WorldWideScience

Sample records for soil extract media

  1. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  3. Extraction of latent images from printed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Vladislav; Fedoseev, Victor

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose an automatic technology for extraction of latent images from printed media such as documents, banknotes, financial securities, etc. This technology includes image processing by adaptively constructed Gabor filter bank for obtaining feature images, as well as subsequent stages of feature selection, grouping and multicomponent segmentation. The main advantage of the proposed technique is versatility: it allows to extract latent images made by different texture variations. Experimental results showing performance of the method over another known system for latent image extraction are given.

  4. Extraction and determination of glucosinolates from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimsing, Anne Louise; Kirkegaard, John A; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2005-12-14

    The use of glucosinolate-containing plants as soil-incorporated biofumigants for pest and disease control has raised questions regarding the fate of glucosinolates in soil; however, no method for routine analysis of glucosinolates in soil has been reported. A simple method to extract glucosinolates from soil with quantification as desulfoglucosinolates by HPLC is presented. The method involves two extractions with 70% methanol at room temperature, centrifugation, and filtration prior to the desulfation step. The desulfoglucosinolates are then quantified by HPLC using established protocols for plant tissue analysis. There were no significant interfering peaks from the soil extracts, and the method provided high extraction efficiencies (around 100%) for both aromatic (benzyl) and aliphatic (2-propenyl) glucosinolates when amended at a wide range of realistic field soil concentrations (1.6-120 nmol/g of soil). The method was equally effective in three diverse Australian soils that varied in organic matter, clay content, and pH. The method was effective in air-dried or field-moist soil, although evidence for rapid glucosinolate degradation in field-moist soil indicates that extraction of moist soils should be performed as soon as possible after sampling. The method is compatible with field soil sampling at remote sites and utilizes the same equipment and protocols already established for plant tissue analysis. Extraction of glucosinolates in the field following incorporation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and rape (Brassica napus) green manure crops was also tested. Eight different glucosinolates contained in the plant tissues were identified and quantified in soil extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 21.7 nmol/g of soil.

  5. Nutrient leaching when soil is part of plant growth media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils can serve as sorbents for phosphorus (P) within plant growth media, negating the need for artificial sorbents. The purpose of this study was to compare soils with different properties, as part of plant growth media, for their effect on nutrient levels in effluent. Four soils were mixed with sa...

  6. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    AL-ANSARI, Abdul –Mehdi S; ABDULKAREEM, Mohammed A

    An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD...

  7. Extraction Methods in Soil Phosphorus Characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soinne, Helena

    2010-05-01

    Extraction methods are widely used to assess the bioavailability of P and to characterise soil P reserves. Even though new and more sophisticated methods to characterise soil P are constantly developed the use of extraction methods is not likely to be replaced because of the relatively simple analytical equipment needed for the analysis. However, the large variety of extractants, pre-treatments and sample preparation procedures complicate the comparison of published results. In order to improve our understanding of the behaviour and cycling of P in soil, it is important to know the role of extracted P in the soil P cycle. The knowledge of the factors affecting the analytical outcome is a prerequisite for justified interpretation of the results. In this study, the effect of sample pre-treatment and properties of the used extractant on extractable molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) and molybdate-unreactive phosphorus (MUP) was studied. Furthermore, the effect of sample preparation procedures prior the analysis on measured MRP and MUP was studied. Two widely used sequential extraction procedures were compared on their ability to show management induced differences on soil P. These results revealed that pre-treatments changed soil properties and air-drying was found to affect soil P, particularly extractable MUP, thought to represent organic P, by disrupting organic matter. This was evidenced by an increase in the water-extractable small-sized (0.2 µm) P. In addition to the effects of sample pre-treatment, the results showed that extractable organic P was sensitive to the chemical nature of the used extractant and to the sample preparation procedures employed prior to P analysis, including centrifugation and filtering of soil suspensions. Filtering may remove a major proportion of extractable MUP; therefore filtering cannot be recommended in the characterisation of solubilised MUP. However, extractants having high ionic strength may cause the organic molecules to

  8. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  9. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  10. Comparison of soil-monolith extraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, R.; Rupp, H.; Weller, U.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    In the international literature the term „lysimeter" is used for different objectives, e.g. suction cups, fluxmeters, etc. According to our understanding it belongs to the direct methods to measure water and solute fluxes in soil. Depending on the scientific task the shape and dimensions of the lysimeter as well as the type of filling (disturbed or undisturbed) and the specific instrumentation can be different. In any case where water dynamics or solute transport in natural soil is considered, lysimeters should be filled with 'undisturbed' monoliths which are large enough to contain the small scale heterogeneity of a site since flow and transport is highly sensitive to soil structure. Furthermore, lysimeters with vegetation should represent the natural crop inventory and the maximum root penetration depth should be taken into account. The aim of this contribution is to give an overview about different methods for obtaining undisturbed soil monoliths, in particular about i) techniques for the vertical and ii) for the horizontal extraction and iii) to evaluate the most frequently used procedures based on X-ray tomography images. Minimal disturbance of the soil monolith during extraction and subsequence filling of the lysimeter vessel is of critical importance for establishing flow and transport conditions corresponding approximately to natural field conditions. In the past, several methods were used to extract and fill lysimeter vessels vertically - including hand digging, employing sets of trihedral scaffold with lifting blocks and ballast, or using heavy duty excavators, which could shear and cut large blocks of soil. More recently, technologies have been developed to extract cylindrical soil monoliths by using ramming equipment or screw presses. One of the great disadvantages of the mentioned methods is the compaction or settling of soil that occurs during the "hammering" or "pressing". For this reason a new technology was developed, which cuts the outline of

  11. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    Increased application of in-situ technology for control and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the subsurface has made the understanding of soil physical properties and their impact upon contaminant transport even more important. Knowledge of contaminant transport is important when...... properties of undisturbed soil from more easily measurable soil properties are developed. The importance of soil properties with respect to contaminant migration during remediation by soil vapor extraction (SVE) in the unsaturated zone was investigated using numerical simulations....

  12. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE

  13. Pore network extraction for fractured porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; van Dijke, M. I. J.; Geiger, S.; Ma, J.; Couples, G. D.; Li, X.

    2017-09-01

    Although flow through fractured rocks involves many different length-scales, it is crucial for the prediction of continuum-scale single- and multi-phase flow functions to understand, at the pore-scale, the interaction between the rock matrix and fractures. Here we present a pore-network extraction method in which the pore diameters and fracture apertures are of similar size. The method involves a shrinking algorithm to extract a hybrid skeleton of medial axes and surfaces, and it includes a workflow to convert the medial surfaces of fractures into dense networks of virtual medial axes, allowing generation of an integrated pore-network for the entire pore space. Appropriate single- and two-phase flow properties are assigned to network elements representing the fractures. We validate the method via comparisons between pore network flow simulations and an analytical solution, direct flow simulations and experimental observations. The network calculations are several orders of magnitude faster than the direct simulations.

  14. Tightly bound soil water introduces isotopic memory effects on mobile and extractable soil water pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Sarah L; Prechsl, Ulrich E; Pace, Matthew; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2017-08-01

    Cryogenic vacuum extraction is the well-established method of extracting water from soil for isotopic analyses of waters moving through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. We investigate if soils can alter the isotopic composition of water through isotope memory effects, and determined which mechanisms are responsible for it. Soils with differing physicochemical properties were re-wetted with reference water and subsequently extracted by cryogenic water distillation. Results suggest some reference waters bind tightly to the soil and not all of this tightly bound water is removed during cryogenic vacuum extraction. Kinetic isotopic fractionation occurring when reference water binds to the soil is likely responsible for the (18)O-depletion of re-extracted reference water, suggesting an enrichment of the tightly bound soil water pool. Further re-wetting of cryogenically extracted soils indicates an isotopic memory effect of tightly bound soil water on water added to the soil. The data suggest tightly bound soil water can influence the isotopic composition of mobile soil water. Findings show that soils influence the isotope composition of soil water by (i) kinetic fractionation when water is bound to the soil and (ii) equilibrium fractionation between different soil water pools. These findings could be relevant for plant water uptake investigations and complicate ecohydrological and paleohydrological studies.

  15. Organic greenhouse soil media + supplemental fertilizer = better organic tomato transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer perceptions that organic food tastes better and is healthier are two major factors driving the increasing demand for organically produced crops in the U.S. All components entering into the organic crop production system must be approved for organic use, including seed, soil media, and fert...

  16. Enhancing Media Personalization by Extracting Similarity Knowledge from Metadata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butkus, Andrius

    with many interrelated parts – recommendation engines, content metadata, contextual information and user profiles. In the center of any type of recommendation lies the notion of similarity. The most popular way to approach similarity is to look for the feature overlaps. This results often in recommending......, especially when we talk about the contents of music. Therefore the main focus in the thesis is how to extract such emotional information from media, and how to use it to enhance media personalization. This dissertation proposes a novel method to extract emotional information from text (unstructured metadata......) using Latent Semantic Analysis (one of the unsupervised machine learning techniques). It presents three separate cases to illustrate the similarity knowledge extraction from the metadata, where the emotional components in each case represents different abstraction levels – genres, synopsis and lyrics...

  17. Rare earth elements in soil extracts by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobler, L.; Furrer, V.; Wyttenbach, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burger, M.; Jakob, A. [AC-Laboratorium Spiez (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Three different horizons of a soil profile were extracted with water and with a complexing solution. 14 REEs were determined in the extracts. The distribution patterns obtained from the different horizons were rather similar and did not show the large fractionations observed between different plant species growing on this soil. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  18. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeates C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1. DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size.

  19. Data Assimilation to Extract Soil Moisture Information from SMAP Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Kolassa; Rolf H. Reichle; Qing Liu; Michael Cosh; David D. Bosch; Todd G. Caldwell; Andreas Colliander; Chandra Holifield Collins; Thomas J. Jackson; Stan J. Livingston; Mahta Moghaddam; Patrick J. Starks

    2017-01-01

    This study compares different methods to extract soil moisture information through the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observations. Neural network (NN) and physically-based SMAP soil moisture retrievals were assimilated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Catchment model over the contiguous United States for April 2015 to March 2017. By construction, the NN retrievals are consistent with the global climatology of the Catchment model soil moisture...

  20. Extraction Efficiency of Belonolaimus longicaudatus from Sandy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Frederick, J J

    1991-10-01

    Numbers of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from sandy soils (91-92% sand) by sieving and centrifugation were only 40-55% of those extracted by sieving and incubation on a Baermann tray. Residues normally discarded at each step of the sieving plus Baermann tray extraction procedure were examined for nematodes to obtain estimates of extraction efficiencies. For third-stage and fourth-stage juveniles, males, and females, estimates of extraction efficiency ranged from 60 to 65% in one experiment and 73 to 82% in another. Estimated extraction efficiencies for second-stage juveniles were lower (33% in one experiment, 67% in another) due to losses during sieving. When sterilized soil was seeded with known numbers of B. longicaudatus, 60% of second-stage juveniles and 68-76% of other stages were recovered. Most stages of B. longicaudatus could be extracted from these soils by sieving plus Baermann incubation with an efficiency of 60-70%.

  1. Extracting and Comparing Places Using Geo-Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, F. O.; Huang, H.; Andrienko, G.; Andrienko, N.; Capineri, C.; Farkas, K.; Purves, R. S.

    2015-08-01

    Increasing availability of Geo-Social Media (e.g. Facebook, Foursquare and Flickr) has led to the accumulation of large volumes of social media data. These data, especially geotagged ones, contain information about perception of and experiences in various environments. Harnessing these data can be used to provide a better understanding of the semantics of places. We are interested in the similarities or differences between different Geo-Social Media in the description of places. This extended abstract presents the results of a first step towards a more in-depth study of semantic similarity of places. Particularly, we took places extracted through spatio-temporal clustering from one data source (Twitter) and examined whether their structure is reflected semantically in another data set (Flickr). Based on that, we analyse how the semantic similarity between places varies over space and scale, and how Tobler's first law of geography holds with regards to scale and places.

  2. Chemical composition and Zn bioavailability of the soil solution extracted from Zn amended variable charge soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampella, Mariavittoria; Adamo, Paola

    2010-01-01

    A study on variable charge soils (volcanic Italian and podzolic Scottish soils) was performed to investigate the influence of soil properties on the chemical composition of soil solution. Zinc speciation, bioavailability and toxicity in the soil solution were examined. The soils were spiked with increasing amounts of Zn (0, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg) and the soil solutions were extracted using rhizon soil moisture samplers. The pH, total organic carbon (TOC), base cations, anions, total Zn and free Zn2+ in soil solution were analysed. A rapid bioassay with the luminescent bacterium Escherichia coli HB101 pUCD607 was performed to assess Zn toxicity. The influence of soil type and Zn treatments on the chemical composition of soil solution and on Zn toxicity was considered and discussed. Different trends of total and free Zn concentrations, base cations desorption and luminescence of E. coli HB101 pUCD607 were observed. The soil solution extracted from the volcanic soils had very low total and free Zn concentrations and showed specific Zn2+/Ca2+ exchange. The soil solution from the podzolic soil had much higher total and free Zn concentrations and showed no evidence of specific Zn2+/Ca2+ exchange. In comparison with the subalkaline volcanic soils, the acidic podzol showed enhanced levels of toxic free Zn2+ and consequently stronger effects on E. coli viability.

  3. Electrochemical extraction of europium from molten fluoride media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibilaro, M. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); Massot, L., E-mail: massot@chimie.ups-tlse.f [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); Chamelot, P.; Cassayre, L.; Taxil, P. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France)

    2009-12-15

    This work concerns the extraction of europium from molten fluoride media. Two electrochemical ways have been examined: (i) the use of a reactive cathode made of copper and (ii) the co-deposition with aluminium on inert electrode, leading to the formation of europium-copper and europium-aluminium alloys, respectively, as identified by SEM-EDS analysis. Cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry were used to identify the reduction pathway and to characterise the step of Cu-Eu and Al-Eu alloys formation. Then, electrochemical extractions using the two methodologies have been performed with extraction efficiency around 92% for copper electrode and 99.7% for co-reduction with aluminium ions.

  4. Predicting soil nitrogen supply : relevance of extractable soil organic matter fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the potential of soils to supply N is of considerable importance to maximize agricultural N use efficiency and to minimize environmental losses. This research examines and evaluates the current soil testing approach, which uses extractable organic N (EON) fractions to predict soil N

  5. Model analysis of mechanisms controlling pneumatic soil vapor extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Camilla Kruse; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency of heterogen......The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency...... of heterogeneous soils by enforcing large fluctuating pressure fronts through the contaminated area. Laboratory experiments have suggested that pneumatic SVE considerably improves the recovery rate from low-permeable units. We have analyzed the experimental results using a numerical code and quantified...... level the pneumatic venting technology is superior to the traditional technique, and that the method is particularly efficient in cases where large permeability contrasts exist between soil units in the subsurface....

  6. Acid extractable mocronutrients (Mn and Zn) in selected soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently upon reports of Zinc (Zn) deficiency in some parts of Kwara State in the Guinea Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria, surface soil samples were analysed for native Manganese (Mn) and Zn contents of selected soils in Ilorin, Kwara State of Nigeria. Acid (0.1M HCl) extractable contents were determined using ...

  7. System of extraction of volatiles from soil using microwave processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor); Kaukler, William F. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A device for the extraction and collection of volatiles from soil or planetary regolith. The device utilizes core drilled holes to gain access to underlying volatiles below the surface. Microwave energy beamed into the holes penetrates through the soil or regolith to heat it, and thereby produces vapor by sublimation. The device confines and transports volatiles to a cold trap for collection.

  8. Prediction of reducible soil iron content from iron extraction data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Reeven, van J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Soils contain various iron compounds that differ in solubility, reducibility and extractability. Moreover, the contribution of the various iron compounds to total iron (Fe) and total Fe concentrations differs highly among soils. As a result, the total reducible Fe content can also differ among

  9. Selenium speciation and extractability in Dutch agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supriatin, Supriatin; Weng, Liping; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to understand selenium (Se) speciation and extractability in Dutch agricultural soils. Top soil samples were taken from 42 grassland fields and 41 arable land fields in the Netherlands. Total Se contents measured in aqua regia were between 0.12 and 1.97mgkg-1(on average

  10. Mild extractability and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between bioavailability of unaged and aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and the amounts detected by mild solvent extraction. More aged than unaged anthracene remained in Lima loam following introduction of earthworms (Eisenia foetida), a mixed culture containing anthracene-degrading microorganisms, or earthworms or wheat after bacterial biodegradation of the compound. Aging decreased the percentage of anthracene recovered by mild extraction with n-butanol from soil following introduction of earthworms, growth of wheat, biodegradation by bacteria, or when maintained sterile. Biodegradation resulted in a marked decrease in the percentage of aged and unaged anthracene recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol or ethyl acetate. Aging of fluoranthene and pyrene decreased the amount removed by mild extraction with n-butanol, ethyl acetate, and propanol. The uptake of aged and unaged anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene by earthworms was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol, propanol, and ethyl acetate. The retention of aged and unaged anthracene by wheat and barley was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by the same procedure. The authors suggest that mild extraction with organic solvents can be used to predict the bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  11. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R W

    1999-04-23

    The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are approximately 60% sand, 30% silt, and 10% clay. Sequential extractions were performed on the 'as-received' soils (worst case and representative) to determine the speciation of the metal forms. The technique speciates the heavy metal distribution into an easily extractable (exchangeable) form, carbonates, reducible oxides, organically-bound, and residual forms. The results indicated that most of the metals are in forms that are amenable to soil washing (i.e. exchangeable+carbonate+reducible oxides). The metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr have greater than 70% of their distribution in forms amenable to soil washing techniques, while Cd, Mn, and Fe are somewhat less amenable to soil washing using chelant extraction. However, the concentrations of Cd and Mn are low in the contaminated soil. From the batch chelant extraction studies, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were all effective in removing copper, lead, and zinc from the J-Field soils. Due to NTA being a Class II carcinogen, it is not recommended for use in remediating contaminated soils. EDTA and citric acid appear to offer the greatest potential as chelating agents to use in soil washing the Aberdeen Proving Ground soils. The other chelating agents studied (gluconate, oxalate, Citranox, ammonium acetate, and phosphoric acid, along with pH-adjusted water) were generally ineffective in mobilizing the heavy metals from the soils. The chelant solution removes the heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cr, As, and Hg) simultaneously. Using a multiple-stage batch extraction

  12. Extracting Quantitative Data from Lunar Soil Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Using the modified Gaussian model (MGM) developed by Sunshine et al. [1] we compared the spectral properties of the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) suite of lunar soils [2,3] with their petrologic and chemical compositions to obtain quantitative data. Our initial work on Apollo 17 soils [4] suggested that useful compositional data could be elicited from high quality soil spectra. We are now able to expand upon those results with the full suite of LSCC soils that allows us to explore a much wider range of compositions and maturity states. The model is shown to be sensitive to pyroxene abundance and can evaluate the relative portion of high-Ca and low-Ca pyroxenes in the soils. In addition, the dataset has provided unexpected insights into the nature and causes of absorption bands in lunar soils. For example, it was found that two distinct absorption bands are required in the 1.2 m region of the spectrum. Neither of these bands can be attributed to plagioclase or agglutinates, but both appear to be largely due to pyroxene.

  13. Experimental PCR Data on Soil DNA Extracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bacillus species and B. anthracis presence/absence data were determined in 4,770 soil samples collected across the contiguous United States, in cooperation with the...

  14. Resistive heating enhanced soil vapor extraction of chlorinated solvents from trichloroethylene contaminated silty, low permeable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutphen, M. van; Heron, G.; Enfield, C.G.; Christensen, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    A 2D-laboratory box experiment (12 x 56 x 116 cm) was conducted to simulate the enhancement of soil vapor extraction by the application of low frequency electrical heating Uoule heating) for the remediation of a low permeable, silty soil contaminated with trichloroethylene. Joule heating enlarged

  15. The applicability of Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) to extract lipid biomarkers from soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Kotte, M.C.; de Voogt, P.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the ability of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) to extract selected lipid biomarkers (C-19=C-34 n-alkanes, n-alcohols and n-fatty acids as well as dehydroabietic acid and P-sitosterol) from a sandy soil profile under Corsican pine. Two organic layers (moss and F1) as well as two

  16. Necessity of purification during bacterial DNA extraction with environmental soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Complexity and heterogeneity of soil samples have often implied the inclusion of purification steps in conventional DNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. Unfortunately the purification steps are also time and labor intensive. Therefore the necessity of DNA purification was re-visited and investigated for a variety of environmental soil samples that contained various amounts of PCR inhibitors. Bead beating and centrifugation was used as the baseline (without purification method for DNA extraction. Its performance was compared with that of conventional DNA extraction kit (with purification. The necessity criteria for DNA purification were established with environmental soil samples. Using lysis conditions at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes with 0.1 mm glass beads, centrifugation time of 10 minutes and 1:10 dilution ratio, the baseline method outperformed conventional DNA extraction on cell seeded sand samples. Further investigation with PCR inhibitors (i.e., humic acids, clay, and magnesium [Mg] showed that sand samples containing less than 10 μg/g humic acids and 70% clay may not require purifications. Interestingly, the inhibition pattern of Mg ion was different from other inhibitors due to the complexation interaction of Mg ion with DNA fragments. It was concluded that DNA extraction method without purification is suitable for soil samples that have less than 10 μg/g of humic acids, less than 70% clay content and less than 0.01% Mg ion content.

  17. Extraction of pesticides from contaminated soil using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    The demand for processes to clean up contaminated soils without generating additional contaminants, such as hazardous solvents, is increasing. One approach to minimizing this problem is to use supercritical fluids like light hydrocarbons and CO[sub 2] to extract contaminants from soils. Gases exhibit unique properties under supercritical conditions. They retain the ability to diffuse through the interstitial spaces of solid materials, plus they have the solvating power of liquids. Some examples of extractions using SCFs are caffeine from coffee, cholesterol from eggs, drugs from plants, and nicotine from tobacco. Supercritical CO[sub 2] is an attractive, alternative extraction medium for removal of pesticides from soils. Carbon dioxide is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and if recycled, nonpolluting. Contaminants may be easily recovered by evaporating the CO[sub 2] into an expansion vessel. Supercritical fluid extraction technology is discussed and results are given for the extraction of atrazine, bentazon, alachlor, and permethrin from contaminated soil prepared in the laboratory. Initial studies show >95% removal for these pesticides.

  18. Extraction of pesticides from contaminated soil using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, G.B.

    1991-12-31

    The demand for processes to clean up contaminated soils without generating additional contaminants, such as hazardous solvents, is increasing. One approach to minimizing this problem is to use supercritical fluids like light hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} to extract contaminants from soils. Gases exhibit unique properties under supercritical conditions. They retain the ability to diffuse through the interstitial spaces of solid materials, plus they have the solvating power of liquids. Some examples of extractions using SCFs are caffeine from coffee, cholesterol from eggs, drugs from plants, and nicotine from tobacco. Supercritical CO{sub 2} is an attractive, alternative extraction medium for removal of pesticides from soils. Carbon dioxide is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and if recycled, nonpolluting. Contaminants may be easily recovered by evaporating the CO{sub 2} into an expansion vessel. Supercritical fluid extraction technology is discussed and results are given for the extraction of atrazine, bentazon, alachlor, and permethrin from contaminated soil prepared in the laboratory. Initial studies show >95% removal for these pesticides.

  19. Genetic analysis reveals diversity and genetic relationship among Trichoderma isolates from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Oweisi, Fatma A; Edwards, Simon G; Al-Nadabi, Hamed; Al-Fahdi, Ahmed M

    2015-07-28

    Trichoderma is one of the most common fungi in soil. However, little information is available concerning the diversity of Trichoderma in soil with no previous history of cultivation. This study was conducted to investigate the most common species and the level of genetic relatedness of Trichoderma species from uncultivated soil in relation to cultivated soil and potting media. A total of 24, 15 and 13 Trichoderma isolates were recovered from 84 potting media samples, 45 cultivated soil samples and 65 uncultivated soil samples, respectively. Analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the translation elongation factor gene (EF1) indicated the presence of 9 Trichoderma species: T. harzianum (16 isolates), T. asperellum (13), T. citrinoviride (9), T. orientalis (3), T. ghanense (3), T. hamatum (3), T. longibrachiatum (2), T. atroviride (2), and T. viride (1). All species were found to occur in potting media samples, while five Trichoderma species were recovered from the cultivated soils and four from the uncultivated soils. AFLP analysis of the 52 Trichoderma isolates produced 52 genotypes and 993 polymorphic loci. Low to moderate levels of genetic diversity were found within populations of Trichoderma species (H = 0.0780 to 0.2208). Analysis of Molecular Variance indicated the presence of very low levels of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.0002 to 0.0139) among populations of the same Trichoderma species obtained from the potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil. The study provides evidence for occurrence of Trichoderma isolates in soil with no previous history of cultivation. The lack of genetic differentiation among Trichoderma populations from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil suggests that some factors could have been responsible for moving Trichoderma propagules among the three substrates. The study reports for the first time the presence of 4 Trichoderma species in Oman: T

  20. Effects of soilless and soil-based nursery media on seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percent seedling emergence and whole-plant dry matter content were higher in media 1:2:3 ricehull-based (ricehull :poultry manure : river sand, RHB) and 2:3:1 RHB. After induction of water stress, seedling grown in these media remained turgid for a longer period than those grown in media 1:2:3 soil-based (top soil ...

  1. Experimental PCR data on soil DNA extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus species and B. anthracis presence/absence data were determined in 4,770 soil samples collected across the contiguous United States in collaboration with the USEPA. PCR data for Bacillus species and B. anthracis rpoB gene PCR amplicon detection was reported as non-detect (n), low (l), medium (m), and high (h). Results for both pag and lef genes of the pX01 plasmid were reported by the University of South Florida's Center for Biological Defense. This data was recorded as negative or positive for each of the genes and included the following combinations: neg/neg, pos/neg, neg/pos, and pos/pos. Data for the pX02 plasmid were recorded as negative (blank) or positive (Y).

  2. An Assessment of Soil Materials in Kenya as Sorbent Media for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three clay soil materials obtained from different parts of Kenya were studied for their feasibility as adsorption media for fluoride removal from water through batch tests. ... Soils thermally treated at temperatures ranging from 500 to 850o C as well as pristine soil samples were compared for their fluoride adsorption efficiency.

  3. Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Mars analog soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Aaron C; Fisher, Anita M; Fors-Francis, Kisa; Sherrit, Stewart

    2018-01-18

    For decades, the Martian regolith has stymied robotic mission efforts to catalog the organic molecules present. Perchlorate salts, found widely throughout Mars, are the main culprit as they breakdown and react with organics liberated from the regolith during pyrolysis, the primary extraction technique attempted to date on Mars. This work further develops subcritical water extraction (SCWE) as a technique for extraction of amino acids on future missions. The effect of SCWE temperature (185, 200, and 215°C) and duration of extraction (10-120 min) on the total amount and distribution of amino acids recovered was explored for three Mars analog soils (JSC Mars-1A simulant, an Atacama desert soil, and an Antarctic Dry Valleys soil) and bovine serum albumin (as a control solution of known amino acid content). Total amounts of amino acids extracted increased with both time and temperature; however, the distribution shifted notably due to the destruction of the amino acids with charged or polar side chains at the higher temperatures. The pure bovine serum albumin solution and JSC Mars 1A also showed lower yields than the Atacama and Antarctic extractions suggesting that SCWE may be less effective at hydrolyzing large or aggregated proteins. Changing solvent from water to a dilute (10 mM) HCl solution allowed total extraction efficiencies comparable to the higher temperature/time combinations while using the lowest temperature/time (185°C/20 min). The dilute HCl extractions also did not lead to the shift in amino acid distribution observed at the higher temperatures. Additionally, adding sodium perchlorate salt to the extraction did not interfere with recoveries. Native magnetite in the JSC Mars-1A may have been responsible for destruction of glycine, as evidenced by its uncharacteristic decrease as the temperature/time of extraction increased. This work shows that SCWE can extract high yields of native amino acids out of Mars analog soils with minimal disruption of the

  4. Global Distribution of Plant-Extractable Water Capacity of Soil (Dunne)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. This data set...

  5. Global Distribution of Plant-Extractable Water Capacity of Soil (Dunne)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. This data set provides an...

  6. Extraction of copper in a contaminated soil onto chabazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, P.-H.; Wang, H. Paul; Hsiao, M.-C.; Eyring, Edward M.; Huang, C.-H.; Jou, C.-J. G.

    2009-04-01

    Copper in a contaminated soil nearby a printed-circuit board waste recycling plant has been extracted onto a microporous molecular sieve (chabazite). The chabazite supported CuO can be used as a chemical looping combustion (CLC) oxygen carrier for CO2 capture. Speciation of copper in the contaminated soil and on the chabazite during CLC has been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. By XANES, it is found that about 90% of copper (mainly Cu2+) in the contaminated soil can be extracted and adsorbed on the chabazite, in which CuO can be formed on the chabazite after calcination at 773 K for two hours. The EXAFS data show that copper in the soil and chabazite possesses Cu-O bond distances of 1.96 and 1.95 Å, respectively and coordination numbers (CNs) of 1-3. After CLC, CuO on chabazite has been reduced to Cu with a C-C bond distance of 2.4 Å and a CN of 8. This work also exemplifies the utilization of EXAFS and XANES to reveal the migration path of copper between a contaminated soil and a molecular sieve and interconversion of Cu-CuO in the CLC process.

  7. Evaluation of a simple, non-alkaline extraction protocol to quantify soil ergosterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ridder-Duine, A.S.; Smant, W.; Van der Wal, A.; Van Veen, J.A.; De Boer, W.

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of soil ergosterol is increasingly used as an estimate for soil fungal biomass. Several methods for extraction of ergosterol from soil have been published, perhaps the simplest being that described by Gong, P., Guan, X., Witter, E. [2001. A rapid method to extract ergosterol from soil

  8. Effects of metal-soil contact time on the extraction of mercury from soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Zhong, Huan; Wu, Yong-Gui

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the mercury aging process in soils, soil samples were spiked with inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) or methylated mercury (MeHg) and incubated for 2, 7, 14 or 28 days in the laboratory. Potential availability of mercury, assessed by bovine serum albumin (BSA) or calcium chloride (CaCl2) extraction, decreased by 2-19 times for Hg(II) or 2-6 times for MeHg, when the contact time increased from 2 to 28 days. Decreased Hg(II) extraction could be explained by Hg(II) geochemical fractionation, i.e., Hg(II) migrated from more mobile fractions (water soluble and stomach acid soluble fractions) to refractory ones (organo-complexed, strongly complexed and residual fractions) over time, resulting in more stable association of Hg(II) with soils. In addition, decrease of mercury extraction was more evident in soils with lower organic content in most treatments, suggesting that organic matter may potentially play an important role in mercury aging process. In view of the significant decreased Hg(II) or MeHg extraction with prolonged contact time, mercury aging process should be taken into account when assessing risk of mercury in contaminated soils.

  9. EXTRACTION METHODS FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORTIFIED DRY SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low-and high-level purge-and...

  10. Effects of some organic materials on bicarbonate extractable phosphate content of soils having different pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of rice husk compost (RC, town waste compost (TW and tobacco waste (TB on bicarbonate extractable phosphate content (P in soils having different pH levels under greenhouse conditions. Soil samples used in this study were taken from surfaces (0-20 cm of agricultural fields around Samsun, Northern Anatolia. The experiment was conducted according to split plot design with four doses of organic matterials (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5, %. After a month of mixing organic matterials into soils, lettuce were grown in the medias. According to the results, RC, TW and TB applications into acidic (Tepecik, neutral (Kampüs and alkaline (Çetinkaya soils increased extractable P content. It was observed that effectiveness of organic matterials changed depend on soil reaction, type and dose of organic matterials. All organic wastes were more effective on increment of bicarbonate extractable phosphate content in neutral soil pH when compared the other soil pH levels.

  11. A reevaluation of TDR propagation time determination in soils and geological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is an established method for the determination of apparent dielectric permittivity and water content in soils. Using current waveform interpretation procedures, signal attenuation and variation in dielectric media properties along the transmission line can significant...

  12. Comparisons of direct extraction methods of microbial DNA from different paddy soils

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Rashedul; Sultana, Tahera; Melvin Joe, M.; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Sa, Tongmin

    2012-01-01

    Molecular analyses for the study of soil microbial communities often depend on the direct extraction of DNA from soils. The present work compares the effectiveness of three different methods of extracting microbial DNA from seven different paddy soils. Comparison among different DNA extraction methods against different paddy soil samples revealed a marked variation in DNA yields from 3.18–20.17 μg DNA/g of dry soil. However, irrespective of the soil samples and extraction methods the DNA frag...

  13. Domain decomposition approach to extract pore-network models from large 3D porous media images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofey, Sizonenko; Marina, Karsanina; Irina, Bayuk; Kirill, Gerke

    2017-04-01

    Pore-network are very useful and effective method to model porous media structure and properties such as permeability and multi-phase flow. Several methods for pore-network extraction were proposed to date, including median axis, maximal inscribed ball, watershed techniques and their modifications. Input data for pore-network extraction algorithms usually represent 3D binary image. Modern X-ray tomography devices can easily provide scans with dimensions of 4k x 4k x 10k voxels. For such large images extraction algorithms may hit the problem of memory (RAM) consumption or will too time consuming. To overcome such problems or create parallelizable algorithm here we propose to divide the whole volume into sub-volumes with smaller size and extract pore- network sequentially/in parallel manner separately. However, the problem of correct pore-network extraction at the sub-volume connection areas is challenging. In this contribution we address this issue in detail. We propose a method to merge such sub-volumes. Our method explores the slices of porous medium under study at the sub-volumes intersections. Each slice has its own geometric features and associated with a number of pores or throats. Characteristics of pore that associated with slice such as diameter, distance its center to the sub-domain boundary are also taken into account. Based on the pore element properties and also properties of aforementioned slices the algorithm makes decision about how pores from opposite sides of sub-volumes should be connected. There are 3 cases of merging: 1) building a throat between pores, 2) absorption of one pore by the other, 3) breaking connection (no pore or throat are built). We have tested our approach on several different binary 3D images, including soil, sandstones, and carbonates. We also compared this new approach against a conventional one where the extraction is performed using the whole domain without its decomposition into sub-domains. We show that our approach

  14. FIR: An Effective Scheme for Extracting Useful Metadata from Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zue-Cheng; Chang, Jing-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the use of social media for health information exchange is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. In medical areas, social media allows non-experts to access, interpret, and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Researchers paid much attention on social media in medical educations, patient-pharmacist communications, adverse drug reactions detection, impacts of social media on medicine and healthcare, and so on. However, relatively few papers discuss how to extract useful knowledge from a huge amount of textual comments in social media effectively. Therefore, this study aims to propose a Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory network based Information Retrieval (FIR) scheme by combining Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and association rules (AR) discovery to extract knowledge from social media. In our FIR scheme, Fuzzy ART network firstly has been employed to segment comments. Next, for each customer segment, we use LSI technique to retrieve important keywords. Then, in order to make the extracted keywords understandable, association rules mining is presented to organize these extracted keywords to build metadata. These extracted useful voices of customers will be transformed into design needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for further decision making. Unlike conventional information retrieval techniques which acquire too many keywords to get key points, our FIR scheme can extract understandable metadata from social media.

  15. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  16. An efficient and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil using a newly formulated cell extraction buffer

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Avinash; Jain, Kunal; Shah, Amita R.; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the rapid and efficient indirect lysis method for environmental DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil by newly formulated cell extraction buffer. The available methods are mostly based on direct lysis which leads to DNA shearing and co-extraction of extra cellular DNA that influences the community and functional analysis. Moreover, during extraction of DNA by direct lysis from athalassohaline soil, it was observed that, upon addition of poly ethylene glycol (PEG...

  17. Influence of Extractant and Soil Type on Molecular Characteristics of Humic Substances From Two Brazilian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Deborah Pinheiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study it was observed that humic substances (HS extracted with NaOH solution and with Na4P2O7 solution presented different molecular weights, and also that the extracted HS yield by each method varied between an Oxisol and a Mollisol from South Brazil. In the present study, we further investigated the organic matter in these soils by characterizing HS extracted with 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH and with neutral 0.15 mol L-1 Na4P2O7 solutions from the above mentioned samples, using elemental analysis and nuclear magnetic ressonance spectroscopy (liquid state ¹H- and 13C-NMR, and by relating the molecular differences to the extraction method and soil type. HS extracted with pyrophosphate were more humified, showing a higher aromaticity and higher carboxylic content. The NaOH-extracted HS were more aliphatic and contained a higher O-alkyl proportion, which is indicative of a less humified nature than the pyrophosphate-extracted HS.

  18. Chemical extraction to assess the bioavailability of chlorobenzenes in soil with different aging periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Liu, Cuiying; Jin, Xin; Jiang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Maseno Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-12-15

    Bioavailability is mainly influenced by aging and desorption of contaminants in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the desorption kinetics of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in soil and to investigate whether chemical extractions are suitable for the bioavailability assessment of CBs in soil. A soil spiked with CBs and aged for different periods was extracted with Tenax, hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and butanol to assess the bioavailability of CBs in soil, respectively. Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) accumulation was used as bioassay in parallel experiments to evaluate the chemical extractions. The results showed that desorption of CBs from soil with consecutive Tenax extraction fitted into triphasic kinetics model. Different chemical methods extracted different amounts of CBs over different aging periods. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the extraction efficiency was in the order of butanol > Tenax-6h > HPCD extraction, while the order of butanol > HPCD > Tenax-6h extraction for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). The bioaccumulation by earthworm decreased with increasing aging period and was significantly higher for HCB than for PeCB (p < 0.05). Earthworm accumulated CBs correlated well with all the three chemical extracted CBs. However, HPCD extraction showed the converse extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs. Chemical extraction could be used to assess the bioavailability of contaminants in soil; however, they were method and compound specific. Tenax and butanol extractions were more reliable than HPCD extraction for bioavailability assessment of the tested CBs and the soil used since they showed the consistent extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs.

  19. A method suitable for DNA extraction from humus-rich soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Tianjin; Gao, Song; Jiang, Shengwei; Kan, Guoshi; Liu, Pengju; Wu, Xianming; An, Yingfeng; Yao, Shuo

    2014-11-01

    A rapid and convenient method for extracting DNA from soil is presented. Soil DNA is extracted by direct cell lysis in the presence of EDTA, SDS, phenol, chloroform and isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) followed by precipitation with 2-propanol. The extracted DNA is purified by modified DNA purification kit and DNA gel extraction kit. With this method, DNA extracted from humus-rich dark brown forest soil was free from humic substances and, therefore, could be used for efficient PCR amplification and restriction digestion. In contrast, DNA sample extracted with the traditional CTAB-based method had lower yield and purity, and no DNA could be extracted from the same soil sample with a commonly-used commercial soil DNA isolation kit. In addition, this method is time-saving and convenient, providing an efficient choice especially for DNA extraction from humus-rich soils.

  20. Effect of extraction and assay media on analysis of airborne endotoxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.; Doekes, G.; Heederik, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wouters, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of airborne endotoxins is thus far not standardized. Earlier studies reported higher endotoxin yields when Tween 20 was added to the media used for filter extraction and in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. This study compared four common media and assessed the effects of

  1. Effects of Natural Environmental Changes on Soil-Vapor Extraction Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, S; Gregory, S

    2006-03-23

    Remediation by soil-vapor extraction has been used for over a decade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We have found that natural changes in environmental conditions affect the rate of soil-vapor extraction. Data on flow rate observations collected over this time are compared to in-situ measurements of several different environmental parameters (soil-gas pressure, soil-temperature, soil-moisture, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), rainfall and barometric pressure). Environmental changes that lead to increased soil-moisture are associated with reduced soil-vapor extraction flow rates. We have found that the use of higher extraction vacuums combined with dual-phase extraction can help to increase pneumatic conductivity when vadose zone saturation is a problem. Daily changes in barometric pressure and soil-gas temperature were found to change flow rate measurements by as much as 10% over the course of a day.

  2. Comparison of three methods for the extraction of selected anions from media used for the collection of airborne particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenke, D.R.

    1983-08-01

    Three methods commonly employed for the extraction of sulfate and nitrate from atmospheric particulates collected on filter media were compared with respect to extraction efficiency and reproducibility. Methodologies employed included ultrasonic, boiling water and a three step, warm solution extraction. The technique's performance was examined by extraction of spiked media and standard reference papers. Based on a consideration of reproducibility, extraction efficiency and media homogeneity, the Teflon media/boiling water extraction combination appeared to be superior to the others tested.

  3. Dynamics of dissolved and extractable organic nitrogen upon soil amendment with crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, G.H.; Hoffland, E.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is increasingly recognized as a pivotal pool in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Numerous devices and sampling procedures have been used to estimate its size, varying from in situ collection of soil solution to extraction of dried soil with salt solutions. Extractable

  4. Data Assimilation to Extract Soil Moisture Information from SMAP Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kolassa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares different methods to extract soil moisture information through the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP observations. Neural network (NN and physically-based SMAP soil moisture retrievals were assimilated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Catchment model over the contiguous United States for April 2015 to March 2017. By construction, the NN retrievals are consistent with the global climatology of the Catchment model soil moisture. Assimilating the NN retrievals without further bias correction improved the surface and root zone correlations against in situ measurements from 14 SMAP core validation sites (CVS by 0.12 and 0.16, respectively, over the model-only skill, and reduced the surface and root zone unbiased root-mean-square error (ubRMSE by 0.005 m 3 m − 3 and 0.001 m 3 m − 3 , respectively. The assimilation reduced the average absolute surface bias against the CVS measurements by 0.009 m 3 m − 3 , but increased the root zone bias by 0.014 m 3 m − 3 . Assimilating the NN retrievals after a localized bias correction yielded slightly lower surface correlation and ubRMSE improvements, but generally the skill differences were small. The assimilation of the physically-based SMAP Level-2 passive soil moisture retrievals using a global bias correction yielded similar skill improvements, as did the direct assimilation of locally bias-corrected SMAP brightness temperatures within the SMAP Level-4 soil moisture algorithm. The results show that global bias correction methods may be able to extract more independent information from SMAP observations compared to local bias correction methods, but without accurate quality control and observation error characterization they are also more vulnerable to adverse effects from retrieval errors related to uncertainties in the retrieval inputs and algorithm. Furthermore, the results show that using global bias correction approaches without a

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides from soil. Comparison with conventional extraction methods and optimization for real soil samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde EG van der; Ramlal MR; Kootstra PR; Liem AKD; LOC

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the first results of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) as technique for the extraction of organic components from soil. SFE is based on the extraction properties of supercritical fluids - in this case CO2 - having liquidlike as well as gaslike behaviour as their low

  6. Selective Extraction of Organic Contaminants from Soil Using Pressurised Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Osman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the application of sorbents in pressurised liquid extraction (PLE cell to establish a selective extraction of a variety of organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, phenol, pentachlorophenol, and sterols from soil. The selectivity and efficiency of each sorbent depend on the properties of the material, extracting solvent, capacity factor, organic compounds of interest, and PLE operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and extraction time. Several sorbents (silica, alumina, and Florisil were evaluated and with the proper choice of solvents, polar and nonpolar compounds were successfully separated in two fractions. Nonpolar compounds (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, and pentachlorophenol were recovered in the first fraction using a polar sorbent such as Florisil or alumina, and n-hexane as eluting solvent, while more polar compounds (phenol and sterols were recovered in the second fraction using methanol. Silica (5 g was found to be effective for selective extraction with the satisfactory recoveries for all compounds (PAHs from 87.1–96.2%, chlorpyrifos 102.9%, sterols from 93.7–100.5%, phenol 91.9%, and pentachlorophenol 106.2%. The efficiency and precision of this extraction approach and the existing EPA Method 3545 were compared.

  7. Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for protein partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Ding, Xueqin; Chen, Jing; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-05-21

    Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvent (DES) were synthesized, including choline chloride (ChCl)-urea, tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl)-urea, tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPMBr)-urea and ChCl-methylurea. An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based ChCl-urea DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of BSA was influenced by the mass of the DES, concentration of K2HPO4 solution, separation time and extraction temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through an orthogonal experiment with the four factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the average extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.94%, 99.72%, 100.05% and 100.05% (each measured three times). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision, repeatability and stability experiments were 0.5533% (n = 5), 0.8306% (n = 5) and 0.9829% (n = 5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and the DES in the extraction process, and the CD spectra proved that the conformation of BSA did not change after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding interactions and the salting-out effect played important roles in the transfer process, and the aggregation and surrounding phenomenon were the main driving forces for the separation. All of these results proved that ionic liquid (IL)-based ATPSs could potentially be substituted with DES-based ATPSs to offer new possibilities in the extraction of proteins.

  8. Toxicity, analgesic and sedative potential of crude extract of soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aspergillus flavus is one of the most abundant mold present around the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity, analgesic and sedative effect of the crude extract obtained from soil borne fungi A. flavus. Methods: The fungi was isolated from soil samples and identified morphologically and microscopically. The growth condition i.e. media, temperature, pH, and incubation period were optimized. In these optimized growth condition, A. flavus was grown in batch culture in shaking incubator. Crude contents were extracted by using ethyl acetate solvent. Crude secondary metabolites were screened for acute toxicity, analgesic and sedative effect. Results: Upon completion of the experiment, blood was collected from the tail vein of albino mice, and different haematological tests were conducted. White blood cells counts displayed a slight increase (10.6× 109/L above their normal range (0.8–6.8 × 109/L, which may be due to the increment in the number of lymphocytes or granulocytes. However, the percentage of lymphocytes was much lower (17.7%, while the percentage of the granulocytes was higher (61.4% than its normal range (8.6–38.9%. A reduction in the mean number of writhing in the different test groups was caused by the application of the crude ethyl acetate extract through the i.p. route at different doses (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight. The results of our investigation showed the EtOAc extract of A. flavus can cause a significant sedative effect in open field. Conclusion: It was concluded from the present study that the A. flavus has the potential to produce bioactive metabolites which have analgesic and sedative effect.

  9. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MIXTURES FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly contaminated (with PAHs) topsoils were extracted with supercritical CO2 to determine the feasibility and mechanism of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Effect of SCF density, temperature, cosolvent type and amount, and of slurrying the soil with water were ...

  10. Phytotoxicity of trace metals in spiked and field-contaminated soils: Linking soil-extractable metals with toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamels, Fanny; Malevé, Jasmina; Sonnet, Philippe; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Smolders, Erik

    2014-11-01

    Soil tests have been widely developed to predict trace metal uptake by plants. The prediction of metal toxicity, however, has rarely been tested. The present study was set up to compare 8 established soil tests for diagnosing phytotoxicity in contaminated soils. Nine soils contaminated with Zn or Cu by metal mining, smelting, or processing were collected. Uncontaminated reference soils with similar soil properties were sampled, and series of increasing contamination were created by mixing each with the corresponding soil. In addition, each reference soil was spiked with either ZnCl2 or CuCl2 at several concentrations. Total metal toxicity to barley seedling growth in the field-contaminated soils was up to 30 times lower than that in corresponding spiked soils. Total metal (aqua regia-soluble) toxicity thresholds of 50% effective concentrations (EC50) varied by factors up to 260 (Zn) or 6 (Cu) among soils. For Zn, variations in EC50 thresholds decreased as aqua regia > 0.43 M HNO3  > 0.05 M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) > 1 M NH4 NO3  > cobaltihexamine > diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) > 0.001 M CaCl2 , suggesting that the last extraction is the most robust phytotoxicity index for Zn. The EDTA extraction was the most robust for Cu-contaminated soils. The isotopically exchangeable fraction of the total soil metal in the field-contaminated soils markedly explained the lower toxicity compared with spiked soils. The isotope exchange method can be used to translate soil metal limits derived from soils spiked with metal salts to site-specific soil metal limits. © 2014 SETAC.

  11. Calibrating soil respiration measures with a dynamic flux apparatus using artificial soil media of varying porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of soil respiration to quantify ecosystem carbon cyclingrequires absolute, not relative, estimates of soil CO2 efflux. We describe a novel, automated efflux apparatus that can be used to test the accuracy of chamber-based soil respiration measurements by generating known CO2 fluxes. Artificial soil is supported...

  12. In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  13. An efficient and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil using a newly formulated cell extraction buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Avinash; Jain, Kunal; Shah, Amita R; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-06-01

    The present study describes the rapid and efficient indirect lysis method for environmental DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil by newly formulated cell extraction buffer. The available methods are mostly based on direct lysis which leads to DNA shearing and co-extraction of extra cellular DNA that influences the community and functional analysis. Moreover, during extraction of DNA by direct lysis from athalassohaline soil, it was observed that, upon addition of poly ethylene glycol (PEG), isopropanol or absolute ethanol for precipitation of DNA, salt precipitates out and affecting DNA yield significantly. Therefore, indirect lysis method was optimized for extraction of environmental DNA from such soil containing high salts and low microbial biomass (CFU 4.3 × 104 per gram soil) using newly formulated cell extraction buffer in combination with low and high speed centrifugation. The cell extraction buffer composition and its concentration were optimized and PEG 8000 (1 %; w/v) and 1 M NaCl gave maximum cell mass for DNA extraction. The cell extraction efficiency was assessed with acridine orange staining of soil samples before and after cell extraction. The efficiency, reproducibility and purity of extracted DNA by newly developed procedure were compared with previously recognized methods and kits having different protocols including indirect lysis. The extracted environmental DNA showed better yield (5.6 ± 0.7 μg g-1) along with high purity ratios. The purity of DNA was validated by assessing its usability in various molecular techniques like restriction enzyme digestion, amplification of 16S rRNA gene using PCR and UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis.

  14. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  15. Selective extraction methods for aluminium, iron and organic carbon from montane volcanic ash soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.; Tonneijck, F.H.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Montane volcanic ash soils contain disproportionate amounts of soil organic carbon and thereby play an often underestimated role in the global carbon cycle. Given the central role of Al and Fe in stabilizing organic matter in volcanic ash soils, we assessed various extraction methods of Al, Fe, and

  16. Transport and Deposition of Variably Charged Soil Colloids in Saturated Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anu; Kawmoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per

    2012-01-01

    A series of column experiments was conducted to investigate the transport and deposition of variably charged colloids in saturated porous media. Soil colloids with diameters volcanic-ash soil from Nishi-Tokyo (referred to here as VAS colloids) and a red-yellow soil from...... Okinawa (RYS colloids) in Japan. The VAS colloids exhibited a negative surface charge with a high pH dependency, whereas the RYS colloids exhibited a negative surface charge with less pH dependency. The soil colloids were applied as colloidal suspensions to 10-cm-long saturated sand columns packed....... Breakthrough curves and deposition profiles for soil colloids were strong functions of the hydrodynamics, solution pH, and surface charge of the colloids and sand grains. Greater deposition was typical for lower flow rates and lower pH. The deposition of VAS colloids in both sands under low-pH conditions...

  17. The Use of Aloe Vera Extract as a Novel Storage Media for the Avulsed Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Badakhsh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the most severe dental traumas which most often occur in children. When immediate replantation is not possible, storage in a proper media may lead to a prolonged survival rate. Aloe Vera is a cactus like plant with green, tapered leaves that are filled with a transparent viscous gel. This medicinal plant has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of different concentrations of Aloe Vera extract compared to DMEM (cell culture medium and egg white. Methods: The periodontal ligament (PDL cells were cultured and certain number of cells were treated with Aloe Vera extract (in four different concentrations, egg white and culture media for 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours. Cell viability was determined by using the (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Moreover, One-way ANOVA and post hoc (LSD test were used for analyzing the study groups. Results: The results indicate that culture media and Aloe Vera extract (10, 30, and 50% concentration were statistically similar and significantly preserved more PDL cells compared to other experimental storage media. Conclusion: Aloe Vera 10, 30, and 50% may be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth.

  18. The use of aloe vera extract as a novel storage media for the avulsed tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badakhsh, Samaneh; Eskandarian, Tahereh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2014-07-01

    Tooth avulsion is one of the most severe dental traumas which most often occur in children. When immediate replantation is not possible, storage in a proper media may lead to a prolonged survival rate. Aloe Vera is a cactus like plant with green, tapered leaves that are filled with a transparent viscous gel. This medicinal plant has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of different concentrations of Aloe Vera extract compared to DMEM (cell culture medium) and egg white. The periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were cultured and certain number of cells were treated with Aloe Vera extract (in four different concentrations), egg white and culture media for 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours. Cell viability was determined by using the (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Moreover, One-way ANOVA and post hoc (LSD) test were used for analyzing the study groups. The results indicate that culture media and Aloe Vera extract (10, 30, and 50% concentration) were statistically similar and significantly preserved more PDL cells compared to other experimental storage media. Aloe Vera 10, 30, and 50% may be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth.

  19. Optimization of isolation and cultivation of bacterial endophytes through addition of plant extract to nutrient media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Gielen, M; Sánchez-López, A; Jaspers, S; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2015-07-01

    Many endophytes have beneficial effects on plants and can be exploited in biotechnological applications. Studies hypothesize that only 0.001-1% of all plant-associated bacteria are cultivable. Moreover, even after successful isolations, many endophytic bacteria often show reduced regrowth capacity. This research aimed to optimize isolation processes and culturing these bacteria afterwards. We compared several minimal and complex media in a screening. Beside the media themselves, two gelling agents and adding plant extract to media were investigated to enhance the number and diversity of endophytes as well as the growth capacity when regrown after isolation. In this work, 869 medium delivered the highest numbers of cultivable bacteria, as well as the highest diversity. When comparing gelling agents, no differences were observed in the numbers of bacteria. Adding plant extract to the media lead to a slight increase in diversity. However, when adding plant extract to improve the regrowth capacity, sharp increases of viable bacteria occurred in both rich and minimal media. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Rapid metal extractability tests from polluted mining soils by ultrasound probe sonication and microwave-assisted extraction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salgado, Sara; Quijano, M Ángeles

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasonic probe sonication (UPS) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used for rapid single extraction of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from soils polluted by former mining activities (Mónica Mine, Bustarviejo, NW Madrid, Spain), using 0.01 mol L-1 calcium chloride (CaCl2), 0.43 mol L-1 acetic acid (CH3COOH), and 0.05 mol L-1 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at pH 7 as extracting agents. The optimum extraction conditions by UPS consisted of an extraction time of 2 min for both CaCl2 and EDTA extractions and 15 min for CH3COOH extraction, at 30% ultrasound (US) amplitude, whereas in the case of MAE, they consisted of 5 min at 50 °C for both CaCl2 and EDTA extractions and 15 min at 120 °C for CH3COOH extraction. Extractable concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The proposed methods were compared with a reduced version of the corresponding single extraction procedures proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SM&T). The results obtained showed a great variability on extraction percentages, depending on the metal, the total concentration level and the soil sample, reaching high values in some areas. However, the correlation analysis showed that total concentration is the most relevant factor for element extractability in these soil samples. From the results obtained, the application of the accelerated extraction procedures, such as MAE and UPS, could be considered a useful approach to evaluate rapidly the extractability of the metals studied.

  1. Extraction and separation of U(VI and Th(IV from hydrobromic acid media using Cyanex-923 extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghag Snehal M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the solvent extraction of uranium(VI and thorium(IV from hydrobromic acid media was performed using the neutral phosphine oxide extractant Cyanex-923 in toluene. These metal ions were found to be quantitatively extracted with Cyanex-923 in toluene in the acidity range 5x10-5-1x10-4 M and 5x10-5-5x10-3 M, respectively, and they are stripped from the organic phase with 7.0 M HClO4 and 2.0- 4.0 M HCl, respectively. The effect of the equilibrium period, diluents, diverse ions and stripping agent on the extraction of U(VI and Th(IV was studied. The stoichiometry of the extracted species of these metal ions was determined based on the slope analysis method. The extraction reactions proceed by solvation and their probable extracted species found in the organic phase were UO2Br2•2Cyanex-923 and ThBr4•2Cyanex-923. Based on these results, a sequential procedure for their separation from each other was developed.

  2. Soil clean up by vapour extraction: parametrical study; Depollution des sols par extraction sous pression reduite: etude de quelques parametres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutheil, C.

    2003-05-15

    Soil vapour extraction is a treatment process for soils polluted by volatile organic compounds. Its principle relies on the circulation of gaseous flow in soil by the application of a depression of some hundreds milli-bars. A parametrical study has been led on a soil artificially polluted by tri-chloro-ethene. It shows that the gaseous flow rate has a slight influence on pollutants extraction yield. This is due to rate limited mass transfer processes. Soil moisture plays a negative role on treatment efficiency because of the reduction of the porosity available for the gas circulation. Tests have been performed on a soil polluted by a complex mixture of organic pollutants to elaborate a methodology of technical feasibility assessment. This methodology aims at identifying and limiting risks of site rehabilitation failure. Tests results show that soil vapour extraction was inadequate to treat the soil tested in this study because of the strong affinity between a dense organic phase (grease) and chlorinated solvents. (author)

  3. Acute toxicity assessment of explosive-contaminated soil extracting solution by luminescent bacteria assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjie; Jiang, Zhenming; Zhao, Quanlin; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Su, Hongping; Gao, Xuewen; Ye, Zhengfang

    2016-11-01

    Explosive-contaminated soil is harmful to people's health and the local ecosystem. The acute toxicity of its extracting solution was tested by bacterial luminescence assay using three kinds of luminescent bacteria to characterize the toxicity of the soil. An orthogonal test L 16 (45) was designed to optimize the soil extracting conditions. The optimum extracting conditions were obtained when the ultrasonic extraction time, ultrasonic extraction temperature, and the extraction repeat times were 6 h, 40 °C, and three, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the main components of the contaminated soil's extracting solution were 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate (2,4-DNT-3-SO3-); 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate (2,4-DNT-5-SO3-); and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT). Compared with Photobacterium phosphoreum and Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. is more suitable for assessing the soil extracting solution's acute toxicity. Soil washing can remove most of the contaminants toxic to luminescent bacterium Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov., suggesting that it may be a potential effective remediation method for explosive-contaminated soil.

  4. The effects of compost and compost extract on soil properties and lettuce growth.

    OpenAIRE

    CAVOSKI, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    The work was conducted at the experimental field of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, Italy in 2004. The aim was to study the effects of compost and compost extract on soil properties and lettuce growth. The chemical, biological and phytotoxic tests of compost extract proved its high selected soil properties (pH, EC, Organic matter, available nutrients, cations and anions contents) markedly with depth and time, the most prominent changes showed by compost extract application. Th...

  5. Extractive and oxidative removal of copper bound to humic acid in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bo-Ram; Kim, Eun-Jung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is often found strongly bound to natural organic matter (NOM) in soil through the formation of strong Cu-NOM complexes. Therefore, in order to successfully remediate Cu-contaminated soils, effective removal of Cu bound to soil organic matter should be considered. In this study, we investigated soil washing methods for Cu removal from a synthetic Cu-contaminated model silica soil coated with humic acid (HA) and from field contaminated soil. Various reagents were studied to extract Cu bound to NOM, which included oxidant (H2O2), base (NaOH), and chelating agents (citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)). Among the wash reagents, EDTA extracted Cu most effectively since EDTA formed very strong complexes with Cu, and Cu-HA complexes were transformed into Cu-EDTA complexes. NaOH extracted slightly less Cu compared to EDTA. HA was effectively extracted from the model soil under strongly alkaline conditions with NaOH, which seemed to concurrently release Cu bound to HA. However, chemical oxidation with H2O2 was not effective at destroying Cu-HA complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis revealed that chelating agents such as citrate and EDTA were adsorbed onto the model soil via possible complexation between HA and extraction agents. The extraction of Cu from a field contaminated soil sample was effective with chelating agents, while oxidative removal with H2O2 and extractive removal with NaOH separated negligible amounts of Cu from the soil. Based on these results, Cu bound to organic matter in soil could be effectively removed by chelating agents, although remnant agents may remain in the soil.

  6. Intercomparison of Lab-Based Soil Water Extraction Methods for Stable Water Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D.; Orlowski, N.; McDonnell, J.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of pore water extraction technique on resultant isotopic signature is poorly understood. Here we present results of an intercomparison of five common lab-based soil water extraction techniques: high pressure mechanical squeezing, centrifugation, direct vapor equilibration, microwave extraction, and cryogenic extraction. We applied five extraction methods to two physicochemically different standard soil types (silty sand and clayey loam) that were oven-dried and rewetted with water of known isotopic composition at three different gravimetric water contents (8, 20, and 30%). We tested the null hypothisis that all extraction techniques would provide the same isotopic result independent from soil type and water content. Our results showed that the extraction technique had a significant effect on the soil water isotopic composition. Each method exhibited deviations from spiked reference water, with soil type and water content showing a secondary effect. Cryogenic extraction showed the largest deviations from the reference water, whereas mechanical squeezing and centrifugation provided the closest match to the reference water for both soil types. We also compared results for each extraction technique that produced liquid water on both an OA-ICOS and IRMS; differences between them were negligible.

  7. Adverse Drug Reaction Identification and Extraction in Social Media: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardon, Jérémy; Abdellaoui, Redhouane; Bellet, Florelle; Asfari, Hadyl; Souvignet, Julien; Texier, Nathalie; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Beyens, Marie-Noëlle; Burgun, Anita; Bousquet, Cédric

    2015-07-10

    The underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) through traditional reporting channels is a limitation in the efficiency of the current pharmacovigilance system. Patients' experiences with drugs that they report on social media represent a new source of data that may have some value in postmarketing safety surveillance. A scoping review was undertaken to explore the breadth of evidence about the use of social media as a new source of knowledge for pharmacovigilance. Daubt et al's recommendations for scoping reviews were followed. The research questions were as follows: How can social media be used as a data source for postmarketing drug surveillance? What are the available methods for extracting data? What are the different ways to use these data? We queried PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to extract relevant articles that were published before June 2014 and with no lower date limit. Two pairs of reviewers independently screened the selected studies and proposed two themes of review: manual ADR identification (theme 1) and automated ADR extraction from social media (theme 2). Descriptive characteristics were collected from the publications to create a database for themes 1 and 2. Of the 1032 citations from PubMed and Embase, 11 were relevant to the research question. An additional 13 citations were added after further research on the Internet and in reference lists. Themes 1 and 2 explored 11 and 13 articles, respectively. Ways of approaching the use of social media as a pharmacovigilance data source were identified. This scoping review noted multiple methods for identifying target data, extracting them, and evaluating the quality of medical information from social media. It also showed some remaining gaps in the field. Studies related to the identification theme usually failed to accurately assess the completeness, quality, and reliability of the data that were analyzed from social media. Regarding extraction, no study proposed a generic approach to easily

  8. Using DTPA-extractable soil fraction to assess the bioconcentration factor of plants in phytoremediation of urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bocanegra, Javier; Roca, Núria; Tume, Pedro; Bech, Jaume

    2017-04-01

    Urban soils may be highly contaminated with potentially toxic metals, as a result of intensive anthropogenic activities. Developing cities are increasing the number of lands where is practiced the urban agriculture. In this way, it is necessary to assess the part of heavy metals that is transferred to plants in order to a) know the potential health risk that represent soils and b) know the relation soil-plant to assess the ability of these plants to remove heavy metals from soil. Nowadays, to assess the bioconcentration factor (BF) of plants in phytoremediation, the pseudototal o total concentration has been used by many authors. Two different urban soils with similar pH and carbonates content but with different pollution degree were phytoremediated with different plant species. Urban soil from one Barcelona district (Spain), the most contaminated soil, showed an extractability of Cu, Pb and Zn of 9.6, 6.7 and 5.8% of the total fraction respectively. The soil from Talcahuano city (Chile), with contents of heavy metals slightly above the background upper limit, present values of 15.5, 13.5 and 12% of the total fraction of studied heavy metals. Furthermore, a peri-urban analysed soil from Azul (Argentina) also showed an elevated extractability with values of 24, 13.5 and 14% of the Cu, Pb and Zn contents respectively. These soils presented more extractability than other disturbed soils, like for example, soils from mine areas. The urban soils present more developed soil with an interaction between solution and solid phase in polluted systems. The most important soil surface functional groups include the basal plane of phyllosilicates and metal hydroxyls at edge sites of clay minerals, iron oxyhydroxides, manganese oxyhydroxides and organic matter. The interaction between solution and solid phase in polluted urban systems tends to form labile associations and pollutants are more readily mobilized because their bonds with soil particles are weaker. Clay and organic

  9. Bias in bacterial diversity as a result of Nycodenz extraction from bulk soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Peter Nikolai; Norman, Anders; Hede, Simon Christian

    2011-01-01

    phyla commonly found in soil. Furthermore, rarefaction analysis, analysis of similarity, multidimensional scaling plots and analysis of variance showed that the diversity in the NDC-extracted sample was reduced significantly compared to both the original soil sample and the remaining NDC......Nycodenz density centrifugation (NDC) is an isolation method that allows extraction of both culturable and unculturable bacterial cells from soil, to be used in further downstream analysis; however, to date there has been a lack of information concerning the efficiency of this method. The aim...... of this study was therefore to investigate the overall efficiency of NDC extractions from soil and to identify sampling bias, if any. Bacterial cells were extracted from three soil plots from the Danish CRUCIAL field trial using an already established NDC protocol. To evaluate all aspects of the NDC procedure...

  10. Improving Griffith's protocol for co-extraction of microbial DNA and RNA in adsorptive soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulin, Mélanie Marie; Nicolaisen, Mette Haubjerg; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2013-01-01

    -time PCR on both the RNA (after conversion to cDNA) and the DNA fraction of the extracts. Non-adsorptive soils were characterized by low clay content and/or high phosphate content, whereas adsorptive soils had clay contents above 20% and/or a strong presence of divalent Ca in combination with high p......Quantification of microbial gene expression is increasingly being used to study key functions in soil microbial communities, yet major limitations still exist for efficient extraction of nucleic acids, especially RNA for transcript analysis, from this complex matrix. We present an improved......H. Modifications to the co-extraction protocol improved nucleic acid extraction efficiency from all adsorptive soils and were successfully validated by DGGE analysis of the indigenous community based on 16S rRNA gene and transcripts in soils representing low biomass and/or high clay content. This new approach...

  11. Time and moisture effects on total and bioavailable copper in soil water extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom-Petersen, Andreas; Hansen, H.C.B.; Nybroe, O.

    2004-01-01

    between total metal content and metal toxicity calls for integrated chemical and biological analysis. The aim of this work was to determine time- and moisture-dependent changes in total water-extractable Cu as well as bioavailable Cu in soil water extracts. Measurements of total water-extractable copper...... to increase with time. The moisture content of the soil was important for Cu retention. Dry soil had higher [Cu](tot) concentrations than humid soil, but the [Cu](bio) to [Cu](tot) ratio was lower in the dry soil. Alternating drying and wetting did not lead to a more rapid Cu retention than observed under...... constant humid conditions. Our observations underline the need for considering both time and moisture effects when interpreting short-term toxicity studies and when making predictions concerning possible long-term effects of Cu in the soil environment....

  12. Semi-selective media for the isolation of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora from soil and vine wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Tello

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Two semi-selective culture media, F10S (PDA + folpet 10 ppm + streptomycin sulphate 1 g l-1 and RB150S (PDA + rose bengal 150 ppm + streptomycin sulphate 1 g l-1, were developed for the isolation of the phytopathogenic fungus Phaeomoniella chlamydospora from soil samples and vine tissues. The media were selected so that they would allow proper growth of the pathogen and would partially inhibit eleven other common fungal genera. Eight antifungal agents were tested: Folpan (a.i. folpet, Captazel (a.i. captan, Benlate (a.i. benomyl, Chipco (a.i. iprodione, Switch (a.i. cyprodinil + fl udioxonil, rose bengal, and the bactericidal antibiotic streptomycin sulphate at several doses. Recovery of Pa. chlamydospora from wood samples was 40% better on RB150S and 50% better on F10S than on PDA, while the contaminants were reduced by 42% with RB150S, and by 48% with F10S. Pathogen reisolation from artificially contaminated soil samples was improved with F10S, while RB150S facilitated pathogen detection in samples containing moderate amounts of Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Penicillium, Alternaria or Trichoderma or in soils heavily contaminated with bacteria. F10S and RB150S improved the isolation of Pa. chlamydospora from wood and soil and can be used as alternatives to current culture media.

  13. Limitations and recommendations for successful DNA extraction from forensic soil samples: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Soil is commonly used in forensic casework to provide discriminatory power to link a suspect to a crime scene. Standard analyses examine the intrinsic properties of soils, including mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour; however, soils can also support a vast amount of organisms, which can be examined using DNA fingerprinting techniques. Many previous genetic analyses have relied on patterns of fragment length variation produced by amplification of unidentified taxa in the soil extract. In contrast, the development of advanced DNA sequencing technologies now provides the ability to generate a detailed picture of soil microbial communities and the taxa present, allowing for improved discrimination between samples. However, DNA must be efficiently extracted from the complex soil matrix to achieve accurate and reproducible DNA sequencing results, and extraction efficacy is highly dependent on the soil type and method used. As a result, a consideration of soil properties is important when estimating the likelihood of successful DNA extraction. This would include a basic understanding of soil components, their interactions with DNA molecules and the factors that affect such interactions. This review highlights some important considerations required prior to DNA extraction and discusses the use of common chemical reagents in soil DNA extraction protocols to achieve maximum efficacy. Together, the information presented here is designed to facilitate informed decisions about the most appropriate sampling and extraction methodology, relevant both to the soil type and the details of a specific forensic case, to ensure sufficient DNA yield and enable successful analysis. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Isolation of Actinomycetales from the soil of Kazakhstan on selective media with antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetlugina, L A; Adiiatova, Zh F; Khozhamuratova, S Sh; Rymzhanova, Z A; Trenozhnikova, L P; Kopytina, M N

    1990-02-01

    About 3000 actinomycetes were isolated from various soil samples collected in 11 regions of Kazakhstan. 62.7 per cent of them proved to be antagonists. For isolation of the strains, selective media supplemented with antibiotics were used. Kanamycin promoted growth of Actinomadura and Nocardia. Rubomycin promoted growth of Actinomadura. Tavromycetin and roseofungin were used as selective agents for the first time. Tavromycetin favoured isolation of Actinomadura and Nocardia. Roseofungin favoured isolation of Actinomadura. Light chestnut and serozemic soils were the most rich in antagonists (67.1 and 61.3 per cent, respectively) while saline and chestnut soils were the poorest in antagonists (32.2 and 30.6 per cent, respectively). Actinomadura were more frequent in light-chestnut light-loamy and serozemic soils. Half of the antibiotics isolated in the form of concentrates were identified with the known antibiotics or classified as belonging to various groups. A culture producing a novel antibiotic was isolated.

  15. Production of trichothecenes and other secondary metabolites by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium equiseti on common laboratory media and a soil organic matter agar: an ecological interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbjerg, Helle; Nielsen, Kristian F; Thrane, Ulf; Elmholt, Susanne

    2002-12-18

    Fusarium culmorum and F. equiseti were characterized with regard to production of trichothecenes and other secondary metabolites. Results following growth on laboratory media are interpreted with the aim of increasing the understanding of fungal metabolism in the field environment. While trichothecene production was detected for 94 of 102 F. culmorum isolates, only 8 of 57 F. equiseti isolates were positive. Profiles of secondary metabolites were compared by following growth on yeast extract sucrose agar (YES), potato sucrose agar (PSA), and an agar medium, prepared from soil organic matter (SOM), which was included to simulate growth conditions in soil. SOM supported the production of chrysogine by F. culmorum. The two species utilized the media differently. F. culmorumproduced zearalenone (ZEA) on YES, whereas some F. equiseti isolates produced ZEA on PSA. Other F. equiseti isolates produced equisetin. These differences may reflect that F. culmorum depends on a pathogenic life style while F. equiseti has a more saprotrophic mode of existence.

  16. A Comparison of Coconut Coir and Sphagnum Peat as Soil-less Media Components for Plant Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Holman, Jason; Bugbee, Bruce; Chard, Julie K.

    2005-01-01

    Coconut coir, a by-product of the coconut industry, has been promoted as an alternative to peat moss in soil-less media. Sphagnum peat moss has long been a standard component of soil-less media, but some people have expressed concern that it is a non-renewable resource. Although it does not appear that world peat resources will be in short supply for a very long time, coconut coir may have characteristics that make it a useful component of soil-less media mixes. Coir has been considered to pr...

  17. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES EXTRACTED FROM WATER, SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES OF THE PATOS LAKE, MS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César R Azevedo, Mariana Carolina Teixeira e Jorge Nozaki

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances (HSs were extracted from samples collected in 4 areas of sediment, water and soil from Patos´ lake - MS. The humic substances from the water were extracted according to Thurman and Malcolm methods (1981 and, those from sediment and soil were extracted as proposed by the International Society of Humic Substances (ISHS. The following spectroscopic techniques were performed in this study: ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis and fluorescence emission. The effects of ambient factors as concentration and variations of pH in fluorescence emission of humic substances (fulvic and humic acids were evaluated. It was observed that the UV-Vis technique and the intensity of emitted fluorescence from humic substances extracted from water has shown linear correlation with the variation of fulvic acid (7.3 the 35.5 mg L-1 and of humic acid (4.8 the 23.9 mg L-1 concentrations, considering just dissolved organic carbon. However, for pH variation (acid, neutral and alkaline media significant variations were not observed in both, UV-Vis and fluorescence emission techniques.

  18. Advantages and limitations of chemical extraction tests to predict mercury soil-plant transfer in soil risk evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, R J R; Rodrigues, S M; Cruz, N; Henriques, B; Duarte, A C; Römkens, P F A M; Pereira, E

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we compared the size of the mobile Hg pool in soil to those obtained by extractions using 2 M HNO3, 5 M HNO3, and 2 M HCl. This was done to evaluate their suitability to be used as proxies in view of Hg uptake by ryegrass. Total levels of Hg in soil ranged from 0.66 to 70 mg kg(-1) (median 17 mg kg(-1)), and concentrations of Hg extracted increased in the order: mobile Hg extracted relative to total Hg in soil varied from 0.13 to 0.79 % (for the mobile pool) to 4.8-82 % (for 2 M HCl). Levels of Hg in ryegrass ranged from 0.060 to 36 mg kg(-1) (median 0.65 mg kg(-1), in roots) and from 0.040 to 5.4 mg kg(-1) (median 0.34 mg kg(-1), in shoots). Although results from the 2 M HNO3 extraction appeared to the most comparable to the actual total Hg levels measured in plants, the 2 M HCl extraction better expressed the variation in plant pools. In general, soil tests explained between 66 and 86 % of the variability of Hg contents in ryegrass shoots. Results indicated that all methods tested here can be used to estimate the plant total Hg pool at contaminated areas and can be used in first tier soil risk evaluations. This study also indicates that a relevant part of Hg in plants is from deposition of soil particles and that splashing of soil can be more significant for plant contamination than actual uptake processes. Graphical Abstract Illustration of potential mercury soil-plant transfer routes.

  19. Regularities of extracting humic acids from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakina, L. G.; Drichko, V. F.; Orlova, N. E.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of extracting humic acids from different soil types (soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and all chernozem subtypes) with sodium pyrophosphate solutions at different pH values (from 5 to 13) have been studied. It is found that, regardless of soil type, the process occurs in two stages through the dissociation of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyls, each of which can be described by a logistic function. Parameters of the logistic equations approximating the extraction of humic acids from soils at different pH values are independent of the content and composition of humus in soils. Changes in the optical density of humic acids extracted from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions with different pH values are described in the first approximation by the Gaussian function. The optically densest humic acids are extracted using sodium pyrophosphate solutions at pH 10. Therefore, it is proposed to use an extract with pH 10 for the characterization of organic matter with the maximum possible degree of humification in the given soil.

  20. Microwave-assisted extraction of glucosinolates from Eruca sativa seeds and soil: comparison with existing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omirou, Michalis; Papastylianou, Ioannis; Iori, Renato; Papastephanou, Chara; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K; Ehaliotis, Costantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary plant metabolites that are abundant in brassicas and their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates, are toxic to soil pathogens. Efficiency and extraction time are critical for routine analysis of GSLs in plant tissues. Robust analytical procedures are required for the extraction of GSL from soil. Development and optimisation of a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for the recovery of GSL from plant tissues and soil and comparison of its efficiency with other established extraction methods. Solvents, temperature, microwave power and extraction time were examined as parameters controlling MAE efficiency. In rocket seeds the efficiency of MAE was determined through recovery of GSLs from seeds and of sinigrin (1) that was used as internal standard. MAE was then compared with the certified ISO-9167 method and an ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). MAE was also applied for the extraction of GSLs from soils fortified with 1 at three fortification levels. The efficiency of MAE was compared with a recently proposed agitation-filtration (AGIT) extraction method. The optimum conditions identified for extraction of GSLs from seeds were: methanol extraction at 250 W and 80 degrees C for 10 min. MAE and ISO methods showed comparable efficiencies and higher than UAE. In soil, both methods resulted in nearly 100% recovery of 1 at all fortification levels, although MAE achieved this recovery after a single extraction step compared with AGIT, which required two. The MAE developed is a simple and rapid method for the extraction of GSLs from plant tissues and soil that can be applied to a large number of samples, thus reducing the time of analysis. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Highly charged swelling mica reduces free and extractable Cu levels in Cu-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Jason W; Neaman, Alexander; Ravella, Ramesh; Komarneni, Sridhar; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2008-12-15

    Smelting of copper (Cu) results in the atmospheric deposition of Cu onto surrounding soils. Excess concentrations of Cu in soils can be absorbed by soil biota to toxic levels or leached into the groundwater, threatening the entire ecosystem. A means to restrict Cu mobility and uptake by plants is to remove it from the aqueous phase by applying an adsorptive material. A synthetic clay (highly charged swelling mica) was tested for its ability to decrease the levels of free and 0.1 M KNO3-extractable Cu in 15 surface soils from three different Cu mining areas in central Chile. The soils contained excessive total Cu levels (112-2790 mg Cu (kg soil)(-1)), while extractable Cu ranged from 0.3 to 22.9 mg Cu L(-1). The mica was applied to each soil at rates of 0.1%, 1%, and 2% (w/w). A 2% sodium-montmorillonite treatment and the nonamended soil served as controls. The order of treatment efficacy in reducing extractable Cu and free Cu2+ for low pH soils ( 1% mica > 2% montmorillonite > 0.1% mica. At 120 days, the 2% mica treatment maintained reductions of up to 93% in the free Cu2+ activity and up to 75% in the extractable Cu concentration upon acidification to the original soil pH value. In addition, Cu retention in mica-treated soils was more resistant to acidification than in lime-treated soils. This mica has promise for the remediation of acidic soils with metal contamination at the surface.

  2. The development of learning media of acid-base indicator from extract of natural colorant as an alternative media in learning chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhadi, Mukhamad; Wirhanuddin, Erwin, Muflihah, Erika, Farah; Widiyowati, Iis Intan

    2017-03-01

    The development of learning media of acid base indicator from extract of natural colorants as an alternative media in chemistry learning; acid-base solution by using creative problem solving model at SMA N 10 Samarinda has been done. This research aimed to create and develop the learning media from extract of natural colorants, measure its quality and effectiveness, and measure the quality of student learning outcome in acid-base solution topic by using that media. The development process used Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation (ADDIE) method. The learning media of acid-base indicator was created in the form of box experiment. Its quality was in the range of very good and it was effectively applied in the learning and gave positive impact on the achievement of learning goals.

  3. Advantages and limitations of chemical extraction tests to predict mercury soil-plant transfer in soil risk evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro, R.J.R.; Rodrigues, S.M.; Cruz, N.; Henriques, B.; Duarte, A.C.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Pereira, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared the size of the mobile Hg pool in soil to those obtained by extractions using 2 M HNO3, 5 M HNO3, and 2 M HCl. This was done to evaluate their suitability to be used as proxies in view of Hg uptake by ryegrass. Total levels of Hg in soil ranged

  4. Comparison of mild extraction procedures for determination of plant-available arsenic compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakova, Jirina; Tlustos, Pavel; Pavlikova, Daniela; Balik, Jiri [Czech University of Agriculture, Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Prague (Czech Republic); Goessler, Walter; Schlagenhaufen, Claudia [Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Institute of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Graz (Austria)

    2005-05-01

    In this work three mild extraction agents for determination of plant-available fractions of elements in soil were evaluated for arsenic speciation in soil samples. Pepper (Capsicum annum, L.) var. California Wonder was cultivated in pots, and aqueous solutions of arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, at a concentration of 15 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, were added at the beginning of the experiment. Control pots (untreated) were also included. Deionized water, 0.01 mol L{sup -1} CaCl{sub 2}, and 0.05 mol L{sup -1} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} were used to extract the plant-available fraction of the arsenic compounds in soil samples collected during the vegetation period of the plants. Whereas in control samples the extractable arsenic fraction did not exceed 1% of total arsenic content, soil amendment by arsenic compounds resulted in extraction of larger amounts, which varied between 1.4 and 8.1% of total arsenic content, depending on soil treatment and on the extracting agent applied. Among arsenic compounds determined by HPLC-ICPMS arsenate was predominant, followed by small amounts of arsenite, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, depending on the individual soil treatment. In all the experiments in which methylarsonic acid was added to the soil methylarsonous acid was detected in the extracts, suggesting that the soil bacteria are capable of reducing methylarsonic acid before a further methylation occurs. No significant differences were observed between analytical data obtained by using different extraction procedures. (orig.)

  5. Determination of diagnostic standards on saturated soil extracts for cut roses grown in greenhouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Franco-Hermida

    Full Text Available This work comprises the theoretical determination and validation of diagnostic standards for the analysis of saturated soil extracts for cut rose flower crops (Rosa spp. growing in the Bogota Plateau, Colombia. The data included 684 plant tissue analyses and 684 corresponding analyses of saturated soil extracts, all collected between January 2009 and June 2013. The tissue and soil samples were selected from 13 rose farms, and from cultivars grafted on the 'Natal Briar' rootstock. These concurrent samples of soil and plant tissues represented 251 production units (locations of approximately 10,000 m2 distributed across the study area. The standards were conceived as a tool to improve the nutritional balance in the leaf tissue of rose plants and thereby define the norms for expressing optimum productive potential relative to nutritional conditions in the soil. To this end, previously determined diagnostic standard for rose leaf tissues were employed to obtain rates of foliar nutritional balance at each analyzed location and as criteria for determining the diagnostic norms for saturated soil extracts. Implementing this methodology to foliar analysis, showed a higher significant correlation for diagnostic indices. A similar behavior was observed in saturated soil extracts analysis, becoming a powerful tool for integrated nutritional diagnosis. Leaf analyses determine the most limiting nutrients for high yield and analyses of saturated soil extracts facilitate the possibility of correcting the fertigation formulations applied to soils or substrates. Recommendations are proposed to improve the balance in soil-plant system with which the possibility of yield increase becomes more probable. The main recommendations to increase and improve rose crop flower yields would be: continuously check pH values of SSE, reduce the amounts of P, Fe, Zn and Cu in fertigation solutions and carefully analyze the situation of Mn in the soil-plant system.

  6. Determination of diagnostic standards on saturated soil extracts for cut roses grown in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Hermida, John Jairo; Quintero, María Fernanda; Cabrera, Raúl Iskander; Guzman, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    This work comprises the theoretical determination and validation of diagnostic standards for the analysis of saturated soil extracts for cut rose flower crops (Rosa spp.) growing in the Bogota Plateau, Colombia. The data included 684 plant tissue analyses and 684 corresponding analyses of saturated soil extracts, all collected between January 2009 and June 2013. The tissue and soil samples were selected from 13 rose farms, and from cultivars grafted on the 'Natal Briar' rootstock. These concurrent samples of soil and plant tissues represented 251 production units (locations) of approximately 10,000 m2 distributed across the study area. The standards were conceived as a tool to improve the nutritional balance in the leaf tissue of rose plants and thereby define the norms for expressing optimum productive potential relative to nutritional conditions in the soil. To this end, previously determined diagnostic standard for rose leaf tissues were employed to obtain rates of foliar nutritional balance at each analyzed location and as criteria for determining the diagnostic norms for saturated soil extracts. Implementing this methodology to foliar analysis, showed a higher significant correlation for diagnostic indices. A similar behavior was observed in saturated soil extracts analysis, becoming a powerful tool for integrated nutritional diagnosis. Leaf analyses determine the most limiting nutrients for high yield and analyses of saturated soil extracts facilitate the possibility of correcting the fertigation formulations applied to soils or substrates. Recommendations are proposed to improve the balance in soil-plant system with which the possibility of yield increase becomes more probable. The main recommendations to increase and improve rose crop flower yields would be: continuously check pH values of SSE, reduce the amounts of P, Fe, Zn and Cu in fertigation solutions and carefully analyze the situation of Mn in the soil-plant system.

  7. Extractability and bioavailability of Pb and As in historically contaminated orchard soil: effects of compost amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Margaret; Tai, Yiping; Zhuang, Ping; McBride, Murray B

    2013-06-01

    The availability of Pb and As in an historically contaminated orchard soil, after amendment with compost and aging in the field, was determined by single-step chemical extraction with 1.0 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.8, sequential extraction using the modified BCR test, and a redworm bioassay in the laboratory. The efficiency of soil Pb extraction by ammonium acetate was greater at higher total soil Pb but was reduced by compost amendment. Conversely, the extraction efficiency of total soil As increased with compost amendment, but was not sensitive to total soil As. The redworm bioassay indicated Pb (but not As) bioavailability to be reduced by soil amendment with compost, a result consistent with the ammonium acetate extraction test but not reflected in modified BCR test. Electron microprobe studies of the orchard soil revealed Pb and As to be spatially associated in discrete particles along with phosphorus and iron. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The variability of standard artificial soils: Behaviour, extractability and bioavailability of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Jakub, E-mail: hofman@recetox.muni.cz [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, Brno CZ-62500 (Czech Republic); Hovorková, Ivana [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, Brno CZ-62500 (Czech Republic); Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Artificial soils from different laboratories revealed different fates, behaviour and bioavailability of lindane and phenanthrene. • Lindane behaviour was related to organic carbon. • Phenanthrene behaviour was significantly affected by degrading microorganisms from peat. • Sterilization of artificial soils might reduce unwanted variability. -- Abstract: Artificial soil is an important standard medium and reference material for soil ecotoxicity bioassays. Recent studies have documented the significant variability of their basic properties among different laboratories. Our study investigated (i) the variability of ten artificial soils from different laboratories by means of the fate, extractability and bioavailability of phenanthrene and lindane, and (ii) the relationships of these results to soil properties and ageing. Soils were spiked with {sup 14}C-phenanthrene and {sup 14}C-lindane, and the total residues, fractions extractable by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and the fractions of phenanthrene mineralizable by bacteria were determined after 1, 14, 28 and 56 days. Significant temporal changes in total residues and extractable and mineralizable fractions were observed for phenanthrene, resulting in large differences between soils after 56 days. Phenanthrene mineralization by indigenous peat microorganisms was suggested as the main driver of that, outweighing the effects of organic matter. Lindane total residues and extractability displayed much smaller changes over time and smaller differences between soils related to organic matter. Roughly estimated, the variability between the artificial soils was comparable to natural soils. The implications of such variability for the results of toxicity tests and risk assessment decisions should be identified. We also suggested that the sterilization of artificial soils might reduce unwanted variability.

  9. Sequential Extraction of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn from Soil Around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of heavy metals in soil around industrial wastes dump sites restricts their use for agricultural purpose. This study attempts to extract Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn from soils around some selected industrial wastes dump sites in Kaduna. Four dump sites were identified namely Kudenda, Kakuri, Gonigora and Dirkaniya.

  10. A novel technique using the Hendrickx centrifuge for extracting winter sporangia of Synchytrium endobioticum from soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wander, J.G.N.; Berg, van den W.; Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Lamers, J.G.; Leeuwen, van G.C.M.; Hendrickx, G.; Bonants, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A zonal centrifugation method, known as the Hendrickx centrifuge technique, was tested for routine detection of winter sporangia of Synchytrium endobioticum in soil. In four experiments the ability of the Hendrickx centrifuge to extract the sporangia from soil was compared with a method used by the

  11. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  12. Effect of ageing on benzo[a]pyrene extractability in contrasting soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Luchun [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: Ravi.Naidu@newcastle.edu.au [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Liu, Yanju; Palanisami, Thavamani; Dong, Zhaomin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In vitro assessment of B[a]P in contaminated soils using 4 different methods. • An exponential kinetic model fits well with the extractability data. • Fitting parameter and {sup 14}C residue correlates with key soil properties. • Fractionation of B[a]P was obtained based on extractability by extractants. - Abstract: Changes in benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) extractability over 160 days ageing in four contrasting soils varying in organic matter content and clay mineralogy were investigated using dichloromethane: acetone 1:1 (DCM/Ace), 60 mM hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solution, 1-butanol (BuOH) and Milli-Q water. The B[a]P extractability by the four methods decreased with ageing and a first-order exponential model could be used to describe the kinetics of release. Correlation of the kinetic rate constant with major soil properties showed a significant effect of clay and sand contents and pore volume fraction (<6 nm) on sequestration of the desorbable fraction (by HPCD) and the water-extractable fraction. Analysis of {sup 14}C-B[a]P in soils after ageing showed a limited loss of B[a]P via degradation. Fractionation of B[a]P pools associated with the soil matrix was analysed according to extractability of B[a]P by the different extraction methods. A summary of the different fractions is proposed for the illustration of the effect of ageing on different B[a]P-bound fractions in soils. This study provides a better understanding of the B[a]P ageing process associated with different fractions and also emphasises the extraction capacity of the different methods employed.

  13. Comparison of DNA extraction protocols for microbial communities from soil treated with biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.A. Leite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have evaluated the effects of biochar application on soil structure and plant growth. However, there are very few studies describing the effect of biochar on native soil microbial communities. Microbial analysis of environmental samples requires accurate and reproducible methods for the extraction of DNA from samples. Because of the variety among microbial species and the strong adsorption of the phosphate backbone of the DNA molecule to biochar, extracting and purifying high quality microbial DNA from biochar-amended soil is not a trivial process and can be considerably more difficult than the extraction of DNA from other environmental samples. The aim of this study was to compare the relative efficacies of three commercial DNA extraction kits, the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil (FD kit, the PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (PS kit and the ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit MiniprepTM (ZR kit, for extracting microbial genomic DNA from sand treated with different types of biochar. The methods were evaluated by comparing the DNA yields and purity and by analysing the bacterial and fungal community profiles generated by PCR-DGGE. Our results showed that the PCR-DGGE profiles for bacterial and fungal communities were highly affected by the purity and yield of the different DNA extracts. Among the tested kits, the PS kit was the most efficient with respect to the amount and purity of recovered DNA and considering the complexity of the generated DGGE microbial fingerprint from the sand-biochar samples.

  14. Comparison of DNA extraction protocols for microbial communities from soil treated with biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, D.C.A.; Balieiro, F.C.; Pires, C.A.; Madari, B.E.; Rosado, A.S.; Coutinho, H.L.C.; Peixoto, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated the effects of biochar application on soil structure and plant growth. However, there are very few studies describing the effect of biochar on native soil microbial communities. Microbial analysis of environmental samples requires accurate and reproducible methods for the extraction of DNA from samples. Because of the variety among microbial species and the strong adsorption of the phosphate backbone of the DNA molecule to biochar, extracting and purifying high quality microbial DNA from biochar-amended soil is not a trivial process and can be considerably more difficult than the extraction of DNA from other environmental samples. The aim of this study was to compare the relative efficacies of three commercial DNA extraction kits, the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil (FD kit), the PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (PS kit) and the ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit Miniprep™ (ZR kit), for extracting microbial genomic DNA from sand treated with different types of biochar. The methods were evaluated by comparing the DNA yields and purity and by analysing the bacterial and fungal community profiles generated by PCR-DGGE. Our results showed that the PCR-DGGE profiles for bacterial and fungal communities were highly affected by the purity and yield of the different DNA extracts. Among the tested kits, the PS kit was the most efficient with respect to the amount and purity of recovered DNA and considering the complexity of the generated DGGE microbial fingerprint from the sand-biochar samples. PMID:24948928

  15. Releasing Pattern of Applied Phosphorus and Distribution Change of Phosphorus Fractions in the Acid Upland Soils with Successive Resin Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Arief Hartono

    2008-01-01

    The releasing pattern of applied P in the acid upland soils and the soil properties influencing the pattern were studied. Surface horizons of six acid upland soils from Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan were used in this study. The releasing pattern of applied P (300 mg P kg-1) of these soils were studied by successive resin extraction. P fractionation was conducted to evaluate which fractions released P to the soil solution after successive resin extraction. The cumulative of resin-Pinorganic...

  16. Water based microwave assisted extraction of thiamethoxam residues from vegetables and soil for determination by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Rajib; Singh, Shashi Bala; Kulshrestha, Gita

    2012-02-01

    A microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method for determination of thiamethoxam residues in vegetable and soil samples was standardized. Insecticide spiked vegetable and soil samples were extracted by MAE using water as an extraction solvent, cleaned up by solid phase extraction and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography on photodiode array detector. The recoveries of the insecticide from various vegetable (tomato, radish, brinjal, okra, French been, sugarbeet) and soil (sandy loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay loam, loamy sand) samples at 0.1 and 0.5 μg g(-1) spiking levels ranged from 79.8% to 86.2% and from 82.1% to 87.0%, respectively. The recoveries by MAE were comparable to those obtained by the conventional blender and shake-flask extraction techniques. The precision of the MAE method was demonstrated by relative standard deviations of <3% for the insecticide.

  17. Sequential Application of Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioremediation Processes for the Remediation of Ethylbenzene-Contaminated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, António Carlos Alves; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application of these technol......Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application...... of these technologies is presented as a valid option but is not yet entirely studied. This work presents the study of the remediation of ethylbenzene (EB)-contaminated soils, with different soil water and natural organic matter (NOMC) contents, using sequential SVE and BR. The obtained results allow the conclusion that......: (1) SVE was sufficient to reach the cleanup goals in 63% of the experiments (all the soils with NOMC below 4%), (2) higher NOMCs led to longer SVE remediation times, (3) BR showed to be a possible and cost-effective option when EB concentrations were lower than 335 mg kgsoil −1, and (4...

  18. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

  19. Optimization of extraction procedures for ecotoxicity analyses: Use of TNT contaminated soil as a model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunahara, G.I.; Renoux, A.Y.; Dodard, S.; Paquet, L.; Hawari, J. [BRI, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Ampleman, G.; Lavigne, J.; Thiboutot, S. [DREV, Courcelette, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The environmental impact of energetic substances (TNT, RDX, GAP, NC) in soil is being examined using ecotoxicity bioassays. An extraction method was characterized to optimize bioassay assessment of TNT toxicity in different soil types. Using the Microtox{trademark} (Photobacterium phosphoreum) assay and non-extracted samples, TNT was most acutely toxic (IC{sub 50} = 1--9 PPM) followed by RDX and GAP; NC did not show obvious toxicity (probably due to solubility limitations). TNT (in 0.25% DMSO) yielded an IC{sub 50} 0.98 + 0.10 (SD) ppm. The 96h-EC{sub 50} (Selenastrum capricornutum growth inhibition) of TNT (1. 1 ppm) was higher than GAP and RDX; NC was not apparently toxic (probably due to solubility limitations). Soil samples (sand or a silt-sand mix) were spiked with either 2,000 or 20,000 mg TNT/kg soil, and were adjusted to 20% moisture. Samples were later mixed with acetonitrile, sonicated, and then treated with CaCl{sub 2} before filtration, HPLC and ecotoxicity analyses. Results indicated that: the recovery of TNT from soil (97.51% {+-} 2.78) was independent of the type of soil or moisture content; CaCl{sub 2} interfered with TNT toxicity and acetonitrile extracts could not be used directly for algal testing. When TNT extracts were diluted to fixed concentrations, similar TNT-induced ecotoxicities were generally observed and suggested that, apart from the expected effects of TNT concentrations in the soil, the soil texture and the moisture effects were minimal. The extraction procedure permits HPLC analyses as well as ecotoxicity testing and minimizes secondary soil matrix effects. Studies will be conducted to study the toxic effects of other energetic substances present in soil using this approach.

  20. Selenium speciation in phosphate mine soils and evaluation of a sequential extraction procedure using XAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorito, Jessica E.; Luxton, Todd P.; Eick, Matthew J.; Grossl, Paul R. (VP); (Utah SU); (EPA)

    2017-10-01

    Selenium is a trace element found in western US soils, where ingestion of Se-accumulating plants has resulted in livestock fatalities. Therefore, a reliable understanding of Se speciation and bioavailability is critical for effective mitigation. Sequential extraction procedures (SEP) are often employed to examine Se phases and speciation in contaminated soils but may be limited by experimental conditions. We examined the validity of a SEP using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for both whole and a sequence of extracted soils. The sequence included removal of soluble, PO4-extractable, carbonate, amorphous Fe-oxide, crystalline Fe-oxide, organic, and residual Se forms. For whole soils, XANES analyses indicated Se(0) and Se(-II) predominated, with lower amounts of Se(IV) present, related to carbonates and Fe-oxides. Oxidized Se species were more elevated and residual/elemental Se was lower than previous SEP results from ICP-AES suggested. For soils from the SEP sequence, XANES results indicated only partial recovery of carbonate, Fe-oxide and organic Se. This suggests Se was incompletely removed during designated extractions, possibly due to lack of mineral solubilization or reagent specificity. Selenium fractions associated with Fe-oxides were reduced in amount or removed after using hydroxylamine HCl for most soils examined. XANES results indicate partial dissolution of solid-phases may occur during extraction processes. This study demonstrates why precautions should be taken to improve the validity of SEPs. Mineralogical and chemical characterizations should be completed prior to SEP implementation to identify extractable phases or mineral components that may influence extraction effectiveness. Sequential extraction procedures can be appropriately tailored for reliable quantification of speciation in contaminated soils.

  1. Evaluating the efficacy of a centrifugation-flotation method for extracting Ascaris ova from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cranston, Imogen; Teoh, Penelope J.; baker, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH) continue to be associated with high burdens of disease, with an estimated 1.45 billion people infected with STH globally. The promotion and construction of latrines is considered the first barrier to prevent transmission of STH. The absence of a reliable...... method to extract STH ova from soil makes it challenging to examine whether the use of latrines may or may not have an effect on environmental contamination with ova. The present study evaluated the recovery rate of a method developed to extract STH ova from soil. Methods: The adapted centrifugation...

  2. Antifungal activity of root, bark, leaf and soil extracts of Androstachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of leaf, root, soil and bark of Androstachys johnsonii Prain (commonly called Lembobo ironwood) screened for antifungal activity had a significant inhibitory effect on the most of fungi tested in this investigation. Of the four fungi tested in the present study Fusarium solani was significantly inhibited by all extracts (that ...

  3. REMOVAL OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CF-SYSTEMS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA's START team in cooperation with EPA's SITE program evaluated a pilot scale solvent extraction process developed by CF-Systems. This process uses liquified propane to extract organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments. A pilot-scale evaluation was conducte...

  4. An optimised sequential extraction scheme for the evaluation of vanadium mobility in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu-Hui; Huang, Jen-How; Brandl, Helmut

    2017-03-01

    Reviewing the current state of knowledge about sequential extraction applied for soil vanadium (V) fractionation, we identified an urgent requirement of an sequential extraction (SE) specified for V. Namely, almost all previous SE extracted only 8.4%-48% of total V in soils (excluding residue). Thus, we proposed an eight-step SE for V fractionation in soils according to the knowledge gained from literature and our own dissolution experiments with model minerals. After extracting the mobilisable and adsorbed V with de-ionised water and 5mmol/L phosphate, 1mol/L pyrophosphate was applied to gather organic matter bound V which minimised the artefact dissolving Al and Fe (hydr)oxides occurred when using HNO 3 -H 2 O 2 for extraction. Extraction with 0.4mol/L NH 2 OH⋅HCl was highly selective toward manganese oxides. Fractionation of different crystalline Al and Fe (hydr)oxides associated V with 1mol/L HCl, 0.2mol/L oxalate buffer and 4mol/L HCl at 95°C especially improved the extractability of V incorporated with crystalline phase associated V. The suitability of our new SE scheme was confirmed by its higher selectivity against the target phases and higher extraction efficiencies (55%-77% of total V) with model minerals and 6 soils of different properties than previous SE. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Soil DNA extraction procedure influences protist 18S rRNA gene community profiling outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Susana S.; Nunes, Ines Marques; Nielsen, Tue K.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies allow deeper studies of the soil protist diversity and function. However, little attention has been given to the impact of the chosen soil DNA extraction procedure to the overall results. We examined the effect of three acknowledged DNA recovery methods, two...... manual methods (ISOm-11063, GnS-GII) and one commercial kit (MoBio), on soil protist community structures obtained from different sites with different land uses. Results from 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing suggest that DNA extraction method significantly affect the replicate homogeneity, the total...... number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered and the overall taxonomic structure and diversity of soil protist communities. However, DNA extraction effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among samples, as the community data still strongly grouped by geographical location...

  6. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains enhancing reagents during electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of Pb-contaminated soil fines in suspension...... was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR......The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching...

  7. Inhibitive action of some plant extracts on the corrosion of steel in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)]. E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Sidahmed, I.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); El-Zayady, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Saadawy, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    The effect of extracts of Chamomile (Chamaemelum mixtum L.), Halfabar (Cymbopogon proximus), Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), and Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants on the corrosion of steel in aqueous 1 M sulphuric acid were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process of steel occurs under activation control. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitors. The corrosion rates of steel and the inhibition efficiencies of the extracts were calculated. The results obtained show that the extract solution of the plant could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in sulphuric acid media. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the plant extract up to a critical concentration. The inhibitive actions of plant extracts are discussed on the basis of adsorption of stable complex at the steel surface. Theoretical fitting of different isotherms, Langmuir, Flory-Huggins, and the kinetic-thermodynamic model, were tested to clarify the nature of adsorption.

  8. Impact of historical mining assessed in soils by kinetic extraction and lead isotopic ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camizuli, E., E-mail: estelle.camizuli@u-bourgogne.fr [UMR 6298, ArTeHiS, Université de Bourgogne — CNRS — Culture, 6 bd Gabriel, Bat. Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Monna, F. [UMR 6298, ArTeHiS, Université de Bourgogne — CNRS — Culture, 6 bd Gabriel, Bat. Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Bermond, A.; Manouchehri, N.; Besançon, S. [Institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l' environnement (AgroParisTech), Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, 16, rue Claude Bernard, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Losno, R. [UMR 7583, LISA, Universités Paris 7-Paris 12 — CNRS, 61 av. du Gal de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Oort, F. van [UR 251, Pessac, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Versailles-Grignon, RD 10, 78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Labanowski, J. [UMR 7285, IC2MP, Université de Poitiers — CNRS, 4, rue Michel Brunet, 86022 Poitiers (France); Perreira, A. [UMR 6298, ArTeHiS, Université de Bourgogne — CNRS — Culture, 6 bd Gabriel, Bat. Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Chateau, C. [UFR SVTE, Université de Bourgogne, 6 bd Gabriel, Bat. Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Alibert, P. [UMR 6282, Biogeosciences, Université de Bourgogne — CNRS, 6 bd Gabriel, Bat. Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the long-term behaviour of trace metals, in two soils differently impacted by past mining. Topsoils from two 1 km{sup 2} zones in the forested Morvan massif (France) were sampled to assess the spatial distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The first zone had been contaminated by historical mining. As expected, it exhibits higher trace-metal levels and greater spatial heterogeneity than the second non-contaminated zone, supposed to represent the local background. One soil profile from each zone was investigated in detail to estimate metal behaviour, and hence, bioavailability. Kinetic extractions were performed using EDTA on three samples: the A horizon from both soil profiles and the B horizon from the contaminated soil. For all three samples, kinetic extractions can be modelled by two first-order reactions. Similar kinetic behaviour was observed for all metals, but more metal was extracted from the contaminated A horizon than from the B horizon. More surprising is the general predominance of the residual fraction over the “labile” and “less labile” pools. Past anthropogenic inputs may have percolated over time through the soil profiles because of acidic pH conditions. Stable organo-metallic complexes may also have been formed over time, reducing metal availability. These processes are not mutually exclusive. After kinetic extraction, the lead isotopic compositions of the samples exhibited different signatures, related to contamination history and intrinsic soil parameters. However, no variation in lead signature was observed during the extraction experiment, demonstrating that the “labile” and “less labile” lead pools do not differ in terms of origin. Even if trace metals resulting from past mining and metallurgy persist in soils long after these activities have ceased, kinetic extractions suggest that metals, at least for these particular forest soils, do not represent a threat for biota. - Highlights: • Trace

  9. Atrazine degradation by fungal co-culture enzyme extracts under different soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Cupul, Wilberth; Heredia-Abarca, Gabriela; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the atrazine degradation by fungal enzyme extracts (FEEs) in a clay-loam soil microcosm contaminated at field application rate (5 μg g(-1)) and to study the influence of different soil microcosm conditions, including the effect of soil sterilization, water holding capacity, soil pH and type of FEEs used in atrazine degradation through a 2(4) factorial experimental design. The Trametes maxima-Paecilomyces carneus co-culture extract contained more laccase activity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content (laccase = 18956.0 U mg protein(-1), H2O2 = 6.2 mg L(-1)) than the T. maxima monoculture extract (laccase = 12866.7 U mg protein(-1), H2O2 = 4.0 mg L(-1)). Both extracts were able to degrade atrazine at 100%; however, the T. maxima monoculture extract (0.32 h) achieved a lower half-degradation time than its co-culture with P. carneus (1.2 h). The FEE type (p = 0.03) and soil pH (p = 0.01) significantly affected atrazine degradation. The best degradation rate was achieved by the T. maxima monoculture extract in an acid soil (pH = 4.86). This study demonstrated that both the monoculture extracts of the native strain T. maxima and its co-culture with P. carneus can efficiently and quickly degrade atrazine in clay-loam soils.

  10. Phyto extraction of {sup 99}Tc on soil cores with aged contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T.; Echevarria, G.; Morel, J.L. [Institut National Polytechnique, Lab. Sols et Environnement, ENSAIA/INRA-INPL, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Massoura, S.T.; Leclerc-Cessac, E. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, ANDRA, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Denys, D. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2004-07-01

    {sup 99}Tc is an artificial radionuclide which is found in high-activity and long-lived nuclear waste. This work was designed to study the phyto-extraction of {sup 99}Tc in soils that had received aged contamination and to monitor the resulting {sup 99}Tc concentrations in the soil solution of undisturbed soil cores in a greenhouse. Undisturbed soil cores had been sampled previously from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a Fluvic cambisol (F) and a Dystric cambisol (D), using 0.5-m diameter PVC tubing (3 samples/soil type) without disturbing soil structure (1). Each core was equipped with two nylon porous cups (respectively 20 and 35 cm deep) and a final leachate collector. A {sup 99}TcNO{sub 3} solution had been supplied at the soil surface of each core during the two previous years (4200 kBq in total) in which maize and wheat had been successively cropped. These two crops had already removed 30-65% of total contamination before the present study. After the second year no more {sup 99}Tc was added to the cores. Thereafter, Lolium perenne was cultivated for 20 successive months. {sup 99}Tc was determined in both plant aerial parts and water samples (from both cups and collectors), and the balance of {sup 99}Tc in the system was established after phyto-extraction. Results showed that transfer of {sup 99}Tc to plants vary among soils: 7% on soil R to 11% on soil D. Concentration of {sup 99}Tc in the porous cups dramatically decreased in all soils. The plants maintained low and stable concentration levels of {sup 99}Tc in the soil solution which decreased the potential migration of the radionuclide through the cores: The leaching of {sup 99}Tc in the final collectors of the R soil cores decreased from 18 to 1.7 Bq mL{sup -1}. (author)

  11. Soil solution and extractable soil nitrogen response to climate change in two boreal forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Several studies show that increases in soil temperature result in higher N mineralization rates in soils. It is, however, unclear if additional N is taken up by the vegetation or accumulates in the soil. To address this question two small, forested catchments in southern Norway were experimentally

  12. Comparison of four extraction procedures to assess arsenate and arsenite species in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giral, Melanie [Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Zagury, Gerald J., E-mail: gerald.zagury@polymtl.c [Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Deschenes, Louise [The Interuniversity Research Centre for the Life Cycle of Products, Processes and Services (CIRAIG), Department of Chemical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Blouin, Jean-Pierre [Centre d' expertise en analyse environnementale du Quebec, Ministere de l' Environnement, du Developpement Durable et des Parcs, 850, boulevard Vanier, Laval, Quebec H7C 2M7 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Inorganic arsenic in soils poses an important environmental concern. Several studies reported an oxidation of arsenite to arsenate during its extraction from soils. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify, among published procedures, an extraction method which preserves the oxidation state of arsenic and (2) to assess the influence of soil physicochemical properties on the performance of these methods. Four extraction strategies were compared: 1) 10 M HCl, 2) 15% (v/v) H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, 3) 10 mM phosphate + 0.5% (w/v) NaDDC, and, 4) 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.5 M ascorbic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6}). Separation and analysis of As species was performed by HPLC-ICP/MS. Oxidation of As(III) into As(V) during extraction was more important in soils with high content of Mn oxides. Extraction of arsenic from soils with 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.5 M C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} under microwaves was the best strategy to extract the majority of As while minimizing conversion of As(III) into As(V). - Extraction of arsenic from soils with 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.5 M C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} under microwaves is a suitable method to extract the majority of As while minimizing conversion of As(III) into As(V).

  13. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crean, Daniel E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Livens, Francis R.; Sajih, Mustafa [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Batch leaching was examined to remediate soils contaminated with munitions depleted uranium. • Site specific maximum extraction was 42–50% total U in single batch with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}. • Analysis of residues revealed partial leaching and secondary carbonate phases. • Sequential batch leaching alternating between NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and citric acid was designed. • Site specific extraction was increased to 68–87% total U in three batch steps. -- Abstract: Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42–50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30–42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13–19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68–87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  14. Extraction of ribosomal RNA and genomic DNA from soil for studying the diversity of the indigenous bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, G.F.; Rosado, A.S.; Keijzer-Wolters, A.C.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1998-01-01

    A method for the indirect (cell extraction followed by nucleic acid extraction) isolation of bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and genomic DNA from soil was developed. The protocol allowed for the rapid parallel extraction of genomic DNA as well as small and large ribosomal subunit RNA from four soils

  15. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    . The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol...

  16. Availability of heavy metals in contaminated soil evidenced by chemical extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia de Souza Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals have been accumulating in Brazilian soils, due to natural processes, such as atmospheric deposition, or human industrial activities. For certain heavy metals, when in high concentrations in the soil, there is no specific extractant to determine the availability of these elements in the soil. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the availability of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn for rice and soybeans, using different chemical extractants. In this study we used seven soil samples with different levels of contamination, in completely randomized experimental design with four replications. We determined the available concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn extracted by Mehlich-1, HCl 0.1 mol L-1, DTPA, and organic acid extractants and the contents in rice and soybeans, which extracts were analyzed by ICP-OES. It was observed that Mehlich-1, HCl 0.1 mol L-1 and DTPA extractants were effective to assess the availability of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn for rice and soybeans. However, the same was not observed for the organic acid extractant.

  17. Assessment of soil stabilization by chemical extraction and bioaccumulation using earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Abd Aziz, Azilah; Han, Heop Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-05-01

    Soil stabilization does not remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, but lowers their exposures to ecosystem. Thus, it should be evaluated by measuring the fractions of heavy metals which are mobile and/or bioavailable in soils. The study compared several chemical extractions which intended to quantify the mobile or bioaccessible fractions with uptake and bioaccumulation by earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Soil samples were taken from the abandoned mine area contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb and/or Zn. To stabilize heavy metals, the soils were amended with limestone and steel slag at 5% and 2% (w/w), respectively. All chemical extractions and earthworm tests were applied to both the contaminated and the stabilized soils with triplicates. The chemical extractions consisted of six single extractions which were 0.01M CaCl2 (unbufferred), EDTA or DTPA (chelating), TCLP (acidic), Mehlich 3 (mixture), and aqua regia (peudo-total). Sequential extractions were also applied to fractionate heavy metals in soils. In earthworm tests, worms were exposed to the soils for uptake of heavy metals. After 28 days of exposure to soils, worms were transferred to clean soils for elimination. During the tests, three worms were randomly collected at proper sampling events. Worms were rinsed with DI water and placed on moist filter paper for 48 h for depuration. Filter paper was renewed at 24 h to prevent coprophagy. The worms were killed with liquid nitrogen, dried in the oven, and digested with aqua regia for ICP-MS analysis. In addition to the bioaccumulation, several toxicity endpoints were observed such as burrowing time, mortality, cocoon production, and body weight changes. Toxicokinetics was applied to determine the uptake and elimination heavy metals by the earthworms. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was estimated using total metal concentrations and body burdens. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were applied to evaluate the relationship between metal fractions by single

  18. Magnesium oxide-impregnated tuff soil-derived ceramic: a novel cadmium(II) adsorbing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Md; Bhakta, Jatindra N.; Maneesh, Namburath; Munekage, Yukihiro; Motomura, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The contamination of cadmium (Cd) in the aquatic environment is one of the serious environmental and human health's risks. The present study attempted to develop the potential magnesium oxide (MgO)-impregnated tuff soil-derived ceramic (MITDC)-based novel adsorbent media for adsorbing higher rate of cadmium [Cd(II)] from water phase. A potential MITDC adsorbent media was developed using volcanic raw tuff soil and its Cd(II) adsorption capacity from water phase was evaluated comparing with the raw tuff soil. A series of studies were carried out in an agitated batch method at 20 ± 2 °C to characterize the adsorption capacity of MITDC under different conditions of factors, such as contact time (0-360 min), initial pH (3-11) of solution, dose of MITDC (2, 5, 7.5 and 10 g/L), and initial concentration of Cd(II) (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/L), influencing the adsorption mechanism. MITDC exhibited the equilibrium state of maximum Cd(II) adsorption at the contact time 120 min and pH 4.7 (removed 98.2 % Cd) when initial Cd(II) concentration was 10 mg/L in the present study. The dose of 7.5 g MITDC/L showed maximum removal of Cd(II) from water. Experimental data were described by the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherms and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model ( R 2 = 0.996). The Cd(II) adsorption capacity of MITDC was 31.25 mg/g. The high Cd(II) adsorption capacity indicated that novel MITDC could be used as a potential ceramic adsorbent media to remove high rate of Cd(II) from aqueous phase.

  19. 1,4-Dioxane Vadose Remediation by Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, D. R.; Hinchee, R.; Dahlen, P.; Johnson, P.

    2016-12-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a cyclic diether that is totally miscible in water. It is a chlorinated solvent additive primarily found in 1,1,1-trichloroethane. 1,4-Dioxane becomes sequestered in vadose water and serves as a source of long-term groundwater contamination. Although soil vapor extraction (SVE) can effectively remediate chlorinated solvents, substantial 1,4-dioxane is left behind. Enhanced SVE (XSVE) was conducted to assess its effectiveness in vadose zone remediation of 1,4-dioxane. Primary SVE enhancements included focused extraction, increased air flow and heated air injection. Detailed site assessment to accurately locate the vadose source is needed for effective XSVE since it relies on focused air extraction. At a 14-month field demonstration of XSVE at former McClellan AFB, CA the following parameters were monitored: 1,4-dioxane (soil and soil vapor), soil moisture content, temperature, pressure and flow rate. The XSVE system was configured with four injection wells (in 20-ft square), each with in-line heaters, around a central SVE well and off-gas was treated with existing treatment system. Well screen intervals corresponded to soil interval (38 - 68 ft bgs) containing the highest 1,4-dioxane. Treatment zone (TZ) temperatures reached as high as 90°C and soil moisture sensor readings reached as low as zero near the injection wells. XSVE reduced TZ soil 1,4-dioxane concentrations and soil moisture contents 95% and 45%, respectively. Extraction well monitoring showed that the bulk of 1,4-dioxane removal occurred before TZ temperatures increased substantially. Performance results indicate that focused air injection with increased air flow were the primary SVE enhancements facilitating the effective removal of 1,4-dioxane and soil thermal treatment may not be required. XSVE can provides a cost-effective, easily implemented remedial option for vadose 1,4-dioxane.

  20. Processes affecting soil and groundwater contamination by DNAPL in low-permeability media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWhorter, D.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This paper is one of a set of focus papers intended to document the current knowledge relevant to the contamination and remediation of soils and ground water by dense, nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). The emphasis is on low permeability media such as fractured clay and till and unconsolidated, stratified formations. Basic concepts pertaining to immiscible-fluid mixtures are described and used to discuss such aspects as DNAPL transport, dissolved-phase transport, and equilibrium mass distributions. Several implications for remediation are presented. 27 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Extracting DNA of nematodes communities from Argentine Pampas agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Mondino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined four strategies (Tris/EDTA, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Chelex 100 resin and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide -CTAB- for extracting nucleic acid (DNA from communities of nematodes. Nematodes were isolated from an agricultural area under different management of long-term crop rotation experiment from Argentina during three seasons. After DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction-amplifications were performed and considered as indicators of successful DNA extraction. The CTAB combined with proteinase K and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol was the unique successful method because positive amplifications were obtained by using both eukaryotic and nematode specific primers. This work could contribute to biodiversity studies of nematodes on agroecosystems.

  2. Extraction of Metal Species from Contaminated Soils Utilizing Supercritical CO2 and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ik-Beom; Son, Younggyu; Song, Il-Seok; Na, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Jongchan; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the extraction efficiency of 15 metal species for contaminated soils using supercritical CO2, a chelating agent (Cyanex 272), and ultrasound. The percent extraction of metal species showed in the ascending order of pure CO2 ultrasound” for most of the metals with the exception of As, Cr, Sb and Se. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of metal ions by pure CO2 was confirmed to be inefficient but the supercritical CO2 comprising Cyanex 272 showed a higher extraction rate than that of pure CO2. Ultrasound enhanced/assisted SFE (USFE) with Cyanex 272 could substantially enhance the extraction efficiency from the contaminated soils by facilitating mass transport which helps to move the solubilized metal or metalloid species into the supercritical fluid phase.

  3. An overview of sample preparation and extraction of synthetic pyrethroids from water, sediment and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaseer, Saeed S; Rao, R Nageswara; Swamy, Y V; Mukkanti, K

    2010-08-27

    The latest developments in sample preparation and extraction of synthetic pyrethroids from environmental matrices viz., water, sediment and soil were reviewed. Though the synthetic pyrethroids were launched in 1970s, to the best of authors' knowledge there was no review on this subject until date. The present status and recent advances made during the last 10 years in sample preparation including conservation and extraction techniques used in determination of synthetic pyrethroids in water, sediment and soil were discussed. Pre- and post-extraction treatments, sample stability during extraction and its influence upon the whole process of analytical determination were covered. Relative merits and demerits including the green aspects of extraction were evaluated. The current trends and future prospects were also addressed. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative study of humic acid extract with ammoniacal solutions from coals in inferior rank and from Romanian soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriac, J.; Barca, F. [Universitatea Politehnica din Bucuresti, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-04-15

    The paper shows the similitude that exists between humic acids extracted from Rosia (Jiu) and Schitu Golesti Romanian mining sites for coals with inferior rank and those extracted from soil. The possibility of utilization of useless coal for energy-industry to introduce organic mass and humic acids in poor soils is sustained by these similarities. These coals introduced in soil could be ecological materials which give a better soil quality.

  5. Extractable and dissolved soil organic nitrogen - A quantitative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, G.H.; Hoffland, E.; Kessel, van C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Extractable Organic N (EON) or Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON) pools are often analyzed to predict N mineralisation, N leaching, and to evaluate agricultural (nutrient) management practices. Size and characteristics of both pools, however, are strongly influenced by methodology. Quantifying the

  6. Speciation of Water-Extractable Organic Nutrients in Grassland Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, G.H.; Tschudy, T.C.; Chardon, W.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Salm, van der C.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2010-01-01

    The release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from agricultural land can have a large impact on the transport of N and phosphorus (P) to surface waters leading to water quality impairment. The speciation of DOM in agricultural grassland soils has received little attention thus far. Quantification of

  7. Extractability and mobility of mercury from agricultural soils surrounding industrial and mining contaminated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana Teresa; Rodrigues, Sónia Morais; Davidson, Christine M; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C

    2010-12-01

    This study focussed on a comparison of the extractability of mercury in soils with two different contamination sources (a chlor-alkali plant and mining activities) and on the evaluation of the influence of specific soil properties on the behaviour of the contaminant. The method applied here did not target the identification of individual species, but instead provided information concerning the mobility of mercury species in soil. Mercury fractions were classified as mobile, semi-mobile and non-mobile. The fractionation study revealed that in all samples mercury was mainly present in the semi-mobile phase (between 63% and 97%). The highest mercury mobility (2.7 mg kg(-1)) was found in soils from the industrial area. Mining soils exhibited higher percentage of non-mobile mercury, up to 35%, due to their elevated sulfur content. Results of factor analysis indicate that the presence of mercury in the mobile phase could be related to manganese and aluminium soil contents. A positive relation between mercury in the semi-mobile fraction and the aluminium content was also observed. By contrary, organic matter and sulfur contents contributed to mercury retention in the soil matrix reducing the mobility of the metal. Despite known limitations of sequential extraction procedures, the methodology applied in this study for the fractionation of mercury in contaminated soil samples provided relevant information on mercury's relative mobility. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Corn (Zea mays growth in petroleum contaminated soil, remediated with orange (Citrus sinensis peel extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Darío Marín Veláquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution has a strong impact when oil activity takes place within a savanna ecosystem. Any oil spill affects agricultural soils. Biostimulation with orange peel extract (Citrus sinensis is an alternative for remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil and in this research the corn plant (Zea mays was used as a biomarker of contamination level of a savanna soil after their treatment. Three samples of savannah soil contaminated with oil light crude were treated with dissolutions 1, 3 and 5% of extract of orange peel in water at a dose of 150 mL per kg of soil treated. The content of oils and fats was measured every 7 days, up to 42 days. Corn seeds were planted in soil samples, their growth was measured every 5 days for a period of 35 consecutive days, comparing their growth with seeds planted in a soil sample without contamination. According to an analysis of rank contrast, the plant growth was statistically the same in all samples up to 20 days; from there, evident differences regarding the pattern were shown.

  9. Modeling of the dielectric permittivity of porous soil media with water using statistical-physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Jerzy B.; Łukowski, Mateusz; Lipiec, Jerzy; Stankiewicz, Krystyna

    2013-04-01

    Radiometric observations with SMOS rely on the Radiation Transfer Equations (RTE) determining the Brightness Temperature (BT) in two linear polarization components (H, V) satisfying Fresnel principle of propagation in horizontally layered target media on the ground. RTE involve variables which bound the equations expressed in Electro-Magnetic (EM) terms of the intensity BT to the physical reality expressed by non-EM variables (Soil Moisture (SM), vegetation indexes, fractional coverage with many different properties, and the boundary conditions like optical thickness, layer definitions, roughness, etc.) bridging the EM domain to other physical aspects by means of the so called tau-omega methods. This method enables joining variety of different valuable models, including specific empirical estimation of physical properties in relation to the volumetric water content. The equations of RTE are in fact expressed by propagation, reflection and losses or attenuation existing on a considered propagation path. The electromagnetic propagation is expressed in the propagation constant. For target media on the ground the dielectric constant is a decisive part for effects of propagation. Therefore, despite of many various physical parameters involved, one must effectively and dominantly rely on the dielectric constant meant as a complex variable. The real part of the dielectric constant represents effect of apparent shortening the propagation path and the refraction, while the imaginary part is responsible for the attenuation or losses. This work engages statistical-physical modeling of soil properties considering the media as a mixture of solid grains, and gas or liquid filling of pores and contact bridges between compounds treated statistically. The method of this modeling provides an opportunity of characterizing the porosity by general statistical means, and is applicable to various physical properties (thermal, electrical conductivity and dielectric properties) which

  10. Effects of lead mineralogy on soil washing enhanced by ferric salts as extracting and oxidizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Park, Sang-Min; Yoon, Geun-Seok; Tsang, Daniel C W; Baek, Kitae

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using ferric salts including FeCl3 and Fe(NO3)3 as extracting and oxidizing agents for a soil washing process to remediate Pb-contaminated soils. We treated various Pb minerals including PbO, PbCO3, Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2, PbSO4, PbS, and Pb5(PO4)3(OH) using ferric salts, and compared our results with those obtained using common washing agents of HCl, HNO3, disodium-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (Na2-EDTA), and citric acid. The use of 50 mM Fe(NO3)3 extracted significantly more Pb (above 96% extraction) from Pb minerals except PbSO4 (below 55% extraction) compared to the other washing agents. In contrast, washing processes using FeCl3 and HCl were not effective for extraction from Pb minerals because of PbCl2 precipitation. Yet, the newly formed PbCl2 could be dissolved by subsequent wash with distilled water under acidic conditions. When applying our washing method to remediate field-contaminated soil from a shooting range that had high concentrations of Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 and PbCO3, we extracted more Pb (approximately 99% extraction) from the soil using 100 mM Fe(NO3)3 than other washing agents at the same process conditions. Our results show that ferric salts can be alternative washing agents for Pb-contaminated soils in view of their extracting and oxidizing abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous Extraction and Depolymerization of Fucoidan from Sargassum muticum in Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena M. Balboa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biomass components of the invasive seaweed Sargassum muticum were fractionated to allow their separate valorization. S. muticum (Sm and the solid residue remaining after alginate extraction of this seaweed (AESm were processed with hot, compressed water (hydrothermal processing to assess the effects of temperature on fucoidan solubilization. Fucose-containing oligosaccharides were identified as reaction products. Operating under optimal conditions (170 °C, up to 62 and 85 wt% of the dry mass of Sm and AESm were solubilized, respectively. The reaction media were subjected to precipitation, nanofiltration and freeze-drying. The dried products contained 50% and 85% of the fucoidan present in Sm and AESm, respectively; together with other components such as phenolics and inorganic components. The saccharidic fraction, accounting for up to 35% of the dried extracts, contained fucose as the main sugar, and also galactose, xylose, glucose and mannose. The concentrates were characterized for antioxidant activity using the TEAC assay.

  12. Sequential extraction protocol for organic matter from soils and sediments using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Malak M; Chu, Rosalie K; Toyoda, Jason; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Hess, Nancy J

    2017-06-15

    A vast number of organic compounds are present in soil organic matter (SOM) and play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, facilitate interactions between organisms, and represent a sink for atmospheric CO2. The diversity of different SOM compounds and their molecular characteristics is a function of the organic source material and biogeochemical history. By understanding how SOM composition changes with sources and the processes by which it is biogeochemically altered in different terrestrial ecosystems, it may be possible to predict nutrient and carbon cycling, response to system perturbations, and impact of climate change will have on SOM composition. In this study, a sequential chemical extraction procedure was developed to reveal the diversity of organic matter (OM) in different ecosystems and was compared to the previously published protocol using parallel solvent extraction (PSE). We compared six extraction methods using three sample types, peat soil, spruce forest soil and river sediment, so as to select the best method for extracting a representative fraction of organic matter from soils and sediments from a wide range of ecosystems. We estimated the extraction yield of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by total organic carbon analysis, and measured the composition of extracted OM using high resolution mass spectrometry. This study showed that OM composition depends primarily on soil and sediment characteristics. Two sequential extraction protocols, progressing from polar to non-polar solvents, were found to provide the highest number and diversity of organic compounds extracted from the soil and sediments. Water (H2O) is the first solvent used for both protocols followed by either co-extraction with methanol-chloroform (MeOH-CHCl3) mixture, or acetonitrile (ACN) and CHCl3 sequentially. The sequential extraction protocol developed in this study offers improved sensitivity, and requires less sample compared to the PSE workflow where a new sample

  13. Sequential extraction protocol for organic matter from soils and sediments using high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Toyoda, Jason; Toli?, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Pa?a-Toli?, Ljiljana; Hess, Nancy J.

    2017-03-31

    A vast number of organic compounds are present in soil organic matter (SOM) and play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, facilitate interactions between organisms, and represent a sink for atmospheric CO2. The diversity of different SOM compounds and their molecular characteristics is a function of the organic source material and biogeochemical history. By understanding how SOM composition changes with sources and the processes by which it is biogeochemically altered in different terrestrial ecosystems, it may be possible to predict nutrient and carbon cycling, response to system perturbations, and impact of climate change will have on SOM composition. In this study, a sequential chemical extraction procedure was developed to reveal the diversity of organic matter (OM) in different ecosystems and was compared to the previously published protocol using parallel solvent extraction (PSE). We compared six extraction methods using three sample types, peat soil, spruce forest soil and river sediment, so as to select the best method for extracting a representative fraction of organic matter from soils and sediments from a wide range of ecosystems. We estimated the extraction yield of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by total organic carbon analysis, and measured the composition of extracted OM using high resolution mass spectrometry. This study showed that OM composition depends primarily on soil and sediment characteristics. Two sequential extraction protocols, progressing from polar to non-polar solvents, were found to provide the highest number and diversity of organic compounds extracted from the soil and sediments. Water (H2O) is the first solvent used for both protocols followed by either co-extraction with methanol-chloroform (MeOH-CHCl3) mixture, or acetonitrile (ACN) and CHCl3 sequentially. The sequential extraction protocol developed in this study offers improved sensitivity, and requires less sample compared to the PSE workflow where a new sample

  14. Influence of plants on the chemical extractability and biodegradability of 2,4-dichlorophenol in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucard, Tatiana K.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the fate and behaviour of [UL-{sup 14}C] 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) in planted (Lolium perenne L.) and unplanted soils over 57 days. Extractability of [UL-{sup 14}C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was measured using calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), acetonitrile-water and dichloromethane (DCM) extractions. Biodegradability of [UL-{sup 14}C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was assessed through measurement of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} production by a degrader inoculum (Burkholderia sp.). Although extractability and mineralisation of [UL-{sup 14}C] 2,4-DCP associated activity decreased significantly in both planted and unplanted soils, plants appeared to enhance the sequestration process. After 57 days, in unplanted soil, 27% of the remaining [UL-{sup 14}C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was mineralised by Burkholderia sp., and 13%, 48%, and 38% of {sup 14}C-activity were extracted by CaCl{sub 2}, acetonitrile-water and DCM, respectively. However, after 57 days, in planted soils, only 10% of the [UL-{sup 14}C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was available for mineralisation, whilst extractability was reduced to 2% by CaCl{sub 2}, 17% by acetonitrile-water and 11% by DCM. This may be due to the effect of plants on soil moisture conditions, which leads to modification of the soil structure and trapping of the compound. However, the influence of plants on soil biological and chemical properties may also play a role in the ageing process.

  15. Toluene Removal from Sandy Soils via In Situ Technologies with an Emphasis on Factors Influencing Soil Vapor Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Farhadkhani, Marzieh; Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    The integration of bioventing (BV) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC) and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE) including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5%) of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing) after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater. PMID:24587723

  16. Toluene Removal from Sandy Soils via In Situ Technologies with an Emphasis on Factors Influencing Soil Vapor Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of bioventing (BV and soil vapor extraction (SVE appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5% of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater.

  17. The validation of forensic DNA extraction systems to utilize soil contaminated biological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasu, Mohaimin; Shires, Karen

    2015-07-01

    The production of full DNA profiles from biological evidence found in soil has a high failure rate due largely to the inhibitory substance humic acid (HA). Abundant in various natural soils, HA co-extracts with DNA during extraction and inhibits DNA profiling by binding to the molecular components of the genotyping assay. To successfully utilize traces of soil contaminated evidence, such as that found at many murder and rape crime scenes in South Africa, a reliable HA removal extraction system would often be selected based on previous validation studies. However, for many standard forensic DNA extraction systems, peer-reviewed publications detailing the efficacy on soil evidence is either lacking or is incomplete. Consequently, these sample types are often not collected or fail to yield suitable DNA material due to the use of unsuitable methodology. The aim of this study was to validate the common forensic DNA collection and extraction systems used in South Africa, namely DNA IQ, FTA elute and Nucleosave for processing blood and saliva contaminated with HA. A forensic appropriate volume of biological evidence was spiked with HA (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/ml) and processed through each extraction protocol for the evaluation of HA removal using QPCR and STR-genotyping. The DNA IQ magnetic bead system effectively removed HA from highly contaminated blood and saliva, and generated consistently acceptable STR profiles from both artificially spiked samples and crude soil samples. This system is highly recommended for use on soil-contaminated evidence over the cellulose card-based systems currently being preferentially used for DNA sample collection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microwave Acid Extraction to Analyze K and Mg Reserves in the Clay Fraction of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Extraction of K and Mg with boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system for predicting K and Mg uptake by plants is a method of low reproducibility. The aim of this study was to compare the extraction capacity of different acid methods relative to hydrofluoric acid extraction for K and Mg. A further objective was to develop a chemical extraction method using a closed system (microwave for nonexchangeable and structural forms of these nutrients in order to replace the traditional method of extraction with boiling HNO3 on a hot plate (open system. The EPA 3051A method can be used to estimate the total content of K in the clay fraction of soils developed from carbonate and phyllite/mica schist rocks. In the clay fraction of soils developed from basalt, recoveries of K by the EPA 3051A (pseudo-total method were higher than for the EPA 3052 (total hydrofluoric extraction method. The relative abundance of K and Mg for soils in carbonate rocks, phyllite/mica schist, granite/gneiss, and basalt determined by aqua regia digestion is unreliable. The method using 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an closed system (microwave showed potential for replacing the classical method of extraction of nonexchangeable forms of K (boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system - hot plate and reduced the loss of Si by volatilization.

  19. Design and Development of a Continuous-Flow Countercurrent Metal Extraction System to Remove Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neale, Christopher M. U

    1997-01-01

    .... The research focused on eight contaminated soils from Army installations and the metal extraction capabilities of eight extracting agents including HNO3, HCI, fluorosilicic acid, citric acid, EDTA, DTPA, NTA, and NaOH...

  20. A simple method for the extraction and identification of light density microplastics from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoliang; Yang, Xiaomei; Gertsen, Hennie; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; Geissen, Violette

    2018-03-01

    This article introduces a simple and cost-saving method developed to extract, distinguish and quantify light density microplastics of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in soil. A floatation method using distilled water was used to extract the light density microplastics from soil samples. Microplastics and impurities were identified using a heating method (3-5s at 130°C). The number and size of particles were determined using a camera (Leica DFC 425) connected to a microscope (Leica wild M3C, Type S, simple light, 6.4×). Quantification of the microplastics was conducted using a developed model. Results showed that the floatation method was effective in extracting microplastics from soils, with recovery rates of approximately 90%. After being exposed to heat, the microplastics in the soil samples melted and were transformed into circular transparent particles while other impurities, such as organic matter and silicates were not changed by the heat. Regression analysis of microplastics weight and particle volume (a calculation based on image J software analysis) after heating showed the best fit (y=1.14x+0.46, R 2 =99%, p80%. Results from field samples collected from North-western China prove that our method of repetitive floatation and heating can be used to extract, distinguish and quantify light density polyethylene microplastics in soils. Microplastics mass can be evaluated using the empirical model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential application of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy to determine benzo[a]pyrene in soil extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Guoxiong [School of Biology, Institute for Research on the Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Killham, Ken [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Cruickshank Building, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Singleton, Ian [School of Biology, Institute for Research on the Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ian.singleton@ncl.ac.uk

    2006-01-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a significant environmental pollutant and rapid, accurate methods to quantify this compound in soil for both research and environmental investigation purposes are required. In this work, solvent extracts from five contrasting soils spiked with four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were rapidly analysed by using a synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) method. The SFS method was validated using HPLC with ultraviolet detection. A good correlation for the quantification of BaP in soil extracts by the two methods was observed. The detection limit of the SFS method was 1.6 x 10{sup -9} g/ml in CTAB micellar medium (7.8 mmol/l). The work demonstrates that SFS has potential as a sensitive, accurate, rapid, simple and economic methodology and an efficient alternative to HPLC for fast confirmation and quantification of BaP in complex soil extracts. - Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy has potential as a method for confirmation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil extracts.

  2. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.

  3. Data Assimilation to Extract Soil Moisture Information From SMAP Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, J.; Reichle, R. H.; Liu, Q.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Gentine, P.

    2017-01-01

    Statistical techniques permit the retrieval of soil moisture estimates in a model climatology while retaining the spatial and temporal signatures of the satellite observations. As a consequence, they can be used to reduce the need for localized bias correction techniques typically implemented in data assimilation (DA) systems that tend to remove some of the independent information provided by satellite observations. Here, we use a statistical neural network (NN) algorithm to retrieve SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) surface soil moisture estimates in the climatology of the NASA Catchment land surface model. Assimilating these estimates without additional bias correction is found to significantly reduce the model error and increase the temporal correlation against SMAP CalVal in situ observations over the contiguous United States. A comparison with assimilation experiments using traditional bias correction techniques shows that the NN approach better retains the independent information provided by the SMAP observations and thus leads to larger model skill improvements during the assimilation. A comparison with the SMAP Level 4 product shows that the NN approach is able to provide comparable skill improvements and thus represents a viable assimilation approach.

  4. Divergence of compost extract and bio-organic manure effects on lucerne plant and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ren

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim Application of organic materials into agricultural systems enhances plant growth and yields, and improves soil fertility and structure. This study aimed to examine the effects of “compost extract (CE”, a soil conditioner, and bio-organic manure (BOM on the growth of lucerne (Medicago sativa, and compare the efficiency between BOM (including numbers of microorganisms and CE (including no added microorganisms. Method A greenhouse experiment was conducted with four soil amendment treatments (control, BOM, CE and CEBOM, and was arranged in a completely randomized design with 10 replicates for each treatment. Plant biomass, nutritive value and rhizobia efficacy as well as soil characteristics were monitored. Result CE rather than BOM application showed a positive effect on plant growth and soil properties when compared with the control. Lucerne nodulation responded equally to CE addition and rhizobium inoculation. CE alone and in combination with BOM significantly increased plant growth and soil microbial activities and improved soil structure. The synergistic effects of CE and BOM indicate that applying CE and BOM together could increase their efficiency, leading to higher economic returns and improved soil health. However, CE alone is more effective for legume growth since nodulation was suppressed by nitrogen input from BOM. CE had a higher efficiency than BOM for enriching soil indigenous microorganisms instead of adding microorganisms and favouring plant nodulation.

  5. Artificial radioactivity in environmental media (air, rainwater, soil, vegetation) in Austria after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Merz, Stefan; Hainz, Dieter; Sterba, Johannes H

    2013-04-01

    Several environmental media in Austria were monitored for artificial radionuclides released during the Fukushima nuclear accident. Air (up to 1.2 mBq/m(3) particulate (131)I) and rainwater (up to 5.2 Bq/L (131)I) proved to be the media best suited for the environmental monitoring, allowing also a temporal resolution of the activity levels. Significant regional differences in the wet deposition of (131)I with rain could be observed within the city of Vienna during the arrival of the contaminated air masses. Forward-trajectory analysis supported the hypothesis that the contaminated air masses coming from the northwest changed direction to northeast over Northern Austria, leading to a strong activity concentration gradient over Vienna. In the course of the environmental monitoring of the Fukushima releases, this phenomenon-significant differences of (131)I activity concentrations in rainwater on a narrow local scale (8.1 km)-appears to be unique. Vegetation (grass) was contaminated with (131)I and/or (137)Cs at a low level. Soil (up to 22 Bq/kg (137)Cs) was only affected by previous releases (nuclear weapon tests, Chernobyl). Here, also significant local differences can be observed due to different deposition rates during the Chernobyl accident. The effective ecological half-lives of (137)Cs in soil were calculated for four locations in Austria. They range from 7 to 30 years. No Austrian sample investigated herein exceeded the detection limit for (134)Cs; hence, the Fukushima nuclear accident did not contribute significantly to the total radiocesium inventory in Austrian environmental media. The levels of detected radioactivity were of no concern for public health.

  6. Proteomic signatures differentiating Bacillus anthracis Sterne sporulation on soil relative to laboratory media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunschel, David S.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Kaiser, Brooke LD; Merkley, Eric D.; Hess, Becky M.; Lin, Andy; Warner, Marvin G.

    2018-01-02

    The process of sporulation is vital for the stability and infectious cycle of Bacillus anthracis and the form of the organism relevant to biodefense. While the morphological and molecular events occurring during sporulation have been well studied, the influence of growth medium and temperature on the proteins expressed in sporulated cultures is not well understood. Understanding the features of B. anthracis sporulation specific to natural vs. laboratory production will address an important question in microbial forensics. In an effort to bridge this knowledge gap, a system for sporulation on two types of agar-immobilized soils was used for comparison to cultures sporulated on two common types of solid laboratory media, and one liquid sporulation medium. The total number of proteins identified and their identity differed between samples generated in each medium and growth temperature, demonstrating that sporulation environment significantly impacts the protein content of the resulting spore. In addition, a subset of proteins common in all of the soil-cultivated samples was distinct from the expression profiles in laboratory medium (and vice versa). These differences included proteins involved in thiamine and phosphate metabolism in the spores produced on soils with a notable increase in expression of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters of phosphate and antimicrobial peptides. A distinct set of ABC transporters for amino acids, sugars and oligopeptides were found in cultures produced on laboratory media as well as differences in carbon and amino acid metabolism-related proteins indicative of the nutrient-rich environment. These protein expression changes indicate that the sporulation environment impacts the protein profiles in specific ways that are reflected in the metabolic and membrane transporter proteins present in sporulated cultures.

  7. An approach using centrifugation for the extraction of the soil solution and its usefulness in studies of radionuclide speciation in soils - Approach using centrifugation for extraction of soil solution and its study for uranium speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Adriana S. [CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, 70040-020, Brasilia, Brazil, Proc.BEX 1958/13-5 (Brazil); Lozano, J.C.; Prieto, C. [Universidad de Salamanca, 37008, Salamanca (Spain); Blanco Rodriguez, P.; Vera Tome, F. [Universidad de Extremadura, 06006, Badajoz (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The centrifugation technique is tested as a methodology for extraction of soil solution, for further characterization, in order to elucidate its contribution to the speciation of radionuclides, particularly uranium, in radioactively contaminated soils, as well as the determination of its availability for vegetation. Centrifugation of a previously saturated soil core provides the soil solution with a specific origin inside the soil sample. In such way that the different soil solution origin, associate to the effective pressure applied to the soil core, will reflect different distribution coefficients which affect the radionuclide availability definition. Speciation of radionuclides in the soil solution can be also conditioned by this water origin. The development of this methodology relating to technical challenges faces materials suitable for the centrifugation process, both in terms of mechanical properties and chemical inertness. This paper reports the preparation of ceramic pellets of perlite produced with the intention of replacing glass pellets, used inserts in support to soils coupled with centrifuges. The characterization of porosity and the test of its chemical inertness and mechanical strength to the centrifugation process have been performed. Porosity characterization is required to control the saturation gradient, which conditions the flow of water from the soil. Its mechanical adequacy was tested by subjecting the pellets to the centrifugation process and assessing its integrity end. Chemical inertia was measured by placing the tablets in aqueous solutions of known composition and then evaluating the presence or absence of elements in this solution, after on time of contact between them. (authors)

  8. Abiotic reductive extraction of arsenic from contaminated soils enhanced by complexation: Arsenic extraction by reducing agents and combination of reducing and chelating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Jung [Department of Bioactive Material Sciences, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabukdo 561-675 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Cheol [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabukdo 561-675 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Kitae, E-mail: kbaek@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bioactive Material Sciences, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabukdo 561-675 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabukdo 561-675 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Abiotic reductive extraction of As from contaminated soils was studied. • Oxalate/ascorbate were effective in extracting As bound to amorphous iron oxides. • Reducing agents were not effective in extracting As bound to crystalline oxides. • Reductive As extraction was greatly enhanced by complexation. • Combination of dithionite and EDTA could extract about 90% of the total As. - Abstract: Abiotic reductive extraction of arsenic from contaminated soils was studied with various reducing agents and combinations of reducing and chelating agents in order to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. Oxalate and ascorbic acid were effective to extract arsenic from soil in which arsenic was associated with amorphous iron oxides, but they were not effective to extract arsenic from soils in which arsenic was bound to crystalline oxides or those in which arsenic was mainly present as a scorodite phase. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study showed that iron oxides present in soils were transformed to Fe(II,III) or Fe(II) oxide forms such as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sup II}Fe{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 4}) by reduction with dithionite. Thus, arsenic extraction by dithionite was not effective due to the re-adsorption of arsenic to the newly formed iron oxide phase. Combination of chelating agents with reducing agents greatly improved arsenic extraction from soil samples. About 90% of the total arsenic could be extracted from all soil samples by using a combination of dithionite and EDTA. Chelating agents form strong complexation with iron, which can prevent precipitation of a new iron oxide phase and also enhance iron oxide dissolution via a non-reductive dissolution pathway.

  9. Kinetics of electrodialytic extraction of Pb and soil cations from a slurry of contaminated soil fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Célia

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the kinetics of Pb removal from soil-fines during electrodialytic remediation in suspension, and study the simultaneous dissolution of common soil cations (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na and K). This was done to evaluate the possibilities within control......-removal was obtained. During the first phase dissolution of carbonates was the prevailing process, resulting in a corresponding loss of soil-mass. During this phase, the investigated ions accounted for the major current transfer, while, as remediation proceeded hydrogen-ions increasingly dominated the transfer. During...

  10. Delamination propensity of pharmaceutical glass containers by accelerated testing with different extraction media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnino, Emanuel; Zuccato, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The delamination of pharmaceutical glass is a serious issue, as it can cause glass particles to appear in vials, a problem that has forced a number of drug product recalls in recent years. In Type I pharmaceutical glass vials, delamination occurs generally at the bottom and shoulder, where extensive flaming during the conversion process can favor a strong evaporation of alkali and borate species and the formation of heavily enriched silica layers. The contact with parenteral preparations dissolved in an alkaline medium increases the rate of glass corrosion, while the differential hydration of these layers can cause the detachment of flakes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the pH and the composition of the extraction solutions on the propensity of different glass types to delaminate. Repeated autoclave extractions at 121 °C were carried out on different glass types with different extraction media, including organic extractants like citric and glutaric acid. When vials were in contact with alkaline solutions and similarly aggressive media, an increase in silica extraction values indicated glass corrosion and an increasing risk for further delamination. Under such conditions expansion 33 glass is extensively corroded, showing high silica concentration and heavy flaking as compared to other glass types. Sulfur-treated glass also showed early flaking, even if SiO(2) concentration was very low. A similar ranking was observed with extractions carried out with glutaric and citric acids, but at far much higher SiO(2) concentration levels. Extractions with 0.9% KCl solution can be used as an accelerated test to highlight the propensity of a glass to delaminate, but in no case it can be taken as a guarantee that the glass will not delaminate when exposed to the pharmaceutical drug, whose extraction ability requires case-by-case study. How can injectable drug manufacturers prevent glass delamination? The issue of delamination is a serious one, as it

  11. Determination of phosphate in soil extracts in the field: A green chemistry enzymatic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ellen R; Warsko, Kayla; Davidson, Anna-Marie; Bill Campbell, Wilbur H

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of ortho-phosphate in soil extracts usually involves sending dried samples of soil to a laboratory for analysis and waiting several weeks for the results. Phosphate determination methods often involve use of strong acids, heavy metals, and organic dyes. To overcome limitations of this approach, we have developed a phosphate determination method which can be carried out in the field to obtain results on the spot. This new method uses: •Small volumes.•An enzymatic reaction.•Green chemistry. First, the soil sample is extracted with deionized water and filtered. Next, an aliquot of the soil extract (0.5 mL) is transferred to a disposable cuvette, containing 0.5 mL of reaction mixture [200 mM HEPES, pH 7.6, 20 mM MgCl2, with 80 nmol 2-amino-6-mercapto-7-methylpurine ribonucleoside (MESG) and 1 unit of recombinant purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP; EC 2.4.2.1)], mixed, and incubated for 10 min at field temperature. Absorbance of the completed reaction is measured at 360 nm in open-source, portable photometer linked by bluetooth to a smartphone. The phosphate and phosphorus content of the soil is determined by comparison of its absorbance at 360 nm to a previously prepared standard phosphate curve, which is stored in the smartphone app.

  12. Morphology of Verticillium dahliae and V. tricorpus on semi-selective media used for the detection of V. dahliae in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Gams, W.

    2003-01-01

    The morphology of two soil-borne Verticillium species, V. dahliae and V. tricorpus, was studied on two semi-selective agar media, in the absence and presence of soil. Morphology of the fungi differed considerably between the media, with respect to presence and shape of microsclerotia, dark hyphae

  13. Quantification of four ionophores in soil, sediment and manure using pressurised liquid extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin; Pedersen, Kenneth Munk

    2013-01-01

    chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry applying electrospray ionisation for detection. The samples were freeze-dried prior to extraction. The absolute recoveries for soil and sediment ranged from 71 to 123% (relative standard deviation (RSDs) below 16%) and in the range 94-133% (RSDs 9...

  14. Remediation of soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents is still in the initial stages of development. So far hardly any scientific research has been carried out into this approach. Therefore, the main objective of the present investigation was to study

  15. Parameters affecting microwave-assisted extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Edwar; Báez, María E; Labra, Ronnie

    2007-10-26

    This work describes an optimised method for the determination of six representative organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) (diazinon, parathion, methyl pirimiphos, methyl parathion, ethoprophos, and fenitrothion) in agricultural soils. The method is based on microwave-assisted extraction using a water-methanol modified mixture for desorption and simultaneous partitioning on n-hexane (MAEP), together with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD). To improve GC-FPD signals (peak intensity and shape) olive oil was used effectively as a "matrix mimic". The optimisation of the extraction method was achieved in two steps: an initial approach through experimental design and principal component analysis where recovery of compounds using a water-methanol mixture ranged from 54 to 77%, and the second one by studying the addition of KH2PO4 to the extracting solution where recoveries were significantly increased, molecular replacing of OPPs from adsorption sites by phosphate being the probable extraction mechanism. Under optimised conditions, recoveries of pesticides from different soils were higher than 73%, except for methyl parathion in some soils, with SD equal or lower than 11% and detection limits ranging from 0.004 to 0.012 microg g(-1). The proposed method was used to determine OPPs in soil samples from different agricultural zones of Chile.

  16. Enhanced method for microbial community DNA extraction and purification from agricultural yellow loess soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiravan, Mathur Nadarajan; Gim, Geun Ho; Ryu, Jaewon; Kim, Pyung Il; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Si Wouk

    2015-11-01

    In this study, novel DNA extraction and purification methods were developed to obtain high-quantity and reliable quality DNA from the microbial community of agricultural yellow loess soil samples. The efficiencies of five different soil DNAextraction protocols were evaluated on the basis of DNA yield, quality and DNA shearing. Our suggested extraction method, which used CTAB, EDTA and cell membrane lytic enzymes in the extraction followed by DNA precipitation using isopropanol, yielded a maximum DNA content of 42.28 ± 5.59 µg/g soil. In addition, among the five different purification protocols, the acid-treated polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) spin column purification method yielded high-quality DNA and recovered 91% of DNA from the crude DNA. Spectrophotometry revealed that the ultraviolet A 260/A 230 and A 260/A 280 absorbance ratios of the purified DNA were 1.82 ± 0.03 and 1.94 ± 0.05, respectively. PCR-based 16S rRNA amplification showed clear bands at ~1.5 kb with acid-treated PVPP-purified DNA templates. In conclusion, our suggested extraction and purification protocols can be used to recover high concentration, high purity, and high-molecular-weight DNA from clay and silica-rich agricultural soil samples.

  17. Effect of harsh or mild extraction of soil on pesticide leaching to groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, Jos J.T.I.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of leaching to groundwater is an important aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The first leaching tier usually consists of simulations with leaching scenarios based on pesticide- soil properties derived from laboratory studies. Because the extractability of pesticide residues in such

  18. Nucleic Acid Extraction from Synthetic Mars Analog Soils for in situ Life Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarro, Angel; Ruvkun, Gary; Zuber, Maria T; Carr, Christopher E

    2017-08-01

    Biological informational polymers such as nucleic acids have the potential to provide unambiguous evidence of life beyond Earth. To this end, we are developing an automated in situ life-detection instrument that integrates nucleic acid extraction and nanopore sequencing: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) instrument. Our goal is to isolate and determine the sequence of nucleic acids from extant or preserved life on Mars, if, for example, there is common ancestry to life on Mars and Earth. As is true of metagenomic analysis of terrestrial environmental samples, the SETG instrument must isolate nucleic acids from crude samples and then determine the DNA sequence of the unknown nucleic acids. Our initial DNA extraction experiments resulted in low to undetectable amounts of DNA due to soil chemistry-dependent soil-DNA interactions, namely adsorption to mineral surfaces, binding to divalent/trivalent cations, destruction by iron redox cycling, and acidic conditions. Subsequently, we developed soil-specific extraction protocols that increase DNA yields through a combination of desalting, utilization of competitive binders, and promotion of anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that a combination of desalting and utilizing competitive binders may establish a "universal" nucleic acid extraction protocol suitable for analyzing samples from diverse soils on Mars. Key Words: Life-detection instruments-Nucleic acids-Mars-Panspermia. Astrobiology 17, 747-760.

  19. The impact of radiocesium input forms on its extractability in Fukushima forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramage, Mengistu T; Carasco, Loic; Orjollet, Daniel; Coppin, Frederic

    2018-05-05

    The effects of 137 Cs deposit forms on its ageing in soil have not yet been reported. Soluble and Solid 137 Cs input forms were mixed with the mineral soils collected under Fukushima's coniferous and broadleaf forests, incubated under controlled laboratory, and examined the evolution of 137 Cs availability over time. Results show that the extracted 137 Cs fraction with water was less than 1% for the soluble input form and below detection limit for the solid input forms. Likewise, with an acetate reagent, the extracted 137 Cs fraction ranged from 46 to 56% for the soluble input and from 2 to 15% for the solid input, implying that the nature of the 137 Cs contamination strongly influences its extractability and mobility in soil. Although the degradation of organic materials was apparent, its impact on the 137 Cs extractability was found to be weak. Nevertheless, more Ac-available 137 Cs was obtained from broadleaf organic material mixes than the coniferous counterparts, suggesting that the lignified nature of latter tend to retain more 137 Cs. When extrapolated to a field context, more available 137 Cs fraction may be expected from wet-derived contaminated forest soils than contaminated via solid-derived inputs. Such information could be helpful for radioecological management schemes in contaminated forest environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  1. Nucleic Acid Extraction from Synthetic Mars Analog Soils for in situ Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarro, Angel; Ruvkun, Gary; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Biological informational polymers such as nucleic acids have the potential to provide unambiguous evidence of life beyond Earth. To this end, we are developing an automated in situ life-detection instrument that integrates nucleic acid extraction and nanopore sequencing: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) instrument. Our goal is to isolate and determine the sequence of nucleic acids from extant or preserved life on Mars, if, for example, there is common ancestry to life on Mars and Earth. As is true of metagenomic analysis of terrestrial environmental samples, the SETG instrument must isolate nucleic acids from crude samples and then determine the DNA sequence of the unknown nucleic acids. Our initial DNA extraction experiments resulted in low to undetectable amounts of DNA due to soil chemistry–dependent soil-DNA interactions, namely adsorption to mineral surfaces, binding to divalent/trivalent cations, destruction by iron redox cycling, and acidic conditions. Subsequently, we developed soil-specific extraction protocols that increase DNA yields through a combination of desalting, utilization of competitive binders, and promotion of anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that a combination of desalting and utilizing competitive binders may establish a “universal” nucleic acid extraction protocol suitable for analyzing samples from diverse soils on Mars. Key Words: Life-detection instruments—Nucleic acids—Mars—Panspermia. Astrobiology 17, 747–760. PMID:28704064

  2. Water extraction and implications on soil moisture sensor placement in the root zone of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Jadavi Pereira da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The knowledge on spatial and temporal variations of soil water storage in the root zone of crops is essential to guide the studies to determine soil water balance, verify the effective zone of water extraction in the soil and indicate the correct region for the management of water, fertilizers and pesticides. The objectives of this study were: (i to indicate the zones of highest root activity for banana in different development stages; (ii to determine, inside the zone of highest root activity, the adequate position for the installation of soil moisture sensors. A 5.0 m3 drainage lysimeter was installed in the center of an experimental area of 320 m2. Water extraction was quantified inside the lysimeter using a 72 TDR probe. The concept of time stability was applied to indicate the position for sensor installation within the limits of effective water extraction. There are two patterns of water extraction distribution during the development of banana and the point of installation of sensors for irrigation management inside the zone of highest root activity is not constant along the crop development.

  3. Analysis of Fluorotelomer Alcohols in Soils: Optimization of Extraction and Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes the development of an analytical method for the determination of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in soil. The sensitive and selective determination of the telomer alcohols was performed by extraction with mthyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and analysis of the ext...

  4. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraju Gayathri Devi

    Full Text Available A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely "powdered glass method" from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05 and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03. The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method's applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666.

  5. Nitrogen Mineralization in Soils Related to Initial Extractable Organic Nitrogen: Effect of Temperature and Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bregliani, M.; Ros, G.H.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2010-01-01

    An important source of nitrogen (N) for crops is mineralization of soil organic matter during the growing season. Awareness is growing that dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) plays an important role in mineralization and plant uptake. We studied the influence of temperature and time on extractable

  6. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Radha, Sudhakar; Arunraj, Rex; Curtis, Wayne R; Ramya, Mohandass

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely "powdered glass method" from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC) as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil) with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05) and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03). The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method's applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666).

  7. Does soil compaction on harvesting extraction roads affect long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of soil compaction on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis and two clonal hybrids (Eucalyptus grandisx urophylla (E. gxu) and Eucalyptus grandis x camaldulensis (E. gxc)) was evaluated on harvesting extraction roads at three sites in the Zululand region of KwaZulu-Natal. Significantly lower initial survival was ...

  8. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Radha, Sudhakar; Arunraj, Rex; Curtis, Wayne R.; Ramya, Mohandass

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely “powdered glass method” from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC) as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil) with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05) and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03). The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method’s applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666). PMID:26167854

  9. Nucleic Acid Extraction from Synthetic Mars Analog Soils for in situ Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarro, Angel; Ruvkun, Gary; Zuber, Maria T.; Carr, Christopher E.

    2017-08-01

    Biological informational polymers such as nucleic acids have the potential to provide unambiguous evidence of life beyond Earth. To this end, we are developing an automated in situ life-detection instrument that integrates nucleic acid extraction and nanopore sequencing: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) instrument. Our goal is to isolate and determine the sequence of nucleic acids from extant or preserved life on Mars, if, for example, there is common ancestry to life on Mars and Earth. As is true of metagenomic analysis of terrestrial environmental samples, the SETG instrument must isolate nucleic acids from crude samples and then determine the DNA sequence of the unknown nucleic acids. Our initial DNA extraction experiments resulted in low to undetectable amounts of DNA due to soil chemistry-dependent soil-DNA interactions, namely adsorption to mineral surfaces, binding to divalent/trivalent cations, destruction by iron redox cycling, and acidic conditions. Subsequently, we developed soil-specific extraction protocols that increase DNA yields through a combination of desalting, utilization of competitive binders, and promotion of anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that a combination of desalting and utilizing competitive binders may establish a "universal" nucleic acid extraction protocol suitable for analyzing samples from diverse soils on Mars.

  10. Effects of aqueous soil-biochar extracts on representative aquatic organisms: a first evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, A. C.; Abrantes, N.; Prodana, M.; Verheijen, F.; Keizer, J. J.; Soares, A. M. V. M.; Loureiro, S.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing considerations of biochar application to soils has raised concerns over implications to overall environmental quality, associated to some of its components. The heterogeneity of biochar composition is well documented in relation to co-existing chemical species, as a function of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Robust ecotoxicology studies with focus on bioavailable biochar components in soil remain scarce and have only started to emerge. This pilot study provides an insight into the potential ecotoxicological effects of aqueous extracts of biochar-amended soil on a range of aquatic organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna), using a battery of standard aquatic bioassays. The use of such bioassays in environmental risk assessment of soil-biochar elutriates is here suggested as a crucial tool, to bridge the gap between biochar's 'inert' fraction in soil and that bioavailable to edaphic organisms. Aqueous extracts were obtained from LUFA 2.2 standard soil (control) and following amendment with pine biochar at common field application rates (80 ton ha-1). Acute exposure to soil-biochar extracts allowed estimating toxicity parameters and developing dose-response curves for all tested species, through well-established methodological guidelines. The bioluminescent bacteria V. fischeri showed negligible EC50 (effect concentration corresponding to 50% luminescence decline) values in the MICROTOX® basic test (independent of exposure time), suggesting low susceptibility to soil-biochar extracts. Mild toxicity was also observed in the microalgae P. subcapitata growth inhibition test, where significant deleterious effects on growth rate occurred only at the highest (100%) extract concentration (p<0.05). Among the tested species, toxicity was generally more marked in the primary consumer D. magna, with an EC50 (effect concentration corresponding to 50% immobilisation) of 2.95%. The pattern and extent of observed effects were

  11. Determination of phosphate in soil extracts in the field: A green chemistry enzymatic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    First, the soil sample is extracted with deionized water and filtered. Next, an aliquot of the soil extract (0.5 mL is transferred to a disposable cuvette, containing 0.5 mL of reaction mixture [200 mM HEPES, pH 7.6, 20 mM MgCl2, with 80 nmol 2-amino-6-mercapto-7-methylpurine ribonucleoside (MESG and 1 unit of recombinant purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP; EC 2.4.2.1], mixed, and incubated for 10 min at field temperature. Absorbance of the completed reaction is measured at 360 nm in open-source, portable photometer linked by bluetooth to a smartphone. The phosphate and phosphorus content of the soil is determined by comparison of its absorbance at 360 nm to a previously prepared standard phosphate curve, which is stored in the smartphone app.

  12. Overestimation of organic phosphorus in wetland soils by alkaline extraction and molybdate colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin L; Newman, Susan; Reddy, K Ramesh

    2006-05-15

    Accurate information on the chemical nature of soil phosphorus is essential for understanding its bioavailability and fate in wetland ecosystems. Solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy was used to assess the conventional colorimetric procedure for phosphorus speciation in alkaline extracts of organic soils from the Florida Everglades. Molybdate colorimetry markedly overestimated organic phosphorus by between 30 and 54% compared to NMR spectroscopy. This was due in large part to the association of inorganic phosphate with organic matter, although the error was exacerbated in some samples by the presence of pyrophosphate, an inorganic polyphosphate that is not detected by colorimetry. The results have important implications for our understanding of phosphorus biogeochemistry in wetlands and suggest that alkaline extraction and solution 31p NMR spectroscopy is the only accurate method for quantifying organic phosphorus in wetland soils.

  13. TNT and RDX degradation and extraction from contaminated soil using subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Shin, Moon-Su; Jo, Young-Tae; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-01-01

    The use of explosives either for industrial or military operations have resulted in the environmental pollution, poses ecological and health hazard. In this work, a subcritical water extraction (SCWE) process at laboratory scale was used at varying water temperature (100-175 °C) and flow rate (0.5-1.5 mL min(-1)), to treat 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soil, to reveal information with respect to the explosives removal (based on the analyses of soil residue after extraction), and degradation performance (based on the analyses of water extracts) of this process. Continuous flow subcritical water has been considered on removal of explosives to avoid the repartitioning of non-degraded compounds to the soil upon cooling which usually occurs in the batch system. In the SCWE experiments, near complete degradation of both TNT and RDX was observed at 175 °C based on analysis of water extracts and soil. Test results also indicated that TNT removal of >99% and a complete RDX removal were achieved by this process, when the operating conditions were 1 mL min(-1), and treatment time of 20 min, after the temperature reached 175 °C. HPLC-UV and ion chromatography analysis confirmed that the explosives underwent for degradation. The low concentration of explosives found in the process wastewater indicates that water recycling may be viable, to treat additional soil. Our results have shown in the remediation of explosives contaminated soil, the effectiveness of the continuous flow SCWE process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Focused ultrasound assisted extraction for the determination of PBDEs in vegetables and amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizkarguenaga, Ekhiñe; Iparragirre, Arantza; Zabaleta, Itsaso; Vallejo, Asier; Fernández, Luis Angel; Prieto, Ailette; Zuloaga, Olatz

    2014-02-01

    Focused-ultrasound solid-liquid extraction was developed for the extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in vegetables and amended soil. Firstly, solid-phase extraction clean-up using 2g and 5 g of Florisil and 2-g silica cartridges were evaluated and elution profile was also optimised. Similar recoveries were obtained for most compounds while better recoveries were obtained for 5-g Florisil in the case of the heavier PBDEs. FUSLE extraction time (2 min) guaranteed quantitative extraction of the target analytes in the four studied matrices (69-130%). Method detection limit values were in the range of 1-5 ng g(-1) for splitless injection in a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and no significant improvement was obtained for large volume injection. Relative standard deviation values were between 1% and 30%. Recoveries obtained using FUSLE were compared with those obtained with microwave assisted extraction and the developed method was also applied to a certify reference material of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinared biphenyls in sediment. Similar values were obtained in the case of carrot and pepper matrices (77-130% for FUSLE and 77-112% for MAE). However, MAE provided extraction recoveries higher than 100% for most of the BDE congeners in lettuce and amended soil. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The status of phosphorus in Thai soils and P evaluation using EDTA-NaF extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Matoh

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the available P extracted by Bray II method in tropical soil is low, most of tropical plants can grow well. The objective of this study was to study P status and to evaluate the available P extracted by EDTA-NaF method. Top soil and sub soil of 10 dominant soil series in Thailand were analyzed for some chemical properties and characterization of the forms of phosphorus using EDTA-NaF extraction and successive phosphorus extraction by the modified Sekiya method. The soil total P concentration was 38-1137 mg P2O5 kg-1. The available Bray II-P was very low to high (1-76 mg P2O5 kg-1, and it approximated 0.17-12% of the total P. Iron and aluminum phosphates were the main fraction of inorganic P in acid soil, whereas Ca phosphates were in calcareous soils. Organic P content accounted for 33-67% and most of them were bound with Fe and Al in acid soils and Ca in calcareous soils. P extracted by EDTA-NaF reagent was obviously larger than that of Bray II reagent. The EDTA-NaF extracted P [high molecular weight organic P (HMWP+ inorganic P (EDTA ext Pi] was 7-46% and 1-6% of total P in acid soils and calcareous soils respectively. The EDTA ext Pi tended to be larger than HMWP except in Tk soil. The total amount of extracted P correlated well with Al-Pi and Fe-Pi which were the main fraction of inorganic P. It also correlated with HMWP, but HMWP did not correlate with organic P determine by ignition method and Ca-Po, Fe-Po and Al-Po. The EDTA-NaF method may be suitable for P evaluation in the soils which have high amounts of Fe-Pi, Al -Pi and organic P widely distributed in Thailand.

  16. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation during biodegradation of ibuprofen in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Karolina M., E-mail: karolina.nowak@ufz.de [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Girardi, Cristobal; Miltner, Anja [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Gehre, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schäffer, Andreas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kästner, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Non-extractable residues (NER) formed during biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil are considered to be mainly composed of parent compounds or their primary metabolites with hazardous potential. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, the soil NER may also contain microbial biomass components, for example fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are subsequently incorporated into non-living soil organic matter (SOM) and are stabilised ultimately forming hardly extractable residues of biogenic origin. We investigated biodegradation of {sup 13}C{sub 6}-ibuprofen, in particular the metabolic incorporation of the {sup 13}C-label into FA and AA and their fate in soil over 90 days. {sup 13}C-FA and {sup 13}C-AA amounts in the living microbial biomass fraction initially increased, then decreased over time and were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool. The {sup 13}C-FA in the non-living SOM remained stable from day 59 whereas the contents of {sup 13}C-AA slightly increased until the end. After 90 days, nearly all NER were biogenic as they were made up almost completely by natural biomass compounds. The presented data demonstrated that the potential environmental risks related to the ibuprofen-derived NER are overestimated. - Highlights: ► Biogenic residue formation during microbial degradation of ibuprofen was studied. ► Nearly all non-extractable residues derived from ibuprofen were biogenic. ► Fatty acids and amino acids formed biogenic non-extractable residues and were stabilised in soil. ► Environmental risks of ibuprofen-derived non-extractable residues are overestimated.

  17. Extracting the Green's function of attenuating heterogeneous acoustic media from uncorrelated waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel

    2007-05-01

    The Green's function of acoustic or elastic wave propagation can, for loss-less media, be retrieved by correlating the wave field that is excited by random sources and is recorded at two locations. Here the generalization of this idea to attenuating acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium is addressed, and it is shown that the Green's function can be retrieved from waves that are excited throughout the volume by spatially uncorrelated injection sources with a power spectrum that is proportional to the local dissipation rate. For a finite volume, one needs both volume sources and sources at the bounding surface for the extraction of the Green's functions. For the special case of a homogeneous attenuating medium defined over a finite volume, the phase and geometrical spreading of the Green's function is correctly retrieved when the volume sources are ignored, but the attenuation is not.

  18. Electrodialytic versus acid extraction of heavy metals from soil washing residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille E.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Allard, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of electrodialytic remediation (EDR) for treatment of suspended sludge after soil washing is in focus in the present paper. Five industrially contaminated soils were treated in laboratory scale remediation experiments, and the toxic elements of the investigation were: As, Cd, Cu, Cr......, Ni, Zn and Pb. The results showed that all investigated elements could be removed from all soils to some extent by EDR. For all anthropogenic contaminants, higher extraction can be obtained under the influence of the direct current during EDR than by washing. During EDR most elements were transferred...... primarily to the cathode, where Cu and Pb precipitated at the cathode, while Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn primarily, or solely (for Ni), were dissolved in the catholyte, showing how cationic species dominated the chemistry of these elements. Despite the differences between the soils, the remediation results were...

  19. [Extraction of first derivative spectrum features of soil organic matter via wavelet de-noising].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chang, Qing-Rui; Guo, Man; Xing, Dong-Xing; Yuan, Yong-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance of soil was measured by a ASD FieldSpec within 400-1 000 nm. Next, its first derivative of spectra were acquired and de-noised by the threshold de-noising method based on wavelet transform. From the de-noised derivative spectra, absorption areas used as indicatoresas for soil organic matter content were acquired by numerical integration. Results show that: (1) Because of much noise, it is difficult to identify spectra contour and features in the first derivative of soil spectra resulting from different organic content levels. (2) When the scale of wavelet decomposition was 3, the threshold de-noising method based on wavelet transform can keep the balance between smoothing curve and holding spectra features. (3) Absorption area S (538, 586) is extracted from de-noised first derivative of soil spectra, and the coefficient of correlation between it and organic matter content is 0.896 3.

  20. Redox speciation analysis of antimony in soil extracts by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Edwar; Pinochet, Hugo; Gregori, Ida de E-mail: idegrego@ucv.cl; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2003-07-18

    A sensitive atomic spectrometric method for the redox speciation analysis of antimony in soils is described. The method is based on the selective generation of stibine from Sb(III) in a continuous flow system using atomic fluorescence spectrometry for detection. Sb(V) is masked by citric or oxalic acid in HCl medium. The procedure was optimized with synthetic solutions of Sb(III) and Sb(V). The effect of carboxylic acid and HCl concentration on the recovery of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species from standard solutions, and on the fluorescence signal were studied. Both species were extracted from soil with H{sub 2}O, 0.05 mol l{sup -1} EDTA and 0.25 mol l{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Since the soil samples were collected from sites impacted by copper mining activities, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the determination of antimony in synthetic solutions and soil extracts was studied. Cu{sup 2+} decreased the Sb(III) signal, but had no effect on the total antimony determination. Therefore, the selective determination of Sb(III) was carried out in citric acid-HCl medium, using the analyte addition technique. Total antimony in soil extracts was determined using the standard calibration technique after reducing Sb(V) to Sb(III) at room temperature with KI-ascorbic acid. The Sb(V) concentration was calculated from the difference between total antimony and Sb(III). The limits of detection (PS Analytical, Excalibur Millennium model) were 17 and 10 ng l{sup -1} for Sb(III) and total antimony, respectively, and the R.S.D. at the 0.5-{mu}g l{sup -1} level were 2.5 and 2.4%, respectively. The total antimony concentration of soils is in the mg kg{sup -1} range; the Sb recovery from the different soils by the extracting solutions was between less than 0.02% and approximately 10%. Similar recoveries were obtained using EDTA and sulfuric acid solutions. Sb(V) was found to be the main antimony species extracted from soils.

  1. Extraction of rare earth elements from a contaminated cropland soil using nitric acid, citric acid, and EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hailong; Shuai, Weitao; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Yangsheng

    2017-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) contamination to the surrounding soil has increased the concerns of health risk to the local residents. Soil washing was first attempted in our study to remediate REEs-contaminated cropland soil using nitric acid, citric acid, and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for soil decontamination and possible recovery of REEs. The extraction time, washing agent concentration, and pH value of the washing solution were optimized. The sequential extraction analysis proposed by Tessier was adopted to study the speciation changes of the REEs before and after soil washing. The extract containing citric acid was dried to obtain solid for the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The results revealed that the optimal extraction time was 72 h, and the REEs extraction efficiency increased as the agent concentration increased from 0.01 to 0.1 mol/L. EDTA was efficient to extract REEs over a wide range of pH values, while citric acid was around pH 6.0. Under optimized conditions, the average extraction efficiencies of the major REEs in the contaminated soil were 70.96%, 64.38%, and 62.12% by EDTA, nitric acid, and citric acid, respectively. The sequential extraction analyses revealed that most soil-bounded REEs were mobilized or extracted except for those in the residual fraction. Under a comprehensive consideration of the extraction efficiency and the environmental impact, citric acid was recommended as the most suitable agent for extraction of the REEs from the contaminated cropland soils. The XRF analysis revealed that Mn, Al, Si, Pb, Fe, and REEs were the major elements in the extract indicating a possibile recovery of the REEs.

  2. Estimating the impact of seawater on the production of soil water-extractable organic carbon during coastal erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fugen; Ping, Chien-Lu; Guo, Laodong; Jorgenson, Torre

    2008-01-01

    The production of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) during arctic coastal erosion and permafrost degradation may contribute significantly to C fluxes under warming conditions, but it remains difficult to quantify. A tundra soil collected near Barrow, AK, was selected to evaluate the effects of soil pretreatments (oven drying vs. freeze drying) as well as extraction solutions (pure water vs. seawater) on WEOC yields. Both oven drying and freeze drying significantly increased WEOC release compared with the original moist soil samples; dried samples released, on average, 18% more WEOC than did original moist samples. Similar results were observed for the production of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic C. However, extractable OC released from different soil horizons exhibited differences in specific UV absorption, suggesting differences in WEOC quality. Furthermore, extractable OC yields were significantly less in samples extracted with seawater compared with those extracted with pure water, likely due to the effects of major ions on extractable OC flocculation. Compared with samples from the active horizons, upper permafrost samples released more WEOC, suggesting that continuously frozen samples were more sensitive than samples that had experienced more drying-wetting cycles in nature. Specific UV absorption of seawater-extracted OC was significantly lower than that of OC extracted using pure water, suggesting more aromatic or humic substances were flocculated during seawater extraction. Our results suggest that overestimation of total terrestrial WEOC input to the Arctic Ocean during coastal erosion could occur if estimations were based on WEOC extracted from dried soil samples using pure water.

  3. Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Wexler

    2010-01-01

    .... Tradigital allows us to use online behaviour to track the effectiveness of online and offline media, not simply the correlation of TV airings with search activity, but also by employing a bevy...

  4. Solid Phase Extraction Disk Procedure to Determine 239Pu in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ji-qiao;ZHAO Ya-ping;DING You-qian;ZHANG Sheng-dong;YANG Jin-ling

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 239Pu in many soil samples should be analyzed to survey radioactive pollution level in nuclear facilities and its affinity environment efficiently. In order to input the opt conditions for column experiment, the experiments of the static adsorption coefficient of 239Pu to solid phase extraction disk with different contact time, concentration of HNO3 and different temperature were carried out. The chemical procedure for the rapid separation and determination of 239Pu in soils had been formulated, which using solid phase extraction disk (EmporeTM Anion Exchange-SR as extraction material and liquid scintillation spectrometry counting as measurement. In the procedure, soil sample usage was 10 g, and were leached by 8 mol/L HNO3, the chemical recovery of the procedure was about 78.9%, and the minimum detectable concentration was 3.7 Bq/kg. It took less than 3 hours once and the presence of 137Cs, 90Sr-90Y and natural uranium, 241Am, 99Tc did not interfere with the procedure, owning high DF of them. The procedure can be used extensively in determination of 239Pu in soils.

  5. RAPID AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DNA EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large proportion of microbial population in the world is unculturable. Extraction of total DNA from soil is usually a crucial step considering to the difficulties of study the uncultivable microorganisms. Humic acid is considered as the main inhibitory agent in the environmental DNA studies. Here, we introduced a rapid and efficient method for DNA extraction and purification from soil. Yield of DNA extraction by the presented method was 130 ng/µl. Three conventional methods of DNA extraction including liquid nitrogen incursion, bead beating and sonication were performed as control methods. Yield of DNA extraction by these methods were 110, 90 and 50 ng/µl, respectively. A rapid and efficient one step DNA purification method was introduced instead of hazardous conventional phenol-chloroform methods. Humic acid removal percentage by the introduced method was 95.8 % that is comparable with 97 % gained by the conventional gel extraction method and yield of DNA after purification was 84 % and 73 %, respectively. This study could be useful in molecular ecology and metagenomics study as a fast and reliable method.

  6. SSEL-ADE: A semi-supervised ensemble learning framework for extracting adverse drug events from social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Zhao, Songzheng; Wang, Gang

    2017-10-27

    With the development of Web 2.0 technology, social media websites have become lucrative but under-explored data sources for extracting adverse drug events (ADEs), which is a serious health problem. Besides ADE, other semantic relation types (e.g., drug indication and beneficial effect) could hold between the drug and adverse event mentions, making ADE relation extraction - distinguishing ADE relationship from other relation types - necessary. However, conducting ADE relation extraction in social media environment is not a trivial task because of the expertise-dependent, time-consuming and costly annotation process, and the feature space's high-dimensionality attributed to intrinsic characteristics of social media data. This study aims to develop a framework for ADE relation extraction using patient-generated content in social media with better performance than that delivered by previous efforts. To achieve the objective, a general semi-supervised ensemble learning framework, SSEL-ADE, was developed. The framework exploited various lexical, semantic, and syntactic features, and integrated ensemble learning and semi-supervised learning. A series of experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of each component of SSEL-ADE and reveal that our proposed framework outperforms most of existing ADE relation extraction methods The SSEL-ADE can facilitate enhanced ADE relation extraction performance, thereby providing more reliable support for pharmacovigilance. Moreover, the proposed semi-supervised ensemble methods have the potential of being applied to effectively deal with other social media-based problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Extraction Techniques for the Determination of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in Maize grown soils of Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    S.S. Mohammed; J.T. Ayodele

    2011-01-01

    To assess the availability of metals in soil for absorption, the chemical forms must be determined. Sequential extraction procedures are useful to determine the geochemical partitioning of heavy metals in the soil. In this study, the Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations of soil samples from maize grown soils in Kaduna metropolis were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). Hot and cold extraction techniques were employed for the digestion and extraction of the soil samples u...

  8. Determination of Decabrominated Diphenyl Ether in Soils by Soxhlet Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Jian; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Fang-Li; Lin, Zhao-Ying; Zou, Meng-Yao; Tao, Xue-Qin; Lu, Gui-Ning

    2013-01-01

    This study described the development of a method based on soxhlet extraction combining high performance liquid chromatography (soxhlet-HPLC) for the accurate detection of BDE-209 in soils. The solvent effect of working standard solutions in HPLC was discussed. Results showed that 1 : 1 of methanol and acetone was the optimal condition which could totally dissolve the BDE-209 in environmental samples and avoid the decrease of the peak area and the peak deformation difference of BDE-209 in HPLC. The preliminary experiment was conducted on the configured grassland (1 μg/g) to validate the method feasibility. The method produced reliable reproducibility, simulated soils (n = 4) RSD 1.0%, and was further verified by the analysis e-waste contaminated soils, RSD range 5.9–11.4%. The contamination level of BDE-209 in burning site was consistent with the previous study of Longtang town but lower than Guiyu town, and higher concentration of BDE-209 in paddy field mainly resulted from the long-standing disassembling area nearby. This accurate and fast method was successfully developed to extract and analyze BDE-209 in soil samples, showing its potential use for replacing GC to determinate BDE-209 in soil samples. PMID:24302876

  9. Linking Environmental Exposure with Public Health: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane Extracted from Soils and Water of Recently Exposed Communities of Selected Locations in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosiku Sipilanyambe Munyinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2000, a Zambian private mining company reintroduced the use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT to control malaria in two districts. From 2000 to 2010, DDT had been applied in homes without any studies conducted to ascertain its fate in the environment. We aimed to quantify the presence of DDT and its metabolites in the soil and water around communities where it was recently used. Methods. We collected superficial soil and water samples from drinking sources of three study areas. DDT was extracted by QuEChERS method and solid phase extraction for soils and water, respectively. Analysis was by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A revalidated method with limits of detection ranging from 0.034 to 0.04 ppb was used. Results. Median levels of total DDT were found at 100.4 (IQR 90.9–110 and 725.4 ng/L (IQR 540–774.5 for soils and water, respectively. No DDT above detection limits was detected in the reference area. These results are clinically significant given the persistent characteristics of DDT. Conclusion. DDT presence in these media suggests possible limitations in the environmental safeguards during IRS. Such occurrence could have potential effects on humans, especially children; hence, there is a need to further examine possible associations between this exposure and humans.

  10. Density and diversity of diazotrophic bacteria isolated from Amazonian soils using N-free semi-solid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisle da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria are amongst the most important functional groups of soil-dwelling microorganisms. These bacteria contribute to plant growth predominantly through biological N2 fixation. Here, we evaluated the density and diversity of non-symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria in soils taken from diverse land use systems (LUS in Amazonia using nitrogen-free media. A total of 30 soil samples were collected from the following LUS: pristine forest, young secondary forest, old secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. Bacterial density was evaluated by the most probable number (MPN method utilizing N-free semi-solid media with varied compositions (JNFb, NFb, LGI and Fam. Individual isolates were characterized by colony and cellular morphology as well as total protein profiles and nitrogenase activity. Isolate genotypes were determined by partial 16S rDNA sequences. No typical diazotrophic growth in the JNFb medium was observed. Bacterial densities in the NFb medium were higher in the agriculture and agroforestry soil samples. In LGI and Fam media, bacterial densities were highest in the pasture soil samples. Overall, 22 isolates with high phenotypic diversity were obtained. Eleven isolates exhibited nitrogenase activity. Sequences of 16S rDNA genes of 14 out of 19 isolates had similarities below 100 % with known nitrogen-fixing species. Isolates were identified as belonging to the Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Serratia, Klebsiella, and Bacillus genera. A higher number of isolates from pasture soil samples were isolated, with the majority of these belonging to the Burkholderia and Bacillus genera. Among the isolates, unknown sequences were obtained, possibly indicating new species. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Fam, NFb, and LGI semi-solid media allowed the growth of diazotrophic bacteria belonging to different phylogenetic lines.

  11. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.uk [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. - Research highlights: > Isotope ratios can be used to evaluate chemical methods to predict bioavailability. > Chemical methods predicted bioavailability better than exhaustive extractions. > Bioavailability to earthworms was still far from that predicted by chemical methods. - A novel method using isotope ratios to assess the ability of chemical methods to predict PAH bioavailability to soil biota.

  12. Scalable Method for Extracting Soiling Rates from PV Production Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Muller, Matthew; Kurtz, Sarah; Defreitas, Zoe

    2016-06-21

    We present a method for analyzing time series production data from photovoltaic systems to extract the rate at which energy yield is affected by the accumulation of dust, dirt, and other forms of soiling. We describe an approach that is based on prevailing methods which consider the change in energy production during dry periods. The method described here builds upon these methods by considering a statistical sample of soiling intervals from each site under consideration. The method enables straightforward application to a large number of sites with minimal parameterization of data-filtering requirements. Furthermore, it enables statistical confidence intervals and comparisons between sites.

  13. Determination of soil micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn, B) extracted by Mehlich 3 using MP-AES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebstein, Kadri; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rodima, Ako; Kõlli, Raimo; Künnapas, Allan; Rebane, Jaanus; Penu, Priit; Vennik, Kersti; Soobik, Liina

    2015-04-01

    The total concentration of micronutrients in soils is not a good predictor of its bioavailability and solubility. Therefore, during the decades several methods for the determination of plant availability and extractable fraction of micro- and macronutrients in soil were developed. Among several methods Mehlich 3 is the most appropriate due to its suitability for extracting soil micro- and macronutrients simultaneously. The AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopic) and ICP (inductively coupled plasma) methods are widely used for the analysis of microelements today. In 2011 the third method was added to this list with the appearance of the microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (MP-AES). This multielemental analytical equipment has a high potential in the soil analysis. Up to now there have been made some experiments for the use of MP-AES in soil and geological material analysis. But there is no information about the analysis of soil micronutrients extracted according to Mehlich 3 method and determined with the MP-AES. Due to the differences in atomization conditions the different emission and absorption lines are used in different instrumental methods. Therefore it is very important to choose the most suitable emission lines and the best atomization conditions. From the analytical viewpoint it is important to get coincidental results with other instrumental methods and from the agronomical point of view it is important to know the difference between AAS and ICP methods. For the experiment 51 soil samples were used. The samples were collected from A horizons of agricultural lands. The pH range was from 4.7 to 7.5 and organic matter content from 1.4 to 7.8%. The content of Mehlich 3 extractable micronutrients was determined using ICP and MP instrumental methods. The micronutrient contents ranged as follows: Fe - from 170 to 470 mg kg-1, Mn - from 5 to 190 mg kg-1, Cu - from 0.3 to 4.5 mg kg-1, B - from 0.2 to 2.1 mg kg-1. The optimal instrumental settings for iron

  14. A Scalable Method for Extracting Soiling Rates from PV Production Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Muller, Matthew; Defreitas, Zoe; Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-11-21

    We present a method for analyzing time series production data from photovoltaic systems to extract the rate at which energy yield is affected by the accumulation of dust, dirt, and other forms of soiling. We describe an approach that is based on prevailing methods which consider the change in energy production during dry periods. The method described here builds upon these methods by considering a statistical sample of soiling intervals from each site under consideration. The method enables straightforward application to a large number of sites with minimal parameterization of data-filtering requirements. Furthermore, it enables statistical confidence intervals and comparisons between sites.

  15. The effect on increased harvest residue extraction on forest soil carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Carina; Lundblad, Mattias; Lundström, Anders; Stendahl, Johan

    2015-04-01

    The demand and potential for increasing the use of bioenergy from harvest residues in Sweden are large. Commercial forest residues such as tops, branches and stumps, can be left at the harvest site to gradually decompose and contribute to the soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover, or it can be collected for energy purposes as means to mitigate climate changes. The climate mitigation potential of using logging residues (tree tops and branches) for bioenergy has been debated mostly due to that harvest residue and stump extraction negatively affect SOC accumulation. The Swedish forest management system Hugin and the decomposition model Q were used to estimate the carbon stock changes in the Swedish forests at a national level. Several extraction scenarios were branches and tops and stumps are removed from the forest were simulated. In all scenarios the short term effects on SOC were greater than the long term effects. The main reason for this is because the extraction potential decreases with time. The decrease in SOC accumulation was largest for stump extraction, with 0.15 Mg C ha -1 y loss on average over a 100-year simulation period which was equivalent to an energy supply of 25 TWh. Despite the negative effects of soil carbon changes by extracting harvest residues, the study presented here, show that the extraction and use of harvest residues in the energy system results in a positive effect on reducing carbon emissions to the atmosphere when substituting coal with the extracted biomass. The uncertainties of decomposition of woody organic matter in the context of extraction of harvest residues will also be highlighted. First by showing that the choice of decomposition model is important in assessing the SOC changes since the models differ in process approach. Therefore, a comparison of the decomposition functions of the Q model and Yasso07 will be presented. Secondly by presenting how the stump extraction is associated with soil disturbance. A sensitivity analysis of

  16. A sequential extraction and hydrolysis approach to understand the chemical nature of soil water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiefei; Dekker, Stefan C.; Nierop, Klaas G. J.

    2014-05-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) biomarkers (SWR-biomarkers) are defined as hydrophobic organic compounds in soils causing SWR and originating from vegetation or microbes (Doerr et al., 2000). Free lipids and ester-bound biopolymers (cutins and suberins) are usually seen in the aliphatic part of soil organic matter (SOM) (Nierop, 1998). The method of sequential extraction can divide hydrophobic compounds into individual fractions with different characteristics. We aim to find out the SWR-biomarkers in soils within different fractions, investigate the effects of fractions on SWR and link them to their original sources. To extract free and ester-bound lipids from sandy soils, DCM (dichloromethane)/MeOH (methanol) and IPA(isopropanol)/NH3 were used in sequential steps. As a result, three fractions were obtained during these sequential experiments: a DCM/MeOH soluble fraction (D), a DCM-MeOH soluble (AS) fraction of IPA/NH3 extracts and its insoluble (AI) fraction. To date, research was limited to (organic) extractable fractions only. To investigate the DCM-MeOH insoluble part of IPA/NH3 extracts they were depolymerised by trans-methylation using BF3-MeOH. All fractions were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After DCM/MeOH extraction, water repellency of 80% of the soils studied increased while SWR of the other soils remained at the same level. Straight-chain fatty acids, alcohols and alkanes were the main compound groups in the D fractions. The distribution of fatty acids (C20-C32) and alcohols (C20-C32), both of which with an even-over-odd predominance suggest their source were higher plants, and so did the odd-over-even predominated alkanes. After extraction by IPA/NH3 , most soils became non-repellent. Both fatty acids (C16-C32) and alcohols (C16-C30) with an even-over-odd predominance were also found in the AS fractions, whereas no alkanes were detected. There were four main component groups identified in the AI fractions: fatty acids, alcohols,

  17. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A A; Coll, M T; Fortuny, A; Rathore, N S; Sastre, A M

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H(n)CdCl((2+n)) species and the formation of H(n)CdCl((2+n))L(q) complexes in the organic phase, where n=0, 1, 2 and q=1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Allelopathy autotoxicity effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on rooting and growth of stem cuttings in Pogostemon cablin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kun; Li, Ming; Dong, Shan; Li, Yun-qi; Huang, Jie-wen; Li, Long-ming

    2014-06-01

    To study the allelopathy effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on the rooting and growth of stem cutting in Pogostemon cablin, and to reveal its mechanism initially. The changes of rhizogenesis characteristics and physic-biochemical during cutting seedlings were observed when using different concentration of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil had significant inhibitory effects on rooting rate, root number, root length, root activity, growth rate of cutting with increasing concentrations of tissue extracts; The chlorophyll content of cutting seedlings were decreased, but content of MDA were increased, and activities of POD, PPO and IAAO in cutting seedlings were affected. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil of Pogostemon cablin have varying degrees of inhibitory effects on the normal rooting and growth of stem cuttings.

  19. Recyclable bio-reagent for rapid and selective extraction of contaminants from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomasney, H.L. [ISOTRON Corp., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program is confirming the effectiveness of a bio-reagent to cost-effectively and selectively extract a wide range of heavy metals and radionuclide contaminants from soil. This bioreagent solution, developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign} Corporation (New Orleans, LA), is flushed through the soil and recycled after flowing through an electrokinetic separation module, also developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign}. The process is ex situ, and the soil remains in its transport container through the decontamination process. The transport container can be a fiberglass box, or a bulk bag or {open_quotes}super sack.{close_quotes} Rocks, vegetation, roots, etc. need not be removed. High clay content soils are accommodated. The process provides rapid injection of reagent solution, and when needed, sand is introduced to speed up the heap leach step. The concentrated waste form is eventually solidified. The bio-reagent is essentially a natural product, therefore any solubizer residual in soil is not expected to cause regulatory concern. The Phase I work will confirm the effectiveness of this bio-reagent on a wide range of contaminants, and the engineering parameters that are needed to carry out a full-scale demonstration of the process. ISOTRON{reg_sign} scientists will work with contaminated soil from Los Alamos National Laboratory. LANL is in the process of decontaminating and decommissioning more than 300 sites within its complex, many of which contain heavy metals or radionuclides; some are mixed wastes containing TCE, PCB, and metals.

  20. IMPACT OF VERMICOMPOST EXTRACT APPLICATION INTO SOIL AND ON PLANT LEAVES ON MAIZE PHYTOMASS FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in scientific literature many opposing data are presented of the impacts of vermicompost extract on the quantity and quality of crop production. Therefore, the principal objective of two independent experiments was to study the effects of vermi-extracts, which were applied before maize sowing into soil and during the growing season on the maize leaves, on its phytomass formation. The first, field experiment consisted of 9 variants. Variant 1 was the control one without the extract application. We studied the effect of the rising doses (90, 130, 170, 210 dm3·ha-1 of vermi-extract applied into soil before the maize sowing in the variants E1, E2, E3, E4. In the variants E1+E, E2+E, E3+E, E4+E along with the rising doses of vermi-extract was also applied the uniform dose of vermi-extract (40 dm3·ha-1 at the growth stage BBCH 15. The second, pot experiment was pursued in the vegetation cage and comprised 3 variants: variant 1 was the control, in the variants 2 and 3 the foliar application of vermi-extract was used. The vermi-extract was applied once (growth stage BBCH 12 in the variant 2 and in the variant 3 it was used twice (at growth stages BBCH 12 and BBCH 16. The achieved results show that the vermi-extract applied in the presowing period increased the yield of maize grains if the application doses were 130–170 dm3·ha-1. The positive or negative impact of the foliar application by vermi-extract on the yield of maize grains depended on the period of application and the grown cultivar. In order to increase the starch content in grains it was more suitable to carry out the presowing vermi-extract application than during the growing season. The presowing application and the foliar application of vermi-extract tended to decrease the nitrogen content in grain. The foliar application of vermi-extract had the positive impact on the plant height and stalk thickness of the maize plants only in short term. The information obtained from the

  1. Soil parameters are key factors to predict metal bioavailability to snails based on chemical extractant data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauget, B.; Gimbert, F., E-mail: frederic.gimbert@univ-fcomte.fr; Scheifler, R.; Coeurdassier, M.; Vaufleury, A. de

    2012-08-01

    to snails. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioavailability of cadmium, lead and zinc to snails was determined by assessing accumulation kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDTA extracts and total soil concentration allows the assessment of bioavailability to snails for Cd and Pb, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No chemical method allows the assessment of Zn bioavailability to snails. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total soil concentration coupled with soil characteristics allow Cd, Pb and Zn bioavailability to snails to be predicted.

  2. Extraction of Volatiles from Regolith or Soil on Mars, the Moon, and Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane; Kleinhenz, Julie; Trunek, Andrew; Hoffman, Stephen; Collins, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems ISRU Technology Project is evaluating concepts to extract water from all resource types Near-term objectives: Produce high-fidelity mass, power, and volume estimates for mining and processing systems Identify critical challenges for development focus Begin demonstration of component and subsystem technologies in relevant environment Several processor types: Closed processors either partially or completely sealed during processing Open air processors operates at Mars ambient conditions In-situ processors Extract product directly without excavation of raw resource Design features Elimination of sweep gas reduces dust particles in water condensate Pressure maintained by height of soil in hopper Model developed to evaluate key design parameters Geometry: conveyor diameter, screw diameter, shaft diameter, flight spacing and pitch Operational: screw speed vs. screw length (residence time) Thermal: Heat flux, heat transfer to soil Testing to demonstrate feasibility and performance Agglomeration, clogging Pressure rise forced flow to condenser.

  3. Application of supercritical and subcritical fluids for the extraction of hazardous materials from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupan Dara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcritical and supercritical extractions are novel, non destructive techniques which can be applied for the removal of hazardous compounds from contaminated soil without any changes of the soil composition and structure. The aim of the presented review paper is to give information on up-to day results of this method commonly applied by several institutions worldwide. Interest in the application of SC CO2 has been more expressed in the last two decades, which may be related to its favorable characteristics (non-toxic, non-flammable, increase diffusion into small pores, low viscosity under SC conditions, low price and others. However, interest in wet oxidation (WO and especially in SCWO (the application of water under supercritical conditions with air has also increased in the last few years. Interest in H2O as a SC fluid, as well as in extraction with water under subcritical conditions may also be related to specific characteristics and the enhanced rate of extraction. Moreover, the solubility of some specific compounds present in soil can be easily changed by adjusting the pressure and temperature of extraction. The high price of the units designed to operate safely at a pressure and temperature much higher than the a critical one of the applied fluids is the main reason why, at present, there is no more broader application of such techniques for the removal hazardous materials from contaminated soil. In the present paper, among many literature citations and their overall review, some specific details related to the development of specific analytical methods under SC conditions are also considered.

  4. Prediction of phytoavailability of trace metals to plants: Comparison between chemical extractions and soil-grown radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraud, Fabienne; Leleyter, Lydia

    2012-08-01

    One of the major routes of human exposure to toxic metals is the consumption of vegetables grown on contaminated soils. Radishes were grown in three different soils (kitchen garden, agricultural and industrial soils), presenting various contamination levels. A sequential extraction procedure was compared with EDTA and HCl simple extractions methods in order to predict the metals phytoavailabilty to radish. The analysis of the results shows that the simple HCl and sequential chemical extractions bring complementary results, since HCl is correlated in the phytoavailability of Cd, Mn and Zn, whereas the sequential extraction is correlated in the phytoavailability of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni. EDTA simple extraction brings here less interesting results than the two other tested extractions.

  5. Retention and loss of water extractable carbon in soils: effect of clay properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung-Ta; Marschner, Petra

    2014-02-01

    Clay sorption is important for organic carbon (C) sequestration in soils, but little is known about the effect of different clay properties on organic C sorption and release. To investigate the effect of clay content and properties on sorption, desorption and loss of water extractable organic C (WEOC), two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, a loamy sand alone (native) or mixed with clay isolated from a surface or subsoil (78 and 96% clay) resulting in 90, 158 and 175 g clay kg(-1) soil. These soil treatments were leached with different WEOC concentrations, and then CO2 release was measured for 28 days followed by leaching with reverse osmosis water at the end of experiment. The second experiment was conducted to determine WEOC sorption and desorption of clays isolated from the loamy sand (native), surface soil and subsoil. Addition of clays isolated from surface and subsoil to sandy loam increased WEOC sorption and reduced C leaching and cumulative respiration in percentage of total organic C and WEOC added when expressed per g soil and per g clay. Compared to clays isolated from the surface and subsoil, the native clay had higher concentrations of illite and exchangeable Ca(2+), total organic C and a higher CEC but a lower extractable Fe/Al concentration. This indicates that compared to the clay isolated from the surface and the subsoil, the native clay had fewer potential WEOC binding sites because it had lower Fe/Al content thus lower number of binding sites and the existing binding sites are already occupied native organic matter. The results of this study suggest that in the soils used here, the impact of clay on WEOC sorption and loss is dependent on its indigenous organic carbon and Fe and/or Al concentrations whereas clay mineralogy, CEC, exchangeable Ca(2+) and surface area are less important. © 2013.

  6. A modified acid digestion procedure for extraction of tungsten from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A J; Jones, W T; Chappell, M A; Johnson, D R; Ringelberg, D B

    2010-01-15

    Interest in tungsten occurrence and geochemistry is increasing due to increased use of tungsten compounds and its unknown biochemical effects. Tungsten has a complex geochemistry, existing in most environmental matrices as the soluble and mobile tungstate anion, as well as poly- and heteropolytungstates. Because the geochemistry of tungsten is substantially different than most trace metals, including the formation of insoluble species under acidic conditions, it is not extracted from soil matrices using standard acid digestion procedures. Therefore, the current work describes a modification to a commonly used acid digestion procedure to facilitate quantification of tungsten in soil matrices. Traditional soil digestion procedures, using nitric and hydrochloric acids with hydrogen peroxide yield soil matrix spike samples, whereas the modified method reported here, which includes the addition of phosphoric acid, yields spike recoveries in the 76-98% range. Comparison of the standard and modified digestion procedures on National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials yielded significantly improved tungsten recoveries for the phosphoric acid modified method. The modified method also produces comparable results for other acid extractable metals as the standard methods, and therefore can be used simultaneously for tungsten and other metals of interest.

  7. Partitioning, extractability, and formation of nonextractable PAH residues in soil. 1. Compound differences in aging and sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, G L; Jones, K C

    2001-03-15

    This study was carried out to assess the influence of physicochemical properties on PAH sequestration in sterile sewage sludge-amended arable soil. Radiolabeled phenanthrene (14C-9-Phe), pyrene (14C-4,5,9,10-Pyr), and benzo[a]pyrene (14C-7-B[a]P) were spiked and aged for up to 525 days in sterile soil microcosms. The degree of compound sequestration at various sampling times was determined by their extractability with organic solvents and release from soil residues by base saponification extraction. The amount of PAH extractable by butanol and dichloromethane decreased with compound aging in the soil. The decrease in PAH extractability with aging, and the formation of nonextractable bound residues, increased with compound molecular weight, KOW and KOC. The amount of total extractable PAH determined by sequential dichloromethane soxtec and methanolic saponification extraction decreased from 98%, 97%, and 94% at day 10 to 95%, 91%, and 77%, respectively for 14C-9-Phe, 14C-4,5,9,10-Pyr, and 14C-7-B[a]P after 525 days aging. During the same aging period there was an increase in the amount of PAH released from the soil by base saponification extraction, suggesting a progressive diffusion of PAHs into hydrolyzable and recalcitrant organic matter and mineral phases of soil. Calculated half-lives for the apparent loss of PAHs by sequestration in this experiment were dependent on the method used to extract them from soil. These half-lives ranged from 96 to 1,789 days depending on the compound, and are in agreement with values obtained from previous spiking experiments using nonsterile soils. These results suggest that a considerable fraction of PAHs assumed degraded in previous studies may have been sequestered within the organic carbon and, to a lesser extent, mineral phases of soil.

  8. A laboratory method to estimate the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Cassiolato

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble plant organic compounds have been proposed to be efficient in alleviating soil acidity. Laboratory methods were evaluated to estimate the efficiency of plant extracts to neutralize soil acidity. Plant samples were dried at 65ºC for 48 h and ground to pass 1 mm sieve. Plant extraction procedure was: transfer 3.0 g of plant sample to a becker, add 150 ml of deionized water, shake for 8 h at 175 rpm and filter. Three laboratory methods were evaluated: sigma (Ca+Mg+K of the plant extracts; electrical conductivity of the plant extracts and titration of plant extracts with NaOH solution between pH 3 to 7. These methods were compared with the effect of the plant extracts on acid soil chemistry. All laboratory methods were related with soil reaction. Increasing sigma (Ca+Mg+K, electrical conductivity and the volume of NaOH solution spent to neutralize H+ ion of the plant extracts were correlated with the effect of plant extract on increasing soil pH and exchangeable Ca and decreasing exchangeable Al. It is proposed the electrical conductivity method for estimating the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity because it is easily adapted for routine analysis and uses simple instrumentations and materials.Tem sido proposto que os compostos orgânicos de plantas solúveis em água são eficientes na amenização da acidez do solo. Foram avaliados métodos de laboratório para estimar a eficiência dos extratos de plantas na neutralização da acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram secos a 65º C por 48 horas, moídos e passados em peneira de 1mm. Utilizou-se o seguinte procedimento para obtenção do extrato de plantas: transferir 3.0 g da amostra de planta para um becker, adicionar 150 ml de água deionizada, agitar por 8h a 175 rpm e filtrar. Avaliaram-se três métodos de laboratório: sigma (Ca + Mg + K do extrato de planta, condutividade elétrica (CE do extrato de planta e titulação do extrato de planta com solu

  9. Sequential extraction and availability of copper in Cu fungicide-amended vineyard soils from Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Nogueirol, Roberta [University of Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), C.P. 9, Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Ferracciu Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo, E-mail: alleoni@esalq.usp.br [Department of Soil Science, ESALQ/USP. C.P. 9, Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro Nachtigall, Gilmar; Wellington de Melo, George [National Research Center of Grapes and Wine - Embrapa Uva e Vinho, C.P. 130, Bento Goncalves 95700-000, RS (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    The continuous use of cupric fungicides in vineyards, mainly copper sulfate (as a component of the bordeaux mixture), has increased Cu concentration in soils to levels near or even above the maximum established by the Commission of Soil Chemistry and Fertility of the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Besides the total content, the fractions of the element along the soil profile must be known, because the total content of Cu in the soil is not sufficient to express its environmental impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of Cu contentes along the soil profile and its speciation and partitioning in 29 soil samples from vineyards in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were collected in areas cropped with vineyards older than 15 years that had been frequently treated with the bordeaux mixture. These samples were from Nitosols, Acrisols, Cambisols and Leptosols and were analysed by sequential extractions and several chemical extractors. Soils had diverse chemical and physical attributes: clay content in the plowed layer (0-0.2 m) ranged from 120 to 610 g kg{sup -1}, pH ranged from 5.3 to 7.3 and organic carbon contents varied from 2.9 to 51 g dm{sup -3}. Among the 29 samples, 16 had the total Cu above the maximum limit allowed by the European Community regulations (140 mg kg{sup -1}). The average amount of Cu bonded to the oxide fraction accounted for 49.5% of the total Cu.

  10. Determination of metribuzin and major conversion products in soils by microwave-assisted water extraction followed by liquid chromatographic analysis of extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanuil N; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2002-07-12

    A multiresidue method developed for the analysis of metribuzin and its major conversion products, deaminometribuzin (DA), diketometribuzin (DK) and deaminodiketometribuzin (DADK), in soils is presented. The method is based on microwave-assisted water extraction (MAWE) of soils using 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7 as extractant and analysis of aqueous extracts by HPLC-diode array detection. MAWE operational parameters were optimized with respect to extraction efficiency of the target compounds from soils with 1.5 and 3.5% organic matter content. Recoveries of all solutes above 80% were obtained from soils with 1.5% organic matter content; respective LOD and LOQ levels were determined at 5 and 10 micrograms/kg. In soils with organic matter content 3.5%, recoveries of all solutes were lower (< 70%) and the respective LOD and LOQ values were determined at 10 and 50 micrograms/kg. However, recoveries of fresh and aged residues, the latter weathered under cold storage conditions, were not statistically different for both types of soils.

  11. Interlaboratory evaluation of an extraction and fluorescence method for the determination of trace beryllium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, John P; Agrawal, Anoop; Adams, Lori; Tonazzi, Juan C L; Brisson, Michael J; White, Kenneth T; Marlow, David; Ashley, Kevin

    2008-08-01

    Analytical methods for the determination of trace beryllium in soils are needed so that anthropogenic sources of this element can be distinguished from native (background) levels of beryllium. In this work, a collaborative interlaboratory evaluation of a new extraction and fluorescence-based procedure for determining beryllium in soil samples was carried out to fulfil method validation requirements for ASTM International voluntary consensus standard test methods. A Canadian reference material, CCRMP Till-1 soil, with a background beryllium concentration of 2.4 microg g(-1), was selected for study. This certified reference material (CRM) was spiked and homogenized with varying levels of beryllium oxide in order to give batches of material with beryllium concentrations of 4.36 +/- 0.69, 11.5 +/- 0.7, 124 +/- 7 and 246 +/- 16 microg g(-1) (+/- values are standard deviations). In the interlaboratory study (ILS), which was carried out in accordance with an applicable ASTM International standard practice (ASTM E691), samples of these spiked soils were subjected to extraction in dilute ammonium bifluoride at approximately 90 degrees C for 40 h. Fluorescence measurement of the extracted beryllium was carried out via detection using the high quantum yield fluorophore, hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate (HBQS). Interlaboratory precision estimates from six participating laboratories ranged from 0.048 to 0.103 (relative standard deviations) for the five different beryllium concentrations. Pooled bias estimates resulting from this ILS were between -0.049 and 0.177 for the various beryllium levels. These figures of merit support promulgation of the analytical procedure as an ASTM International standard test method.

  12. Effectiveness of urea in enhancing the extractability of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene from chemically variant soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Padmini; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Makris, Konstantinos C; Punamiya, Pravin; Datta, Rupali

    2013-11-01

    One of the major challenges in developing an effective phytoremediation technology for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soils is limited plant uptake resulting from low solubility of TNT. The effectiveness of urea as a solubilizing agent in increasing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic systems has been documented. Our preliminary greenhouse experiments using urea were also very promising, but further characterization of the performance of urea in highly-complex soil-solution was necessary. The present study investigated the natural retention capacity of four chemically variant soils and optimized the factors influencing the effectiveness of urea in enhancing TNT solubility in the soil solutions. Results show that the extent of TNT sorption and desorption varies with the soil properties, and is mainly dependent on soil organic matter (SOM) content. Hysteretic desorption of TNT in all tested soils suggests irreversible sorption of TNT and indicates the need of using an extractant to increase the release of TNT in soil solutions. Urea significantly (p<0.0001) enhanced TNT extraction from all soils, by increasing its solubility at the solid/liquid interface. Soil organic matter content and urea application rates showed significant effects, whereas pH did not exert any significant effect on urea catalysis of TNT extraction from soil. The optimum urea application rates (125 or 350 mg kg(-1)) for maximizing TNT extraction were within the limits set by the agronomic fertilizer-N rates used for major agricultural crops. The data obtained from this batch study will facilitate the optimization of a chemically-catalyzed phytoremediation model for cleaning up TNT-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of organic management on water-extractable organic matter and C mineralization in European arable soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinari, S.; Liburdi, K.; Fliessbach, A.; Kalbitz, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) content and its properties can be used to distinguish conventionally (CONV) from organically (ORG) managed arable soils as responsible for C mineralization. We sampled soils at three different European sites located

  14. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil extracts investigated by FT-ICR-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D.; Steffen, D.; Jablonowski, N. D.; Burauel, P.

    2012-04-01

    Soil drying and rewetting usually increases the release of xenobiotics like pesticides present in agricultural soils. Besides the effect on the release of two aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues we focus on the characterisation of simultaneously remobilized dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to gain new insights into structure and stability aspects of soil organic carbon fractions. The test soil (gleyic cambisol; Corg 1.2%, pH 7.2) was obtained from the upper soil layer of two individual outdoor lysimeter studies containing either environmentally long-term aged 14C residues of the herbicide ethidimuron (0-10 cm depth; time of aging: 9 years) or methabenzthiazuron (0-30 cm depth; time of aging: 17 years). Soil samples (10 g dry soil equivalents) were (A=dry/wet) previously dried (45°C) or (B=wet/wet) directly mixed with pure water (1+2, w:w), shaken (150 rpm, 1 h), and centrifuged (2000 g). This extraction procedure was repeated several individual times, for both setups. The first three individual extractions, respectively were used for further investigations. Salt was removed from samples prior analysis because of a possible quench effect in the electrospray (ESI) source by solid phase extraction (SPE) with Chromabond C18 Hydra-cartridges (Macherey-Nagel) and methanol as backextraction solvent. The so preconcentrated and desalted samples were introduced by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for complex natural systems attributed by their outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (≤ 1ppm) by simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds and was successful applied for the investigations of natural organic matter (NOM) different sources like marine and surface water, soil, sediment, bog and crude oil

  15. The ultrasound assisted extraction of matrix elements and heavy metal fractions associated with Fe, Al and Mn oxyhydroxides from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Svetlana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The single agent extractions of major and trace metals from soil sample were conducted by means of rotary mixer and ultrasonic bath with sonication time of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min. The sequential extraction according to the BCR scheme was undertaken. The obtained soil extracts were analyzed by ICP-OES and according to the results the rotary mixer assisted extraction was more efficient in the case of alkaline-earth elements. However, by the use of ultrasound several times higher amounts of matrix elements (Fe, Al and Mn and heavy metals predominantly associated with Fe, Al and Mn oxyhydroxides were extracted. The increase of the sonication time failed to improve extraction yields. The changes of the conductivity, pH, oxidoreduction potential, particle size diameter and zeta potential of colloid particles, with the sonication time increase were measured. The extraction mechanism and expressed selectivity of ultrasound is discussed and explanation is suggested.

  16. Selective pressurized liquid extraction for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Marcel; Bogatzki, Corinna; Hiester, Ernst

    2016-10-14

    During this study a high throughout selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil. To that end, extraction rates of PCBs from soil utilizing different extraction solvents and different extraction temperatures were investigated whereas extraction rates were comparable for toluene, n-hexane and dichloromethane (extraction conditions for all utilized solvents: 33mL PLE extraction cell, extraction temperature: 110°C, static extraction time: 5min, flush volume: 60%, purge 90s). Ratios of native PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs congener concentrations after Soxhlet and selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) showed that SPLE is an alternative sample preparation step for the simultaneous determination of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in soil. Additional clean-up steps for the separation of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs utilizing alumina were performed in order to avoid interferences between the component classes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of enzymes on the oil extraction processes in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricochon Guillaume

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The methods of oil aqueous extraction process (AEP assisted by enzymes are, over the last 50 years, an alternative designed to replace traditional methods of extraction using organic solvents. To extract the oil using an AEP, the use of specific enzymes, able to hydrolyze some or all components of seeds, can significantly increase the yields of extraction. Hydrolyzing the different constituents of cell walls (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, proteins, etc., enzymes are able to enhance the liberation of the oil. A number of physico-chemical parameters must also be considered for the better expression of the enzymatic mixture, while maintaining the quality of oils and meals. This article presents the various factors influencing the release of oil in aqueous media and the main results obtained by this process on various substrates.

  18. Baphia nitida Leaves Extract as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Njoku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibiting effect of Baphia nitida (BN leaves extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 and 2 M HCl was studied at different temperatures using gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results showed that the leaves extract is a good inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in both acid media and better performances were obtained in 2 M HCl solutions. Inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decreasing temperature. The addition of halides to the extract enhanced the inhibition efficiency due to synergistic effect which improved adsorption of cationic species present in the extract and was in the order KCl < KBr < KI suggesting possible role of radii of the halide ions. Thermodynamic parameters determined showed that the adsorption of BN on the metal surface is an exothermic and spontaneous process and that the adsorption was via a physisorption mechanism.

  19. Growth kinetics of microorganisms isolated from Alaskan soil and permafrost in solid media frozen down to -35 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikov, Nicolai S; Sizova, Maria V

    2007-02-01

    We developed a procedure to culture microorganisms below freezing point on solid media (cellulose powder or plastic film) with ethanol as the sole carbon source without using artificial antifreezes. Enrichment from soil and permafrost obtained on such frozen solid media contained mainly fungi, and further purification resulted in isolation of basidiomycetous yeasts of the genera Mrakia and Leucosporidium as well as ascomycetous fungi of the genus Geomyces. Contrary to solid frozen media, the enrichment of liquid nutrient solutions at 0 degrees C or supercooled solutions stabilized by glycerol at -1 to -5 degrees C led to the isolation of bacteria representing the genera Polaromonas, Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. The growth of fungi on ethanol-microcrystalline cellulose media at -8 degrees C was exponential with generation times of 4.6-34 days, while bacteria displayed a linear or progressively declining curvilinear dynamic. At -17 to -0 degrees C the growth of isolates and entire soil community on 14C-ethanol was continuous and characterized by yields of 0.27-0.52 g cell C (g of C-substrate)(-1), similar to growth above the freezing point. The 'state of maintenance,' implying measurable catabolic activity of non-growing cells, was not confirmed. Below -18 to -35 degrees C, the isolated organisms were able to grow only transiently for 3 weeks after cooling with measurable respiratory and biosynthetic (14CO2 uptake) activity. Then metabolic activity declined to zero, and microorganisms entered a state of reversible dormancy.

  20. Fate of phenanthrene and mineralization of its non-extractable residues in an oxic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongfeng; Xu, Jun; Shan, Jun; Ma, Yini; Ji, Rong

    2017-05-01

    The fate of organic pollutants in the environment, especially the formation and stability of non-extractable (i.e., bound) residues (NERs) determines their environmental risk. Using 14C-tracers, we studied the fate of the carcinogen phenanthrene in active or sterilized oxic loamy soil in the absence and presence of the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi and characterized the NERs derived from phenanthrene. After incubation of 14C-phenanthrene in active soil for 28 days, 40 ± 3.1% of the initial amount was mineralized and 70.1 ± 1.9% was converted to NERs. Most of the NERs (>92%) were bound to soil humin. Silylation of the humin-bound residues released 45.3 ± 5.3% of these residues, which indicated that they were physically entrapped, whereas the remainder of the residues were chemically bound or biogenic. By contrast, in sterilized soil, only 43.4 ± 12.6% of the phenanthrene was converted to NERs and all of these residues were completely released upon silylation, which underlines the essential role of microbial activity in NER formation. The presence of M. guillelmi in active soil significantly inhibited phenanthrene mineralization (24.4 ± 2.6% mineralized), but NER formation was not significantly affected. Only a small amount of phenanthrene-derived residues (1.9-5.3% of the initial amount) accumulated in the earthworm body. When humin-bound residues were mixed with fresh soil, 33.9% (humin recovered from active soils) and 12.4% (humin recovered from sterilized soils) of the residues were mineralized after 75 days of incubation, respectively, which indicated a high bioavailability of NERs, albeit lower than the initial addition of phenanthrene. Our results indicated that many phenanthrene-derived NERs, especially those physically entrapped, are still bioavailable and may pose a toxic threat to soil organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of soft extraction method for structural characterization of boreal forest soil proteins with MALDI-TOF/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Sanna; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kitunen, Veikko; Smolander, Aino; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) is usually the nutrient restricting productivity in boreal forests. Forest soils contain a great amount of nitrogen, but only a small part of it is in mineral form. Most part of soil N is bound in the structures of different organic compounds such as proteins, peptides, amino acids and more stabilized, refractory compounds. Due to the fact that soil organic N has a very important role in soil nutrient cycling and in plant nutrition, there is a need for more detailed knowledge of its chemistry in soil. Conventional methods to extract and analyze soil organic N are usually very destructive for structures of higher molecular weight organic compounds, such as proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize proteins extracted from boreal forest soil by "soft" extraction methods in order to maintain their molecular structure. The organic layer (F) from birch forest floor containing 78% of organic matter was sieved, freeze dried, pulverized, and extracted with a citrate or phosphate buffer (pH 6 or 8). Sequential extraction with the citrate or phosphate buffer and an SDS buffer (pH 6.8), slightly modified from the method of Chen et al. (2009, Proteomics 9: 4970-4973), was also done. Proteins were purified from the soil extract by extraction with buffered phenol and precipitated with methanol + 0.1M ammonium acetate at -20°C. Characterization of proteins was performed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the concentration of total proteins was measured using Bradford's method. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a positive control in the extractions and as a standard protein in Bradford's method. Our results showed that sequential extraction increased the amount of extracted proteins compared to the extractions without the SDS-buffer; however, it must be noted that the use of SDS-buffer very probably increased denaturization of proteins. Purification of proteins from crude soil extracts

  2. Effect of Different Salinityon Growthand Carotenoid Content of Dunaliella sp. In Lamtoro Leaves Extract Media (Leucaena leucocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharta Mahardani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Page Header User You are logged in as... jat My Journals My Profile Log Out Notifications View Manage Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals Categories Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Home About User Home Categories Search Current Archives Announcements EDITORIAL TEAM Google Scholar SINTA SUBMISSIONS DOAJ PUBLICATION ETHICS FOCUS AND SCOPE PORTAL GARUDA Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2017 > Mahardani Effect of Different Salinityon Growthand Carotenoid Content of Dunaliella sp. In Lamtoro Leaves Extract Media (Leucaena leucocephala Dharta Mahardani, Berta Putri, Siti Hudaidah Abstract Dunaliella is a green microalgae that produces carotenoids, one of the carotenoid types produced is β-carotene which accumulated in very high amounts in some stressful conditions such as nitrogen limitations, high salinity and exposure high light intensity. Leucaena leucocephala is one of the natural ingredients that potential as a source of nutrition of Dunaliella sp. growth. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different salinity in Lamtoro Leaves Extract Media on growth and carotenoid content Dunaliella sp. The research was conducted in Aquaculture Laboratory, Agriculture Faculty, Lampung University. The design of research was used completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The treatments used was Lamtoro Leaves extract media with salinity 30 ppt, 35 ppt, 40 ppt, and 45 ppt. The result showed that media of Lamtoro Leaves extract with different salinity gave significant effect on cell density and carotenoid content of Dunaliella sp. (p<0,05. The results of this study showed that the best cell growth occurred in the treatment of salinity 30 ppt with cell density reached 5,09×10 6 cells/ml, while the highest carotenoid content was produced at 35 ppt salinity treatment of 1,0668 g/ml

  3. A simplified extraction schema to for the analytical characterization of apple orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    In agriculture, soil analysis is mainly done to monitor available nutrients as well contaminants, in order to find the optimum fertilization resp. remediation strategy. Traditionally, available nutrients in soils have been obtained from a series of different extractions, some just for one single parameter. In order to simplify the entire procedures, multi-element techniques, like ICP-OES and ICP-MS, have been applied to a sequence of extracts obtained with 0,16M acetic acid and 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3, which are more suitable for the plasma than traditional salt extractant solutions. Dilute acetic acid should characterize exchangeables plus carbonates, and oxalate buffer the pedogenic oxides. Aqua regia extractions in glass have been replaced by pressure digestion with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid, which yields results equivalent to aqua regia, and additionally permits the determination of total sulfur, as well as acid-leachable boron and silicon. Total digestion was done in PTFE beakers by fuming with HNO3/HClO4, subsequently with HF, and final uptake in 1+1 HCl. The results of total digestion could be verified by XRF analysis of the solid, Ti recovery was the most critical item. The method was applied to 34 soils from apple orchards of different soil types and climatic zones. P and K obtained from standard acetate-lactate extract as well as B obtained from the Baron extract correlated with the results from the acetic acid extract better than 0,9. Just Mg from the CaCl2 extract (Schachtschabel) was independent from all other Mg fractions. The results for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Sr, Pb and Zn obtained from KClO3 digest and from totals, were strongly correlated. The Rare Earth elements formed a strongly intercorrelated group as well after total digestion as in the oxalate leach. Factor analysis was utilized to prove if the obtained fractions part into groups in a geochemically feasible way. The fraction mobilized by dilute acetic acid contained Ca-Mg-carbonates as well as

  4. Analysis of Metribuzin and transformation products in soil by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Trine; Svensmark, Bo; Juhler, René K

    2002-05-24

    A method developed for study of metribuzin degradation in soil is presented. LC-MS-MS and electrospray ionisation was used for analysis of metribuzin and the metabolites deaminometribuzin (DA), diketometribuzin (DK) and deaminodiketometribuzin (DADK). Soil samples were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction using methanol-water (75:25) at 60 degrees C. In general, recoveries were about 75% for metribuzin, DA and DADK and their detection limit in soil was 1.25 microg/kg. Lower sensitivity was observed for DK, with detection limit at 12.5 microg/kg and recovery about 50%.

  5. Quantification of four ionophores in soil, sediment and manure using pressurised liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin; Pedersen, Kenneth Munk; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Björklund, Erland

    2013-09-13

    A multi-residue pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) methodology has been established for the determination of the four ionophores: lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin in solid environmental matrices. The PLE methodology is combined with solid phase extraction as clean-up using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry applying electrospray ionisation for detection. The samples were freeze-dried prior to extraction. The absolute recoveries for soil and sediment ranged from 71 to 123% (relative standard deviation (RSDs) below 16%) and in the range 94-133% (RSDs 9-35%) for poultry manure. The final method allowed for the detection of four ionophores down to a few hundred ngkg(-1) in natural solid matrices with limit of quantifications (LOQs) being 0.96, 0.87, 0.98, and 0.64μgkg(-1) in soil for lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, respectively. Corresponding LOQs in sediment were 1.28, 1.34, 1.39, and 0.78μgkg(-1) for the respective ionophores, while in manure the LOQs were 0.98, 1.01, 1.45, and 1.01μgkg(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative analysis of environmental DNA extraction and purification methods from different humic acid rich soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lakay, FM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 1971); exchangeable cations in a 1 mol l)1 ammonium acetate extract (Doll and Lucas Table 1 Soil content analyses (mean ± range of duplicate values) Sample Clay (%) Cells (109) g)1* pH C� N� CEC§ HA– Sand 4Æ5 ± 0Æ5 0Æ40 ± 0Æ08 6Æ2 3Æ34 ± 0Æ15 0Æ20...., Roh, Y., Palumbo, A.V., Tiedje, J.M. and Zhou, J. (2001) Simultaneous recovery of RNA and DNA from soils and sediments. Appl Environ Micro- biol 67, 4495–4503. Jackson, C.R., Harper, J.P., Willoughby, D., Roden, E.E. and Churchill, P.F. (1997) A...

  7. Aluminium and iron estimated by Mehlich-3 extractant in mine soils in Galicia, northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, M.L.F.; Alvarez, E.; Monterroso, C. [University of Santiago, Lugo (Spain). Dept. of Edaphology

    1998-07-01

    The efficiency of Mehlich-3 reagent as an extractant for aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) was studied in Galician coal mine soils, in the process of reclamation. Mehlich-3 Al and oxalate Al values (r+0.77) although the regression line tended to be curvilinear. Mehlich-3 and Fe values were compared to those from other Al and Fe tests and with phosphorus (P) sorption. The soils are very heterogeneous, consisting mainly of carbonaceous and non-carbonacoues clays and shales, which are often rich in pyrite. Some of them have been amended with topsoil or fly ash. A close relationship was observed between Mehlich-3 Al was better correlated than oxalate Al to pyrophosphate Al (r=0.66 vs. r=0.59) and also to pH-NaF (r=0.89 vs. r=0.74). The Mehlich-3 Al was almost as good as oxalate Al in estimating non-crystalline A.

  8. Determination of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents in sewage sludge and sludge-treated soil using accelerated solvent extraction followed by solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golet, Eva M; Strehler, Adrian; Alder, Alfredo C; Giger, Walter

    2002-11-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of humanuse fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in sewage sludge and sludge-treated soil samples was developed. The accelerated solvent extraction was optimized with regard to solvents and operational parameters, such as temperature, pressure, and extraction time. A 50 mM aqueous phosphoric acid/ acetonitrile mixture (1:1) was found to be optimum in combination with an extraction temperature of 100 degrees C at 100 bar, during 60 and 90 min for sewage sludge and sludge-treated soil samples, respectively. A cleanup step using solid-phase extraction substantially improved the selectivity of the method. Overall recovery rates for FQs ranged from 82 to 94% for sewage sludge and from 75 to 92% for sludge-treated soil, with relative standard deviations between 8 and 11%. Limits of quantification were 0.45 and 0.18 mg/kg of dry matter for sewage sludge and sludge-treated soils, respectively. The presented method was successfully applied to untreated and anaerobically digested sewage sludges and sludge-treated soils. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were determined in sewage sludges from several wastewater treatment plants with concentrations ranging from 1.40 to 2.42 mg/kg of dry matter. Therefore, contrary to what may be expected for human-use pharmaceuticals, FQs may reach the terrestrial environment as indicated by the occurrence of FQs in topsoil samples from experimental fields, to which sewage sludge had been applied.

  9. Highly integrated flow assembly for automated dynamic extraction and determination of readily bioaccessible chromium(VI) in soils exploiting carbon nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosende, Maria; Miro, Manuel; Cerda, Victor [University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Chemistry, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Segundo, Marcela A.; Lima, Jose L.F.C. [University of Porto, REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    An automated dynamic leaching test integrated in a portable flow-based setup is herein proposed for reliable determination of readily bioaccessible Cr(VI) under worst-case scenarios in soils containing varying levels of contamination. The manifold is devised to accommodate bi-directional flow extraction followed by processing of extracts via either in-line clean-up/preconcentration using multi-walled carbon nanotubes or automatic dilution at will, along with Cr(VI) derivatization and flow-through spectrophotometric detection. The magnitude of readily mobilizable Cr(VI) pools was ascertained by resorting to water extraction as promulgated by current standard leaching tests. The role of carbon nanomaterials for the uptake of Cr(VI) in soil leachates and the configuration of the packed column integrated in the flow manifold were investigated in detail. The analytical performance of the proposed system for in vitro bioaccessibility tests was evaluated in chromium-enriched soils at environmentally relevant levels and in a standard reference soil material (SRM 2701) with a certified value of total hexavalent chromium. The automated method was proven to afford unbiased assessment of water-soluble Cr(VI) in soils as a result of the minimization of the chromium species transformation. By combination of the kinetic leaching profile and a first-order leaching model, the water-soluble Cr(VI) fraction in soils was determined in merely 6 h against >24 h taken in batchwise steady-state standard methods. (orig.)

  10. Application of multiphase transport models to field remediation by air sparging and soil vapor extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbeh, M E; Mohtar, R H

    2007-05-08

    The design and operation of air sparging and soil vapor extraction (AS/SVE) remediation systems remains in large an art due to the absence of reliable physically based models that can utilize the limited available field data. In this paper, a numerical model developed for the design and operation of air sparging and soil vapor extractions systems was used to simulate two field case studies. The first-order mass transfer kinetics were incorporated into the model to account for contaminant mass transfer between the water and air (stripping), NAPL and water (dissolution), NAPL and air (volatilization), and water and soil (sorption/desorption), the model also accounted for soil heterogeneity. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) were the contaminants of concern in both case studies. In the second case study, the model was used to evaluate the effect of pulsed sparging on the removal rate of BTEX compounds. The pulsed sparging operation was approximated assuming uniform contaminant redistribution at the beginning of the shut-off period. The close comparison between the observed and simulated contaminant concentration in the aqueous phase showed that the approximation of the pulsed sparging operation yielded reasonable prediction of the removal process. Field heterogeneity was simulated using Monte Carlo analysis. The model predicted about 80-85% of the contaminant mass was removed by air-water mass transfer, which was similar to the average removal obtained by Monte Carlo analysis. The analysis of the removal/rebound cycles demonstrated that removal rate was controlled by the organic-aqueous distribution coefficient K(oc). Due to the lack of site-specific data, the aerobic first-order biodegradation coefficients (k(bio)) were obtained from a literature survey, therefore, uncertainty analysis of the k(bio) was conducted to evaluate the contribution of the aerobic biodegradation to total contaminant removal. Results of both case studies showed that

  11. Removal of humic acid from peat soils by using AlCl3 prior to DNA extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Irfan; Hadiatullah, Sustiyah

    2017-05-01

    The amplification of environmental DNA is one of the main steps in microbial diversity profiling of environmental samples. To represent the microbial community in the soil, DNA extraction is initially needed. The major inhibitor in the soil is a humic acid which greatly inhibits the ability of enzymes to amplify DNA. The protocol provided with the commercial kit was not able to resolve the problem. We, therefore, introduced a modification for soil sample treatment with AlCl3 as a flocculating agent that is capable of removing the humic substance contained in peat soil. This technique was superior to the original instruction for extracting DNA with the FastDNA® Spin Kit for Soil (MP Bio, USA).

  12. Extraction and separation of mercury(II from succinate media with high molecular weight amine as an extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar P. Mane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of mercury(II from succinate solutions by 2-octylaminopyridine (2-OAP has been studied by metal distribution measurements. The optimum extraction conditions were determined from a critical study of effects of pH, sodium succinate concentration and 2-octylaminopyridine concentration. The probable composition of the species has been deduced from log–log plots. The extraction reaction proceeds with ion-pair formation and the stoichiometry of extracted species was found to be [(2OAPH+2 Hg(Succinate22−](org. The method has been used to separate mercury(II from commonly associated elements. The method has been further extended to separate and to estimate mercury in synthetic mixtures and real samples.

  13. Comparison of Five Commercial DNA Extraction Kits for the Recovery of Francisella Tularensis DNA from Spiked Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    DNA Stool Mini kit, Epicentre SoilMasterTM DNA extraction kit, MoBio UltraCleanTM kit, or the MoBio PowerMaxTM soil DNA isolation kit according... extraction and purification of microbial DNA from sediments. J Microbiol Methods 1987;7: 57–66. [19] Smalla K, Creswell N, Mendonca-Hagler L, Wolters A, van...Herrick JB, Silva MC, Ghiorse WC, Madsen EL. Quantitative cell lysis of indigenous microorganisms and rapid extraction of microbial DNA from sediment. Appl

  14. Selective dissolution followed by EDDS washing of an e-waste contaminated soil: Extraction efficiency, fate of residual metals, and impact on soil environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Valix, Marjorie; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To enhance extraction of strongly bound metals from oxide minerals and organic matter, this study examined the sequential use of reductants, oxidants, alkaline solvents and organic acids followed by a biodegradable chelating agent (EDDS, [S,S]-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) in a two-stage soil washing. The soil was contaminated by Cu, Zn, and Pb at an e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan city, China. In addition to extraction efficiency, this study also examined the fate of residual metals (e.g., leachability, bioaccessibility, and distribution) and the soil quality parameters (i.e., cytotoxicity, enzyme activities, and available nutrients). The reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride) effectively extracted metals by mineral dissolution, but elevated the leachability and bioaccessibility of metals due to the transformation from Fe/Mn oxides to labile fractions. Subsequent EDDS washing was found necessary to mitigate the residual risks. In comparison, prior washing by oxidants (persulphate, hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) was marginally useful because of limited amount of soil organic matter. Prior washing by alkaline solvents (sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate) was also ineffective due to metal precipitation. In contrast, prior washing by low-molecular-weight organic acids (citrate and oxalate) improved the extraction efficiency. Compared to hydroxylamine hydrochloride, citrate and oxalate induced lower cytotoxicity (Microtox) and allowed higher enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and urease) and soil nutrients (available nitrogen and phosphorus), which would facilitate reuse of the treated soil. Therefore, while sequential washing proved to enhance extraction efficacy, the selection of chemical agents besides EDDS should also include the consideration of effects on metal leachability/bioaccessibility and soil quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Speciation of vanadium in coal mining, industrial, and agricultural soil samples using different extractants and heating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sumaira; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Ullah, Naeem; Dev, Kapil

    2013-01-01

    A fast microwave-assisted extraction procedure was developed for the speciation of vanadium (V) species in soil samples collected from the vicinity of the Lakhra coal power plant (situated near a coal mining area) and industrial and agricultural areas. Soil samples were treated with two extracting reagents, (NH4)2HPO4 (0.2-1 M) and Na2CO3 (0.1-0.5 M), and heated by conventional and microwave methods for different time intervals to extract V+5 species. The V+4 and total V were extracted from filtration residue and the same subsamples of soil by treating with the acid mixture of HNO3-HCl-HClO4-H2SO4 (1:1:1:1, v/v/v/v). No significant difference between V+5 contents obtained by conventional heating and microwave-assisted extraction was observed (P = 0.485). The extraction efficiency of 0.6 M (NH4)2HPO4 for V+5 was lower (4-7%) than that obtained by 0.2 M Na2CO3 solution. The levels of V+5 were higher in soil samples collected from the vicinity of the Lakhra coal power plant and industrial areas, compared to those obtained from agricultural soil.

  16. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Pia K.; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particular Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. PMID:26896137

  17. Extracting South African safety and security incident patterns from social media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marivate, Vukoxi N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of social media data to gain insights into public phenomena is a potentially powerful tool. We present the use of social media data analysis, connected with crime and public safety incidents, to better understand reoccurring topics...

  18. Metal availability in heavy metal-contaminated open burning and open detonation soil: assessment using soil enzymes, earthworms, and chemical extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Eul-Young; Hyun, Seunghun; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2009-10-15

    The effects of heavy metal contamination on soil enzyme activity and earthworm health (bioaccumulation and condition) were studied in contaminated soils collected from an formerly open burning and open detonation (OBOD) site. Soil extraction methods were also evaluated using CaCl(2) and DTPA solutions as surrogate measures of metal bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Total heavy metal content of the soils ranged from 0.45 to 9.68 mg Cd kg(-1), 8.96 to 5103 mg Cu kg(-1), 40.21 to 328 mg Pb kg(-1), and 56.61 to 10,890 mg Zn kg(-1). Elevated metal concentrations are assumed to be primarily responsible for the reduction in enzyme activities and earthworm health indices. We found significant negative relationships between CaCl(2)- and DTPA-extractable metal content (Cd, Cu, and Zn) and soil enzyme activity (Psoil enzyme activity and metal bioaccumulation by earthworms can be used as an ecological indicator of metal availability. Furthermore, CaCl(2) and DTPA extraction methods are proved as promising, precise, and inexpensive surrogate measures of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn bioavailability from heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  19. Quantification of four ionophores in soil, sediment and manure using pressurised liquid extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin; Pedersen, Kenneth Munk

    2013-01-01

    A multi-residue pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) methodology has been established for the determination of the four ionophores: lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin in solid environmental matrices. The PLE methodology is combined with solid phase extraction as clean-up using liquid......-35%) for poultry manure. The final method allowed for the detection of four ionophores down to a few hundred ngkg(-1) in natural solid matrices with limit of quantifications (LOQs) being 0.96, 0.87, 0.98, and 0.64μgkg(-1) in soil for lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, respectively. Corresponding LOQs...... in sediment were 1.28, 1.34, 1.39, and 0.78μgkg(-1) for the respective ionophores, while in manure the LOQs were 0.98, 1.01, 1.45, and 1.01μgkg(-1)....

  20. Effect of biochar on the extractability of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and enzyme activity in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Liu, Jingjing; McGrouther, Kim; Huang, Huagang; Lu, Kouping; Guo, Xi; He, Lizhi; Lin, Xiaoming; Che, Lei; Ye, Zhengqian; Wang, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich solid material derived from the pyrolysis of agricultural and forest residual biomass. Previous studies have shown that biochar is suitable as an adsorbent for soil contaminants such as heavy metals and consequently reduces their bioavailability. However, the long-term effect of different biochars on metal extractability or soil health has not been assessed. Therefore, a 1-year incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of biochar produced from bamboo and rice straw (at temperatures ≥500 °C) on the heavy metal (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) extractability and enzyme activity (urease, catalase, and acid phosphatase) in a contaminated sandy loam paddy soil. Three rates (0, 1, and 5%) and two mesh sizes (biochar applications were investigated. After incubation, the physicochemical properties, extractable heavy metals, available phosphorus, and enzyme activity of soil samples were analyzed. The results demonstrated that rice straw biochar significantly (P biochar significantly (P biochar application rate increased. The heavy metal extractability was significantly (P biochar resulted in the greatest reductions of extractable Cu and Zn, 97.3 and 62.2%, respectively. Both bamboo and rice straw biochar were more effective at decreasing extractable Cu and Pb than removing extractable Cd and Zn from the soil. Urease activity increased by 143 and 107% after the addition of 5% coarse and fine rice straw biochars, respectively. Both bamboo and rice straw biochars significantly (P biochar had greater potential as an amendment for reducing the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil than that of the bamboo biochar. The impact of biochar treatment on heavy metal extractability and enzyme activity varied with the biochar type, application rate, and particle size.

  1. A comparison of two colorimetric assays, based upon Lowry and Bradford techniques, to estimate total protein in soil extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmile-Gordon, M A; Armenise, E; White, R P; Hirsch, P R; Goulding, K W T

    2013-12-01

    Soil extracts usually contain large quantities of dissolved humified organic material, typically reflected by high polyphenolic content. Since polyphenols seriously confound quantification of extracted protein, minimising this interference is important to ensure measurements are representative. Although the Bradford colorimetric assay is used routinely in soil science for rapid quantification protein in soil-extracts, it has several limitations. We therefore investigated an alternative colorimetric technique based on the Lowry assay (frequently used to measure protein and humic substances as distinct pools in microbial biofilms). The accuracies of both the Bradford assay and a modified Lowry microplate method were compared in factorial combination. Protein was quantified in soil-extracts (extracted with citrate), including standard additions of model protein (BSA) and polyphenol (Sigma H1675-2). Using the Lowry microplate assay described, no interfering effects of citrate were detected even with concentrations up to 5 times greater than are typically used to extract soil protein. Moreover, the Bradford assay was found to be highly susceptible to two simultaneous and confounding artefacts: 1) the colour development due to added protein was greatly inhibited by polyphenol concentration, and 2) substantial colour development was caused directly by the polyphenol addition. In contrast, the Lowry method enabled distinction between colour development from protein and non-protein origin, providing a more accurate quantitative analysis. These results suggest that the modified-Lowry method is a more suitable measure of extract protein (defined by standard equivalents) because it is less confounded by the high polyphenolic content which is so typical of soil extracts.

  2. Development of synthetic media mimicking food soils to study the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overney, Anaïs; Chassaing, Danielle; Carpentier, Brigitte; Guillier, Laurent; Firmesse, Olivier

    2016-12-05

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the main targets of hygiene procedures in the ready-to-eat food industry due to its ability to persist for months or even years in processing plants, where it can contaminate food during processing. The factors associated with persistence are often those that foster growth, which itself depends on food contamination of surfaces. It is therefore essential to experiment by using food soils or media modelling these soils to understand the behaviour of L. monocytogenes on surfaces of food processing plants. Thus, we set up an experimental plan including three physiological parameters characteristic of the behaviour of cells on surfaces, namely spatial distribution, adhesion forces and the physiological state of sessile L. monocytogenes. These were recorded in two food soils: smoked salmon juice and meat exudate. According to our results, the behaviour of L. monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces is highly dependent on the food soil used. The presence of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells was demonstrated using meat exudate, while all viable cells were recovered using smoked salmon juice. Moreover, on the basis of our criteria and after validation with three strains of L. monocytogenes, we showed that smoked salmon juice can be substituted by a modified culture medium, demonstrating that drawbacks associated with the use of food soils can be overcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficiency of three buffers for extracting B-glucosidase enzyme in different soil orders: Evaluating the role of soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate extraction methods for β - glucosidases comparing three buffer solutions (MUB, acetate, and maleate at different incubation times (0.5 h to 10 h and in three different soil orders (Mollisols, Andisols and Ultisols. Seven acidic soils were evaluated, showing differences in pH, OM, and clay contents. To evaluate the effect of OM as enzymes source, one soil of each order was treated to partially remove its OM and then the enzyme assay was performed. When using MUB and maleate buffers the highest (32 and 31 μg - p NP g - soil - 1 h - 1 in average , respec tively were found, and the latter was significantly (p < 0.050 correlated with the soil clay content. The activity obtained with acetate buffer was much lower ( 3 8.2 μg - p NP g - soil - 1 h - 1 in average . The use of MUB buffer with 1 h of incubation is suggested as extraction method, showing good reproducibility and allowing to express higher enzyme potential for soil comparisons. For the Andisol and Ultisol, the enzyme activity significantly decreased with the OM removal (% indicating that OM is the major sourc e of the measured β - glucosidase activity, while a different trend was observed for the Mollisol, in which the mineral fraction (mainly 2:1 type clay appears to be involved in the increased enzyme activity displayed after the initial OM removal.

  4. Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to the extracted fulvic acid fraction in soil in comparison with other organic matter fractions and to the whole soil sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenxin, E-mail: wxliu@urban.pku.edu.c [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Shanshan [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xing, Baoshan [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Pan, Bo [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Tao, Shu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Fractions of soil organic matter in a natural soil were extracted and sorption (or binding) characteristics of phenanthrene on each fraction and to the whole sample were investigated. The organic carbon normalized single point sorption (or binding) coefficient followed lipid > humin (HM) > humic acid (HA) > fulvic acid (FA) > whole soil sample, while the nonlinear exponent exhibited lipid > FA > HA > whole soil sample > HM. FA showed nonlinear binding of phenanthrene as it often does with other fractions. HM and HA contributed the majority of organic carbon in the soil. The calculated sorption coefficients of the whole soil were about two times greater than the measured values at different equilibrium phenanthrene concentrations. As for phenanthrene, the sorption capacity and nonlinearity of the physically mixed HA-HM mixtures were stronger as compared to the chemically reconstituted HA-HM composite. This was attributed to (besides the conditioning effect of the organic solvents) interactions between HA and HM and acid-base additions during fractionation. - Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to fulvic acid extracted from soil organic matter was found.

  5. A novel method for RNA extraction from Andosols using casein and its application to amoA gene expression study in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Nagaoka, Kazunari; Hayatsu, Masahito; Sakai, Yoriko; Tago, Kanako; Asakawa, Susumu; Fujii, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a universal method to extract RNA from soil hinders the progress of studies related to nitrification in soil, which is an important step in the nitrogen cycle. It is particularly difficult to extract RNA from certain types of soils such as Andosols (volcanic ash soils), which is the dominant agricultural soil in Japan, because of RNA adsorption by soil. To obtain RNA from these challenging soils to study the bacteria involved in nitrification, we developed a soil RNA extraction method for gene expression analysis. Autoclaved casein was added to an RNA extraction buffer to recover RNA from soil, and high-quality RNA was successfully extracted from eight types of agricultural soils that were significantly different in their physicochemical characteristics. To detect bacterial ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene (amoA) transcripts, bacterial genomic DNA and messenger RNA were co-extracted from two different types of Andosols during incubation with ammonium sulfate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of amoA in soil microcosms revealed that only few amoA, which had the highest similarities to those in Nitrosospira multiformis, were expressed in these soils after treatment with ammonium sulfate, although multiple amoA genes were present in the soil microcosms examined.

  6. Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Tumasonis, C.; Briggs, R.G.; Narang, A.S.; Narang, R.S.; Rej, R.; Stein, V.; McMartin, D.N.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  7. SIMPLE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS ON SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825368)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for estimating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in contaminated soils and sediments has been developed by coupling static subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Soil, water, and internal standards are placed in a seale...

  8. The respective effects of soil heavy metal fractions by sequential extraction procedure and soil properties on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine heavy metal accumulation in rice grains and brassicas and to identify the different controls, such as soil properties and soil heavy metal fractions obtained by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, in their accumulation. In Guangdong Province, South China, rice grain and brassica samples, along with their rhizospheric soil, were collected from fields on the basis of distance downstream from electroplating factories, whose wastewater was used for irrigation. The results showed that long-term irrigation using the electroplating effluent has not only enriched the rhizospheric soil with Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn but has also increased their mobility and bioavailability. The average concentrations of Cd and Cr in rice grains and brassicas from closest to the electroplating factories were significantly higher than those from the control areas. Results from hybrid redundancy analysis (hRDA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the BCR fractions of soil heavy metals could explain 29.0 and 46.5 % of total eigenvalue for heavy metal concentrations in rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while soil properties could only explain 11.1 and 33.4 %, respectively. This indicated that heavy metal fractions exerted more control upon their concentrations in rice grains and brassicas than soil properties. In terms of metal interaction, an increase of residual Zn in paddy soil or a decrease of acid soluble Cd in the brassica soil could enhance the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb in both rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while the reducible or oxidizable Cd in soil could enhance the plants' accumulation of Cr and Pb. The RDA showed an inhibition effect of sand content and CFO on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas. Moreover, multiple stepwise linear regression could offer prediction for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations in the two crops by soil heavy metal fractions and soil properties.

  9. A newly developed molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of TiO2 for selective extraction of triazine herbicides residues in maize, water, and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hao Ran; Miao, Shan Shan; Jin, She Feng; Yang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    A new surface molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on nano-TiO2 was developed using propazine (Pro) as a template molecule, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinker, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, and 2,2'-azobis (isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as an initiator. Structures of the newly synthesized surface MIPs were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MIP had a good adsorption capacity and high recognition selectivity to propazine. Meanwhile, it exhibited a cross-selectivity for simazine (Sim) and atrazine (Atr). The MIPs were used as a solid phase extraction (SPE) material. Concomitant extraction, purification, and determination of three pesticides (Pro, Sim, and Atr) residues in water, soil, and maize plant and grain samples were performed by MIP-SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highly selective separation and enrichment of Pro, Atr, and Sim from the complex environmental media can be achieved. Thus, the newly developed technique provides an analytical platform to quantify the trace amount of Pro, Sim, and Atr residues in multi environmental media and food source.

  10. [Determination of soil exchangeable base cations by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and extraction with ammonium acetate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-ge; Xiao, Min; Dong, Yi-hua; Jiang, Yong

    2012-08-01

    A method to determine soil exchangeable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and extraction with ammonium acetate was developed. Results showed that the accuracy of exchangeable base cation data with AAS method fits well with the national standard referential soil data. The relative errors for parallel samples of exchangeable Ca and Mg with 66 pair samples ranged from 0.02%-3.14% and 0.06%-4.06%, and averaged to be 1.22% and 1.25%, respectively. The relative errors for exchangeable K and Na with AAS and flame photometer (FP) ranged from 0.06%-8.39% and 0.06-1.54, and averaged to be 3.72% and 0.56%, respectively. A case study showed that the determination method for exchangeable base cations by using AAS was proven to be reliable and trustable, which could reflect the real situation of soil cation exchange properties in farmlands.

  11. Ultrasound assisted extraction and decomposition of Cl-containing herbicide involved in model soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Shin-ichi; Fujita, Takafumi; Kuchar, Dalibor; Kubota, Mitsuhiro; Matsuda, Hitoki

    2009-01-01

    This work focused on ultrasound assisted extraction and decomposition of MCPA [(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid] from model soil under argon atmosphere. In the experiments, 10 g model soil containing 1.75 x 10(-5) mol MCPA mixed with 90 g of de-aired water was used. For a comparison, the experiments were also carried out using MCPA aqueous solution of which the concentration was adjusted to 1.75 x 10(-4) mol/l. The results showed that complete MCPA decomposition was achieved after 120 min in the case of MCPA aqueous solution. Meanwhile, in the case of model soil, the MCPA decomposition ratio of 0.9 was obtained after 600 min. This result was attributed to combined effect of MCPA adsorption on kaolin and to attenuation of ultrasound by solid particles of kaolin. To evaluate ultrasound attenuation in the presence of solid particles, experiments with slurry consisting of alumina particles and MCPA solution were carried out at alumina particles concentration range of 0.1-100g/l. The results showed that the MCPA initial decomposition rate significantly decreased with an increase in alumina particles concentration. Thus, it was concluded that the solid particles reduced the MCPA decomposition ratio by reducing the formation of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals which are know to be necessary for MCPA decomposition.

  12. Preparation and utilization of molecularly imprinted polymer for chlorsulfuron extraction from water, soil, and wheat plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xu Wei; Wu, Yan Jiao; Qu, Jin Rong; Yang, Hong

    2012-07-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared using chlorsulfuron (CS), a herbicide as a template molecule, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linker, methanol and toluene as a porogen, and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The binding behaviors of the template chlorsulfuron and its analog on MIP were evaluated by equilibrium adsorption experiments, which showed that the MIP particles had specific affinity for the template CS. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the chlorsulfuron molecularly imprinted polymer as an adsorbent was investigated. The optimum loading, washing, and eluting conditions for chlorsulfuron molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction (CS-MISPE) were established. The optimized CS-MISPE procedure was developed to enrich and clean up the chlorsulfuron residue in water, soils, and wheat plants. Concentrations of chlorsulfuron in the samples were analyzed by HPLC-UVD. The average recoveries of CS spiked standard at 0.05~0.2 mg L(-1) in water were 90.2~93.3%, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) being 2.0~3.9% (n=3). The average recoveries of 1.0 mL CS spiked standard at 0.1~0.5 mg L(-1) in 10 g soil were 91.1~94.7%, with the RSD being 3.1~5.6% (n=3). The average recoveries of 1.0 mL CS spiked standard at 0.1~0.5 mg L(-1) in 5 g wheat plant were 82.3~94.3%, with the RSD being 2.9~6.8% (n=3). Overall, our study provides a sensitive and cost-effective method for accurate determination of CS residues in water, soils, and plants.

  13. Plasmid transformation of naturally competent Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in non-sterile soil extract and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, M G; Reipschläger, K; Wackernagel, W

    1992-01-01

    The natural transformation of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD413 (trpE27) was characterized with respect to features that might be important for a possible gene transfer by extracellular DNA in natural environments. Transformation of competent cells with chromosomal DNA (marker trp+) occurred in aqueous solutions of single divalent cations. Uptake of DNA into the DNase I-resistant state but not the binding of DNA to cells was strongly stimulated by divalent cations. An increase of transformation of nearly 3 orders of magnitude was obtained as a response to the presence of 0.25 mM Ca2+. With CaCl2 solutions the transformation frequencies approached the highest values obtained under standard broth conditions, followed by MnCl2 and MgCl2. It is concluded that transformation requires divalent cations. DNA competition experiments showed that A. calcoaceticus does not discriminate between homologous and heterologous DNA. Furthermore, circular plasmid DNA competed with chromosomal DNA fragments and vice versa. The equally efficient transformation with plasmid pKT210 isolated from A. calcoaceticus or Escherichia coli indicated absence of DNA restriction in transformation. High efficiency plasmid transformation was obtained in samples of non-sterile natural groundwater and in non-sterile extracts of fresh and air-dried soil. Heat-treatment (10 min, 80 degrees C) of the non-sterile liquid samples increased transformation only in the dried soil extract, probably by inactivation of DNases. The results presented suggest that competent cells of A. calcoaceticus can take up free high molecular weight DNA including plasmids of any source in natural environments such as soil, sediment or groundwater.

  14. Analysis of the plant growth regulator chlormequat in soil and water by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, pressurised liquid extraction, and solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Trine; Juhler, René K; Brandt, Gyrite; Kjaer, Jeanne

    2009-03-20

    We present a new, precise and accurate method for quantitative analysis of chlormequat in soil and aqueous matrices. The method, which is based on LC-MS/MS, pressurised liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, is eminently suitable for studying the fate of chlormequat in the soil environment. The limit of detection is 0.003-0.008 microg/L for rainwater, surface water and groundwater and 0.07-0.4 microg/kg for soil. In water samples amended to 0.04 microg/L, precision is better than 10%. The residual content of chlormequat in three agricultural topsoils analysed 4 months after its application was 23-55 microg/kg (12-23% of the amount applied). No trace of chlormequat was detected in groundwater from 66 water supply wells located in rural areas treated with chlormequat.

  15. Characterization of ‘Aged’ Metolachlor Sorption in Soil Using an Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorption interactions of pesticides with soil determine pesticide availability for transport and degradation in soil. Thus, knowing and understanding pesticide sorption, particularly in aged soils, is important in determining pesticide fate in soils. Sorption of pesticides is traditionally character...

  16. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  18. Field Validation of the NUFT Code for Subsurface Remediation by Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J.J.

    2000-09-23

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a widely-used method for remediation of contaminants in the unsaturated, or vadose, zone. SVE removes volatile contaminants by extracting gases from the subsurface. The pressure gradients necessary to drive gas flow are limited by at most one atmosphere of vacuum. Therefore, a common adjunct to SVE is the injection of fresh air into the subsurface at a distance from the extraction wells in order to increase overall gas pressure gradients, and, hence, flow rates. SVE has also been used for saturated zone remediation by first pumping the water table down to expose free phase contaminants. The selection of a vadose zone remediation method depends on a variety of site parameters. The type of contaminant is a major factor. Obviously, the selection of SVE as a method makes sense only for volatile contaminants since, otherwise, gas phase transport would be impossible. Bioventing is often a cost-effective candidate for contaminants that biodegrade easily in an aerobic environment, such as petroleum hydrocarbons. Bioventing shares some similarity to SVE, except that the flow rates are usually much lower. Whereas, the main goal of bioventing is to provide oxygen to the micro-organisms that break-down the contaminant; the main goal of SVE is physical removal. Biodegradation may be, for some contaminants, an important side benefit of SVE. However, bioventing and other forms of bioremediation are not considered to be effective for chlorinated vadose zone contaminants, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), which does not biodegrade readily in an aerobic environment. Soil excavation is a viable remediation method for the shallow spills where there are no existing important man-made structures. Otherwise, SVE is often the most appropriate and widely used remediation method for VOC's in the vadose zone.

  19. Evaluation of flow injection analysis method with spectrophotometric detection for the determination of atrazine in soil extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Elisandra C; Melo, Vander De F; Abate, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    A method for determining atrazine in soil extracts was evaluated by flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the reaction of atrazine with pyridine in an acid medium followed by the reaction with NaOH and sulfanilic acid. Several analytical conditions were previously studied and optimized. Under the best conditions of analysis, the limits of detection and quantification were 0.15 and 0.45 mg L(-1), respectively, for a linear response between 0.50 and 2.50 mg L(-1), and a sampling throughput of 21 determinations per hour. Using the standard addition method, the maximum relative standard deviation of 17% and recovery values between 80 and 100% were observed for three extracts from soil samples with different composition. The proposed method is simple, low-cost and easy to use, and can be employed for studies involving atrazine in soil samples or for screening of atrazine in soils.

  20. Actinides-lanthanides (neodymium) separation by electrolytical extraction in molten fluoride media; Separation actinides-lanthanides (neodyne) par extraction electrolytique en milieux fluorures fondus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, C

    2005-02-15

    The aim of this thesis is to assess the potentialities of pyrochemical processes for futur nuclear fuels and Generation IV reactors (more particularly molten salt reactors). This study concerns the Actinides-Lanthanides and Lanthanides-Solvent separation by electrolytical extraction in molten fluoride media at high temperature. Three elements are selected for this study: neodymium (NdF{sub 3}), uranium (UF{sub 4}) and plutonium (PuF{sub 3}). Firstly, the electrochemical study of these three compounds in molten fluoride media is performed to evaluate the separations. Electrodeposition processes are studied and the values of formal potentials of U(III)/U(0), Pu(III)/Pu(0) and Nd(III)/Nd(0) are obtained in LiF-CaF{sub 2} eutectic mixture. Thermodynamically, the values of potentials differences are enough to separate U-Nd and Pu-Nd with a yield of extraction of 99.99%; this value is just sufficient for the Pu-Nd separation. Concerning the Nd-solvent separation this potential difference is too small. Next, the electrodeposition of solid metals on inert electrodes is performed. This study showed that the uranium and neodymium deposits are unstable in several fluoride media. In addition, the presence of salts in the dendritic metal is observed for the U solid deposits. Finally, a reactive cathode is used to improve these separation results and the shape of the deposits. The experimental results on nickel electrodes showed an improvement of the Pu-Nd separation and the Nd-solvent separation with the depolarisation phenomenon of the metal deposit on the nickel. Moreover, U and Nd metal are stabilized in the alloy which allows the elimination of reactions with the solvent as observed for the solid deposit. The formation of liquids alloys makes also easier the recovery of these three. (author)

  1. Actinides-lanthanides (neodymium) separation by electrolytic extraction in molten fluoride media; Separation actinides-lanthanides (neodyne) par extraction electrolytique en milieux fluorures fondus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, C

    2005-02-15

    The aim of this thesis is to assess the potentialities of pyrochemical processes for future nuclear fuels and Generation IV reactors (more particularly molten salt reactors). This study concerns the Actinides-Lanthanides and Lanthanides-Solvent separation by electrolytic extraction in molten fluoride media at high temperature. Three elements are selected for this study: neodymium (NdF{sub 3}), uranium (UF{sub 4}) and plutonium (PuF{sub 3}). Firstly, the electrochemical study of these three compounds in molten fluoride media is performed to evaluate the separations. Electrodeposition processes are studied and the values of formal potentials of U(III)/U(0), Pu(III)/Pu(0) and Nd(III)/Nd(0) are obtained in LiF-CaF{sub 2} eutectic mixture. Thermodynamically, the values of potentials differences are enough to separate U-Nd and Pu-Nd with a yield of extraction of 99.99%; this value is just sufficient for the Pu-Nd separation. Concerning the Nd-solvent separation this potential difference is too small. Next, the electrodeposition of solid metals on inert electrodes is performed. This study showed that the uranium and neodymium deposits are unstable in several fluoride media. In addition, the presence of salts in the dendritic metal is observed for the U solid deposits. Finally, a reactive cathode is used to improve these separation results and the shape of the deposits. The experimental results on nickel electrodes showed an improvement of the Pu-Nd separation and the Nd-solvent separation with the depolarization phenomenon of the metal deposit on the nickel. Moreover, U and Nd metal are stabilized in the alloy which allows the elimination of reactions with the solvent as observed for the solid deposit. The formation of liquids alloys makes also easier the recovery of these three. (author)

  2. Effect of Storage Media and Sterilization Method on Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel of Extracted Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Boruziniat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of storage media and autoclaving on shear bond strength of composite to enamel. Materials and Methods: 100 human premolars were randomly divided into ten groups of ten as follows: C: freshly extracted teeth. A: Autoclaved freshly extracted teeth. CH-6: 6 month storage in 0.5 % chloramine T. CA-6: 6 month storage in 0.5 % chloramine T + autoclaving. T-6: 6 month storage in 0.04 % thymol. TA-6: 6 month storage in 0.4% thymol + autoclaving. Ch-12:12 month storage in 0.5 % chloramine T. CA-12: 12 month storage in 0.5 % chloramine T + autoclaving. T-12: 12 month storage in 0.4% thymol. TA-12:12 month storage in 0.4% thymol + autoclaving. One composite cylinder was bonded on each specimen for evaluation of shear bond strength (SBS and failure modes. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc and Chi square tests and the level of significance was set  at P= 0.05. Results: Autoclaving and storage media had no significant effect on SBS (P-value = 0.818 for storage media and P-value = 0.221 for autoclaving. However, storage duration significantly changed SBS (P-value = 0.00. There were no correlations among the variables (P-value > 0.05. Storage media and duration had no significant effect on failure modes (P-value > 0.05, but autoclaving significantly increased cohesive failure of enamel (P-value =0.039. Conclusion: Storage of teeth in chloramine T and thymol had no significant effect on bond strength to enamel. Although autoclaving of specimens may not alter bond strength, it can significantly increase the cohesive failure of enamel.

  3. Application of a Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction sample preparation method with HPLC for soil fungal biomass determination in soils from a detrital manipulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, Áron; Lajtha, Kate; Kozma, János; Fekete, István

    2017-05-01

    Ergosterol is a sterol found ubiquitously in cell membranes of filamentous fungi. Although concentrations in different fungal species span the range of 2.6 to 42μg/mL of dry mass, many studies have shown a strong correlation between soil ergosterol content and fungal biomass. The analysis of ergosterol in soil therefore could be an effective tool for monitoring changes in fungal biomass under different environmental conditions. Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) is a new sample preparation method to extract and concentrate organic analytes from liquid samples. SBSE was here demonstrated to be a simple, fast, and cost effective method for the quantitative analysis of ergosterol from field-collected soils. Using this method we observed that soil ergosterol as a measure of fungal biomass proved to be a sensitive indicator of soil microbial dynamics that were altered by changes in plant detrital inputs to soils in a long-term field experiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Rocket (Eruca sativa Extract on MRSA Growth and Proteome: Metabolic Adjustments in Plant-Based Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapi I. Doulgeraki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in food has provoked a great concern about the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. Although MRSA is often detected in various retailed meat products, it seems that food handlers are more strongly associated with this type of food contamination. Thus, it can be easily postulated that any food could be contaminated with this pathogen in an industrial environment or in household and cause food poisoning. To this direction, the effect of rocket (Eruca sativa extract on MRSA growth and proteome was examined in the present study. This goal was achieved with the comparative study of the MRSA strain COL proteome, cultivated in rocket extract versus the standard Luria-Bertani growth medium. The obtained results showed that MRSA was able to grow in rocket extract. In addition, proteome analysis using 2-DE method showed that MRSA strain COL is taking advantage of the sugar-, lipid-, and vitamin-rich substrate in the liquid rocket extract, although its growth was delayed in rocket extract compared to Luria–Bertani medium. This work could initiate further research about bacterial metabolism in plant-based media and defense mechanisms against plant-derived antibacterials.

  5. Effect of Rocket (Eruca sativa) Extract on MRSA Growth and Proteome: Metabolic Adjustments in Plant-Based Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Efthimiou, Georgios; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Pappas, Katherine M; Typas, Milton A; Nychas, George-John

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food has provoked a great concern about the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. Although MRSA is often detected in various retailed meat products, it seems that food handlers are more strongly associated with this type of food contamination. Thus, it can be easily postulated that any food could be contaminated with this pathogen in an industrial environment or in household and cause food poisoning. To this direction, the effect of rocket (Eruca sativa) extract on MRSA growth and proteome was examined in the present study. This goal was achieved with the comparative study of the MRSA strain COL proteome, cultivated in rocket extract versus the standard Luria-Bertani growth medium. The obtained results showed that MRSA was able to grow in rocket extract. In addition, proteome analysis using 2-DE method showed that MRSA strain COL is taking advantage of the sugar-, lipid-, and vitamin-rich substrate in the liquid rocket extract, although its growth was delayed in rocket extract compared to Luria-Bertani medium. This work could initiate further research about bacterial metabolism in plant-based media and defense mechanisms against plant-derived antibacterials.

  6. On-matrix derivatization extraction of chemical weapons convention relevant alcohols from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2013-10-11

    Present study deals with the on-matrix derivatization-extraction of aminoalcohols and thiodiglycols, which are important precursors and/or degradation products of VX analogues and vesicants class of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The method involved hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) mediated in situ silylation of analytes on the soil. Subsequent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized analytes offered better recoveries in comparison to the procedure recommended by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Various experimental conditions such as extraction solvent, reagent and catalyst amount, reaction time and temperature were optimized. Best recoveries of analytes ranging from 45% to 103% were obtained with DCM solvent containing 5%, v/v HMDS and 0.01%, w/v iodine as catalyst. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes ranged from 8 to 277 and 21 to 665ngmL(-1), respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Some extractable iron contents as influenced by some organic manures application in the soils of Lake Geriyo, Adamawa state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddiq Abdullahi Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic manures are safer sources of plant nutrients and a good source of micronutrients therefore; pot experiments were carried out to estimate some extractable iron contents as influenced by organic manure application in the soils of Lake Geriyo, Adamawa state, Nigeria. Two types of organic manures; poultry droppings, cow dung and control were used for the experiment. Three levels of organic manures; 5, 10 and 15 tons per hectare (ton ha-1 and three sampling time (30, 60 and 90 DAS were laid down in a completely randomized (CRD design replicated three times. Results obtained revealed that rate, type of organic manures and time of submergence significantly (P ≤ 0.05 changed Fe content in the soil. Mean extractable iron concentrations of 42.01, 56.13 and 24.63 mgkg-1 were recorded for ammonium oxalate extractable iron, Citrate Bicarbonate Dithionite extractable iron and sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron in the first experiment while 45.81, 59.29 and 28.89 mgkg-1 were recorded for the second experiment respectively. However, CBD which extracts both amorphous and crystalline Fe recorded the highest Fe contents throughout the treatments with poultry droppings applied pots recording superior values than that of cowdung manure. similarly, higher values of oxa-Fe and Pyro-Fe were recorded in both manures compared to the control. In conclusion poultry droppings may result in iron accumulation and toxicity hence should be used with caution in the soil of Lake Geriyo and similar soils to avoid serious soil reduction leading to iron toxicity and soil phosphorus antagonism.

  8. An original data treatment for infrared spectra of organic matter, application to extracted soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Rossin, Bruna; Redon, Roland; Raynaud, Michel; Nascimento, Nadia Regina; Mounier, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    Infrared spectra of extracted organic matter are easy and rapid to do, but generally hard to interpreted over the presence or not of certain organic functions. Indeed, the organic matter is a complex mixture of molecules often having absorption overlapping and it is also difficult to have a well calibrated or normalised spectra due to the difficulty to have a well known solid content or homogeneity for a sample (Monakhova et al. 2015, Tadini et al. 2015, Bardy et al. 2008). In this work, the IRTF (InfraRed Fourier Transform) spectra were treated by an original algorithm developed to obtain the principal components of the IRTF spectra and their contributions for each sample. This bilinear decomposition used a PCA initialisation and the principal components were estimated from vectors calculated by PCA and linearly combined to provide non-negative signals minimizing a criterion based on cross-correlation. Hence, using this decomposition, it is possible to define IRTF signal of organic matter fractions like humic acid or fulvic acid depending on their origin like surface of depth of soil profiles. The method was used on a set of sample from Upper Negro River Basin (Amazon, Brazil) (Bueno,2009), where three soils sequences from surface to two meter depth containing 10 slices each. The sequences were sampled on a podzol well drain, a hydromorphic podzol and a cryptopodzol. From the IRTF data five representative component spectra were defined for all the extracted organic matter , and using other chemical composition information, a mechanism of organic matter fate is proposed to explain the observed results. Bardy, M., E. Fritsch, S. Derenne, T. Allard, N. R. do Nascimento, and G. T. Bueno. 2008. "Micromorphology and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Organic Matter in Waterlogged Podzols of the Upper Amazon Basin." Geoderma 145 (3-4): 222-30. Bueno, G.T. Appauvrissement et podzolisation des latérites du baissin du Rio Negro et gênese dês Podzols dans le haut bassin

  9. Evaluating the accumulation of arsenic in maize (Zea mays L.) plants from its growing media by cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Jameel Ahmad; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Sumaira; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Naeemullah; Soomro, Abdul Sattar

    2010-11-01

    A cloud point extraction has been developed for the determination of As in maize (Zea mays L.) and adjoining agriculture soil. The different parts of maize (grains, shoots and roots) and soil were subjected to microwave assisted digestion in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide (2:1 ratio). The trace amounts of As was pre-concentrated by cloud point extraction, as prior step to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The main factors affecting cloud point extraction efficiency, such as pH of sample solution, concentration of ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and Triton X-114, equilibration temperature and time period for shaking were investigated in detail. For validation of proposed method a certified reference material of whole meal flour BCR 189 was used. No significant difference p>0.05 was observed between the experimental results and the certified values of CRM (paired t-test). The translocation of total As in different parts of maize were found in the order of, Root>Shoot>Grain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

  11. Influence of soil structure and root water uptake strategy on unsaturated flow in heterogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, A.; Neuweiler, I.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Helmig, R.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the combined effects of the spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties and the water uptake by plant roots on unsaturated water flow. For this analysis, we use a simplified macroscopic root water uptake model which is usually applied only for homogeneous or layered soil and

  12. Fungi obtained on various media from soil under banana trees near Logos in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ihnatowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From the soil samples collected from beneath various banana plant, Musa paradisiaca L., 96 different species of soil fungi were isolated on medium: Ohio-Agar, Littmans-Agar, Martins Rose Bengal-Agar and identified. Four species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated by means of To-Ka-Va trap-hair method.

  13. Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently discovered and characterized rice hull liquid smoke extract was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-agar method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of rice hull smoke extract was found to be 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial a...

  14. Soil news - the soil carbon and climate policy journey in Australia and the role of different media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggs, Ron

    2015-07-01

    ‘Enough soil carbon to mitigate climate change is a big ask’ was a litmus piece in the October 2012 edition of Agriculture Today. The paper was the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries’ flagship research, advisory and farm management vehicle, published monthly in The Land for 20 years, on the web since 2005 until December 2012. The October 2012 story dovetailed with Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) television Lateline reporting that the Federal Coalition's (from now on Government's) climate policy could not demonstrate that storing carbon in Australian soils would achieve the major proportion of a target to reduce Australia's greenhouse emissions by five per cent on 2000 levels by 2020. It also provided background for the ABC's FactCheck verdict that voters in 2013 federal election were not hearing “the full story on climate research”. The real story is how to inform urban Australia's poor understanding and lack of connection to how land managers must maintain and where possible improve soil quality for food security and food production as we adapt to climate change. And if you are in the business of information delivery or providing content, how do you choose your distribution channels to target as wide an audience as possible? One fundamental yardstick to avoid disenfranchising and discriminating against some people who want, and rely on, your information is to continually critically assess how fast high speed internet is reaching marginalised rural areas. Print is still the preferred news medium for the majority of farmers.

  15. A multisyringe flow-through sequential extraction system for on-line monitoring of orthophosphate in soils and sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2007-01-01

    A fully automated flow-through microcolumn fractionation system with on-line post-extraction derivatization is proposed for monitoring of orthophosphate in solid samples of environmental relevance. The system integrates dynamic sequential extraction using 1.0 mol l-1 NH4Cl, 0.1 mol l-1 NaOH and 0...... P l-1 in NH4Cl and NaOH media and 15 mg P l-1 whenever HCl is utilized as extractant for both the HL and SMT protocols....

  16. Cadmium reactivity in metal-contaminated soils using a coupled stable isotope dilution-sequential extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnstrom, Z A; Parker, D R

    2001-01-01

    To better understand the intrinsic reactivity of Cd, four soils having diverse sources of Cd contamination (total Cd: 22-34 mg kg(-1)) were investigated using a stable isotope dilution-sequential extraction procedure (SID-SEP) during a 59-week incubation. Samples were spiked with carrier-free 111Cd and periodically extracted into five operationally defined fractions; the 111Cd:10Cd ratios were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The total labile pool of Cd (E value) was calculated as well as the labile Cd within each extracted fraction. Results for three of the soils (Cd sources: natural, sewage sludge, smelter emissions) were quite similar. The overall %E after 2-week equilibration was 35-49% of total soil Cd. Within fraction 2 (sorbed/carbonate), 70-75% of the Cd was isotopically labile, while within fraction 3 (oxidizable) only 35-41% of the Cd was labile within 2 weeks. The fourth (reducible) and fifth (residual) fractions were dominated by nonlabile Cd. Although all E values increased somewhat from 2 to 59 weeks, none of the extracted fractions reached isotopic equilibrium with the soluble/exchangeable Cd extracted during step 1. Because fractions 2 and 3 dominated the native Cd in all three soils, the total labile pool was contributed primarily (85-98%) by these two fractions. A fourth soil (mine spoil-contaminated) was demonstrably different: after 2 weeks, the overall %E was just 13 and, although 82% of the total Cd was present in the oxidizable fraction, just 2% of that was isotopically labile. The nonlability of Cd in this soil could be ascribed to the predominance of inorganic forms, most likely occluded Cd in sphalerite. No single Cd fraction from the SEP nor any combination of fractions showed a good correspondence with the size of the isotopically labile pool. Our results suggest that conventional SEPs may be of limited utility for predicting bioavailability, for example, during ecological risk assessment.

  17. Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Oliveira Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medium increased the growth rate of A. flavus and Penicillium sp. but not of F. verticillioides. The number of spores increased 1.2 for F. verticillioides and 8.2 times for A. flavus in the medium with glucose, but was reduced 3.5 times for Penicillium sp. The total carbohydrates contents reduced significantly according to first and second degree equations. The consumption of total carbohydrates by A. flavus and Penicillium sp. was higher than the control or soil inoculated with F. verticillioides. The addition of glucose to soils benefited the use of carbohydrates, probably due to the stimulation of fungal growth. Dehydrogenase activity increased between 1.5 to 1.8 times (p <0.05 in soils with glucose and inoculated with the fungi (except F. verticillioides, in relation to soil without glucose. Amylase activity increased 1.3 to 1.5 times due to the addition of glucose in the soil. Increased amylase activity was observed in the DRL soil with glucose and inoculated with A. flavus and Penicillium sp. when compared to control.

  18. Fractionation of metals by sequential extraction procedures (BCR and Tessier) in soil exposed to fire of wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajkovic, Hana; Rončević, Sanda; Nemet, Ivan; Prohić, Esad; Leontić-Vazdar, Dana

    2017-04-01

    Forest fire presents serious problem, especially in Mediterranean Region. Effects of fire are numerous, from climate change and deforestation to loss of soil organic matter and changes in soil properties. One of the effects, not well documented, is possible redistribution and/or remobilisation of pollutants previously deposited in the soil, due to the new physical and chemical soil properties and changes in equilibrium conditions. For understanding and predicting possible redistribution and/or remobilisation of potential pollutants from soil, affected by fire different in temperature, several laboratory investigations were carried out. To evaluate the influence of organic matter on soil under fire, three soil samples were analysed and compared: (a) the one with added coniferous organic matter; (b) deciduous organic matter (b) and (c) soil without additional organic matter. Type of organic matter is closely related to pH of soil, as pH is influencing the mobility of some pollutants, e.g. metals. For that reason pH was also measured through all experimental steps. Each of mentioned soil samples (a, b and c) were heated at 1+3 different temperatures (25°C, 200°C, 500°C and 850°C). After heating, whereby fire effect on soil was simulated, samples were analysed by BCR protocol with the addition of a first step of sequential extraction procedure by Tessier and analysis of residual by aqua regia. Element fractionation of heavy metals by this procedure was used to determine the amounts of selected elements (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Selected metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Further on, loss of organic matter was calculated after each heating procedure as well as the mineral composition. The mineral composition was determined using an X-ray diffraction. From obtained results, it can be concluded that temperature has an influence on concentration of elements in specific step of

  19. Ultrasound-assisted single extraction tests for rapid assessment of metal extractability from soils by total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Calle, I; Cabaleiro, N; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2013-09-15

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was employed for acceleration of metal extraction from soil samples. After extraction, multielemental analysis (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) of EDTA and acetic acid extracts was performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). High-intensity ultrasonic processors, i.e. the ultrasonic probe (50W) and the cup-horn sonoreactor (200W) were applied. Both ultrasonic procedures were compared with a miniaturized version of the single extraction scheme proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing program (SM&T). The extraction time with EDTA was reduced from 1h (conventional procedure) to 2 min (ultrasonic probe) or to 10 min (cup-horn sonoreactor). The time required for acetic acid extraction was also reduced from 16 h (conventional procedure) to 6 min (ultrasonic probe) or to 30 min (cup-horn sonoreactor). In addition, the amount of sample and extractants was drastically reduced as a result of the miniaturization implemented in the developed approaches. The combination of UAE and TXRF allows assessing the potential metal mobility and bioavailability in a simple way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. From agricultural use of sewage sludge to nutrient extraction: A soil science outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmann, Holger; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kätterer, Thomas; Cohen, Yariv

    2017-03-01

    The composition of municipal wastewater and sewage sludge reflects the use and proliferation of elements and contaminants within society. In Sweden, official statistics show that concentrations of toxic metals in municipal sewage sludge have steadily decreased, by up to 90 %, since the 1970s, due to environmental programmes and statutory limits on metals in sludge and soil. Results from long-term field experiments show that reduced metal pollution during repeated sewage sludge application has reversed negative trends in soil biology. Despite this Swedish success story, organic waste recycling from Swedish towns and cities to arable land is still limited to only about 20 % of the total amount produced. Resistance among industries and consumers to products grown on land treated with sewage sludge may not always be scientifically grounded; however, there are rational obstacles to application of sewage sludge to land based on its inherent properties rather than its content of pollutants. We argue that application of urban organic wastes to soil is an efficient form of recycling for small municipalities, but that organic waste treatment from large cities requires other solutions. The large volumes of sewage sludge collected in towns and cities are not equitably distributed back to arable land because of the following: (i) The high water and low nutrient content in sewage sludge make long-distance transportation too expensive; and (ii) the low plant availability of nutrients in sewage sludge results in small yield increases even after many years of repeated sludge addition. Therefore, nutrient extraction from urban wastes instead of direct organic waste recycling is a possible way forward. The trend for increased combustion of urban wastes will make ash a key waste type in future. Combustion not only concentrates the nutrients in the ash but also leads to metal enrichment; hence, direct application of the ash to land is most often not possible. However, inorganic

  1. Similarity index between irrigation water and soil saturation extract in the experimental field of Yachay University, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Villacrés, D. V.; Sánchez-Gómez, V. P.; Portilla-Bravo, O. A.; Bolaños-Guerrón, D. R.

    2017-08-01

    Soil monitoring is a job that demands a lot of time and money. therefore, measuring the same parameters in the water becomes simple because it can be done in situ. The objective of this work was to find a similarity index for the validation of mathematical correlation models based on physicochemical parameters to verify if there is a balance between irrigation water and soil saturation extract in the experimental field Yachay that is known as the city of knowledge that is located in Imbabura province, Ecuador, for which, the sampling of water was carried out in two representative periods (dry and rainy). Sampling of 10 soil profiles was also performed, covering the total area; these samples were obtained results of Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS). With correlation models between soils and water, it is possible to predict concentrations of elements in the irrigation water. It was concluded that there is a balance between soil and water, so that the salts present in the soil are highly soluble, in addition, there is a high probability that the elements in the irrigation water are in the soil. In sample water, the same concentrations were found in the soil, at their saturation point, and very close to the field capacity.

  2. Lanthanides extraction processes in molten fluoride media. Application to nuclear spent fuel reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Taxil, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Nourry, Christophe; Gibilaro, Mathieu; Chamelot, Pierre; Cassayre, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes four techniques of extraction of lanthanides elements (Ln) from molten salts in the general frame of reprocessing nuclear wastes; One of them is chemical: the precipitation of Ln ions in insoluble compounds (oxides or oxifluorides); the others use electrochemical methodology in molten fluorides for extraction and measurement of the progress of the processes: first electrodeposition of pure Ln metals on an inert cathode material was proved to be incomplete and cause probl...

  3. Pore network extraction from pore space images of various porous media systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhixing; Lin, Mian; Jiang, Wenbin; Zhang, Zhaobin; Li, Haishan; Gao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Pore network extraction, which is defined as the transformation from irregular pore space to a simplified network in the form of pores connected by throats, is significant to microstructure analysis and network modeling. A physically realistic pore network is not only a representation of the pore space in the sense of topology and morphology, but also a good tool for predicting transport properties accurately. We present a method to extract pore network by employing the centrally located medial axis to guide the construction of maximal-balls-like skeleton where the pores and throats are defined and parameterized. To validate our method, various rock samples including sand pack, sandstones, and carbonates were used to extract pore networks. The pore structures were compared quantitatively with the structures extracted by medial axis method or maximal ball method. The predicted absolute permeability and formation factor were verified against the theoretical solutions obtained by lattice Boltzmann method and finite volume method, respectively. The two-phase flow was simulated through the networks extracted from homogeneous sandstones, and the generated relative permeability curves were compared with the data obtained from experimental method and other numerical models. The results show that the accuracy of our network is higher than that of other networks for predicting transport properties, so the presented method is more reliable for extracting physically realistic pore network.

  4. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of soil organic matter extracted from a Brazilian mangrove and Spanish salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perobelli Ferreira, F.; Buurman, P.; Macias, F.; Otero, X.L.; Boluda, R.

    2009-01-01

    The soil organic matter (SOM) extracted under different vegetation types from a Brazilian mangrove (Pai Matos Island, São Paulo State) and from three Spanish salt marshes (Betanzos Ría and Corrubedo Natural Parks, Galícia, and the Albufera Natural Park, Valencia) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas

  5. Chitinase genes revealed and compared in bacterial isolates, DNA extracts and a metagenomic library from a phytopathogen suppressive soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjort, K.; Bergstrom, M.; Adesina, M.F.; Jansson, J.K.; Smalla, K.; Sjoling, S.

    2009-09-01

    Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3) from bacterial isolates with antifungal and chitinase activities. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of chitinase genes revealed differences in amplified chitinase genes from the metagenomic library and the directly extracted DNA, but approximately 40% of the identified chitinase terminal-restriction fragments (TRFs) were found in both sources. All of the chitinase TRFs from the isolates were matched to TRFs in the directly extracted DNA and the metagenomic library. The most abundant chitinase TRF in the soil DNA and the metagenomic library corresponded to the TRF{sup 103} of the isolate, Streptomyces mutomycini and/or Streptomyces clavifer. There were good matches between T-RFLP profiles of chitinase gene fragments obtained from different sources of DNA. However, there were also differences in both the chitinase and the 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns depending on the source of DNA, emphasizing the lack of complete coverage of the gene diversity by any of the approaches used.

  6. Effect of soil tillage intensity on the composition, physical and chemical properties of the second fraction of humic acids extracted from the typical black soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Popirny

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work lies in studying the composition, physical and chemical properties of the second fraction of the humic acid (HA2 extracted from the typical black soil, depending on the intensity of the soil tillage. Physical and chemical properties of HA2 have been studied by using ultraviolet (UV spectroscopy, infrared (IR spectroscopy and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR. It has been demonstrated that increase of the tillage intensity of the typical black soil leads to decrease in the total carbon content and the HA2 content due to displacement of balance between the conjugated processes of humus synthesis and decay towards destruction. UV spectroscopy indicates intense absorption of humic acids in the near UV region, that corresponds to the donor-acceptor mechanisms π-π* electrons of double bonds. Maximum absorption has been observed for the HA2 isolated from the black soil tilled by plowing. Moreover, the highest content of oxygen-containing functional groups and low quantity of aliphatic structures has been observed in the same sample. It has been shown that the nature of paramagnetic centers of the HA2 represented by chelate paramagnetic Fe3+-complex formed by rearrangement π-electron system of double bonds, depending on the tillage intensity of the typical black soil. It has been found that plowing of the typical black soil enhances the number of paramagnetic centers in HA2.

  7. Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to the extracted fulvic acid fraction in soil in comparison with other organic matter fractions and to the whole soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxin; Xu, Shanshan; Xing, Baoshan; Pan, Bo; Tao, Shu

    2010-02-01

    Fractions of soil organic matter in a natural soil were extracted and sorption (or binding) characteristics of phenanthrene on each fraction and to the whole sample were investigated. The organic carbon normalized single point sorption (or binding) coefficient followed lipid > humin (HM) > humic acid (HA) > fulvic acid (FA) > whole soil sample, while the nonlinear exponent exhibited lipid > FA > HA > whole soil sample > HM. FA showed nonlinear binding of phenanthrene as it often does with other fractions. HM and HA contributed the majority of organic carbon in the soil. The calculated sorption coefficients of the whole soil were about two times greater than the measured values at different equilibrium phenanthrene concentrations. As for phenanthrene, the sorption capacity and nonlinearity of the physically mixed HA-HM mixtures were stronger as compared to the chemically reconstituted HA-HM composite. This was attributed to (besides the conditioning effect of the organic solvents) interactions between HA and HM and acid-base additions during fractionation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. INTERACTION’S EFFECT OF ORGANIC MATERIAL AND AGGREGATION ON EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF TPHS FROM PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH MAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ganjidoust and Gh. Naghizadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE is a type of low-temperature thermal desorption process that its numerous advantages have caused a wide spread use of it. Microwave heating is a potentially attractive technique as it provides volumetric heating process to improve heating efficiencies as compared with conventional techniques. The ability to rapidly heat the sample solvent mixture is inherent to MAE and the main advantage of this technique. Presently MAE has been shown to be one of the best technologies for removing environmental pollutants specially PAHs, phenols and PCBs from soils and sediments. Five different mixtures and types of aggregation (Sand, Top soil, Kaolinite besides three concentrations of crude oil as a contaminant (1000, 5000 and 10000 mg/L were considered. The results indicated that regardless of aggregation, the presence of humus component in soil reduces the efficiency. Minimum and maximum efficiencies were for sandy soil (containing organic components and kaolinite (without any organic content, respectively. According to the results of this research when some amount of humus and organic materials are available in the matrix, it causes the extraction efficiency to perform as a function of just humus materials but not aggregation. Increasing the concentration of crude oil reduced the efficiency with a sharp steep for higher concentration (5000-10000 mg/L and less steeper for lower concentration (1000-5000 mg/L. The concentration of the contaminant, works just as an independent function with extraction time and aggregation factors. The extraction period of 10 min. can be suggested as an optimum extraction time in FMAE for PAHs contaminated soils.

  9. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Environmental Science and Engineering Div.; Lowe, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Murdoch, L.D. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Slack, W.W. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Houk, T.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

  10. Learning from social media: utilizing advanced data extraction techniques to understand barriers to breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Vaz-Luis, Ines; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-07-01

    Past examinations of breast cancer treatment barriers have typically included registry, claims-based, and smaller survey studies. We examined treatment barriers using a novel, comprehensive, social media analysis of online, candid discussions about breast cancer. Using an innovative toolset to search postings on social networks, message boards, patient communities, and topical sites, we performed a large-scale qualitative analysis. We examined the sentiments and barriers expressed about breast cancer treatments by Internet users during 1 year (2/1/14-1/31/15). We categorized posts based on thematic patterns and examined trends in discussions by race/ethnicity (white/black/Hispanic) when this information was available. We identified 1,024,041 unique posts related to breast cancer treatment. Overall, 57 % of posts expressed negative sentiments. Using machine learning software, we assigned treatment barriers for 387,238 posts (38 %). Barriers included emotional (23 % of posts), preferences and spiritual/religious beliefs (21 %), physical (18 %), resource (15 %), healthcare perceptions (9 %), treatment processes/duration (7 %), and relationships (7 %). Black and Hispanic (vs. white) users more frequently reported barriers related to healthcare perceptions, beliefs, and pre-diagnosis/diagnosis organizational challenges and fewer emotional barriers. Using a novel analysis of diverse social media users, we observed numerous breast cancer treatment barriers that differed by race/ethnicity. Social media is a powerful tool, allowing use of real-world data for qualitative research, capitalizing on the rich discussions occurring spontaneously online. Future research should focus on how to further employ and learn from this type of social intelligence research across all medical disciplines.

  11. Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Paclitaxel from Taxus x media Using Ionic Liquids as Adjuvants: Optimization of the Process by Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhijian; Li, Qiao; Wang, Chaoyun; Zhou, Wanlai; Yang, Yuanru; Wang, Hongying; Yi, Yongjian; Li, Fenfang

    2017-09-11

    (1) Background: Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered "green" solvents and have been widely used in the extraction and separation field in recent years; (2) Methods: In this study, some common ILs and functionalized magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) were used as adjuvants for the solvent extraction of paclitaxel from Taxus x media (T. x media) using methanol solution. The extraction conditions of methanol concentration, IL type and amount, solid-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and ultrasonic irradiation time were investigated in single factor experiments. Then, three factors of IL amount, solid-liquid ratio, and ultrasonic irradiation time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM); (3) Results: The MIL [C₄MIM]FeCl₃Br was screened as the optimal adjuvant. Under the optimization conditions of 1.2% IL amount, 1:10.5 solid-liquid ratio, and 30 min ultrasonic irradiation time, the extraction yield reached 0.224 mg/g; and (4) Conclusions: Compared with the conventional solvent extraction, this ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) using methanol and MIL as adjuvants can significantly improve the extraction yield, reduce the use of methanol, and shorten the extraction time, which has the potentiality of being used in the extraction of some other important bioactive compounds from natural plant resources.

  12. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  13. Combined effects of DOM extracted from site soil/compost and biosurfactant on the sorption and desorption of PAHs in a soil-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hui, E-mail: yuhui200@uregina.ca [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2 (Canada); Huang Guohe, E-mail: gordon.huang@uregina.ca [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2 (Canada); An Chunjiang, E-mail: an209@uregina.ca [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2 (Canada); Wei Jia, E-mail: jia.wei@iseis.org [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} The combined DOM and biosurfactant significantly enhanced desorption of PAHs. {yields} Compost DOM exhibited higher desorption enhancement capacity than the soil DOM. {yields} Competition among PAHs, DOM and biosurfactant for sorption site determined desorption of PAHs from soil. {yields} Formation of DOM-biosurfactant complex enhance desorption extent of PAHs. - Abstract: The combined effects of DOM and biosurfactant on the sorption/desorption behavior of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in soil water systems were systematically investigated. Two origins of DOMs (extracted from soil and extracted from food waste compost) and an anionic biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) were introduced. The presence of DOM in the aqueous phase could decrease the sorption of PAHs, thus influence their mobility. Desorption enhancement for both PHE and PYR in the system with compost DOM was greater than that in the soil DOM system. This is due to the differences in specific molecular structures and functional groups of two DOMs. With the co-existence of biosurfactant and DOM, partitioning is the predominant process and the desorption extent was much higher than the system with DOM or biosurfactant individually. For PHE, the desorption enhancement of combined DOM and biosurfactant was larger than the sum of DOM or biosurfactant; however desorption enhancement for PYR in the combined system was less than the additive enhancement in two individual system under low PAH concentration. This could be explained as the competition sorption among PAHs, DOM and biosurfactant. The results of this study will help to clarify the transport of petroleum pollutants in the remediation of HOCs-contaminated soils.

  14. Evaluation of degree of readsorption of radionuclides during sequential extraction in soil: comparison between batch and dynamic extraction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hansen, Elo Harald; Hou, Xiaolin

    . In this study, a method of standard addition into extractants was used to evaluate readsorption phenomena in the modified standard, measurement and testing programme's (SM&T) sequential extraction scheme. The result showed that the dynamic extraction system gave similar degree of readsorption for both Pu and Am....... However, the techniques have an important problem with redistribution as a result of readsorption of dissolved analytes onto the remaining solids phases during extraction. Many authors have demonstrated the readsorption problem and inaccuracy from it. In our previous work, a dynamic extraction system...... developed in our laboratory for heavy metal fractionation has shown the reduction of readsorption problem in comparison with the batch techniques. Moreover, the system shows many advantages over the batch system such as speed of extraction, simple procedure, fully automatic, less risk of contamination...

  15. Releasing Pattern of Applied Phosphorus and Distribution Change of Phosphorus Fractions in the Acid Upland Soils with Successive Resin Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Hartono

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The releasing pattern of applied P in the acid upland soils and the soil properties influencing the pattern were studied. Surface horizons of six acid upland soils from Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan were used in this study. The releasing pattern of applied P (300 mg P kg-1 of these soils were studied by successive resin extraction. P fractionation was conducted to evaluate which fractions released P to the soil solution after successive resin extraction. The cumulative of resin-Pinorganic (Pi release of soils was fitted to the first order kinetic. Regression analyses using factor scores obtained from the previous principal components analyses was applied to determine soil properties influencing P releasing pattern. The results suggested that the maximum P release was significantly (P < 0.05 increased by acidity plus 1.4 nm mineral-related factor (PC2 i.e. exchangeable Al and 1.4 nm minerals (smectite and vermiculite and decreased by oxide related factor (PC1 i.e. aluminum (Al plus 1/2 iron (Fe (by ammonium oxalate, crystalline Al and Fe oxides, cation exchange capacity, and clay content. P fractionation analysis after successive resin extraction showed that both labile and less labile in the form of NaHCO3-Pi and NaOH-Pi fractions, respectively, can be transformed into resin-Pi when in the most labile resin-Pi is depleted. Most of P released in high oxides soils were from NaOH-Pi fraction while in low oxides soils were from NaHCO3-Pi. P release from the former fraction resulted in the maximum P release lower than that of the latter one. When NaHCO3-Pi was high, NaOH-Pi was relatively more stable than NaHCO3-Pi despite resin-Pi removal. NaHCO3-Pi and NaOH-Pi are very important P fractions in replenishing resin-Pi in these acid upland soils.

  16. Remediation approach for organic compounds and arsenic co-contaminated soil using the pressurized hot water extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Jo, Young-Tae; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2017-09-26

    Successful remediation of soil with co-existing organics contaminants and arsenic (As) is a challenge as the chemical and remediation technologies are different for each group of pollutants. In this study, the treatment effectiveness of the pressurized hot water (PHW) extraction process was investigated for remediation of soil co-contaminated with phenol, crude oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and As. An elimination percentage of about 99% was achieved for phenol, and in the range of 63-100% was observed for the PAHs at 260°C for 90 min operation. The performance of PHW extraction in the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons was found to be 86%. Of the 87 mg/kg of As in untreated soil, 67% of which was eliminated after treatment. The removal of organic contaminants was mainly via desorption, dissolution and degradation in subcritical water, while As was eliminated probably by oxidation and dissolution of arsenic-bearing minerals. According to the experimental results, the PHW extraction process can be suggested as an alternative cleaning technology, instead of using any organic solvents for remediation of such co-contaminated soil.

  17. Test to Extract Soil Properties Using the Seismic HammerTM Active Seismic Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Rebekah F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abbott, Robert E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Geologic material properties are necessary parameters for ground motion modeling and are difficult and expensive to obtain via traditional methods. Alternative methods to estimate soil properties require a measurement of the ground's response to a force. A possible method of obtaining these measurements is active-source seismic surveys, but measurements of the ground response at the source must also be available. The potential of seismic sources to obtain soil properties is limited, however, by the repeatability of the source. Explosives, and hammer surveys are not repeatable because of variable ground coupling or swing strength. On the other hand, the Seismic Hammer TM (SH) is consistent in the amount of energy it inputs into the ground. In addition, it leaves large physical depressions as a result of ground compaction. The volume of ground compaction varies by location. Here, we hypothesize that physical depressions left in the earth by the SH correlate to energy recorded by nearby geophones, and therefore are a measurement of soil physical properties. Using measurements of the volume of shot holes, we compare the spatial distribution of the volume of ground compacted between the different shot locations. We then examine energy recorded by the nearest 50 geophones and compare the change in amplitude across hits at the same location. Finally, we use the percent difference between the energy recorded by the first and later hits at a location to test for a correlation to the volume of the shot depressions. We find that: * Ground compaction at the shot-depression does cluster geographically, but does not correlate to known surface features. * Energy recorded by nearby geophones reflects ground refusal after several hits. * There is no correlation to shot volume and changes in energy at particular shot locations. Deeper material properties (i.e. below the depth of surface compaction) may be contributing to the changes in energy propagation. * Without further

  18. Bioavailability of genotoxic mixtures in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordelon, N.; Washburn, K.; He, L.Y.; Donnelly, K.C. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health

    1996-12-31

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals which are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically. The current EPA approach to risk assessment uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent the mixture of chemicals that are available for human exposure. A procedure using an aqueous extraction was investigated to provide a more realistic estimate of what chemicals are bioavailable. A study was conducted with two soil types: creosote-contaminated sandy soil and coal tar-contaminated clay soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], and trinitrotoluene (TNT). Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH2 and pH7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants using the aqueous extracts. The estimated cancer risk for the aqueous extract was one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay demonstrated that solvent extracts were genotoxic (133 revertants/mg) with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts of clay soil were not genotoxic. Sandy soil showed genotoxicity both with and without metabolic activation. These results suggest that solvent extraction techniques may overestimate the concentration of contaminants that are available for human exposure and, hence, the risk associated with the presence of the contaminants in soil.

  19. On the Extraction of Spread-Spectrum Hidden Data in Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    extracting data embedded over a wide band in a spectrum (transform) domain of a digital medium (image, audio , video). We first develop a multi-signature...embedded over a wide band in a spectrum (transform) domain of a digital medium (image, audio , video). We first develop a multi-signature iterative...hiding, information hiding, spread-spectrum embedding, steganalysis, steganography , watermarking. I. INTRODUCTION Digital data embedding in digital

  20. Solvent extraction separation of zirconium(IV from succinate media with N-n-octylaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. RAJMANE

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The extraction behavior of zirconium(IV from succinate (0.01 – 0.03 M medium (25 mL with 10 mL 3 % N-n-octylaniline in xylene was investigated. The pH range 3.7 – 5.0 was effective for the quantitative extraction of zirconium(IV. Zirconium(IV was back extracted with 0.5 M HNO3 (3 × 5 mL. The method was free from interferences of a large number of cations and anions. Zirconium(IV was separated from associated elements in its binary mixture with Mo(VI, Nb(V, Re(VII, La(III, Ti(IV, Th(IV and Al(III. The proposed method was applied to synthetic mixtures. The results of analysis indicate that trace amounts of zirconium(IV could be separated effectively from higher amounts of other elements. The method is simple, selective, rapid and eco-friendly.

  1. Rapid screening of dioxin-contaminated soil by accelerated solvent extraction/purification followed by immunochemical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nording, Malin [Umeaa University, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden); Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeaa (Sweden); Nichkova, Mikaela; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D. [University of California, Department of Entomology and Cancer Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Spinnel, Erik; Persson, Ylva; Haglund, Peter [Umeaa University, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    Since soils at industrial sites might be heavily contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), there is a need for large-scale soil pollution surveys and, thus, for cost-efficient, high-throughput dioxin analyses. However, trace analysis of dioxins in complex matrices requires exhaustive extraction, extensive cleanup, and very sensitive detection methods. Traditionally, this has involved the use of Soxhlet extraction and multistep column cleanup, followed by gas chromatography - high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS), but bioanalytical techniques may allow much more rapid, cost-effective screening. The study presented here explores the possibility of replacing the conventional method with a novel approach based on simultaneous accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and purification, followed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both the traditional and the novel cleanup and detection approaches were applied to contaminated soil samples, and the results were compared. ELISA and GC/HRMS results for Soxhlet-extracted samples were linearly correlated, although the ELISA method slightly underestimated the dioxin levels. To avoid an unacceptable rate of false-negative results, the use of a safety factor is recommended. It was also noted that the relative abundance of the PCDDs/PCDFs, evaluated by principal component analysis, had an impact on the ELISA performance. To minimize this effect, the results may be corrected for differences between the ELISA cross-reactivities and the corresponding toxic equivalency factor values. Finally, the GC/HRMS and ELISA results obtained following the two sample preparation methods agreed well; and the ELISA and GC/HRMS results for ASE extracts were strongly correlated (correlation coefficient, 0.90). Hence, the ASE procedure combined with ELISA analysis appears to be an efficient approach for high-throughput screening of PCDD-/PCDF-contaminated soil samples. (orig.)

  2. Regeneration strategies of polymers employed in ex-situ remediation of contaminated soil: Bioregeneration versus solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Tomei, M Concetta

    2015-08-15

    In this study we evaluated the feasibility of two regeneration strategies of contaminated polymers employed for ex-situ soil remediation in a two-step process. Soil decontamination is achieved by sorption of the pollutants on the polymer beads, which are regenerated in a subsequent step. Tested soil was contaminated with a mixture of 4-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, and a commercial polymer, Hytrel, has been employed for extraction. Removal efficiencies of the polymer-soil extraction are in the range of 51-97% for a contact time ≤ 24 h. Two polymer regeneration strategies, solvent extraction and biological regeneration (realized in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor), were tested and compared. Performance was assessed in terms of removal rates and efficiencies and an economic analysis based on the operating costs has been performed. Results demonstrated the feasibility of both regeneration strategies, but the bioregeneration was advantageous in that provided the biodegradation of the contaminants desorbed from the polymer. Practically complete removal for 4-chlorophenol and up to 85% biodegradation efficiency for pentachlorophenol were achieved. Instead, in the solvent extraction, a relevant production (184-831 L kg(pol)(-1)) of a highly polluted stream to be treated or disposed of is observed. The cost analysis of the two strategies showed that the bioregeneration is much more convenient with operating costs of ∼12 €/kg(pol) i.e. more than one order of magnitude lower in comparison to ∼233 €/kg(pol) of the solvent extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Mars Analogue Soil Samples Using Solid-Phase Microextraction, Organic Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g(sup -1). The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100% silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

  4. Characterization of lunar soils through spectral features extraction in the NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, U.; Wöhler, C.; Grumpe, A.; Bugiolacchi, R.; Bhatt, M.

    2014-11-01

    Recently launched hyper-spectral instrumentation with ever-increasing data return capabilities deliver the remote-sensing data to characterize planetary soils with increased precision, thus generating the need to classify the returned data in an efficient way for further specialized analysis and detection of features of interest. This paper investigates how lunar near-infrared spectra generated by the SIR-2 on Chandrayaan-1 can be classified into distinctive groups of similar spectra with automated feature extraction algorithms. As common spectral parameters for the SIR-2 spectra, two absorption features near 1300 nm and 2000 and their characteristics provide 10 variables which are used in two different unsupervised clustering methods, the mean-shift clustering algorithm and the recently developed graph cut-based clustering algorithm by Müller et al. (2012). The spectra used in this paper were taken on the lunar near side centering around the Imbrium region of the Moon. More than 100,000 spectra were analyzed.

  5. The Effects of EDTA and H2SO4 on Phyto-extraction of Pb from contaminated Soils by Radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mansouri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil contamination by heavy metals is one of the most important environmental concerns in many parts of the world. The remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals is necessary to prevent the entry of these metals into the human food chain. Phyto-extraction is an effective, cheap and environmental friendly method which uses plants for cleaning contaminated soils. The plants are used for phytoremediation should have high potential for heavy metals uptake and produce enormous amount of biomass. A major problem facing phyto-extraction method is the immobility of heavy metals in soils. Chemical phyto-extraction is a method in which different acids and chelating substances are used to enhance the mobility of heavy metals in soil and their uptake by plants. The aims of this study were: (a to determine the potential of radish to extract Pb from contaminated soils and (b to assess the effects of different soil amendment (EDTA and H2SO4 to enhance plant uptake of the heavy metal and (c to study the effects of different levels of soil Pb on radish growth and Pb concentrations of above and below ground parts of this plant. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were air dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve and analysed for some physico-chemical properties and then artificially contaminated with seven levels of lead (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/kg using Pb(NO32 salt and then planted radish. During the growth period of radish and after the initiation of root growth, the plants were treated with three levels of sulfuric acid (0, 750 and 1500 mg/kg or three levels of EDTA (0, 10 and 20 mg/kg through irrigation water. At the end of growth period, the above and below ground parts of the plants were harvested, washed, dried and digested using a mixture of HNO3, HCl, and H2O2. The concentrations of Pb, N, P and K in plant extracts were measured. Statistical analysis of data was performed using MSTATC software and comparison of means was

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils: Comparison between Reflectance Spectroscopy and Solvent Extraction by 3 Certified Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used analytic method for assessing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in soil, EPA method 418.1, is usually based on extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113 and FTIR spectroscopy of the extracted solvent. This method is widely used for initial site investigation, due to the relative low price per sample. It is known that the extraction efficiency varies depending on the extracting solvent and other sample properties. This study’s main goal was to evaluate reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for TPH assessment, as compared with three commercial certified laboratories using traditional methods. Large variations were found between the results of the three commercial laboratories, both internally (average deviation up to 20%, and between laboratories (average deviation up to 103%. Reflectance spectroscopy method was found be as good as the commercial laboratories in terms of accuracy and could be a viable field-screening tool that is rapid, environmental friendly, and cost effective.

  7. Solvent extraction separation of zirconium(IV) with macrobicyclic polyether from chloride media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathev, V.J.; Khopkar, S.M. [University of Bombay, Bombay (India)

    1997-12-31

    Zirconium(IV) was qualitatively extracted at pH 3.4 with 0.01 mol l{sup -1} cryptand 2.2.2 in chloroform. From the organic phase zirconium(IV) was stripped with 1 mol l{sup -1} nitric acid and was subsequently determined spectrophotometrically at 385 nm as a complex with 8-hydroxyquinoline. Zirconium(IV) was separated from large number of anions and transition metals in binary as well as in the multicomponent mixtures. 11 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. New icing media for quality enhancement of chilled hake (Merluccius merluccius) using a jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) skin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina; Miranda, José M; Chan-Higuera, Jesús Enrique; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2017-08-01

    An advanced strategy for chilled fish preservation, based on the inclusion in ice of an extract of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) skin (JSS), is proposed. Aqueous solutions including acetic acid-ethanol extracts of JSS were tested at two different concentrations as icing media, with the effects on the quality evolution of chilled hake (Merluccius merluccius) being monitored. A significant inhibition (P 0.05) was depicted for lipid oxidation. Sensory analysis (skin and mucus development; eyes; gills; texture; external odour; raw and cooked flesh odour; flesh taste) indicated a shelf life extension of chilled hake stored in ice including the highest JSS concentration. A profitable use of JSS, an industrial by-product during jumbo squid commercialisation, has been developed in the present work, which leads to a remarkable microbial inhibition and a significant shelf life extension of chilled hake. In agreement with previous research, ommochrome pigments (i.e. lipophilic-type compounds) would be considered responsible for this preservative effect. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effect of DNA extraction procedure, repeated extraction and ethidium monoazide (EMA)/propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment on overall DNA yield and impact on microbial fingerprints for bacteria, fungi and archaea in a reference soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas O; Praeg, Nadine; Reitschuler, Christoph; Illmer, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Different DNA extraction protocols were evaluated on a reference soil. A wide difference was found in the total extractable DNA as derived from different extraction protocols. Concerning the DNA yield phenol-chloroform-isomyl alcohol extraction resulted in high DNA yield but also in a remarkable co-extraction of contaminants making PCR from undiluted DNA extracts impossible. By comparison of two different extraction kits, the Macherey&Nagel SoilExtract II kit resulted in the highest DNA yields when buffer SL1 and the enhancer solution were applied. The enhancer solution not only significantly increased the DNA yield but also the amount of co-extracted contaminates, whereas additional disintegration strategies did not. Although a three times repeated DNA extraction increased the total amount of extracted DNA, microbial fingerprints were merely affected. However, with the 5th extraction this changed. A reduction of total DGGE band numbers was observed for archaea and fungi, whereas for bacteria the diversity increased. The application of ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment aiming on the selective removal of soil DNA derived from cells lacking cell wall integrity resulted in a significant reduction of total extracted DNA, however, the hypothesized effect on microbial fingerprints failed to appear indicating the need for further investigations.

  10. Technetium Behavior and Recovery in Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinken,G.E.

    1995-12-01

    Technetium-99 in soils is of great concern because of its long half-life and because it can not be detected readily. This work reviews the behavior of technetium in various types of soils. A method for extracting technetium from soil was developed with the use of technetium-95m and 99m to determine recoveries at each step. Technetium chemistry is very complicated and problem areas in the behavior and recovery have been highlighted. Technetium is widely used in nuclear medicine and a review of its chemistry pertaining to radiopharmaceuticals is relevant and helpful in environmental studies. The technetium behavior in the patented citric acid method for the removal of toxic metals in contaminated soils was studied. An innovative method using solid phase extraction media for the concentration of technetium extracted from soils, with water and hydrogen peroxide, was developed. This technique may have a useful environmental application for this type of remediation of technetium from contaminated soils.

  11. Determination of mobile form contents of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in soil extracts by combined stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedeltcheva, T. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsi Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: nedel@uctm.edu; Atanassova, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsi Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrov, J. [N. Pushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, 7 Shosse Bankya St., 1080 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stanislavova, L. [N. Pushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, 7 Shosse Bankya St., 1080 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-01-10

    The amount of mobile forms of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in extracts obtained by treating soil samples with ammonium nitrate were determined by an appropriate combination of anodic and cathodic stripping voltammetry with hanging mercury drop electrode. Every analysis required three mercury drops: on the first one, zinc was determined; on the second, cadmium and lead; on the third, copper was determined. Zinc, lead and cadmium were determined by conventional differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. For copper determination, adsorptive differential-pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry with amalgamation using chloride ions as a complexing agent was applied. The standard deviation of the results was from 1 to 10% depending on the metal content in the sample. Voltammetric results were in good agreement with the AAS analysis. No microwave digestion of soil extracts was necessary.

  12. Fractionation and redox speciation of antimony in agricultural soils by hydride generation--atomic fluorescence spectrometry and stability of Sb(III) and Sb(V) during extraction with different extractant solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Edwar; Pinochet, Hugo; Potin-Gautier, Martine; De Graegori, Ida

    2004-01-01

    This stability of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species was studied during single extraction from soils by water. EDTA, diluted H2SO4 and H3PO4, and oxalic acid/oxalate solutions, with and without ascorbic acid, were used as stabilizing reagent of both Sb species. Antimony redox speciation in soil extracts was performed by selective hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Simulated extraction procedures (without soil) showed that, except in oxalate medium, Sb(III) was oxidized to Sb(V), and this reaction was avoided with ascorbic acid. Recovery studies from a spiked agricultural soil showed that no oxidation but sorption of Sb(III) occurred during the extraction process in water and H2SO4 medium, and quantitative oxidation in EDTA and oxalate medium. With ascorbic acid, this oxidation was totally avoided in EDTA and partially avoided in oxalate solution. A new sequential extraction procedure was proposed and applied to the fractionation and redox speciation of antimony in agricultural soils, using EDTA + ascorbic acid, pH 7 (available under complexing and moderately reducible conditions); oxalic acid/oxalate + ascorbic acid (extractable in reducible conditions) and HNO3 + HCl + HF (residual fraction). The proposed extraction scheme can provide information about the availability and mobility of antimony redox species in agricultural soils.

  13. A simplified soil extraction sequence to monitor the main and trace element speciation in soil after compost and mineral fertilizer additions upon the composition of wheat grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Manfred; Erhart, Eva

    2016-04-01

    High quality biological waste treatment aims at producing compost in order to maintain a clean environment and to sustain soil organic carbon levels. Fertilization with compost as a source of organic carbon, nutrients, and accessory elements, as well as fertilization with mineral N- and PK fertilizer have been tested in a field experiment on a calcaric Fluvisol in the Danube wetlands, at 4 levels each. Yields of wheat were recorded, and grains and soils were sampled from each treatment, and analyzed for main and trace element composition. The corresponding soils were characterized by mobile phases, obtained by leaching with 0,16M acetic acid to cover exchangeables plus carbonates, and subsequently by 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3 to dissolve the pedogenic oxides. Total amounts were obtained from digests with perchloric- nitric-hydrofluoric acid. For quasi-total amounts, aqua regia was replaced by pressure decomposition with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid. The proposed extraction sequence permits to analyze and interpret soil for main elements, trace elements, nutrients and anions simultaneously. Factor analyses of soil extracts obtained from dilute acetic acid revealed Ba-Be-Cd-Cu-Li-S (traces), Ca-Mg-Mn (main carbonates), Al-Fe-B, Y, and P-K (nutrients) as chemically feasible principal components. Subsequent soil extracts from oxalate contained Al-B-Co-K-Na-Pb-Si-V-S (maybe acid silicate weathering), Cr-Li-Ni-Sr-Ti (maybe basic silicate weathering), Be-Cu-Fe-P, Co-Mg-Mn-Zn (Mn-oxides) and Ba-Sc as principal components. Factor analyses of total element data distinguished the principal components Ce-La-Li-Sc-Y-P (rare earths), Al-Ca-Fe-K-Mg-Na-P (main elements), Cd-Co-Cr-Cu-Ni-Zn (trace elements), As-Pb (contaminants), Ba-Mn-Sr, and Ti, which looks chemically feasible also. Factor analyses of those soil fractions which presumably form the main fractions of exchangeables, carbonates, pedogenic oxides and silicates, showed no cross connections, except for P. Oxalate

  14. Metal extractability patterns to evaluate (potentially) mobile fractions in periurban calcareous agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area-analytical and mineralogical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada; Quintana, Jose R; Vázquez, Antonio; Lafuente, Antonio L; González-Huecas, Concepción

    2013-09-01

    A set of periurban calcareous agricultural Mediterranean soils was spiked with a mixture of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at two levels within the limit values proposed by current European legislation, incubated for up to 12 months, and subjected to various one-step extraction procedures to estimate mobile (neutral salts) and potentially mobile metal fractions (complexing and acidic extraction methods). The results obtained were used to study metal extractability patterns according to the soil characteristics. The analytical data were coupled with mineralogical investigations and speciation modelling using the Visual Minteq model. The formation of soluble metal-complexes in the complexing extracts (predicted by the Visual Minteq calculations) led to the highest extraction efficiency with complexing extractants. Metal extractability patterns were related to both content and composition of carbonate, organic matter, Fe oxide and clay fractions. Potentially mobile metal fractions were mainly affected by the finest soil fractions (recalcitrant organic matter, active lime and clay minerals). In the case of Pb, scarce correlations between extractable Pb and soil constituents were obtained which was attributed to high Pb retention due to the formation of 4PbCO3·3PbO (corroborated by X-ray diffraction). In summary, the high metal proportion extracted with complexing agents highlighted the high but finite capacity to store potentially mobilizable metals and the possible vulnerability of these soils against environmental impact from metal accumulation.

  15. Assessment of the Influence of Soil Characteristics and Hydrocarbon Fuel Cocontamination on the Solvent Extraction of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Avendaño, Sandra; Munoz, Gabriel; Sauvé, Sébastien; Liu, Jinxia

    2017-02-21

    Sites impacted by the use of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) present elevated concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The characterization of the PFAS contamination at such sites may be greatly complicated by the presence of hydrocarbon cocontaminants and by the large variety of PFAS potentially present in AFFFs. In order to further a more comprehensive characterization of AFFF-contaminated soils, the solvent extraction of PFAS from soil was studied under different conditions. Specifically, the impact of soil properties (textural class, organic matter content) and the presence of hydrocarbon contamination (supplemented in the form of either diesel or crude oil) on PFAS recovery performance was evaluated for two extraction methods [methanol/sodium hydroxide (MeOH/NaOH) and methanol/ammonium hydroxide (MeOH/NH4OH)]. While both methods performed satisfactorily for perfluoroalkyl acids and fluorotelomer sulfonates, the extraction of newly identified surfactants with functionalities such as betaine and quaternary ammonium was improved with the MeOH/NaOH based method. The main factors that were found to influence the extraction efficiency were the soil properties; a high organic matter or clay content was observed to negatively affect the recovery of the newly identified compounds. While the MeOH/NaOH solvent yielded more efficient recovery rates overall, it also entailed the disadvantage of presenting higher detection limits and substantial matrix effects at the instrumental analysis stage, requiring matrix-matched calibration curves. The results discussed herein bear important implications for a more comprehensive and reliable environmental monitoring of PFAS components at AFFF-impacted sites.

  16. Comparison of rapid solvent extraction systems for the GC-MS/MS characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged, contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Mansur, Abdulatif A; Koshlaf, Eman; Morrison, Paul D; Osborn, A Mark; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major class of organic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight that originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sixteen PAHs are included in the U.S Environmental Protection agency list of priority pollutants due to their mutagenic, carcinogenic, toxic and teratogenic properties. In this study, the development and optimization of a simplified and rapid solvent extraction for the characterisation of 16 USEPA priority poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged contaminated soils was established with subsequent analysis by GC-MS/MS. •Five different extraction solvent systems: dichloromethane: acetone, chloroform: methanol, dichloromethane, acetone: hexane and hexane were assessed in terms of their ability to extract PAHs from aged PAH-contaminated soils.•Highest PAH concentrations were extracted using acetone: hexane and chloroform: methanol. Given the greater toxicity associated with chloroform: methanol, acetone: hexane appears the best choice of solvent extraction system.•This protocol enables efficient extraction of PAHs from aged weathered soils.

  17. Fast Swinnex Filtration (FSF): A fast and robust sampling and extraction method suitable for metabolomics analysis of cultures grown in complex media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Utrilla, Jose; Naviaux, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    , we develop a fast-filtration method using pressuredriven Swinnex filters. We show that the method is fast enough to provide an accurate snapshot of intracellular metabolism, reduces matrix interference from the media to improve the number of compounds that can be detected, and is applicable...... of a suitable method for anaerobic cultures grown in complex media. Given that a vast majority of bacteria are facultative or obligate anaerobes that grow to low biomass density and need to be cultured in complex media, a suitable sampling and extraction strategy for anaerobic cultures is needed. In this work...... to anaerobic and aerobic liquid cultures grown in a variety of culturing systems. Furthermore, we apply the fast filtration method to investigate differences in the absolute intracellular metabolite levels of anaerobic cultures grown in minimal and complex media....

  18. Focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction for the determination of perfluorinated compounds in fish, vegetables and amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, Itsaso; Bizkarguenaga, Ekhiñe; Iparragirre, Arantza; Navarro, Patricia; Prieto, Ailette; Fernández, Luis Ángel; Zuloaga, Olatz

    2014-02-28

    In the present work a method was developed for the determination of different perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including three perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), seven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), three perfluorophosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) in fish, vegetables and amended soil samples based on focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Different variables affecting the chromatographic separation (column type and pH of the mobile phase), the electrospray ionization (capillary voltage, nebulizer pressure and drying gas flow) and mass spectrometric detection (fragmentor voltage and collision energy) were optimized in order to improve the sensitivity of the separation and detection steps. In the case of FUSLE variables such as the solvent type, the solvent volume, the extraction temperature, the sonication and extraction time and the percentage of applied irradiation power were studied. Under optimized conditions, sonication of 2.5min with pulse times on of 0.8s and pulse times off of 0.2s in 7mL of (9:1) acetonitrile (ACN): water mixture in duplicate guaranteed exhaustive extraction of the matrices analyzed. Due to the non-selective extraction using FUSLE, different SPE cartridges (200-mg Waters Oasis-HLB, 150-mg Waters Oasis-WAX and 150-mg Waters Oasis-MAX) were tested in terms of extraction efficiency and matrix effect both in the extraction and detection steps. Mix mode SPE using Waters Oasis-WAX provided the best extraction efficiencies with the lowest matrix effect. The final method was validated in terms of recovery at two fortification levels (in the 80-120% for most of the analytes and matrices), precision (relative standard deviation in the 2-15% range) and method detection limits (MDLs, 0.3-12.4ng/g for vegetables, 0.2-12.5ng/g for fish and 1-22ng/g for amended soil). Finally the method was

  19. As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna. Campus da Zapateira s/n. E-15071. A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: jmoreda@udc.es; Alonso-Rodriguez, Elia [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna. Campus da Zapateira s/n. E-15071. A Coruna (Spain); Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna. Campus da Zapateira s/n. E-15071. A Coruna (Spain); University Institute of Environment, University of A Coruna, Pazo de Longora, Lians, E-15179. Oleiros (Spain); Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna. Campus da Zapateira s/n. E-15071. A Coruna (Spain); Prada-Rodriguez, Dario [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna. Campus da Zapateira s/n. E-15071. A Coruna (Spain); University Institute of Environment, University of A Coruna, Pazo de Longora, Lians, E-15179. Oleiros (Spain); Moreda-Pineiro, Antonio [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Avenida das Ciencias, s/n. E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bermejo-Barrera, Adela [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Avenida das Ciencias, s/n. E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Avenida das Ciencias, s/n. E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 deg. C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 {mu}g g{sup -1} for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb.

  20. Alterations in the mechanical properties of the extracted human teeth to be used as biological restorations on storing them in different storage media: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantoor, Pallavi; Srivastava, Nikhil; Rana, Vivek; Adlakha, Vivek K

    2015-08-01

    Total or partial loss of tooth structure occured due to caries or trauma. The decayed or fractured tooth is restored with appropriate restorative materials. A range of restorative materials are available in the market today, but each of them has one or the other drawbacks, viz. color mismatch, variable wear resistance, and strength. Therefore, there has always been a quest to use a restorative material which has properties as close to natural tooth as possible. Extracted human teeth have been tried as restorative materials with good success rate, but their storage has been a problem due to change in physical properties. To evaluate the changes in the mechanical properties of the extracted human teeth to be used as biological restoration upon storing them in different storage media and to compare their effectiveness. Five hundred and twenty extracted human teeth (samples) included in the study were equally distributed and randomly stored in different storage media (saline, artificial saliva, ORS, coconut water, and eye solution), and their mechanical properties were checked at different time intervals (7, 14, and 30 days) using universal testing machine and Vickers hardness test. None of the storage media used in the study significantly altered mechanical properties of the stored extracted human teeth except the hardness which was substantially reduced after storing for 30 days. Of the 4 media tested, eye solution was found to be the best, while artificial saliva was found to be least effective as storage media. It was also concluded that storage time of the extracted teeth to be used as biological restorations should not exceed more than 3-4 weeks as beyond this time, mechanical properties namely hardness get altered significantly. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of peat fires on the characteristics of humic acid extracted from peat soil in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustiawati; Kihara, Yusuke; Sazawa, Kazuto; Kuramitz, Hideki; Kurasaki, Masaaki; Saito, Takeshi; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Syawal, M Suhaemi; Wulandari, Linda; Hendri I; Tanaka, Shunitz

    2015-02-01

    When peat forest fires happen, it leads to burn soil and also humic acids as a dominant organic matter contained in peat soil as well as the forest. The structure and properties of humic acids vary depending on their origin and environment, therefore the transformation of humic acid is also diverse. The impacts of the peat fires on peat soil from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia were investigated through the characterization of humic acids, extracted from soil in burnt and unburnt sites. The characterization of humic acids was performed by elemental composition, functional groups, molecular weight by HPSEC, pyrolysate compounds by pyrolysis-GC/MS, fluorescence spectrum by 3DEEM spectrofluorometer, and thermogravimetry. The elemental composition of each humic substance indicated that the value of H/C and O/C of humic acids from burnt sites were lower than that from unburnt sites. The molecular weight of humic acids from burnt sites was also lower than that from unburnt sites. Pyrolysate compounds of humic acids from unburnt sites differed from those of humic acids from burnt soil. The heating experiment showed that burning process caused the significant change in the properties of humic acids such as increasing the aromaticity and decreasing the molecular weight.

  2. Simultaneous application of chemical oxidation and extraction processes is effective at remediating soil Co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Lee, Chadol; Lee, Jeung-Sun; Baek, Kitae

    2017-01-15

    Chemical extraction and oxidation processes to clean up heavy metals and hydrocarbon from soil have a higher remediation efficiency and take less time than other remediation processes. In batch extraction/oxidation process, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could remove approximately 70% of the petroleum and 60% of the Cu and Pb in the soil, respectively. In particular, petroleum was effectively oxidized by H2O2 without addition of any catalysts through dissolution of Fe oxides in natural soils. Furthermore, heavy metals bound to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides could be extracted by metal-EDTA as well as Fe-EDTA complexation due to the high affinity of EDTA for metals. However, the strong binding of Fe-EDTA inhibited the oxidation of petroleum in the extraction-oxidation sequential process because Fe was removed during the extraction process with EDTA. The oxidation-extraction sequential process did not significantly enhance the extraction of heavy metals from soil, because a small portion of heavy metals remained bound to organic matter. Overall, simultaneous application of oxidation and extraction processes resulted in highly efficient removal of both contaminants; this approach can be used to remove co-contaminants from soil in a short amount of time at a reasonable cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determining the distribution of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in soils and sediments by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel-Maeso, Miriam; Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the environment may pose a potential risk for humans and ecosystems. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are recognized as one of the main sources of these chemicals into both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The objectives of the study were to determine the presence of a wide variety of PhACs (n = 45) in sewage-impacted sediments and soils from the Guadalete River basin (SW Spain) by developing and applying an environmentally friendly multi-residue method based on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). Different parameters were optimized, including extraction temperature, pH, solvents, and clean-up. Extraction recoveries were analyte dependent, varying between 50% and 140% for most of the analytes when using pure water as extraction solvent at 100 °C. Determination of PhACs was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), enabling method detection (mLODs) and quantification (mLOQs) limits between <0.01 and 0.83 ng g-1 and from 0.02 to 2.75 ng g-1, respectively. Regarding the sampling area, 14 out of 45 target compounds were detected in soils and sediments. Analgesic/anti-inflammatories was the therapeutic group most commonly detected, reaching concentrations up to 20 ng g-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Media stylistics

    OpenAIRE

    Lambrou, Marina; Durant, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we review the concept of ‘media stylistics’. In particular, we disentangle the polysemy of these two terms which, when combined, describe but can also obscure work in this area; and we discuss key themes and concerns which emerge. Through analysis of two short extracts of media discourse in English, we elaborate a distinction between two alternative emphases: study of media language as concerned with the capabilities associated with changing technologies for conveying linguist...

  5. Production of trichothecenes and other secondary metabolites by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium equiseti on common laboratory media and a soil organic matter agar: An ecological interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbjerg, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thrane, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium culmorum and F. equiseti were characterized with regard to production of trichothecenes and other secondary metabolites. Results following growth on laboratory media are interpreted with the aim of increasing the understanding of fungal metabolism in the field environment., While......), which was included to simulate growth, conditions in soil. SOM supported the production of chrysogine by F culmorum. The two species utilized the media differently. F culmorum produced zearalenone (ZEA) on YES, whereas some F. equiseti isolates produced ZEA on PSA. Other F. equiseti isolates produced...

  6. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  7. Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Kang, Mi Young; Park, Jun Cheol; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-01-01

    A previously characterized rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of RHSE was 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial activity of RHSE (1.0%, v/v) was also examined in a Salmonella-infected Balb/c mouse model. Mice infected with a sublethal dose of the pathogens were administered intraperitoneally a 1.0% solution of RHSE at four 12-h intervals during the 48-h experimental period. The results showed that RHSE inhibited bacterial growth by 59.4%, 51.4%, 39.6%, and 28.3% compared to 78.7%, 64.6%, 59.2%, and 43.2% inhibition with the medicinal antibiotic vancomycin (20 mg/mL). By contrast, 4 consecutive administrations at 12-h intervals elicited the most effective antibacterial effect of 75.0% and 85.5% growth reduction of the bacteria by RHSE and vancomycin, respectively. The combination of RHSE and vancomycin acted synergistically against the pathogen. The inclusion of RHSE (1.0% v/w) as part of a standard mouse diet fed for 2 wk decreased mortality of 10 mice infected with lethal doses of the Salmonella. Photomicrographs of histological changes in liver tissues show that RHSE also protected the liver against Salmonella-induced pathological necrosis lesions. These beneficial results suggest that the RHSE has the potential to complement wood-derived smokes as antimicrobial flavor formulations for application to human foods and animal feeds. The new antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory rice hull derived liquid smoke has the potential to complement widely used wood-derived liquid smokes as an antimicrobial flavor and health-promoting formulation for application to foods. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to US original government works.

  8. Strategy for Extracting DNA from Clay Soil and Detecting a Specific Target Sequence via Selective Enrichment and Real-Time (Quantitative) PCR Amplification ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankson, Kweku K.; Steck, Todd R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple strategy for isolating and accurately enumerating target DNA from high-clay-content soils: desorption with buffers, an optional magnetic capture hybridization step, and quantitation via real-time PCR. With the developed technique, μg quantities of DNA were extracted from mg samples of pure kaolinite and a field clay soil. PMID:19633108

  9. Feasibility Study of the Use of Thiosulfate as Extractant Agent in the Electrokinetic Remediation of a Soil Contaminated by Mercury from Almadén

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subires-Muñoz, José Diego; García-Rubio, Ana; Vereda-Alonso, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Natural soils are rather complex, making the predictability of the behavior of some remediation techniques very complicated. In this paper, the remediation of a Hg contaminated soil close to Almadén using a thiosulfate solution as extractant agent is studied. In addition, the use of the BCR...

  10. Evaluation of economically feasible, natural plant extract-based microbiological media for producing biomass of the dry rot biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in liquid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Sadia; Ali, Tasneem Adam; Skory, Chris; Slininger, Patricia J; Schisler, David A

    2016-02-01

    The production of microbial biomass in liquid media often represents an indispensable step in the research and development of bacterial and fungal strains. Costs of commercially prepared nutrient media or purified media components, however, can represent a significant hurdle to conducting research in locations where obtaining these products is difficult. A less expensive option for providing components essential to microbial growth in liquid culture is the use of extracts of fresh or dried plant products obtained by using hot water extraction techniques. A total of 13 plant extract-based media were prepared from a variety of plant fruits, pods or seeds of plant species including Allium cepa (red onion bulb), Phaseolus vulgaris (green bean pods), and Lens culinaris (lentil seeds). In shake flask tests, cell production by potato dry rot antagonist Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in plant extract-based media was generally statistically indistinguishable from that in commercially produced tryptic soy broth and nutrient broth as measured by optical density and colony forming units/ml produced (P ≤ 0.05, Fisher's protected LSD). The efficacy of biomass produced in the best plant extract-based media or commercial media was equivalent in reducing Fusarium dry rot by 50-96% compared to controls. In studies using a high-throughput microbioreactor, logarithmic growth of P22Y05 in plant extract-based media initiated in 3-5 h in most cases but specific growth rate and the time of maximum OD varied as did the maximum pH obtained in media. Nutrient analysis of selected media before and after cell growth indicated that nitrogen in the form of NH4 accumulated in culture supernatants, possibly due to unbalanced growth conditions brought on by a scarcity of simple sugars in the media tested. The potential of plant extract-based media to economically produce biomass of microbes active in reducing plant disease is considerable and deserves further research.

  11. Biotoxicity of Mars soils: 2. Survival of Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis in aqueous extracts derived from six Mars analog soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Doug W.; Golden, D. C.

    2017-07-01

    The search for an extant microbiota on Mars depends on exploring sites that contain transient or permanent liquid water near the surface. Examples of possible sites for liquid water may be active recurring slope lineae (RSL) and fluid inclusions in ice or salt deposits. The presence of saline fluids on Mars will act to depress the freezing points of liquid water to as low as ‒60 °C, potentially permitting the metabolism and growth of halophilic microorganisms to temperatures significantly below the freezing point of pure water at 0 °C. In order to predict the potential risks of forward contamination by Earth microorganisms to subsurface sites on Mars with liquid brines, experiments were designed to characterize the short-term survival of two bacteria in aqueous soil solutions from six analog soils. The term ''soil'' is used here to denote any loose, unconsolidated matrix with no implications for the presence or absence of organics or biology. The analog soils were previously described (Schuerger et al., 2012, Planetary Space Sci., 72, 91-101), and represented crushed Basalt (benign control), Salt, Acid, Alkaline, Aeolian, and Phoenix analogs on Mars. The survival rates of spores of Bacillus subtilis and vegetative cells of Enterococcus faecalis were tested in soil solutions from each analog at 24, 0, or ‒70 °C for time periods up to 28 d. Survival of dormant spores of B. subtilis were mostly unaffected by incubation in the aqueous extracts of all six Mars analogs. In contrast, survival rates of E. faecalis cells were suppressed by all soil solutions when incubated at 24 °C but improved at 0 and ‒70 °C, except for assays in the Salt and Acid soil solutions in which most cells were killed. Results suggest that Earth microorganisms that form spores may persist in liquid brines on Mars better than non-spore forming species, and thus, spore-forming species may pose a potential forward contamination risk to sites with liquid brines.

  12. Classification and modelling of non-extractable residue (NER) formation of xenobiotics in soil - a synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kästner, M.; Nowak, K. M.; Miltner, A.

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview about NER formation and attempts to classify the various types. Xenobiotic NER derived from parent pesticides (or other environmental contaminants) and primary metabolites sorbed or entrapped within the soil organic matter (type I) or covalently bound...... the types are provided and a model to prospectively estimate bioNER formation in soil is proposed....

  13. Field-scale validation of an automated soil nitrate extraction and measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibley, K.J.; Astatkie, T.; Brewster, G.; Struik, P.C.; Adsett, J.F.; Pruski, K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the many gaps that needs to be solved by precision agriculture technologies is the availability of an economic, automated, on-the-go mapping system that can be used to obtain intensive and accurate ‘real-time’ data on the levels of nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N) in the soil. A soil nitrate mapping

  14. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  15. Processes, mechanisms, parameters, and modeling approaches for partially saturated flow in soil and rock media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses conceptual models and mathematical equations, analyzes distributions and correlations among hydrological parameters of soils and tuff, introduces new path integration approaches, and outlines scaling procedures to model potential-driven fluid flow in heterogeneous media. To properly model the transition from fracture-dominated flow under saturated conditions to matrix-dominated flow under partially saturated conditions, characteristic curves and permeability functions for fractures and matrix need to be improved and validated. Couplings from two-phase flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and rock deformation to liquid flow are also important. For stochastic modeling of alternating units of welded and nonwelded tuff or formations bounded by fault zones, correlations and constraints on average values of saturated permeability and air entry scaling factor between different units need to be imposed to avoid unlikely combinations of parameters and predictions. Large-scale simulations require efficient and verifiable numerical algorithms. New path integration approaches based on postulates of minimum work and mass conservation to solve flow geometry and potential distribution simultaneously are introduced. This verifiable integral approach, together with fractal scaling procedures to generate statistical realizations with parameter distribution, correlation, and scaling taken into account, can be used to quantify uncertainties and generate the cumulative distribution function for groundwater travel times.

  16. Quantification of triazine herbicides in soil by microwave-assisted extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jasmin; Rasul Jan, M; Ara, Behisht; Shehzad, Farhat-Un-Nisa

    2011-07-01

    A method for the determination of herbicides residues, triazine (atrazine, metribuzin, ametryn, and terbutryn), in soil samples with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV detection is described. The proposed method is based on microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of soil samples for 4 min at 80% of 850-W magnetron outputs in the presence of mixture of solvents (methanol/acetonitrile/ethylacetate). Related important factors influencing the MAE efficiency, such as the solvent type and volume, irradiation energy, and time, were optimized in detail. Calibration curve ranges established using HPLC for metribuzin, atrazine, ametryn, and terbutryn are 1.0-19.0, 0.9-18.0, 0.6-11.0, and 0.7-11.0 µg mL( -1), respectively. The limits of detection of metribuzin, atrazine, ametryn, and terbutryn are 0.30, 0.24, 0.16, and 0.20 µg mL( -1) while limits of quantification are 1.0, 0.80, 0.50, and 0.60 µg mL( -1), respectively. A Plackett-Burman factorial design was used as a screening method in order to select the variables that influence MAE extraction. The recoveries of the method at three different spiked levels were assessed by analyzing real soil samples and were found to be in the range of 83.33 ± 0.12-96.33 ± 0.23 with good precision (<8%).

  17. Phytotoxicity analysis of extracts from compost and their ability to inhibit soil-borne pathogenic fungi and reduce root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dabing; Raza, Waseem; Yu, Guanghui; Zhao, Qingyun; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2012-03-01

    Compost extracts are novel organic amendments, typically applied to suppress soil-borne diseases. This research evaluated the phytotoxicity of compost extracts and analyzed their ability to inhibit pathogenic fungal growth and reduce root-knot nematodes. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of extracts from a pig manure and straw compost were analyzed. Three types of extracts were tested: direct extracts of compost (DEC), aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC). All compost extracts showed low phytotoxicity against lettuce and cress, but AFEC and NAFEC were more phytotoxic than DEC. All compost extracts significantly inhibited pathogenic fungal growth except for the fungus Rhizoctonia solania AG4. For two seasons, tomato root biomass of three compost extracts was 1.25-5.67 times greater than CK (water control), and AFEC and NAFEC showed the best tomato root growth promotion. The reduction ratio of root egg mass and density of soil nematodes were 34.51-87.77% and 30.92-51.37%, when applied with three compost extracts. The microbial population in compost extracts was considered to be the most significant factor of inhibition pathogenic fungal growth. No markedly correlations among bacterial community diversity, the inhibition of pathogenic fungal growth and the reduction of root-knot nematodes were observed. This information adds to the understanding of the growth-promoting and suppression effects of compost extracts and will help to enhance crop production.

  18. Extraction of Diabrotica eggs from soil and determining whether Diabrotica oviposit in fields of oil seed squash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buuk, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A soil washing apparatus was constructed and tested in collaboration with colleagues from the grant authority and project partners in Austria and Romania. It is based on a similar apparatus used in the USA but our apparatus can quickly process a large number of samples. The eggs were extracted by sieving and then floating on MgSO4-solution followed by sedimentation in water. Eggs of D. virgifera virgifera were separated from those of other species by studying the structure of egg surface. The efficiency of extraction of the apparatus was checked using samples spiked with blue coloured eggs. In co-operation with Austrian and Romanian colleagues a method was developed for sampling in the field. Eggs of D. virgifera virgifera were extracted from soil samples collected from fields in Austria and Romania in spring/summer and autumn 2011. The beetles did not appear to prefer to lay eggs at either the edges or centres of fields. As very few eggs were found at the edges of oil seed squash fields this crop does not appear to be a suitable habitat for egg laying.

  19. Destruction of pentachlorobiphenyl in soil by supercritical CO(2) extraction coupled with polymer-stabilized palladium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Chiu, KongHwa

    2009-05-01

    PCBs exhibit a wide range of toxic effects, and they are very stable compounds and do not degrade readily. Although they had been banned in the 1970s; however; it is still urgent to investigate and develop a financially viable, environmentally benign and safe technology to treat the soils contaminated by PCBs. This study investigated the feasibility of coupling of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (ScCO(2)) extraction with polymer-stabilized palladium nanoparticles for the destruction of pentachlorinated biphenyl (2,2',4,5,5'-PCB) from contaminated sand or soil samples. The extracted 2,2',4,5,5'-PCB can be converted into non-chlorinated products by hydrodechlorination catalyzed by palladium (Pd) nanoparticles, which were stabilized in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) beads. Nearly all 2,2',4,5,5'-PCB was removed quantitatively from solid matrices at 200atm and different temperatures. The final product was proved to be biphenyl and cyclohexylbenzene. The polymer-stabilized palladium nanoparticle catalyst, which does not contact the contaminated matrix directly, can be reused without losing the high catalytic activity inherent by nanometer-sized particles. Deactivation factors such as leaching of metal particles from support, agglomeration and sintering are minimized in this catalyst system due to the unique plastic matrix environment. A combination of supercritical fluid extraction and an on-line catalytic reaction system utilizing the plastic catalysts may have great advantages over other processes for destroying toxic chlorinated compounds in environmental samples.

  20. Ultrasonic or accelerated solvent extraction followed by U-HPLC-high mass accuracy MS for screening of pharmaceuticals and fungicides in soil and plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitescu, Carmen Lidia; Oosterink, Efraim; de Jong, Jacob; Stolker, Alida Adriana Maria Linda

    2012-01-15

    Different veterinary pharmaceuticals are used in agricultural livestock becoming a source of environment contamination. Furthermore, no regulation exists for the concentration limits of pharmaceuticals in soil or water. Monitoring programs for environment contamination with pharmaceuticals are needed, requiring new sensitive and selective screening methods. The present study focuses on developing a method for the simultaneous scanning of forty-two compounds (pharmaceuticals, azole biocides and fungicides) in soil and plant material samples. For extraction purposes the use of ultrasonic assisted and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were compared. The extract was purified and concentrated by applying a solid phase extraction step followed by ultra-high-performance-chromatographic separation and accurate-mass spectrometric detection using Exacte Orbitrap technology (FWHM 50,000). The effects of the different extraction solvents and conditions on the extraction efficiency were tested. Although both extraction approaches are applicable the optimal extraction efficiency was obtained by applying accelerated solvent extraction using solvent mixtures containing acetone for soil and methanol for plant samples. An ASE process has been validated for the determination of selected pharmaceuticals and fungicides in soil and in plant material. The recoveries from soil samples were >70% for more than 68% of the compounds. The levels of detection were ≤10 μg kg(-1) for 93% of the compounds tested. The recoveries from plant material were >70% for 64% of the compounds tested. The levels of detection were ≤10 μg kg(-1) for 66% of the compounds. The developed method was used to screen soil and plant material collected throughout the Netherlands and oxytetracycline residues were detected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal variation of aqueous-extractable Ca, Mg and K in acidified forest mountainous soils under different vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejnecky, V.; Bradová, M.; Boruvka, L.; Vasat, R.; Nemecek, K.; Ash, C.; Sebek, O.; Rejzek, J.; Drabek, O.

    2012-12-01

    Acidification of forest soils is a natural degradation process which can be significantly enhanced by anthropogenic activities. Inputs of basic cations (BC - Ca, Mg and K) via precipitation, litter and soil organic matter decomposition and also via inter-soil weathering may partially mitigate the consequences of this degradation process. The aim of this study is to assess the temporal variation of aqueous-extractable Ca, Mg and K in acidified forest mountainous soils under different vegetation cover. The Jizera Mountains region (Czech Republic, northern Bohemia) was chosen as a representative soil mountainous ecosystem strongly affected by acidification. Soil and precipitation samples were collected at monthly basis from April till October/ November during the years 2009-2011. Study spots were delimited under two contrasting vegetation covers - beech and spruce monoculture. Prevailing soil types were classified as Alumic Cambisols under beech and Entic Podzols under spruce stands (according to FAO classification). Soil samples were collected from surface fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons and subsurface B horizons (cambic or spodic). The collected soil samples were analyzed immediately under laboratory condition in a "fresh" state. Unsieved fresh samples were extracted by deionised water. The content of main elements (Ca, Mg, K, Al and Fe) was determined by ICP-OES. The content of major anions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl- and F-) was determined by ion-exchange chromatography (IC). Content of major anions and main elements were determined in the precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow and bulk) as well. Besides computing the basic statistical parameters (mean, median, variance, maximum, minimum, etc.) we also employed other statistical methods such as T-test and ANOVA to assess the differences between beech and spruce vegetation spots. To carry out the temporal variability in the data we used the time series analysis and short-term forecasting by Holt

  2. Comparison of bioavailable vanadium in alfalfa rhizosphere soil extracted by an improved BCR procedure and EDTA, HCl, and NaNO₃ single extractions in a pot experiment with V-Cd treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui; Song, Liuting

    2015-06-01

    The BCR sequential extraction procedure was compared with EDTA, HCl, and NaNO3 single extractions for evaluating vanadium bioavailability in alfalfa rhizosphere soil. The amounts of vanadium extracted by these methods were in the following order: BCR (bioavailable V) > EDTA ≈ HCl > NaNO3. Both correlation analysis and stepwise regression were adopted to illustrate the extractable vanadium between different reagents. The correlation coefficients between extracted vanadium and the vanadium contents in alfalfa roots were R NaNO3 = 0.948, R HCl = 0.902, R EDTA = 0.816, and R bioavailable V = 0.819. The stepwise multiple regression equation of the NaNO3 extraction was the most significant at a 95 % confidence interval. The influence of pH, total organic carbon, and cadmium content of soil to vanadium bioavailability were not definite. In summary, both the BCR sequential extraction and the single extraction methods were valid approaches for predicting vanadium bioavailability in alfalfa rhizosphere soil, especially the single extractions.

  3. Use of plant toxicity assays to evaluate a mobile solvent extraction system for remediation of soil from a hazardous waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.; Meckes, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and several other organic and inorganic compounds was treated with a full-scale, mobile solvent extraction system, which is being evaluated by the USEPA`s Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The present study employed several plant bioassays to examine the genotoxicity and acute toxicity of the soil before and after the treatment. The toxicity endpoints were mitotic alterations in root tip cells of Allium cepa (common onion), micronuclei in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia, and seed germination and root elongation in oats and lettuce. Bulbs or inflorescences of Allium and Tradescantia, respectively, were exposed to aqueous extracts (20% w/v) of the soils at three concentrations (undiluted, 1/2, or 1/4). Oat and lettuce seeds were exposed to the soils mixed with sand at concentrations from 25 to 100% (w/w). The results were as follows: (1) no evidence of genotoxicity for either the untreated or treated soils in Tradescantia; (2) dose-related increases in chromosomal aberrations for both soils in Allium; (3) inhibition of seed germination for lettuce but not oats for both soils; (4) inhibition of root elongation for both lettuce and oats for the treated soil. The toxicity and genotoxicity remaining after treatment appears to be due to residual solvent introduced during the solvent extraction treatment process, or to inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment.

  4. The effects of extracellular sugar extraction on the 3D-structure of biological soil crusts from different ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felde, Vincent; Rossi, Federico; Colesie, Claudia; Uteau-Puschmann, Daniel; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Peth, Stephan; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) play important roles in the hydrological cycles of many different ecosystems around the world. In arid and semi-arid regions, they alter the availability and redistribution of water. Especially in early successional stage BSCs, this feature can be attributed to the presence and characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that are excreted by the crusts' organisms. In a previous study, the extraction of EPS from BSCs of the SW United States lead to a significant change in their hydrological behavior, namely the sorptivity of water (Rossi et al. 2012). This was concluded to be the effect of a change in the pore structure of these crusts, which is why in this work we investigated the effect of the EPS-extraction on soil structure using 3D-computed micro-tomography (µCT). We studied different types of BSCs from Svalbard, Germany, Israel and South Africa with varying grain sizes and species compositions (from green algae to light and dark cyanobacterial crusts with and without lichens and/or mosses). Unlike other EPS-extraction methods, the one utilized here is aimed at removing the extracellular matrix from crust samples whilst acting non-destructively (Rossi et al. 2012). For every crust sample, we physically cut out a small piece (1cm) from a larger sample contained in Petri dish, and scanned it in a CT at a high resolution (voxel edge length: 7µm). After putting it back in the dish, approximately in the same former position, it was treated for EPS-extraction and then removed and scanned again in order to check for a possible effect of the EPS-extraction. Our results show that the utilized EPS-extraction method had varying extraction efficiencies: while in some cases the amount removed was barely significant, in other cases up to 50% of the total content was recovered. Notwithstanding, no difference in soil micro-structure could be detected, neither in total porosity, nor in the distribution of pore sizes, the

  5. Classification and modelling of non-extractable residue (NER) formation from pesticides in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kästner, M; Nowak, K. M.; A. Miltner; Trapp, Stefan; A. Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a comprehensive overview about the formation of nonextractable residues (NER) from organic pesticides and contaminants in soil and tries classifying the different types. Anthropogenic organic chemicals are deliberately (e.g. pesticides) or unintentionally (e.g. polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAH], chlorinated solvents,pharmaceuticals) released in major amounts to nearly all compartments of the environment. Soils and sediments as complex matrices provide a wide variety o...

  6. Classification and modelling of non-extractable residue (NER) formation from pesticides in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kästner, M.; Nowak, K. M.; Miltner, A.

    2015-01-01

    undergo turnover processes and can be volatilised, leached to the groundwater, degraded by microorganisms or taken up and enriched by living organisms. Xenobiotic NER may be derived from parent compounds and primary metabolites that are sequestered (sorbed or entrapped) within the soil organic matter......This presentation provides a comprehensive overview about the formation of nonextractable residues (NER) from organic pesticides and contaminants in soil and tries classifying the different types. Anthropogenic organic chemicals are deliberately (e.g. pesticides) or unintentionally (e...

  7. Comparison of a Lyophilized Drug Product to Other Solid and Liquid Media for the Extraction of Elastomeric Oligomers from a Butyl Rubber Stopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovic, Steven A

    2017-09-19

    Lyophilization is commonly used to extend the shelf life of pharmaceutical products which are otherwise unstable when stored as a liquid formulation. However, the ability of a lyophilized drug, or other solid medium, to leach or extract substances from a pharmaceutical packaging material is not well characterized. To provide insight into this area of uncertainty, the extraction properties of a lyophilized drug product, the lyophilized drug product reconstituted in water, and several other solid and liquid media of varying polarity were determined using a glass vial with a butyl rubber stopper as a representative pharmaceutical packaging system. The results obtained in this study show that the extracting power of a medium, whether solid or liquid, was primarily a function of polarity. Thus, the amount of each extractable observed for the lyophilized and reconstituted drug product were in-trend with the other solid and liquid media, respectively. Nevertheless, it was notable that the lyophilized drug product was able to leach substances from the stopper in quantifiable amounts, whereas the reconstituted drug product contained no detectable leachables. Using a mathematical relationship, it was determined that the extraction power of the lyophilized drug product was equivalent to a 50/50 isopropanol/water solution. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug Association.

  8. Extractable copper, arsenic and antimony by EDTA solution from agricultural Chilean soils and its transfer to alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Ida; Fuentes, Edwar; Olivares, David; Pinochet, Hugo

    2004-01-01

    Following our research on copper, arsenic and antimony in Chilean ecosystems, a study to understand the mobility and transport of these elements from soil to plants was carried out. So, the aim of this study, which follows on from the previous work, was to demonstrate if the total concentrations of these elements or their fractions extracted by 0.05 M EDTA pH 7 from different Chilean soils correlate with the respective total concentrations in the edible tissue of alfalfa plants collected simultaneously from 20 different sites affected or unaffected by mining activities. The highest copper fractions extracted by EDTA solutions were obtained in contaminated soils from the central region (41-69%); however the northern soils presented the highest extractable fractions of arsenic (9-34%). The antimony fraction was low in all soils (0.4-8.0%). Alfalfa plants from all contaminated sites presented high copper, arsenic and antimony concentrations (19-126 mg kg(-1), 5.7-16.3 mg kg(-1) and 0.16-1.7 mg kg(-1), respectively). Statistically significant correlations were obtained between the total contents of copper and arsenic and their respective extractable fractions in soils. Good correlations were found between elements in alfalfa plants. Correlations were also obtained between the total concentrations of three elements in soils and in alfalfa plants. However, excepting for antimony in the northern samples, higher correlation coefficients were evaluated when the extractable fractions were considered. Samples from the north region presented the highest copper transfer factor and the lowest for arsenic, in spite of the high concentration of this metalloid extracted by EDTA solution in these soils. There was not a clear trend on the transfer factor for antimony, probably due to the low content of this element in alfalfa plants and/or the low recovery obtained for this element by EDTA.

  9. A comparative study of extraction and purification methods for environmental DNA from soil and sludge samples

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Changhyun; Villatte, Francois; Kim, Byung-Gee; Schmid, Rolf D.

    2006-01-01

    An important prerequisite for a successful metagenome library construction is an efficient extraction procedure for DNA out of environmental samples. In this study we compared three indirect and four direct extraction methods, including a commercial kit, in terms of DNA yield, purity and time requirement. A special focus was set on methods which are appropriate for the extraction of environmental DNA (eDNA) from very limited sample sizes (0.1 g) to enable a highly parallel approach. Direct ex...

  10. Release and protein binding of components from resin based composites in native saliva and other extraction media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmund, Lena; Shehata, Mostafa; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Schweikl, Helmut; Carell, Thomas; Geurtsen, Werner; Hellwig, Elmar; Hickel, Reinhard; Reichl, Franz-Xaver; Högg, Christof

    2015-05-01

    Unpolymerized (co)monomers and additives can be released from resin based composites (RBCs) and can enter the human organism. In this study, the binding of ingredients from composites to salivary proteins and plasma proteins was investigated. The composites investigated were Admira(®) flow, Venus(®) Diamond flow, Filtek™ Supreme XTE flow, Tetric EvoCeram(®), Tetric EvoFlow(®). The samples (n=4) were polymerized according to the instructions of the manufacturer of RBCs. The samples were immersed into native saliva, protein-free saliva (artificial saliva), water and ethyl acetate, and incubated at 37°C for 24h or 72h. The eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. To determine the binding to salivary proteins, the concentration of (co)monomers and additives detected in native saliva was compared to the concentration of (co)monomers and additives detected in protein-free saliva, water and ethyl acetate respectively. To assess the affinity of TEGDMA, EGDMA, DEGDMA, PMGDMA, BPA, and DCHP to human serum albumin (HSA) and human α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), a plasma protein binding assay (ABNOVA, Transil XL PPB Prediction Kit TMP-0212-2096) was performed. The statistical significance (psaliva was significantly lower than the concentration released in protein-free saliva or water (Admira(®) flow: concentration of TEGDMA after 72h: 0.08 mmol/L (native saliva), 0.34 mmol/L (protein-free saliva), 0.39 mmol/L (water)). The concentrations of HEMA, EGDMA, DDDMA and CQ released in native saliva remained even below the detection limit, compared to the other extraction media. Protein binding of the tested methacrylates to HSA+AGP was 82-85%, the binding of DCHP was 96.6%, and the binding of BPA was 95.2%. Artificial saliva or water as extraction medium does not reflect the real physiological situation in the body. Salivary and plasma proteins may bind (co)monomers and additives and may thereby contribute to a lower bioavailability of leachables from RBCs

  11. Social media metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Balvín, Radek

    2013-01-01

    With growing amount of data produced by users on social media the need of extraction of relevant data for marketing, research and other uses grows as well. The bachelor thesis named "Social media metrics" presents the issues of monitoring, measurement and metrics of social media. In the research part it also maps and captures the present Czech practice in measurement and monitoring of social media. I also rate the use of social media monitoring tools and usual methods of social media measurem...

  12. The availabilities of arsenic and cadmium in rice paddy fields from a mining area: The role of soil extractable and plant silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Ding, Xiaodong; Li, Fangbai; Wang, Xiangqin; Zhang, Shirong; Yi, Jicai; Liu, Chuanping; Xu, Xianghua; Wang, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Adequate silicon (Si) can greatly boost rice yield and improve grain quality through alleviating stresses associated with heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd). The soil plant-available Si is relatively low in South China due to severe desilicification and allitization of the soils in this region. Conversely, pollution of heavy metals and metalloids in the soils of this region occurs widely, especially As and Cd pollution in paddy soil. Therefore, evaluating the plant availability of Si in paddy soil of South China and examining its correlation with the availability of heavy metals and metalloids are of great significance. Accordingly, in our study, 107 pairs of soil and rice plant samples were collected from paddy fields contaminated by As and Cd in South China. Significantly positive correlations between Si in rice plants and Si fractions in soils extracted with citric acid, NaOAc-HOAc buffer, and oxalate-ammonium oxalate buffer suggest that these extractants are more suitable for use in extracting plant-available Si in the soils of our present study. Significantly negative correlations between different Si fractions and As or Cd in rice plant tissues and negative exponential correlations between the molar ratios of Si to As/Cd in rice roots, straws, husks or grains and As/Cd in rice grains indicate that Si can significantly alleviate the accumulation of As/Cd from soils to the rice plants. Finally, a contribution assessment of soil properties to As/Cd accumulation in rice grains based on random forest showed that in addition to Si concentrations in soil or rice plants, other factors such as Fe fractions and total phosphorus also contributed largely to As/Cd accumulation in rice grains. Overall, Si exhibited its unique role in mitigating As or Cd stress in rice, and our study results provide strong field evidence for this role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  14. FRACTURE ENHANCED SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION AT THE A-014 OUTFALL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Richard Hall (NOEMAIL), R

    2008-03-12

    Data collected during this study show that the performance of hydraulically fractured wells (with respect to mass removal rates) may tend to decrease with time following precipitation events. These effects are due to temporary increases in water saturation in the formation within the vicinity of the fractures, therefore, the wells should tend to rebound during subsequent dry periods. The data available for fractured well versus conventional well performance (with respect to flow rate versus vacuum pressure) are limited in this study. However, the data that we have to draw from suggest that, with the possible exception of a few extreme examples, hydraulically fractured wells tend to perform better than conventional wells during soil vapor extraction (SVE) operation at the A-14 Outfall. The pancake like geometry associated with hydraulic fractures also leads to a significant increase in zone of influence (ZOI), as compared to conventional wells. The increase in ZOI is due to the radially extending, horizontal, high-permeability conduit nature of the hydraulic fracture, however, air-flow into the fracture is predominately vertical (occurring at right angles to the fracture plane). Flow rates from above and below the fracture will tend to be equivalent when the formation is homogeneous, however, in the case of directionally fining depositional sequences flow rates will be greater from the direction of increasing permeability. The Upland Unit is a fining upward sequence, therefore flow rates (and contaminant mass flow rates) will tend to be higher below the fracture. This suggests that emplacing the fractures slightly above the source zone is an important strategy for accelerating contaminant removal at the A-014 Outfall site and in the Upland Unit at the SRS. However, due to the multitude of previous borings at the A-014 Outfall site, the shallower fractures failed. More than 2500 lbs of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) were removed during approximately 6

  15. Mercury bio-extraction by fungus Coprinus comatus: a possible bioindicator and mycoremediator of polluted soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    The Shaggy Ink Cap (Coprinus comatus), which is a common in wild in northern hemisphere was examined in field for potential to be used as possible bio-extractor of Hg from polluted grounds but also as possible bioindicator of urban soils (roadside, barren lands, lawns) pollution with Hg. The contents of Hg in caps and stipes of C. comatus from the grounds examined in this study correlated positively with the levels of soil contamination. Analysis of sets of data available worldwide on Hg in C. comatus and soils beneath-fruiting bodies showed on a positive correlation between degree of soil and mushroom contamination. Hence, C. comatus could be considered as a sensitive species and with bioindication and bioremediation potency for soils polluted with Hg in further studies. Young-fruiting bodies of C. comatus are edible and considered excellent if consumed soon after pick-up. Eating them when foraged from the urban places can provide to a consumer Hg at relatively high dose, while unresolved question is absorption rate of Hg compounds contained in ingested mushroom meal.

  16. Evaluation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction adsorbents of pesticides from agricultural, ornamental and forestal soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Ramos, M; Hernández-Borges, J; Borges-Miquel, T M; Rodríguez-Delgado, M A

    2009-08-11

    A new, simple and cost-effective method based on the use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as solid-phase extraction stationary phases is proposed for the determination of a group of seven organophosphorus pesticides (i.e. ethoprophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos-methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, chlorpyriphos and phosmet) and one thiadiazine (buprofezin) in different kinds of soil samples (forestal, ornamental and agricultural) using gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection. Soils were first ultrasound extracted with 10 mL 1:1 methanol/acetonitrile (v/v) and the evaporated extract redissolved in 20 mL water (pH 6.0) was passed through 100 mg of MWCNTs of 10-15 nm o.d., 2-6 nm i.d. and 0.1-10 microm length. Elution was carried out with 20 mL dichloromethane. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, recovery, accuracy and selectivity. Matrix-matched calibration was carried out for each type of soil since statistical differences between the calibration curves constructed in pure solvent and in the reconstituted soil extract were found for most of the pesticides under study. Recovery values of spiked samples ranged between 54 and 91% for the three types of soils (limits of detection (LODs) between 2.97 and 9.49 ngg(-1)), except for chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and buprofezin which ranged between 12 and 54% (LODs between 3.14 and 72.4 ngg(-1)), which are the pesticides with the highest soil organic carbon sorption coefficient (K(OC)) values. Using a one-sample test (Student's t-test) with fortified samples at two concentration levels in each type of soil, no significant differences were observed between the real and the experimental values (accuracy percentages ranged between 87 and 117%). It is the first time that the adsorptive potential of MWCNTs for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from soils is investigated.

  17. Tannin-Metal Interactions in Soils: An Incubation-Extraction Approach in Hill-Land Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J. M.; Halvorson, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    Tannins, plant polyphenols known to react with proteins, metals and soil organic matter, are commonly found in the vegetation growing in Appalachian hill-lands. Establishing silvopastoral grazing systems in these environments is a means for improving productivity however the fate of tannins in soils and, in particular, the effect on solubility/mobility of metals in soils is poorly understood. Soils from forest and pasture systems were sampled from two depths, treated with tannic acid or related phenolic compounds, and analyzed for metals in solution. The amount of Mn and Ca detected in solution varied among the different phenolic treatments, highest for gallic acid, and was also influenced by depth and land use. As expected, the Ca content in solution was correlated with the electrical conductivity (EC) and the Mn content was correlated with the redox potential in solution. Interestingly, the EC was also correlated with both Mn content and redox potential. The higher Ca content found in solution may result from the low pH of the phenolic compounds. The higher Mn in solution may result from the redox reaction of Mn (IV) oxides with the phenolic compounds, producing soluble Mn2+ and quinones. These quinones are very reactive compounds that can self-polymerize and/or copolymerize with other biomolecules, such as amino-containing compounds and carbohydrates, to form humic-like substances. Successful management of silvopastures, requires an understanding of factors that affect the quality and quantity of plant secondary compounds like tannins entering soil not only to increase forage productivity but also to enhance formation/stabilization of soil organic matter to increase nutrient cycling and reduce the toxicity risk of some metals such as Mn.

  18. Modelling mass transfer during venting/soil vapour extraction: Non-aqueous phase liquid/gas mass transfer coefficient estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrael, D; Kacem, M; Benadda, B

    2017-07-01

    We investigate how the simulation of the venting/soil vapour extraction (SVE) process is affected by the mass transfer coefficient, using a model comprising five partial differential equations describing gas flow and mass conservation of phases and including an expression accounting for soil saturation conditions. In doing so, we test five previously reported quations for estimating the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)/gas initial mass transfer coefficient and evaluate an expression that uses a reference NAPL saturation. Four venting/SVE experiments utilizing a sand column are performed with dry and non-saturated sand at low and high flow rates, and the obtained experimental results are subsequently simulated, revealing that hydrodynamic dispersion cannot be neglected in the estimation of the mass transfer coefficient, particularly in the case of low velocities. Among the tested models, only the analytical solution of a convection-dispersion equation and the equation proposed herein are suitable for correctly modelling the experimental results, with the developed model representing the best choice for correctly simulating the experimental results and the tailing part of the extracted gas concentration curve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling mass transfer during venting/soil vapour extraction: Non-aqueous phase liquid/gas mass transfer coefficient estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrael, D.; Kacem, M.; Benadda, B.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate how the simulation of the venting/soil vapour extraction (SVE) process is affected by the mass transfer coefficient, using a model comprising five partial differential equations describing gas flow and mass conservation of phases and including an expression accounting for soil saturation conditions. In doing so, we test five previously reported quations for estimating the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)/gas initial mass transfer coefficient and evaluate an expression that uses a reference NAPL saturation. Four venting/SVE experiments utilizing a sand column are performed with dry and non-saturated sand at low and high flow rates, and the obtained experimental results are subsequently simulated, revealing that hydrodynamic dispersion cannot be neglected in the estimation of the mass transfer coefficient, particularly in the case of low velocities. Among the tested models, only the analytical solution of a convection-dispersion equation and the equation proposed herein are suitable for correctly modelling the experimental results, with the developed model representing the best choice for correctly simulating the experimental results and the tailing part of the extracted gas concentration curve.

  20. High-throughput sequencing of nematode communities from total soil DNA extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    nematodes without the need for enrichment was developed. Using this strategy on DNA templates from a set of 22 agricultural soils, we obtained 64.4% sequences of nematode origin in total, whereas the remaining sequences were almost entirely from other metazoans. The nematode sequences were derived from...... a broad taxonomic range and most sequences were from nematode taxa that have previously been found to be abundant in soil such as Tylenchida, Rhabditida, Dorylaimida, Triplonchida and Araeolaimida. Conclusions: Our amplification and sequencing strategy for assessing nematode diversity was able to collect...

  1. Mercury bio-extraction by fungus Coprinus comatus: a possible bioindicator and mycoremediator of polluted soils?

    OpenAIRE

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The Shaggy Ink Cap (Coprinus comatus), which is a common in wild in northern hemisphere was examined in field for potential to be used as possible bio-extractor of Hg from polluted grounds but also as possible bioindicator of urban soils (roadside, barren lands, lawns) pollution with Hg. The contents of Hg in caps and stipes of C. comatus from the grounds examined in this study correlated positively with the levels of soil contamination. Analysis of sets of data available worldwide on Hg in C...

  2. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution.

  3. Analysis of sulfonamides in soil, sediment, and sludge based on dynamic microwave-assisted micellar extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ding, Jie; Ding, Lan; Ren, Nanqi

    2016-07-01

    A green and high-throughput analytical method was described for the simultaneous determination of ten sulfonamides (SAs) from soil, sediment, and sludge in northeast China. None of potentially hazardous organic solvents was used in the whole sample preparation procedure, and the total preparation time of 15 samples was about 18 min. The limits of detection for the SAs were in the range of 0.42-0.68 ng g(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precisions, expressed by the relative standard deviation, were below 7 %. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of ten SAs were between 69.7 and 102.7 %. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze the SAs residues in agricultural soils, river sediments, and sewage sludge. SAs were found at the levels of 1.40-2.31 ng g(-1) and 3.77-29.29 ng g(-1) in the sediments and sludge, respectively. The aging effect of spiked soil samples on the SAs recoveries was examined, and the results demonstrate that eight SAs could persist in five soils for 3 months. Compared with the traditional method, the proposed method could reduce the consumption of the organic solvent, shorten the sample preparation time, and increase the sample throughput.

  4. Performance of base hydrolysis methods in extracting bound lipids from plant material, soils, and sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angst, Gerrit; Cajthaml, T.; Angst, Šárka; Mueller, K.E.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Beggel, S.; Kriegs, S.; Mueller, C.W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 113, November (2017), s. 97-104 ISSN 0146-6380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015075 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cutin * suberin * soil organic matter * biomarkers * Fagus sylvatica L. * Zea mays L. Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.081, year: 2016

  5. Recovering greater fungal diversity from pristine and diesel fuel contaminated sub-antarctic soil through cultivation using both a high and a low nutrient media approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Belinda C; Zhang, Chengdong; van Dorst, Josie

    2011-01-01

    Novel cultivation strategies for bacteria are widespread and well described for recovering greater diversity from the "hitherto" unculturable majority. While similar approaches have not yet been demonstrated for fungi it has been suggested that of the 1.5 million estimated species less than 5% have been recovered into pure culture. Fungi are known to be involved in many degradative processes, including the breakdown of petroleum hydrocarbons, and it has been speculated that in Polar Regions they contribute significantly to bioremediation of contaminated soils. Given the biotechnological potential of fungi there is a need to increase efforts for greater species recovery, particularly from extreme environments such as sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. In this study, like the yet-to-be cultured bacteria, high concentrations of nutrients selected for predominantly different fungal species to that recovered using a low nutrient media. By combining both media approaches to the cultivation of fungi from contaminated and non-contaminated soils, 91 fungal species were recovered, including 63 unidentified species. A preliminary biodegradation activity assay on a selection of isolates found that a high proportion of novel and described fungal species from a range of soil samples were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and should be characterized further.

  6. An Enhanced Text-Mining Framework for Extracting Disaster Relevant Data through Social Media and Remote Sensing Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, C. J.; Huang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, the rise in social media has led to the development of a vast number of social media services and applications. Disaster management represents one of such applications leveraging massive data generated for event detection, response, and recovery. In order to find disaster relevant social media data, current approaches utilize natural language processing (NLP) methods based on keywords, or machine learning algorithms relying on text only. However, these approaches cannot be perfectly accurate due to the variability and uncertainty in language used on social media. To improve current methods, the enhanced text-mining framework is proposed to incorporate location information from social media and authoritative remote sensing datasets for detecting disaster relevant social media posts, which are determined by assessing the textual content using common text mining methods and how the post relates spatiotemporally to the disaster event. To assess the framework, geo-tagged Tweets were collected for three different spatial and temporal disaster events: hurricane, flood, and tornado. Remote sensing data and products for each event were then collected using RealEarthTM. Both Naive Bayes and Logistic Regression classifiers were used to compare the accuracy within the enhanced text-mining framework. Finally, the accuracies from the enhanced text-mining framework were compared to the current text-only methods for each of the case study disaster events. The results from this study address the need for more authoritative data when using social media in disaster management applications.

  7. Antimicrobial Effect of Filipendula ulmaria Plant Extract Against Selected Foodborne Pathogenic and Spoilage Bacteria in Laboratory Media, Fish Flesh and Fish Roe Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-methanol extract from Filipendula ulmaria contains a variety of phenolic compounds, such as caffeic, p-coumaric and vanillic acid, myricetin, etc, which demonstrate antibacterial activity. Monitoring this activity in the broth using absorbance measurements showed that species of the Enterobacteriaceae family were more resistant than other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria tested. Acidic environment enhanced the antibacterial activity of Filipendula ulmaria extract when it was tested against Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. The efficacy of Filipendula ulmaria extract against selected foodborne psychrotrophic bacteria was also tested using solid laboratory media and low incubation temperatures for better simulation of food preservation conditions. Higher concentrations of the extract, compared to minimum inhibitory concentration determined in the broth, were needed for satisfactory inhibition of spoilage bacteria. Potential use of Filipendula ulmaria extract as natural food preservative was also examined against natural spoilage flora and inoculated pathogenic bacteria on fish flesh and fish roe product (tarama salad. No significant differences of viable populations of spoilage or pathogenic bacteria were found between the treated samples and controls. Further trials of Filipendula ulmaria extract should be carried out in acidic foods with low fat and protein content, supplemented with additional adjuncts, in order to explore its potential as effective natural food antimicrobial agent.

  8. Synergistic Effect of Azadirachta Indica Extract and Iodide Ions on the Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acid Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, S. T.; Al- Turkustani, A. M.; Al- Dhahiri, R. H. [King Abd El- Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-06-15

    The synergistic action caused by iodide ions on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium (Al) in 0.5 M HCl in the presence of Azadirachta Indica (AZI) plant extract has been investigated using potintiodynamic polarization and impedance techniques. It is found that AZI extract inhibits the corrosion of aluminium in 0.5 M HCl. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in AZI extract concentration, until 24% v/v of AZI extract, then Inh.% is decreased with father increase in AZI extract concentration. The adsorption of this extract in the studied concentration is found to obey Frewendlish adsorption isotherm. The addition of iodide ions enhances the inhibition efficiency to a considerable extent. The increase in Inh.% values in presence of fixed concentration of iodide ions indicates that AZI extract forms an insoluble complex at lower AZI extract concentrations by undergoing a joint adsorption. But at higher concentrations of AZI extract, competitive adsorption is found between iodide ions and the formed complex leading to less Inh.%. The Inh.% decreased in presence of iodide ions with AZI extract than in presence of AZI extract alone at all studied iodide concentrations. The synergism parameter S {sub θ} is defined and calculated from surface coverage values. This parameter in the case of AZI extract is found to be more than unity, indicating that the enhanced inhibition efficiency caused by the addition of iodide ions.

  9. Nanoparticles with photoinduced precipitation for the extraction of pollutants from water and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Ferdinand; Bertrand, Nicolas; Lima, Eliana Martins; Langer, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology may offer fast and effective solutions for environmental clean-up. Herein, amphiphilic diblock copolymers are used to develop a platform of photosensitive core-shell nanoparticles. Irradiation with ultraviolet light removes the protective layer responsible for colloidal stability; as a result, the nanoparticles are rapidly and irreversibly converted to macroscopic aggregates. The associated phase separation allows measuring the partitioning of small molecules between the aqueous phase and nanoparticles; data suggests that interactions are enhanced by decreasing the particle size. Adsorption onto nanoparticles can be exploited to efficiently remove hydrophobic pollutants from water and contaminated soil. Preliminary in vivo experiments suggest that treatment with photocleavable nanoparticles can significantly reduce the teratogenicity of bisphenol A, triclosan and 17α-ethinyl estradiol without generating obviously toxic byproducts. Small-scale pilot experiments on wastewater, thermal printing paper and contaminated soil demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  10. Reduction of Legionella spp. in Water and in Soil by a Citrus Plant Extract Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzbach, Elena; Score, Jodie; Tejpal, Jyoti; Chi Tangyie, George; Phillips, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by Legionella spp., organisms often isolated from environmental sources, including soil and water. Legionella spp. are capable of replicating intracellularly within free-living protozoa, and once this has occurred, Legionella is particularly resistant to disinfectants. Citrus essential oil (EO) vapors are effective antimicrobials against a range of microorganisms, with reductions of 5 log cells ml−1 on a variety of surfaces. The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of a citrus EO vapor against Legionella spp. in water and in soil systems. Reductions of viable cells of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii, and an intra-amoebal culture of Legionella pneumophila (water system only) were assessed in soil and in water after exposure to a citrus EO vapor at concentrations ranging from 3.75 mg/liter air to 15g/liter air. Antimicrobial efficacy via different delivery systems (passive and active sintering of the vapor) was determined in water, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the antimicrobial components (linalool, citral, and β-pinene) was conducted. There was up to a 5-log cells ml−1 reduction in Legionella spp. in soil after exposure to the citrus EO vapors (15 mg/liter air). The most susceptible strain in water was L. pneumophila, with a 4-log cells ml−1 reduction after 24 h via sintering (15 g/liter air). Sintering the vapor through water increased the presence of the antimicrobial components, with a 61% increase of linalool. Therefore, the appropriate method of delivery of an antimicrobial citrus EO vapor may go some way in controlling Legionella spp. from environmental sources. PMID:25063652

  11. Reduction of Legionella spp. in water and in soil by a citrus plant extract vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Katie; Kurzbach, Elena; Score, Jodie; Tejpal, Jyoti; Chi Tangyie, George; Phillips, Carol

    2014-10-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by Legionella spp., organisms often isolated from environmental sources, including soil and water. Legionella spp. are capable of replicating intracellularly within free-living protozoa, and once this has occurred, Legionella is particularly resistant to disinfectants. Citrus essential oil (EO) vapors are effective antimicrobials against a range of microorganisms, with reductions of 5 log cells ml(-1) on a variety of surfaces. The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of a citrus EO vapor against Legionella spp. in water and in soil systems. Reductions of viable cells of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii, and an intra-amoebal culture of Legionella pneumophila (water system only) were assessed in soil and in water after exposure to a citrus EO vapor at concentrations ranging from 3.75 mg/liter air to 15g/liter air. Antimicrobial efficacy via different delivery systems (passive and active sintering of the vapor) was determined in water, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the antimicrobial components (linalool, citral, and β-pinene) was conducted. There was up to a 5-log cells ml(-1) reduction in Legionella spp. in soil after exposure to the citrus EO vapors (15 mg/liter air). The most susceptible strain in water was L. pneumophila, with a 4-log cells ml(-1) reduction after 24 h via sintering (15 g/liter air). Sintering the vapor through water increased the presence of the antimicrobial components, with a 61% increase of linalool. Therefore, the appropriate method of delivery of an antimicrobial citrus EO vapor may go some way in controlling Legionella spp. from environmental sources. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Extractable hydrocarbons, nickel and vanadium contents of Ogbodo-Isiokpo oil spill polluted soils in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, Samuel O

    2005-11-01

    An oil spill polluted site at Ogbodo-Isiokpo in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State in southern Nigeria, was identified for study following three successive reconnaissance surveys of oil fields in the Agbada west plain of Eastern Niger Delta. A sampling area of 200 m x 200 m was delimited at the oil spill impacted site using the grid technique and soils were collected at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths from three replicate quadrats. A geographically similar, unaffected area, located 50 m adjacent to the polluted site, was chosen as a control (reference) site. Total extractable hydrocarbon contents of the polluted soils ranged from 3.02-4.54 and 1.60-4.20 mg/kg (no overlap in standard errors) at surface and subsurface depths respectively. The concentrations of two "diagnostic" trace heavy metals, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V), which are normal constituents of crude oil, were also determined in the soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method after pre-extraction of cations with dithionite-citrate carbonate. Ni varied from 0.15 to 1.65 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.18 to 0.82 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots; vanadium varied from 0.19 to 0.70 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.14 to 0.38 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots. Ni and V were more enhanced (p vanadium via the injection and availability of the petroleum hydrocarbons that might have increased the activities of biodegradation on site, the physico-chemical properties of the soils and inherent mobility of metals, as well as the intense rainfall and flooding that characterized the period of study, may have also contributed, at least in part, to these enhanced concentrations. Such levels of Ni and V may result to enhanced absorption by plants, which may bring about possible bioaccumulation in such plants and the animals that depend on them for survival and all of these may lead to toxic reactions along the food chain.

  13. The remediation of lead contaminated soils using solvent extraction chelation techniques. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, M.; Hanson, A.T.; Rudd, B.; Pickins, D.; Krause, K. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report describes preliminary work leading to the development of an innovative technology for treating a mixed waste problem at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The specific problem being addressed by this research is the result of research activity at the Meson Physics Facility (LAMPH). The LAMPH facility conducts high energy neutron research. Lead BB`s were placed in containers and used as shielding during experiments.This lead was stored in piles on the ground when it was not in use, and it sometimes sat for extended periods of time, perhaps as long as 20 years. The lead was mobilized overtime, and contaminated the underlying soil. Because of the neutron bombardment, a portion of the lead {sup 207}Pb became radioactive {sup 210}Pb, and the lead became both a listed waste and radioactive, which classified it as a mixed waste. The contaminated soil has been removed from the site and placed in drums for storage until a suitable treatment technology can be identified. The contents of the barrels consists of a mixture of lead contaminated soil and lead BB`s.

  14. Study of variables affecting extraction of organic solvents from solid sorbent sampling media using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R.A. [Dept. of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Div. of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shulman, S.A. [Dept. of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Div. of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The extraction of our solvents from three sorbents, using supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. Toluene and isooctane were extracted from Anasorb 747{sup R}, a synthetic carbon; 1-butanol from silica gel; and 2-nitropropane from Anasorb 727{sup R}, a porous organic polymer. Preliminary experiments indicated that dynamic extraction was required; these experiments also fixed the duration of extraction of the analytes. All extractions were performed at 1.0 mL min{sup -1}. The temperature and density of the supercritical extraction fluid were then varied, according to a fractional factorial statistical design. The amounts remaining on the sorbent were determined via solvent desorption of the analytes and gas chromatography of the eluents. The fraction extracted data were modeled as a function of temperature and density according to a thermodynamic approach that permitted computation of constant-density enthalpies of desorption. This study indicates a significant temperature- and density-dependence for quantitative extraction of isooctane and toluene from Anasorb 747{sup R} and 1-butanol from silica gel, with no measurable temperature- or density-dependence for extraction of 2-nitropropane from Anasorb 727{sup R}. The extracted analytes were also collected via cryotrapping; only higher level masses of 1-butanol were quantitativley recovered. The dependence of the extraction efficiency on the thimble volumes passed over the matrix is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  16. Langmuir adsorption isotherm analysis on the addition of Myrmecodia Pendans extract as a corrosion inhibitor with a variety of corrosive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradityana, Atria; Sulistijono, Subowo, Suhariyanto, Subiyanto, Hari; Rusdiyana, Liza

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the corrosion process was done by potentiodynamic polarization method on API 5L Grade B. Variations corrosion media used were NaCl 3,5%, HCl 1 M and H2SO4 1 M. Organic Inhibitors used are plant Myrmecodia Pendans, while the concentration of the extract used were 100-500 mg / L (multiples of 100 mg / L). In this study, the mechanism of adsorption equation model used is Langmuir. This study aims to determine appropriate corrosive media followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm when added to extracts of Myrmecodia Pendans as a corrosion inhibitor. The value of free energy of the system have obtained from the adsorption isotherm models. With the known value of free energy, it can be seen whether the adsorption occurs in physics or chemistry. This relates to the surface protective layer formed on the surface adsorption extract. The results showed that the corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution that follows the Langmuir method.

  17. The influence of ozone on ligand-assisted extraction of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am from rocky flats soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaue, J.W.; Czerwinski, K.R. [Actinide Research Group, Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Chemical extraction of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am from a Rocky Flats soil matrix was studied at 50 C using four ligands; citric acid and ascorbic acid at pH 2, EDTA and carbonate at pH 10. The soil was treated for a 12-hour reaction period with ozone gas prior to the addition of ligands. With the carbonate ligand, the ozone treatment continued during the entire extraction. High Pu removal was found at pH 2 with ascorbic acid and pH 10 with carbonate. Both maintained redox conditions during the extraction. For the carbonate system, a trend of increased extraction with increasing E{sub h} and carbonate concentration was observed. Ozone treatment of soil prior to addition of EDTA at pH 10 and citric acid at pH 2 was shown to dramatically increase extraction of Am. Since no oxidation of Am occurred, the increased removal from ozone is mainly due to the oxidation of the soil phase containing the Am. (orig.)

  18. Speciation and determination of bioavailable arsenic species in soil samples by one-step solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Ma, Li; Yang, Zhaoguang; Lee, Hsiaowan; Wang, Lin

    2015-03-01

    A new analytical method was developed to determine the bioavailable arsenic species (arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsonic acid) in soil samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bioavailable arsenic was extracted with ammonium phosphate buffer by a simplified one-step solvent extraction procedure. To estimate the effect of variables on arsenic extraction, a two-level Plackett-Burman factorial design was conducted to screen the significant factors that were further investigated by a separate univariate approach. The optimum conditions were confirmed by compromising the stability of arsenic species and the extraction efficiency. The concentration of arsenic species was determined in method blank and soil-certified reference materials both spiked with standard solutions of arsenic species. All the target arsenic species were stable during the whole extraction procedure. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied to release bioavailable arsenic from contaminated soil samples, showing that the major arsenic species in soil samples were inorganic arsenic: arsenite and arsenate, of which the latter was dominant. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ultrasonic-assisted water extraction and solvent bar microextraction followed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry for determination of chlorobenzenes in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Linling; Chen, Jing; Du, Wenjun; Fan, Guoliang; Lu, Xiaohua

    2012-09-21

    A novel and simple analytical method for the determination of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in soil samples was developed using ultrasonic-assisted water extraction (UAWE) coupled with solvent bar microextraction (SBME). Four chlorobenzenes, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (1,2,3-TCB), 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,3,4-TeCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (1-C-4-NB), were used as model compounds to investigate the extraction performance. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. UAWE was used for the extraction of CBs from 1.0 g of sediment using 10 mL of ultrapure water at 100 W for 30 min at 30-35 °C. The extract was subsequently subjected to a single step SBME cleanup and enrichment procedure. Both ends of the solvent bar with about 4 μL of 1-octanol were sealed by a sealing machine, and it was placed in the soil slurry for extraction. After extraction, analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) detection. The relative recoveries from the spiked soil sample varied between 93 and 105% for CBs, and exceeded levels achieved for conventional Soxhlet extraction. The method linearities were 10-150, 40-600, and 100-1500 ng g(-1) for different CBs. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.7-27.3 ng g(-1) and 2.2-90.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Good reproducibilities were obtained with relative standard deviation (RSD) values below 6.8%. The analytical potential of the method was demonstrated by applying the method to spiked soil sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Accelerated solvent extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the sensitive determination of phenols in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Han-Zhu; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-05-01

    A method combining accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the first time as a sample pretreatment for the rapid analysis of phenols (including phenol, m-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) in soil samples. In the accelerated solvent extraction procedure, water was used as an extraction solvent, and phenols were extracted from soil samples into water. The dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique was then performed on the obtained aqueous solution. Important accelerated solvent extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction parameters were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the new method provided wide linearity (6.1-3080 ng/g), low limits of detection (0.06-1.83 ng/g), and excellent reproducibility (solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a sample pretreatment procedure coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is an excellent method for the rapid analysis of trace levels of phenols in environmental soil samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The risk of altering soil and sediment samples upon extract preparation for analytical and bio-analytical investigations--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Schulze, Tobias; Hollert, Henner

    2008-04-01

    Organic total extracts play an important role in soil and sediment risk assessment. Beside a routine application in analytical chemistry, they are used in bio-analytical investigations as a "worst-case scenario" or, e.g., in order to simulate chronic intoxication, and as samples for effect-directed analysis. While theoretically providing highly reliable data and good reproducibility, the whole process of sample handling and extract preparation can lead to extracts that might fail to accurately represent a toxic potential of their corresponding sampling site. This review identifies and discusses the most important possible alterations that have the potential to lead to over and, more often, underestimation of the effectiveness of extracts. Since incorrect data will compromise soil and sediment risk assessment as a whole, results from analytical and bio-analytical investigations of extracts demand cautious interpretation. Reliability of extract testing grows with reproducibility; experiments should therefore be repeated with independent extraction replicates. New or optimized extraction procedures should circumvent the issues mentioned here while being suitable for routine application.

  2. Characterization of Environmental Nano- and Macrocolloid Particles Extracted from Selected Soils and Biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ghezzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental nanoparticles found in soil systems and biosolids may pose a considerable risk to groundwater quality as contaminant carriers. Little effort has been invested in the characterization of natural nanocolloids compared to corresponding macrocolloids. This study involved physicochemical, mineralogical, and morphological characterizations of nanocolloids and macrocolloids fractionated from three Kentucky soils and one biosolid. Particle size and morphology were investigated using scanning/transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Zeta potentials and cation exchange capacities assessed surface charge and chemical reactivity. The estimated average hydrodynamic diameter of nanoparticles was nearly twice the ideal 100 nm range, apparently due to irregular particle shapes and partial aggregation. Nanoparticles were also found attached to surfaces of macrocolloids, forming macro-nano aggregates and obscuring some of their physical and chemical characteristics. However, nanocolloids exhibited greater surface reactivity, likely due to their smaller size, poor crystallinity, and morphological shape distortions. In spite of some behavior modification due to nanoaggregation phenomena, nanocolloids appeared to be much more potent vectors of contaminant transport in subsurface environments than their macrosize fractions. Nevertheless, their heterogeneous nature brings to light important considerations in addressing pollution prevention and remediation challenges.

  3. Dynamics and thermodynamics of toxic metals adsorption onto soil-extracted humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Medhat A; albishri, Hassan M

    2014-09-01

    Humic acids, HA represent a large portion of natural organic matter in soils, sediments and waters. They are environmentally important materials due to their extensive ubiquity and strong complexation ability, which can influence heavy metal removal and transportation in waters. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the adsorption of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) onto solid soil-derived HA have been investigated at optimum conditions of pH (5.5±0.1), metal concentration (10-100mmolL(-1)) and different temperatures (293-323K). The suitability of adsorption models such as Freundlich and Langmuir to equilibrium data was investigated. The adsorption was well described by Langmuir isotherm model in multi-detectable steps. Adsorption sites, i (i=A, B, C) with different capacities, νi are characterized. The stoichiometric site capacity is independent of temperature and equilibrium constant, Ki. Adsorption sites A and B are selectively occupied by Cr(VI) cations while sites A and C are selectively occupied by Cd(II) cations. The thermodynamic parameters of adsorption systems are correlated for each adsorption step. The adsorption is endothermic, spontaneous and favorable. Different kinetic models are applied and the adsorption of these heavy metals onto HA follows pseudo-second-order kinetics and equilibrium is achieved within 24h. The adsorption reaction is controlled by diffusion processes and the type of the adsorption is physical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of drilling cuttings with extraction of ground for recultivation of disturbed soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaevaya, E. V.; Bogaychuk, Y. E.; Tarasova, S. S.; Skipin, L. N.; Zakharova, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    Drilling of wells is connected with formation of the bore mud represented by the drill cutting with waste drilling mud. Bore mud has negative physical-chemical, physical and chemical properties: high content of salts, increased alkalinity, ash structure, soil overcrust, low airing, weak filterability and so on. In case of phosphogypsum adding to the bore mud, pH level decreases from the alkaline (10.5 U) to weakly alkaline 7.6 U, decrease of pH is connected with the influence of phosphogypsum acidity and neutralization of the more mud. Concentration of chloride ions and sulphate ions in reclaimed bore mud was 70±7 and 456±46 correspondingly. Presence of oil products in received soil was 198.0-219.0 mg/kg. When adding phosphogypsum, sand, sorbent and humic formulation «Rostok» to the bore mud, it has shown good germinating ability of cultures- phytomeliorants (93,3%). 100% germinating ability was observed in meadow grass with a height of overground sprouts 10.7 cm, germinating ability of red fescue was 80% with height of overground sprouts 9.6 cm.

  5. Deep Eutectic Solvents as Efficient Media for the Extraction and Recovery of Cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Emanuelle L P; do Carmo, Rafael S; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M; Freire, Carmen S R; Freire, Mara G; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2017-10-30

    In recent years a high demand for natural ingredients with nutraceutical properties has been witnessed, for which the development of more environmentally-friendly and cost-efficient extraction solvents and methods play a primary role. In this perspective, in this work, the application of deep eutectic solvents (DES), composed of quaternary ammonium salts and organic acids, as alternative solvents for the extraction of cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. leaves was studied. After selecting the most promising DES, their aqueous solutions were investigated, allowing to obtain a maximum cynaropicrin extraction yield of 6.20 wt %, using 70 wt % of water. The sustainability of the extraction process was further optimized by carrying out several extraction cycles, reusing either the biomass or the aqueous solutions of DES. A maximum cynaropicrin extraction yield of 7.76 wt % by reusing the solvent, and of 8.96 wt % by reusing the biomass, have been obtained. Taking advantage of the cynaropicrin solubility limit in aqueous solutions, water was added as an anti-solvent, allowing to recover 73.6 wt % of the extracted cynaropicrin. This work demonstrates the potential of aqueous solutions of DES for the extraction of value-added compounds from biomass and the possible recovery of both the target compounds and solvents.

  6. Liquid–liquid anion exchange extraction studies of samarium(III from salicylate media using high molecular weight amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha M. Mandhare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid–liquid extraction and separation of samarium(III were carried out by using 0.025 mol dm−3 2-octylaminopyridine(2-OAP in xylene at 298 K. The extraction behavior of samarium was studied as a function of pH, weak acid concentration, extractant concentration, diluent, and equilibration time. Samarium was quantitatively extracted at pH 7.5 to 10.0 from 0.01 mol dm−3 sodium salicylate solution with 0.025 mol dm−3 2-OAP. The possible composition of the extracted species in organic phase has been determined by using model of slope analysis method and extraction mechanism was found to proceed via an anion exchange mechanism. The stripping efficiency was found to be quantitative in HNO3, HCl and CH3COOH. The robustness of the procedure was demonstrated by the average recoveries obtained (>99.6% for samarium(III extraction in the presence of several cations and anions which are commonly associated with it. The proposed method facilitates the separation and determination of samarium(III from binary and synthetic mixtures. The various thermodynamic functions like free energy (ΔG, enthalpy (ΔH and entropy (ΔS of extraction mechanism were discussed.

  7. Use of the modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure for the study of trace element dynamics in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueyo, M.; Mateu, J.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez-Sanchez, J.F. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: fermin.lopez@ub.edu; Rauret, G. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    The modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure was used to examine the temporal dynamics of trace elements in soils contaminated by an accidental spill from an opencast mine in south-west Spain. Soils were mainly contaminated with pyritic sludge and acidic wastewater, whereas some soils were affected only by acidic wastewater. The distributions obtained for both some major (Ca, Fe and Mn) and trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the sludge and soil samples taken at different times after the accident, 1-3 months and 21 months, were compared. Sequential extractions were useful in identifying different sources of contamination, and in obtaining additional information on the solubility of secondary minerals formed by pyrite oxidation. Thus, the effectiveness of the BCR procedure has proved to be a useful tool for predicting short- and long-term mobility of trace elements, even in complex environmental scenarios. - The modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure has proved a useful prediction tool for short- and long-term mobility of trace elements in contaminated soils.

  8. Molecularly imprinted polymer monolith containing magnetic nanoparticles for the stir-bar sorptive extraction of triazines from environmental soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Álvarez, Myriam; Turiel, Esther; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

    2016-10-21

    In this work, novel molecularly imprinted stir-bars based upon the entrapment of modified magnetic nanoparticles within an imprinted polymer monolith is developed for stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). Firstly, magnetic nanoparticles were surface modified with oleic acid followed by encapsulation inside a silica network. Then, vinyl-groups were grafted onto the particles surface for the subsequent copolymerization with the imprinting polymerization mixture using a glass vial insert as a mold. As a result, the obtained imprinted monolith presented magnetic properties allowing its use as magnetic stir-bar. Variables affecting both polymer morphology (i.e., amount of magnetic nanoparticles, polymerization time) and binding-elution conditions of target analytes (i.e., solvents, time) was carefully optimized. Optimum imprinted stir-bars were evaluated for the SBSE of triazines in soil sample extracts. Recoveries, at 16ngg-1 concentration level, ranged from 2.4 to 8.7% with relative standard deviations lower than 15% (n=3). Although low recoveries were obtained, the high selectivity provided by the new molecularly imprinted stir-bars allowed reaching detection limits below 7.5ngg-1 by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pressurised hot water extraction of n-alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediment from the oil shale industry district in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronholm, J.; Kettunen, J.; Hartonen, K.; Riekkola, M.L. [Lab. of Analytical Chemistry, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Organic pollutants formed during thermal treatment of oil shale and then released from the solid waste (semi-coke) to aquatic life are a major concern in Estonia. Efficient environmentally friendly techniques are being sought for the analysis of soil and sediments for pollutants and for the clean up of contaminated areas. The altered physico-chemical properties of pressurised hot water can be exploited in the extraction of organics from solid samples. For example, the relative permittivity, hydrogen bonding ability and viscosity of water are decreased and diffusivity is increased with temperature. In addition, water is environmentally friendly, cheap, non-flammable and readily available. In small-scale or pilot-scale operations, pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) can also be used in the purification of contaminated soil and sediments. Objective. PHWE and conventional Soxhlet extraction were applied to extract organic compounds from soil and sediment samples collected from various locations around a semi-coke mound in a mining district in northeastern Estonia. One important aim was to compare the extraction efficiencies of the two techniques. Another aim was to determine the pollutants in soil in the vicinity of the semi-coke mound and the sediments of two rivers (the Purtse river flowing to the Gulf of Finland and the Kohtla river feeding into the Purtse) and in canals between the Kohtla river and the semi-coke mound. Methods. The PHWE equipment was self-constructed and applied with temperatures of 300 and 350 C (P = ca. 200 bar). Soxhlet extraction was carried out for 20 h with dichloromethane as a solvent. All extracts were cleaned up with a silica gel column, concentrated and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Organic matter contents of the samples were determined. Results and discussion. Alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the main compounds found in the GC-MS analysis after PHWE and Soxhlet extractions. In

  10. The Effect of Olive Husk Extract compared to the EDTA on Pb availability and some chemical and biological properties in a Pb-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Sajjad; Lakzian, Amir; Halajnia, Akram; Hammami, Hossein

    2017-10-17

    It was found that using chelating agents increases the efficiency of heavy metal extraction however they may have negative effects on soil ecosystem quality. A pot experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in order to evaluate the effect of EDTA and Olive Husk Extract (OHE) on some chemical and biological properties of the Pb-contaminated soil. The experimental treatments included EDTA (2 g Na2EDTA salt per kg soil), OHE (2 g TDS of OHE per kg soil) and control (without the chelating agent). The results revealed that the EDTA and OHE treatments increased the Pb availability by 17.7% and 5.5% in comparison to the control treatment, respectively. Although EDTA was more effective in increasing the Pb availability but decreased the soil biological quality index (SBQI). The EDTA treatment significantly decreased the dehydrogenase (DH) activity and germination index (GI). The OHE application significantly increased the available-P, available-K, total N and organic carbon content by 339.92%, 40.79%, 20.9% and 29.7% compared with control treatment, respectively. Furthermore, OHE considerably increased SBQI from 18.96 to 53.48. Compared to the control treatment higher values of soil respiration activity, DH activity, and carbon availability index (CAI) were observed in OHE treatment.

  11. Extracts from the Cochrane Library: "Grommets (ventilation tubes) for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Martin J; Derkay, Craig S; Rosenfeld, Richard M

    2011-05-01

    The Cochrane Corner is a quarterly section in the journal that highlights systematic reviews relevant to otolaryngology–head and neck surgery, with invited commentary to aid clinical decision making. This installment features an updated Cochrane review "Grommets (Ventilation Tubes) for Hearing Loss Associated with Otitis Media with Effusion in Children" that reinforces the modest benefits demonstrated in the original review published in 2005.

  12. Determination of residues of sulfonylurea herbicides in soil by using microwave-assisted extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahovac Nada L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified method for the analysis of nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron and prosulfuron was developed and validated by using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection in the ultraviolet region (HPLC-UV-DAD. The most important experimental parameters of extraction procedure and HPLC-UV-DAD technique were optimised in respect to those sulfonylurea herbicides. High recoveries of the microwave-assisted extraction were obtained by using a dichloromethane–acetonitrile mixture (2:1 volume ratio acidified with acetic acid (0.8 vol.% with the addition of urea. The mean recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 97.47 to 98.76% for nicosulfuron, 97.88 to 99.17% for rimsulfuron and from 97.91 to 99.83% for prosulfuron. The limits of detection of nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron and prosulfuron were 0.95, 0.91 and 0.89 μg kg–1, respectively. The accuracy of the developed method was confirmed by HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry parallel analyses. The developed method was used to investigate the dissipation dynamics of sulfonylurea herbicides in the real field trials in Vojvodina Province, Serbia. The obtained half-lives were 0.05, 0.23 and 0.15 days for recommended dose application of nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron and prosulfuron, respectively. Low residues and short half-life in soil suggested that the risk to sensitive rotational crops after application of those sulfonylurea herbicides is low when they are used in the appropriate dosages. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 31072

  13. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: Growth promotion and soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, L C C; de Mendonça, M M; Camelini, C M; Soares, C H L

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh spent mushroom substrates (SMSs)--without post-crop heat treatment--from Agaricus subrufescens and Lentinula edodes production to optimize the use of these residues in the soil enrichment for lettuce growth promotion and soil remediation. Organic matter and C content of both SMSs were high. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was a good source of N, P and K. On the other hand, L. edodes SMS presented a lower concentration of these nutrients and a high level of immaturity. Both SMSs presented high electric conductivity values (2.5-3.4 mS/cm). Microbiological analysis, based upon enumeration of culturable bacteria (thermophilic and mesophilic) and fungi, and also evolution of CO(2), showed that SMSs played higher microbial diversity than soil control. Laccase activity from A. subrufescens SMS tended to remain constant during a 2-month period, while L. edodes SMS presented low laccase activity throughout the same period. Agaricus subrufescens and L. edodes were able to grow on a PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media supplemented with different concentrations of atrazine (1-50 microg/ml), degraded the herbicide, attaining rates of 35% and 26%, respectively. On experiments of lettuce growth promotion using a soil-based potting media with different SMS rates, 5% and 10% (dw) rates of A. subrufescens SMS resulted in higher lettuce aerial dry weights than the rates of 25% and 40%, the chemical fertilization (NPK) and the control (soil). At 10% supplementation, lettuce aerial dry weight increased 2.2 and 1.3 times compared to the control and the NPK treatment, respectively. Protein content increased along with SMS rates. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was an excellent supplement for lettuce growth promotion and showed potential for remediation of biocides possibly due to improved microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Fresh L. edodes SMS was not a good fertilizer, at least under the conditions tested

  14. Quantitative 31P NMR for Simultaneous Trace Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Aqueous Media Using the Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S.; Talebpour, Z.; Molaabasi, F.; Bijanzadeh, H. R.; Khazaeli, S.

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of pesticides in water samples is of primary concern for quality control laboratories due to the toxicity of these compounds and their associated public health risk. A novel analytical method based on stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), followed by 31P quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (31P QNMR), has been developed for simultaneously monitoring and determining four organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in aqueous media. The effects of factors on the extraction efficiency of OPPs were investigated using a Draper-Lin small composite design. An optimal sample volume of 4.2 mL, extraction time of 96 min, extraction temperature of 42°C, and desorption time of 11 min were obtained. The results showed reasonable linearity ranges for all pesticides with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9920. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.1 to 2.60 mg/L, and the recoveries of spiked river water samples were from 82 to 94% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 4%. The results show that this method is simple, selective, rapid, and can be applied to other sample matrices.

  15. Preventive effect of Eucommia leaf extract on aortic media hypertrophy in Wistar-Kyoto rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoo, Shingo; Koyama, Masahiro; Watanabe, Akira; Ishida, Ryuya; Hirata, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Yasuyo; Yamasaki, Hiroo; Wada, Keiji; Higashi, Yukihito; Nakamura, Kozo

    2017-06-01

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extract (ELE) has been shown to have anti-hypertensive and anti-obesity effects in rats that are fed a high-fat diet (HFD). To explore the effects of chronic administration of ELE on body weight, blood pressure and aortic media thickness, 7-week-old male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were orally administered a normal diet, a 30% HFD, or a 5% ELE plus HFD ad libitum for 10 weeks. The HFD treatment caused mild obesity and hypertension in the normotensive rats, while rats receiving both ELE and the HFD had significantly lower body weights, less visceral and perirenal fat, lower blood pressure and thinner aortic media than the control rats receiving the HFD only. The plasma adiponectin/leptin ratio also improved in ELE-treated rats. Although plasma leptin levels were elevated in all HFD rats, adiponectin levels increased only in the ELE-treated rats. Anti-hypertensive and anti-obesity effects may be caused by the geniposidic acid (GEA) and/or asperuloside present in ELE. These findings suggest that chronic ELE administration prevents aortic media hypertrophy in early-stage obesity with hypertension. Long-term administration of ELE might inhibit the development of arteriosclerosis.

  16. Heavy metals extractability in a soil amended with sewage sludge Extractabilidade de metais pesados em um solo tratado com lodo de esgoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Marchi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Few investigations have been carried out about the comparison of desorption rate and amount of heavy metals extracted successively by organic acid mixtures mimicking the rhizosphere and routine extractants in sewage sludge-amended soils. Extractions of Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Cu were performed in samples of a sewage sludge-amended soil using seven extractants: four organic acid mixtures and three routine extractants (DTPA, Mehlich-I, and ammonium acetate. Results from single pass extractions, in which the extractable metal contents were determined by simply extracting the soil a single time, as well as from 15 successive extractions, in which the solid residues of the first extraction was successively extracted 14 additional times, of heavy metals were analyzed. The extractability of heavy metals in a single pass extraction was, in general, as follows: Mehlich-I > DTPA > organic acids > NH4OAc. The highest rates of extraction followed the general order: DTPA > Mehlich-I > organic acids > NH4OAc. While Mehlich-I presented the highest extractability of heavy metals among studied extractants, DTPA showed a high extractability of Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu in a single extraction as well as the highest rates of extraction among the studied extractants. The transfer of heavy metals from soil to organic acid solutions is slower than to DTPA and Mehlich-I extractants.Poucos trabalhos têm sido realizados sobre a comparação da taxa de dessorção e da quantidade de metais extraídos sucessivamente por misturas de ácidos orgânicos que imitam a composição da rizosfera e por extratores usados na rotina em amostras de solo tratado com lodo de esgoto. Extrações de Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr e Cu foram realizadas em amostras de um solo de carga variável tratado com lodo de esgoto usando-se sete extratores: quatro misturas com ácidos orgânicos e três extratores usados na rotina (DTPA, Mehlich-I e acetato de amônio. Os resultados para uma única extração, em que o conte

  17. Determination of low methylmercury concentrations in peat soil samples by isotope dilution GC-ICP-MS using distillation and solvent extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Heidi; Perämäki, Paavo; Piispanen, Juha; Starr, Mike; Nieminen, Tiina; Kantola, Marjatta; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa

    2015-04-01

    Most often, only total mercury concentrations in soil samples are determined in environmental studies. However, the determination of extremely toxic methylmercury (MeHg) in addition to the total mercury is critical to understand the biogeochemistry of mercury in the environment. In this study, N2-assisted distillation and acidic KBr/CuSO4 solvent extraction methods were applied to isolate MeHg from wet peat soil samples collected from boreal forest catchments. Determination of MeHg was performed using a purge and trap GC-ICP-MS technique with a species-specific isotope dilution quantification. Distillation is known to be more prone to artificial MeHg formation compared to solvent extraction which may result in the erroneous MeHg results, especially with samples containing high amounts of inorganic mercury. However, methylation of inorganic mercury during the distillation step had no effect on the reliability of the final MeHg results when natural peat soil samples were distilled. MeHg concentrations determined in peat soil samples after distillation were compared to those determined after the solvent extraction method. MeHg concentrations in peat soil samples varied from 0.8 to 18 μg kg(-1) (dry weight) and the results obtained with the two different methods did not differ significantly (p=0.05). The distillation method with an isotope dilution GC-ICP-MS was shown to be a reliable method for the determination of low MeHg concentrations in unpolluted soil samples. Furthermore, the distillation method is solvent-free and less time-consuming and labor-intensive when compared to the solvent extraction method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extraction and separation of tungsten (VI) from aqueous media with Triton X-100-ammonium sulfate-water aqueous two-phase system without any extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Zhang; Tichang Sun; Tieqiang Lu; Chunhuan Yan

    2016-11-25

    An aqueous two-phase system composed of Triton X-100-(NH4)2SO4-H2O was proposed for extraction and separation of tungsten(VI) from aqueous solution without using any extractant. The effects of aqueous pH, concentration of ammonium sulfate, Triton X-100 and tungsten, extracting temperature on the extraction of tungsten were investigated. The extraction of tungsten has remarkable relationship with aqueous pH and are to above 90% at pH=1.0-3.0 under studied pH range (pH=1.0-7.0) and increases gradually with increasing Triton X-100 concentration, but decreases slightly with increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. The extraction percentage of tungsten is hardly relevant to temperature but its distribution coefficient linearly increases with increasing temperature within 303.15-343.15K. The distribution coefficient of tungsten increases with the increase of initial tungsten concentration (0.1-3%) and temperature (303.15 K-333.15K). The solubilization capacity of tungsten in Triton X-100 micellar phase is independent of temperature. FT-IR analysis reveals that there is no evident interaction between polytungstate anion and ether oxygen unit in Triton X-100, and DLS analysis indicates that zeta potential of Triton X-100 micellar phase have a little change from positive to negative after extracting tungsten. Based on the above-mentioned results, it can be deduced that polytungstate anions are solubilized in hydrophilic outer shell of Triton X-100 micelles by electrostatic attraction depending on its relatively high hydrophobic nature. The stripping of tungsten is mainly influenced by temperature and can be easily achieved to 95% in single stage stripping. The tungsten (VI) is separated out from solution containing Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Cr(III) and Mn(II) under the suitable conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. STUDY ON PHYTO-EXTRACTION BALANCE OF ZN, CD AND PB FROM MINE-WASTE POLLUTED SOILS BY USING FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA AND LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the cultivation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea and of perennial ryegrass for two years on a chernozem type of soil, in the Banat's plain area we investigated the phyto-extraction potential of Zn, Cd and Pb. In the experimental plot it has been incorporated a quantity of 20 kg of mine-waste per square meter, in a mass ratio of 1:2,5. The mine-waste polluting "contribution" was of 1209 mg Zn / kg d.s., 4.70 mg Cd / kg d.s. and 188.2 mg Pb / kg d.s. The metals content in the soil was determined at the two moments of biomass harvesting, and through balance calculations we could establish the phyto-extraction efficiency of the two foragegrasses species. The obtained results indicate that Festuca arundinacea has an average phyto-extraction yield of 50% for Zn and Cd in the soil; in the case of an ionic excess of 3,5 to 4 times, the phyto-extraction efficiency is reduced, more obvious in the case of Pb (lead ions. The species Lolium perenne registers a yield of almost 92% in the process of phyto-extraction of Zn. The yield values for Cd si Pb are lower, but comparable with the control plot. Unlike Festuca arundinacea, the Lollium perenne species tolerates better the Cd and Pb ionic excess.

  20. Determination of As(III) and As(V) in soils using sequential extraction combined with flow injection hydride generation atomic fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Jianbo; Tang Zhiyong; Jin Zexiang; Chi Quan; He Bin; Jiang Guibin

    2003-01-27

    An analytical procedure for determination of As(III) and As(V) in soils using sequential extraction combined with flow injection (FI) hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) was presented. The soils were sequentially extracted by water, 0.6 mol l{sup -1} KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} solution, 1% (v/v) HCl solution and 1% (w/v) NaOH solution. The arsenite (As(III)) in extract was analyzed by HG-AFS in the medium of 0.1 mol l{sup -1} citric acid solution, then the total arsenic in extract was determined by HG-AFS using on-line reduction of arsenate with L-cysteine. The concentration of arsenate (As(V)) was calculated by the difference. The optimum conditions of extraction and determination were studied in detail. The detection limit (3{sigma}) for As(III) and As(V) were 0.11 and 0.07 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 1.43% (n=11) at the 10 {mu}g l{sup -1} As level. The method was applied in the determination of As(III) and As(V) of real soils and the recoveries of As(III) and As(V) were in the range of 89.3-118 and 80.4-111%, respectively.

  1. Use of the physiologically-based extraction test to assess the oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown in contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intawongse, Marisa [Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Centre, School of Applied Sciences, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Dean, John R. [Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Centre, School of Applied Sciences, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john.dean@unn.ac.uk

    2008-03-15

    The oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil was assessed. This was done using the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) to simulate the human digestion of plant material. A range of vegetable plants, i.e. carrot, lettuce, radish and spinach, were grown on metal contaminated soil. After reaching maturity the plants were harvested and analysed for their total metal content (i.e. Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The plant samples were then subsequently extracted using an in vitro gastrointestinal approach or PBET to assess the likelihood of oral bioaccessibility if the material was consumed by humans. - Evaluation of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess the risk to humans of consuming contaminated vegetables.

  2. Assessment of nickel bioavailability through chemical extractants and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) in an amended soil: Related changes in various parameters of red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Ali Khan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Hussain, Sabir; Ibrahim, Muhammad

    2017-11-17

    Application of immobilizing agents may efficiently reduce the bioavailability of nickel (Ni) in the soil. Here we report the effect of biochar (BC), gravel sludge (GS) and zeolite (ZE) as a sole treatment and their combinations on the bioavailability of Ni after their application into a Ni-polluted soil. The bioavailability of Ni after the application of immobilizing agents was assessed through an indicator plant (red clover) and chemical indicators of bioavailability like soil water extract (SWE), DTPA and Ca(NO3)2 extracts. Additionally, the effects of Ni bioavailability and immobilizing agents on the growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of red clover were also observed. Application of ZE significantly reduced Ni concentrations in all chemical extracts compared to rest of the treatments. Similarly, the combined application of BC and ZE (BC+ ZE) significantly reduced Ni concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) whereas, significant enhancement in the growth, physiological and biochemical attributes along with an improvement in antioxidant defence machinery of red clover plant, compared to rest of the treatments, were observed. Furthermore, BC+ ZE treatment significantly reduced bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Ni in red clover, compared to rest of the treatments. The Ni concentrations in red clover leaves individually reflected a good correlation with Ni concentrations in the extracts (SWE at R2=0.79, DTPA extract at R2=0.84 and Ca(NO3)2 extracts at R2=0.86). Our results indicate that combined application of ZE and BC can significantly reduce the Ni bioavailability in the soil while in parallel improve the antioxidant defence mechanism in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction and analyses methodology by HPLC for determination of diuron and its metabolites in soil cultivation of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josefa Santos Yabe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Diuron, N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-N, N-dimethylurea can be transformed into the soil through the biodegradation of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-3-methylurea (DCPMU, 3.4-diclorofenilureia (DCPU and 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA. This study aimed to optimize and validate a method of extraction and analysis of these substances in the soil by HPLC/DAD. There was extracted with methanol in the bath ultrasonic and analysis in a liquid chromatograph/detector brand Waters. The condition of analysis optimized for separation of analytes was mobile phase methanol: water 50:50 (v / v, flow 1 mL min-1. Wavelength of 240 nm was selected for the DCA and 254 nm for diuron, DCPMU and DCPU. It was used column and pre column Waters Xterra RP18, 5 um, 4.6 and 3.9 x 150 mm x 20 mm. The calibration curve was obtained from the fortification of the soil with the mixture of patterns in the range of 5 mg Kg-1 to 200 mg Kg-1 of soil. The recovery was obtained in two concentration levels of 5 and 200 mg. Kg-1 of soil was between 85 and 99%. The repeatability was 0.78%, 2.20%, 2.17% and 1.72% and intermediate precision was 2.48%, 2.11%, 3.10% and 2.77% for diuron, DCPMU, DCPU and DCA, respectively. The limit of quantification was 1.25 mg Kg-1 soil. The concentration of diuron found in some bioaugmented soil samples ranged from 5.5 to 8.9 mg Kg-1 soil, but was not detected the presence of their metabolites.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Using DNA Extracted from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tylenchulus semipenetrans is an important and widespread plant-parasitic nematode of citrus worldwide and can cause citrus slow decline disease leading to significant reduction in tree growth and yield. Rapid and accurate detection of T. semipenetrans in soil is important for the disease forecasting and management. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay was developed to detect T. semipenetrans using DNA extracted from soil. A set of five primers was designed from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1 of rDNA, and was highly specific to T. semipenetrans. The LAMP reaction was performed at 63°C for 60 min. The LAMP product was visualized directly in one reaction tube by adding SYBR Green I. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 10−2 J2/0.5 g of soil, which was 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR (10−1 J2/0.5 g of soil. Examination of 24 field soil samples revealed that the LAMP assay was applicable to a range of soils infested naturally with T. semipenetrans, and the total assay time was less than 2.5 h. These results indicated that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and accurate technique for detection of T. semipenetrans in field soil, and contributes to the effective management of citrus slow decline disease.

  5. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Department of Electromechanics, Renewable Energy Engineering, UTTulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, Fernando [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); C.I.B.A.-I.P.N., Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO{sub 2} from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N{sub 2}O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup -}, but the concentration of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant

  6. Modifications to EPA Method 3060A to Improve Extraction of Cr(VI) from Chromium Ore Processing Residue-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Bern, Carleton R.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Foster, Andrea L.; Morrison, Jean M.; Benzel, William M.

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that EPA Method 3060A does not adequately extract Cr(VI) from chromium ore processing residue (COPR). We modified various parameters of EPA 3060A toward understanding the transformation of COPR minerals in the alkaline extraction and improving extraction of Cr(VI) from NIST SRM 2701, a standard COPR-contaminated soil. Aluminum and Si were the major elements dissolved from NIST 2701, and their concentrations in solution were correlated with Cr(VI). The extraction fluid leached additional Al and Si from the method-prescribed borosilicate glass vessels which appeared to suppress the release of Cr(VI). Use of polytetrafluoroethylene vessels and intensive grinding of NIST 2701 increased the amount of Cr(VI) extracted. These modifications, combined with an increased extraction fluid to sample ratio of ≥900 mL g–1 and 48-h extraction time resulted in a maximum release of 1274 ± 7 mg kg–1 Cr(VI). This is greater than the NIST 2701 certified value of 551 ± 35 mg kg–1 but less than 3050 mg kg–1 Cr(VI) previously estimated by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Some of the increased Cr(VI) may have resulted from oxidation of Cr(III) released from brownmillerite which rapidly transformed during the extractions. Layered-double hydroxides remained stable during extractions and represent a potential residence for unextracted Cr(VI).

  7. Modifications to EPA Method 3060A to Improve Extraction of Cr(VI) from Chromium Ore Processing Residue-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T; Bern, Carleton R; Wolf, Ruth E; Foster, Andrea L; Morrison, Jean M; Benzel, William M

    2017-10-03

    It has been shown that EPA Method 3060A does not adequately extract Cr(VI) from chromium ore processing residue (COPR). We modified various parameters of EPA 3060A toward understanding the transformation of COPR minerals in the alkaline extraction and improving extraction of Cr(VI) from NIST SRM 2701, a standard COPR-contaminated soil. Aluminum and Si were the major elements dissolved from NIST 2701, and their concentrations in solution were correlated with Cr(VI). The extraction fluid leached additional Al and Si from the method-prescribed borosilicate glass vessels which appeared to suppress the release of Cr(VI). Use of polytetrafluoroethylene vessels and intensive grinding of NIST 2701 increased the amount of Cr(VI) extracted. These modifications, combined with an increased extraction fluid to sample ratio of ≥900 mL g(-1) and 48-h extraction time resulted in a maximum release of 1274 ± 7 mg kg(-1) Cr(VI). This is greater than the NIST 2701 certified value of 551 ± 35 mg kg(-1) but less than 3050 mg kg(-1) Cr(VI) previously estimated by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Some of the increased Cr(VI) may have resulted from oxidation of Cr(III) released from brownmillerite which rapidly transformed during the extractions. Layered-double hydroxides remained stable during extractions and represent a potential residence for unextracted Cr(VI).

  8. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected.

  9. Iron and aluminum soil/paleosol extractions as age/environment indicators: Some examples from a catchment in southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, William C.; Hancock, Ronald G. V.; Somelar, Peeter; Milan, Alison

    2016-10-01

    Various chemical extractions of Fe and Al from bulk soil samples, including Na-pyrophosphate (Fep, Alp), acid ammonium oxalate (Feo, Alo), and Na-dithionite (Fed, Ald), have been used over the last half century to distinguish soil ages over varying time frames from 102 to 106 years and even as far into antiquity as the Oligocene (30 × 106) years. Problems with mineral/chemical uniformity of sediments, free drainage of open system profiles, and variable climate over long time frames have produced problems and uncertainties as to just what each extraction removes from the bulk material analyzed. Some problems have been resolved by the work of Parfitt and Childs (1988); but some persist, especially with respect to the solubility of some extractant forms and the actual composition of others, particularly Alp, Alo, and Ald. A recent test of soils and paleosols in a fluvial chronosequence in southern Ontario illustrates the soil-paleosol evolutionary time trend over a period of ~ 11 ky, essentially post-Iroquois time in the Ontario basin (Jackson et al., 2000). This work highlights the importance of isolated, free draining weathering systems, mineral uniformity, and new relationships between secondary forms of Fed and Ald, the latter previously considered of little importance in age relationship quests.

  10. Effects of ethanolic Chavill extract on growth of lactobacillus and salmonella bacteria, in skimmed milk and imaging gastric-intestine media in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R naghiha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & aim: To achieve high performance and health, it’s better to use additives in the human diet which have beneficial effects on good bacteria and damaging effect on the harmful bacteria. For this purpose, effects of Chavill extract on growth, viability and death of lactobacillus and salmonella, in skimmed milk and imaging gastric-intestine media were studied in vitro conditions. Methods: This study was investigated in two completely randomized experiments with three levels of Chavill extract. In the first experiment, ability of the Chavill extract in Skim Milk medium was examined to survey survival, proliferation and death of beneficial and pathogenic gut bacteria. The second experiment which was down in the simulation of simulated gastric juice and simulated small intestine juice, the effect of Chavill extract on survival, proliferation and death of the bacteria were investigated. Treatments in both of experiments were three levels of Chavill extract (0, 1, and 3 % for three probiotic bacteria species. Data were analyzed with SAS 9.1 software and their means were compared by Duncan’s Multiple Range test at a significance level of 5 %. Results: By increasing of Chavill extract concentration to 1%, probiotic bacterial counts significantly increase compared to control treatment and the differences were significant and the count of Salmonella typhimurium difference with control significantly decreased. Using 3% Chavill extract compared to 1% extract, increased number of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum, decreased number of Lactobacillus casei, inhibit growth of Salmonella typhimurium bacterium and block growth of this bacterium. The second experiment on simulated gastric juice showed that numbers of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria increased and Lactobacillus casei and Salmonella typhimurium decreased. Also, findings of bacterial survival on simulated small intestine juice showed

  11. Comparative study of hollow-fiber liquid-phase micro-extraction and an aqueous two-phase system for determination of phytohormones in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, She Ying; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Penghui H; Hu, Qing; Huang, Ting Lin

    2012-06-01

    Two methods, hollow-fiber liquid-phase micro-extraction (HF-LPME) and an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), have been systematically optimized and compared for extraction and determination of phytohormones in soil by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects on extraction of conditions including solvent type and volume, extraction time, temperature, and amount of salt were evaluated. It was shown that ATPS was superior to HF-LPME for determination of paclobutrazol and uniconazole under the optimum conditions. The limits of detection (LODs) of ATPS were 0.002 μg g(-1) for uniconazole and 0.01 μg g(-1) for paclobutrazol, whereas LODs of HF-LPME were 0.005 μg g(-1) and 0.03 μg g(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) and recovery were in the range 1.7-5.3 % and 86-102 %, respectively, for ATPS and 6.7-7.9 % and 40-60 % for HF-LPME. In addition, the advantages of ATPS were shorter extraction time, suitable for simultaneous pretreatment of batches of samples, and higher extraction capacity. ATPS was therefore applied to the determination of paclobutrazol and uniconazole in real soil samples. Uniconazole was detected in all the samples analyzed whereas paclobutrazol was not found.

  12. The utilization of a commercial soil nucleic acid extraction kit and PCR for the detection of Clostridium tetanus and Clostridium chauvoei on farms after flooding in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shr-Wei; Chan, Jacky Peng-Wen; Shia, Wei-Yau; Shyu, Chin-Lin; Tung, Kwon-Chung; Wang, Chi-Young

    2013-05-02

    Clostridial diseases are zoonoses and are classified as soil-borne diseases. Clostridium chauvoei and Clostridium tetani cause blackleg disease and tetanus, respectively. Since bacteria and spores are re-distributed by floods and then, subsequently, contaminate soils, pastures and water; the case numbers associated with clostridial diseases usually increase after floods. Because Taiwan is often affected by flood damage during the typhoon season, possible threats from these diseases are present. Thus, this study's aim is to apply a combination of a commercial nucleic acid extraction kit and PCR to assess the prevalence of Clostridia spp. in soil and to compare the positivity rates for farms before and after floods. The minimum amounts of Clostridium tetanus and Clostridium chauvoei that could be extracted from soils and detected by PCR were 10 and 50 colony forming units (cfu), respectively. In total, 76 samples were collected from the central and southern regions of Taiwan, which are the areas that are most frequently damaged by typhoons. Noteworthy, the positive rates for Clostridium tetanus and Clostridium chauvoei in Pingtung county after the severe floods caused by a typhoon increased significantly from 13.73 and 7.84% to 53.85 and 50.00%, respectively. This study for the first time provides the evidence from surveillance data that there are changes in the environmental distribution of Clostridium spp. after floods. This study indicates that screening for soil-related zoonotic pathogens is a potential strategy that may help to control these diseases.

  13. Chemometric assisted ultrasound leaching-solid phase extraction followed by dispersive-solidification liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Kamyar; Abdollahzadeh, Yaser; Asadollahzadeh, Mehdi; Hemmati, Alireza; Tavakoli, Hamed; Torkaman, Rezvan

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound leaching-solid phase extraction (USL-SPE) followed by dispersive-solidification liquid-liquid microextraction (DSLLME) was developed for preconcentration and determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in soil samples prior gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. At first, OPPs were ultrasonically leached from soil samples by using methanol. After centrifugation, the separated methanol was diluted to 50 mL with double-distillated water and passed through the C18 SPE cartridge. OPPs were eluted with 1 mL acetonitrile. Thus, 1 mL acetonitrile extract (disperser solvent) and 10 µL 1-undecanol (extraction solvent) were added to 5 mL double-distilled water and a DSLLME technique was applied. The variables of interest in the USL-SPE-DSLLME method were optimized with the aid of chemometric approaches. First, in screening experiments, fractional factorial design (FFD) was used for selecting the variables which significantly affected the extraction procedure. Afterwards, the significant variables were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors were 6890-8830. The linear range was 0.025-625 ng g(-1) and limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.012 and 0.2 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 4.06-8.9% (n=6). The relative recoveries of OPPs from different soil samples were 85-98%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parameter estimation of soil hydraulic and thermal property functions for unsaturated porous media using the HYDRUS-2D code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhaei Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of soil hydraulic and thermal properties is essential for studies involving the combined effects of soil temperature and water input on water flow and redistribution processes under field conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the parameters characterizing these properties from a transient water flow and heat transport field experiment. Real-time sensors built by the authors were used to monitor soil temperatures at depths of 40, 80, 120, and 160 cm during a 10-hour long ring infiltration experiment. Water temperatures and cumulative infiltration from a single infiltration ring were monitored simultaneously. The soil hydraulic parameters (the saturated water content θ s, empirical shape parameters α and n, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and soil thermal conductivity parameters (coefficients b1, b2, and b3 in the thermal conductivity function were estimated from cumulative infiltration and temperature measurements by inversely solving a two-dimensional water flow and heat transport using HYDRUS-2D. Three scenarios with a different, sequentially decreasing number of optimized parameters were considered. In scenario 1, seven parameters (θ s, Ks, α, n, b1, b2, and b3 were included in the inverse problem. The results indicated that this scenario does not provide a unique solution. In scenario 2, six parameters (Ks, α, n, b1, b2, and b3 were included in the inverse problem. The results showed that this scenario also results in a non-unique solution. Only scenario 3, in which five parameters (α, n, b1, b2, and b3 were included in the inverse problem, provided a unique solution. The simulated soil temperatures and cumulative infiltration during the ring infiltration experiment compared reasonably well with their corresponding observed values.

  15. Vertical distribution of soil extractable organic C and N contents and total C and N stocks in 78-year-old tree plantations in subtropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Dong, Haibo; Lan, Zhongming; Bacon, Gary; Hao, Yanbin; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-08-11

    Few studies have focused on the effects of long-term forest plantations on the soil profile of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks. In this study, we selected 78-year-old tree plantations that included three coniferous tree species (i.e., slash pine, hoop pine and kauri pine) and a Eucalyptus species in subtropical Australia. We measured soil extractable organic C (EOC) and N (EON) contents and total C and N stocks under different tree species on the forest floor and along a soil profile to 100 cm depth. The results showed that Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil EOC contents (3.3 Mg ha(-1)) than the other tree species (EOC of 1.9-2.3 Mg ha(-1)) and had significantly higher EON (156 kg ha(-1)) contents than slash pine (107 kg ha(-1)). Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil C (58.9 Mg ha(-1)) and N (2.03 Mg ha(-1)) stocks than the other tree species (22.3-27.6 Mg C ha(-1) and 0.71-1.23 Mg N ha(-1)) at 0-100 cm depth. There were no differences in soil C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth among the coniferous tree species. Forest floor C stocks had stronger effects on mineral soil total N stocks than fine root biomass, whereas fine root biomass exerted stronger effects on soil total C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth than forest floor C and N stocks. Our results addressed large differences in soil C and N stocks under different tree species, which can provide useful information for local forest management practices in this region.

  16. Analysis of DDT and its metabolites in soil and water samples obtained in the vicinity of a closed-down factory in Bangladesh using various extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahmud, M N U; Khalil, Farzana; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Mamun, M I R; Shoeb, Mohammad; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Shin, Ho-Chul; Nahar, Nilufar; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to monitor the spread of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) in soil and water to regions surrounding a closed DDT factory in Bangladesh. This fulfillment was accomplished using inter-method and inter-laboratory validation studies. DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) from soil samples were extracted using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and solvent extraction (SE). Inter-laboratory calibration was assessed by SE, and all methods were validated by intra- and inter-day accuracy (expressed as recovery %) and precision (expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD)) in the same laboratory, at three fortified concentrations (n = 4). DDTs extracted from water samples by liquid-liquid partitioning and all samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector (ECD) and confirmed by GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Linearities expressed as determination coefficients (R (2)) were ≥0.995 for matrix-matched calibrations. The recovery rate was in the range of 72-120 and 83-110%, with <15% RSD in soil and water, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.0165 mg kg(-1) in soil and 0.132 μg L(-1) in water. Greater quantities of DDTs were extracted from soil using the MAE and SE techniques than with the SFE method. Higher amounts of DDTs were discovered in the southern (2.2-936 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)) or southwestern (86.3-2067 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)) direction from the factory than in the eastern direction (1.0-48.6 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)). An exception was the soil sample collected 50 ft (15.24 m) east (2904 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)) of the factory. The spread of DDTs in the water bodies (0.59-3.01 μg L(-1)) was approximately equal in all directions. We concluded that DDTs might have been dumped randomly around the warehouse after the closing of the factory.

  17. The use of copper(II) isonicotinate-based micro-solid-phase extraction for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Youya, E-mail: zhouyy@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang Chaoyan; Yan Zengguang; Li Keji [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Xie Yabo [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Li Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu Zhou [Shijiazhuang Municiple Environmental Protection Bureau, Shijiangzhuang 050011 (China); Yang Jin [SGS-CSTC Standards Technical Services Co. Ltd., Shanghai Branch, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2012-10-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Cu(4-C{sub 5}H{sub 4}N-COO){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}-based {mu}-SPE device was developed for determining PBDEs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extraction parameters for determination of PBDEs using {mu}-SPE in soils were optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {mu}-SPE showed a high selectivity to PBDEs, especially lower brominated PBDEs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {mu}-SPE is a promising microextraction technique for monitoring PBDEs in soils. - Abstract: A micro-solid-phase extraction ({mu}-SPE) device was developed by filling copper(II) isonicotinate coordination polymer (Cu(4-C{sub 5}H{sub 4}N-COO){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}) into a porous polypropylene envelope, and the {mu}-SPE, coupling with gas chromatography (GC) with a micro-cell electron capture detector ({mu}-ECD), was used for extraction and determination of PBDEs in soils. Variables affecting extraction procedures, including temperature, water volume, extraction time, and desorption time, were investigated in a spiked soil, and the parameters were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the method detection limits for seven PBDEs (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were in the range of 0.026-0.066 ng g{sup -1}, and the reproducibility was satisfactory with the relative standard deviation in range of 1.3-10.1%. Good linear relationship between PBDEs concentrations and GC signals (defined as peak area) was obtained in the range between 0.1 and 200 ng g{sup -1}. The recovery of the seven PBDEs by {mu}-SPE varied from 70 to 90%, which was comparable to that determined by accelerated solvent extraction method. Finally, the proposed method was used to determine PBDEs in several field-contaminated soils, and it was suggested that the {mu}-SPE is a promising alternative microextraction technique for the detection of PBDEs in soils.

  18. Extractability and crop transfer of potentially toxic elements from mediterranean agricultural soils following long-term sewage sludge applications as a fertilizer replacement to barley and maize crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Mònica; Marguí, Eva; Camps, Francesc; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2018-01-22

    Sewage sludge is used as a fertilizer replacement in agricultural soils for its chemical properties, such as organic matter content, and for its capability to improve physical soil characteristics like porosity. This is also an appealing disposal option for residue whose production is increasing worldwide. However, there is some concern about the presence of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) that can accumulate in soils and become available for crops. In this work, a study was conducted to evaluate the extractability and crops transfer of thirteen PTEs from soils that had been amended with biosolids each year for 15 years as a regular agricultural practice. The study was conducted with barley (winter cereal) and maize (spring cereal) crops. After this long period, an increase in the amount of Pb, Hg, Zn and Ag in soils amended by biosolids was confirmed. However, it is important to emphasize that the PTE total content in croplands was still far below the thresholds established by US and European regulations. Statistically significant differences were also found between the soils fertilized with biosolids and other treatments compared with the potential phytoavailable amount of Cu, Se, Sb and especially for As and Zn, by a DTPA leaching test. Despite these results, the concentration of PTEs in the barley and maize grains grown in fields repeatedly amended with biosolids was not statistically different from those grown with chemical fertilization, except for As in barley grains. In this case, a significant correlation was found between the DTPA-extractable As content in soils and the total content in grains (r = 0.83). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of melanin by soil microbial isolate on fruit waste extract: two step optimization of key parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korumilli Tarangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, optimization of production parameters influencing melanin production in an economical fruit waste extract was attempted using a garden soil isolate (Bacillus safensis. Taguchi approach was adopted for screening of critical parameters and further optimization was done using a central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM. At optimum conditions (pH 6.84 and Temp 30.7 °C, a significant yield of ∼6.96 mg/mL was observed. Statistical analysis revealed that the experimental results fitted well to the statistical model with model R2 value 0.982. The optimization of process parameters using RSM reported a 15% increase in the pigment yield than average yield obtained from the studied model. The melanin produced was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR and XRD analysis. Moreover melanin obtained has significant photoprotective, radical scavenging and metal chelating activity. Thus, B. safensis has the potential to be a new source for the production of melanin, which is of industrial interest.

  20. Production of melanin by soil microbial isolate on fruit waste extract: two step optimization of key parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarangini, Korumilli; Mishra, Susmita

    2014-12-01

    In this study, optimization of production parameters influencing melanin production in an economical fruit waste extract was attempted using a garden soil isolate ( Bacillus safensis ). Taguchi approach was adopted for screening of critical parameters and further optimization was done using a central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). At optimum conditions (pH 6.84 and Temp 30.7 °C), a significant yield of ∼6.96 mg/mL was observed. Statistical analysis revealed that the experimental results fitted well to the statistical model with model R 2 value 0.982. The optimization of process parameters using RSM reported a 15% increase in the pigment yield than average yield obtained from the studied model. The melanin produced was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR and XRD analysis. Moreover melanin obtained has significant photoprotective, radical scavenging and metal chelating activity. Thus, B. safensis has the potential to be a new source for the production of melanin, which is of industrial interest.

  1. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition.

  2. Impact of Irrigation Using Water Containing CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles on Spinach oleracea Grown in Soil Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Divya; Kumar, Arun

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater reuse is an important adaptation option for mitigating water stress in rapidly growing urban centers. Reuse potential of nanoparticles (NPs) contaminated wastewater for irrigation of Spinacia oleracea grown in soil media were assessed in this study. Irrigation of plant were done with water containing CuO and ZnO NPs as single compound and in binary mixture (10, 100, 1000 mg/L) till 11 weeks. At 1000 mg/L, reduction in root length: 16 %, 12 % and 18 %, shoot length: 22 %, 16 % and 27 %, total weight 37 %, 27 % and 45 %, chlorophyll: 18 %, 7 % and 29 % and carotenoids: 46 %, 33 % and 54 % were found for CuO NPs, ZnO NPs and binary mixture of NPs respectively. Uptake values were found to be 5.65 ± 0.8 Zn(2+) and 3.48 ± 0.75 Cu(2+) mg/g for the case of ZnO and CuO NPs respectively (at 1000 mg/L). For mixture of NPs, uptake of 3.18 ± 1.05 mg/g of Cu(2+) and 3.18 ± 1.05 mg/g of Zn(2+) ions were found. The results shows that water containing low concentration of NPs (10 mg/L) can be used for irrigating spinach grown in soil media as no significant toxic effect on growth and uptake of metal ion were found as compared to control. The results of this study evaluated the suitability of reusing water contaminated with NPs in agriculture. Further studies are however required to understand the toxic mode of action of mixture of NPs on growth and uptake mechanisms.

  3. Efficacy of a Phosphate-Charged Soil Material in Supplying Phosphate for Plant Growth in Soilless Root Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Mi Oh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A soil material high in crystalline Fe hydrous oxides and noncrystalline Al hydrous oxides collected from the Bw horizon of a Hemcross soil containing allophane from the state of Oregon was charged with phosphate-P at rates of 0, 2.2, and 6.5 mg·g−1, added to a soilless root medium at 5% and 10% by volume, and evaluated for its potential to supply phosphate at a low, stable concentration during 14 weeks of tomato (Solanum esculentum L. seedling growth. Incorporation of the soil material improved pH stability, whether it was charged with phosphate or not. Bulk solution phosphate-P concentrations in the range of 0.13 to 0.34 mg·dm−3 were associated with P deficiency. The only treatment that sustained an adequate bulk solution concentration of phosphate-P above 0.34 mg·dm−3 for the 14 weeks of testing contained 10% soil material charged with 6.5 mg·g−1 P, but initial dissolved P concentrations were too high (>5 mg·g−1 phosphate-P from the standpoint of phosphate leaching. The treatment amended with 10% soil material charged with 2.2 mg·g−1 P maintained phosphate-P within an acceptable range of 0.4 to 2.3 mg·dm−3 for 48 d in a medium receiving no postplant phosphate fertilization.

  4. Extraction and separation studies of zinc(II and copper(II with D2EHPA and PC-88A from perchlorate media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURSHOTTAM M. DHADKE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction behaviours of Zn(II and Cu(II from perchlorate media have been investigated using bis-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA and 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, (PC-88A in toluene. The extraction of Zn(II was found to be quantitative in the pH range 2.5 to 3.0 and 3.0 to 4.0 using 1.0x10-1 mol dm-3 D2EHPA and 1.0 ´ 10-2 mol dm-3 PC-88A in toluene, respectively, while Cu(II was extracted quantitatively in the pH range 6.0 to 8.0 and 5.5 to 7.0 with 1.0x10-2 mol dm-3 and 1.0x10-3 mol dm-3 D2EHPA and PC-88A in toluene, respectively. Zn(II was stripped with 4.0 mol dm-3 HCl, while Cu(II with 2.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 and 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3 from the organic phase containing D2EHPA and PC-88A, respectively. The probable extracted species were ascertained by log D vs. log [HR] plot to be ZnR42HR and CuR2.2HR for both the reagents. These methods were used for the determination of Zn(II and Cu(II in real samples. The separation of Zn(II and Cu(II were carried out from each other and with associated metals.

  5. Bases do solo e seu comportamento frente a extratores ácidos Soil bases and their behavior under acid extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. da Costa Verdade

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available Já foi verificado anteriormente que certos solos do Estado de São Paulo apresentam os elementos Ca, Mg e K em formas "fixas", isto é, não trocáveis. Procurou-se neste trabalho estudar o comportamento dessas bases, frente a diversas concentrações do extrator HNQ3, desde 0,005 N até 2,000 N, comparando os resultados com os obtidos para diversos volumes do extrator acetato de amônio 1 N, pH 7. Os dados experimentais indicam que o extrator ácido retira as mesmas quantidades dos elementos Ca, Mg e K que o acetato de amônio e as variações encontradas para as diversas concentrações de HNO3 são as mesmas encontradas para volumes diferentes do acetato de amônio. Confirma-se portanto, que nos extratores ácidos são determinados os elementos trocáveis do solo. As formas "fixas" dos citados elementos são bastante resistentes à sua remoção, não sendo atacadas por ácidos à concentração 2 N. Sendo a nutrição mineral das plantas, relativamente ao Ca, Mg e K, baseada na troca com o complexo ou com a solução do solo, e não se aceitando que os vegetais possam criar condições mais enérgicas que o HNO3 2 N para solubilização das formas "fixas", conclui-se que essa nutrição só se processe através das bases trocáveis do solo. Por fim, estudam-se as variações dos teores em bases obtidas pelos extratores ácidos para solos de diversas formações geológicas e compara-se com os teores determinados pelo acetato de amônio.Some soils of the state of São Paulo possess a certain amount of bases that cannot be considered as exchangeable. The behavior of exchangeable and non-exchangeable bases in some soil types was studied by means of cation extraction with nitric acid solutions of the following concentrations: 0.005 N, 0.01 N, 0.05 N, 0.075 N, 0. 5N, 1 N, and 2 N. The exchangeable cations in the samples were determined by leaching the soil with normal ammonium acetate at pH 7, using for aliquots of the same samples 100, 200, 300

  6. Cadmium and Zn availability as affected by pH manipulation and its assessment by soil extraction, DGT and indicator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Iqbal; Puschenreiter, Markus, E-mail: markus.puschenreiter@boku.ac.at; Wenzel, Walter W.

    2012-02-01

    Manipulation of soil pH by soil additives and / or rhizosphere processes may enhance the efficiency of metal phytoextraction. Here we report on the effect of nitric acid additions to four polluted soils on Cd and Zn concentrations in soil solution (C{sub soln}) and 0.005 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} extracts, and related changes in the diffusive fluxes and resupply of the metals as assessed by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). The responses of these chemical indicators of bioavailability were compared to metal uptake in two indicator plant species, common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg) and narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) grown for 75 days in a pot experiment. Lowering soil pH increased C{sub soln}, the 0.005 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-soluble fractions and the DGT-measured Cd and Zn concentrations (C{sub DGT}) in the experimental soils. This was associated with enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn on soils acidified to pH 4.5 whereas plants did not survive at pH 3.5. Toxicity along with decreased kinetics of metal resupply (calculated by the 2D DIFS model) in the strong acidification treatment suggests that moderate acidification is more appropriate to enhance the phytoextraction process. Each of the chemical indicators of bioavailability predicted well (R{sup 2} > 0.70) the Cd and Zn concentrations in plantain shoots but due to metal toxicity not for dandelion. Concentration factors, i.e. the ratio between metal concentrations in shoots and in soil solution (CF) indicate that Cd and Zn uptake in plantain was not limited by diffusion which may explain that DGT did not perform better than C{sub soln}. However, DGT is expected to predict plant uptake better in diffusion-limited conditions such as in the rhizosphere of metal-accumulating phytoextraction crops. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of soil acidification was assessed for four Zn and Cd polluted soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For some soils moderate acidification could

  7. Sequential diffusion of ammonium and nitrate from soil extracts to a polytetrafluoroethylene trap for 15N determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    with simulated soil extracts obtained using 50 ml of 2 M potassium chloride solution containing 130-mu-g of NH4+-N (2.3 atom% N-15) and 120-mu-g of NO3--N (natural N-15 abundance). No cross-over in the N-15 abundances of NH4+-N and NO3--N was observed, indicating a quantitative diffusion process (72 h, 25...

  8. The geographic distribution of Sr isotopes from surface waters and soil extracts over the island of Bornholm (Denmark) – A base for provenance studies in archaeology and agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Frei, Karin Margarita

    2013-01-01

    for provenance studies, including archaeological migration and authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097–0.7281 (average 0.7175 ± 0.0049; 1σ), whereas 0.1 M HNO3, 0.05 M HNO3, and 0.01 M CaCl2 soil extracts range from 87Sr/86Sr...

  9. Quantitative Retrieval of Organic Soil Properties from Visible Near-Infrared Shortwave Infrared (Vis-NIR-SWIR Spectroscopy Using Fractal-Based Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfa Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a fast and cheap tool for estimating a large number of chemical and physical soil properties, and effective features extracted from spectra are crucial to correlating with these properties. We adopt a novel methodology for feature extraction of soil spectroscopy based on fractal geometry. The spectrum can be divided into multiple segments with different step–window pairs. For each segmented spectral curve, the fractal dimension value was calculated using variation estimators with power indices 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Thus, the fractal feature can be generated by multiplying the fractal dimension value with spectral energy. To assess and compare the performance of new generated features, we took advantage of organic soil samples from the large-scale European Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame Survey (LUCAS. Gradient-boosting regression models built using XGBoost library with soil spectral library were developed to estimate N, pH and soil organic carbon (SOC contents. Features generated by a variogram estimator performed better than two other estimators and the principal component analysis (PCA. The estimation results for SOC were coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.85, root mean square error (RMSE = 56.7 g/kg, the ratio of percent deviation (RPD = 2.59; for pH: R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 0.49 g/kg, RPD = 2.31; and for N: R2 = 0.77, RMSE = 3.01 g/kg, RPD = 2.09. Even better results could be achieved when fractal features were combined with PCA components. Fractal features generated by the proposed method can improve estimation accuracies of soil properties and simultaneously maintain the original spectral curve shape.

  10. Simulated storm surge effects on freshwater coastal wetland soil porewater salinity and extractable ammonium levels: Implications for marsh recovery after storm surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M.; White, J. R.; Putnam-Duhon, L. A.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal wetland systems experience both short-term changes in salinity, such as those caused by wind-driven tides and storm surge, and long-term shifts caused by sea level rise. Salinity increases associated with storm surge are known to have significant effects on soil porewater chemistry, but there is little research on the effect of flooding length on salt penetration depth into coastal marsh soils. A simulated storm surge was imposed on intact soil columns collected from a non-vegetated mudflat and a vegetated marsh site in the Wax Lake Delta, LA. Triplicate intact cores were continuously exposed to a 35 salinity water column (practical salinity scale) for 1, 2, and 4 weeks and destructively sampled in order to measure porewater salinity and extractable NH4sbnd N at two cm depth intervals. Salinity was significantly higher in the top 8 cm for both the marsh and mudflat cores after one week of flooding. After four weeks of flooding, salinity was significantly higher in marsh and mudflat cores compared to the control (no salinity) cores throughout the profile for both sites. Extractable ammonium levels increased significantly in the marsh cores throughout the experiment, but there was only a marginally (p < 0.1) significant increase seen in the mudflat cores. Results indicate that porewater salinity levels can become significantly elevated within a coastal marsh soil in just one week. This vertical intrusion of salt can potentially negatively impact macrophytes and associated microbial communities for significantly longer term post-storm surge.

  11. Microwave extraction-isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (ME-IRIS): a novel technique for rapid extraction and in-line analysis of δ18O and δ2H values of water in plants, soils and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munksgaard, Niels C; Cheesman, Alexander W; Wurster, Chris M; Cernusak, Lucas A; Bird, Michael I

    2014-10-30

    Traditionally, stable isotope analysis of plant and soil water has been a technically challenging, labour-intensive and time-consuming process. Here we describe a rapid single-step technique which combines Microwave Extraction with Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectroscopy (ME-IRIS). Plant, soil and insect water is extracted into a dry air stream by microwave irradiation within a sealed vessel. The water vapor thus produced is carried to a cooled condensation chamber, which controls the water vapor concentration and flow rate to the spectrometer. Integration of the isotope signals over the whole analytical cycle provides quantitative δ(18)O and δ(2) H values for the initial liquid water contained in the sample. Calibration is carried out by the analysis of water standards using the same apparatus. Analysis of leaf and soil water by cryogenic vacuum distillation and IRMS was used to validate the ME-IRIS data. Comparison with data obtained by cryogenic distillation and IRMS shows that the new technique provides accurate water isotope data for leaves from a range of field-grown tropical plant species. However, two exotic nursery plants were found to suffer from spectral interferences from co-extracted organic compounds. The precision for extracted leaf, stem, soil and insect water was typically better than ±0.3 ‰ for δ(18)O and ±2 ‰ for δ(2) H values, and better than ±0.1 ‰ for δ(18)O and ±1 ‰ for δ(2) H values when analyzing water standards. The effects of sample size, microwave power and duration and sample-to-sample memory on isotope values were assessed. ME-IRIS provides rapid and low-cost extraction and analysis of δ(18)O and δ(2) H values in plant, soil and insect water (≈10-15 min for samples yielding ≈ 0.3 mL of water). The technique can accommodate whole leaves of many plant species. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in pulp cells of extracted immature teeth preserved in two different storage media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Uğur; Filippi, Andreas; Pohl, Yango; Kirschner, Horst

    2008-02-01

    A specially composed medium for storing avulsed teeth has been developed. In experimental and clinical studies it could be shown that PDL cells could be kept viable during storage in the medium for up to 53 h. In the present study the medium was tested on pulp cells. A total of 40 immature unerupted third molars with open apices were removed surgically and the teeth were stored in a special cell culture medium (SCCM) or in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) at room temperature for 6, 12, 18 or 24 h. Five teeth were assigned to each group. A total of seven consecutive pulp cross-sections per tooth were examined, resulting in a total of 280 specimens. Viable cells were marked using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The pulp was divided in three regions: apical region (0-0.5 mm), middle region (>0.5-1.5 mm) and coronal region (>1.5 mm). The labelling index (LI) was calculated for the whole cut (regions 1, 2 and 3) and for each region separately. The statistical evaluation was made using the One-way anova and Mann-Whitney Test. Pulp cells of all teeth expressed PCNA. About 110 of 140 specimens in the SCCM and 101 of 140 specimens in the HBSS group showed PCNA-positive cells. The highest LI was observed within the apical region and decreased with increased distance from the medium. No marked cells were observed at a distance of more than 1.5 mm. The LI for both media showed a significant increase with storage intervals (P < 0.05). The pulp cells of teeth stored in SCCM showed a LI nearly twice as high compared to pulp cells of teeth stored in HBSS for the apical and middle region (time interval 6, 18 and 24 h: P < 0.05). The LI for the apical region was found to be 8.43% for the SCCM and 4.50% for the HBSS after 24 h. For the middle region the LI was found to be 2.02% for the SCCM and 0.81% for the HBSS after 24 h. Within the parameters of this study, it appears that the SCCM is able to maintain pulp cell viability better than HBSS. The use of special cell

  13. Effects of bentonite and yeast extract as nutrient on decrease in hydraulic conductivity of porous media due to CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryürük, Kağan; Yang, Suyin; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sakaguchi, Iwao; Katayama, Arata

    2015-10-01

    The reduction mechanism of hydraulic conductivity was investigated in porous media treated with bentonite and CaCO3 precipitates induced by growing cells of Sporosarcina pasteurii (ATCC 11859). Bentonite, the bacterial cells, and a precipitation solution, composing of 0.5 M CaCl2 and 0.5 M urea with or without 2% weight/volume yeast extract allowing the bacterial growth were sequentially introduced into the continuous-flow columns containing glass beads between 0.05 and 3 mm in diameter. The treatments reduced the hydraulic conductivity of the columns from between 8.4 × 10(-1) and 4.1 × 10(-3) cm/s to between 9.9 × 10(-4) and 2.1 × 10(-6) cm/s as the lowest. With yeast extract, the conductivity continuously decreased during four days of the experiment, while became stable after two days without yeast extract. Introduction of the bacterial cells did not decrease the conductivity. The reduction in hydraulic conductivity was inversely correlated with the volume occupied by the depositions of bentonite and CaCO3 precipitates in column, showing the same efficiency but a larger effect of the CaCO3 precipitates with increasing volume by bacterial growth. The smaller glass beads resulted in larger volume of the depositions. Bentonite increased the deposition of CaCO3 precipitates. Analysis using the Kozeny-Carman equation suggested that without yeast extract, bentonite and the CaCO3 precipitates formed aggregates with glass beads, thus increasing their diameter and consequently decreasing the pore size in the column. With yeast extract, in addition to the aggregates, the individual CaCO3 precipitates formed separately from the aggregates reduced the hydraulic conductivity. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  15. Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics. Flow in porous media under rarefied gas conditions. Research phase: Fluid conductivity of lunar surface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, F. C.; Jih, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research on fluid conductivity of lunar surface materials is summarized. Theoretical methods were developed for the analysis of transitional and free-molecular flows, and for analysis of lunar permeability probe data in general. Experimental studies of rarefied flows under conditions of a large pressure gradient show flows in the continuum regime to be responsible for the largest portion of the pressure drop between source and sink for one dimensional flow, provided the entrance Knudsen number is sufficiently small. The concept of local similarity leading to a universal nondimensional function of Knudsen number was shown to have approximate validity; flows in all regimes may be described in terms of an area fraction and a single length parameter. Synthetic porous media prepared from glass beads exhibited flow behavior similar in many regards to that of a natural sandstone; studies using artificial stones with known pore configurations may lead to new insight concerning the structure of natural materials. The experimental method involving the use of segmented specimens of large permeability is shown to be fruitful.

  16. Quantification of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soils from cocoa plantations using a QuEChERS extraction procedure and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankyi, Enock; Gordon, Christopher; Carboo, Derick

    2014-01-01

    and to prevent the use of unapproved or banned insecticides on cocoa farms. However the scale of cocoa farming, the frequency and intensity of usage coupled with the mode of application may result in large physical volumes of insecticides in the environment. This makes the knowledge of the concentration and fate...... of neonicotinoids in the environment extremely important. The present study was aimed at assessing the levels of five major neonicotinoids in soils from cocoa farmlands in Ghana. Extraction and cleanup of analytes were performed by use of a method based on the original QuEChERS procedure after optimizing salts......, sorbents and instrumental conditions. Analyte extraction with NaCl and MgSO4 in acidified acetonit