing a small increase in K, U, Th levels and decreasing ten times electrical resistivity. A low contrast of radiation was observed between plots, and then it was not possible to differentiate the several treatments in base of gamma-ray measurements. Electrical resistivity was efficient to identify three groups of plots related to mixtures characteristics, respectively with phosphorous, potassium and limestone / carbonatite predominance. (author)

  10. Field GE gamma spectrometry for on site measurements of some parameters characterizing radon-222 exhalation rates from soils and covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettwoog, P.; Kobal, I.; Pineau, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new method based on differential gamma spectrometry for on site determination of some of the parameters which are relevant for the production of radon 222 in soil gas and its transfer from soil to indoor and outdoor atmospheres. This method is investigated in the context of a 3-year Slovenian-French cooperation programme, the PROTEUS project. We are currently using a germanium detector of 100 cm 3 . The height of the 20 deg. C collimated detector above the soil surface is from 1.5 to 3 m when using a tripod. This arrangement provides results which are representative of soil areas ranging from 1 to 4 square metres. Routine measurements would require larger detector volumes. The main objective is to provide technology and methodology for an efficient mapping of zones with potential for being the source of a high level of indoor radon, eliminating the need for soil sampling followed by laboratory analysis. The feasibility of an airborne mapping laboratory flying at low altitude will be investigated. Another objective is the rapid measurement of radon profiles across covers used to reduce exhalation rates from the surface of a pile of tailings, with characterisation of the influence of humidity content of the top layer. Airborne survey would allow for measuring exhalations from surfaces of slurries not otherwise accessible. (author)

  11. Uranium in soil and gamma dose rate as proxies for the indoor radon risk: situation in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, F.; Cinelli, G.; Dehandschutter, B.

    2017-01-01

    Radon risk maps are usually based either on indoor radon data, or on measurements of soil gas radon and soil permeability. If these data are not available or not sufficient, it was suggested that other data could be used as an approximate substitute (a proxy) to the missing information, like the concentration of 238 U or 226 Ra in soils or the terrestrial gamma dose rate (TGDR). We examine here the correlation between airborne measurements of soil U and indoor radon, and between airborne U and TGDR, and their link with affected/unaffected areas. No clear correlation is found between airborne U and affected areas, as strongly affected areas are not characterised by a higher U level. Only the moderately affected area of Condroz can be connected to a higher U level, related to a few U anomalies. TGDR shows a rather good correlation with airborne U, but its relation with radon risk is less clear. Soil uranium and TGDR may help to screen out areas with very low U and very low TGDR, which have a low indoor radon risk, but they cannot be considered as good proxies for predicting radon-affected areas in Belgium. (authors)

  12. Aspects of land application of sewage solids and gamma-irradiated dried sewage solids on calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, B.D.; O'Connor, G.A.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    One of the cheapest and generally most convenient methods of disposing of sewage sludge is by land application. The greatest risks of land application are potential contamination of the environment by heavy metals, other toxicants, and pathogens. Irradiation of sewage sludge has been shown to have little or no effect on sludge elements available to plants, and can remove the potential pathogen problem. Work at New Mexico State University has shown that, with little risk, gamma-irradiated sewage sludge can be used to great advantage for crop production, especially on highly calcareous soils low in heavy metals essential for plant growth

  13. A computer program integrating a multichannel analyzer with gamma analysis for the estimation of 226 Ra concentration in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J. E.

    1992-08-01

    A new hardware/software system has been implemented using the existing three-regions-of-interest method for determining the concentration of 226 Ra in soil samples for the Pollutant Assessment Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consisting of a personal computer containing a multichannel analyzer, the system utilizes a new program combining the multichannel analyzer with a program analyzing gamma-radiation spectra for 226 Ra concentrations. This program uses a menu interface to minimize and simplify the tasks of system operation

  14. Laccase from a non-melanogenic, alkalotolerant gamma-proteobacterium JB isolated from industrial wastewater drained soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Jasleen; Capalash, Neena; Sharma, Prince

    2003-07-01

    A gram-negative, alkalotolerant bacterium, isolated from the soil continually drained with industrial wastewater and identified as gamma-proteobacterium by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, produced a polyphenol oxidase, which showed laccase but not tyrosinase activity. The organism grew well from pH 6 to 10 and produced laccase maximally at pH 10. The enzyme was stable from pH 3 to 10.6 for at least 24 h and was optimally active at 55 degrees C and pH 6.5 in a 5 min assay.

  15. Assessment of the equilibrium of Th-228 and Ra-228 by gamma-ray spectrometry in mangrove soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Jose Daniel S.; Farias, Emerson E.G.; Franca, Elvis J. De

    2015-01-01

    The mangrove environment consists of soil containing high organic matter, characterized by the influence of continental and oceanic waters, relatively high concentrations of salts and exuberant vegetation. Mangroves also present high dynamics of chemical compound cycling, in which soils become quite relevant due to the influence of continental and oceanic sediments. Taking into account the different sources and transport of radionuclides within the mangrove environment, this study focused at the radioactive equilibrium of Thorium-232 series radionuclides, especially the Ra-228 and Thorium-228. For this, soil samples were collected in the crown projection of tree species from two mangroves located in the municipalities of Olinda/Recife and Rio Formoso, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The material was oven-dried and milled and test portions of 38 g were transferred to cylindrical vials and sealed. After 30 days, the natural radioactivity was measured during 80,000 seconds using High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with a germanium detector of 2.2 keV of resolution at the 1,332 keV Co-60 photopeak. For Ra-228 determination, 911 keV gamma-ray line (Ac-228) were employed, while 238 keV (Pb-212) and 727 keV (Bi-212) were considered for estimating activity concentrations of Th-228. As a result, Ra-228 and Th 228 were in equilibrium since the activity concentrations (ranging from 35 Bq/kg to 50 Bq/kg) were not significantly different at the 95% confidence level. The results have confirmed that, even for environments of high dynamics such as mangroves, radioactive equilibrium of Th-228 and Ra-228 was kept, corroborating Th-232 determination in mangrove soils. (author)

  16. Assessment of the equilibrium of Th-228 and Ra-228 by gamma-ray spectrometry in mangrove soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Jose Daniel S.; Farias, Emerson E.G.; Franca, Elvis J. De, E-mail: paivajds@gmail.com, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The mangrove environment consists of soil containing high organic matter, characterized by the influence of continental and oceanic waters, relatively high concentrations of salts and exuberant vegetation. Mangroves also present high dynamics of chemical compound cycling, in which soils become quite relevant due to the influence of continental and oceanic sediments. Taking into account the different sources and transport of radionuclides within the mangrove environment, this study focused at the radioactive equilibrium of Thorium-232 series radionuclides, especially the Ra-228 and Thorium-228. For this, soil samples were collected in the crown projection of tree species from two mangroves located in the municipalities of Olinda/Recife and Rio Formoso, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The material was oven-dried and milled and test portions of 38 g were transferred to cylindrical vials and sealed. After 30 days, the natural radioactivity was measured during 80,000 seconds using High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with a germanium detector of 2.2 keV of resolution at the 1,332 keV Co-60 photopeak. For Ra-228 determination, 911 keV gamma-ray line (Ac-228) were employed, while 238 keV (Pb-212) and 727 keV (Bi-212) were considered for estimating activity concentrations of Th-228. As a result, Ra-228 and Th 228 were in equilibrium since the activity concentrations (ranging from 35 Bq/kg to 50 Bq/kg) were not significantly different at the 95% confidence level. The results have confirmed that, even for environments of high dynamics such as mangroves, radioactive equilibrium of Th-228 and Ra-228 was kept, corroborating Th-232 determination in mangrove soils. (author)

  17. Airborne gamma-ray and magnetic anomaly signatures of serpentinite in relation to soil geochemistry, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, A.E.; Van Gosen, B. S.

    2009-01-01

    Serpentinized ultramafic rocks and associated soils in northern California are characterized by high concentrations of Cr and Ni, low levels of radioelements (K, Th, and U) and high amounts of ferrimagnetic minerals (primarily magnetite). Geophysical attributes over ultramafic rocks, which include airborne gamma-ray and magnetic anomaly data, are quantified and provide indirect measurements on the relative abundance of radioelements and magnetic minerals, respectively. Attributes are defined through a statistical modeling approach and the results are portrayed as probabilities in chart and map form. Two predictive models are presented, including one derived from the aeromagnetic anomaly data and one from a combination of the airborne K, Th and U gamma-ray data. Both models distinguish preferential values within the aerogeophysical data that coincide with mapped and potentially unmapped ultramafic rocks. The magnetic predictive model shows positive probabilities associated with magnetic anomaly highs and, to a lesser degree, anomaly lows, which accurately locate many known ultramafic outcrops, but more interestingly, locate potentially unmapped ultramafic rocks, possible extensions of ultramafic bodies that dip into the shallow subsurface, as well as prospective buried ultramafic rocks. The airborne radiometric model shows positive probabilities in association with anomalously low gamma radiation measurements over ultramafic rock, which is similar to that produced by gabbro, metavolcanic rock, and water bodies. All of these features share the characteristic of being depleted in K, Th and U. Gabbro is the only rock type in the study area that shares similar magnetic properties with the ultramafic rock. The aerogeophysical model results are compared to the distribution of ultramafic outcrops and to Cr, Ni, K, Th and U concentrations and magnetic susceptibility measurements from soil samples. Analysis of the soil data indicates high positive correlation between

  18. Use of neutron water and gamma density gauges in soil water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirda, C.

    1990-01-01

    Irrigation practices should be improved to increase effective use of water and thereby increasing irrigated areas as well as securing soil productivity under irrigated agriculture. Under dry farming systems of rainfed agriculture, different tillage practices should be tested for improved soil water conservation and rain harvesting. The research work addressing the above mentioned problems requires methods to measure soil water content accurately and conveniently. In the following article, the methods which are currently used to measure field soil water content were discussed. 34 refs, 13 figs, 13 tabs

  19. A generalized transmission method for gamma-efficiency determinations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a generalization of the γ-ray transmission method which is useful for measurements on soil samples, for example, is presented. The correction factor, f, is given, which is a function of the apparent density of the soil and the γ-ray energy. With this method, the need for individual determinations of f, for each energy and apparent soil density is avoided. Although the method has been developed for soils, the general philosophy can be applied to other sample matrices, such as water or vegetables for example. (author)

  20. Determination of 137Cs activity in soil from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K.S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D.A.; Bukhari, S.; Matthews, M.; Regan, P.H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Al Sadig, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    With interest in establishing baseline concentrations of 137 Cs in soil from the Qatarian peninsula, we focus on determination of the activity concentrations in 129 soil samples collected across the State of Qatar prior to the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. As such, the data provides the basis of a reference map for the detection of releases of this fission product. The activity concentrations were measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector enclosed in a copper-lined passive lead shield that was situated in a low-background environment. The activity concentrations ranged from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg, with a median value of 1 Bq/kg, the greatest activity concentration being observed in a sample obtained from northern Qatar. Although it cannot be confirmed, it is expected that this contamination is mainly due to releases from the Chernobyl accident of 26 April 1986, there being a lack of data from Qatar before the accident. The values are typically within but are sometimes lower than the range indicated by data from other countries in the region. The lower values than those of others is suggested to be due to variation in soil characteristics as well as metrological factors at the time of deposition. - Highlights: • A baseline for the radionuclide 137 Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar was established. • 129 soil samples collected across the landscape. • Samples were collected before the most recent accident “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi NNP accident”. • The highest activity concentration was found to be 15.41±0.67 Stat. and 0.11 Syst. • The relatively high concentrations can be attributed to rain washout.

  1. Study on the effect of treating soil salinity stress in some economic plants with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Based upon on the results of a preliminary experiment, experimental plants (two varieties of barley, two varieties of wheat in addition to faba bean and pea plant) were cultivated in the field under the effect of all levels of salinity and /or gamma doses which improved the inhibitory effect of salinity on germination percent, seedling length and fresh and dry weights of 10 days old seedlings. The results showed that gamma doses used had an antagonistic effect to the effect of salinity on shoot length, fresh and dry weights, pigment, polysaccharides, free proline, protein and nucleic acids while, had synergistic effect on soluble sugars content

  2. Transmission gamma ray study in horizon transition interface in soil, during infiltration and water redistribution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.; Saito, H.; Algozini Junior, A.

    1992-01-01

    The horizontal erosion process in soil internal layers, in which exists a interface between different horizons or a high degree compaction region, can be emphasized through an alteration on hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity functions. With this objective, we measured the vertical infiltration and the water redistribution, in soil sample 'latossolo vermelho escuro - fase argilosa'. (author)

  3. In situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium in phosphates soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavi, N.; Ne'eman, E.; Brenner, S.; Haquin, G.; Nir-El, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Radioactivity concentration of 238 U in a phosphate ores quarry was measured in situ. Independently, soil samples collected in the site were measured in the laboratory. It was disclosed that radon emanation from the soil lowers in situ results that are derived from radon daughters. Uranium concentration was found to be 121.6±1.9 mg kg -1 (authors)

  4. Natural radioactivity levels in soil samples around the flood affected salt field area, Kelambakkam, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India using gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, A.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Thangam, V.; Jananee, B.

    2018-01-01

    Humans are exposed to natural radiation from external sources, which include radionuclides in the earth and cosmic radiation. Gamma Ray spectroscopic technique was used to assess the natural radioactivity in soils around the flood affected salt field area, Kelambakkam Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. The activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and absorbed dose rate of soil samples were calculated to assess the radiation hazards in the study area

  5. Quantification of 235 U and 226 Ra in soil samples by means of Gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero P, E.; Rojas M, V.P.; Montes M, F.R.; Gaso P, M.I.; Cervantes N, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    In this work it is presented the Gamma Spectroscopy method which is realized in the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Laboratory using the option of deconvolution of a commercial software for the quantification of 235 U and 226 Ra; also is presented the method for the 226 Ra correction activity. (Author)

  6. Investigation of structure and characteristics of soil for foundation design of gamma irradiators capacity 2 MCi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh Prayogo; Hasriyasti Saptowati

    2016-01-01

    Soil investigation conducted before the work of irradiator building structural foundation design is initiated. Intake of sample was set at some point drill at Irradiator facility site to the disturbed soil layer or not disturbed. From the results of this soil investigation will be selected as alternative / types, the depth and dimensions of the foundation of the most economical but still safe. Soil investigation method used was Deep Boring, undisturbed and disturbed sampling, SPT ( Standard Penetration Test ), CPT ( Cone Penetration Test / Sondir ). Testing conducted in the field and in the laboratory of soil mechanics to determine the mechanical properties, soil layer thickness and other physical properties for calculation of the bearing capacity of the foundation. The results of the soil investigation at the three-point drill showed the average depth of the bedrock -19.33 m and adhesion 3163.88 kg / cm’. Test boring at point BH1 found the depth of the bedrock -19.33 m and adhesion 3163.88 kg / cm’. Test boring at point BH1 found the bedrock at a depth of 32 m with a maximum SPT value 16. from the data can be determined the appropriate type of foundation is bored pile. The foundation is the upper structure support which can lead to a reduction / settlement if its bearing capacity is not able to withstand the load on it. (author)

  7. Assessment of ambient gamma dose rate around a prospective uranium mining area of South India - A comparative study of dose by direct methods and soil radioactivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara, K.; Tripathi, R. M.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S.; Chougaonkar, M. P.

    Indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were evaluated around a prospective uranium mining region - Gogi, South India through (i) direct measurements using a GM based gamma dose survey meter, (ii) integrated measurement days using CaSO4:Dy based thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs), and (iii) analyses of 273 soil samples for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K activity concentration using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean values of indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were 104 nGy h-1 and 97 nGy h-1, respectively with an indoor to outdoor dose ratio of 1.09. The gamma dose rates and activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K varied significantly within a small area due to the highly localized mineralization of the elements. Correlation study showed that the dose estimated from the soil radioactivity is better correlated with that measured directly using the portable survey meter, when compared to that obtained from TLDs. This study showed that in a region having localized mineralization in situ measurements using dose survey meter provide better representative values of gamma dose rates.

  8. Absorption of gamma-emitting fission products and activation products by rice under flooded and unflooded conditions from two tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The absorption of gamma-emitting fission products 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce and activation products 59 Fe, 58 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn by rice plants grown on two contrasting tropical soils, namely, a blak soil (pellustert) and a laterite (oxisol), and the effects of flooding were studied under controlled conditions. Results indicated greater uptake of 106 Ru and 125 Sb from the black soil than from the laterite. In contrast, the uptake of 144 Ce and 137 Cs was greater in the laterite than in the black soil. Flooding treatment enhanced the uptake of all these fission products by rice plants in the laterite soil whereas this effect was observed only for 125 Sb and 137 Cs in the black soil. The plant uptake of activation products from the two soil types showed maximum accumulation of 65 Zn followed by 54 Mn, 59 Fe and 58 Co in both soil types. Besides, uptake of these nuclides was greater from the laterite soil than from the black soil. Flooding treatment for rice while showing a reduction of 59 Fe uptake showed an increase in plant uptake of 58 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn in both soil types. (orig.)

  9. Absorption of gamma-emitting fission products and activation products by rice under flooded and unflooded conditions from two tropical soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, T J; Mistry, K B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biology and Agriculture Div.

    1980-01-01

    The absorption of gamma-emitting fission products /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 144/Ce and activation products /sup 59/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 54/Mn and /sup 65/Zn by rice plants grown on two contrasting tropical soils, namely, a blak soil (pellustert) and a laterite (oxisol), and the effects of flooding were studied under controlled conditions. Results indicated greater uptake of /sup 106/Ru and /sup 125/Sb from the black soil than from the laterite. In contrast, the uptake of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 137/Cs was greater in the laterite than in the black soil. Flooding treatment enhanced the uptake of all these fission products by rice plants in the laterite soil whereas this effect was observed only for /sup 125/Sb and /sup 137/Cs in the black soil. The plant uptake of activation products from the two soil types showed maximum accumulation of /sup 65/Zn followed by /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe and /sup 58/Co in both soil types. Besides, uptake of these nuclides was greater from the laterite soil than from the black soil. Flooding treatment for rice while showing a reduction of /sup 59/Fe uptake showed an increase in plant uptake of /sup 58/Co, /sup 54/Mn and /sup 65/Zn in both soil types.

  10. An injected gamma-tracer method for soil-moisture movement investigations in arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, A.R.; Navada, S.V.; Rao, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the in-situ determination of soil-moisture transport rates using K 3 60 Co(CN) 6 is discussed. The tracer compares well with tritiated water in laboratory investigations and the results obtained in limited field studies are very encouraging. The method promises to be of specific interest in arid-zone investigations where the soil-moisture fluxes in liquid and vapour phases could cause complications for tritium tracer data interpretation. (author)

  11. A new method for the determination of radionuclide distribution in the soil by in situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zombori, P.; Andrasi, A.; Nemeth, I.

    1995-01-01

    In case of major nuclear accidents when larger amount of radioactive material is released into the atmosphere vast areas can become contaminated by the nuclear fallout. The deposited radioactivity penetrates the soil in a complex manner: dry and wet deposition lead to different initial distribution patterns which are further modified by the later transport processes in the upper layers of the soil. The distribution is influenced by various factors (physico-chemical characteristics of the radioisotopes, soil type, weather conditions, environment etc.), the resulting soil profile is hardly predictable. An important lesson we learned from the Chernobyl reactor accident is the great variability of the contamination both in the extent of the deposition and in the penetration features. In recent years - following the reactor accident in Chernobyl - an increased interest for rapid methods of monitoring environmental radioactivity was expressed. The International Atomic Energy Agency initiated a research project to co-ordinate the activities carried out in various laboratories aiming at the development of rapid monitoring procedures. The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) G6 10 01 under the title Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and the Environment has given a frame for 11 research programs. The Health Physics Department of the KFKI Institute for Atomic Energy Research (the former Central Research Institute for Physics) has taken a part in this CRP with a project titled: Rapid In Situ Gamma Spectrometric Determination of Fallout Radioactivity in the Environment. The main objective of our study was to find a method to estimate the penetration characteristics of the fallout radioactivity by using only spectral information obtained by the in situ spectrometric measurement thus avoiding the need for a long and tiresome sampling and sample analysis procedure

  12. Gamma radiosensitivity of Cladonia verticillaris (RADDI) FR (Liquen) collected on sandy soils of Saloa, Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Helena; Colaco, Waldeciro; Pereira, Eugenia; Silva, Nicacio; Maciel, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Liquens are organisms formed from a symbiosis relationship between a fungi and a algae. From this contact on the liquen substances are produced responsible by the most of benefits originated at the liquens. Viewing to increasing the production of his substances, Cladonia verticillaris (liquen) sample were submitted to gamma radiation and collected at 14, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days from the assembly of experiments and submitted the extraction of their phenols. The extracts were submitted to ascending chromatography on thin layer and seen at spectrophotometer Biochrom Libra S22. Cladonia verticillaris, when submitted to gamma radiation in laboratory, produced its secondary metabolites during all the experiment, but the radiation dose and the time of incubation influenced its metabolism and its consequent biosynthesis

  13. [The restoration of the enzyme activity of chernozem soil after gamma-irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, T V; Kazeev, K Sh

    2006-01-01

    The Influence of gamma-radiation by dozes 1, 5, 10 and 20 kGy on enzyme activity of ordinary chemozem were studied. Dynamics of the restoration of the enzyme activity after the influence of gamma-radiation in model experiments in 3, 30, 90 and 180 days was investigated. The doze 1 kGy did no statistically significant influence on the investigated enzymes. Dehydrogenase is more radiosensitive enzyme than catalase. Values of the saccharase activity differed a significant variation so in most cases it has not been registered statistically significant changes. In 90-180 days of the incubation enzymes activity was restored up to control values. Dehydrogenase activity in 180 days in variants with dozes 10 and 20 kGy was restored up to a level of the control, over variants with dozes 1 and 5 kGy--is higher than the control over 78% and 23% accordingly. Saccharase activity in 180 days after the influence of gamma-radiation with a doze 20 kGy was on 61% lower than the control.

  14. Study of gamma irradiation effects on the etching and optical properties of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector and its application to uranium assay in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amol Mhatre; Kalsi, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The gamma irradiation effects in the dose range of 2.5-43.0 Mrad on the etching and optical characteristics of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) have been studied by using etching and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. From the measured bulk etch rates at different temperatures, the activation energies for bulk etching at different doses have also been determined. It is seen that the bulk etch rates increase and the activation energies for bulk etching decrease with the increase in gamma dose. The optical band gaps of the unirradiated and the gamma -irradiated detectors determined from the UV-Visible spectra were found to decrease with the increase in gamma dose. These results have been explained on the basis of scission of the detector due to gamma irradiation. The present studies can be used for the estimation of gamma dose in the range of 2.5-43.0 Mrad and can also be used for estimating track registration efficiency in the presence of gamma dose. The CR-39 detector has also been applied for the assay of uranium in some soil samples of Jammu city. (author)

  15. Radioactivity measurements in soils surrounding four coal-fired power plants in Serbia by gamma-ray spectrometry and estimated dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Ivana Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of spatial distribution of activity concentration of 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs radionuclides in the surface soil samples (n = 42 collected in the vicinity of four coal-fired power plants in Serbia is presented. Radioactivity measurements in soils performed by gamma-ray spectrometry showed values [Bqkg-1] in the range: 15-117 for 238U, 21-115 for 226Ra, 33-65 for 210Pb, 20-69 for 232Th, 324-736 for 40K, and 2-59 for 137Cs. Surface soil radio-activity that could have resulted from deposition of radionuclides from airborne discharges or resuspension of ash from disposal sites showed no enhanced levels. It was found that variation of soil textural properties, pH values, and carbonate content influenced activity levels of natural radionuclides while radiocesium activities were associated with soil organic matter content. Modification of some soil properties was observed in the immediate vicinity (<1 km of power plants where the soil was more alkaline with coarser particles (0.2-0.05 mm and carbonates accumulated. Calculated average values of the absorbed gamma dose rate and annual external effective dose originating from the terrestrial radionuclides were 69.4 nGy/h and 0.085 mSv, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 4007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  16. The measurement of moisture content and dry bulk-density of the top layer of agricultural soils, with minimum calibration, using a gamma-ray attenuation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Westhuizen, M.; Van der Bank, D.J.; Meulke, M.

    1978-06-01

    Various methods of measuring moisture content and dry bulk-density of soil by means of gamma-ray attenuation are discussed. A new method is described in which the same parameters can be measured in consecutive determinations, but for which only one sample of unknown volume is needed for calibration. This method employs a radioactive source in a lead container in an aluminium tube in the soil. From the container the gamma rays follow a path at an angle upwards through the soil towards the detector. The method was tested in a number of experiments and the results are given in tables and graphs. The conclusion is that this method, which is fairly easy and quick to use, is accurate enough for most applications [af

  17. In situ-observation of the vertical motion of soil waters by means of deuterated water using the gamma/neutron method: Laboratory and field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutonnet, P.; Couchat, P.; Brissaud, F.; Puard, M.; Pappalardo, A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to study water movements in the field, the gamma/neutron method for measuring deuterated water was investigated. A laboratory device is presented which supplies measurements on 5 ml soil solution samples. A probe for in situ experiments is studied in all its performances: Background, calibration (count rate versus volumetric deuterated water content) and resolution. A dispersive transport of D 2 O pulses on soil column is presented and checked with a numerical simulation model. Then simultaneous measurement of soil water content and D 2 O concentration by neutron moisture gauge and gamma/neutron probe enable us to interpret the evolution of D 2 O pulse with an experimental field irrigation. (orig.) [de

  18. Release of bound residues of atrazine from soils through autoclaving and gamma radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, L.E.; Andréa, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The sterilization methods are particularly important to study the influence of microorganisms on the pesticide dissipation in soils. This study, conducted in the laboratories of the Instituto Biológico of São Paulo in august 1996, tested the influence of two methods of soil sterilization - moist heat (autoclaving) and γ radiation - on the release of nonextractable or bound residues. It was studied, as example, bound residues of the herbicide atrazine in two types of soil (gley humic and dark red latosol). In the soil samples submitted to the moist heat sterilization, the recovery of the previously bound residues as reextractable residues was 5.6 and 5.9 times higher than in the control soils, not submitted to any sterilization process. Therefore, the method itself released the residues, indicating that the autoclaving is not the most appropriate method for studies on the influence of microorganisms on the release of bound residues. Otherwise, the γ radiation did not modify the residues recovery when compared to the controls. (author) [pt

  19. Gamma transmission gauge for assay of integral water content in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, A.; Notea, A.; Segal, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A photon transmission gauge applied for integral water content measurement in a soil layer was analyzed. The gauge may be used as a control unit for automatic irrigation in a field, or as a scanner employed for establishing an irrigation policy. The characteristic functions of the gauge: response and relative resolving power were developed. The functions provide parameter study at the design stage and interpretational ability at the operational stage. The model led to a design which eliminates sensitivity to water distribution in the examined soil. It is shown that a resolving power of 2% was obtained for a 2.3 mCi 137 Cs source at 53 cm below surface, in measuring water content of 0.2 g water/cm 3 soil during 1000 s. (orig.)

  20. Viability study of photodiodes utilization in determination of soil water content by gamma transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.A.P.; Khoury, H.; Carneiro, C.J.G.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to verify the viability of using silicon photodetectors in a sup(241)Am γ-ray spectroscopy system for measuring soil water content was carried out in disturbed soil cores. The good correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor and the water content, r sup(2)=0.99, proves that the low efficiency of these detectors is not a limiting factor in measuring the water content. Furthermore, the small dimensions of the silicon photodetectors and associate electronic equipment are important characteristics that could permit the construction of a portable gammametry system to be used under field conditions. (author)

  1. Measurement of radionuclide activities of uranium-238 series in soil samples by gamma spectrometry: case of Vinaninkarena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrianantenaina, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the activity level of radionuclides of uranium-238 series. Eight soil samples are collected at Rural Commune of Vinaninkarena. After obtaining secular equilibrium, these samples have been measured using gamma spectrometry system in the Nuclear Analyses and Techniques Department of INSTN-Madagascar, with HPGe detector (30 % relative efficiency) and a Genie 2000 software. Activities obtained vary from (78±2)Bq.kg -1 to (49 231 ± 415)Bq.kg -1 . Among these eight samples, three activity levels are shown. Low activity is an activity which has value lower or equal to (89±3)Bq.kg -1 . Average activity is an activity which has value between (186± 1)Bq.kg -1 and (1049 ±7)Bq.kg -1 . And high activity is an activity which has value higher or equal to (14501±209)Bq.kg -1 . According to UNSCEAR 2000, these value are all higher than the world average value which is 35 Bq.kg -1 .It is due to the localities of sampling points. The variation of the activity level depends on radionuclide concentration of uranium-238 series in the soil. [fr

  2. Natural gamma radioactivity and of {sup 137} Cs in soil of the Chimaltitan municipality, Jalisco, Mexico; Radiactividad gamma natural y del {sup 137} Cs en suelo del Municipio de Chimaltitan, Jalisco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garay, A.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Rios, C.; Lugo, J.F.; Soriano, J.M.; Angoli, A. [UAEN-Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: albinogaray@hotmail.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    With the purpose of determining the activity due to the natural presence of the {sup 226} Ra, {sup 232} Th, {sup 40} K and {sup 137} Cs in soil samples, of the municipality of Chimaltitan Jalisco. A set of these samples was measured in a gamma ray spectrometric system based on a High-purity Germanium detector. It is well-known that approximately 87% of the dose of the received radiation by the population is due to sources of natural radiation and 13% of the anthropogenic radiation. The gamma radiation comes mainly from the {sup 40} K and of those radionuclides of the series of radioactive decay of {sup 238} U and {sup 232} Th that its find dispersed thoroughly in the terrestrial crust. In this work its were analyzed twenty-two soil samples. It is enlarged the activity characterization for the radioisotopes of {sup 226} Ra {sup 232} Th, {sup 40} K and {sup 137} Cs. (Author)

  3. High resolution gamma spectrometry of size-separated soils from high background areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.R.; Sadasivan, S.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1992-01-01

    Soil samples from a high background area of Kerala were analysed for their natural radionuclide content and distribution with particle size. The samples exhibited inhomogeneity in activity distribution. The smaller size particles had higher activity. The open air dose estimates are also presented. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Gamma radiation fields from activity deposited on road and soil surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1993-12-01

    Radioactive material deposited in the environment after an accidental release would cause exposure of the population living in the affected areas. The radiation field will depend on many factors such as radionuclide composition, surface contamination density, removal of activity by weathering and migration, and protective measures like decontamination, ploughing and covering by asphalt. Methods are described for calculation of air kerma rate from deposited activity on road and soil surfaces, both from the initially deposited activity and from activity distributed in the upper layer of soil as well as from activity covered by asphalt or soil. Air kerma rates are calculated for different source geometries and the results are fitted to a power-exponential function of photon energy, depth distributions in soil and horizontal dimensions. Based on this function calculations of air kerma rate can easily be made on a personal computer or programmable pocket calculator for specific radionuclide compositions and different horizontal and vertical distributions of the deposited activity. The calculations are compared to results from other methods like the Monte Carlo method and good agreement is found between the results. (au) (7 tabs., 12 ills., 8 refs.)

  5. Modeling for Dose Rate Calculation of the External Exposure to Gamma Emitters in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allam, K. A.; El-Mongy, S. A.; El-Tahawy, M. S.; Mohsen, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the model proposed and developed in Ph.D thesis of the first author of this work, the dose rate conversion factors (absorbed dose rate in air per specific activity of soil in nGy.hr - 1 per Bq.kg - 1) are calculated 1 m above the ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. This new and simple dose rate calculation software was used for calculation of the dose rate in air 1 m above the ground. Then the results were compared with those obtained by five different groups. Although the developed model is extremely simple, the obtained results of calculations, based on this model, show excellent agreement with those obtained by the above-mentioned models specially that one adopted by UNSCEAR. (authors)

  6. Determination of Heavy Metals and Radioactive Elements in Alluvial Soil using Atomic Absorption and Gamma Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, S.S.; Walley EI Dine, N.; Soliman, S.I.; Moussa, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes some methods dealing with measurements of some heavy and radioactive elements (U, Th and K) in Egyptian cultivated soil samples. Samples were collected from Toshka area. Also, soil and plant samples were collected from Kalube and EI - Gabal EI - Asfar to compare the obtained results from both region. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS),Neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Natural radioactivity techniques were followed. FAAS and INAA techniques agreed fairly well for the compared elements Co,Zn and Fe which determined by the two techniques. Also for K which was determined by FAAS and natural radioactivity. It was found that the concentration range in soil samples for Co, Fe, K and Zn lies between 4.18 and 29.2 μg/g, 3.0 and 3.8 mg/g, 3.49 and 13.28 mg/g and 120 and 663 μg/g respectively while in plant samples the concentration of Co was from 3.02 to 4.02 μg/g, Fe from 1.18 to 1.35 mg/g and Zn from 29.63 to 73.02 μg/g

  7. Gamma-ray measurements in uppermost soil profile of a grazing area around Londrina city, Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2005-01-01

    Using high-resolution .-ray spectrometry, soil profiles were measured to assess the depth distribution of 232 Th, 238 U, 226 Ra, 40 K and 137 Cs. The surveyed soil is the Latossolo Vermelho Distroferrico, clayey texture, in a soft wave relief area used for grazing, near Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. Knowledge of radioelement depth distributions is important to understand their behavior along soil history, and in the same time, give clues about it, from pedogenesis to more recent events, such as weathering, erosion or interaction with biosphere. Five points were sampled, three of them in increment depths of 0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, 10 to 15 cm, 15 to 20 cm, 20 to 35 cm, and for two of them the increment 35-50 cm was collected either. These totalized 27 samples, each of them dried in open air during 48 hours, sieved through 2 mm mesh, sealed in 1-litre plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory. It was employed a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain, with a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. Measurement of the efficiency in the range from 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with certified IAEA 375 soil sample. From the measured γ-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 232 Th (from 15.4 to 25.1 Bq kg -1 ), 238 U (from 11.0 to 18.9 Bq kg -1 ), 226 Ra (from 4.0 to 10.9 Bq kg -1 ), 40 K (from 36.0 to 133.9 Bq kg -1 ) and 137 Cs (from 0.0 to 2.2 Bq kg -1 ). Average values and respective deviations are 21.0 ± 2.6 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th, 13.8 ± 1.7 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 7.8 ± 1.9 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 72.8 ± 30.5 Bq kg -1 for 40 K, and 0.8 ± 0.8 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs. Depth distributions of each radioelement are presented and possible relations among activities are analyzed (author)

  8. Analysis of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in samples of soil from some areas of Republic of Macedonia by using gamma spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorovik Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the importance of the distribution and transfer of radio nuclides in soil, an attempt was made in this work to determine the concentration of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in the same. The concentrations of activity in the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radio nuclides, as follows, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in samples of soil collected from some parts of Republic of Macedonia, i.e. from three major cities in the Republic of Macedonia. The samples are taken by means of a special dosage dispenser which enables sampling of samples at a depth of 0-5 cm, 5-10cm and 10-15cm, thus disabling the sampling above these layers of soil. An identification of radio nuclides and assessment of their activity has been performed by applying gamma spectrometry. The time of counting for each sample was 65000 s. in order to obtain statistically small mistake. The spectrums were analyzed by a commercially available software GENIE-2000 received from Canberra, Austria. The activity of soil had wide range of values: 20.3 to 82.9 Bq kg-1for 226Ra, 16.1 to 82.5 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 325 to 799.0 Bq kg-1for 40К and 9.1 to 24.3 Bq kg-1for 137Cs, respectively. The concentrations of these radio nuclides have been compared with the available data from the other countries. Natural environmental radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depend primarily on the geological and geographical conditions. Namely, the specific levels of terrestrial environmental radiation are related to the type of rocks from which the soils originate. The obtained data indicate that the average value of activity of 232Th is about higher than the one of 226Ra The concentration of activity of 40К in the soil has greater value than 32Th and 226Ra in all soils. The causes for the existence of 137Cs in these soils are the nuclear explosions, waste radioactive materials and other incidents. It reaches the

  9. Obtention of hydrogels for use as water retainers in soil by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burillo, G.; Ogawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    We have been studying for some time the radiation induced gelation of aqueous polyacrylamide solutions in order to clarify the relationships between the gel structure and gelation conditions. The application of hydrogels as water retainers has been reported previously by some workers and there exist some commercially produced hydrogels in the market, but their costs are not yet satisfactory for use on a large scale in the agricultural region in northern Mexico, where scarcity of water is always the serious problem. In this work, with an aim of obtaining hydrogels most economically, acrylamide, polyethylene oxide, and mixtures of water soluble polymers with acrylamide monomer, were irradiated in solid state under various conditions, in order to find the optimum conditions for gelation and to obtain the hydrogels most suitable as water retainers in soil. The relationships between the gelation, amount of water in the starting materials, molecular weights of polymers, effects of additives and the dose rates, were studied. (author)

  10. Focal plane detector for QDD spectrography in Institute of Nuclear Study and detector for SMART 2nd focal plane in RIKEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchi, Yoshihide [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study

    1996-09-01

    The focal plane detector for QDD spectrography in Institute of Nuclear Study was composed of drift space and a proportional counter tube, and the latter is composed of position detector and two delta E detector for recognizing the particles. In this detector, a uniform parallel electric field can be obtained by placing a guard plate at the same height as that of a drift plate outer place of the detector. On the other hand, the detector for SMART 2nd focal plate in RIKEN is composed of drift space and a single wire proportional counter, and has two cathode read out single wire drift counters set so as to hold the focal plane. (G.K.)

  11. Calibration of a Gamma Spectrometry System Used for the Determination of Cs-137 in Spanish Soils; Puesta a Punto de un sistema de Expectrometria Gamma para la Determinacion de Cs-137 en Suelos Espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreraa, M.; Romero, M. L.; Valino, F.

    2008-07-01

    The document describes the methodology used at CIEMAT in order to determine, by gamma spectrometry, the background levels of the radionuclide Cs-137 in soils of the Spanish peninsular territory. the work is a part of an extensive research project developed jointly by the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU) and the CIEMAT, endellite Content and migration of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Spanish soils, which is funded by the Plan I+D of the Spanish Nuclear Security Council (CSN). The objective of the project is to establish the reference levels of man-made radionuclides in Spanish soils, with respect to which the evaluation of a possible posterior accidental release of radioactive material could be appraised. The activity concentration of the fission products Cs-137 has been determined in 34 soil cores extracted from representative Spanish soils type zones. This publication describes the experimental system employed, its calibration, the particular conditions applied to perform the measurements, as well as the experimental validation of the methodology. The activity profiles and inventories of the radioactive element so obtained are also presented. The estimation of the background Cs-137 reference levels, will provide a basis for later applications as the study of the spatial distribution in the region, the determination of the correlation between the deposited activity and the meteorological conditions, or the calculation of the specific migration parameters of the radioactive elements in Mediterranean conditions. (Author) 15 refs.

  12. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzger Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF (“Visual RobFit” which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  13. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Robert; Riper, Kenneth Van; Lasche, George

    2017-09-01

    A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF ("Visual RobFit") which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  14. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Depth profiling of Pu, 241Am and 137Cs in soils from southern Belarus measured by ICP-MS and alpha and gamma spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Zoriy, Myroslav; Ketterer, Michael E; Becker, J Sabine

    2003-08-01

    The depth distribution of plutonium, americium, and 137Cs originating from the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was investigated in several soil profiles in the vicinity from Belarus. The vertical migration of transuranic elements in soils typical of the 30 km relocation area around Chernobyl NPP was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), alpha spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry. Transuranic concentrations in upper soil layers ranged from 6 x 10(-12) g g(-1) to 6 x 10(-10) g g(-1) for plutonium and from 1.8 x 10(-13) g g(-1) to 1.6 x 10(-11) g g(-1) for americium. These concentrations correspond to specific activities of (239+240)Pu of 24-2400 Bq kg(-1) and specific activity of 241Am of 23-2000 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Transuranics in turf-podzol soil migrate slowly to the deeper soil layers, thus, 80-95%, of radionuclide inventories were present in the 0-3 cm intervals of turf-podzol soils collected in 1994. In peat-marsh soil migration processes occur more rapidly than in turf-podzol and the maximum concentrations are found beneath the soil surface (down to 3-6 cm). The depth distributions of Pu and Am are essentially identical for a given soil profile. (239+240)Pu/137Cs and 241Am/137Cs activity ratios vary by up to a factor of 5 at some sites while smaller variations in these ratios were observed at a site close to Chernobyl, suggesting that 137Cs is dominantly particle associated close to Chernobyl but volatile species of 137Cs are of relatively greater importance at the distant sites.

  16. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  17. Validation of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb measurements in soil and sediment samples through high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Bonifacio, Rodrigo Leandro; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides found in ore extraction waste materials are a great source of concern regarding public health and environmental safety. One technique to determine the concentration of substances is high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe. Validating a measurement technique is essential to warrant high levels of quality to any scientific work. The Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy partakes into a Quality Management System project, seeking Accreditation under ISO/IEC 17025 through the validation of techniques of chemical and radiometric analysis of environmental samples from water, soil and sediment. The focus of the Radon Laboratory at LAPOC is validation of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 concentration determinations in soil and sediment through a gamma spectrometer system. The stages of this validation process included sample reception and preparation, detector calibration and sample analyses. Dried samples were sealed in metallic containers and analyzed after radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and daughters Pb-214 and Bi-214. Gamma spectrometry was performed using CANBERRA HPGe detector and gamma spectrum software Genie 2000. The photo peaks used for Ra-226 determination were 609 keV and 1020 keV of Bi-214 and 351 keV of Pb-214. For the Ra-228 determination a photopeak of 911 keV was used from its short half-life daughter Ac-228 (T1/2 = 6.12 h). For Pb-210, the photopeak of 46.5 keV was used, which, due to the low energy, self-absorption correction was needed. Parameters such as precision, bias/accuracy, linearity, detection limit and uncertainty were evaluated for that purpose. The results have pointed to satisfying results. (author)

  18. Validation of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb measurements in soil and sediment samples through high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Bonifacio, Rodrigo Leandro; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclides found in ore extraction waste materials are a great source of concern regarding public health and environmental safety. One technique to determine the concentration of substances is high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe. Validating a measurement technique is essential to warrant high levels of quality to any scientific work. The Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy partakes into a Quality Management System project, seeking Accreditation under ISO/IEC 17025 through the validation of techniques of chemical and radiometric analysis of environmental samples from water, soil and sediment. The focus of the Radon Laboratory at LAPOC is validation of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 concentration determinations in soil and sediment through a gamma spectrometer system. The stages of this validation process included sample reception and preparation, detector calibration and sample analyses. Dried samples were sealed in metallic containers and analyzed after radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and daughters Pb-214 and Bi-214. Gamma spectrometry was performed using CANBERRA HPGe detector and gamma spectrum software Genie 2000. The photo peaks used for Ra-226 determination were 609 keV and 1020 keV of Bi-214 and 351 keV of Pb-214. For the Ra-228 determination a photopeak of 911 keV was used from its short half-life daughter Ac-228 (T1/2 = 6.12 h). For Pb-210, the photopeak of 46.5 keV was used, which, due to the low energy, self-absorption correction was needed. Parameters such as precision, bias/accuracy, linearity, detection limit and uncertainty were evaluated for that purpose. The results have pointed to satisfying results. (author)

  19. Soil gamma ray spectrometry of the Buquira river basin, SP, Brazil; Gamametria de solos da bacia do rio Buquira, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Alice

    2002-12-01

    Natural radioactivity found in rocks and its evaluation been frequently used for studies of environmental geochemistry, particularly those of detection and control of pollutants and the consequent changes in environment after antropic interferences. In this work natural radioactivity in forty nine soil samples in the basin of Buquira river, at the Northeast region of Sao Paulo State, has been analysed and measured with a Ge-HP gamma ray spectrometer. A table with the most relevant results found in rocks is shown and discussed. (author)

  20. Assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of Kelantan State, Malaysia. Relationship between the geological formation and soil type to radiation dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garba, N.N.; Gabdo, H.T.; Federal College of Education, Yola

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates (TGRD) of Kelantan State were measured in situ using a portable [NaI(TI)] micro roentgen (μR) survey meter. The TGRD rates ranged between 44 and 500 nGy h -1 with a mean value of 209 ± 8 nGy h -1 . The distribution of these measurements in various districts of the state shows the statistically the influence of geology and soil types on the dose rate values. The data obtained could be used in formulating safety standard and radiological guidelines. (author)

  1. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...... that the present practice of avoiding samples above a depth of 0.3 m may be over-cautious...

  2. Learning methods for ill-posed problems. Applications to {gamma}-spectrometry; Methodes d`apprentissage statistiques et problemes inverses. Applications a la spectrographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneron, V [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; [Universite d` Evry, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1997-05-01

    Up to recent days, feature extraction bas been mostly considered a supervised process of (linear filters) mapping the original measurements into more effective features so as to minimize a criterion, assuming that the variables are already selected and given. Furthermore, data are rare and/or expensive, even sometimes not representative of the exact distribution. From an experimental device, the physicist gets some measurements, spoiled by noise and some determinist distortions. The `problem` is then to seek `good` values of a `number` of `interesting` parameters. But, neither `good`, nor the `number`, nor `interesting` are clearly defined notions. Frequently, the physicist is unable to write the mathematical equations of the observed phenomenon. He hopes that usual recipes called Fourier transform, deconvolution, least squares... Will produce shining revelations. Of course, these recipes are well-known and their honorability well established, sometimes with a name of a mathematician as a quality-label. In Pattern Recognition the input items have to be identified under various transformations of their representations. Contemporary neural-network research concentrates mostly on decision making systems, whereas the fundamental functions associated with the preprocessing of observations have often been ignored. This paper is a step toward theories that are expected to help the emergence of invariant-features. In this context, the Learning Theory approach (through advances tools like ACP, CCA or factorial cumulants) offers a great potential for archiving optimal solutions of complex real world problems, because it deals with undefined knowledge which is in mind of the physicist before he carries out the experiment: non-linear correlations, hidden dependencies... These questions are complex and very problem-dependant, but we focus on a specific one: ill-conditioned problems, i.e. when the physicist has not a sufficient amount of experimental data. In order to illustrate our approach, we propose a wide range of examples, real to artificial, in the fields concerning non-destructive analysis, from X-ray fluorescence to neutronography. (author) 303 refs.

  3. Soil compaction and gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in the development of the cowpea beans [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp]; Compactacao do solo e radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) no desenvolvimento do feijao caupi [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Radioagronomia]. E-mails: aroucha@ufpe.br; wcolaco@ufpe.br

    2005-08-15

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m{sup -3} - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m{sup -3} - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  4. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Saffuwan Mohamed, E-mail: saffuwan@uthm.edu.my [Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Embong, Zaidi [Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Research Center for Soft Soil (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad [Research Center for Soft Soil (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (R{sub eq}) and the mean external (H{sub ext}) and internal hazard index (H{sub int}) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg{sup −1}, H{sub ext} = 0.78 and 1.01, and H{sub int} = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson’s, r = −0.30, −0.90 and +0.14, respectively.

  5. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Saffuwan Mohamed; Embong, Zaidi; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h-1 and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg-1 (226Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg-1 (232Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg-1 (40K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h-1 and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg-1 (226Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg-1 (232Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg-1 (40K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (Req) and the mean external (Hext) and internal hazard index (Hint) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg-1, Hext = 0.78 and 1.01, and Hint = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, 232Th and 40K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson's, r = -0.30, -0.90 and +0.14, respectively.

  6. Simultaneous measurements of global vibrational spectra and dephasing times of molecular vibrational modes by broadband time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jun; Yu Ling-Yao; Liu Xing; Wan Hui; Lin Zi-Yang; Niu Han-Ben

    2011-01-01

    In broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy with supercontinuum (SC), the simultaneously detectable spectral coverage is limited by the spectral continuity and the simultaneity of various spectral components of SC in an enough bandwidth. By numerical simulations, the optimal experimental conditions for improving the SC are obtained. The broadband time-resolved CARS spectrography based on the SC with required temporal and spectral distributions is realised. The global molecular vibrational spectrum with well suppressed nonresonant background noise can be obtained in a single measurement. At the same time, the measurements of dephasing times of various molecular vibrational modes can be conveniently achieved from intensities of a sequence of time-resolved CARS signals. It will be more helpful to provide a complete picture of molecular vibrations, and to exhibit a potential to understand not only both the solvent dynamics and the solute-solvent interactions, but also the mechanisms of chemical reactions in the fields of biology, chemistry and material science. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. Interpretation of soil-type maps of forestry in terms of terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, D.; Hannemann, M.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements have been performed in the lowlands of the G.D.R. to determine the activity concentration of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in soil as well as the terrestrial γ-ray dose rate at the soil surface and 1 m above. The results demonstrate that the dose rate due to terrestrial radiation can be assessed by means of forest site maps indicating the potassium content of the various soils. Two examples were presented to explain the approach. (author)

  8. Gamma ray spectroscopy of soil samples from apple orchards in Lamingo dam and Vom area in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangset, W. E.; Wilson, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Five samples each were collected from the apple orchards in Lamingo dam and Vom area of Jos East and Jos South local government areas respectively. The samples were allowed to decay for three weeks to ensure efficiency in acquiring the radionuclides. The samples were analyzed using Gamma Ray spectroscopy. Barium- 204 with gamma activity energy level 1765.50keV was used to check the presence of Uranium-235 in the samples. The results showed that samples Lams 2,3,4 and Voms 1,4,5 had high gamma activity energy levels of 2436.356keV, l837.24keV 2928.37 keV and 1656.32keV, 1635.48keV, 2351.87keV respectively as compared to ( 204 B). While Lams 1,5 and Voms 2,3 had relatively lower gamma activity energy levels of 1325.23KeV, 1272.73keV and 1462.61KeV, 1183.24keV respectively. The samples with high gamma activity energy levels imply that radionuclide in the form of 235 U is present in trace amounts in the sampled areas. This can affect the output of apples cultivated in such areas as the chemical composition or structure of plants will be altered.

  9. Feasibility study of photodiodes utilization in the soil-moisture determination by gamma transmission; Estudo da viabilidade da utilizacao de fotodiodos na determinacao de umidade de solos por transmissao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L A.P. dos

    1992-08-01

    This study was done to verify the viability of photodiodes, as gamma radiation detector ({sup 241} Am - Energy=60 KeV), to measure soil water content. The photodiodes used had different mechanical and electrical characteristics, and were tested on soils of different textures. A good linear correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor and soil-moisture demonstrated such viability, and that the low photopeak efficiency of these devices is not a limitation to the measurement of soil water content. Furthermore, the stability, the portability, and low cost of such semiconductor devices, including its electronic system, represent relevant characteristics that may justify the development of a reliable gamma meter system for field studies. (author). 37 refs, 21 figs, 20 tabs.

  10. Use of gamma ray spectroscopy measurements for assessment of the average effective dose from the analysis of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, Rohit; Singh, Surinder

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentrations of soil samples collected from different locations of Ludhiana and Patiala districts of Punjab were determined by using HPGe detector based on high-resolution gamma spectrometry system. The range of activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the soil from the studied areas varies from 23.32 Bq kg -1 to 43.64 Bq kg -1 , 104.23 Bq kg -1 to 148.21 Bq kg -1 and 289.83 Bq kg -1 to 394.41 Bq kg -1 with overall mean values of 32 Bq kg -1 , 126 Bq kg -1 and 348 Bq kg -1 respectively. The absorbed dose rate calculated from activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ranges between 10.75 and 20.12, 64.93 and 92.33, and 11.99 and 16.32 n Gy h -1 , respectively. The total absorbed dose in the study area ranges from 91.35 n Gy h -1 to 119.76 n Gy h -1 with an average value of 107.97 n Gy h -1 . The calculated values of external hazard index (H ex ) for the soil samples of the study area range from 0.55 to 0.72. Since these values are lower than unity, therefore, according to the Radiation Protection 112 (European Commission, 1999) report, soil from these regions is safe and can be used as a construction material without posing any significant radiological threat to population. The concentration of 232 Th in soil samples of Malwa region of Punjab are higher than the world figures reported in UNSCEAR (2000). However, the concentrations for 226 Ra is very much comparable and concentration of 40 K are lower than world figures. The results obtained have shown that the indoor and outdoor effective dose due to natural radioactivity of soil samples is lower than the average national and world recommended value of 1.0 mSv.Y -1 . These values reported for radium content in soils of study area are generally low as compared to the values reported for radium concentration in soils of Himachal Pradesh. (author)

  11. Gamma-ray spectrometry applied to agricultural soil in the northwest of the State of Rio de Janeiro; Gamaespectrometria aplicada em solo agricola no noroeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andrea Cristina Lima dos; Nascimento, Carlos Tadeu Carvalho do [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Menezes, Paulo de Tarso Luiz, E-mail: andrealima@unb.br, E-mail: carlostadeu@unb.br, E-mail: ptarsomenezes@pq.cnpq.br [Faculdade de Geologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    The present work presents the use of gamma-ray spectrometry applied to precision agriculture in a sub-tropical area. Our dataset comprises measurements both in rock and residual soil. The soil dataset shows a reduction of 20% on U and Th and 10% on K, when compared to rock samples. This difference could be related to K supplementation associated to chemical fertilization. (author)

  12. Low-level gamma spectrometry of forest and moor soils from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, N [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Preusse, W [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Degering, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Unterricker, S [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics

    1997-03-01

    In soils with distinct organic and mineral horizons, radionuclides (RN) can be used to understand geochemical migration processes. In the study presented here high sensitivity HPGe-detectors with active and passive shielding were employed to determine the low activity levels of various natural, cosmogenic and artificial RN. Soils of a spruce forest and a moor from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge) were investigated as they provide a good example of layered soil systems with vertical transfer of chemical elements. Different soil horizons were sub-sampled as thin slices and analysed to examine the migration processes at sub-horizon level. The depth distributions of chemically different RN were studied considering the geochemical and pedological soil characteristics of the profiles. (orig.)

  13. Radiological impact of a municipal solid waste landfill on soil and groundwater using 2-D resistivity tomography and gamma ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehirim, C.N.; Itota, G.O.

    2011-01-01

    The radiological impacts of a municipal solid waste landfill on soil and groundwater in Port Harcourt municipality was investigated by integrating 2-D resistivity imaging and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The objective of the study is to determine the lateral and vertical limits of leachate contamination, and to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in soil and groundwater. Results show that the soil and ground water have been contaminated by landfill emissions and radioactive materials throughout the landfill area. The distribution of the contamination is uneven and spotty, both horizontally and vertically, and has penetrated to depths exceeding 31m into the ground water aquifer. The primary contaminants found in the site were leachate, landfill gases, and 40 K, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra radionuclides. The mean absorbed dose rates of 31.98nGy/hr, 10.51nGy/hr and 6.98nGy/hr, and mean dose rate equivalents of 0.28mSv/yr, 0.09mSv/yr and 0.06mSv/yr were obtained for the soil, leachate and water samples, respectively. The mean absorbed and equivalent dose rates in the soil and water samples are greater than their controls, suggesting that the landfill area is contaminated. These results are comparable to those reported for other waste sites in the area and lower than the maximum permitted limits for the general public of 1mSv/yr and 0.1mSv/yr for soil and water, respectively. These therefore, have no immediate radiological health burden on the inhabitants who depend on the soil and groundwater for their crops and potable water supply, except for the effects of disease causing micro-organism and non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the leachate. However, with continuous consumption of crop products and intake of groundwater, increase in the activity concentration and dose rates of these radionuclides may occur over time, with adverse effects on humans.

  14. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  15. Landmine Detection: on the Role of Soil Composition in the Imaging Capabilities of Gamma-ray Compton Backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, M.L.; Merchan, E.; Blanco, W.J.; Cristancho, F.; Gerl, J.; Ameil, F.

    2010-01-01

    Two issues related with the use of γ-ray Compton backscattering as an imaging technique are addressed: γ-soil interaction, and image processing. Promising methodologies are described in both topics. (author)

  16. A comparative study of 232Th and 238U activity estimation in soil samples by gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anilkumar, Rekha; Anilkumar, S.; Narayani, K.; Babu, D.A.R.; Sharma, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well-established analytical technique. It has many advantages as compared to the other commonly used techniques. NAA can be performed in a variety of ways depending on the element, its activity level in the sample, interference from the sample matrix and other elements, etc. This technique is used to get high analytical sensitivity and low detection limits (ppm to ppb). The high sensitivity is due to the irradiation at high neutron flux available from the research reactors and the activity measurement is done using high resolution HPGe detectors. In this paper, the activity estimation of soil samples using neutron activation and direct gamma spectrometry methods are compared. Even though the weights of samples considered and samples preparation methods are different for these two methods, the estimated activity values are comparable. (author)

  17. AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON SODIUM CHLORIDE STRESSED TOMATO PLANT GROWTH IN SOIL INFESTED WITH FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. LYCOPERSICI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIZK, M.A.; BOTROS, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of saline stress and/or gamma radiation on the tomato seedlings development, mycelial growth and sporulation of Fusarium oxysporum. Irradiation of the fungus ameliorated the detrimental effect of salinity and improved the percentage of seedlings emergence and increased the root and shoot lengths and dry weight of tomato seedlings. Also, coupling salinity with irradiation significantly increased the mycelial growth in soil and biomass gain of Fusarium oxysporum up to 2 kGy, above which the growth and sporulation were hardly affected and completely suppressed at 5 kGy. On the other hand, exposure of the tomato seeds up to 4 Gy counteracted the suppressive effect of salinity and increased the growth parameters in presence or absence of the fungus. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici appeared to be tolerant to salinity up to 4.8 EC (millimohse) and highly sensitive to irradiation dose 5 kGy.

  18. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  19. GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-SERIES INTERMEDIATE DAUGHTERS FROM SOIL SAMPLES AT THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOG, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. French; E.Y. Anthony; P.C. Goodell

    2005-07-18

    The Pena Blanca natural analog is located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, approximately 50 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The Sierra Pena Blanca is composed mainly of ash-flow tuffs, and the uranium in the region is contained in the brecciated zones of these tuffs. The Pena Blanca site is considered a natural analog to the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository because they share similar characteristics of structure, volcanic lithology, tectonic activity, and hydrologic regime. One of the mineralized zones, the Nopal I deposit, was mined in the early 1980s and the ore was stockpiled close to the mine. This stockpile area has subsequently been cleared and is referred to as the prior high-grade stockpile (PHGS) site. Soil surrounding boulders of high-grade ore associated with the PHGS site have been sampled. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radioisotopes from the boulder to the soil during the past 25 years. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. The daughter to parent ratios are used to establish whether the samples are in secular equilibrium. Activities are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 234}Pa. Preliminary results indicate that some daughter to parent pairs appear to be in secular disequilibrium. Thorium is in excess relative to uranium, and radium is in excess relative to thorium. A deficiency appears to exist for {sup 210}Pb relative to {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. If these results are borne out by further analysis, they would suggest transport of nuclides from the high-grade boulder into its surroundings, followed by continued leaching of uranium and lead from the environment.

  20. GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-SERIES INTERMEDIATE DAUGHTERS FROM SOIL SAMPLES AT THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOG, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.C.; Anthony, E.Y.; Goodell, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Pena Blanca natural analog is located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, approximately 50 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The Sierra Pena Blanca is composed mainly of ash-flow tuffs, and the uranium in the region is contained in the brecciated zones of these tuffs. The Pena Blanca site is considered a natural analog to the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository because they share similar characteristics of structure, volcanic lithology, tectonic activity, and hydrologic regime. One of the mineralized zones, the Nopal I deposit, was mined in the early 1980s and the ore was stockpiled close to the mine. This stockpile area has subsequently been cleared and is referred to as the prior high-grade stockpile (PHGS) site. Soil surrounding boulders of high-grade ore associated with the PHGS site have been sampled. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radioisotopes from the boulder to the soil during the past 25 years. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. The daughter to parent ratios are used to establish whether the samples are in secular equilibrium. Activities are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy include 210 Pb, 234 U, 234 Th, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, and 234 Pa. Preliminary results indicate that some daughter to parent pairs appear to be in secular disequilibrium. Thorium is in excess relative to uranium, and radium is in excess relative to thorium. A deficiency appears to exist for 210 Pb relative to 214 Bi and 214 Pb. If these results are borne out by further analysis, they would suggest transport of nuclides from the high-grade boulder into its surroundings, followed by continued leaching of uranium and lead from the environment

  1. Sensitivity to Antibiotics of Bacteria Exposed to Gamma Radiation Emitted from Hot Soils of the High Background Radiation Areas of Ramsar, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Zarei, Samira; Taheri, Mohammad; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Ranjbar, Sahar; Momeni, Fatemeh; Masoomi, Samaneh; Ansari, Leila; Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Taeb, Shahram; Zarei, Sina; Haghani, Masood

    2017-04-01

    Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S. typhimurium ), Staphylococcus aureus , and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran. Standard Kirby-Bauer test, which evaluates the size of the zone of inhibition as an indicator of the susceptibility of different bacteria to antibiotics, was used in this study. The maximum alteration of the diameter of inhibition zone was found for K. pneumoniae when tested for ciprofloxacin. In this case, the mean diameter of no growth zone in non-irradiated control samples of K. pneumoniae was 20.3 (SD 0.6) mm; it was 14.7 (SD 0.6) mm in irradiated samples. On the other hand, the minimum changes in the diameter of inhibition zone were found for S. typhimurium and S. aureus when these bacteria were tested for nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, respectively. Gamma rays were capable of making significant alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be hypothesized that high levels of natural background radiation can induce adaptive phenomena that help microorganisms better cope with lethal effects of antibiotics.

  2. Comparison of laser fluorimetry, high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis techniques for determination of uranium content in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghods, A.; Asgharizadeh, F.; Salimi, B.; Abbasi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Much more concern is given nowadays for exposure of the world population to natural radiation especially to uranium since 57% of that exposure is due to radon-222, which is a member of uranium decay series. Most of the methods used for uranium determination is low concentration require either tedious separation and preconcentration or the accessibility to special instrumentation for detection of uranium at this low level. this study compares three techniques and methods for uranium analysis among different soil sample with variable uranium contents. Two of these techniques, neutron activation analysis and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry , are non-destructive while the other, laser fluorimetry is done via chemical extraction of uranium. Analysis of standard materials is done also to control the quality and accuracy of the work. In spite of having quite variable ranges of detection limit, results obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on the assumption of having secular equilibrium between uranium and its daughters, which causes deviation whenever this condition was missed. For samples with reasonable uranium content, neutron activation analysis would be a rapid and reliable technique, while for low uranium content laser fluorimetry would be the most appropriate and accurate technique

  3. Determination of the Concentration of Radioactive Nuclides of Surface Soils of some Hadhramout's Valleys in Yemen Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazohair, A. O.; Bayashoot, A. K.; AL-Shamy, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this research five surface soil samples have been taken from some Hadhramout's valleys in Yemen (Khrid , Arf , Huwayrah , Buwaish, Khirba ) in the years from (1999) to (2002) and analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The spectra of samples were measured using multichannel analyzer (MCA) that was connected with measurement system for this purpose.A high purity germanium(Hp Ge) detector with resolution of (2.11 keV) at gamma-line(1332 keV) of radioactive source(Co-60) used for detecting ( U 238 , Th 232 , K 40 , Cs 137 ) in the samples. The results showed that the average concentration of radioactive nuclides in the samples of uranium ranged from(37.56 Bq/Kg) to(46.58 Bq/Kg) and for thorium ranged from(37.93 Bq/Kg) to(47.28 Bq/Kg) and for potassium ranged from(347.57 Bq/Kg) to(850.10 Bq/Kg) and for cesium ranged from(6.94 Bq/Kg) to(15.86 Bq/Kg) and the measured precision of samples ranged from(4.71%) to (9.23%). (authors)

  4. Sensitivity to Antibiotics of Bacteria Exposed to Gamma Radiation Emitted from Hot Soils of the High Background Radiation Areas of Ramsar, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. Objective: To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran. Methods: Standard Kirby-Bauer test, which evaluates the size of the zone of inhibition as an indicator of the susceptibility of different bacteria to antibiotics, was used in this study. Results: The maximum alteration of the diameter of inhibition zone was found for K. pneumoniae when tested for ciprofloxacin. In this case, the mean diameter of no growth zone in non-irradiated control samples of K. pneumoniae was 20.3 (SD 0.6 mm; it was 14.7 (SD 0.6 mm in irradiated samples. On the other hand, the minimum changes in the diameter of inhibition zone were found for S. typhimurium and S. aureus when these bacteria were tested for nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, respectively. Conclusion: Gamma rays were capable of making significant alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be hypothesized that high levels of natural background radiation can induce adaptive phenomena that help microorganisms better cope with lethal effects of antibiotics.

  5. Survey of Gamma Dose and Radon Exhalation Rate from Soil Surface of High Background Natural Radiation Areas in Ramsar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is a radioactive gas and the second leading cause of death due to lung cancer after smoking. Ramsar is known for having the highest levels of natural background radiation on earth. Materials and Methods: In this research study, 50 stations of high radioactivity areas of Ramsar were selected in warm season of the year. Then gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were measured.Results: Results showed that gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were in the range of 51-7100 nSv/hr and 9-15370 mBq/m2s, respectively.Conclusion: Compare to the worldwide average 16 mBq/m2s, estimated average annual effective of Radon exhalation rate in the study area is too high.

  6. HI-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements of U-238, TH-232, K-40 and CS-137 concentrations in soil samples from Capao Island at CTEx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luciano S.R.; Oliveira, Celio J.V.; Vilela, Paulo R.T.; Vital, Helio C.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute soil concentrations of U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 samples collected from Capao Island have been measured by using Hi-Resolution Gamma HPGe Spectrometry. The area of interest encompasses an embankment in a mangrove swamp in Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, where nuclear, chemical and biological defense laboratories of the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) are located. In order to ensure that no significant environmental impact has resulted from neutron physics experiments performed in a graphite subcritical assembly in addition to the operation of two cesium-driven irradiating facilities, routine monitoring of those isotopes have been regularly performed. A total of eight 250 ml samples of mangrove and embankment soils were extracted from four sites of known coordinates within an area of 300 x 300 m 2 and remained stored for a minimum thirty-day period to allow equilibrium to be reached. Collection and preparation of samples were made according to previously established procedures. High purity germanium detectors were used to obtain high-resolution gamma spectra and counting times were required to exceed 30 hours in order to yield sufficient statistical accuracy. Energy and efficiency calibration curves of the counting system were determined by using the GENIE 2000 software for analysis of the gamma spectrum generated by nine standard sources with a total of 11 peak energies ranging from 0.05 to 1.3 MeV. The results, corrected for background, have been expressed as absolute specific activities. All experiments have been made in the Laboratory for Identification of Radiological Agents (LIAR) at CTEx. No trace of cesium-137 has been found and the measured levels of uranium-238, in the order of 10 Bq/kg, are close to the global mean. However, some data have been found to slightly exceed the expected normal range for thorium-232 (60% of samples) and potassium-40 (20% of samples). Since there is no handling of those isotopes in the site or others that could

  7. HI-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements of U-238, TH-232, K-40 and CS-137 concentrations in soil samples from Capao Island at CTEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano S.R.; Oliveira, Celio J.V.; Vilela, Paulo R.T.; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (DDQBN/CTEX), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Secao de Defesa Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Absolute soil concentrations of U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 samples collected from Capao Island have been measured by using Hi-Resolution Gamma HPGe Spectrometry. The area of interest encompasses an embankment in a mangrove swamp in Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, where nuclear, chemical and biological defense laboratories of the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) are located. In order to ensure that no significant environmental impact has resulted from neutron physics experiments performed in a graphite subcritical assembly in addition to the operation of two cesium-driven irradiating facilities, routine monitoring of those isotopes have been regularly performed. A total of eight 250 ml samples of mangrove and embankment soils were extracted from four sites of known coordinates within an area of 300 x 300 m{sup 2} and remained stored for a minimum thirty-day period to allow equilibrium to be reached. Collection and preparation of samples were made according to previously established procedures. High purity germanium detectors were used to obtain high-resolution gamma spectra and counting times were required to exceed 30 hours in order to yield sufficient statistical accuracy. Energy and efficiency calibration curves of the counting system were determined by using the GENIE 2000 software for analysis of the gamma spectrum generated by nine standard sources with a total of 11 peak energies ranging from 0.05 to 1.3 MeV. The results, corrected for background, have been expressed as absolute specific activities. All experiments have been made in the Laboratory for Identification of Radiological Agents (LIAR) at CTEx. No trace of cesium-137 has been found and the measured levels of uranium-238, in the order of 10 Bq/kg, are close to the global mean. However, some data have been found to slightly exceed the expected normal range for thorium-232 (60% of samples) and potassium-40 (20% of samples). Since there is no handling of those isotopes in the site or others that

  8. Determination of Ra-226 and Th-232 in samples of natural phosphates, industrial gypsums and surface soils by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Nadai, E.A. de; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba

    1988-01-01

    The natural radioactivity in Ra-226 and Th-232 in samples of natural phosphates, industrial gypsums (phosphogypsums) and surface soils of different regions was measured by γ-ray spectrometry. The majority of phosphates and gypsums examined showed significantly higher values than soils, mainly in relation to Ra-226 activity. The activity ranges found for phosphates, gypsums and soils were: 79.1 - 3180 Bq/kg, 56.3 - 986.6 Bq/kg, 8.8 - 54.3 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and 33.6 - 1450.3 Bq/kg; 17.4 - 130,1 Bq/kg, 9.8 - 108.9 Bq/kg for Th-232, respectively. (author) [pt

  9. A new method for the determination of radionuclide distribution in the soil by in situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zombori, P.; Andrasi, A.; Nemeth, I.

    1992-06-01

    A method was searched for to estimate the penetration characteristics of fallout radioactivity, using only spectral information obtained by in situ spectrometric measurements, and avoiding the need for long and tiresome sampling and sample analysis procedures. To speed up the analysis for depth distribution determination of fallout radioactivity in soil, an instrumental method based on the shape of spectra was developed. The ratio of peak to valley (the region between the photopeak and Compton edge) depends on the penetration of radionuclides in soil, providing an estimation of depth profile. These ratios were calculated and the method was tested by actual measurements. (R.P.) 7 refs.; 14 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  11. Determination of Radium transfer factor from soil to vegetables by Gamma spectrometry in high levels of natural radiation areas of Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza-nejad, F.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important and prevalent radioactive contaminants in the environment is radium-226 from uranium-238 decay series. This radionuclide after entering in to the food chain, especially through consumed drinking water and vegetables is transferred to man. In order to determine the transfer factor of 226 Ra from soil to veg tables and to assess the effective dose due to ingestion of vegetables by the critical group of Talesh-Mahaleh which is one of the high levels natural radiation areas of Ramsar, more than 90 samples of soil, seed and vegetable were collected and analysed by gamma spectrometry using a High Purity Germanium detector coupled to a Canberra Mca-series 100. The concentrations of 226 Ra were determined by 609 KeV photopeak of bismuth-214 in secular equilibrium with 226 Ra. Concentrations of 226 Ra in dried soil samples were ranged from a minimum of 733 ± 25 to a maximum of 45100 ± 37 Bq Kg -1 . The maximum and minimum transfer factor of 226 Ra were determined in leafy and root vegetables respectively. The average transfer factor of 226 RA were calculated 1.2 * 10 -2 for all 14 kind of vegetables. The results indicated that by increasing the 226 Ra concentration in substrate, the uptake of this radionuclide has exponentially increased while, the transfer factors were decreased. Also there is a positive correlation between uptake of 226 Ra and Ca in vegetable. The highest and lowest ratio of 226 Ra/Ca were measured 127.8 Bq Kg -1 and 8 Bq Kg -1 and 8 Bq Kg -1 in carrot and tomato samples respectively. The effective dose resulting from 226 Ra due to consumption of vegetables for critical group was 51.6 μ Sv a -1 which is 13 times more than average of effective dose resulting from this radionuclide due to intake of all kind of foods and water in background region

  12. Determination of trace amounts of rare earth elements in various environmental samples by spark source mass spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimae, Akiyoshi

    1978-01-01

    A chemical concentration-mass spectrographic procedure was described for the determination of trace amounts of rare earth elements in various environmental samples: airborne particulate matter, dustfall, soil and so forth. A 0.5 to 1 gram of sample material was decomposed by fusion with sodium carbonate. The silica dehydrated in the usual way was filtered off and the filtrate from the silica was then treated with ammonium hydroxide to precipitate the rare earth elements. After ignition of the precipitate, two ml of internal standard solution containing 20 μg/ml of silver were added and the mixture was then evaporated to dryness. The residue was mixed with an equal amount of graphite powder and then pressed into electrodes. Relative sensitivity coefficients (Ag=1.0) were determined by using Spex Mix and U. S. Geological Survey rock standard G-2. U. S. Geological Survey rock standard GSP-1 and N.B.S. coal fly ash SRM 1633 were analysed to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. Comparison of the mass spectral values with literature ones indicated a good agreement. The coefficient of variation obtained by replicate analysis of SRM 1633 was better than 25%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of rare earth elements in airborne particulate matter and dustfall collected on polystyrene filter and in dustjars, respectively. Results for the rare earth elements in the blank of glass fiber filter which was widely used for the collection of airborne particulate matter were also presented. (auth.)

  13. Estimation of the Vertical Distribution of Radiocesium in Soil on the Basis of the Characteristics of Gamma-Ray Spectra Obtained via Aerial Radiation Monitoring Using an Unmanned Helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Kotaro; Sasaki, Miyuki; Ishida, Mutsushi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Nishimura, Taku; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2017-08-17

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of gamma-ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter. The estimates are based on actual measurement data collected at an extended farm. In this method, the change in the ratio of direct gamma rays to scattered gamma rays at various depths in the soil was utilized to quantify the vertical distribution of radiocesium. The results show a positive correlation between the abovementioned and the actual vertical distributions of radiocesium measured in the soil samples. A vertical distribution map was created on the basis of this ratio using a simple equation derived from the abovementioned correlation. This technique can provide a novel approach for effective selection of high-priority areas that require decontamination.

  14. Estimation of the Vertical Distribution of Radiocesium in Soil on the Basis of the Characteristics of Gamma-Ray Spectra Obtained via Aerial Radiation Monitoring Using an Unmanned Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Kotaro; Sasaki, Miyuki; Ishida, Mutsushi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2017-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of gamma-ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter. The estimates are based on actual measurement data collected at an extended farm. In this method, the change in the ratio of direct gamma rays to scattered gamma rays at various depths in the soil was utilized to quantify the vertical distribution of radiocesium. The results show a positive correlation between the abovementioned and the actual vertical distributions of radiocesium measured in the soil samples. A vertical distribution map was created on the basis of this ratio using a simple equation derived from the abovementioned correlation. This technique can provide a novel approach for effective selection of high-priority areas that require decontamination. PMID:28817098

  15. Intercomparison measurements of surface soil contamination with in-situ gamma ray spectrometry. Pt.1. Artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.

    1994-01-01

    This intercomparison program was performed by the Federal Office of Radiation Protection in October 1993. It includes seven laboratory teams from five countries and is applied on a pasture in southern Germany having an undisturbed soil profile. The location was chosen because of its relatively high 137 Cs-soil contamination caused by the Chernobyl accident - up to 50 kBq/m 2 . The deposition of 134 Cs and 137 Cs was determined. The comparison demonstrated a good agreement between results from different labs. Additionally, the dose rate at all marked locations was measured and compared to the dose rate of individual radionuclides calculated from the measured spectra. A relatively good agreement was obtained. It is shown that the main contribution to the total dose rate of 70 nSv/h is made by 137 Cs with a value of 5 nSv/h. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs. (orig.)

  16. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis – contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunlong eYim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Replant disease (RD severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after eight weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50 °C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after eight weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e. potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments.

  17. Soil contaminated phyto remediation of Pb and cd metal by using rice straw fermented by trichoderma viride that given exposure 250 gray doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yullita SL Andini; Hendrawati; Tri Retno Diah Larasati; Nana Mulyana

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) is one form of environmental pollution that is harmful to living organisms. One way to resolve this problem by using phyto remediation with rice straw fermented by Trichoderma viride that given exposure 250 gray doses of gamma radiation. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of Trichoderma viride fermented hay to improve the ability of Pb and Cd accumulation in the root zone of plants sweet corn (Zea Mays). There are three stages in the research process, namely the stages of SSF (Solid State Fermentation), incorporation, and Land farming. The fermentation process is done during the 16-day trial. Furthermore, the results of the SSF (Solid State Fermentation) mixed in soil that has been contaminated with heavy metals showed that administration of straw result SSF real impact on the value of pH, water content of the four treated samples. Results incorporation process and then applied with a crop of sweet corn (Zea Mays). Accumulation of heavy metals in sweet corn plant, analyzed by AAS analysis instrumentation. The measurement results show that the accumulation of Pb in the roots of plants in the sample K amounted to 33.66 mg/Kg, A sample of 26.80 mg/Kg, the sample B of 51.47 mg/kg, and sample C of 55.70 mg/Kg. While the metals Cd uptake in the roots of corn plants in the sample K showed Cd uptake of 269.65 mg/Kg, the sample A of 445.70 mg/Kg, the sample B of 337.17 mg/Kg and sample C of 336.72 mg/Kg. The phyto remediation process takes place based on the fito-stabilization principle. (author)

  18. Concentration levels of gamma radioactivity on superficial soils of municipalities of Guadalupe and Zacatecas; Niveles de concentracion de radiactividad gamma en suelos superficiales de los municipios de Guadalupe y Zacatecas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mireles, F.; Flores, F. E.; Pinedo, J. L.; Davila, J. I.; Rios, C.; Lopez, H.; Saucedo, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)], e-mail: fmireles@uaz.edu.mx

    2009-10-15

    A study on inside of municipalities of Guadalupe and Zacatecas in Zacatecas, Mexico was realized, with the purpose of determine the concentration levels of radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs, distributed on superficial soils. For this work was obtained a total of 44 samples of superficial soils nearby to 10 communities more populated of each one of municipalities; those that were prepared and placed on containers Marinelli type of 500 m L. The samples were measured in a gamma rays spectrometry system based on a germanium detector hyper pure, and was utilized the photo pick of 609 KeV of the {sup 214}Bi for to measure the activity of {sup 226}Ra, of 666 KeV for to measure the activity of {sup 137}Cs, of 911 KeV of the {sup 228}Ac for to measure the activity of {sup 232}Th, and of 1461 KeV for to measure the activity of {sup 40}K. The calculations to optimize the detector operation as much in efficiency as in energy were realized, and it was determined a time specifies for to obtain a relative error on the activity measurement smaller to 5%. Was found a minimum perceptible activity of 1.7 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 0.96 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs, 3.7 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and of 6.8 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K; these values were below those measured in the samples with the exception of 12 cases of the total for {sup 137}Cs. The average and concentration range in activity of soils of Guadalupe were of 22.3{+-}1.5% (11-31.3) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, of 2.7{+-}6% (0.95-5.5) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs, of 28.2{+-}2.5% (11-41.8) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and of 540.5{+-}0.6% (339.8-782.6) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The average and concentration range in activity of soils of Zacatecas were of 24.8{+-}1.4% (8.3-34.4) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, of 3.5{+-}1.2% (1.1-7.7) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs, of

  19. The effect of energy peak drift on the calibration of a high resolution gamma-ray soil density gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    High spatial resolution is obtained from a gamma-ray transmission density gauge by restricting the measured counts to a narrow band of the energy spectrum, close to the emission energy peak. The effect on measurement accuracy of any movement of this measurement window relative to the energy peak was investigated. The findings were related to anticipated energy peak movements in a proposed LED-based gain-stabilization system. Movements of the energy peaks during recording of unstabilized spectra prevented direct comparisons of spectra at different positions. A simulation procedure was, therefore, developed in which movements of the measurement window relative to sets of stable calibration spectra were examined. When analysing spectra, recorded using a gauge with a different gain-stabilization system, accuracy was found to be unaffected by simulated peak movements of up to 0.03 MeV in the direction of increasing energy. However, movements of stabilized spectra in the direction of decreasing energy, and of unstabilized spectra in either direction, increased measurement errors to twice the level of inherent measurement errors within 0.02 MeV, with errors in bulk density of up to 0.7 Mg m −3 for movements of 0.1 MeV. The spectra of the new LED-based stabilization system are expected to behave in a manner similar to the unstabilized system, therefore requiring regular monitoring of the peak position. (author)

  20. Study of stability of humic acids from soil and peat irradiated by gamma rays; Estudo da estabilidade de acidos humicos extraidos de solo e turfa, frente a radiacao ionizante gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wilson Tadeu Lopes da

    1995-07-01

    Humic acids samples (one deriving from a sedimentary soil and other from a peat), in aqueous media, were irradiated with gamma rays, in doses of 10, 50 and 100 kGy, in order to understand their chemical behavior after the irradiation. The material, before and after irradiation, was analyzed by Elemental Analysis, Functional Groups (carboxylic acids and phenols), UV/Vis Spectroscopy (E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio), IR spectroscopy, CO{sub 2} content and Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) ). The Elemental Analysis showed the humic acid derived from a peat had a most percentage quantity of Carbon and Hydrogen than the material from a sedimentary soil. From the UV/Vis Spectroscopy, it was observed a decrease of E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio with an increase of the applied dose. The data from GPC are in agreement with this. The results showed that the molecular weight of the material increased by exposing it to a larger radiolitical dose. The peat material was less affected by the gamma radiation than the soil material. The carboxylic groups were responsible by radiochemical behavior of the material. (author)

  1. Gamma-ray and electrical resistivity measurements in soil with application of carbonatite and agricultural fertilizers in Distrito Federal; Radiacao gama e resistividade eletrica em solo com aplicacao de carbonatito e fertilizantes agricolas no Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Carlos Tadeu Carvalho do; Gaspar, Jose Carlos; Pires, Augusto Cesar Bittencourt, E-mail: carlostadeu@unb.br, E-mail: gasp@unb.br, E-mail: acbpires@unb.br [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Andrade, Leide Rovenia Miranda de, E-mail: leide@cpac.embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria dos Cerrados, Planaltina, DF (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria) and Brasilia University developed a research project about the viability of carbonatite rock as agricultural fertilizer. As an initial experiment, several mixtures of carbonatite, limestone, phosphorous and potassium compounds were added as fertilizers in an oxisol area (red-latosol, according with Brazilian System of Soil Classification), in Distrito Federal, central Brazil. The experiment area was divided in 56 plots (4 x 7m) and each plot received a fertilizer mixture. The purpose of this work was to verify if the addition of fertilizer mixture to the soil modified its radiometric and resistivity properties and if it is possible to identify this change. Gamma-ray and electrical resistivity measurements were obtained in an experimental area and in a natural savannah type vegetation area. The results showed that the fertilizer addition modified soil natural properties causing a small increase in K, U, Th levels and decreasing ten times electrical resistivity. A low contrast of radiation was observed between plots, and then it was not possible to differentiate the several treatments in base of gamma-ray measurements. Electrical resistivity was efficient to identify three groups of plots related to mixtures characteristics, respectively with phosphorous, potassium and limestone / carbonatite predominance. (author)

  2. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Gamma Knife Gamma Knife® is a radiation therapy that uses computerized ... If you're scheduled for radiation therapy using Gamma Knife®, a treatment team consisting of a radiation ...

  3. Quantification of {sup 235} U and {sup 226} Ra in soil samples by means of Gamma spectroscopy; Cuantificacion de {sup 235} U y {sup 226} Ra en muestras de suelo por medio de espectrometria gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero P, E.; Rojas M, V.P.; Montes M, F.R.; Gaso P, M.I.; Cervantes N, M.L. [Gerencia de Innovacion Tecnologica, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work it is presented the Gamma Spectroscopy method which is realized in the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Laboratory using the option of deconvolution of a commercial software for the quantification of {sup 235} U and {sup 226} Ra; also is presented the method for the {sup 226} Ra correction activity. (Author)

  4. Measuring naturally occurring uranium in soil and minerals by analysing the 352 keV gamma-ray peak of 214Pb using a NaI(Tl)-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuidenhout, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the prospect of utilising the 351.9 keV gamma-ray of 214 Pb when determining the concentration of uranium. Soil samples were collected from various locations around South Africa and laboratory gamma ray spectra for each were obtained by means of a NaI(Tl)-detector (7.62×7.62 cm 2 ). The potassium, uranium and thorium concentrations where extracted by analysing gamma ray peaks that are associated with these radionuclides. Two separate uranium concentrations were extracted; one by means of the 214 Pb decay and the other one by means of the 214 Bi decay. These uranium concentrations were compared in terms of accuracies and detection limits. - Highlights: • Investigated a method to improve uranium concentrations measurements. • Expansion on an existing method that analyses naturally occurring radionuclides. • Utilise pill containers opposed to Marrinelli beakers. • Possible application to in situ measurements. • The method utilise NaI(Tl)-detectors with relative high efficiency

  5. Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility of agricultural soils in the Northwest region of the Parana State, Brazil; Gamaespectrometria, resistividade eletrica e susceptibilidade magnetica de solos agricolas no noroeste do estado do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becegato, Valter Antonio [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina-UDESC, Centro de Ciencias Agroveterinarias, Lages, SC (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca, E-mail: becegato@cav.udesc.br, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (LPGA/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada

    2005-10-15

    Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility measurements were taken from agricultural areas near the City of Maringa, in the Northwest region of the Parana state, south Brazil, in order to characterize the spatial distribution of radionuclides (K, eU, and eTh), the apparent resistivity, and the magnetic susceptibility determined for soils. Three different types of soils are present in this agricultural area: Alfisoil, clayey texture Oxisoil, both deriving from Lower Cretaceous basalts of the Serra Geral Formation; and medium texture Oxisoil from reworked Serra Geral and Goio-Ere formations, the latter deriving from sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Caiua Group. It could be observed that in more clayey soils both concentration of radionuclides and susceptibility values are higher than in more sandy soils, especially due to the higher adsorption in the former and to the higher availability of magnetic minerals in the latter. The average ppm and Bq Kg{sup -1} grades for K, eU, and eTh in the areas under anthropic activity are of 1766-54.75, 0.83-10.22, and 1.78-7.27, respectively. These grades are significantly higher than those of non-occupied or non-fertilized areas (1101-34.15 K, 0.14-1.69 eU, and 1.31-5.36 eTh in ppm and Bq Kg-1, respectively.) Correlations were observed between uranium and clay, uranium and magnetic susceptibility, uranium and organic matter, and between electric resistivity and clay grades. Varied concentrations of radionuclides were also observed in different fertilizer formulations applied to soy and wheat cultures. Apparent electric resistivity values between 25 and 647 Ohm.m and magnetic susceptibility values between 0.28 e 1.10 x 10-3 SI due to clay and magnetic minerals represented important soil discrimination factors in the study area that can be incorporated as easy, low-cost soil mapping tools. (author)

  6. Soil water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.R.; Cassel, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The use of radiation and tracer techniques in investigations into soil water management in agriculture, hydrology etc. is described. These techniques include 1) neutron moisture gauges to monitor soil water content and soil water properties, 2) gamma radiation attenuation for measuring the total density of soil and soil water content, 3) beta radiation attenuation for measuring changes in the water status of crop plants and 4) radioactive and stable tracers for identifying pathways, reactions and retention times of the constituents in soils and groundwater aquifers. The number and spacing of soil observations that should be taken to represent the management unit are also considered. (U.K.)

  7. High-sensitivity gamma spectroscopy for extended sources. Application to activity measurements on the human body, on glass, and on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, B.

    1962-01-01

    The measurement and location by gamma spectroscopy of human body internal contaminations at maximum permissible levels, and, in certain cases, at lower activities such as that due to 40 K was investigated. The characteristics of the high-sensitivity apparatus used are given, and several assemblies using large-volume NaI(Tl) scintillators are described. The relatively light shielding required for natural radioactivity permitted construction of mobile assembly. Conditions of use are described, and the results are given. All gamma emitting elements were measured in 15 min at levels lower than the tolerance dose. Gamma spectroscopy was also used to determine fission products in the earth and to study radioactive elements in the presence of other emitters. (author) [fr

  8. Spatial distribution of gamma radiation levels in surface soils from Jaduguda uranium mineralization zone, Jharkhand, India, using γ-ray spectrometry, and determination of outdoor dose to the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharana Mandakini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of natural radionuclides in surface soil samples around selected villages of Jaduguda were investigated and compared with the radioactivity level in the region. Concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K were determined by a gamma ray spectrometer using the HPGe detector with 50% relative efficiency, and the radiation dose to the local population was estimated. The average estimated activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in the surface soil were 53.8, 44.2 and 464.2 Bq kg -1 respectively. The average absorbed dose rate in the study area was estimated to be 72.5 nGy h-1, where as the annual effective dose to the population was 0.09 mSv y-1. A correlation analysis was made between measured dose rate and individual radionuclides, in order to delineate the contribution of the respective nuclides towards dose rate. The radio-elemental concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium estimated for the soils, in the study area, indicated the enrichment of uranium series nuclide. The results of the present study were subsequently compared with international and national recommended values.

  9. A comparative study of 232Th and 238U activity estimation in soil samples by gamma spectrometry and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekha, A.K.; Anilkumar, S.; Narayani, K.; Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity in the environment is mainly due to the naturally occurring radionuclides like uranium, thorium with their daughter products and potassium. Even though Gamma spectrometry is the most commonly used non destructive method for the quantification of these naturally occurring radionuclides, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), a well established analytical technique, can also be used. But the NAA technique is a time consuming process and needs proper standards, proper sample preparation etc. In this paper, the 232 Th and 238 U activity estimated using gamma ray spectrometry and NAA technique are compared. In the case of direct gamma spectrometry method, the samples were analysed after sealing in a 250 ml container. Whereas for the NAA, about 300 mg of each sample, after irradiation were subjected to gamma spectrometry. The 238 U and 232 Th activities (in Bq/kg) in samples were estimated after the proper efficiency correction and were compared. The estimated activities by these two methods are in good agreement. The variation in 238 U and 232 Th activity values are within ± 15% which are acceptable for environmental samples

  10. Gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, G.C.; Robotham, H.; Miller, J.M.; Simpson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a total gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica, carried out with car-borne instrumentation, are presented and the data compared with the contents of potassium, thorium and uranium in rocks and in surface (soil, stream-sediment, pan concentrate and water) samples obtained at six sites selected to be representative of the principal rock types and surface environments of Jamaica. The work formed part of an orientation study for a regional geochemical survey of the CARICOM countries of the Caribbean. The initial results indicate that enhanced gamma activity is correlated with enrichment in uranium and thorium, but not potassium, in terra rossa soils and/or bauxite deposits in limestone. Elsewhere, gamma levels are increased on the Above Rocks Cretaceous basement Inlier, where they correlate generally with the presence of volcanogenic sediments and a granodiorite intrusion. The lowest radioactivity was recorded in the vicinity of ultrabasic rocks in the Blue Mountains Inlier. (author)

  11. Studies on the terrestrial background gamma radiation in and around the metropolitan area of Accra. Part 1: radioactivity in soils and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah, J.; Assiamah, M.; Darko, E.O.

    1998-01-01

    A preliminary study of soil and rock samples from selected locations within the Accra Metropolis and its immediate hinterlands has been conducted to determine the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides and the exposure to the population. Representative areas were selected based on the geology and population density. The results so far obtained indicate that the exposure of the population living in the vicinity to naturally occurring radionuclides of potassium-40, uranium-238 and thorium-232 series is quite significant compared with natural radioactivity levels in soils and rocks reported by a number of researchers. The highest concentration of radionuclides in soil and rock were recorded in samples from Dodowa with the lowest concentration in soils from Shai Hills and rocks from Weija. (author). 14 refs.; 6 tabs

  12. Gamma astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.; Cesarsky, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This article overviews the gamma astronomy research. Sources already observed, and what causes to give to them; the galactic radiation and its interpretation; techniques already used and current projects [fr

  13. Gamma Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Butz, Tilman; Ertl, G.; Knözinger, H.; Schüth, F.

    2008-01-01

    No abstract. The sections in this article are 1 Introduction 2 Mössbauer Spectroscopy 3 Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) 4 Conclusions and Outlook Keywords: Mössbauer spectroscopy; gamma spectroscopy; perturbed angular correlation; TDPAC

  14. An assessment of the natural radioactivity distribution and radiation hazard in soil samples from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Al Mugren, K.S.; Bradley, D.A.; Regan, P.H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Nasir, Tabassum; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bukhari, S.

    2017-01-01

    We establish baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration in the soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the naturally occurring and technically enhanced levels of radiation associated with 235,8 U and 232 Th natural decay chains and the long-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. Three radiological distribution maps showing the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were constructed. Two soil samples were found to be elevated to the favour of 226 Ra concentration and significantly above the average and global values. Notably, these samples were collected from an area within an oil field (NW Dukhan). The mean values of activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for the full cohort of samples were found to be 17.2±1.6, 6.38±0.26 and 169±5 Bq/kg, respectively. These values lie within the expected range relative to the world average values in soil samples of 30, 35 and 400 Bq/kg, respectively. - Highlights: • This study aimed to establish a baseline for soil radioactivity in Qatar. • The work focused on measurement of NORM levels in 129 samples using HPGe detector. • The mean values lie within the range relative to the world average values. • The Ac of Dukhan soil samples were elevated. • The mean of D, Ra eq , H ex and AEDE had all normal levels of radiation.

  15. Dosimetry for terrestrial gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, S.A.; Dickson, H.W.; Kerr, G.D.; Miah, M.F.K.; Perdue, P.T.

    1975-01-01

    Dose rates from natural radionuclides and 137 Cs in soils of the Oak Ridge area have been determined from in situ and core sample measurements. Information on soil composition, density, and moisture content and on the distribution of cesium in the soil was obtained from the core samples. Measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the samples were made with a 4 x 4 in. NaI detector. Gamma-ray spectroscopy using a lithium-drifted germanium (GeLi) detector has been applied to the determination of radionuclide concentrations in soil and the associated gamma dose rates above the earth plane. An unshielded GeLi detector placed about 1 m above the earth detects gamma radiation from an area of about 100 m 2 . The equipment and data processing procedure are briefly described

  16. Measurement and Analysis of Specific Activities of 238U, 232Th,226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in Soil Samples from Phatthalung Province (Thailand) using Gamma Ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoh, Murnee; Kessaratikoon, Prasong; Udomsomporn, Suchin

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Specific activity of natural (238 U , 232 T h, 226 R a and 40 K ) and anthropogenic radionuclide (137 C s) in 109 soil samples collected from 11 districts in Phathalung province have been measured and analyzed. Experimental results were obtained by using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system at Nuclear and Material Physics laboratory in Department of Physics Faculty of Science Thaksin University Songkhla Campus. Gamma ray radioactive standard sources 60 C o, 137 C s and 133 B a were used to calibrate the measurement system. The KCl and two reference materials (RGU-1 and RGTh-1) obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency were also used to analyze and compute the 40 K , 238 U (or 226 R a) and 232 T h specific activity in all soil samples. The IAEA/SL-2 was also used to evaluate the specific activity of 137 C s in all soil samples. The measuring time of each sample was 10,800 seconds. It was found that specific activity ranged from 148.17 to 11276.78 Bq/kg for 40 K , 58.29 to 518.45 Bq/kg for 226 R a, 8.40 to 236.19 Bq/kg for 232 T h and 0.00 tp 12.39 Bq/kg for 137 C s with mean values of 3573.35 ± 203.89 Bq/kg, 135.89 ± 6.71 Bq/kg, 76.34 ± 5.32 Bq/kg and 1.05 ± 0.70 Bq/kg respectively. Furthermore, absorbed dose rate in air (D), radium equivalent activity (Ra e q), external hazard index (H e x), and annual effective dose rate (AEDout) of this area were also evaluated by using the mean values of specific activities of the 40 K , 226 R a and 232 T h. Moreover, the experimental results were also compared with Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) research data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurement and evaluations. The radioactive contour maps of specific activities of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides from this study were created by using the program ArcGis Version 9.2

  17. An assessment of the natural radioactivity distribution and radiation hazard in soil samples from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Al Mugren, K. S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Nasir, Tabassum; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bukhari, S.

    2017-11-01

    We establish baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration in the soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the naturally occurring and technically enhanced levels of radiation associated with 235,8U and 232Th natural decay chains and the long-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 40K in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. Three radiological distribution maps showing the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were constructed. Two soil samples were found to be elevated to the favour of 226Ra concentration and significantly above the average and global values. Notably, these samples were collected from an area within an oil field (NW Dukhan). The mean values of activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K for the full cohort of samples were found to be 17.2±1.6, 6.38±0.26 and 169±5 Bq/kg, respectively. These values lie within the expected range relative to the world average values in soil samples of 30, 35 and 400 Bq/kg, respectively.

  18. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The light pulse output of a scintillator, on which incident collimated gamma rays impinge, is detected by an array of photoelectric tubes each having a convexly curved photocathode disposed in close proximity to the scintillator. Electronic circuitry connected to outputs of the phototubes develops the scintillation event position coordinate electrical signals with good linearity and with substantial independence of the spacing between the scintillator and photocathodes so that the phototubes can be positioned as close to the scintillator as is possible to obtain less distortion in the field of view and improved spatial resolution as compared to conventional planar photocathode gamma cameras

  19. Elementary representative sizes of soil attributes via attenuation of gamma rays and computerized tomography; Tamanhos elementares representativos de atributos do solo via atenuacao de raios gama e tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Jaqueline Aparecida Ribaski

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the Computed Tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) techniques were used in the investigation of representative sample sizes for attributes related to soil structure. First of all, the representative elementary length (REL) for experimental measurements of soil mass attenuation coefficient (μes), of samples from a sandy and a clayey soil, was analyzed. The study was conducted with two radioactive sources ({sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs), three collimators (2 - 4 mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2-5 cm). From these analyzes, it was possible to identify an ideal thickness range for each of the studied sources (2-4 cm and 12-15 cm for the sources of {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs, respectively). The application of such results in representative elementary area evaluations, in clayey soil clods via CT, indicated that experimental soil mass attenuation coefficient average values obtained for x>4 cm and source {sup 241}Am might induce the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations. Subsequently, μCT images with a total volume of 39×39×33 mm{sup 3} and spatial resolution of 60 μm were used for macroporous system morphological characterization of a Rhodic Ferralsol with clayey texture, under no-till (NT) and conventional till (CT) systems. Attributes as macroporosity (MAP), number of macropores (NMAP), tortuosity (τ) and connectivity (C) of the pores were assessed. The C degree was estimated based on the Euler-Poincare characteristic (EPC). Once 3D images enable the study of these attributes in different sample volumes, the proposed study is ideal for the analysis of representative elementary volume (REV). Usually, the selection of subvolumes for REV analysis occurs concentrically to a small volume or in adjacent positions. Here, we introduced a new method for selecting the positions of subvolumes, which are randomly chosen within the total image volume (random selection). It was observed that higher

  20. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, Ul; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is replaceably mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. Supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other

  1. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  2. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.; Kotschak, O.; Conrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera with a simplified setup as compared with the state of engineering is described permitting, apart from good localization, also energy discrimination. Behind the usual vacuum image amplifier a multiwire proportional chamber filled with trifluorine bromium methane is connected in series. Localizing of the signals is achieved by a delay line, energy determination by means of a pulse height discriminator. With the aid of drawings and circuit diagrams, the setup and mode of operation are explained. (ORU) [de

  3. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  4. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1987-06-01

    The mapping of gamma sources radiation emission in a nuclear plant is an important safety point. A remote gamma ray mapping process was developed in SPS/CEA/SACLAY. It uses the ''pinhole camera'' principle, precursor of photography. It mainly consists of a radiation proof box, with a small orifice, containing sensitive emulsions at the opposite. A first conventional photographic type emulsion photographs the area. A second photographic emulsion shows up the gamma radiations. The superim position of the two shots gives immediate informations of the precise location of each source of radiation in the observed area. To make easier the presentation and to improve the accuracy of the results for radiation levels mapping, the obtained films are digitally processed. The processing assigns a colours scale to the various levels of observed radiations. Taking account physical data and standard parameters, it gets possible to estimate the dose rate. The device is portable. Its compactness and fully independent nature make it suitable for use anywhere. It can be adapted to a remote automatic handling system, robot... so as to avoid all operator exposure when the local dose rate is too high [fr

  5. 77 FR 62267 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Gamma Radiation Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... debilitating occupational diseases. Natural sources include rocks, soils, and ground water. Gamma radiation..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology...

  6. Pesticide-soil microflora interactions in flooded rice soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethunathan, N.; Siddaramappa, R.; Siddarame Gowda, T.K.; Rajaram, K.P.; Barik, S.; Rao, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope studies revealed that gamma and beta isomers of HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) decomposed rapidly in nonsterile soils capable of attaining redox potentials of -40 to -100mV within 20 days after flooding. Degradation was slow, however, in soils low in organic matter and in soils with extremely low pH and positive potentials, even after several weeks of flooding. Under flooded conditions, endrin decomposed to six metabolites in most soils. There is evidence that biological hydrolysis of parathion is more widespread than hitherto believed, particularly under flooded soil conditions. Applications of benomyl (fungicide) to a simulated-oxidized zone of flooded soils favoured heterotrophic nitrification. (author)

  7. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    To set the gamma activity cartography is an important element of safety in numerous cases: intervention in hot cell, search of a radioactive source, examination of radioactive waste circuit followed by a reprocessing definition of decontamination and decommissioning processes and for all other accidents. The device presented here is like a ''black box'' with an aperture and an emulsion photosensitive to the opposite; a classical film takes photography of the place; a X-ray type emulsion gives a spot more or less contrasted and extensive corresponding to each source. Images can be processed with a microprocessor [fr

  8. Gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Takakura, Kintomo

    1991-01-01

    As to the gamma knife which is the radiation surgery device developed in Sweden a quarter century ago, its principle, structure, treatment techniques, already established clinical effect and the problems being left for hereafter are described. This treatment means supplements the operation under microscopes, and at present it takes the important position in neurosurgery, but hereafter, by the interdisciplinary cooperation of neurosurgery and clinical radiobiology, the more development can be expected. The method of irradiating the radiation of high dose selectively to a target region and breaking its tissue is called radiosurgery, and the device developed for this purpose is the gamma knife. First, it was applied to functional diseases, but good results were obtained by its application to auditory nerve and brain blood vessels, and it establishes the position as the safe treatment method of the morbid state in the deep part of brains, which is difficult to reach by operation. Accompanying the recent progress of the operation of skull base part, attention is paid to its application to various tumors in skull base. On the other hand, the radiosurgery combining a cyclotron or a linear accelerator with stereotaxic brain surgery is actively tried mainly to the deformation of brain blood vessels. (K.I.)

  9. Attenuation coefficients of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, E.; Naziry, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    As a prerequisite to the interpretation of gamma-spectrometric in situ measurements of activity concentrations of soil radionuclides the attenuation of 60 to 1332 keV gamma radiation by soil samples varying in water content and density has been investigated. A useful empirical equation could be set up to describe the dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient upon photon energy for soil with a mean water content of 10%, with the results comparing well with data in the literature. The mean density of soil in the GDR was estimated at 1.6 g/cm 3 . This value was used to derive the linear attenuation coefficients, their range of variation being 10%. 7 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  10. Effect of soil moisture content on the radiosensitivity of soil bacteria and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, M.A.; El-Nennah, M.E.; El-Kholi, A.F.; Abd-Elmonem, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of soil moisture on the radiosensitivity of soil bacteria and fungi. The percentages of survival of soil bacteria and fungi, after exposure to different doses of gamma radiation, were lower in the moistened soil samples than in the dry one, inspite of the observed encouragement of wetting the soil samples, before gamma radiation exposure, on the proliferation of soil micro-organisms. This effect was explained by the indirect action from the breakdown products of radiolysis of water rather than by the direct damage to the cell structure

  11. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, U.; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. The supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other through about 90 0 to a collimator exchange position. Each of the separate supports is swingable to a vertically aligned position, with limiting of the swinging movement and positioning of the support at the desired exchange position. The collimators are carried on the supports by means of a series of vertically disposed coil springs. Projections on the camera are movable from above into grooves of the collimator at the exchange position, whereupon the collimator is turned so that it is securely prevented from falling out of the camera head

  12. Scintillation γ spectrography. Physical principles. Apparatus. Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julliot, C.

    1960-01-01

    The scintillation detector forms the main part of the instrument used, the electronic unit presenting the results produced. After a brief description of the process of γ photon absorption in the material, the particular case of NaI (T1), the scintillator used, is examined. The intensity of the scintillation caused by γ ray absorption and the characteristics of the photomultiplier play a determining part in the energy resolution of the instrument. For the γ recording spectrograph, we show to what extent the technique for using the electronic unit can modify the results. A detailed description is given of the activity measurement of a γ-emitting radioelement by the spectrographic method. (author) [fr

  13. Potency of Gamma ray, Electric Current and Elicitor Application, as a Novel Practical Technique, to Improve Biomass Production and Glycoside Quality for Digitalis purpurea L. Grown in Sandy Soil Irrigated with Brackish Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosila, H.A.; Afifi, L.M.A.; Ahmed, T.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Digitalis purpurea L seeds were treated before sowing with gamma ray (G:0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR, and electric current (E:O, 100, 150, 200 mA) then grown in sandy soil irrigated with brackish water (900 ppm) , in splite-splite plot design for 3 replicat (R) at two subsequent seasons , through surface drip irrigation system. Plants at 4- month old and monthly until before flowering were foliar sprayed with MnSO 4 as abiotic elicitor (M :O, 3 ppm). Biomass/ Feddan, percentage of total glycosides and percentage of bioactive glycosides, digitoxin and gitoxin were quantitated. Statistical analysis for the obtained data revealed that G, E and M achieved significant in biomass yield and its quality traits. Moreover, interactions ; GE, GM, EM and GEM achieved synergistic and significant increment for this traits. At such G dose the trait was increased by increasing E dose and M concentration. Hence, G 2.5, 5,7.5 KR E200 mA M3 ppm achieved significant increment, as percent over that of control, in biomass production / Feddan by 22, 29, 32%, total glycoside by 27, 40, 30%, digitoxin 27, 40, 30% for both first and second seasons, respectively. Whereas, increment for gitoxin were 27, 41, 30% at first season and 26, 38, 30% at second season, respectively. Overall, these finding strongly confirm the reliability of GEM as a novel practical technique for overproduction biomass/Fed. and quality improvement bioactive cardiac glycosides, digitoxin and gitoxin in Digitalis purpurea L.

  14. Application of neutron-gamma analysis for determination of C/N ratio in compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutron-gamma analysis is based on the acquisition of gamma rays from neutron irradiated study objects. The intensity and energy of the registered gamma rays gives information on the types and amounts of elements in the studied object. The use of this method for measurements of soil carbon demonstra...

  15. Environmental Gamma Radiation Measurements in Baskil District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canbazoglu, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have determined environmental gamma radiation dose rate in Baskil district which has very high granite content in its geographical structure. Gamma radiation dose rate measurements were achieved by portable radiation monitoring equipment based on the energy range between 40 keV and 1.3 MeV. The measurements were performed on asphalt and soil surface level and also one meter above the ground surface. The gamma dose rate was also performed inside and outside of buildings over the district. The dose rates were found to be between 8.46μR/h and 34.66 μR/h. Indoor and outdoor effective dose rate of the gamma radiation exposure has been calculated to be 523μSv/y and 196μSv/y, respectively

  16. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Heinzelmann, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    A gamma camera is described which obviates the distortion of locating signals generally caused by the varied light conductive capacities of the light conductors in that the flow of light through each light conductor may be varied by means of a shutter. A balancing of the flow of light through each of the individual light conductors, in effect, collective light conductors may be balanced on the basis of their light conductive capacities or properties, so as to preclude a distortion of the locating signals caused by the varied light conductive properties of the light conductors. Each light conductor has associated therewith two, relative to each other, independently adjustable shutters, of which one forms a closure member and the other an adjusting shutter. In this embodiment of the invention it is thus possible to block all of the light conductors leading to a photoelectric transducer, with the exception of those light conductors which are to be balanced. The balancing of the individual light conductors may then be obtained on the basis of the output signals of the photoelectric transducer. (auth)

  17. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  18. Investigation of zones with increased ground surface gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkus, D.V.; Morkunas, G.S.; Styro, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the increased gamma radiation zones of soils were conducted in the South-Western part of the Litvinian. The shores of lakes in the north-eastern part of the Suduva high land were investigated. the maximum values of the gamma radiation dose rates were distributed along the lake shores at a distance of 1 m from the water surface, while farther than 1.5 m from it the dose rate was close to the natural value. The increased gamma radiation intensity zones on the ground surface were found only at the northern (Lake Reketija) or the western shore (other lakes under investigation). The highest values of the gamma radiation dose 200-600 μR/h (0.5-1.5 nGy/s) were observed in the comparatively small areas (up to several square metres). The gamma radiation intensity of soil surface increased strongly moving towards the point where the maximum intensity was obsered. 10 figs

  19. Cosmic gamma bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehstulin, I.V.

    1980-01-01

    A brief consideration is being given to the history of cosmic gamma burst discovery and modern knowledge of their properties. The time dependence of gamma bursts is described and their possible sources are discussed

  20. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear gamma astronomy is presented, in particular the Gamma Ray Observatory, an enormous eight tonnes machine fitted with gamma telescopes, scheduled for launching around 1985. It is thereby hoped to study the natural nuclear reactions which occur when stars explode [fr

  1. Gamma ray spectrometry and radon emissions in soils from the Piquiri Syenite Massif region (Encruzilhada do Sul e Cachoeira do Sul, RS); Espectrometria de raios gama e emissao de radonio em solos da regiao do Macico Sienitico Piquiri (Cachoeira do Sul e Encruzilhada do Sul, RS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Mujalli, Gibran, E-mail: gibran.romero.mujalli@uni-hamburg.de [Institute for Geology, University of Hamburg (Germany); Roisenberg, Ari, E-mail: ari.roisenberg@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Mineralogia e Petrologia

    2016-05-15

    This study was focused in performing a gamma radiation survey and measurements of radon concentration in soils from the Piquiri Syenite Massif, an intrusion located at central area of the Rio Grande do Sul State. This intrusion has alkaline affiliation with high concentrations of uranium in accessory minerals as zircon, sphene, apatite, and others. The gamma radiation measurements were made considering a grid with squares about 2 km side each, using the gamma spectrometer RS-125, obtaining counts per second (cps), dose rate (DR) and concentrations of K, eU and eTh. Moreover, measurements of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn in soil were made using the AlphaGUARD equipment. The counts per second values obtained in this study range from 130 to 1045, the dose rate from 28.9 nSv/h to 424.6 nSv/h, the K concentration from 0.5 % to 8.3 %, the eU concentration from 0.8 ppm to 25.8 ppm, and the eTh concentration from 3.0 ppm to 99.2 ppm. The distribution of K defines with relatively precision the lithological contacts of the Piquiri Syenite Massif and between the two main facies of the intrusion (Main and Marginal Facies). The Main Facies of the syenite contains the highest concentrations of eTh, while the highest concentrations of eU were measured in the north area of this facies. The {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations range from 10 kBq/m{sup 3} to 550 kBq/m{sup 3} and from 5 kBq/m{sup 3} to 400 kBq/m{sup 3}, respectively, in the Main and Marginal Facies. The high values of radon measured in Main Facies of the Piquiri Syenite Intrusion may indicate high potential risk to the health of inhabitants in the area. (author)

  2. Reactor gamma spectrometry: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Kaiser, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Current work is described for Compton Recoil Gamma-Ray Spectrometry including developments in experimental technique as well as recent reactor spectrometry measurements. The current status of the method is described concerning gamma spectromoetry probe design and response characteristics. Emphasis is given to gamma spectrometry work in US LWR and BR programs. Gamma spectrometry in BR environments are outlined by focussing on start-up plans for the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Gamma spectrometry results are presented for a LWR pressure vessel mockup in the Poolside Critical Assembly (PCA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  3. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Straelberg, E.; Klemola, S.; Nielsen, Sven P.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  4. The use of proximal soil sensor data fusion and digital soil mapping for precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Wenjun; Adamchuk, Viacheslav; Chen, Songchao; Biswas, Asim; Leclerc, Maxime; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    Proximal soil sensing (PSS) is a promising approach when it comes to detailed characterization of spatial soil heterogeneity. Since none of existing PSS systems can measure all soil information needed for implementation precision agriculture, sensor data fusion can provide a reasonable al- ternative to characterize the complexity of soils. In this study, we fused the data measured using a gamma-ray sensor, an apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) sensor, and a commercial Veris MS...

  5. Detector calibration for in-situ gamma ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Balea, G

    2002-01-01

    The power in the technique of in-situ spectrometry lies in the fact that a detector placed on ground measures gamma radiation from sources situated over an area of several hundred square meters. The 'field of view' for the detector would be larger for high energy radiation sources and for sources closer to the soil surface. In contrast, a soil sample would represent an area of a few tens of hundreds of square centimeters. In practice, an effective characterization of a site would involve in-situ gamma ray spectrometry in conjunction with soil sampling. As part of an overall program, in-situ gamma ray spectrometry provides a means to assess the degree of contamination in areas during the course of operations in the field, thus guiding the investigator on where to collect samples. It can also substantially reduce the number of samples need to be collected and subsequently analyzed. (author)

  6. Soil and ground cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    The monitoring programmes set up in accordance with the directives for the surveillance of effluents from nuclear installations oblige operators of such installations to take samples of vegetation (grass) and soil twice a year at the least favourable place in the industrial plant's environment, and at a reference site, for radioactivity monitoring by gamma spectroscopy. In addition, the samples are to be examined for their Sr-90 content. Data recorded over the years show that nuclear facilities do not significantly contribute to soil and vegetation contamination with Sr-90 or Cs-137. The directives require regular interlaboratory comparisons, which are coordinated by the directing centre at Kiel. (DG) [de

  7. Gamma Splines and Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce a new family of splines termed as gamma splines for continuous signal approximation and multiresolution analysis. The gamma splines are born by -times convolution of the exponential by itself. We study the properties of the discrete gamma splines in signal interpolation and approximation. We prove that the gamma splines obey the two-scale equation based on the polyphase decomposition. to introduce the shift invariant gamma spline wavelet transform for tree structured subscale analysis of asymmetric signal waveforms and for systems with asymmetric impulse response. Especially we consider the applications in biomedical signal analysis (EEG, ECG, and EMG. Finally, we discuss the suitability of the gamma spline signal processing in embedded VLSI environment.

  8. Precision measurement of radioactivity in gamma-rays spectrometry using two HPGe detectors (BEGe-6530 and GC0818-7600SL models comparison techniques: Application to the soil measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guembou Shouop Cebastien Joel

    2017-01-01

    • Proved that the activity concentration determination in gamma spectrometry depended on the energy range emitted by a radionuclide. This study showed that the standard deviation measurement was less important to the result realized with BEGe-6530 HPGe model. Our findings were demonstrated that the results of the Broad Energy Germanium detector were more reliable.

  9. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The first certain detection of celestial high energy gamma rays came from a satellite experiment flown on the third Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-111). A Gamma ray spark chamber telescope with substantively greater sensitivity and angular resolution (a few degrees) flown on the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-II) has now provided a better picture of the gamma ray sky, and particularly the galactic plane and pulsars. This paper will summarize the present picture of gamma ray astronomy as it has developed at this conference from measurements made with experiments carried out on balloons, those remaining on the ground, and ones flown on satellites. (orig.) [de

  10. Gamma-ray attenuation to measure water contents and/or bulk densities of porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1983-01-01

    Attenuation of gamma radiation during transmission through soil and porous materials has been used for approximately three decades as a method for determining volumetric water content, theta, and bulk density, rho. This method is particularly suited for laboratory determinations of theta and rho in soil columns but it also has been used with success under field conditions. Measurements of attentuation of a collimated beam of monoernergetic gamma-rays has been used successfully by many investigators to provide rapid, non-destructive determinations for small volumes of soil. For stable soils, i.e. soils which do not swell upon wetting or shrink upon drying, rho may be assumed to remain constant during water flow through the soil, and thus changes in intensity or transmitted radiation may be attributed to changes in water content, theta. However, for unstable soils, the dry bulk density is subject to change with time during water flow through the soil and cannot be assumed to be a constant. Several investigators have utilized either a single beam of dual-energy gamma photons or two separate monoenergetic photon beams with greatly different energies to simultaneously determine theta and rho in these soils. A general review of gamma-ray attenuation methods for determining theta and rho in laboratory soil cores and in field soil profiles is reported in this paper. Theoretical equations for transmission and attenuation of gamma radiation in soils are presented for both single and double beams of gamma photons. Sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and experimental errors for the method are evaluated and discussed with respect to the theory. (author)

  11. Fixation of Soil Using PEC and Separation of Fixed Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) is the most apprehensive element due to its long half-lives, high solubility in water, and strong radiation emission in the form of gamma rays. Because the radioactivity is localized within topsoil, soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and form the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of anion and cation in an aqueous solution. polyelectrolyte complex can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached about 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. However it has a problem that the removed soil must separate soil and polymer to treat as the waste. In this study, the fixation of soil by polyelectrolyte complex to suppress the spread of contaminant and the separation method of soil and polymer was investigated. The properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by polyelectrolyte complex were investigated. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  12. Radon emanation from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Arvela, H.

    1992-01-01

    The results of gamma spectrometric sample measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) emanation coefficients and radium concentrations ( 226 Ra) from about 800 Finnish soil samples are presented. The radon emanation rate was measured in about 400 soil samples, using radon-tight cans and Lucas cells. The effects of water content and temperature on radon emanation were investigated, using various samples of different soil types. Radon emanation and the effect of water content on radon emanation were investigated separately for different grain sizes (samples of till). The results provide some information on radon emanation in different soil types and relate emanation in laboratory conditions to conditions in ground soil. In routine measurements of radon emanation from soil samples, use of a 5% water content was considered advisable. The correction coefficients of radon emanation varied between 0.3 and 1.5, depending on the water content and soil type. At 5% water content, hardly any difference was found between radon emanation at temperatures of 20 and 1 o C. Radon emanation was found to be an inverse function of grain sizes larger than 0.5 mm in diameter. (author)

  13. Soil structure changes evaluated with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate in millimetric scale changes in soil bulk density and porosity, using the gamma-ray computed tomography in soil samples with disturbed structure due to wetting and drying (W-D) cycles. Soil samples with 98.1 cm 3 were sieved using a 2 mm mesh and homogeneously packed in PVC cylinders. Soil samples were submitted to 1, 2, and 3 W-D cycles. Control samples were not submitted to W-D cycles. After repetitions of W-D cycles, soil sample porosity decreased and soil layers became denser. Computed tomography allowed a continuous analysis of soil bulk density and also soil porosity along millimetric (0.08 cm) layers, what cannot be provided by traditional methods used in soil physics. (author)

  14. Effect of sterilization by gamma-irradiation on the sorption of 137Cs, 85Sr, 139Ce, 57Co, 109Cd, 65Zn, 103Ru, 95mTc and 131I by soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Schimmack, W.

    1988-01-01

    Six soils, two Sphagnum peat samples and a clay mineral were irradiated with 40 and 80 kGy (4 and 8 Mrad) from a 60 Co source. As a result the microbial biomass, determined separately for each sample, decreased considerably. Depending on the radionuclide, the sorption, as characterised by the distribution coefficient, decreased, increased or remained unchanged. The effect of the irradiation on the sorption of the radionuclides depended, in general, also on the type of the sample, especially whether well humified soils, (e.g. crop soils), poorly humified samples (Sphagnum peat, O-horizon from woodland), or a clay mineral was employed. The data reveal that irradiation produces, besides sterilization, also other effects in soils, which can change their sorption properties. (orig.)

  15. Emission of radon from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, P.; Lindmark, A.; Rosen, B.

    1980-03-01

    The report deals with the measurement of radon daughters in the soil Radon migrates readily through the limestone which is superpositioned the alum shale. The level of gamma radiation is normal. Measurements have been made by the track etch technique and with Kodak film. The contents of radon daughters are shown to be due to the measuring depth. (G.B.)

  16. Sewage sterilization through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents

  17. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  18. Gamma tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Span, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a gamma tomography apparatus for medical diagnosis. The apparatus comprises a gamma scintillation camera head and a suspension system for supporting and positioning the camera head with respect for the patient. Both total body scanning and single photon emission tomography can be carried out with the apparatus. (U.K.)

  19. Gamma-sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.

    1974-01-01

    The author makes a survey of his experience in sterilization and sterility control of medical products. At present three different methods are used, steamsterilization, gassterilizing and gammasterilizing. The investments and costs for gamma radiation is presented and a comparison of the costs for gamma- and gassterilization including sterility control is made. (M.S.)

  20. Gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsen, W.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of the celestial gamma-ray fine-scale structure based on over half of the data which may ultimately be available from the COS-B satellite. A catalogue consisting of 25 gamma-ray sources measured at energies above 100 MeV is presented. (Auth.)

  1. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The book reviews the development of gamma ray astronomy over the past twenty five years. A large section of the book is devoted to the problems of background radiation and the design of detectors. Gamma rays from the sun, the galactic disc, the galaxy, and extra galactic sources; are also discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Gamma radiosensitivity of Cladonia verticillaris (RADDI) FR (Liquen) collected on sandy soils of Saloa, Pernambuco, Brazil; Radiossensibilidade gama de Cladonia verticillaris (RADDI) FR (Liquen) coletada sobre solos arenosos de Saloa, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helena; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Pereira, Eugenia, E-mail: eugenia.pereira@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Geograficas; Silva, Nicacio [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DBioq/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Maciel, Leonardo

    2011-10-26

    Liquens are organisms formed from a symbiosis relationship between a fungi and a algae. From this contact on the liquen substances are produced responsible by the most of benefits originated at the liquens. Viewing to increasing the production of his substances, Cladonia verticillaris (liquen) sample were submitted to gamma radiation and collected at 14, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days from the assembly of experiments and submitted the extraction of their phenols. The extracts were submitted to ascending chromatography on thin layer and seen at spectrophotometer Biochrom Libra S22. Cladonia verticillaris, when submitted to gamma radiation in laboratory, produced its secondary metabolites during all the experiment, but the radiation dose and the time of incubation influenced its metabolism and its consequent biosynthesis

  3. Soil and Soil Water Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Zachary M.; Bock, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Discusses the relationships between soil, water and plants. Discusses different types of soil, and how these soils hold water. Provides information about differences in soil drainage. Discusses the concept of water balance.

  4. The error sources appearing for the gamma radioactive source measurement in dynamic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirbu, M.

    1977-01-01

    The error analysis for the measurement of the gamma radioactive sources, placed on the soil, with the help of the helicopter are presented. The analysis is based on a new formula that takes account of the attenuation gamma ray factor in the helicopter walls. They give a complete error formula and an error diagram. (author)

  5. Physiological response of lovage (levisticum officinale, koch) plant to gamma radiation and organic fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, A.T.A.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study physiological response of lovage plant to gamma radiation and organic fertilizers.Two field experiments were conduct under conditions of newly reclaimed soil (sandy loam soil) during two successive seasons (2003/2004 and 2004/2005) in experimental farm , NRC,AEA Inshas. lovage fruits were irradiated before sowing with gamma rays at 0,20,40,60 and 80 Gy. Before planting farm yard manure (FYM) at rates of 0,20,30 and 40 m 3 /fed. Was applied to soil in combination with gamma doses in the first experiment, in the second one, chicken manure at 0,10,15 and 20 m 3 /fed. was added to soil before planting in combination with the same used gamma doses in first experiment. Growth of lovage plants was considerably stimulated by irradiating fruits before sowing with low gamma doses, in particularly at 60 Gy, which greatly increased plant height, number of branches/plant, stem thickness and dry matter yield of shoots. Similar trend was also observed with leaf chlorophyll content which increased due to low gamma doses . Low gamma doses markedly encouraged nutrients uptake by lovage plants which increased levels and total contents of N, P, K, Fe,Zn and Mn in plant shoots. Fruits yield, volatile oil % and oil yield and fruits index value were increased by low gamma doses particularly at 60 Gy.

  6. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  7. Contribution to the study of influences in emission spectrography on solutions. Application to a general analysis method for stainless steels (1961); Contribution a l'etude des influences en spectographie d'emission sur solution. Application a une methode generale d'analyse des aciers inoxydables (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-11-15

    In order to establish a general method of analysis of stainless steels, by means of spark spectroscopy on solutions, a systematic study has been made of the factors involved. The variations in acidity of the solutions, or in the ratio of concentrations of two acids at constant pH, lead to a displacement of the calibration curve. Simple relations have been established between the concentration of the extraneous elements, and the effects produced, for the constituents Fe, Ti, Ni, Cr, Mn; a general method using abacus is proposed for steels containing only these elements. The interactions in the case of the elements Mo, Nb, Ta, W, were more complex, so that the simultaneous separation was studied with the help of ion-exchange resins. A general method of analysis is proposed for stainless steels. (author) [French] En vue d'etablir une methode generale d'analyse des aciers inoxydables par spectrographie d'etincelles sur solution, on a effectue une etude systematique des influences. Les variations de l'acidite des solutions ou du rapport des concentrations de deux acides a pH constant, entrainent un deplacement des courbes d'etalonnage. On a etabli des relations simples entre la teneur des tiers elements et les effets produits pour les constituants Fe, Ti, Ni, Cr, Mn; une methode generale avec abaques est proposee pour les aciers contenant ces seuls elements. Les influences dans le cas des elements Mo, Nb, Ta, W etant plus complexes, on eut a etudier la separation simultanee a l'aide de resines echangeuses d'ions. On propose une methode generale d'analyse des aciers inoxydables. (auteur)

  8. Airborne Gamma-Ray Survey in Latvia 1995/96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Based on Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectrometry measurements performed with the Danish AGS equipment in 1995 and 1996 maps of the natural radioactivity have been produdced for selected areas in Latvia. The calibration of the quipment have been improved by comparisons with soil sample measurements....

  9. The gamma function

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    This brief monograph on the gamma function was designed by the author to fill what he perceived as a gap in the literature of mathematics, which often treated the gamma function in a manner he described as both sketchy and overly complicated. Author Emil Artin, one of the twentieth century's leading mathematicians, wrote in his Preface to this book, ""I feel that this monograph will help to show that the gamma function can be thought of as one of the elementary functions, and that all of its basic properties can be established using elementary methods of the calculus."" Generations of teachers

  10. Basics of Gamma Ray Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venkataraman, Ram [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this training is to explain the origin of x-rays and gamma rays, gamma ray interactions with matter, detectors and electronics used in gamma ray-spectrometry, and features of a gamma-ray spectrum for nuclear material that is safeguarded.

  11. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strålberg, Elisabeth; Klemola, Seppo; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical...

  12. FTR europia gamma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.T. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Calculated and experimental gamma heating rates of europia in the Engineering Mockup Critical Assembly (EMC) were correlated. A calculated to experimental (C/E) ratio of 1.086 was established in validating the theoretical approach and computational technique applied in the calculations. Gamma heat deposition rates in the FTR with Eu 2 O 3 control absorbers were determined from three-dimensional calculations. Maximum gamma heating was found to occur near the tip of a half-inserted row 5 control rod assembly--12.8 watts/gm of europia. Gamma heating profiles were established for a single half-inserted europia absorber assembly. Local heat peaking was found not to alter significantly heating rates computed in the FTR core model, where larger mesh interval sizes precluded examination of spatially-limited heating gradients. These computations provide the basis for thermal-hydraulic analyses to ascertain temperature profiles in the FTR under europia control

  13. Gamma spectrometry today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the important advances in gamma spectroscopy made in recent years. Improvements in detectors and other components and the addition of on-line computer control systems is discussed. (UK)

  14. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe; Ma Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can obtain a family of plans representing a tradeoff between the delivery time and

  15. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: sluan@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: nate@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: zchen@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: lijunma@radonc.ucsf.edu

    2009-03-21

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can

  16. Porosity measurement of amorphous materials by gamma ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poettker, Walmir Eno

    2000-01-01

    In this work it is presented the measurement of the total porosity of TRe soil, Sandstone Berea rocks and porous ceramics samples. For the determination of the total porosity, the Arquimedes method (conventional) and the gamma ray transmission methodology were employed. The porosity measurement using the gamma methodology has a significant advantage respect to the conventional method due to the fast and non-destructive determination, and also for supplying results with a greater characterization in small scales, in relation to the heterogeneity of the porosity. The conventional methodology presents good results only for homogeneous samples. The experimental set up for the gamma ray transmission technique consisted of a 241 Am source (59,53 keV), a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, collimators, a XYZ, micrometric table and standard gamma spectrometry electronics connected to a multichannel analyser. (author)

  17. IMEF gamma scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs.

  18. IMEF gamma scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum.

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs

  19. Radionuclide content of soils from Barrio Islote, Arecibo, Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, A.McB.; Clements, R.G.

    1976-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and interpret gamma ray energy spectra from natural radioactivity and fallout radionuclides measured on soil samples collected in the projected thermonuclear power plant exclusion zone in Barrio Islote, Puerto Rico

  20. Towards a methodology for removing and reconstructing soil protists with intact soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junwei; Tsegaye Gebremikael, Mesfin; Salehi Hosseini, Pezhman; De Neve, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    Soil ecological theories on the role of soil fauna groups in soil functions are often tested in highly artificial conditions, i.e. on completely sterilized soils or pure quartz sand re-inoculated with a small selection of these fauna groups. Due to the variable sensitivity of different soil biota groups to gamma irradiation, the precise doses that can be administered, and the relatively small disturbance of soil physical and chemical properties (relative to e.g. autoclaving, freezing-thawing and chemical agents), gamma irradiation has been employed to selectively eliminate soil organisms. In recent research we managed to realistically estimate on the contribution of the entire nematode communities to C and N mineralization in soil, by selective removal of nematodes at 5 kGy gamma irradiation doses followed by reinoculation. However, we did not assess the population dynamics of protozoa in response to this irradiation, i.e. we could not assess the potential contribution of protists to the mineralization process. Selective removal of protists from soils with minimal disturbance of the soil microflora has never been attempted and constitutes a highly challenging but potentially groundbreaking technique in soil ecology. Accordingly, the objective of this research is to modify the successful methodology of selective elimination of nematodes, to selectively eliminate soil fauna including nematodes and protists with minimal effects on the soil microbial community and reconstruct soil protists and microbial communities in completely sterilized soil. To this end, we here compared two different approaches: 1) remove nematodes and protists while keeping the microbial community intact (through optimizing gamma irradiation doses); 2) reconstruct protists and microbial communities in sterilized soil (through adding multicellular fauna free pulverized soil). The experiment consists of 7 treatments with soil collected from 0 to 15 cm layer of an organically managed agricultural

  1. Soil algae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Also, the importance of algae in soil formation and soil fertility improvement cannot be over ... The presence of nitrogen fixing microalgae (Nostoc azollae) in the top soil of both vegetable ..... dung, fish food and dirty water from fish ponds on.

  2. Effect of gamma irradaition on growth and nutrients uptake of sorghum plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleiwa, M.E.; Rabie, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out using sandy calcareous soils to study the effects of gamma irradiating doses for sorghum seeds on dry matter yield and elemental uptake. Three cuttings were taken during the experiment every 40 days. Results showed that 4 Kr. dose was the best dose that caused significant higher increase of dry matter yield and nutrients uptake for three cuttings under both types of soil. Gamma irradiation doses at 8 Kr. and above all had an adverse affect on dry matter yield and nutrients uptake, especially under calcareous soil. (author)

  3. Determination of density and volumetric water content of soil at multiple photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Un, A., E-mail: ademun25@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Agri Ibrahim Cecen University, 04100 Agri (Turkey); Demir, D.; Sahin, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Gamma ray transmission methods have been used accurately for the study of the properties of soil for agricultural purposes. In this study, density and volumetric water content of soil are determined by using gamma ray transmission method. To this end, the soil sample was collected from Erzurum, Turkey. The attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam through the soil sample was measured using a 3x3x1 mm{sup 3} cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. The radioactive sources used in the experiment were {sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 137}Cs. The mass attenuation coefficients of dry soil sample were calculated from the transmission measurements. It was observed that gamma ray transmission method in measurement of the soil parameters with the portable CdTe detector has advantages such as practical, inexpensive, non-destructive and fast analysis.

  4. Determination of density and volumetric water content of soil at multiple photon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Un, A.; Demir, D.; Sahin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray transmission methods have been used accurately for the study of the properties of soil for agricultural purposes. In this study, density and volumetric water content of soil are determined by using gamma ray transmission method. To this end, the soil sample was collected from Erzurum, Turkey. The attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam through the soil sample was measured using a 3x3x1 mm 3 cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. The radioactive sources used in the experiment were 241 Am, 133 Ba and 137 Cs. The mass attenuation coefficients of dry soil sample were calculated from the transmission measurements. It was observed that gamma ray transmission method in measurement of the soil parameters with the portable CdTe detector has advantages such as practical, inexpensive, non-destructive and fast analysis.

  5. Studying and measuring the gamma radiation doses in Homs city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofaan, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    The gamma radiation dose was measured in Homs city by using many portable dosimeters (electronic dosimeter and Geiger-Muller). The measurements were carried out in the indoor and outdoor buildings, for different time period, through one year (1999-2000). High purity germanium detector with low back ground radiation (HpGe) was used to determine radiation element contained in some building and the surrounding soil. The statistical analysis laws were applied to make sure that the measured dose distribution around average value is normal distribution. The measurement indicates that the gamma indoor dose varies from 312μSv/y to 511μSv/y, with the average annual dose of 385μSv/y. However the gamma outdoor dose rate varies from 307μSv/y to 366μSv/y with an average annual dose 385μSv/y. The annual outdoor gamma radiation dose is about %16 lower than the outdoor dose in Homs City. These measurements have indicated that environmental gamma doses in Homs City are relatively low. This is because that most of the soils and rocks in the area are limestone. (author)

  6. System for gamma-gamma formation density logging while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paske, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    The patent relates to a system for logging subterranean formations for the determination of formation density by using gamma radiation. Gamma ray source and detection means are disposed within a housing adapted for positioning within a borehole for the emission and detection of gamma rays propagating through earth formations and borehole drilling fluid. The gamma ray detection means comprises first and second gamma radiation sensors geometrically disposed within the housing, the same longitudinal distance from the gamma ray source and diametrically opposed in a common plane. A formation matrix density output signal is produced in proportion to the output signal from each of the gamma ray sensors and in conjunction with certain constants established by the geometrical configuration of the sensors relative to the gamma ray source and the borehole diameter. Formation density is determined without regard to the radial position of the logging probe within the borehole in a measuring while drilling mode. 6 figs

  7. Car-borne survey of natural background gamma dose rate in Canakkale region (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, S.; Arikan, I. H.; Oquz, F.; Aezdemir, T.; Yuecel, B.; Varinlioqlu, A.; Koese, A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural background gamma radiation was measured along roads in the environs of Canakkale region by using a car-borne spectrometer system with a plastic gamma radiation detector. In addition, activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil samples from the Canakkale region were determined by using a gamma spectrometer with an HPGe detector. A total of 92 856 data of the background gamma dose rate were collected for the Canakkale region. The background gamma dose rate of the Canakkale region was mapped using ArcGIS software, applying the geostatistical inverse distance-weighted method. The average and population-weighted average of the gamma dose are 55.4 and 40.6 nGy h -1 , respectively. The corresponding average annual effective dose to the public ranged from 26.6 to 96.8 μSv. (authors)

  8. Modular gamma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millegan, D.R.; Nixon, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards requires sensitive, easily operated instruments for rapid inspection of personnel and vehicles to ensure that no uranium or plutonium is being diverted. Two portable gamma-ray detection systems have been developed. The Modular Gamma System (MGS) is very sensitive and two or more systems can be connected for even better performance. The multiunit configuration can be deployed by motor vehicle for search of large areas too extensive to search on foot. The Programmable Rate Monitor (PRM) is less sensitive but much smaller and therefore is more suitable for search of vehicles, personnel, or smaller areas. The PRM is programmable, which implements measurement and alarm algorithms for individual applications

  9. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  10. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizza, L. J.

    Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest transient sources in the gamma-ray sky. Since their discovery in the late 1960s, the investigation of the astrophysical sys- tems in which these phenomena take place, and the physical mechanisms that drive them, has become a vast and prolific area of modern astrophysics. In this work I will briefly describe the most relevant observations of these sources, and the models that describe their nature, emphasizing on the in- vestigations about the progenitor astrophysical systems. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  12. The Utilization of Background Spectrum to Calibrate Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrouka, M. M.; Mutawa, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Many developed countries have very poor reference standards to calibrate their nuclear instrumentations or may find some difficulties to obtain a reference standard. In this work a simple way for Gamma spectrometry calibration was developed. The method depends on one reference point and additional points from the background. The two derived equations were applied to the analyses of radioactive nuclides in soil and liquid samples prepared by IAEA laboratories through AL MERA Project. The results showed the precision of the methodology used, as well as, the possibility of using some points in the background spectrum as a replacement for reference standards of Gamma spectrometry calibration. (authors)

  13. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with chronic ... severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Gamma knife surgery for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, D.; Steiner, M.; Steiner, L.

    1995-01-01

    We present our results of Gamma Knife surgery for craniopharyngioma in nine patients. The current status of surgery, radiation therapy, intracavitary instillation of radionuclides and Gamma Knife surgery in the management of craniopharyngiomas is discussed. (author)

  15. CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Results of the latest $\\gamma$ combination from LHCb are presented, along with the six LHCb measurements used as inputs. In addition, the anticipated precision attainable for measuring $\\gamma$ after the LHCb Upgrade is outlined

  16. Radioactive elements and earthworms in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Abdullayev, A.S.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Naghiyev, J.A.; Samadov, P.A.

    2010-11-01

    Earthworms are one of the indispensable soil animals which treat soil with letting it through their gut and help increasing soil fertility. The effect of radioactive elements and comparative effect of heavy metals to the vital functions of earthworms were determined in laboratory conditions. Experiments were continued for a month, and first of all, each soil type, grey-brown soil from Ramana iodine plant territory of Baku city, brown soil from Aluminum plant territory of Ganja city, aborigine grey-brown soil of Absheron peninsula, treated with Ra and U salts as model variants and brown soil of Ganja city was analyzed by gamma-spectrometer for radionuclide determining at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Earthworms (Nicodrilus Caliginosus Sav.trapezoides) aboriginal for Absheron peninsula and plant residues were added to the soil. At the end of the month the biomass, survival value, coprolite allocation value, food activity and catalase value in earthworms and in soil were determined. The gamma-spectrometric analysis results gave interesting values in coprolites, soils which had been treated through the earthworms' gut. In comparison with the initial variants in experimental results more percent of radioactivity was gathered in coprolites. By this way earthworms absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. During absorbing, some percents of radioactive elements were also gathered in gut cells of the earthworms. Thereby determination of some vital functions of earthworms was expedient. Thus, by the instrumentality of these experiments we can use earthworms for biodiagnosis and for bioremediation of contaminated soils with radionuclides and heavy metals.

  17. Gamma irradiation for sewage treatment at US army facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, A.J.; Hollis, H.D.; Musselman, H.D.; Woodbridge, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has been sponsoring research for many years on the use of gamma irradiation for disinfection and sterilization of sewage plant effluents. Initial research was directed to laboratory experiments using sterile solutions to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on E. coli, M-pyogenes and M-smegmatis organisms, and on the chemical constituents of sewage such as phenols, surfactants and pesticides. The results of the initial research warranted further study using municipal sewage secondary effluent as test samples. Current research is directed towards investigating the effects of radiation on the constituents of sewage sludge and on the cyst stage of the amoebic protozoa. Consideration has been given by the Corps to the management of waste-waters by disposal on land. Legal and medical reasons dictate that the plant effluents be sterilized before being used as fertilizers and soil conditioners. Gamma radiation from isotopic sources appears to be the best source of sterilizing energy for Army waste-water disposal. The Corps of Engineers is considering the construction of an experimental gamma irradiation pilot facility to validate laboratory experimental work and to establish design criteria for operating plants. The data obtained will provide a basis for performing detailed cost effectiveness studies on gamma irradiation as a method to treat secondary plant effluent. In addition, optimization work will be conducted to determine where in the sewage treatment cycle the use of gamma irradiation will produce the best results in meeting current and anticipated standards. (author)

  18. Ultrasonography X gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Campos, A.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The accumulated experience in the last ten years of substitution to essays by gamma radiography to essay by ultrasonography, starting of the systematic comparison and tabulation of the results obtained by both essays applied in welding joints, in field, in steel pipelines of the SABESP. (V.R.B.)

  19. Gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yohsimasa; Kida, Yoshihisa

    2003-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery has become a new treatment modality in the field of neurosurgery since the first gamma knife was brought into Japan in 1990. Advances in applications of new indications and long-term results have been continued to evolve during the past 12 years. Based on the experience of more than 4,500 cases treated by gamma knife at Komaki City Hospital, long-term results of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), metastatic brain tumors, acoustic neurinomas, meningiomas and trigeminal neuralgias are presented. Radiosurgery has become a novel treatment modality, especially for AVM, acoustic neurinoma and meningioma, which were once only treatable by conventional surgery, and shows a high cure rate in AVM cases and high control rate in benign tumors without major complications. The effects of radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors have been thought to be superior to fractionated radiotherapy due to high response and control rates, and patients showed improved quality of life although no prolongation of the life span was obtained. Gamma knife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia has been shown to be effective and less invasive than microvascular decompression, and is useful for cases resistant to conventional therapies and as an initial treatment as well. (author)

  20. Automated gamma counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regener, M.

    1977-01-01

    This is a report on the most recent developments in the full automation of gamma counting in RIA, in particular by Messrs. Kontron. The development targets were flexibility in sample capacity and shape of test tubes, the possibility of using different radioisotopes for labelling due to an optimisation of the detector system and the use of microprocessers to substitute software for hardware. (ORU) [de

  1. Gamma cardio 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.

    1982-01-01

    New trends in nuclear cardiology are briefly presented supported by a large bibliography. The following topics are reviewed: new tracers of myocardial perfusion and metabolism; quantitative analysis of cardiac function; nuclear stethoscope; gamma emission tomography; diagnostic value of cardiac dynamic tests (at rest and during exercise), pharmacological tests; new clinical applications of cardiovascular nuclear medicine [fr

  2. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  3. Industrial radiography. Gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, J.

    1975-01-01

    Informations are given on gamma radiodefectology regulations, entire references and main dispositions applicable to each state of the European Economic Community. The content includes previous arrangements for source acquisition, holding and use of the sources, transport, accidents, civil liability of the source holder, person insurance against radiation hazards and contamination, property insurance, penal liability of the source holder

  4. Introscopy using gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Yu.V.; Leonov, B.I.; Najorov, A.N.; Smirnov, N.N.; Firstov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described of working with standard 170 Tm, 75 Se, 192 Ir, 137 Cs and 60 Co sources at the activity of 1-4000 Ci, during television gamma introscopy of steel products. Experiments involving the RI-10T introscope are carried out to determine prospects of using various radiation sources. The results of using X-ray instruments for control of steel products are also shown for comparison. In introscopy of X-rayed steel products over 25 mm thick, spreading of the edge of the detected groove image is shown to be comparable when using X radiation and gamma radiation of standard sources. Sensitivity of control by fluorographic introscope in X-raying and gamma irradiation of products over 25 mm thick will presumably be the same owing to the detector storage capacity. The use of commercial gamma flaw detecting instruments together with a television introscope permits to reliably reveal defects of 0.5-2.0 mm in size, eliminating possible instability of operation of X-ray instruments, particularly in field conditions

  5. Gamma apparatuses for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sul'kin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific and technical achievements in development and application of gamma therapeutic apparatuses for external and intracavity irradiations are generalized. Radiation-physical parameters of apparatuses providing usability of progressive methods in radiotherapy of onclogical patients are given. Optimization of main apparatus elements, ensurance of its operation reliability, reduction of errors of irradiation plan reproduction are considered. Attention is paid to radiation safety

  6. Gamma ray calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.; Flaherty, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is in the field of gamma ray inspection devices for tubular products and the like employing an improved calibrating block which prevents the sensing system from being overloaded when no tubular product is present, and also provides the operator with a means for visually detecting the presence of wall thicknesses which are less than a required minimum. (author)

  7. Soil pollution and soil protection

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international Training Centre (PHLO) of Wageningen Agricultural University.Of the three environmental compartments air, water and soil, it is soil that varies most in composition under natural conditions. The effects o...

  8. Airborne gamma-radiation snow water-equivalent and soil-moisture measurements and satellite areal extent of snow-cover measurements. A user's guide. Version 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, T.; Allen, M.

    1988-01-01

    The National Remote Sensing Hydrology Program is managed by the Office of Hydrology and consists of the Airborne Snow Survey Section and the Satellite Hydrology Section. The Airborne Snow Survey Section makes airborne snow water-equivalent and soil-moisture measurements over large areas of the country subject to a severe and chronic snowmelt flooding threat. The User's Guide is intended primarily to provide field hydrologists with some background on the technical and administrative aspects of the National Remote Sensing Hydrology Program. The guide summarizes the techniques and procedures used to make and distribute real-time, operational airborne snow water-equivalent measurements and satellite areal extent of snow-cover measurements made over large areas of the country. The current airborne and satellite databases are summarized, and procedures to access the real-time observations through both AFOS and through a commercial, electronic bulletin board system are given in the appendices

  9. Benchmarking the inelastic neutron scattering soil carbon method

    Science.gov (United States)

    The herein described inelastic neutron scattering (INS) method of measuring soil carbon was based on a new procedure for extracting the net carbon signal (NCS) from the measured gamma spectra and determination of the average carbon weight percent (AvgCw%) in the upper soil layer (~8 cm). The NCS ext...

  10. Cosmical sources of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchowicz, B [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    A brief historical outline of the X-ray and ..gamma..-ray astronomies is given first, then a summary of the recent status of X-ray astronomy follows. Further chapters include information on ..gamma..-ray sources in the solar system, in our Galaxy, and beyond it. In discussing linear gamma spectra attention is paid to the possibility of studying explosive nucleo-synthesis by observation of gamma lines from supernova remnants, etc. Questions of the isotropic gamma background are discussed at the end of the survey.

  11. Precise measurement of {gamma}(K{yields}e {nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu} {nu}({gamma})) and study of K{yields}e {nu} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, F.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Jacewicz, M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Archilli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Beltrame, P.; Denig, A.; Mueller, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Bini, C.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bocchetta, S.; Ceradini, F.; Di Micco, B.; Nguyen, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Branchini, P.; Graziani, E.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Capriotti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); Di Donato, C. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Kulikov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee-Franzini, J. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); State University of New York, Physics Department, Stony Brook (United States); Martini, M.; Patera, V.; Versaci, R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Valente, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present a precise measurement of the ratio R{sub K}={gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu}{nu}({gamma})) and a study of the radiative process K{yields}e{nu}{gamma}, performed with the KLOE detector. The results are based on data collected at the Frascati e{sup +}e{sup -} collider DA {phi}NE for an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. We find R{sub K}=(2.493{+-}0.025{sub stat}{+-}0.019{sub syst}) x 10{sup -5}, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. This result is used to improve constraints on parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with lepton flavor violation. We also measured the differential decay rate d {gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}{gamma})/dE{sub {gamma}} for photon energies 10gamma}}<250 MeV. Results are compared with predictions from theory. (orig.)

  12. Solarization soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Ghraibe, W.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  13. Using gamma irradiation to improve sterile turf and forage bermudagrasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Georgia Univ., Tifton

    1976-01-01

    The widely-used Tif-series of turf bermudagrasses - Tifgreen, Tifway, and Tifdwarf - are vegetatively propagated sterile triploids that cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Dormant stolons, washed free of soil and cut into one-or two-node sections were treated with varying dosages of EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate) and gamma irradiation ranging from 7 to 12 kR. EMS failed to produce noticeable variants but gamma irradiation from a Cobalt 60 source created 158 mutants. These mutants differed in many characters such as leaf size, hairiness, stem diameter, internode length, basic plant color, herbicide tolerance, spreading rate, and nematode resistance. Attempts to improve the winterhardiness of tetraploid sterile Coastcross-1 forage bermudagrass by exposing over 1,400,000 sprigs (vegetative stems) to 7 kR of gamma rays gave chlorophyll deficient mutants but progress in increasing winterhardiness has not been established. (author)

  14. Effects of gamma-rays on an indigenous Bacillus isolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Siti Khadijah Abu Hadin; Nabilahuda Mohd Tumirin

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study was carried out with the aim to obtain strong cellulolytic bacteria by ionizing radiation using a 60 Co source. An indigenous cellulolytic Bacillus sp. NMBCC 10023 originally isolated from soil origin was used in the study. The harvested bacterial pellets from overnight growth cultures were exposed to gamma-irradiation with doses ranging from 1 kGy to 40 kGy. The numbers of surviving bacteria on agar plate decreased as the gamma irradiation dose increased. No isolates were recovered after exposure to doses greater than 10 kGy. Based on the cell count using plate count method, the 90 % lethal dose (LD90) of gamma radiation of Bacillus sp. NMBCC 10023 was between 2-4 kGy. (author)

  15. Terrestrial gamma dose rate in Pahang state Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabdo, H.T.; Federal College of Education, Yola; Ramli, A.T.; Sanusi, M.S.; Saleh, M.A.; Garba, N.N.; Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

    2014-01-01

    Environmental terrestrial gamma radiations (TGR) were measured in Pahang state Malaysia between January and April 2013. The TGR dose rates ranged from 26 to 750 nGy h -1 . The measurements were done based on geology and soil types of the area. The mean TGR dose rate was found to be 176 ± 5 nGy h -1 . Few areas of relatively enhanced activity were located in Raub, Temerloh, Bentong and Rompin districts. These areas have external gamma dose rates of between 500 and 750 nGy h -1 . An Isodose map of the state was produced using ArcGIS9 software version 9.3. To evaluate the radiological hazard due to terrestrial gamma dose, the annual effective dose equivalent and the mean population weighted dose rate were calculated and found to be 0.22 mSv year -1 and 168 nGy h -1 respectively. (author)

  16. Gamma counter calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the calibration of a gamma radiation measurement instrument to be used over any of a number of different absolute energy ranges. The method includes the steps of adjusting the overall signal gain associated with pulses which are derived from detected gamma rays, until the instrument is calibrated for a particular absolute energy range; then storing parameter settings corresponding to the adjusted overall signal gain, and repeating the process for other desired absolute energy ranges. The stored settings can be subsequently retrieved and reapplied so that test measurements can be made using a selected one of the absolute energy ranges. Means are provided for adjusting the overall signal gain and a specific technique is disclosed for making coarse, then fine adjustments to the signal gain, for rapid convergence of the required calibration settings. (C.F.)

  17. Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  18. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Robbins, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    An Anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the Anger camera. The image intensifier tube has a negatively charged flat scintillator screen, a flat photocathode layer, and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen, all of which have the same dimension to maintain unit image magnification; all components are contained within a grounded metallic tube, with a metallic, inwardly curved input window between the scintillator screen and a collimator. The display screen can be viewed by an array of photomultipliers or solid state detectors. There are two photocathodes and two phosphor screens to give a two stage intensification, the two stages being optically coupled by a light guide. (author)

  19. Transmission coefficients of radiation dose equivalents in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovic, R.; Marinkovic, N.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper an exponential formula wa proposed for calculating transmission of neutron and secondary gamma radiation through soil slabs. Parameters α and A of the transmission formula are given as rational functions dependent on the percent of water in the soil. Results are compared to those obtained by SABINE-3 code and a satisfactory agreement is shown for soil slab thicknesses for 50 - 500 cm (author) [sr

  20. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.; Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  1. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  2. A gamma scintillation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbalisty, S

    1952-07-01

    A scintillation type gamma ray spectrometer employing coincidence counting, designed and built at the Physics Department of the University of Western Ontario is described. The spectrometer is composed of two anthracene and photomultiplier radiation detectors, two pulse analyzing channels, a coincidence stage, three scalers and a high voltage stabilized supply. A preliminary experiment to test the operation of the spectrometer was performed and the results of this test are presented. (author)

  3. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  4. Preservation and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the application of gamma radiation to preservation of cultural objects for disinsectization, disinfection and strengthening of materials such as wood or stone by impregnation with a liquid resin and in situ polymerization. As heavy equipment is required two facilities are specialized a 1000 T Bq cobalt 60 source at Grenoble (France) and 100 T Bq one at Rostoky (Czechoslovakia). Examples of treated objects are given [fr

  5. Gamma radiation in apartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindborg, J.-E.

    1983-05-01

    This investigation forms the basis for the description of methods for the detection of gamma radiation. The aim is to control that the dose limit will not exceed 50 μR/h in a room where people reside. The distribution of dose rates in different rooms has been calculated and the results have been compared with experimental data. Various instruments have been calibrated and their specifications are discussed. (G.B.)

  6. Distribution Of Natural Radioactivity On Soil Size Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van Luyen; Trinh Hoai Vinh; Thai Khac Dinh

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a distribution of natural radioactivity on different soil size particles, taken from one soil profile. On the results shows a range from 52% to 66% of natural radioisotopes such as 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K concentrated on the soil particles below 40 micrometers in diameter size. The remained of natural radioisotopes were distributed on a soil particles with higher diameter size. The study is available for soil sample collected to natural radioactive analyze by gamma and alpha spectrometer methods. (author)

  7. Gamma surgery for hemangiopericytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.R.; Prasad, D.; Steiner, M.; Steiner, L.

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 12 patients with 15 intracranial hemangiopericytomas treated at the University of Virginia using gamma surgery is presented. Clinical and radiographic follow up of 3 to 56 months is available for 10 patients with 12 tumors. There was one tumor present at the time of initial gamma surgery in each patient. Two new tumors occurred in patients previously treated. Nine of the tumors decreased in volume and three remained stable. Four of the nine tumors that shrank later progressed at an average of 22 months after treatment. Of the tumors that decreased in volume and have not progressed, the response has been for an average of 11 months. The follow-up for two tumors that remained unchanged was 10 and 34 months (average 22 months). A third tumor was unchanged at 42 months but the patient died of new disease adjacent to the treated area in the anterior skull base. There were no complications and the quality of life following the procedure was maintained or improved in every case. Gamma surgery is effective in palliating the patients by decreasing tumor volume and delaying recurrence. (author)

  8. gamma. radiation of ionium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curie, I

    1948-12-08

    Following the work of Ward (Proc Cambridge Phil Soc 35 322(1939)), the ..gamma..-radiation of ionium (from an IoTh preparation) was studied with the aid of Ta and W screens, and an aluminum counter. The screen measurements confirmed Ward's findings of two radiations, of 68 keV and of about 200 keV. The number of quanta per second of each radiation was determined with the counter, which has been calibrated on certain L lines of radium. The global quanta number of L lines of ionium was also determined. The results were as follows: 0.7 quanta ..gamma.. of 68 keV for 100 ..cap alpha..-particles; 0.2 quanta ..gamma.. of 200 keV for 100 ..cap alpha..-particles; 10 quanta L for 100 ..cap alpha..-particles. These data, which show an important internal conversion, agree with the findings of Teillac (Compt Rend 227 1227 (1948)), who investigated the ..beta..-radiation of ionium. It is the radiation 68 keV which is highly converted. On the other hand, these results do no agree with the data on the fine structure of ionium found by Rosenblum, Valadares, and Vial (Compt Rend 227 1088(1948)).

  9. Apparatus for gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The aim of the present standard is to fix the rules for the construction of gamma radiography instrumentation without prejudice to the present regulations. These apparatus have to be fitted with only sealed sources conformable to the experimental standard M 61-002. The present standard agrees with the international standard ISO 3999 of 1977 dealing with the same subject. Nevertheless, it is different on the three main following points: it does not accept the same limits of absorbed dose rates in the air calculated on the external surface of projectors; it precribes tightness, bending, crushing and tensile tests for some components of the gamma radiography it prescribes tests of endurance and resistance to breaking for the locking systems of the gamma radiography apparatus. The present standard also specifies the following points: symbols and indications to put on projectors and on the source-holder; identification of the source contained in the projector; and, accompanying documents. The regulation references are given in annexe [fr

  10. Collection and preparation of samples for gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jingquan

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the basic principles of sample collection and preparation: setting up unified sampling program, methods and procedures, sample packing, transportation and storage, determination of sample quantity, sample pretreatment and preparation of samples to be analysed, etc. for gamma spectrometry. And the paper also describes briefly the main methods and special issues of sampling and preparation for the same environmental and biological samples, such as, air, water, grass, soil and foods

  11. Gamma-ray self-attenuation corrections in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robu, E.; Giovani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-spectrometry is a commonly used technique in environmental radioactivity monitoring. Frequently the bulk samples that should be measured differ with respect to composition and density from the reference sample used for efficiency calibration. Correction factors should be applied in these cases for activity measurement. Linear attenuation coefficients and self-absorption correction factors have been evaluated for soil, grass and liquid sources with different densities and geometries.(authors)

  12. Population doses from terrestrial gamma exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, T.; Wang, Z.; Zhu, C.

    1992-01-01

    In order to estimate terrestrial gamma radiation exposure three nationwide surveys have been completed since 1981. The population-weighted outdoor and indoor arithmetic means of gamma dose rate based on momentary dose rate measurements using a NaI(Tl) environmental radiation meter and high-pressure ionisation chamber are, respectively, 80.3 nGy.h -1 and 120 nGy.h -1 . Based on integrating dose measurement using TLD CaSO 4 /Dy they are 67 nGy.h -1 and 89 nGy.h -1 respectively, and based on natural radionuclides concentrations in soil, determined by gamma spectroscopy analyses, they are 72.8 nGy.h -1 and 102 nGy.h -1 , respectively. These surveys were conducted independently by different groups. The best estimations of population-weighted gamma dose rates in China, based on all these surveys, would be 70 nGy.h -1 and 98 nGy.h -1 for outdoors and indoors, respectively. The annual average of effective dose equivalent is 0.56 mSv. These values are higher than the world averages estimated by UNSCEAR. The main reason is that the concentrations of 232 Th and 40 K in the soil of China are much higher than the world average estimated. (author)

  13. Population doses from terrestrial gamma exposure in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, T.; Wang, Z.; Zhu, C. (Ministry of Public Health, Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    In order to estimate terrestrial gamma radiation exposure three nationwide surveys have been completed since 1981. The population-weighted outdoor and indoor arithmetic means of gamma dose rate based on momentary dose rate measurements using a NaI(Tl) environmental radiation meter and high-pressure ionisation chamber are, respectively, 80.3 nGy.h[sup -1] and 120 nGy.h[sup -1]. Based on integrating dose measurement using TLD CaSO[sub 4]/Dy they are 67 nGy.h[sup -1] and 89 nGy.h[sup -1] respectively, and based on natural radionuclides concentrations in soil, determined by gamma spectroscopy analyses, they are 72.8 nGy.h[sup -1] and 102 nGy.h[sup -1], respectively. These surveys were conducted independently by different groups. The best estimations of population-weighted gamma dose rates in China, based on all these surveys, would be 70 nGy.h[sup -1] and 98 nGy.h[sup -1] for outdoors and indoors, respectively. The annual average of effective dose equivalent is 0.56 mSv. These values are higher than the world averages estimated by UNSCEAR. The main reason is that the concentrations of [sup 232]Th and [sup 40]K in the soil of China are much higher than the world average estimated. (author).

  14. Population doses from terrestrial gamma exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, T.; Wang, Z.; Zhu, C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to estimate terrestrial gamma radiation exposures, three nationwide surveys have been completed since 1981. The population weighted outdoor and indoor arithmetic means of gamma dose rates based on momentary measurements using a NaI(T1) environmental radiation meter and a high pressured ionization chamber are 80.3 and 120 nGy.h -1 . The means based on integrating measurements using TLD natural radionuclides concentrations in soil, determined by gamma spectrometry analyses, are 72.8 and 102 nGy.h -1 , respectively. These surveys were conducted independently and equally representative. The best estimation of site-averaged and population weighted gamma dose rates in China, based on all these surveys, would be 70 and 98 nGy.h -1 for indoor and outdoor, respectively. The annual average of effective dose equivalent is 0.56 mSv. These values are higher than the world averages estimated by UNSCEAR. The main reason is that the concentrations of 232 Th and 40 K in soil of China are much higher than the world average estimated. (author). 4 refs, 2 tabs

  15. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  16. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  17. Soil metagenomics and tropical soil productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes research in the soil metagenomics cross cutting research activity. Soil metagenomics studies soil microbial communities as contributors to soil health.C CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  18. Soil pollution and soil protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on plant growth, nodulation, nutritional status and yield of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Hefni, E.H.; Maghraby, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted under the conditions of a sandy clay-loam soil. Soybean seeds were exposed to gamma rays (0,5,10,20,40,80 and 160 Gry) before planting. Low-medium range of gamma rays (5-40 Gry), particularly at 20 Gry, considerably stimulated plant growth, nodules formation and development as well as the total uptake of N and Mn by plants. Significant increase in seed yield was obtained as a result of gamma rays ranged from 10 to 40 Gry, but the dose of 160 Gry, reduced it. The total contents of protein and oil in seeds were highly related to the produced yield, however their concentrations did not affect by the tested range of gamma rays. Generally, seed yield of soybean seemed to be positively related to the rate of plant growth, nodulation and nutritional status. Therefore, irradiation of seeds before planting with low gamma doses could be recommended to improve the productivity of soybean

  20. Lunar based gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymes, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy represents the study of the universe on the basis of the electromagnetic radiation with the highest energy. Gamma ray astronomy provides a crucial tool for the understanding of astronomical phenomena, taking into account nucleosynthesis in supernovae, black holes, active galaxies, quasars, the sources of cosmic rays, neutron stars, and matter-antimatter annihilation. Difficulties concerning the conduction of studies by gamma ray astronomy are related to the necessity to perform such studies far from earth because the atmosphere is a source of gamma rays. Studies involving the use of gamma ray instruments in earth orbit have been conducted, and more gamma ray astronomy observations are planned for the future. Imperfections of studies conducted in low earth orbit could be overcome by estalishing an observatory on the moon which represents a satellite orbiting at 60 earth radii. Details concerning such an observatory are discussed. 5 references

  1. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray total counting efficiency for a Phoswich detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey)], E-mail: syalcin@kastamonu.edu.tr; Gurler, O. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); NCCPM, Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Kaynak, G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    The LB 1000-PW detector is mainly used for determining total alpha, beta and gamma activity of low activity natural sources such as water, soil, air filters and any other environmental sources. Detector efficiency needs to be known in order to measure the absolute activity of such samples. This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a Phoswich detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte Carlo techniques and the true path lengths in the detector were determined by analytical equations depending on photon directions. Results are tabulated for various gamma energies.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray total counting efficiency for a Phoswich detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, S.; Gurler, O.; Gundogdu, O.; Kaynak, G.

    2009-01-01

    The LB 1000-PW detector is mainly used for determining total alpha, beta and gamma activity of low activity natural sources such as water, soil, air filters and any other environmental sources. Detector efficiency needs to be known in order to measure the absolute activity of such samples. This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a Phoswich detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte Carlo techniques and the true path lengths in the detector were determined by analytical equations depending on photon directions. Results are tabulated for various gamma energies

  4. Sequential Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez-Hassan, M.; Hella, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work shows how easy one can deal with a huge number of gamma spectra. The method can be used for radiation monitoring. It is based on the macro feature of the windows XP connected to QBASIC software. The routine was used usefully in generating accurate results free from human errors. One hundred measured gamma spectra were fully analyzed in 10 minutes using our fast and automated method controlling the Genie 2000 gamma acquisition analysis software.

  5. Use of gamma surveys from the aircraft for hydrological forecasts on the area with irregular snow pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vershinina, L K

    1979-01-01

    Gamma snow surveys from the aircraft based on the measurements of the attenuation of gamma-radiation of soils by the snow pack are discussed. Radiation rate depends on the amount of water on the soil surface and in the top layer 30 to 40 cm deep. Therefore, if measurements are made twice (without snow and with snow pack available) water equivalent of snow cover may be determined only when soil moisture content changes do not occur during the period between the dates of gamma surveys. In the areas with frequent winter thaws, standard land snow surveys do not provide snow storage evaluation with the accuracy sufficient for spring flow prediction. It is shown that when gamma-radiation of absolutely dry soils determined at the laboratory is known as well as of naturally moistened soils during the periods of gamma surveys of the snow pack from the aircraft, and when data is available on soil moisture content obtained from the measurements at the base land network, then a reliable estimation of snow storage on the watershed surfaces in the regions with irregular snow cover is quite possible. This ensures a significant accuracy increase of spring snow melt flood forecasting, particularly concerning winters with little snow.

  6. Use of gamma surveys from the airraft for hydrological forecasts on the area with irregular snow pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vershinina, L K [State Hydrological Institute, Leningrad (USSR)

    1979-01-01

    Gamma snow surveys from aircraft based on the measurement of the attenuation of gamma-radiation of soils by the snow pack are discussed. Radiation rate depends on the amount of water on the soil surface and in the top layer 30 to 40 cm deep. Therefore, if measurements are made twice (without snow and with snow pack available) the water equivalent of the snow cover may be determined only in cases when soil moisture content changes do not occur during the period between the dates of gamma surveys. In areas with frequent winter thaws standard land snow surveys do not provide snow storage evaluation with accuracy sufficient for spring flow prediction. It is shown that when gamma-radiation of absolutely dry soils determined at the laboratory is known, as well as of naturally moistened soils during the periods of gamma surveys of the snow pack from aircraft, and when data is available on soil moisture content obtained from measurements at the base land network, then a reliable estimation of snow storage on the watershed surfaces in regions with irregular snow cover is quite possible. This ensures a significant accuracy increase in spring snow melt flood forecasting, in particular during winters with little snow.

  7. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  8. Joining of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeslack, William

    2002-01-01

    .... Although organized and presented by joining process, many of the observations made and relationships developed, particularly those regarding the weldability and welding metallurgy of gamma titanium...

  9. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  10. An image-tube camera for cometary spectrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadov, O.

    The paper discusses the mounting of an image tube camera. The cathode is of antimony, sodium, potassium, and cesium. The parts used for mounting are of acrylic plastic and a fabric-based laminate. A mounting design that does not include cooling is presented. The aperture ratio of the camera is 1:27. Also discussed is the way that the camera is joined to the spectrograph.

  11. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  12. Gamma rays for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear gamma radiation does not have many of the properties taken for granted in atomic or molecular radiation and necessary for lasers. The basic science and technology underlying these differences and the proposed methods of overcoming difficulties resulting from them are not properly understood. Considerable illumination in this interdisciplinary problem could be provided by some back-of-the-envelope calculations and simple experimental surveys by small groups of students and postdocs with an elementary knowledge of the nuclear and solid state physics which is evidently not familiar these days to laser physicists. 3 refs

  13. Gamma-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrez, H.A.

    1960-06-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is a medical technique making it possible to fix the image of certain organs after the concentration in these of emitting radioactive products. It is already widely used in the case of the thyroid gland with iodine-132 by applying the isotope iodine 131. The study of the liver and gall bladder is carried out using colloidal gold 198 and Bengal pink marked with iodine 131. Serum albumin marked with iodine 131 makes it possible to study rachidian blockages. Other applications can already be foreseen in this direction. (author) [fr

  14. The gamma thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraud, G.; Hourtoulle, F.

    1983-01-01

    The search for a detecting element capable of permanently measuring localised nuclear output which would also be robust straightforward and reliable led EDF to begin development work on a new type of detector in 1976: the gamma thermometer (THG). After briefly summarising the history of the project this article goes on to describe the principle and structure of the equipment used in EDF's PWR reactors. As a result of the extensive test programme carried out it has been possible to qualify analytical and calibration methods together with the thermal and nuclear models. In conclusion, the development prospects and future of such a detecting device are outlined [fr

  15. Effect of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. GR-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, G.A.; Prakash, L.; Devasia, Preston; Modi, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. GR-3) in pot cultures have been studied. Compared to plants grown only in soil, shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, total proteins, total soluble sugars, starch and chlorophyll content of plants grown in soil supplemented with unirradiated or gamma-irradiated sludge were found to be significantly increased. Irradiation of sludge significantly stimulated the linear growth of shoot and root systems as well as fresh and dry weights of plants, compared to those grown in soil containing unirradiated sludge. There was also an improvement in the grain yield (weight of seed) when plants were grown in soil supplemented with irradiated sludge. The results obtained suggest that the gamma-irradiated sewage sludge can be beneficially recycled for agricultural uses. (author)

  16. Doubly heavy baryon production at {gamma}{gamma} collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shiyuan [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: lishy@sdu.edu.cn; Si Zongguo [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: zgsi@sdu.edu.cn; Yang Zhongjuan [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yangzhongjuan@mail.sdu.edu.cn

    2007-05-10

    The inclusive production of doubly heavy baryons {xi}{sub cc} and {xi}{sub bb} at {gamma}{gamma} collider is investigated. It is found that the contribution from the heavy quark pair QQ in color triplet and color sextet are important.

  17. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    This review gathers and synthesizes literature on soil friability produced during the last three decades. Soil friability is of vital importance for crop production and the impact of crop production on the environment. A friable soil is characterized by an ease of fragmentation of undesirably large...... aggregates/clods and a difficulty in fragmentation of minor aggregates into undesirable small elements. Soil friability has been assessed using qualitative field methods as well as quantitative field and laboratory methods at different scales of observation. The qualitative field methods are broadly used...... by scientists, advisors and farmers, whereas the quantitative laboratory methods demand specialized skills and more or less sophisticated equipment. Most methods address only one aspect of soil friability, i.e. either the strength of unconfined soil or the fragment size distribution after applying a stress. All...

  18. Soil Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Verruijt, A.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the text for the introductory course of Soil Mechanics in the Department of Civil Engineering of the Delft University of Technology, as I have given from 1980 until my retirement in 2002. It contains an introduction into the major principles and methods of soil mechanics, such as the analysis of stresses, deformations, and stability. The most important methods of determining soil parameters, in the laboratory and in situ, are also described. Some basic principles of applied mecha...

  19. Hydraulic conductivity determination of a dark red latosol by gamma attenuation and tensiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Julio Cesar Martins de; Reichardt, Klaus; Costa, Antonio Carlos Saraiva da

    1995-01-01

    Results for the hydraulic conductivity of a dark red latosol (Oxisol) under laboratory and field conditions are presented. The laboratory experiments simulated field conditions through the measurement of the soil water content profiles as a function of time in soil columns. The data were obtained by the 241 Am gamma-ray transmission method, using standard gamma ray spectrometry equipment. Tensiometers at the depths of 10 and 25 cm were used to obtain the soil water content profiles as a function of time in the field experiments. The hydraulic conductivity functions were determined through internal soil drainage. The results showed higher values of the hydraulic conductivity measured in the field, compared with the laboratory values. The hydraulic conductivity determination methods presented distinct values for the field experiments as well as for the laboratory ones. (author)

  20. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, K.; Li, D.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Motizuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 1 97Au and 1 29Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 1 29Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  1. Environmental gamma and radon dosimetry in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Sajo-Bohus, L; Urbani, F; Castro, D D; Greaves, E D; Liendo, J A

    1999-01-01

    Environmental gamma exposure and radon concentration levels measured in Venezuelan regions are presented. A new generation image analyser was used for alpha particle track counting in CR-39 detectors. Mineral water wells from where water is supplied for massive consumption have an alpha activity around 0.450 Bq L sup - sup 1 and few of them have concentrations above 50 Bq L sup - sup 1. Coastal potable water activity is on the average around 5.3 +- 12% Bq L sup - sup 1. Indoor radon national average is 36 +- 5% Bq m sup - sup 3; in two of the 36 monitored sites, the measured average is above 400 +- 5% Bq m sup - sup 3. In air gamma dose values are between 100 and 144 nGy h sup - sup 1. In soil, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs concentration is around 0.5 and 10 Bq kg sup - sup 1 at the depth of down to 20 cm. Building materials were included in this study. sup 7 Be and sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs were measured in low concentration in tropical plants on Tepuy-s (sacred mountains in the Amazonas State). Geological active faults w...

  2. Optimisation of beryllium-7 gamma analysis following BCR sequential extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A. [Plymouth University, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 8 Kirkby Place, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Blake, W.H., E-mail: wblake@plymouth.ac.uk [Plymouth University, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 8 Kirkby Place, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Keith-Roach, M.J. [Plymouth University, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 8 Kirkby Place, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Kemakta Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-30

    Graphical abstract: Showing decrease in analytical uncertainty using the optimal (combined preconcentrated sample extract) method. nv (no value) where extract activities were soil to underpin the assumption of irreversible adsorption. Sequential extractions offer a readily accessible means of determining the associations of {sup 7}Be with operationally defined soil phases. However, the subdivision of the low activity concentrations of fallout {sup 7}Be in soils into geochemical fractions can introduce high gamma counting uncertainties. Extending analysis time significantly is not always an option for batches of samples, owing to the on-going decay of {sup 7}Be (t{sub 1/2} = 53.3 days). Here, three different methods of preparing and quantifying {sup 7}Be extracted using the optimised BCR three-step scheme have been evaluated and compared with a focus on reducing analytical uncertainties. The optimal method involved carrying out the BCR extraction in triplicate, sub-sampling each set of triplicates for stable Be analysis before combining each set and coprecipitating the {sup 7}Be with metal oxyhydroxides to produce a thin source for gamma analysis. This method was applied to BCR extractions of natural {sup 7}Be in four agricultural soils. The approach gave good counting statistics from a 24 h analysis period ({approx}10% (2

  3. An overview of the measurements of soil moisture and modeling of moisture flux in FIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture and calculations of moisture transfer in the soil medium and at the air-soil interface were performed over a 15-km by 15-km test site during FIFE in 1987 and 1989. The measurements included intensive soil moisture sampling at the ground level and surveys at aircraft altitudes by several passive and active microwave sensors as well as a gamma radiation device.

  4. Soil biological shield exposed to high energy neutrons; Zemlja kao bioloski stit od neutrona visokih energija

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simovic, R; Marinkovic, N [Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1993-04-15

    Shielding efficiency of soil biological shield exposed to high energy neutrons was investigated. Dose rate equivalents for neutrons, secondary gamma and gamma radiation were computed on the surface of soil slabs having different thicknesses. Yields of primary and secondary nuclear radiation in the total dose were evaluated. Influence of the incident neutron spectrum, water content and chemical composition of the material on its shielding efficiency was examined. It was found that the soil density and the water content determine the quality of biological shield, the influence of other factors being less important. Comparison of shielding efficiencies for soil with sand, brick and ordinary concrete shields was done.

  5. Observation of galactic gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    A complete and deep survey of the galactic high-energy gamma radiation is now available, thanks to the gamma-ray telescopes on board of the SAS-2 and COS-B spacecrafts. A comparison of the COS-B gamma-ray survey with a fully sampled CO survey together with an Hsub(I) survey is used to show that a simple model, in which uniformly distributed cosmic rays interact with the interstellar gas, can account for almost all the gamma-ray emission observed in the first galactic quadrant. At medium galactic latitudes, it is shown that a relationship exists between the gamma radiation and the interstellar absorption derived from galaxy counts. Therefore gamma rays from the local galactic environment can be used as a valuable probe of the content and structure of the local interstellar medium. The large scale features of the local interstellar gas are revealed, in particular wide concentrations of nearby molecular hydrogen. On a smaller scale, the detection of numerous localized gamma-ray sources focuses the attention on some particular phases of clusters of young and massive stars where diffuse processes of gamma-ray emission may also be at work

  6. Characterization of leveling problems of Patagonia gamma-ray spectrometry survey, Chubut province (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Kenneth L.; Lopez, Luis E.

    1998-01-01

    Measuring the radioelement concentrations of the soils along traverses perpendicular to the flight line direction was performed in order to gather useful information in support of the leveling of the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer survey of Patagonia. Two sites were selected as test areas which ground and airborne spectrometric data were systematically compared to asses the nature of the leveling problems. It is suspected that variations in soil moisture may play a significant roll in the leveling variations. (author)

  7. Radon in soil gas in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikaj, Dafina; Jeran, Zvonka; Bahtijari, Meleq; Stegnar, Peter

    2016-11-01

    An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to radon and gamma emitting radionuclides was conducted in southern Kosovo. This study deals with sources of radon in soil gas. A long-term study of radon concentrations in the soil gas was carried out using the SSNTDs (CR-39) at 21 different locations in the Sharr-Korabi zone. The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year and the sampling locations were chosen with respect to lithology. In order to determine the concentration of the natural radioactive elements 238 U and 226 Ra, as a precursor of 222 Rn, soil samples were collected from each measuring point from a depth of 0.8 m, and measured by gamma spectrometry. The levels (Bq kg -1 ) of naturally occurring radionuclides and levels (kBq m -3 ) of radon in soil gas obtained at a depth 0.8 m of soil were: 21-53 for 226 Ra, 22-160 for 238 U and 0.295-32 for 222 Rn. With respect to lithology, the highest value for 238 U and 226 Ra were found in limestone and the highest value for 222 Rn was found in metamorphic rocks. In addition, the results showed seasonal variations of the measured soil gas radon concentrations with maximum concentration in the spring months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential of recycling gamma-irradiated sewage sludge for use as a fertilizer: a study on chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, G.A.; Sachidanand, S.; Modi, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in pot cultures have been studied. Compared to plants grown only in soil, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of plants grown in soil supplemented with unirradiated sludge were found to be significantly reduced. This inhibition in growth was found to be nullified when plants were grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge, suggesting that gamma radiation induced inactivation of toxic substance(s) in sludge. The protein content of plants grown in soil supplemented with irradiated sludge was also found to be significantly increased compared to those grown with unirradiated or no sludge, after 45 days. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiated sludge on shoot length, total soluble sugars, starch content and yield of chickpea plants. The results obtained suggest that the sludge tested, and obtained from the digester of a conventional domestic sewage treatment plant, is inhibitory to several growth parameters. Gamma irradiation of sewage resulted in removal of this inhibition. This suggests a possibility of beneficial and safe recycling of gamma-irradiated sludge for agricultural uses. (author)

  9. Natural radioactivity levels in soils of Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garimella, S.; Kumar, A.; Prasad, U.; Jafar, M.

    1998-01-01

    A 10 cm (diameter) x 7.5 cm NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer with a low background shield has been used to measure the natural radioactivity levels in soils of Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji. From this, the external gamma-dose which is likely to be delivered to the local population in this region is computed and found to be 99 μGy a -1 . This is well below the world average, but it is comparable to that observed in Marshall Islands and the Micronesia

  10. Natural radioactivity levels in soils of Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garimella, S.; Kumar, A.; Prasad, U.; Jafar, M.

    1998-01-01

    A 10 cm (diameter) x 7.5 cm NaI(TI) gamma-ray spectrometer with a low background shield has been used to measure the natural radioactivity levels in soils of Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji. From this, the external gamma-dose which is likely to be delivered to the local population in this region is computed and found to be 99 microG a -1 . This is well below the world average, but it is comparable to that observed in Marshall Islands and the Micronesia. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Gamma radiation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.

    1981-08-01

    A nationwide investigation has been made into the gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings. The measurements were made with small detectors containing thermoluminescent dosimeters. The detectors were sent to the selected participants by mail. 1300 dwellings were included in the investigation. In each dwelling three measurements were made: one detector was placed in the kitchen, one in the living-room and one in the bedroom. The mean annual absorbed tissue dose in dwellings in Sweden was found to be 0.65 mGy (corresponding to an exposition rate of 12 μR/h) when the contribution from cosmic radiation had been subtracted. That represents an annual collective dose of about 4000 mansieverts to the population of Sweden. From a previous investigation we have calculate the mean value for the gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings for 1950 to be 0.4 mGy/a (8μR/h). The reason for the relatively large increase in the mean value is an increased use of building materials on stone, particularly of lightweight concrete based on alum shale, from 1940 to middle 1960s. The production of this type of lightweight concrete was discontinued in 1975 and the use of other stone-based building materials has decreased. The mean value of gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings is therefore expected to decrease slowly in the future if this tendency holds. Sweden has some 3.5 million dwellings. About 10 % of them have mean values of 1 mGy/a (19 μR/h) or more, 0.2 % have 3 mGy/a (57 μR/h) or more and a couple of hundred 5 mGy/a (95 μR/h or more. The mean value for detached houses was found to be 0.43 mGy/a (8 μR/h) and for dwellings in multi-family houses 0.80 mGy/a (15 μR/h). The investigation dwellings have also been classified according to the building materials, the year of construction and the degree of urbanization of the area. (author)

  12. Nuclear equipment to determine soil and water mass attenuation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, O.L.A.D.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of substituting the monochannel gamma spectrometer, traditionally used in the gamma ray attenuation technique, for a less sophisticated and less expensive system of integral counting is studied. The proposed system can be operated by a non-specialized person. Three detection systems were used in the determination of the mass attenuation coefficients for different types of soil and for water. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  14. Environmental gamma radiation measurement in District Swat (Pakistan))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, T.; Khan, K.; Akhter, P.; Jabbar, A.; Subhani, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    External exposure to environmental gamma ray sources is an important component of exposure to the public. A survey was carried out to determine activity concentration levels and associated doses from 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs by means of high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry in the Swat district, famous for tourism. The mean concentrations for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were found to be 50.4 ± 0.7, 34.8 ± 0.7 and 434.5 ± 7.4 Bq kg -1 , respectively, in soil samples, which are slightly more than the world average values. However, 137 Cs was only found in the soil sample of Barikot with an activity concentration of 34 ± 1.2 Bq kg -1 . Only 40 K was determined in vegetation samples with an average activity of 172.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg -1 , whereas in water samples, all radionuclides were found below lower limits of detection. The radium equivalent activity in all soil samples is lower than the limit set in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development report (370 Bq kg -1 ). The value of the external exposure dose has been determined from the content of these radionuclides in soil. The average terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate was observed to be 62.4 nGy h -1 , which yields an annual effective dose of 0.08 mSv. The average value of the annual effective dose lies close to the global range of outdoor radiation exposure given in United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. However, the main component of the radiation dose to the population residing in the study area arises from cosmic ray due to high altitude. (authors)

  15. Soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, R.S.; Diel, B.N.; Halpern, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Disposal of soils or sludges contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds is a major problem for environmental remedial activities, hazardous waste generators, and the disposal industry. This paper reports that many of these wastes can be effectively treated utilizing soil washing technology. CWM has been developing soil washing technology over the past few years, with extensive work being conducted on the bench scale. These studies have demonstrated consistently high removal efficiencies (95-99%) for a wide variety of PCB and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste. Recently, a comprehensive study examining the removal of both organic and inorganic contraminants from two different types of surrogate soil matrices was completed. In addition to establishing the range of contaminants that can be removed from soil, a method for surfactant/water separation was evaluated. For example, using a thermal phase separation method, approximately 90% of the surfactant could be recovered from the water

  16. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  17. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma camera system having control components operating in conjunction with a solid state detector is described. The detector is formed of a plurality of discrete components which are associated in geometrical or coordinate arrangement defining a detector matrix to derive coordinate signal outputs. These outputs are selectively filtered and summed to form coordinate channel signals and corresponding energy channel signals. A control feature of the invention regulates the noted summing and filtering performance to derive data acceptance signals which are addressed to further treating components. The latter components include coordinate and enery channel multiplexers as well as energy-responsive selective networks. A sequential control is provided for regulating the signal processing functions of the system to derive an overall imaging cycle

  18. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  19. Gamma radiolysis of dimethylglyoxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langguth, H.; Foersterling, H.U.; Schmidt, J.

    1983-01-01

    Because dimethylglyoxime (DMG) is suitable for the selective separation of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions the radiation resistance of pure DMG and of DMG sorbed on activated charcoal was studied. Irradiation was carried out at 20-40 0 C using a 60 Co gamma source with a dose rate of 0.6 - 1.7 Gy/s in the dose range 2 kGy to 5 MGy. The radiolytic products were determined by different methods and the G values determined. It has been shown that DMG is relatively radiation resistant up to doses of about 100 kGy. At higher doses the reactive NOH-groups of DMG are partially destroyed and cannot react with palladium. However, in the separation process of palladium from radioactive waste solutions these doses will not be reached so that complications due to insufficient radiation resistance of DMG can be excluded. (author)

  20. Gamma spectrometry on MANITU 271-01 gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Minkema, J.

    1994-08-01

    A series of irradiation experiments (271-series) is being performed of the sustain programme for material development and characterization of the NET (Next European Torus). In the framework of the first irradiation experiment 271-01, with irradiation up to 0.2 dpa, four gamma scan wires have been examined by gamma scanning. The purpose of the gamma scan wires (GSW) is to get information about the neutron fluence distribution in the capsules during irradiation. In the stainless steel wires the nuclides Co-58, Mu-54, Fe-59 and Co-60 are produced, are characteristic for fast and thermal neutron reactions. (orig./HP)

  1. Soil Forming Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil Forming Factors 2 A Top to Bottom Guide 3 Making a Soil Monolith 4 Soil Orders 5 State Soil Monoliths 6 Where in the Soil World Are You? >> A Top to

  2. What is Soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil? 2 The Skin of the Earth 3 Soil Ingredients 4 Soil Recipes 5 CLORPT for Short >> What Is Soil? Soils Make Life Plants grow in and from

  3. Economics of gamma irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Toshio

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-ray irradiation business started at the Takasaki Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The irradiation facilities were constructed thereafter at various sites. The facilities must accept various types of irradiation, and must be constructed as multi-purpose facilities. The cost of irradiation consists of the cost of gamma sources, construction expense, personnel expense, management expense, and bank interest. Most of the expenses are considered to be fixed expense, and the amount of irradiation treatment decides the original costs of work. The relation between the irradiation dose and the construction expense shows the larger facility is more economical. The increase of amount of treatment reduces the original cost. The utilization efficiency becomes important when the amount of treatment and the source intensity exceed some values. The principal subjects of gamma-ray irradiation business are the sterilization of medical tools and foods for aseptic animals, the improvement of quality of plastic goods, and the irradiation of foods. Among them, the most important subject is the sterilization of medical tools. The cost of gamma irradiation per m 3 in still more expensive than that by ethylene oxide gas sterilization. However, the demand of gamma-ray irradiation is increasing. For the improvement of quality of plastic goods, electron irradiation is more favourable than the gamma irradiation. In near future, the economical balance of gamma irradiation can be achieved. (Kato, T.)

  4. Apparatus for gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Oga, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    This is the standard of Japan Non-Destructive Inspection Society, NDIS 1101-79, which stipulates on the design, construction and testing method of the apparatuses for gamma ray radiography used for taking industrial radiograms. The gamma ray apparatuses stipulated in this standard are those containing sealed radioactive isotopes exceeding 100 μCi, which emit gamma ray. The gamma ray apparatuses are classified into three groups according to their movability. The general design conditions, the irradiation dose rate and the sealed radiation sources for the gamma ray apparatuses are stipulated. The construction of the gamma ray apparatuses must be in accordance with the notification No. 52 of the Ministry of Labor, and safety devices and collimators must be equipped. The main bodies of the gamma ray apparatuses must pass the vibration test, penetration test, impact test and shielding efficiency test. The method of each test is described. The attached equipments must be also tested. The tests according to this standard are carried out by the makers of the apparatuses. The test records must be made when the apparatuses have passed the tests, and the test certificates are attached. The limit of guarantee by the endurance test must be clearly shown. The items to be shown on the apparatuses are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  5. Isodose mapping of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate of Selangor state, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanusi, M.S.M.; Ramli, A.T.; Gabdo, H.T.; Garba, N.N.; Heryanshah, A.; Wagiran, H.; Said, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    A terrestrial gamma radiation survey for the state of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya was conducted to obtain baseline data for environmental radiological health practices. Based on soil type, geological background and information from airborne survey maps, 95 survey points statistically representing the study area were determined. The measured doses varied according to geological background and soil types. They ranged from 17 nGy h −1 to 500 nGy h −1 . The mean terrestrial gamma dose rate in air above the ground was 182 ± 81 nGy h −1 . This is two times higher than the average dose rate of terrestrial gamma radiation in Malaysia which is 92 nGy h −1 (UNSCEAR 2000). An isodose map was produced to represent exposure rate from natural sources of terrestrial gamma radiation. - Highlights: • A methodology is presented to reduce terrestrial gamma dose rate field survey. • Geological background of acid intrusive of granitic type has the highest dose rates. • The mean dose rate is 2 times higher than the world average. • Isodose map of terrestrial gamma radiation for Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya was produced

  6. Radiative decay of the eta-, eta'-mesons in the nonlocal quark model. [eta(eta'). --> gamma gamma. ; eta. -->. pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/. gamma. ; eta. -->. pi. /sup 0/2. gamma. ; eta'. -->. rho/sup 0/. gamma. ; eta'. -->. omega gamma. ;. pi. /sup 0/. -->. gamma. e/sup +/e/sup -/; eta(eta'). -->. gamma mu. /sup +/. mu. /sup -/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efimov, G V; Ivanov, M A; Nogovitsyn, E A [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)

    1981-07-01

    P..--> gamma gamma.. (P=..pi../sup 0/, eta, eta'), eta..--> pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..gamma.., eta..--> pi../sup 0/..gamma gamma.., eta/sup 1/..-->..V..gamma.. (V=rho/sup 0/, ..omega..), p..--> gamma..l/sup +/l/sup -/ (p=..pi../sup 0/, eta, eta') radiation decays are studied for testing the applicability of the non-local quark model for description of the experimental data. The Feynman diagrams of these decays are presented, values of the widths of the Veta..--> gamma gamma.., eta..--> pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..gamma.., eta..--> pi../sup 0/..gamma gamma.., eta'..--> gamma gamma.., eta'..-->..rho/sup 0/..gamma.., eta'..--> omega gamma.. decays are calculated and given in the form of a table. Calculations are carried out for two values of the eta eta'-crossing angle: THETA=-11 deg and -18 deg. Values of invariant amplitudes of these decays are determined for ..pi../sup 0/..--> gamma..e/sup +/e/sup -/, eta..--> gamma mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/, eta'..--> gamma mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ decays at THETA=-11 deg and -18 deg. The best agreement with the experimental data is noted to take place at THETA=-11 deg, the determined width of the eta..--> pi../sup 0/..gamma gamma.. decays is underestimated as compared with the experimental one.

  7. Total Cross Section in $\\gamma\\gamma$ Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2001-01-01

    The reaction e+e- -> e+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons for quasi-real photons is studied using data from root(s) = 183 GeV up to 202 GeV. Results on the total cross sections sigma(e+e- -> e+e- hadrons) and sigma(+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons) are given for the two-photon centre-of-mass energies 5 GeV < Wgammagamma < 185 GeV. The total cross section of two real photons is described by a Regge parametrisation. We observe a steeper rise with the two-photon centre-of-mass energy as compared to the hadron-hadron and the photon-proton cross sections. The data are also compared to the expectations of different theoretical models.

  8. Shielding system for the detection of radioisotopes gamma-rays emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Filho, V.F. do

    1983-01-01

    A shielding system for detection of radioisotopes gamma-rays emitters in samples of big volumes (plants, animals, soils) is presented. The detection between the beaker Marinelli and the glass tube (inside of the scintillator crystal well) is compared. The beaker Marinelli method allows a drastic reduction in the time detection of the sample. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. The gamma contamination food factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoc, A.H.; Anicin, I.V.; Adzic, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the ''Gamma Contamination Food Factor'' (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ratio of the total specific activity of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides in the food sample (except that of 40 K) to the specific activity of 40 K either in the sample itself or in an ''average man''. We discuss briefly the meaning and advantages of these definitions. (author)

  10. Advanced HEDL gamma scan system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.C.; Olson, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    The design of an advanced state-of-the-art gamma scan system built for the purpose of measuring the point-by-point gamma activity of irradiated fuel rods is described. The emphasis of the system design was to achieve the highest rate of throughput with the minimum per rod cost while maintaining system accuracy and reliability. Preliminary tests demonstrate that all system requirements were met or exceeded. The system provides improved throughput, precision, automation, flexibility, and data processing capability over previous gamma scan systems

  11. Assessment of soil sample quality used for density evaluations through computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Bacchi, Osny O.S.

    2005-01-01

    There are several methods to measure soil bulk density (ρ s ) like the paraffin sealed clod (PS), the volumetric ring (VR), the computed tomography (CT), and the neutron-gamma surface gauge (SG). In order to evaluate by a non-destructive way the possible modifications in soil structure caused by sampling for the PS and VR methods of ρ s evaluation we proposed to use the gamma ray CT method. A first generation tomograph was used having a 241 Am source and a 3 in x 3 in NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Results confirm the effect of soil sampler devices on the structure of soil samples, and that the compaction caused during sampling causes significant alterations of soil bulk density. Through the use of CT it was possible to determine the level of compaction and to make a detailed analysis of the soil bulk density distribution within the soil sample. (author)

  12. Gamma-gamma angular correlation measurement in the 100 Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchian, G.

    1990-01-01

    An angular correlation automatic spectrometer with two Ge(Li) detectors has been developed. The spectrometer moves automatically, controlled by a microcomputer. The gamma-gamma directional angular correlations of coincidence transitions have been measured in 100 Ru nuclide, following the β + and electron capture of 100 Rh. The 100 Rh source has been produced with 100 Ru(p,n) 100 Rh reaction, using the proton beam of the Cyclotron Accelerator insiding in 100 Ru isotope. (author)

  13. Gamma spectrometry of 285-04 ILAS gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    In the frame work of their on-going sustain programme for the material development and characterization of fusion reactors, ECN is investigating the irradiation behaviour of ferritic/martensitic steels. In the fourth irradiation experiment 285-04, 55 steel tensile samples have been irradiated up to 2.5 dpa. Four gamma scan wires from this experiment have been examined by gamma scanning. The results of the measurements have been described in this report. (orig.)

  14. Gamma spectrometry of 285-03 ILAS gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    In the frame work of their on-going sustain programme for the material development and characterization of fusion reactors, ECN is investigating the irradiation behaviour of ferritic/martensitic steels. In the third irradiation experiment 285-03, 55 vanadium (V-4Cr-4Ti) tensile samples have been irradiated up to 6 dpa. Four gamma scan wires from this experiment have been examined by gamma scanning. The results of the measurements have been described in this report. (orig.)

  15. beta- and gamma-Comparative dose estimates on Eniwetok Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crase, K.W.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Robison, W.L.

    1982-05-01

    Eniwetok Atoll is one of the Pacific atolls used for atmospheric testing of U.S. nuclear weapons. Beta dose and gamma-ray exposure measurements were made on two islands of the Eniwetok Atoll during July-August 1976 to determine the beta and low energy gamma-contribution to the total external radiation doses to the returning Marshallese. Measurements were made at numerous locations with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), pressurized ionization chambers, portable NaI detectors, and thin-window pancake GM probes. Results of the TLD measurements with and without a beta-attenuator indicate that approx. 29% of the total dose rate at 1 m in air is due to beta- or low energy gamma-contribution. The contribution at any particular site, however, is somewhat dependent on ground cover, since a minimal amount of vegetation will reduce it significantly from that over bare soil, but thick stands of vegetation have little effect on any further reductions. Integral 30-yr external shallow dose estimates for future inhabitants were made and compared with external dose estimates of a previous large scale radiological survey (En73). Integral 30-yr shallow external dose estimates are 25-50% higher than whole body estimates. Due to the low penetrating ability of the beta's or low energy gamma's, however, several remedial actions can be taken to reduce the shallow dose contribution to the total external dose.

  16. Gamma-ray spectra from the age of the dinosaurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy has been tested as a technique for assisting in the excavation of paleontological sites in the Morrison Formation of western New Mexico. Excavation of these sites is difficult, owing to remoteness and to environmental concerns that militate against wholesale removal of overburden. Various researchers have used remote-sensing techniques to attempt to locate sub-surface bone near known, exposed fossils, thereby to confine excavation to areas where success in finding bone is most likely. Bones accumulate uranium from surrounding rock during fossilization; accordingly, in-situ gamma-ray spectroscopy might serve to locate bone, by detecting the 609- and 1764-keV gamma rays from uranium daughters. Because of the high uranium content of fossils in the Morrison Formation, calculations suggest the feasibility of locating bone despite the presence of several cm of rock and soil overburden. Investigations at several sites with fossils of large sauropods have revealed increased count rates for the key gamma rays near exposed bone, possibly implying the presence of additional fossils beneath the surface of the ground. However, attempts to use spectroscopy inside shafts drilled into possible fossil-bearing rock have been less successful. Results are presented and prospects for additional work discussed

  17. $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ and $\\gamma$-p events at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, Gerhard A.; Gerhard A Schuler; Torbjorn Sjostrand

    1994-01-01

    A real photon has a complicated nature, whereby it may remain unresolved or fluctuate into a vector meson or a perturbative q-qbar pair. Based on this picture, we previously presented a model for gamma-p events that is based on the presence of three main event classes: direct, VMD and anomalous. In gamma-gamma events, a natural generalization gives three-by-three combinations of the nature of the two incoming photons, and thus six distinct event classes. The properties of these classes are constrained by the choices already made, in the gamma-p model, of cut-off procedures and other aspects. It is therefore possible to predict the energy-dependence of the cross section for each of the six components separately. The total cross section thus obtained is in good agreement with data, and also gives support to the idea that a simple factorized ansatz with a pomeron and a reggeon term can be a good approximation. Event properties undergo a logical evolution from p-p to gamma-p to gamma-gamma events, with larger cha...

  18. Determining a pre-mining radiological baseline from historic airborne gamma surveys: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beraldo, Annamarie; Pfitzner, Kirrilly; Esparon, Andrew; Doering, Che

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the baseline level of radioactivity in areas naturally enriched in radionuclides is important in the uranium mining context to assess radiation doses to humans and the environment both during and after mining. This information is particularly useful in rehabilitation planning and developing closure criteria for uranium mines as only radiation doses additional to the natural background are usually considered ‘controllable’ for radiation protection purposes. In this case study we have tested whether the method of contemporary groundtruthing of a historic airborne gamma survey could be used to determine the pre-mining radiological conditions at the Ranger mine in northern Australia. The airborne gamma survey was flown in 1976 before mining started and groundtruthed using ground gamma dose rate measurements made between 2007 and 2009 at an undisturbed area naturally enriched in uranium (Anomaly 2) located nearby the Ranger mine. Measurements of 226 Ra soil activity concentration and 222 Rn exhalation flux density at Anomaly 2 were made concurrent with the ground gamma dose rate measurements. Algorithms were developed to upscale the ground gamma data to the same spatial resolution as the historic airborne gamma survey data using a geographic information system, allowing comparison of the datasets. Linear correlation models were developed to estimate the pre-mining gamma dose rates, 226 Ra soil activity concentrations, and 222 Rn exhalation flux densities at selected areas in the greater Ranger region. The modelled levels agreed with measurements made at the Ranger Orebodies 1 and 3 before mining started, and at environmental sites in the region. The conclusion is that our approach can be used to determine baseline radiation levels, and provide a benchmark for rehabilitation of uranium mines or industrial sites where historical airborne gamma survey data are available and an undisturbed radiological analogue exists to groundtruth the data. - Highlights:

  19. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina

  20. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R. [Thermo Nuclear Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  1. Infiltration and redistribution of water in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    1976-01-01

    The flow of the liquid phase through a soil can be predicted from pressure gradients. Different ways of predicting infiltration for irrigation of a basin were compared: numerical approximation; semi-analytical and analytical. A partly empirical equation was developed for description of rate of infiltration, after examination of existing equations. Under certain conditions, infiltration was influenced by under or over pressure of the trapped gas phase and by swelling of clays. Complex models for redistribution were of little value in practice, since they could not be generalized and required too many physical data about the soil. A scheme was developed that grouped techniques for estimating physical properties of soil, according to cost and expertise required. A new experimental technique based on gamma transmission is described for estimating the physical properties of the soil. (Auth.)

  2. On the possible effects of gluon number fluctuations on {gamma}{gamma} collisions at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    We investigate the effects of the fluctuations on the total {gamma}{gamma}, {gamma}*{gamma}* cross sections and the real photon structure function F{sup {gamma}}{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}), considering a saturation phenomenological model for the dipole-dipole cross section and scattering amplitude with fluctuations included.

  3. Study of the $e^+ e^- \\to Z\\gamma\\gamma \\to q\\overline{q}\\gamma\\gamma$ Process at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2001-01-01

    The process e^+e^- -> Z gamma gamma -> q q~ gamma gamma$ is studied in 0.5\\,fb-1$ of data collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies between 130.1 GeV and 201.7 GeV. Cross sections are measured and found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations. The study of the least energetic photon constrains the quartic gauge boson couplings to -0.008 GeV-2 < a_0/\\Lambda^2 < 0.005 GeV-2 and -0.007 GeV-2 < a_c/\\Lambda^2 < 0.011 GeV-2, at 95% confidence level.

  4. The Winfrith district gamma survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.; Peabody, C.O.

    1961-09-01

    This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

  5. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes

  6. Agriculture: Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  7. Factors influencing in situ gamma-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonstra, E. H.; van Egmond, F. M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction In situ passive gamma-ray sensors are very well suitable for mapping physical soil properties. In order to make a qualitative sound soil map, high quality input parameters for calibration are required. This paper will focus on the factors that affect the output of in situ passive gamma-ray sensors, the primary source, soil, not taken into account. Factors The gamma-ray spectrum contains information of naturally occurring nuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th and man-made nuclides like 137Cs, as well as the total count rate. Factors that influence the concentration of these nuclides and the count rate can be classified in 3 categories. These are sensor design, environmental conditions and operational circumstances. Sensor design The main elements of an in situ gamma-ray sensor that influence the outcome and quality of the output are the crystal and the spectrum analysis method. Material and size of the crystal determine the energy resolution. Though widely used, NaI crystals are not the most efficient capturer of gamma radiation. Alternatives are BGO and CsI. BGO has a low peak resolution, which prohibits use in cases where man-made nuclides are subject of interest. The material is expensive and prone to temperature instability. CsI is robust compared to NaI and BGO. The density of CsI is higher than NaI, yielding better efficiency, especially for smaller crystal sizes. More volume results in higher energy efficiency. The reduction of the measured spectral information into concentration of radionuclides is mostly done using the Windows analysis method. In Windows, the activities of the nuclides are found by summing the intensities of the spectrum found in a certain interval surrounding a peak. A major flaw of the Windows method is the limited amount of spectral information that is incorporated into the analysis. Another weakness is the inherent use of ‘stripping factors' to account for contributions of radiation from nuclide A into the peak of nuclide B. This

  8. Measurement of the porosity of amorphous materials by gamma ray transmission methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottker, Walmir Eno; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2000-01-01

    In this work it is presented the measurement of the total porosity of TRe soil, Sandstone Berea rocks and porous ceramics samples. For the determination of the total porosity, the Arquimedes method (conventional) and the gamma ray transmission methodology were employed. The porosity measurement using the gamma methodology has a significant advantage respect to the conventional method due to the fast and non-destructive determination, and also for supplying results with a greater characterization in small scales, in relation to the heterogeneity of the porosity. The conventional methodology presents good results only for homogeneous samples. The experimental set up for the gamma ray transmission technique consisted of a 241 Am source (59,53 keV ), a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, collimators, a XYZ micrometric table and standard gamma spectrometry electronics connected to a multichannel analyser. (author)

  9. Gamma transitions in 127Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Wagner Fonseca; Zamboni, Cibele Bugno

    2009-01-01

    This study of the 127 Te β - decay was carried out by means of gamma spectroscopy measurements using high resolution Ge detector, in the region from 150 keV up to 1000 keV, aiming to get a better understanding of the 127 Te nuclear structure. Several gamma transitions were confirmed when compared with those published in the last compilation. These data resulting in lower uncertainty. (author)

  10. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  11. Notes on the gamma kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.

    The density function of the gamma distribution is used as shift kernel in Brownian semistationary processes modelling the timewise behaviour of the velocity in turbulent regimes. This report presents exact and asymptotic properties of the second order structure function under such a model......, and relates these to results of von Karmann and Horwath. But first it is shown that the gamma kernel is interpretable as a Green’s function....

  12. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The invention provides a composite solid state detector for use in deriving a display, by spatial coordinate information, of the distribution or radiation emanating from a source within a region of interest, comprising several solid state detector components, each having a given surface arranged for exposure to impinging radiation and exhibiting discrete interactions therewith at given spatially definable locations. The surface of each component and the surface disposed opposite and substantially parallel thereto are associated with impedence means configured to provide for each opposed surface outputs for signals relating the given location of the interactions with one spatial coordinate parameter of one select directional sense. The detector components are arranged to provide groupings of adjacently disposed surfaces mutually linearly oriented to exhibit a common directional sense of the spatial coordinate parameter. Means interconnect at least two of the outputs associated with each of the surfaces within a given grouping for collecting the signals deriving therefrom. The invention also provides a camera system for imaging the distribution of a source of gamma radiation situated within a region of interest

  13. Gamma irradiation of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitburn, K.D.; Hoffman, M.Z.; Taub, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    In ''A Re-Evaluation of the Products of Gamma Irradiation of Beef Ferrimyoglobin'', J. Food Sci. 46:1814 (1981), authors Whitburn, Hoffman and Taub state that color pigment myoglobin (Mb) undergoes chemical changes during irradiation that cause color changes in meat. They also state that they are in disagreement with Giddings and Markakis, J. Food Sci. 47:361 (1972) in regard to generation of MbO 2 in deaerated solutions, claiming their analysis demonstrates only Mb and Mb(IV) production. Giddings, in a letter, suggests that Whitburn, et al may have used differing systems and approaches which critically changed the radiation chemistry. He also states that radiation sterilization of aerobically packaged meats affects color only slightly. Whitburn, in a reply, shares Dr. Giddings concern for caution in interpretation of results for this system. The compositional changes are dependent on identity of free radicals, dose, O 2 and the time of analysis after irradiation. The quantification of these parameters in pure systems, sarcoplasma extracts and in meat samples should lead to a better understanding of color change mechanisms and how to minimize them

  14. Gamma radiation and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropilova, D.; Takac, L.; Toropila, M.; Tomko, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    In our work, we focused the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on metabolic parameters in chickens. In the first group of chickens we monitor changes of the concentration in glucose and cholesterol after whole body irradiation dose of chicken (3 Gy). In the second group of chickens we studied the combined effect of radiation and intraperitoneal application solution of zinc chloride to changes of the concentration in glucose and total cholesterol. In the tissues of organisms are found only in a very small amount of microelements however are of particular importance in a number of enzymatic catalytic and regulatory processes. Zinc is found in all cells of the body. However, it is the highest percentage of zinc contained in muscle and bone cells. Resorption takes place in the small intestine, especially in the duodenum. For both groups of chickens, we performed analyzes on the 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 st and 30 day. Results and an overview of the work can be helpful in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in preventing diseases from exposure to radiation, but also in the case of the consequences after nuclear accidents. (authors)

  15. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoji; Oribe, Naoya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Nestor, Paul G; Spencer, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    A major goal of translational neuroscience is to identify neural circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders that can be studied in animal models to facilitate the development of new treatments. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-100 Hz) of the electroencephalogram have received considerable interest as the basic mechanisms underlying these oscillations are understood, and gamma abnormalities have been found in schizophrenia (SZ). Animal models of SZ based on hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) demonstrate increased spontaneous broadband gamma power, but this phenomenon has not been identified clearly in patients with SZ. To examine spontaneous gamma power and its relationship to evoked gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex of patients with SZ. We performed a cross-sectional study including 24 patients with chronic SZ and 24 matched healthy control participants at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012. Electroencephalograms were obtained during auditory steady-state stimulation at multiple frequencies (20, 30, and 40 Hz) and during a resting state in 18 participants in each group. Electroencephalographic activity in the auditory cortex was estimated using dipole source localization. Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures included the phase-locking factor and evoked power. Spontaneous gamma power was measured as induced (non-phase-locked) gamma power in the ASSR data and as total gamma power in the resting-state data. The ASSR phase-locking factor was reduced significantly in patients with SZ compared with controls for the 40-Hz stimulation (mean [SD], 0.075 [0.028] vs 0.113 [0.065]; F1,46 = 6.79 [P = .012]) but not the 20- or the 30-Hz stimulation (0.042 [0.038] vs 0.043 [0.034]; F1,46 = 0.006 [P = .938] and 0.084 [0.040] vs 0.098 [0.050]; F1,46 = 1.605 [P = .212], respectively), repeating previous findings. The mean [SD] broadband-induced (30

  16. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luevano-Gurrola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  17. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-09-30

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h(-1). At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h(-1). Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg(-1), for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  18. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  19. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: A quality control program for radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehl, S.R.; Mount, M.E.; Robison, W.L.

    1995-09-01

    From 1979 to 1989, approximately 25,000 Post Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (PNMIRS) samples were collected, and over 71,400 radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed to establish the concentration of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 241 Am, and plutonium isotopes in soil, vegetation, fish, and animals in the Northern Marshall Islands. While the Low Level Gamma Counting Facility (B379) in the Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division accounted for over 80% of all gamma spectroscopy analyses, approximately 4889 radiochemical and 5437 gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed on 4784 samples of soil, vegetation, terrestrial animal, and marine organisms by outside laboratories. Four laboratories were used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform the radiochemical analyses: Thermo Analytical Norcal, Richmond, California (TMA); Nuclear Energy Services, North Carolina State University (NCSU); Laboratory of Radiation Ecology, University of Washington (LRE); and Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division, LLNL, Livermore, California. Additionally, LRE and NCSU were used to perform gamma spectroscopy analyses. The analytical precision and accuracy were monitored by including blind duplicates and natural matrix standards in each group of samples analyzed. On the basis of reported analytical values for duplicates and standards, 88% of the gamma and 87% of the radiochemical analyses in this survey were accepted. By laboratory, 93% of the radiochemical analyses by TMA; 88% of the gamma-ray spectrometry and 100% of the radiochemistry analyses by NCSU; 89% of the gamma spectroscopy and 87% of the radiochemistry analyses by LRE; and 90% of the radiochemistry analyses performed by HEA's radiochemistry department were accepted

  20. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity using thermoluminescence, gamma spectrometry and neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fausto, A.M.; Otsubo, S.M.; Paes, W.S.; Yoshimura, E.M.; Okuno, E.; Hiodo, F.; Marques, L.S.; Alcala, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose in the living species due to the natural radioactivity is the main objective of this paper. The region that had been monitored was Intrusive Suite of Itu near to Sao Paulo city. Lateral[and depth distributions of natural radioactivity of the soil were determined using the techniques of thermoluminescence gamma spectrometry and neutron[activation. From the concentration in the soil of K-40 and radioactive elements of U and Th series experimentally determined, the dose due to gamma rays in air at 1 m from the soil was evaluated and the results compared with the direct dose measured with the portable rate-meter. (authors). 11 refs., 3 figs

  1. Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E.; Slavin, P.; Guerin, D.

    1998-06-01

    During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill

  2. The forming of the complexes of soil mezofauna in the zone of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    We carried out the pedobiological research in the different biogeocenoses in the zone of radioactive contamination. Based on the obtained data we can conclude a direct correlation between the viability of the soil invertebrates and the background gamma-radiation intensity. All the facts indicate that soil animal complexes in biogeocenoses exposed to radiation for a long time impact clearly noticeable suppression

  3. External exposure from radionuclides in soil: analytical vs. simulation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, Hugo; Rizzotto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The external gamma irradiation resulting from radionuclides deposited on the ground surface can be an important source of radiation exposure. The assessment of this irradiation is extremely complex due to the large number of environmental factors which affect the gamma photon flux in air originating from the ground. The source energy affects the interaction between the radiation and the medium, and the characteristics and the properties of the soil are the most relevant factors to determine the energy and the angular distribution of gamma radiation in air 1 m above the ground surface. From an analytical point of view the calculations are based on the point-kernel integration method and assume that the source concentration at any depth in soil is uniform over an infinite surface parallel to the ground plane. The dose-rate factor is applied to environmental dose assessments by means of the general equation: H(t)= χ (t) x DRF where H is the external dose rate at time t, χ is the source concentration at the location of the exposed individual, and DRF is the dose-rate factor. Dose-rate factors in air at a height of 1 m above ground are tabulated for discrete photon energies between 0.01 and 10 MeV and for source depths in soil between 0 and 300 cm. These factors were determined for sources distributed in a slab of finite thickness and sources which are exponentially distributed with depth. A Monte Carlo algorithm was developed to simulate the gamma photons transport calculation for the soil/air configuration. In this case the soil constituents were assumed to be similar to those on the earth's crust. The model considers the gamma photons source distributed uniformly in the soil profile, from the ground surface to a depth beyond which the soil is considered uncontaminated. Source gamma photons were randomly selected from the contaminated soil zone and their subsequent interactions determined by the probability of occurrence via photoelectric effect, Compton

  4. Tests of the space gamma spectrometer prototype at the JINR experimental facility with different types of neutron generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. L.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Golovin, D. V.; Dubasov, P. V.; Zontikov, A. O.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Krylov, A. R.; Krylov, V. A.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Repkin, A. N.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Udovichenko, K. V.; Shvetsov, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    The results of the tests of the HPGe gamma spectrometer performed with a planetary soil model and different types of pulse neutron generators are presented. All measurements have been performed at the experimental nuclear planetary science facility (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research) for the physical calibration of active gamma and neutron spectrometers. The aim of the study is to model a space experiment on determining the elemental composition of Martian planetary matter by neutron-induced gamma spectroscopy. The advantages and disadvantages of a gas-filled neutron generator in comparison with a vacuum-tube neutron generator are examined.

  5. Use of thermoluminescent dosimetry in gamma radiation fields studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, W.

    1987-01-01

    The depth-dose curves for gamma rays in material of interest to agronomy were obtained using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters. The dose conversion factors for LiF were determined from curves of the absorved dose versus depth in water, wood and soil. Mathematics equations were chosen to best fit these curves. In the view of the results we came to the conclusion that in the studied materials the absorved radiation dose presents a great variation to the depth and could be correlated through of the exponential regression. (author)

  6. Preliminary measurements of gamma radiation in Chilean Antarctic Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuardo B, E. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones Nucleares)

    1983-11-01

    Natural and artificial gamma radiation, 1 m above the soil, is being investigated in 4 Chilean Antartic Stations. The measurements are performed with different types of TLD detectors. Preliminary results in the Tte. Marsh Station are reported and discussed. An average exposition of 3,5 ..mu..R/h was found during a 108 days period. This exposition corresponds to an annual dose of about 40 mrad, 8% of the annual dose limit for individual of the public. The presence of low energy artificial radioisotopes was not found.

  7. Preliminary measurements of gamma radiation in Chilean Antarctic Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo B, E.

    1983-01-01

    Natural and artificial gamma radiation, 1 m above the soil, is being investigated in 4 Chilean Antartic Stations. The measurements are performed with different types of TLD detectors. Preliminary results in the Tte. Marsh Station are reported and discussed. An average exposition of 3,5 μR/h was found during a 108 days period. This exposition corresponds to an annual dose of about 40 mrad, 8% of the annual dose limit for individual of the public. The presence of low energy artificial radioisotopes was not found. (Author)

  8. Calculation of gamma ray exposure rates from uranium ore bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.E.; Wilson, O.J.

    1980-02-01

    The planning of operations associated with uranium mines often requires that estimates be made of the exposure rates from various ore bodies. A straight-forward method of calculating the exposure rate from an arbitrarily shaped body is presented. Parameters for the calculation are evaluated under the assumption of secular equilibrium of uranium with its daughters and that the uranium is uniformly distributed throughout an average soil mixture. The spectral distribution of the emitted gamma rays and the effect of air attenuation are discussed. Worked examples are given of typical situations encountered in uranium mines

  9. Cosmic gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takamasa

    1985-01-01

    Ballon experiments for searching gamma-ray burst were carried out by employing rotating-cross modulation collimators. From a very long observation of total 315 hours during 1975 to 1979, three gamma-ray intensity anomalies were observed which were speculated as a gamma-ray burst. As for the first gamma-ray intensity anomaly observed in 1975, the burst source could be located precisely but the source, heavenly body, could not be specified. Gamma-ray burst source estimation was made by analyzing distribution of burst source in the celestial sphere, burst size distribution, and burst peak. Using the above-mentioned data together with previously published ones, apparent inconsistency was found between the observed results and the adopted theory that the source was in the Galaxy, and this inconsistency was found due to the different time profiles of the burst observed with instruments of different efficiency. It was concluded by these analysis results that employment of logN - logP (relation between burst frequency and burst count) was better than that of logN - logS (burst size) in the examination of gamma-ray burst because the former was less uncertain than the latter. Analyzing the author's observed gamma-ray burst data and the related published data, it was clarified that the burst distribution was almost P -312 for the burst peak value larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec. The author could indicate that the calculated celestial distribution of burst source was consistent with the observed results by the derivation using the logN - logP relationship and that the burst larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec happens about one thousand times a year, about ten times of the previous value. (Takagi, S.)

  10. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  11. Neutron activation analysis. A review of the method and its present and potential uses in agriculture and soil science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Bewick, M.W.M.

    1978-01-01

    Basic principles, neutron sources, detection and analysis of gamma radiation and use for plants, animals, man, soil and microbiology are reviewed. Addresses of 4 commercial services in the U.K. are given (144 references). (U.K.)

  12. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  13. Problems of calibrating measuring instruments for selective gamma-gamma logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.; Smolarova, H.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative determination of copper content in the Novoveska Huta chalcopyrite deposit is described using selective gamma-gamma logging. Factors influencing the calibration quality are discussed. (author)

  14. GammaModeler 3-D gamma-ray imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The 3-D GammaModelertrademark system was used to survey a portion of the facility and provide 3-D visual and radiation representation of contaminated equipment located within the facility. The 3-D GammaModelertrademark system software was used to deconvolve extended sources into a series of point sources, locate the positions of these sources in space and calculate the 30 cm. dose rates for each of these sources. Localization of the sources in three dimensions provides information on source locations interior to the visual objects and provides a better estimate of the source intensities. The three dimensional representation of the objects can be made transparent in order to visualize sources located within the objects. Positional knowledge of all the sources can be used to calculate a map of the radiation in the canyon. The use of 3-D visual and gamma ray information supports improved planning decision-making, and aids in communications with regulators and stakeholders

  15. A new method for studying the transport of gamma photons in various geological materials by combining the SSNTD technique with Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Merzouki, A.; Bourzik, W.; Sfairi, T.

    2000-01-01

    The gamma dose rate due to the uranium and thorium series as well as the potassium 40 nuclei represents a large fraction of the total dose rate from the natural background. Natural gamma-activities of rock and soil samples collected from volcanic areas have been determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The corresponding gamma dose rates in air have been measured by means of thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeters. Annual absorbed gamma dose rates have been evaluated in different soil samples belonging to an archaeological site by using experimental and calculational methods. Uranium and thorium contents in different geological samples have been determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and calculating the probabilities for alpha particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on the SSNTD films. A new method has been developed based on calculating the self-absorption and transmission coefficients of the gamma photons emitted by the uranium and thorium families as well as the potassium 40 isotope for evaluating the gamma dose rate in the considered geological samples. Transport of gamma-photons across parallelepipedic blocks of the geological materials studied has been investigated. Gamma dose rates have been evaluated in the atmosphere of different geological deposits. (author)

  16. Pyrosequencing Based Microbial Community Analysis of Stabilized Mine Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. E.; Lee, B. T.; Son, A.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metals leached from exhausted mines have been causing severe environmental problems in nearby soils and groundwater. Environmental mitigation was performed based on the heavy metal stabilization using Calcite and steel slag in Korea. Since the soil stabilization only temporarily immobilizes the contaminants to soil matrix, the potential risk of re-leaching heavy metal still exists. Therefore the follow-up management of stabilized soils and the corresponding evaluation methods are required to avoid the consequent contamination from the stabilized soils. In this study, microbial community analysis using pyrosequencing was performed for assessing the potential leaching of the stabilized soils. As a result of rarefaction curve and Chao1 and Shannon indices, the stabilized soil has shown lower richness and diversity as compared to non-contaminated negative control. At the phyla level, as the degree of contamination increases, most of phyla decreased with only exception of increased proteobacteria. Among proteobacteria, gamma-proteobacteria increased against the heavy metal contamination. At the species level, Methylobacter tundripaludum of gamma-proteobacteria showed the highest relative portion of microbial community, indicating that methanotrophs may play an important role in either solubilization or immobilization of heavy metals in stabilized soils.

  17. Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, various classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei have been established as sources of high-energy radiation extending over a very broad range from soft gamma-rays (photon energies E~MeV) up to very-high-energy gamma-rays (E>100 GeV). These include blazars of different types, as well as young and evolved radio galaxies. The observed gamma-ray emission from such implies efficient particle acceleration processes taking place in highly magnetized and relativistic jets produced by supermassive black holes, processes that have yet to be identified and properly understood. In addition, nearby starforming and starburst galaxies, some of which host radio-quiet Seyfert-type nuclei, have been detected in the gamma-ray range as well. In their cases, the observed gamma-ray emission is due to non-thermal activity in the interstellar medium, possibly including also a contribution from accretion disks and nuclear outflows. Finally, the high-energy emission from clusters of galaxies remains elusive...

  18. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations

  19. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations.

  20. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  1. Surface gamma-ray survey of SX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, D.C.; Arthur, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    Measurements made over the surface of the SX Tank Farm at Hanford show Cs 137 to be the only significant gamma ray emitting contaminant. A high-purity germanium detector collected the data in the surface survey. Most of the detected radiation originated from specific above ground objects, such as pipes and vents. One area of increased radiation in the north section of the tank farm between tanks SX-102 and SX-105, was apparently due to contamination of the soil by Cs 137. An area of interest near tanks SX-108, SX-111, and SX-112, below which borehole logs has indicated deep Cs 137 contamination, also showed Cs 137 at the surface, but the signal originated mainly from surface objects rather than from contaminated soils. A significant result of the surface survey is the understanding that surface objects with contamination can affect the signal observed by borehole logging tools as they reach the ground surface

  2. Optical observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Fynbo, J.P.U.

    2004-01-01

    We briefly review the status and recent progress in the field of optical observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows. We will focus on the fundamental observational evidence for the relationship between gamma-ray bursts and the final evolutionary phases of massive stars. In particular, we will address (i) gamma-ray burst host galaxies, (ii) optically dark gamma-ray burst afterglows, (iii) the gamma-ray burst-supernova connection, and (iv) the relation between X-ray flashes, gamma-ray bursts, and supernovae

  3. Equipment for x- and gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following topics related to the equipment for x - and gamma ray radiography are discussed in this chapter. The topics are x-ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of x-ray, generation of x-ray, mechanism of x-ray production, x-ray equipment, power supply, distribution of x-ray intensity along the tube: gamma ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of gamma rays, gamma ray sources, gamma ray projectors on cameras, source changing. Care of Radiographic Equipments: Merits and Demerits of x and Gamma Rays

  4. Effect Of GAMMA Radiation On Antimicrobial Activity And Chemical Constituents Of Marjoram (Majorana Hortensis Essential Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GALAL, Y.G.M.; EL-GHANDOUR, I.A.; ABOU SEER, A.M.M.; DESOUKY, E.M.; ARAFA, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Field experiment was set up to study the response of marjoram plant grown on sandy soil and inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. and/or B. polymixa in combination with organic fertilizers. The extracted oil was irradiated with gamma irradiation at doses of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-Ms techniques after exposure to gamma radiation. The gamma irradiated essential oils of marjoram were tested for their antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic microorganisms i.e. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas citri, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus flavus. Extracted oil was the best when soil was treated with faba bean straw and inoculated with B. polymixa + Bradyrhizobium sp. Similarly, the extracted oil from plant cultivated in soil treated with sheep manure in combination with B. polymixa recorded the highest value. Results also revealed that gamma irradiation doses increased the antimicrobial activity with different magnitudes. The essential oil extracted from herb exposed to 30 kGy was found to be the most active antimicrobial with slight increases in the main components.

  5. Soil shrinkage characteristics in swelling soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand soil swelling and shrinkage mechanisms, and the development of desiccation cracks, to distinguish between soils having different magnitude of swelling, as well as the consequences on soil structural behaviour, to know methods to characterize soil swell/shrink potential and to construct soil shrinkage curves, and derive shrinkage indices, as well to apply them to assess soil management effects

  6. Assessment of radioactivity concentration in soil of some mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K natural activity concentrations in surface soils/sediments of some mining areas in Central Nasarawa State Nigeria, using Sodium Iodide-Thallium Gamma Spectroscopy. Seven major sites were identified from the highly mining areas of the zone and a total of ...

  7. Assessment of Radioactivity Concentration in Soil of some Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A study was conducted to determine 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K natural activity concentrations in surface soils/sediments of some mining areas in Central Nasarawa State Nigeria, using. Sodium Iodide-Thallium Gamma Spectroscopy. Seven major sites were identified from the highly mining areas of the zone.

  8. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu V.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons (+) positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approximately 0.01deg (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 GeV), the energy resolution approximately 1% (E(sub gamma) greater than 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approximately 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  9. The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) and recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonchev, A.P. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States)]. E-mail: tonchev@tunl.duke.edu; Boswell, M. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Karwowski, H.J. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [North Carolina State University and TUNL, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Tornow, W. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Wu, Y.K. [Duke University and Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0319 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) utilizes intra-cavity backscattering of free electron laser photons from the Duke electron storage ring to produce a unique monoenergetic beam of high-flux {gamma}-rays with high polarization and selectable energy resolution. At present, {gamma}-ray beams with energies from 2 to 58 MeV are available with intensities as high as 10{sup 5}-5 x 10{sup 6} {gamma}/s, energy spreads of 3% or better, and nearly 100% linear polarization. The quality and intensity of the {gamma}-ray beams at HI{gamma}S are responsible for the unprecedented performance of this facility in a broad range of research programs in nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear applications. Recent results from excitation of isomeric states in ({gamma}, n) reactions and parity assignments of dipole states determined via the ({gamma}, {gamma}') reaction are presented.

  10. Physiological response of marigold (calendula officinalis L.) plants to gamma radiation, gibberellic acid and kinetin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noby, M.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out during the two successive seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 at the Experimental Field of Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas in a newly reclaimed sandy loam soil. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation, gibberellic acid or kinetin and their interaction on the growth, flowering and the productivity of pot-marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) plants. The experimental trials included two factorial experiments; the first one was to study the effect of gamma radiation and gibberellic acid and the interaction between them on pot-marigold plants. Another experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma radiation and kinetin and the interaction between them on pot-marigold plants. Pot-marigold seeds were irradiated before sowing with gamma rays at 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 Gray (Gy) of gamma rays. After planting, plants were sprayed with either gibberellic acid (at the concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 ppm) or kinetin (at the concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 or 40 ppm). Generally, gamma rays treatments (50, 100 and 150 Gy) increased plant height, branch number/plant, leaf area, vegetative growth and roots fresh and dry weights of pot-marigold plants. Also, the same gamma doses accelerated flowering and decreased the period from sowing until flowering while increased flower head diameter, flower number/plant and flowers fresh and dry weights per plant and per feddan. In addition, gamma rays (50 - 150 Gy) increased volatile oil yield in flowers, leaf chlorophyll content, carotenoids and beta carotene in flowers, total soluble sugars and NPK %. The best values were obtained by 50 Gy dose of gamma rays, whereas the dose of 200 Gy gave the lowest values.

  11. Proximal sensing for soil carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jacqueline R.; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A.

    2018-05-01

    Maintaining or increasing soil organic carbon (C) is vital for securing food production and for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change, and land degradation. Some land management practices in cropping, grazing, horticultural, and mixed farming systems can be used to increase organic C in soil, but to assess their effectiveness, we need accurate and cost-efficient methods for measuring and monitoring the change. To determine the stock of organic C in soil, one requires measurements of soil organic C concentration, bulk density, and gravel content, but using conventional laboratory-based analytical methods is expensive. Our aim here is to review the current state of proximal sensing for the development of new soil C accounting methods for emissions reporting and in emissions reduction schemes. We evaluated sensing techniques in terms of their rapidity, cost, accuracy, safety, readiness, and their state of development. The most suitable method for measuring soil organic C concentrations appears to be visible-near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy and, for bulk density, active gamma-ray attenuation. Sensors for measuring gravel have not been developed, but an interim solution with rapid wet sieving and automated measurement appears useful. Field-deployable, multi-sensor systems are needed for cost-efficient soil C accounting. Proximal sensing can be used for soil organic C accounting, but the methods need to be standardized and procedural guidelines need to be developed to ensure proficient measurement and accurate reporting and verification. These are particularly important if the schemes use financial incentives for landholders to adopt management practices to sequester soil organic C. We list and discuss requirements for developing new soil C accounting methods based on proximal sensing, including requirements for recording, verification, and auditing.

  12. Optimisation of beryllium-7 gamma analysis following BCR sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.; Blake, W.H.; Keith-Roach, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Showing decrease in analytical uncertainty using the optimal (combined preconcentrated sample extract) method. nv (no value) where extract activities were 7 Be geochemical behaviour is required to support tracer studies. ► Sequential extraction with natural 7 Be returns high analytical uncertainties. ► Preconcentrating extracts from a large sample mass improved analytical uncertainty. ► This optimised method can be readily employed in studies using low activity samples. - Abstract: The application of cosmogenic 7 Be as a sediment tracer at the catchment-scale requires an understanding of its geochemical associations in soil to underpin the assumption of irreversible adsorption. Sequential extractions offer a readily accessible means of determining the associations of 7 Be with operationally defined soil phases. However, the subdivision of the low activity concentrations of fallout 7 Be in soils into geochemical fractions can introduce high gamma counting uncertainties. Extending analysis time significantly is not always an option for batches of samples, owing to the on-going decay of 7 Be (t 1/2 = 53.3 days). Here, three different methods of preparing and quantifying 7 Be extracted using the optimised BCR three-step scheme have been evaluated and compared with a focus on reducing analytical uncertainties. The optimal method involved carrying out the BCR extraction in triplicate, sub-sampling each set of triplicates for stable Be analysis before combining each set and coprecipitating the 7 Be with metal oxyhydroxides to produce a thin source for gamma analysis. This method was applied to BCR extractions of natural 7 Be in four agricultural soils. The approach gave good counting statistics from a 24 h analysis period (∼10% (2σ) where extract activity >40% of total activity) and generated statistically useful sequential extraction profiles. Total recoveries of 7 Be fell between 84 and 112%. The stable Be data demonstrated that the

  13. Gamma irradiators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radiation technology is one of the most important fields which the IAEA supports and promotes, and has several programmes that facilitate its use in the developing Member States. In view of this mandate, this Booklet on 'Gamma Irradiators for Radiation Processing' is prepared which describes variety of gamma irradiators that can be used for radiation processing applications. It is intended to present description of general principles of design and operation of the gamma irradiators available currently for industrial use. It aims at providing information to industrial end users to familiarise them with the technology, with the hope that the information contained here would assist them in selecting the most optimum irradiator for their needs. Correct selection affects not only the ease of operation but also yields higher efficiency, and thus improved economy. The Booklet is also intended for promoting radiation processing in general to governments and general public

  14. Automation of gamma-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'bitskij, L.L.; Brikker, I.N.; Bychkov, V.N.; Voronin, V.V.; Mirzoyan, A.R.; Rogozhin, A.S.; Sarkisyan, Yu.Kh.

    1989-01-01

    A system of automated control Aspect-2 was developed for automation of gamma therapy on units of the Rokus series. The system consists of the following hardware and software complexes: a complex of preirradiation preparation Centrator-imitator, a complex Accord for anatomotopographic data coding; a software complex and a gamma-therapeutic complex Rokus-AM. The Centrator-imitator and Rokus-AM complexes are fitted out with built-in microcomputers with specially developed systemic software. The Rokus-AM complex has automatic punch tape programmed control of 9 degrees of freedom of the gamma-unit and treatment table and ensures 5 modes of irradiation: positional, rotating, rotaing-convergent, sectoral rotating-convergent and scanning

  15. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  16. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  17. Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamargot, J.-P.; Wanin, Maurice.

    1980-01-01

    This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device [fr

  18. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  19. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanić Milan N.; Janković-Mandić Ljiljana J.; Gajić Boško A.; Daković Marko Z.; Dragović Snežana D.; Bačić Goran G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance) and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th). Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides wa...

  20. THE POTENTIAL OF γ-RAY SPECTROSCOPY FOR SOIL PROXIMAL SURVEY IN CLAYEY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Priori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray spectroscopy surveys the intensity and distribution of γ-rays emitted from radionuclides of soils and bedrocks. The most important radionuclides of soils and rocks are: 40K, 232Th, 238U and 137Cs, the latter due to Chernobyl burst or radioactive pollution. Distribution and quantity of these radionuclides into the soil is strictly linked to parent material mineralogy and soil cation exchange capacity. The aim of this work is to show the makings of γ-ray spectroscopy proximal survey within experimental fields with clayey soils in western Sicily.The γ-ray spectrometer used for the fieldwork was “The Mole”, made by “The Soil Company”, “Medusa system” and the University of Groningen, from The Netherlands. During the survey of eight experimental fields, 55 soil samples were collected for laboratory analysis of particle size distribution, calcium carbonate, organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The results of the work showed the statistical correlations between soil features and γ-ray data. 

  1. Soil Segregation Methods for Reducing Transportation and Disposal Costs - 13544

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frothingham, David; Andrews, Shawn; Barker, Michelle; Boyle, James; Buechi, Stephen; Graham, Marc; Houston, Linda; Polek, Michael; Simmington, Robert; Spector, Harold [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara St., Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States); Elliott, Robert ' Dan' [U.S. Army Reserve, 812A Franklin St.,Worcester, MA 01604 (United States); Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites where the selected alternative for contaminated soil is excavation and off-site disposal, the most significant budget items of the remedial action are the costs for transportation and disposal of soil at an off-site facility. At these sites, the objective is to excavate and dispose of only those soils that exceed derived concentration guideline levels. In situ soil segregation using gross gamma detectors to guide the excavation is often challenging at sites where the soil contamination is overlain by clean soil or where the contaminated soil is located in isolated, subsurface pockets. In addition, data gaps are often identified during the alternative evaluation and selection process, resulting in increased uncertainty in the extent of subsurface contamination. In response, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District is implementing ex situ soil segregation methods. At the remediated Painesville Site, soils were excavated and fed through a conveyor-belt system, which automatically segregated them into above- and below-cleanup criteria discharge piles utilizing gamma spectroscopy. At the Linde Site and the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site, which are both in the remediation phase, soils are initially segregated during the excavation process using gross gamma detectors and then transported to a pad for confirmatory manual surveying and sampling. At the Linde Site, the ex situ soils are analyzed on the basis of a site-specific method, to establish compliance with beneficial reuse criteria that were developed for the Linde remediation. At the SLDA Site, the ex situ soils are surveyed and sampled based on Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) final status survey guidance to demonstrate compliance with the derived concentration guideline levels. At all three sites, the ex situ soils that meet the site- specific DCGLs are retained on-site and used as backfill

  2. Soil Segregation Methods for Reducing Transportation and Disposal Costs - 13544

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frothingham, David; Andrews, Shawn; Barker, Michelle; Boyle, James; Buechi, Stephen; Graham, Marc; Houston, Linda; Polek, Michael; Simmington, Robert; Spector, Harold; Elliott, Robert 'Dan'; Durham, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    At Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites where the selected alternative for contaminated soil is excavation and off-site disposal, the most significant budget items of the remedial action are the costs for transportation and disposal of soil at an off-site facility. At these sites, the objective is to excavate and dispose of only those soils that exceed derived concentration guideline levels. In situ soil segregation using gross gamma detectors to guide the excavation is often challenging at sites where the soil contamination is overlain by clean soil or where the contaminated soil is located in isolated, subsurface pockets. In addition, data gaps are often identified during the alternative evaluation and selection process, resulting in increased uncertainty in the extent of subsurface contamination. In response, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District is implementing ex situ soil segregation methods. At the remediated Painesville Site, soils were excavated and fed through a conveyor-belt system, which automatically segregated them into above- and below-cleanup criteria discharge piles utilizing gamma spectroscopy. At the Linde Site and the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site, which are both in the remediation phase, soils are initially segregated during the excavation process using gross gamma detectors and then transported to a pad for confirmatory manual surveying and sampling. At the Linde Site, the ex situ soils are analyzed on the basis of a site-specific method, to establish compliance with beneficial reuse criteria that were developed for the Linde remediation. At the SLDA Site, the ex situ soils are surveyed and sampled based on Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) final status survey guidance to demonstrate compliance with the derived concentration guideline levels. At all three sites, the ex situ soils that meet the site- specific DCGLs are retained on-site and used as backfill

  3. Soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. L. Boersma; D. Kirkham; D. Norum; R. Ziemer; J. C. Guitjens; J. Davidson; J. N. Luthin

    1971-01-01

    Infiltration continues to occupy the attention of soil physicists and engineers. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the effect of surface sealing on infiltration by Edwards and Larson [1969] showed that raindrops reduced the infiltration rate by as much as 50% for a two-hour period of infiltration. The effect of raindrops on the surface infiltration rate of...

  4. Soil microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.C.; Legg, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  5. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2003-01-01

    The vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements under lysimetric laboratory conditions during irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year, except 131 I. A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, which makes it possible to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The relaxation times of radionuclides in respective soil horizons can also be evaluated. (author)

  6. Indoor and soil radon measurements in the Hyblean Foreland (South-East Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alessandro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon behavior in two sites of SE Sicily was studied as a function of the soil radon concentration. The chosen locations were Ragusa and Modica towns, placed in the Hyblean Plateau (northern margin of the African Plate. Soil samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry to determine the amount of radionuclides. Indoor air and soil gas radon measurements were simultaneously performed in both sites using active detectors. Radon in soil was measured one meter deep. A positive correlation was obtained between indoor radon concentration and the soil gas concentration.

  7. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua; Gong Jian; Liu Xiaoya

    2006-01-01

    In the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that some of the popular gamma spectra analysis software have shortcomings, which decrease the radiation fingerprint comparison precision. So a new analysis software is developed for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of developed program, some typical simulative warhead gamma spectra are analyzed respectively by present software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. Present software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  8. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events

  9. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-01

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10 -10 sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass

  10. A study of gamma shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roogtanakait, N.

    1981-01-01

    Gamma rays have high penetration power and its attenuation depends upon the thickness and the attenuation coefficient of the shield, so it is necessary to use the high density shield to attenuate the gamma rays. Heavy concrete is considered to be used for high radiation laboratory and the testing of the shielding ability and compressibility of various types of heavy concrete composed of baryte, hematite, ilmenite and galena is carried out. The results of this study show that baryte-ilmenite concrete is the most suitable for high radiation laboratory in Thailand

  11. Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is often the technique of choice in an environmental radioactivity laboratory. When measuring environmental samples associated activities are usually low so an important parameter that describes the performance of the spectrometer...... for a nuclide of interest is the minimum detectable activity (MDA). There are many ways for lowering the MDAs in gamma spectrometry. Recently, developments of fast and compact digital acquisition systems have led to growing number of multiple HPGe detector spectrometers. In these applications all detected...

  12. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua

    2006-12-01

    During the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that the popular gamma spectra analysis softwares are faultful, which decrease the precision of radiation fingerprint comparison. So a new analysis software is development for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of new program, some typical simulative gamma spectra of radiation source are analyzed respectively by our software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. The software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  13. Gamma source for active interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA; Lou, Tak Pui [Berkeley, CA; Barletta, William A [Oakland, CA

    2009-09-29

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  14. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-15

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10{sup -10} sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass.

  15. Gamma activation analysis with microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiderkiewicz, A.; Kierzek, J.; Parus, J.; Swiderska-Kowalczyk, M.; Wolski, W.; Zoltowski, T.

    1989-01-01

    The physical principles of gamma activation analysis, its capabilities as well as its application to analyse polymetallic ores with use of mean power microtron are presented. Limits of detection and determination for above twenty elements occurring in those ores with use of short- and longlived radioisotopes are specified. The work contains conception of construction of race-track microtron with electrons energy adjusted in 10-30 MeV range and with current not less than 20 μA. Besides the development of microtrons, the reason for choosing the race-track construction for gamma activation analysis is given. 69 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  16. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components....... By knowing the spectral components and their amplitudes in each of the measured spectra one is able to extract more information from the data than possible with the methods used otherwise....

  17. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the essential aspects of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenon, with emphasis on the more recent results. GRBs are introduced by their time histories, which provide some evidence for a compact object origin. The energy spectra of bursts are presented and they are seen to demonstrate practically unambiguously that the origin of some GRBs involves neutron stars. Counterpart searches are reviewed briefly and the statistical properties of bursters treated. This paper presents a review of the three known repeating bursters (the Soft Gamma Repeaters). Extragalactic and galactic models are discussed and future prospects are assessed

  18. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  19. Radiosurgery by Leksell gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The learning objectives of the lecture were as follows: to learn basic principles of Leksell gamma knife (LGK) radiosurgery; to discuss imaging, treatment planning and optimization procedures; to discuss quality assurance for LGK treatments; and to present examples of diagnoses treated by LGK. The following topics were discussed: Radiosurgery - definition, components of selectivity, fundamentals; Leksell gamma knife - principles; Stereotactic target localization; Radiosurgery - imaging; Treatment planning; LGK treatment; Quality control - process tree, LGK, distortion of scanners, 3D phantom measurements; Physical and technical parameters; and Clinical applications. (P.A.)

  20. Soil fertility management: Impacts on soil macrofauna, soil aggregation and soil organic matter allocation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.; Brussaard, L.; Vanlauwe, B.; Six, J.; Lelei, D.K.; Kibunja, C.N.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is important for soil quality and agricultural productivity, and for the persistence of soil faunal diversity and biomass. Little is known about the interactive effects of soil fertility management and soil macrofauna

  1. Basic Soils. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  2. Effects of Acute Gamma Irradiation on Amaryllis Orange Bio gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Shakinah Salleh; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin; Suhaimi Musa; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Ornamental and landscaping plants have their own demand. Color variations, shape and flower shelf life are among the important value-added characters in improvement of new varieties of ornamental plants. Mutation induction using ionizing radiation is an alternative way for obtaining plant with desirable traits. Improvement of ornamental plant Amaryllis 'Orange Bio gamma' was carried out by exposing bulbs with gamma rays at dose 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50 Gy using Bio Beam GM8000 gamma irradiation chamber at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Effect of radiation on the growth of bulbs was observed. Data on shoot and root length was recorded after 6 weeks. From the observation, the increasing dose has caused a reduction in shoot length and inhibited the root production. This paper will discuss the effects of acute gamma irradiation on the plant morphology. The result and observation obtained is useful for future work on lily improvement and will be included into Bio Beam GM8000 irradiation database. (author)

  3. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. QCD and $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ studies at FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Skands, Peter

    2016-10-20

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) is a post-LHC project aiming at searches for physics beyond the SM in a new 80--100~km tunnel at CERN. Running in its first phase as a very-high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), it will provide unique possibilities for indirect searches of new phenomena through high-precision tests of the SM. In addition, by collecting tens of ab$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity in the range of center-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s}$~=90--350~GeV, the FCC-ee also offers unique physics opportunities for precise measurements of QCD phenomena and of photon-photon collisions through, literally, billions of hadronic final states as well as unprecedented large fluxes of quasireal $\\gamma$'s radiated from the $\\rm e^+e^-$ beams. We succinctly summarize the FCC-ee perspectives for high-precision extractions of the QCD coupling, for detailed analyses of parton radiation and fragmentation, and for SM and BSM studies through $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions.

  5. Formulation of the relationship between indices of neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma method and the percentrage of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorowicz, J.

    1973-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the possibility of a complex utilization of radiometric logging methods, neutron-gamma profiling and gamma-gamma density logging for determining percentage of iron and establishing geophysical possibilities of identifying zones of economically profitable ores in borehole profiles. Figures present the correlations between indices of neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma logging methods and the percentage of iron, as well as the correlation of neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma indices for zones minerallized with iron ores. The article presents the correlational analyses of the results: the correlational coefficients are given as well as total error in determining iron content on the basis of each of the methods described. Next, a multidimensional statistical analysis is carried out on the results obtained. On the basis of the two-dimensional correlational coefficients calculated and the average standard deviation, an equation of linear regression was formulated, simultaneously involving three parameters - the indices of neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma logging and the percentage of iron. The multiple correlational coefficient obtained markedly exceeds the two-dimentional correlation coefficient (r=0.974>rsub(xz)>rsub(yz)>rsub(xy)). The given method of utilizing multidimensional statistics in borehole geophysics for identifying iron ores is an efficient one. On the basis of several relationships among independent variables which are less obvious (smaller values of correlational coefficient), it is possible to obtain a single distinct relationship involving all variables simultaneously. (author)

  6. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M.; Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h -1 . Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg -1 , of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of 232 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  7. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecologia, Perif. Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31415 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E., E-mail: mrenteria@uach.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31136 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h{sup -1}. Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  8. Gamma dose rate changes in buildings in the region of Southeastern Iran using thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jomehzadeh Mahani, A.; Bahreyni Toosi, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: It is important to measure background radiation, because human beings are always exposed to environmental radiation. The terrestrial component of the natural background depends on the compositions of soils and rocks in which are contained. A significant contribution to total dose from natural sources comes from terrestrial radionuclides such as U- 238, Th- 232 and K- 40. The level of gamma dose rate in buildings depends on the climate / weather, ventilation of living environment, local geology, drainage patterns and other factors. The objective of this study was to establishing the distribution of environmental gamma dose rates in the type of building sampled included cement-sand and soil brick buildings. Materials and Methods: Equipments used in this study include: 1-TLD-100 H (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) dosimeters. 2- TLD-Reader 3500 made by Harshaw, USA. In order to determine indoor gamma dose rate, the dosimeters were calibrated at room temperature with Co-60 source. Before using the dosimeters to measure environmental dose they were subjected to the thermal treatment in a normal oven. Two TLDs, were embedded in a 5 mm PMMA mini-phantom to register only gamma ray. 20 buildings for this study chosen randomly throughout Kerman town, southeastern Iran. Inside each building a holder was hung at a height of above 3 m. The period of monitoring of TLDs was 15 days. The TLDs were retrieved from the buildings and taken to the Mashhad university of medical sciences where they were read with a Harshaw TLD reader model 3500. Results: Our results indicate that indoor gamma dose rate ranged from 106 n Sv/h to 133 n Sv/h for cement-sand buildings with an average of 114.72 n Sv/h. For soil buildings the indoor gamma dose rate varied from 86 n Sv/h to 116 n Sv/h with an average of 100.50 n Sv/h. While the average gamma dose rate in cement-sand buildings is highest (114.72 n Sv/h), that of soil buildings is lowest (100.50 n Sv/h). Discussion: Average values vary from building

  9. Gamma dose rate changes in buildings in the region of Southeastern Iran using thermoluminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomehzadeh Mahani, A. [Hormozgan un Univ. of medical sciences, Paramedical School, Bandarabbas (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahreyni Toosi, M.T. [Mashhad Univ. of medical sciences, Medical school (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    oduction: It is important to measure background radiation, because human beings are always exposed to environmental radiation. The terrestrial component of the natural background depends on the compositions of soils and rocks in which are contained. A significant contribution to total dose from natural sources comes from terrestrial radionuclides such as U- 238, Th- 232 and K- 40. The level of gamma dose rate in buildings depends on the climate / weather, ventilation of living environment, local geology, drainage patterns and other factors. The objective of this study was to establishing the distribution of environmental gamma dose rates in the type of building sampled included cement-sand and soil brick buildings. Materials and Methods: Equipments used in this study include: 1-TLD-100 H (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) dosimeters. 2- TLD-Reader 3500 made by Harshaw, USA. In order to determine indoor gamma dose rate, the dosimeters were calibrated at room temperature with Co-60 source. Before using the dosimeters to measure environmental dose they were subjected to the thermal treatment in a normal oven. Two TLDs, were embedded in a 5 mm PMMA mini-phantom to register only gamma ray. 20 buildings for this study chosen randomly throughout Kerman town, southeastern Iran. Inside each building a holder was hung at a height of above 3 m. The period of monitoring of TLDs was 15 days. The TLDs were retrieved from the buildings and taken to the Mashhad university of medical sciences where they were read with a Harshaw TLD reader model 3500. Results: Our results indicate that indoor gamma dose rate ranged from 106 n Sv/h to 133 n Sv/h for cement-sand buildings with an average of 114.72 n Sv/h. For soil buildings the indoor gamma dose rate varied from 86 n Sv/h to 116 n Sv/h with an average of 100.50 n Sv/h. While the average gamma drate in cement-sand buildings is highest (114.72 n Sv/h), that of soil buildings is lowest (100.50 n Sv/h). Discussion: Average values vary from building to

  10. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  11. Indoor radon in a Spanish region with different gamma exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quindos, L.S.; Fernandez, P.L.; Sainz, C.; Fuente, I.; Nicolas, J.; Quindos, L.; Arteche, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the beginning of 1990s within the framework of a national radon survey of more than 1500 points, radon measurements were performed in more than 100 houses located in Galicia region, in the Northwest area of Spain. The houses were randomly selected only bearing in mind general geological aspects of the region. Subsequently, a nationwide project called MARNA dealt with external gamma radiation measurements in order to draw a Spanish natural radiation map. The comparison in Galicia between these estimations and the indoor radon levels previously obtained showed good agreement. With the purpose of getting a confirmation of this relationship and also of creating a radon map of the zone, a new set of measurements were carried out in 2005. A total of 300 external gamma radiation measurements were carried out as well as 300 measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K content in soil. Concerning radon, 300 1-m-depth radon measurements in soil were performed, and indoor radon concentration was determined in a total of 600 dwellings. Radon content in soil gave more accurate indoor radon predictions than external gamma radiation or 226 Ra concentration in soil

  12. Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moemen, A.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work achieved to study the effects of, mixture of salt 2:2:1 (Na Cl-CaCl 2 and Mg SO 4 ), concentration of (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). on growth characters, some chemical components and some active ingredients in shoots of Ambrosia maritima plants, at different stages of growth, during two seasons. Pots 30 cm in diameter were filled of sand-loamy soils in appropriate concentration, all pots were irrigated with tap water. The exposed damsisa seeds to gamma rays, doses (0, 20, 40, and 80 Gy) before sowing together with control non irradiated seeds were sown in saline soils (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Soil salinity treatments caused a decrease in plant height, number of leaves, content of damsin, and an increase in fresh weigh, dry weight, total sugars, total chlorophyll, amino acids and ambrosine content. Also, Gamma rays caused an increase in most of growth parameters and most of chemical composition. It was observed that 40 or 80 Gy was more effective. We investigated the combined effect of levels of salinity and doses of radiation used, this interference improve growth parameters and chemical composition in ambrosia maritima plants and caused ascertain the role of gamma irradiation in plants tolerance to soil salinity and alleviation their harmful effect on plants.

  13. Results from the first national in-situ gamma spectrometry survey of the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, A.

    2004-01-01

    In-situ gamma spectrometry was introduced for the first time as part of a national soil and herbage pollution survey of the United Kingdom (UK) in 2002. The aim of introducing the in-situ approach was to evaluate its potential for replacing the conventional soil sampling approach in environmental monitoring. A total of 138 points were measured across the whole of the UK on a 50 km grid, encompassing a complete spectrum of soil types, geology (providing a range of natural radioactive backgrounds) and anthropogenic radioactivity (primarily derived from atmospheric weapons testing and Chernobyl fallout). Ten calibration sites were set up to derive an in-situ calibration from spatially distributed sampling points, designed to match the spatial response of the in-situ detector at 1 m above the ground. The importance of variations in the vertical activity distributions of 137 Cs on the in-situ detector calibration was verified and the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a forward scattering type approach for real time in-situ correction was evaluated. The accuracy of the in-situ calibrations was evaluated for the remaining 128 sites by independent comparison with soil core derived estimates of specific activity concentrations and inventories of a range of natural and anthropogenic gamma emitting radionuclides. Air kerma measurements were also derived from the in-situ gamma spectrometry measurements and compared with conventional GM tube derived estimates. (authors)

  14. Realization of a gamma multiplicity filter and gamma multiplicity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azgui, F.

    1981-12-01

    A gamma multiplicity filter for the study of reaction mechanism has been realised. It's composed of six NaI(Tl) counters. The flexibility of the geometry allows many configurations. This set up has been tested with gamma radioactive sources and with the 252 Cf source to resolve problems of gamma-efficiency of the NaI(Tl) counters and the contamination of neutrons in these detectors. A logical electronic unit (Encodeur) has been constructed and the around electronic has been developped. This gamma multiplicity filter has been coupled with a detector of high resolution Ge(Li), and used in two reactions: 12 C + 55 Mn at E( 12 C) = 54 MeV; α + 63 Cu at E(α) = 52 MeV. The dominant process is the fusion-evaporation. The compound nucleus 67 Ga, is formed at the same excitation energy. The values of multiplicities Msub(γ) have been extracted using a program based on the formalism of W.J. Ockels. The fractionalization of the angular momentum is well observed for some residual nuclei ( 63 Zn, 64 Zn, 65 Zn), and for each residual nucleus, the average gamma multiplicity is lower with projectile α than that with projectile 12 C. For the most strongly output channel p2n, an entry point for the 64 Zn has been determined in the reactions. All these observations are in good agreement with those published, in the same region (f-p shell) of nuclei. This set up can be coupled with different central detector as, ''X'', neutrons charged particles detectors, and will be used with the new machine SARA to make a systematic study of transfer of angular momentum to the fragments at 30 MeV/A [fr

  15. Multiple hard interactions in $\\gamma\\gamma$ and $\\gamma$p physics at LEP and HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, J.M.; Seymour, M.H.; Storrow, J.K.; Walker, R.

    1995-01-01

    At e^+e^- and ep colliders, the large fluxes of almost on-shell photons accompanying the lepton beams lead to the photoproduction of jets. As the centre-of-mass energy is increased, regions of smaller x in the parton densities are explored and these are regions of high parton density. As a result, the probability for more than one hard partonic scattering occurring in a single \\gamma \\gamma or \\gamma p collision can become significant. This effect has been simulated using an eikonal prescription combined with the HERWIG Monte Carlo program. The possible effects of multiple hard interactions on event shapes and jet cross sections have been studied in this framework at a range of energies relevant to HERA and LEPII. The results indicate that the effects could be significant.

  16. ATLAS searches for VH, HH, VV, V+$\\gamma$/$\\gamma\\gamma$ resonances

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00441490; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider motivates searches for physics beyond the Standard Model in channels involving coupling to the Higgs boson. A search for massive resonances decaying into couples of bosons is described. The considered final states are: $HH$, $VH$, $VV$, $V\\gamma$ and $\\gamma\\gamma$ with $V$ indicating either the $W$ or the $Z$ boson. Final states with different number of leptons or photons and where, in many cases, at least one Higgs decays into a b-quark pair are studied using different jet reconstruction techniques which allow to optimize the signal acceptance for low or high Higgs boson transverse momentum. The most recent diboson resonance searches using LHC Run 2 data are described.

  17. Consequences of the factorization hypothesis in nucleon-nucleon, $\\gamma p and \\gamma \\gamma$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Martin M

    2002-01-01

    Using an eikonal structure for the scattering amplitude, factorization theorems for nucleon-nucleon, gamma p and gamma gamma scattering at high energies have been derived, using only some very general assumptions. Using a QCD-inspired eikonal analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering, we present here experimental confirmation for factorization of cross sections, nuclear slope parameters B and rho -values (ratio of real to imaginary portion of forward scattering amplitudes), showing that: 1) the three factorization theorems of Block and Kaidalov [2000] hold, 2) the additive quark model holds to approximately=1%, and 3) vector dominance holds to better than approximately=4%. Predictions for the total cross section, elastic cross section and other forward scattering parameters at the LHC (14 TeV) are given. (12 refs).

  18. Application of the similitude principle to gamma-gamma density measurements; Application du principe de similitude a la mesure gamma-gamma de densite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czubek, J A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement d' Electronique Generale, Service d' Electronique Industrielle; Institut de Recherches Nucleaires, Dep. VI, Cracow (Poland)

    1966-07-01

    The work presented here deals with the problem of the application of the similitude principle to rock density measurements by the gamma-gamma method. A formula is presented which makes it possible to transform results of gamma-gamma measurements carried out on models in order to make them suitable for comparison with results obtained under actual field conditions. Both the space coordinates and the densities are transformed. This transformation makes it possible to obtain a calibration curve as a function of the density for a gamma-gamma probe using only a single model of given density. The influence has also been studied of the chemical composition on the results obtained from gamma-gamma measurements. A method has been developed for estimating the equivalent Z parameter of the medium; the possibility of completely eliminating the influence of the chemical composition of the medium on the measurement results has been studied. (author) [French] L'etude presentee ci-dessous traite le probleme de l'application du principe de similitude aux mesures de densite des roches par la methode gamma-gamma. Nous indiquons une formule qui permet de transformer les resultats des mesures gamma-gamma effectuees sur les modeles pour les comparer aux resultats obtenus dans les conditions reelles sur le terrain. On transforme les coordonnees spatiales ainsi que les densites. Cette transformation donne la possibilite d'obtenir une courbe d'etalonnage (en fonction de la densite) pour une sonde gamma-gamma en utilisant un seul modele de densite donnee. On a etudie aussi l'influence de la composition chimique sur les resultats obtenus des mesures gamma-gamma. On a etabli une methode d'estimation du parametre Z equivalent du milieu, ainsi que la possibilite d'eliminer completement l'influence de la composition chimique du milieu sur les resultats des mesures de densite. (auteur)

  19. A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongming; Xing Shilin; Wang Zhongmin

    1986-01-01

    A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system is described. A detector and a pulse shape discriminator are suitable for the neutron-gamma discriminating system. The influence of the constant fraction discriminator threshold energy on the neutron-gamma resolution properties is shown. The neutron-gamma timing distributions from an 241 Am-Be source, 2.5 MeV neutron beam and 14 MeV neutron beam are presented

  20. A normalisation for the four - detector system for gamma - gamma angular correlation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiang, G.C.; Chen, C.H.; Niu, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    A normalisation method for the multiple - HPGe - detector system is described. The system consists of four coaxial HPGe detectors with a CAMAC event - by - event data acquisition system, enabling to measure six gamma -gamma coincidences of angles simultaneously. An application for gamma - gamma correlation studies of Kr 82 is presented and discussed. 3 figs., 6 refs. (author)