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Sample records for soft-tissue radiography computed

  1. Immersion technique in soft tissue radiography of the hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, P.; Haaslahti, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    Soft tissue radiography of hands using the technique of mammary radiography and immersion in a 2.5 cm layer of 1 : 1 water-ethanol solution is evaluated. Using immersion the average background density decreases with a factor of about 2.5 : 1, with little deterioration in resolution (MTF). The immersion procedure makes the demonstration and evaluation of soft tisse swelling and periarticular oedema easier. (Auth.)

  2. Soft Tissue Biomechanical Modeling for Computer Assisted Surgery

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

      This volume focuses on the biomechanical modeling of biological tissues in the context of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS). More specifically, deformable soft tissues are addressed since they are the subject of the most recent developments in this field. The pioneering works on this CAS topic date from the 1980's, with applications in orthopaedics and biomechanical models of bones. More recently, however, biomechanical models of soft tissues have been proposed since most of the human body is made of soft organs that can be deformed by the surgical gesture. Such models are much more complicated to handle since the tissues can be subject to large deformations (non-linear geometrical framework) as well as complex stress/strain relationships (non-linear mechanical framework). Part 1 of the volume presents biomechanical models that have been developed in a CAS context and used during surgery. This is particularly new since most of the soft tissues models already proposed concern Computer Assisted Planning, with ...

  3. Osteotomy simulation and soft tissue prediction using computer tomography scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teschner, M.; Girod, S.; Girod, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a system is presented that can be used to simulate osteotomies of the skull and to estimate the resulting of tissue changes. Thus, the three-dimensional, photorealistic, postoperative appearance of a patient can be assessed. The system is based on a computer tomography scan and a photorealistic laser scan of the patient's face. In order to predict the postoperative appearance of a patient the soft tissue must follow the movement of the underlying bone. In this paper, a multi-layer soft tissue model is proposed that is based on springs. It incorporates features like skin turgor, gravity and sliding bone contact. The prediction of soft tissue changes due to bone realignments is computed using a very efficient and robust optimization method. The system can handle individual patient data sets and has been tested with several clinical cases. (author)

  4. Diagnostic imaging of the equine fetlock region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: Soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-08-01

    The equine fetlock is the joint most commonly associated with lameness. Although the fetlock is regarded as a simple joint, diagnosis of a fetlock disorder can be a challenge and various imaging modalities are routinely used to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. This review describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the fetlock region and addresses some of the technical aspects involved in taking radiographic and ultrasonographic images of the different soft tissue lesions. A combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still the most commonly used diagnostic approach in clinical practice.

  5. The value of immersion hand radiography in soft tissue changes of musculoskeletal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.; Yaghmai, I.

    1988-01-01

    Immersion hand radiographs were performed on 25 patients with various clinical presentations and compared to plain radiographic studies of the hands. The immersion technique is superior in outlining the skin, subcutaneous fat layers, and fat layers between muscle planes. More important, this technique highlights the tendons and soft tissue components of the joint, which are hardly seen on standard hand radiographs. Immersion studies are therefore useful, both in the early diagnosis of erosive arthritis and in the follow-up of the course of the disease. They are recommended as an adjunct to conventional hand radiography in musculoskeletal disorders with soft tissue involvement. (orig.)

  6. Diagnostic imaging of the equine tarsal region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: the soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Raes, Els; Hoegaerts, Michel; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-02-01

    The equine tarsus is the most commonly affected hindlimb region associated with lameness. Diagnostic imaging is routinely applied but because of its complexity, being composed of 10 multifaceted bones and different joints, multiple ligaments, tendons and bursae, imaging this region can be a challenge. This is the first part of a two-part review of the structures and disorders of the equine tarsus. It describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the tarsal region and addresses some of the technical aspects in taking radiographic, ultrasonographic and scintigraphic images of the different soft tissue lesions. Where applicable, comments on the diagnostic use of contrast radiography, arthroscopy and tenoscopy are made. In current clinical practice a combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still most frequently used to arrive at a diagnosis.

  7. The 'pre-erosive' radiologic signs of rheumatoid arthritis in soft tissue radiography of the hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, P.; Virtama, P.

    1978-01-01

    Soft tissue radiography of the hands using the mammographic immersion technique was performed on 119 patients, having definite or classical rheumatoid arthritis, and on 123 controls of matching age, sex, and professional distribution. A total of 7744 finger joints and carpal borders were investigated for joint swelling, periarticular edema, pre-erosive and erosive bone changes, joint space narrowing, and osteoarthritic joint margin spurs. Slight joint swelling and pre-erosive bone changes were found in connection with osteoarthritic joint changes in elderly control patients. Periarticular edema and moderate to massive joint swelling were quite reliable signs for synovitis. The incidence of pre-erosive bone signs was significantly greater in the rheumatoid arthritis group than in the control group, especially in patients less than 60 years old. These signs can be regarded as suggestive of rheumatoid arthritis; probability diagnosis could be performed using these signs and the Bayesian approach. (orig.) [de

  8. 'pre-erosive' radiologic signs of rheumatoid arthritis in soft tissue radiography of the hands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, P; Virtama, P [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1978-01-01

    Soft tissue radiography of the hands using the mammographic immersion technique was performed on 119 patients, having definite or classical rheumatoid arthritis, and on 123 controls of matching age, sex, and professional distribution. A total of 7744 finger joints and carpal borders were investigated for joint swelling, periarticular edema, pre-erosive and erosive bone changes, joint space narrowing, and osteoarthritic joint margin spurs. Slight joint swelling and pre-erosive bone changes were found in connection with osteoarthritic joint changes in elderly control patients. Periarticular edema and moderate to massive joint swelling were quite reliable signs for synovitis. The incidence of pre-erosive bone signs was significantly greater in the rheumatoid arthritis group than in the control group, especially in patients less than 60 years old. These signs can be regarded as suggestive of rheumatoid arthritis; probability diagnosis could be performed using these signs and the Bayesian approach.

  9. Validation of a Radiography-Based Quantification Designed to Longitudinally Monitor Soft Tissue Calcification in Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephanie N; Hawley, Gregory D; Smith, Emily N; Mignemi, Nicholas A; Ihejirika, Rivka C; Yuasa, Masato; Cates, Justin M M; Liu, Xulei; Schoenecker, Jonathan G

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue calcification, including both dystrophic calcification and heterotopic ossification, may occur following injury. These lesions have variable fates as they are either resorbed or persist. Persistent soft tissue calcification may result in chronic inflammation and/or loss of function of that soft tissue. The molecular mechanisms that result in the development and maturation of calcifications are uncertain. As a result, directed therapies that prevent or resorb soft tissue calcifications remain largely unsuccessful. Animal models of post-traumatic soft tissue calcification that allow for cost-effective, serial analysis of an individual animal over time are necessary to derive and test novel therapies. We have determined that a cardiotoxin-induced injury of the muscles in the posterior compartment of the lower extremity represents a useful model in which soft tissue calcification develops remote from adjacent bones, thereby allowing for serial analysis by plain radiography. The purpose of the study was to design and validate a method for quantifying soft tissue calcifications in mice longitudinally using plain radiographic techniques and an ordinal scoring system. Muscle injury was induced by injecting cardiotoxin into the posterior compartment of the lower extremity in mice susceptible to developing soft tissue calcification. Seven days following injury, radiographs were obtained under anesthesia. Multiple researchers applied methods designed to standardize post-image processing of digital radiographs (N = 4) and quantify soft tissue calcification (N = 6) in these images using an ordinal scoring system. Inter- and intra-observer agreement for both post-image processing and the scoring system used was assessed using weighted kappa statistics. Soft tissue calcification quantifications by the ordinal scale were compared to mineral volume measurements (threshold 450.7mgHA/cm3) determined by μCT. Finally, sample-size calculations necessary to discriminate

  10. Computer radiography - indirect digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezierski, G.

    2008-01-01

    Implementation of the new European standards for industrial radiography with the use of storage phosphor imaging plates will result in the arousing of interest among numerous laboratories in non-destructive testing with application of the new method of testing to replace conventional radiography used so far, i.e. film radiography. Computer radiography is quite commonly used for medical radiography, where the fundamental problem consists in reduction of the radiation dose during the examination of a patient. However, it must be kept in mind that industrial applications have a little bit different requirements when compared with medical radiography. The article describes only new method for radiographic testing. (author)

  11. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  12. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F.; Stubbs, Alana Y.; Graham, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  13. Computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupchek, G.

    2004-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is an image acquisition process that is used to create digital, 2-dimensional radiographs. CR employs a photostimulable phosphor-based imaging plate, replacing the standard x-ray film and intensifying screen combination. Conventional radiographic exposure equipment is used with no modification required to the existing system. CR can transform an analog x-ray department into a digital one and eliminates the need for chemicals, water, darkrooms and film processor headaches. (author)

  14. Immersion radiography for enhancement of soft tissue contrast - experimental study and clinical application -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan

    1986-01-01

    Detection and evaluation of early soft tissue changes are important in rheumatoid arthritis or other joint diseases. The most important factors for radiologic demonstration of soft tissue changes are resolving power and the optimization of contrast differences between structures representing skin and subcutaneous tissue densities. Phantom study was done by using combination of immersion technique and mammography to get the most reliable method for improvement of soft tissue contrast without deterioration of resolution. Clinical application was also done in 5 normal volunteers and 5 rheumatoid patients. The results indicate that soft tissue contrast, especially between skin and subcutaneous tissues can be significantly improved with combination of immersion technique and mammography with 50% ethanol in both phantom and clinical study.

  15. Computer tomography for rare soft tissue tumours of the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, E.; Semerak, M.; Stoltze, D.; Rossak, K.

    1979-01-01

    Five patients with undiagnosed soft tissue masses in the extremities were examined and in two a pathological diagnosis could be made. One was an extensive, invasive fibroma (desmoid) 22 cm long which could be followed from the thigh almost into the pelvis. It was sharply demarkated form the surrounding muscles and of higher density. The second case was a 12 cm long cavernous haemangioma in the semi-membranosus muscle. This was originally hypo-dense, but showed marked increase in its density after the administration of contrast. (orig.) [de

  16. Computational model of soft tissues in the human upper airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelteret, J-P V; Reddy, B D

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element model of the tongue and surrounding soft tissues with potential application to the study of sleep apnoea and of linguistics and speech therapy. The anatomical data was obtained from the Visible Human Project, and the underlying histological data was also extracted and incorporated into the model. Hyperelastic constitutive models were used to describe the material behaviour, and material incompressibility was accounted for. An active Hill three-element muscle model was used to represent the muscular tissue of the tongue. The neural stimulus for each muscle group was determined through the use of a genetic algorithm-based neural control model. The fundamental behaviour of the tongue under gravitational and breathing-induced loading is investigated. It is demonstrated that, when a time-dependent loading is applied to the tongue, the neural model is able to control the position of the tongue and produce a physiologically realistic response for the genioglossus.

  17. A Computational Modeling Approach for Investigating Soft Tissue Balancing in Bicruciate Retaining Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicruciate retaining knee arthroplasty, although has shown improved functions and patient satisfaction compared to other designs of total knee replacement, remains a technically demanding option for treating severe cases of arthritic knees. One of the main challenges in bicruciate retaining arthroplasty is proper balancing of the soft tissue during the surgery. In this study biomechanics of soft tissue balancing was investigated using a validated computational model of the knee joint with high fidelity definitions of the soft tissue structures along with a Taguchi method for design of experiments. The model was used to simulate intraoperative balancing of soft tissue structures following the combinations suggested by an orthogonal array design. The results were used to quantify the corresponding effects on the laxity of the joint under anterior-posterior, internal-external, and varus-valgus loads. These effects were ranked for each ligament bundle to identify the components of laxity which were most sensitive to the corresponding surgical modifications. The resulting map of sensitivity for all the ligament bundles determined the components of laxity most suitable for examination during intraoperative balancing of the soft tissue. Ultimately, a sequence for intraoperative soft tissue balancing was suggested for a bicruciate retaining knee arthroplasty.

  18. A Computational Modeling Approach for Investigating Soft Tissue Balancing in Bicruciate Retaining Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Shahram; Wilson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Bicruciate retaining knee arthroplasty, although has shown improved functions and patient satisfaction compared to other designs of total knee replacement, remains a technically demanding option for treating severe cases of arthritic knees. One of the main challenges in bicruciate retaining arthroplasty is proper balancing of the soft tissue during the surgery. In this study biomechanics of soft tissue balancing was investigated using a validated computational model of the knee joint with high fidelity definitions of the soft tissue structures along with a Taguchi method for design of experiments. The model was used to simulate intraoperative balancing of soft tissue structures following the combinations suggested by an orthogonal array design. The results were used to quantify the corresponding effects on the laxity of the joint under anterior-posterior, internal-external, and varus-valgus loads. These effects were ranked for each ligament bundle to identify the components of laxity which were most sensitive to the corresponding surgical modifications. The resulting map of sensitivity for all the ligament bundles determined the components of laxity most suitable for examination during intraoperative balancing of the soft tissue. Ultimately, a sequence for intraoperative soft tissue balancing was suggested for a bicruciate retaining knee arthroplasty. PMID:23082090

  19. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Han, Seung Ho

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology

  20. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Ho [Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology.

  1. Computational Modeling for Enhancing Soft Tissue Image Guided Surgery: An Application in Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miga, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    With the recent advances in computing, the opportunities to translate computational models to more integrated roles in patient treatment are expanding at an exciting rate. One area of considerable development has been directed towards correcting soft tissue deformation within image guided neurosurgery applications. This review captures the efforts that have been undertaken towards enhancing neuronavigation by the integration of soft tissue biomechanical models, imaging and sensing technologies, and algorithmic developments. In addition, the review speaks to the evolving role of modeling frameworks within surgery and concludes with some future directions beyond neurosurgical applications.

  2. Clinical usefulness of facial soft tissues thickness measurement using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Han, Seung Ho; Choi, Seong Ho; Kim, Chong Kwan; Park, Chang Seo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate clinical usefulness of facial soft tissue thickness measurement using 3D computed tomographic images. One cadaver that had sound facial soft tissues was chosen for the study. The cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT under following scanning protocols about slice thickness and table speed: 3 mm and 3 mm/sec, 5 mm and 5 mm/sec, 7 mm and 7 mm/sec. The acquired data were reconstructed 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 mm reconstruction interval respectively and the images were transferred to a personal computer. Using a program developed to measure facial soft tissue thickness in 3D image, the facial soft tissue thickness was measured. After the ten-time repeation of the measurement for ten times, repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements using the three scanning protocols. Comparison according to the areas was analysed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant intraobserver differences in the measurements of the facial soft tissue thickness using the three scanning protocols (p>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between measurements in the 3 mm slice thickness and those in the 5 mm, 7 mm slice thickness (p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the 14 of the total 30 measured points in the 5 mm slice thickness and 22 in the 7 mm slice thickness. The facial soft tissue thickness measurement using 3D images of 7 mm slice thickness is acceptable clinically, but those of 5 mm slice thickness is recommended for the more accurate measurement

  3. Computed tomography in soft-tissue lesions of the hand and forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Lucas, D.; Feyerabend, T.; Schindler, G.; Lanz, U.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography was carried out in 32 patients with clinically equivocal soft-tissue lesions of the hand (24 times) and forearm (8 times). The CT scans were performed with the patients in standard positions; thin slices and zoom technique were used. All soft-tissue tumors were correctly diagnosed with regard to localization, size and infiltration of the surrounding tissue. The histological diagnosis was correct in tendon-sheath proliferations, deposits caused by metabolic disorders, epithelial and ganglion cysts, hemangiomas, lipomas and in one schwannoma. A malignancy was suspected and was proven to be correct in two cases. False-positive diagnoses of a malignant soft-tissue tumor were made in one case of an aggressive fibromatosis, in a rapidly progressive, ossifying myositis, and three times in the presence of postoperative scar tissue following the resection of a sarcoma. Finally, a case of proliferative myositis regarded as semimalignant was underrated by CT. The hand surgeon considered CT diagnostics to be very helpful in planning operations in an anatomically complex organ such as the hand. (orig.) [de

  4. Computed tomography of the soft tissues of the shoulder. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Bandick, J.

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography of the soft tissue of the shoulder in cases of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff provides the following information: 1. Localisation of the calcium deposits within the rotator cuff. 2. Contours and density of the calcium deposits correlated with the clinical findings as described by Uhthoff et al. Ill-defined contours and non-homogeneous deposits are associated with more severe clinical features. 3. Computed tomography shows that apatite particles, which are not visible radiologically, may penetrate into the shoulder joint and produce synovitis with an effusion. This is of importance in local therapy. (orig.) [de

  5. A virtual surgical training system that simulates cutting of soft tissue using a modified pre-computed elastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toe, Kyaw Kyar; Huang, Weimin; Yang, Tao; Duan, Yuping; Zhou, Jiayin; Su, Yi; Teo, Soo-Kng; Kumar, Selvaraj Senthil; Lim, Calvin Chi-Wan; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a surgical training system that incorporates cutting operation of soft tissue simulated based on a modified pre-computed linear elastic model in the Simulation Open Framework Architecture (SOFA) environment. A precomputed linear elastic model used for the simulation of soft tissue deformation involves computing the compliance matrix a priori based on the topological information of the mesh. While this process may require a few minutes to several hours, based on the number of vertices in the mesh, it needs only to be computed once and allows real-time computation of the subsequent soft tissue deformation. However, as the compliance matrix is based on the initial topology of the mesh, it does not allow any topological changes during simulation, such as cutting or tearing of the mesh. This work proposes a way to modify the pre-computed data by correcting the topological connectivity in the compliance matrix, without re-computing the compliance matrix which is computationally expensive.

  6. Computed tomography in the evaluation of soft tissue tumors. Report in 124 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, P; Calo, M; Boriani, S; De Santis, G

    1986-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of Computed Tomography (CT) in prediction of nature, staging and follow-up of soft-tessue tumors, the authors examined by CT 124 patients with soft tissue neoplasms who later underwent surgery (116 cases) or fine needle biopsy (8 cases). Comparison between CT and surgical or anatomical results showed that CT was able to correctly predict the benignancy or malignancy of the masses in 76% of cases but it was very seldom able to allow an hystological prediction. On the contrary CT was found to be a very useful tool for pre-therapeutic staging and follow-up of the tumors, because it gave many diagnostic information which influenced therapeutic choiches and strategies. 39 refs.

  7. Accuracy and reliability of facial soft tissue depth measurements using cone beam computer tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Pieter; Ren, Yijin

    2010-01-01

    It is important to have accurate and reliable measurements of soft tissue thickness for specific landmarks of the face and scalp when producing a facial reconstruction. In the past several methods have been created to measure facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) in cadavers and in the living. The

  8. Impact of Computed Tomography Image Quality on Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Based on Soft Tissue Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, Natalya V.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Qi, X. Sharon; Li, X. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), different computed tomography (CT) modalities with varying image quality are being used to correct for interfractional variations in patient set-up and anatomy changes, thereby reducing clinical target volume to the planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. We explore how CT image quality affects patient repositioning and CTV-to-PTV margins in soft tissue registration-based IGRT for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four CT-based IGRT modalities used for prostate RT were considered in this study: MV fan beam CT (MVFBCT) (Tomotherapy), MV cone beam CT (MVCBCT) (MVision; Siemens), kV fan beam CT (kVFBCT) (CTVision, Siemens), and kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) (Synergy; Elekta). Daily shifts were determined by manual registration to achieve the best soft tissue agreement. Effect of image quality on patient repositioning was determined by statistical analysis of daily shifts for 136 patients (34 per modality). Inter- and intraobserver variability of soft tissue registration was evaluated based on the registration of a representative scan for each CT modality with its corresponding planning scan. Results: Superior image quality with the kVFBCT resulted in reduced uncertainty in soft tissue registration during IGRT compared with other image modalities for IGRT. The largest interobserver variations of soft tissue registration were 1.1 mm, 2.5 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.2 mm for kVFBCT, kVCBCT, MVFBCT, and MVCBCT, respectively. Conclusions: Image quality adversely affects the reproducibility of soft tissue-based registration for IGRT and necessitates a careful consideration of residual uncertainties in determining different CTV-to-PTV margins for IGRT using different image modalities.

  9. Impact of Computed Tomography Image Quality on Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Based on Soft Tissue Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Natalya V.; Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Qi, X. Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), different computed tomography (CT) modalities with varying image quality are being used to correct for interfractional variations in patient set-up and anatomy changes, thereby reducing clinical target volume to the planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. We explore how CT image quality affects patient repositioning and CTV-to-PTV margins in soft tissue registration-based IGRT for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four CT-based IGRT modalities used for prostate RT were considered in this study: MV fan beam CT (MVFBCT) (Tomotherapy), MV cone beam CT (MVCBCT) (MVision; Siemens), kV fan beam CT (kVFBCT) (CTVision, Siemens), and kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) (Synergy; Elekta). Daily shifts were determined by manual registration to achieve the best soft tissue agreement. Effect of image quality on patient repositioning was determined by statistical analysis of daily shifts for 136 patients (34 per modality). Inter- and intraobserver variability of soft tissue registration was evaluated based on the registration of a representative scan for each CT modality with its corresponding planning scan. Results: Superior image quality with the kVFBCT resulted in reduced uncertainty in soft tissue registration during IGRT compared with other image modalities for IGRT. The largest interobserver variations of soft tissue registration were 1.1 mm, 2.5 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.2 mm for kVFBCT, kVCBCT, MVFBCT, and MVCBCT, respectively. Conclusions: Image quality adversely affects the reproducibility of soft tissue-based registration for IGRT and necessitates a careful consideration of residual uncertainties in determining different CTV-to-PTV margins for IGRT using different image modalities.

  10. Computed radiography in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, C.

    1996-01-01

    Computed radiography has also been called storage phosphor technology, digital luminescence radiography and scintillation phosphor technology, since it relies on phosphor imaging plate as an alternative to screen-film. One of the major advantages in the use of computed radiography (CR) is the consistent image quality independence of the radiographer and exposure used. And secondly a marked reduction in the need for repeat films was achieved and thus a decrease in dose to the patient. In some cases, dose was able to be reduced further due to the fact that the plates respond to lower doses and still provide adequate image quality. Digitalising the Cr image allows it to be transmitted to an imaging console. The images can then be stored on optical disc. 7 refs

  11. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  12. In vivo X-Ray Computed Tomographic Imaging of Soft Tissue with Native, Intravenous, or Oral Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, Connor A.; Foje, Nathan; van Avermaete, Tony; Miramontes, Bernadette; Chapaman, Sarah E.; Sasser, Todd A.; Kannan, Raghuraman; Gerstler, Steven; Leevy, W. Matthew

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the most commonly utilized anatomical imaging modalities for both research and clinical purposes. CT combines high-resolution, three-dimensional data with relatively fast acquisition to provide a solid platform for non-invasive human or specimen imaging. The primary limitation of CT is its inability to distinguish many soft tissues based on native contrast. While bone has high contrast within a CT image due to its material density from calcium phosphate, soft tissue is less dense and many are homogenous in density. This presents a challenge in distinguishing one type of soft tissue from another. A couple exceptions include the lungs as well as fat, both of which have unique densities owing to the presence of air or bulk hydrocarbons, respectively. In order to facilitate X-ray CT imaging of other structures, a range of contrast agents have been developed to selectively identify and visualize the anatomical properties of individual tissues. Most agents incorporate atoms like iodine, gold, or barium because of their ability to absorb X-rays, and thus impart contrast to a given organ system. Here we review the strategies available to visualize lung, fat, brain, kidney, liver, spleen, vasculature, gastrointestinal tract, and liver tissues of living mice using either innate contrast, or commercial injectable or ingestible agents with selective perfusion. Further, we demonstrate how each of these approaches will facilitate the non-invasive, longitudinal, in vivo imaging of pre-clinical disease models at each anatomical site. PMID:23711461

  13. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy of soft tissue tumors: results and correlation with surgical specimen analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Grigio, Henrique Ramos; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Pinto, Paula Nicole Vieira; Tyng, Chiang J.; Cunha, Isabela Werneck da; Aguiar Junior, Samuel; Lopes, Ademar, E-mail: chojniak@uol.com.br [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided core needle biopsy of soft tissue tumors in obtaining appropriate samples for histological analysis, and compare its diagnosis with the results of the surgical pathology as available. Materials and Methods: The authors reviewed medical records, imaging and histological reports of 262 patients with soft-tissue tumors submitted to CT-guided core needle biopsy in an oncologic reference center between 2003 and 2009. Results: Appropriate samples were obtained in 215 (82.1%) out of the 262 patients. The most prevalent tumors were sarcomas (38.6%), metastatic carcinomas (28.8%), benign mesenchymal tumors (20.5%) and lymphomas (9.3%). Histological grading was feasible in 92.8% of sarcoma patients, with the majority of them (77.9%) being classified as high grade tumors. Out of the total sample, 116 patients (44.3%) underwent surgical excision and diagnosis confirmation. Core biopsy demonstrated 94.6% accuracy in the identification of sarcomas, with 96.4% sensitivity and 89.5% specificity. A significant intermethod agreement about histological grading was observed between core biopsy and surgical resection (p < 0.001; kappa = 0.75). Conclusion: CT-guided core needle biopsy demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of soft tissue tumors as well as in the histological grading of sarcomas, allowing an appropriate therapeutic planning (author)

  14. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.) [de

  15. Computed tomography of the soft tissues of the shoulder. Pt. 3. Calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dihlmann, W.; Bandick, J.

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography of the soft tissue of the shoulder in cases of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff provides the following information: 1. Localisation of the calcium deposits within the rotator cuff. 2. Contours and density of the calcium deposits correlated with the clinical findings as described by Uhthoff et al. Ill-defined contours and non-homogeneous deposits are associated with more severe clinical features. 3. Computed tomography shows that apatite particles, which are not visible radiologically, may penetrate into the shoulder joint and produce synovitis with an effusion. This is of importance in local therapy.

  16. In vivo X-Ray Computed Tomographic Imaging of Soft Tissue with Native, Intravenous, or Oral Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matthew Leevy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available X-ray Computed Tomography (CT is one of the most commonly utilized anatomical imaging modalities for both research and clinical purposes. CT combines high-resolution, three-dimensional data with relatively fast acquisition to provide a solid platform for non-invasive human or specimen imaging. The primary limitation of CT is its inability to distinguish many soft tissues based on native contrast. While bone has high contrast within a CT image due to its material density from calcium phosphate, soft tissue is less dense and many are homogenous in density. This presents a challenge in distinguishing one type of soft tissue from another. A couple exceptions include the lungs as well as fat, both of which have unique densities owing to the presence of air or bulk hydrocarbons, respectively. In order to facilitate X-ray CT imaging of other structures, a range of contrast agents have been developed to selectively identify and visualize the anatomical properties of individual tissues. Most agents incorporate atoms like iodine, gold, or barium because of their ability to absorb X-rays, and thus impart contrast to a given organ system. Here we review the strategies available to visualize lung, fat, brain, kidney, liver, spleen, vasculature, gastrointestinal tract, and liver tissues of living mice using either innate contrast, or commercial injectable or ingestible agents with selective perfusion. Further, we demonstrate how each of these approaches will facilitate the non-invasive, longitudinal, in vivo imaging of pre-clinical disease models at each anatomical site.

  17. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Aggarwal, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 71-year-old woman with a history of metastatic ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset, rapidly progressing painful rash in the genital region and lower abdominal wall. She was febrile to 103°F, heart rate was 114 beats per minute, and respiratory rate was 24 per minute. Her exam was notable for a toxic-appearing female with extensive areas of erythema, tenderness, and induration to her lower abdomen, intertriginous areas, and perineum with intermittent segments of crepitus without hemorrhagic bullae or skin breakdown. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT of the abdominal and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast revealed inflammatory changes, including gas and fluid collections within the ventral abdominal wall extending to the vulva, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection. Discussion: Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection of the skin and soft tissues that requires an early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality. Classified into several subtypes based on the type of microbial infection, necrotizing fasciitis can rapidly progress to septic shock or death if left untreated.1 Diagnosing necrotizing fasciitis requires a high index of suspicion based on patient risk factors, presentation, and exam findings. Definitive treatment involves prompt surgical exploration and debridement coupled with IV antibiotics.2,3 Clinical characteristics such as swelling, disproportionate pain, erythema, crepitus, and necrotic tissue should be a guide to further diagnostic tests.4 Unfortunately, lab values such as white blood cell count and lactate imaging studies have high sensitivity but low specificity, making the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis still largely a clinical one.4,5 CT is a reliable method to exclude the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections (sensitivity of 100%, but is only moderately reliable in correctly identifying such infections (specificity of 81%.5 Given the emergent

  18. Devising tissue ingrowth metrics: a contribution to the computational characterization of engineered soft tissue healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Antoine; Attik, Nina; Bayon, Yves; Royet, Elodie; Wirth, Carine; Bourges, Xavier; Piat, Alexis; Dolmazon, Gaëlle; Clermont, Gaëlle; Boutrand, Jean-Pierre; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Gritsch, Kerstin

    2018-03-14

    differences not detected by the semi-quantitative assessment, demonstrating the importance of quantitative analysis in the performance evaluation of soft tissue healing. This automated and supervised method reduced operator dependency and proved to be simple, sensitive, cost-effective and time-effective. It supports objective therapeutic comparisons and helps to elucidate regeneration and the dynamics of a functional tissue.

  19. Soft-tissue perineurioma of the retroperitoneum in a 63-year-old man, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumoto Mayumi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Soft-tissue perineuriomas are rare benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors in the subcutis of the extremities and the trunks of young patients. To our knowledge, this the first presentation of the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of a soft-tissue perineurioma in the retroperitoneum with pathologic correlation. Case presentation A 63-year-old Japanese man was referred for assessment of high blood pressure. Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined, gradually enhancing tumor without focal degeneration or hemorrhage adjacent to the pancreatic body. Tumor excision with distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed, as a malignant tumor of pancreatic origin could not be ruled out. No recurrence has been noted in the 16 months since the operation. Pathologic examination of the tumor revealed a soft-tissue perineurioma of the retroperitoneum. Conclusion Although the definitive diagnosis of soft-tissue perineurioma requires biopsy and immunohistochemical reactivity evaluation, the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings described in this report suggest inclusion of this rare tumor in the differential diagnosis when such findings occur in the retroperitoneum.

  20. Digital dissection - using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning to elucidate hard- and soft-tissue anatomy in the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Bright, Jen A; Rayfield, Emily J

    2014-04-01

    Gross dissection has a long history as a tool for the study of human or animal soft- and hard-tissue anatomy. However, apart from being a time-consuming and invasive method, dissection is often unsuitable for very small specimens and often cannot capture spatial relationships of the individual soft-tissue structures. The handful of comprehensive studies on avian anatomy using traditional dissection techniques focus nearly exclusively on domestic birds, whereas raptorial birds, and in particular their cranial soft tissues, are essentially absent from the literature. Here, we digitally dissect, identify, and document the soft-tissue anatomy of the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) in detail, using the new approach of contrast-enhanced computed tomography using Lugol's iodine. The architecture of different muscle systems (adductor, depressor, ocular, hyoid, neck musculature), neurovascular, and other soft-tissue structures is three-dimensionally visualised and described in unprecedented detail. The three-dimensional model is further presented as an interactive PDF to facilitate the dissemination and accessibility of anatomical data. Due to the digital nature of the data derived from the computed tomography scanning and segmentation processes, these methods hold the potential for further computational analyses beyond descriptive and illustrative proposes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  1. Comparative study between computed radiography and conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorhazleena Azaman; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Sapizah Rahim; Shaharudin Sayuti; Arshad Yassin; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    In Industrial Radiography, there are many criteria that need to be considered based on established standards to accept or reject the radiographic film. For conventional radiography, we need to consider the optical density by using the densitometer when viewing the film on the viewer. But in the computed radiography (CR) we need to evaluate and performed the analysis from the quality of the digital image through grey value. There are many factors that affected the digital image quality. One of the factors which are affected to the digital image quality in the image processing is grey value that related to the contrast resolution. In this work, we performed grey value study measurement on digital radiography systems and compared it with exposed films in conventional radiography. The test sample is a steel step wedge. We found out the contrast resolution is higher in Computed Radiography compared with Conventional Radiography. (author)

  2. Computed radiography for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tatsuya; Muramatsu, Yukio

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibility of using computed radiographic mammography in mass surveys of the breast, we have retrospectively examined 71 breast cancer lesions in 71 patients using computed radiographic and conventional non-screen mammographies and have carried out comparative studies on tumor detection rate and calcification. A 95.8% detection rate was obtained for the tumor image (n 71) using computed radiography (CR) and one of 93.0% using non-screen techniques. Three lesions remained undetected by either study. A 100% detection rate was obtained for calcification associated with cancer (n 33) from each method. No significant differences in either detection rate or calcification were seen between the two images. On the other hand, the ability to recognize tumor images (n 66) was as follows; CR superior to non-screen radiography in 53 lesions (80.3%), equal in eight lesions (12.1%) and inferior in five lesions (7.6%). For the calcification images (n 18), CR was superior to non-screen radiography in all 18 lesions. Obviously, CR gives better results than non-screen radiography. Furthermore, an adequate image can be obtained using CR even although the X-ray dosage is only a twentieth of that required for non-screen radiography. It can therefore be applied not only to mass surveys for breast cancer but also to routine clinical diagnoses. (author)

  3. Automatic bone detection and soft tissue aware ultrasound-CT registration for computer-aided orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Wolfgang; Karamalis, Athanasios; Baumgartner, Adrian; Navab, Nassir

    2015-06-01

    The transfer of preoperative CT data into the tracking system coordinates within an operating room is of high interest for computer-aided orthopedic surgery. In this work, we introduce a solution for intra-operative ultrasound-CT registration of bones. We have developed methods for fully automatic real-time bone detection in ultrasound images and global automatic registration to CT. The bone detection algorithm uses a novel bone-specific feature descriptor and was thoroughly evaluated on both in-vivo and ex-vivo data. A global optimization strategy aligns the bone surface, followed by a soft tissue aware intensity-based registration to provide higher local registration accuracy. We evaluated the system on femur, tibia and fibula anatomy in a cadaver study with human legs, where magnetically tracked bone markers were implanted to yield ground truth information. An overall median system error of 3.7 mm was achieved on 11 datasets. Global and fully automatic registration of bones aquired with ultrasound to CT is feasible, with bone detection and tracking operating in real time for immediate feedback to the surgeon.

  4. Computed radiography in NDT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprins, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Computed Radiography, or digital radiography by use of reusable Storage Phosphor screens, offers a convenient and reliable way to replace film. In addition to the reduced cost on consumables, the return on investment of CR systems is strongly determined by savings in exposure time, processing times and archival times. But also intangible costs like plant shutdown, environment safety and longer usability of isotopes are increasingly important when considering replacing film by Storage Phosphor systems. But mote than in traditional radiography, the use of digital images is a trade-off between the speed and the required quality. Better image quality is obtained by longer exposure times, slower phosphor screens and higher scan resolutions. Therefore, different kinds of storage phosphor screens are needed in order to cover every application. Most operations have the data, associated with the tests to be performed, centrally stored in a database. Using a digital radiography system gives not only the advantages of the manipulation of digital images, but also the digital data that is associated with it. Smart methods to associate cassettes and Storage screens with exposed images enhance the workflow of the NDT processes, and avoid human error. Automated measurements tools increase the throughput in different kinds of operations. This paper gives an overview of the way certain operations have decided to replace film by Computed Radiography, and what the major benefits for them have been.

  5. The value of computed tomography in the diagnosis of the rotator cuff tears, and bone and soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoh, Sansen

    1984-01-01

    The usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tear was assessed. The rotator cuff could not be visualized in detail by CT unless introduction of contrast material into the joint cavity was performed. CT arthrography was performed on 21 cases of rotator cuff tears. The most detailed information was obtained when a relatively low concentration of contrast material (3.25% Angiografin) was filled in the joint cavity, and when the shoulder joint was rotated to the maximum outwards at the side. CT arthrography proved to be the most reliable method for assessing the extent and portion of the rotator cuff tears, so that it demonstrated conclusive evidence of diagnosis and management in 89% of patients studied. The usefulness of CT in the diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumors was assessed. CT examination provided unique preoperative information which could imagine a more precise histological characteristics and anatomical localization of the lesion. Contrast enhancement (CE), when used, proved to be helpful in predicting the nature of tumors. The CE by intra-arterial infusion, or intravenous bolous injection of contrast material during the scan was more useful than that by intervenous drip infusion of the material. The information regarding change of tumor size, CT number and CE were appropriate indicators which directly corresponded to responsiveness of the tumor to the chemotheraphy and radiotherapy performed. Preoperative ABC classification of the tumor by information regarding its size, location, definition and anatomical relation of tumors to vital structures (neural, vescular, and visceral) was done by using CT. The classification clearly corresponded to the status of patients regarding the treatment required for the patients. (author)

  6. Facial soft-tissue asymmetry in three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images of children with surgically corrected unilateral clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John Marlow; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine

    2014-03-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a relatively common craniofacial malformation involving bony and soft-tissue disruptions of the nasolabial and dentoalveolar regions. The combination of CL/P and subsequent craniofacial surgeries to close the cleft and improve appearance of the cutaneous upper lip and nose can cause scarring and muscle pull, possibly resulting in soft-tissue depth asymmetries across the face. We tested the hypothesis that tissue depths in children with unilateral CL/P exhibit differences in symmetry across the sides of the face. Twenty-eight tissue depths were measured on cone-beam computed tomography images of children with unilateral CL/P (n = 55), aged 7 to 17 years, using Dolphin software (version 11.5). Significant differences in tissue depth symmetry were found around the cutaneous upper lip and nose in patients with unilateral CL/P.

  7. Computing dispersion curves of elastic/viscoelastic transversely-isotropic bone plates coupled with soft tissue and marrow using semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Tran, Tho N H T; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Naili, Salah; Le, Lawrence H

    2017-08-01

    We present a semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) scheme for accurately computing the velocity dispersion and attenuation in a trilayered system consisting of a transversely-isotropic (TI) cortical bone plate sandwiched between the soft tissue and marrow layers. The soft tissue and marrow are mimicked by two fluid layers of finite thickness. A Kelvin-Voigt model accounts for the absorption of all three biological domains. The simulated dispersion curves are validated by the results from the commercial software DISPERSE and published literature. Finally, the algorithm is applied to a viscoelastic trilayered TI bone model to interpret the guided modes of an ex-vivo experimental data set from a bone phantom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.L.; Delrue, F.; De Schepper, A.M.A. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Salgado, R. [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    A soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst located in the right gluteus medius of a 21-year-old man is reported. On conventional radiography, the lesion demonstrated a spherically trabeculated mass with a calcific rim. On CT scan, it showed a well-organized peripheral calcification resembling a myositis ossificans. On MRI, it presented as a multilocular, cystic lesion with fluid-fluid levels. The lesion had no solid components except for intralesional septa. Although findings on imaging and histology were identical to those described in classical aneurysmal bone cyst, diagnosis was delayed because of lack of knowledge of this entity and its resemblance to the more familiar post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans). (orig.)

  9. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.L.; Delrue, F.; De Schepper, A.M.A.; Salgado, R.

    2004-01-01

    A soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst located in the right gluteus medius of a 21-year-old man is reported. On conventional radiography, the lesion demonstrated a spherically trabeculated mass with a calcific rim. On CT scan, it showed a well-organized peripheral calcification resembling a myositis ossificans. On MRI, it presented as a multilocular, cystic lesion with fluid-fluid levels. The lesion had no solid components except for intralesional septa. Although findings on imaging and histology were identical to those described in classical aneurysmal bone cyst, diagnosis was delayed because of lack of knowledge of this entity and its resemblance to the more familiar post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans). (orig.)

  10. Dose optimisation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner-Karoussou, A.

    2005-01-01

    After the installation of computed radiography (CR) systems in three hospitals in Luxembourg a patient dose survey was carried out for three radiographic examinations, thorax, pelvis and lumbar spine. It was found that the patient doses had changed in comparison with the patient doses measured for conventional radiography in the same three hospitals. A close collaboration between the manufacturers of the X-ray installations, the CR imaging systems and the medical physicists led to the discovery that the speed class with which each radiographic examination was to be performed, had been ignored, during installation of the digital imaging systems. A number of procedures were carried out in order to calibrate and program the X-ray installations in conjunction with the CR systems. Following this optimisation procedure, a new patient dose survey was carried out for the three radiographic examinations. It was found that patient doses for the three hospitals were reduced. (authors)

  11. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S.; Widhalm, P.; Donner, R.; Birngruber, E.; Thodberg, H.H.; Kainberger, F.; Langs, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  12. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  13. Radiologic diagnosis of malignant soft-tissue tumors of the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, P.E.; Friedmann, G.

    1983-01-01

    In malignant soft-tissue tumors of the extremities the radiologist is asked to define size and extent of the lesion and it's relationship to adjacent structures. The assessment of the nature of the lesion is of utmost importance, however, the contribution of the different imaging modalities varies considerably. In a review article the current roles of conventional radiography, xeroradiography, real-time ultrasonography, computed tomography and arteriography in the diagnostic workup of malignant soft-tissue tumors of the extremities are discussed. The statements made are based upon own comparative studies as well as on a review of the literature. In the assessment of the nature of a soft-tissue mass the contribution of all radiologic imaging methods is rather limited, although arteriography may add valuable information if performed complementary to CT. Real-time ultrasonography is well suited to define size, location and extent of peripheral soft-tissue masses. It is therefore recommended as the first imaging method and for follow-up studies. Equivocal findings by real-time sonography and new cases for treatment planning must be confirmed by computed tomography which proved to be the most reliable and the best reproducible imaging method for soft-tissue tumors of the extremities. (orig.)

  14. Reptile Soft Tissue Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Mans, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of computed radiography to ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shigeki; Mochizuki, Fukuji; Fujita, Naotaka; Itoh, Shoichiro; Ikeda, Takashi; Toyohara, Tokiaki; Matsumoto, Kyoichi

    1984-01-01

    Computed radiography technic was applied to ERCP. Fuji Computed Radiography System was used. The pancreatogram obtained by this method was compared with that of conventional screen-film radiograph. The much finer changes of the pancreatogram can be delineated by the new method. The diagnostic ability of ERCP is thus enhanced by the introduction of FCR. (author)

  16. Computed Radiography Exposure Indices in Mammography | Koen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computed Radiography Exposure Indices in Mammography. L Koen, C Herbst, W Rae. Abstract. Background. Studies indicate that computed radiography (CR) can lead to increased radiation dose to patients. It is therefore important to relate the exposure indicators provided by CR manufacturers to the radiation dose ...

  17. Soft tissue anchor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G V; Chang, T; White, J M

    1994-04-01

    The concept of soft tissue attachment and reattachment has been addressed over the years through a variety of surgical techniques. This includes tendons and ligaments that have been detached both surgically and traumatically from their osseous origins or insertions. This study is designed to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of current commercially available devices. Detailed descriptions of the various devices are provided along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each. Their application and use in reconstructive foot and ankle surgery are also discussed.

  18. Computed radiography systems performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Clarice C.; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a computed radiography system was evaluated, according to the AAPM Report No. 93. Evaluation tests proposed by the publication were performed, and the following nonconformities were found: imaging p/ate (lP) dark noise, which compromises the clinical image acquired using the IP; exposure indicator uncalibrated, which can cause underexposure to the IP; nonlinearity of the system response, which causes overexposure; resolution limit under the declared by the manufacturer and erasure thoroughness uncalibrated, impairing structures visualization; Moire pattern visualized at the grid response, and IP Throughput over the specified by the manufacturer. These non-conformities indicate that digital imaging systems' lack of calibration can cause an increase in dose in order that image prob/ems can be so/ved. (author)

  19. Standard guide for computed radiography

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides general tutorial information regarding the fundamental and physical principles of computed radiography (CR), definitions and terminology required to understand the basic CR process. An introduction to some of the limitations that are typically encountered during the establishment of techniques and basic image processing methods are also provided. This guide does not provide specific techniques or acceptance criteria for specific end-user inspection applications. Information presented within this guide may be useful in conjunction with those standards of 1.2. 1.2 CR techniques for general inspection applications may be found in Practice E2033. Technical qualification attributes for CR systems may be found in Practice E2445. Criteria for classification of CR system technical performance levels may be found in Practice E2446. Reference Images Standards E2422, E2660, and E2669 contain digital reference acceptance illustrations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the st...

  20. An exploratory study of contrast agents for soft tissue visualization by means of high resolution X-ray computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, E; Van Loo, D; Cornillie, P; Brabant, L; Van Hoorebeke, L

    2013-04-01

    High resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT), or microCT, is a promising and already widely used technique in various scientific fields. Also for histological purposes it has great potential. Although microCT has proven to be a valuable technique for the imaging of bone structures, the visualization of soft tissue structures is still an important challenge due to their low inherent X-ray contrast. One way to achieve contrast enhancement is to make use of contrast agents. However, contrary to light and electron microscopy, knowledge about contrast agents and staining procedures is limited for X-ray CT. The purpose of this paper is to identify useful X-ray contrast agents for soft tissue visualization, which can be applied in a simple way and are also suited for samples larger than (1 cm)(3) . And 28 chemical substances have been investigated. All chemicals were applied in the form of concentrated aqueous solutions in which the samples were immersed. First, strips of green Bacon were stained to evaluate contrast enhancement between muscle and adipose tissue. Furthermore it was also tested whether the contrast agents remained fixed in the tissue after staining by re-immersing them in water. Based on the results, 12 contrast agents were selected for further testing on postmortem mice hind legs, containing a variety of different tissues, including muscle, fat, bone, cartilage and tendons. It was evaluated whether the contrast agents allowed a clearer distinction between the different soft tissue structures present. Finally also penetration depth was measured. And 26 chemicals resulted in contrast enhancement between muscle and adipose tissue in the Bacon strips. Mercury(II)chloride (HgCl2 ), phosphotungstic acid (PTA), phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) and ammonium orthomolybdate ((NH4 )2 MoO4 ) remained fixed after re-immersion in water. The penetration tests showed that potassium iodide (KI) and sodium tungstate can be most efficiently used for large samples of the order

  1. Clinical management of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, H.M.; Verweij, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is concerned with the clinical management of soft tissue sarcomas. Topics covered include: Radiotherapy; Pathology of soft tissue sarcomas; Surgical treatment of soft tissue sarcomas; and Chemotherapy in advanced soft tissue sarcomas

  2. Detection of radiographically occult-ankle fractures. Positive predictive value of post-traumatic soft-tissue swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Caruana, E.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs as a predictor of radiographically occult fracture, after acute ankle injury (trauma). Patients with acute ankle trauma and plain radiographic evidence of soft-tissue swelling were included in this study. Patients were excluded if ankle trauma was sustained more than 48 hours previously or if fracture was visible on plain radiographs. All subjects (n=25) underwent computed tomography (CT) of the ankle in sagittal and coronal planes. Size of soft-tissue swelling was measured from initial Antero-posterior (AP) radiographs. The subjects in the study were placed into two groups according to whether a fracture was identified on CT or not. The results identified that those subjects without a fracture demonstrated by CT, had a soft-tissue swelling of less than 12.6 mm, while those with over 17.1mm swelling, showed a fracture on CT. Twelve patients (48 per cent) had radiographically occult fractures identified with CT. Fracture sites included: Talus/Talar Dome (n=9), posterior or lateral malleolos (n=2), distal tibia/fibula (n=1). CT detected significant soft-tissue injuries in six patients (24 per cent), composed of damaged anterior talo-fibular ligament (n=4), torn flexor tendons (n=1), and damaged fibular calcaneal ligament (n=1). One patient also showed gas in the talar dome. This study concludes that presence of a large soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs after acute ankle trauma suggests an underlying fracture. A soft-tissue swelling of >15 mm is a reasonable threshold to prompt further imaging. Helical computed tomography provides good visualisation of subtle bone injuries and may detect clinically important soft-tissue injuries. While the study has a small sample, there is clear evidence that there is a trend worth investigating. Future research will seek to investigate a larger sample. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  3. Soft tissue-preserving computer-aided impression: a novel concept using ultrasonic 3D-scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollborn, Thorsten; Habor, Daniel; Pekam, Fabrice Chuembou; Heger, Stefan; Marotti, Juliana; Reich, Sven; Wolfart, Stefan; Tinschert, Joachim; Radermacher, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Subgingival preparations are often affected by blood and saliva during impression taking, regardless of whether one is using compound impression techniques or intraoral digital scanning methods. The latter are currently based on optical principles and therefore also need clean and dry surfaces. In contrast, ultrasonic waves are able to non-invasively penetrate gingiva, saliva, and blood, leading to decisive advantages, as cleaning and drying of the oral cavity becomes unnecessary. In addition, the application of ultrasound may facilitate the detection of subgingival structures without invasive manipulation, thereby reducing the risk of secondary infection and treatment time, and increasing patient comfort. Ultrasound devices commonly available for medical application and for the testing of materials are only suitable to a limited extent, as their resolution, precision, and design do not fulfill the requirements for intraoral scanning. The aim of this article is to describe the development of a novel ultrasound technology that enables soft tissue-preserving digital impressions of preparations for the CAD/CAM-based production of dental prostheses. The concept and development of the high-resolution ultrasound technique and the corresponding intraoral scanning system, as well as the integration into the CAD/CAM process chain, is presented.

  4. Material parameter identification and inverse problems in soft tissue biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Sam

    2017-01-01

    The articles in this book review hybrid experimental-computational methods applied to soft tissues which have been developed by worldwide specialists in the field. People developing computational models of soft tissues and organs will find solutions for calibrating the material parameters of their models; people performing tests on soft tissues will learn what to extract from the data and how to use these data for their models and people worried about the complexity of the biomechanical behavior of soft tissues will find relevant approaches to address this complexity.

  5. Soft tissue sparganosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Kwan Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In Hwan; Suh, Hyoung Sim [Daelin S. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis.

  6. Damage Models for Soft Tissues: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenguang

    Damage to soft tissues in the human body has been investigated for applications in healthcare, sports, and biomedical engineering. This paper reviews and classifies damage models for soft tissues to summarize achievements, identify new directions, and facilitate finite element analysis. The main ideas of damage modeling methods are illustrated and interpreted. A few key issues related to damage models, such as experimental data curve-fitting, computational effort, connection between damage and fractures/cracks, damage model applications, and fracture/crack extension simulation, are discussed. Several new challenges in the field are identified and outlined. This review can be useful for developing more advanced damage models and extending damage modeling methods to a variety of soft tissues.

  7. Quantification and validation of soft tissue deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for soft tissue deformation derived empirically from 10 pig carcases. The carcasses are subjected to deformation from a known single source of pressure located at the skin surface, and the deformation is quantified by means of steel markers injected into the tissue. The steel...... markers are easy to distinguish from the surrounding soft tissue in 3D computed tomography images. By tracking corresponding markers using methods from point-based registration, we are able to accurately quantify the magnitude and propagation of the induced deformation. The deformation is parameterised...

  8. Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT): an emerging tool for rapid, high-resolution, 3-D imaging of metazoan soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Paul M; Kley, Nathan J; Clarke, Julia A; Colbert, Matthew W; Morhardt, Ashley C; Cerio, Donald; Cost, Ian N; Cox, Philip G; Daza, Juan D; Early, Catherine M; Echols, M Scott; Henkelman, R Mark; Herdina, A Nele; Holliday, Casey M; Li, Zhiheng; Mahlow, Kristin; Merchant, Samer; Müller, Johannes; Orsbon, Courtney P; Paluh, Daniel J; Thies, Monte L; Tsai, Henry P; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-06-01

    Morphologists have historically had to rely on destructive procedures to visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) anatomy of animals. More recently, however, non-destructive techniques have come to the forefront. These include X-ray computed tomography (CT), which has been used most commonly to examine the mineralized, hard-tissue anatomy of living and fossil metazoans. One relatively new and potentially transformative aspect of current CT-based research is the use of chemical agents to render visible, and differentiate between, soft-tissue structures in X-ray images. Specifically, iodine has emerged as one of the most widely used of these contrast agents among animal morphologists due to its ease of handling, cost effectiveness, and differential affinities for major types of soft tissues. The rapid adoption of iodine-based contrast agents has resulted in a proliferation of distinct specimen preparations and scanning parameter choices, as well as an increasing variety of imaging hardware and software preferences. Here we provide a critical review of the recent contributions to iodine-based, contrast-enhanced CT research to enable researchers just beginning to employ contrast enhancement to make sense of this complex new landscape of methodologies. We provide a detailed summary of recent case studies, assess factors that govern success at each step of the specimen storage, preparation, and imaging processes, and make recommendations for standardizing both techniques and reporting practices. Finally, we discuss potential cutting-edge applications of diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT) and the issues that must still be overcome to facilitate the broader adoption of diceCT going forward. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  9. Soft tissue angiosarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, P.H.; Lindberg, R.D.; Barkley, H.T.

    1981-12-01

    From 1949 to 1979, 12 patients with soft tissue angiosarcoma received radiotherapy (alone or in combination with other modalities of treatment) with curative intent at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. The primary site was the head and neck in six patients (scalp, four; maxillary antrum, one; and oral tongue, one), the breast in four patients, and the thigh in two patients. All four patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp had advanced multifocal tumors, and two of them had clinically positive neck nodes. None of these tumors were controlled locally, and local recurrences occurred within and/or at a distance from the generous fields of irradiation. The remaining two patients with head and neck lesions had their disease controlled by surgery and postoperative irradiation. Three of the four angiosarcomas of the breast were primary cases which were treated by a combination of surgery (excisional biopsy, simple mastectomy, radical mastectomy) and postoperative irradiation. One patient also received adjuvant chemotherapy. The fourth patient was treated for scar recurrence after radical mastectomy. All four patients had their disease locally controlled, and two of them have survived over 5 years. The two patients with angiosarcoma of the thigh were treated by conservative surgical excision and postoperative irradiation. One patient had her disease controlled; the other had a local recurrence requiring hip disarticulation and subsequent hemipelvectomy for salvage.

  10. Corrosion Surveillance In Pipe By Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen The Man; Dao Duy Dung; Dang Thu Hong; Le Duc Thinh; Ha Hong Thu; Nguyen Trong Nghia

    2014-01-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) is a technique of digital industrial radiology which is developed to replace conventional radiography. With a CR system, the detection of the outer and inner wall surface of the pipe is done usually by edge detection and filter algorithms of the profile line at the position under investigation. Applying in industries, radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure. This paper summarizes collected knowledge and experimental results to establish a procedure for radiography applications in monitoring corrosion in small bore pipes. (author)

  11. A comparison of radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of palmar process fractures in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneps, A.J.; Koblik, P.D.; Freeman, D.M.; Pool, R.R.; O'Brien, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    The relative sensitivity of radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting palmar process fractures of the distal phalanx in foals was determined and the imaging findings were compared with histomorphologic evaluations of the palmar processes. Compared to radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging did not improve the sensitivity for detection of palmar process fractures. Statistical agreement for palmar process fracture diagnosis was excellent among the three imaging modalities. Histomorphologic evaluations were more sensitive for diagnosis of palmar process fracture than any of the imaging modalities. Three-dimensional image reconstructions and volume measurements of distal phalanges and palmar process fracture fragments from computed tomography studies provided more complete anatomical information than radiography. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that the deep digital flexor tendon insertion on the distal phalanx is immediately axial to the site where palmar process fractures occur, and differentiated cartilage, bone, and soft tissue structures of the hoof

  12. Computer processing techniques in digital radiography research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickens, D.R.; Kugel, J.A.; Waddill, W.B.; Smith, G.D.; Martin, V.N.; Price, R.R.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    In the Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and the Center for Medical Imaging Research, Nashville, TN, there are several activities which are designed to increase the information available from film-screen acquisition as well as from direct digital acquisition of radiographic information. Two of the projects involve altering the display of images after acquisition, either to remove artifacts present as a result of the acquisition process or to change the manner in which the image is displayed to improve the perception of details in the image. These two projects use methods which can be applied to any type of digital image, but are being implemented with images digitized from conventional x-ray film. One of these research endeavors involves mathematical alteration of the image to correct for motion artifacts or registration errors between images that will be subtracted. Another applies well-known image processing methods to digital radiographic images to improve the image contrast and enhance subtle details in the image. A third project involves the use of dual energy imaging with a digital radiography system to reconstruct images which demonstrate either soft tissue details or the osseous structures. These projects are discussed in greater detail in the following sections of this communication

  13. Imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanel, D.; Le Treut, A.

    1988-01-01

    Modern imaging of soft tissue sarcomas now includes ultrasounds, CT and MRI. These new techniques allow a better evaluation of initial local extension, of the response to treatment and are able to detect local recurrences early [fr

  14. Image characterization of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candeias, Janaina P.; Saddock, Aline; Oliveira, Davi F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2007-01-01

    The digital radiographic image became a reality as of the 80's decade. Since then, several works have been developed with the aim of reducing the exposure time to ionizing radiation obtaining in this way an excellent image quality with a minimum exposure. In the Computerized Radiography, the conventional film is substituted for Image Plate (IP) which consists of a radiosensitive layer of phosphor crystals on a polyester backing plate. The unique design makes it reusable and easy to handle. When exposed, the IP accumulates and stores the irradiated radioactive energy. In order to qualify a computerized radiography system it is necessary to evaluate the Image Plate. In this work it was performed a series of experimental procedures with the aim of evaluating the responses characteristics for different plates. For this purpose it was used a computerized radiographic system CR Tower Scanner - GE, with three different types of IPs, all of them manufactured by GE, whose nomenclatures are IPC, IPX and IPS. It was used the Rhythm Acquire and Review programs for image acquisition and treatment, respectively. (author)

  15. Radiosensitivity of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Iwasaki, Katsuro; Suzuki, Ryohei; Monzen, Yoshio; Hombo, Zenichiro

    1989-01-01

    The correlation between the effectiveness of radiation therapy and the histology of soft tissue sarcomas was investigated. Of 31 cases with a soft tissue sarcoma of an extremity treated by conservative surgery and postoperative radiation of 3,000-6,000 cGy, local recurrence occurred in 12; 5 out of 7 synovial sarcomas, 4 of 9 MFH, one of 8 liposarcomas, none of 4 rhabdomyosarcomas and 2 of 3 others. As for the histological subtyping, the 31 soft tissue sarcomas were divided into spindle cell, pleomorphic cell, myxoid and round cell type, and recurrence rates were 75%, 33.3%, 16.7% and 0%, respectively. From the remarkable difference in recurrent rate, it was suggested that round cell and myxoid type of soft tissue sarcomas showed a high radiosensitivity compared to the spindle cell type with low sensitivity. Clarifying the degree of radiosensitivity is helpful in deciding on the management of limb salvage in soft tissue sarcomas of an extremity. (author)

  16. A comparison of digital tomosynthesis and chest radiography in evaluating airway lesions using computed tomography as a reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Ji Yung; Lee, Ki Yeol; Choi, Jung Won; Yu, Ami; Kim, Je-Hyeong; Lee, Seung Heon; Kang, Eun-Young; Oh, Yu Whan

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and chest radiography for detecting airway abnormalities, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference. We evaluated 161 data sets from 149 patients (91 with and 70 without airway abnormalities) who had undergone radiography, DTS, and CT to detect airway problems. Radiographs and DTS were evaluated to localize and score the severity of the airway abnormalities, and to score the image quality using CT as a reference. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC), McNemar's test, weighted kappa, and the paired t-test were used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity of DTS was higher (reader 1, 93.51 %; reader 2, 94.29 %) than chest radiography (68.83 %; 71.43 %) in detecting airway lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of DTS (90.91 %; 94.70 %) was also significantly better than that of radiography (78.03 %; 82.58 %, all p < 0.05). DTS image quality was significantly better than chest radiography (1.83, 2.74; p < 0.05) in the results of both readers. The inter-observer agreement with respect to DTS findings was moderate and superior when compared to radiography findings. DTS is a more accurate and sensitive modality than radiography for detecting airway lesions that are easily obscured by soft tissue structures in the mediastinum. (orig.)

  17. Prostate positioning using cone-beam computer tomography based on manual soft-tissue registration. Interobserver agreement between radiation oncologists and therapists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jereczek-Fossa, B.A.; Pobbiati, C.; Fanti, P. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Santoro, L. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy); Fodor, C.; Zerini, D. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Milan (Italy); Vigorito, S. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Baroni, G. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Electronics Information and Bioengineering, Milan (Italy); De Cobelli, O. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Urology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Orecchia, R. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Milan (Italy); National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO) Foundation, Pavia (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

    2014-01-15

    To check the interobserver agreement between radiation oncologists and therapists (RTT) using an on- and off-line cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) protocol for setup verification in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer. The CBCT data from six prostate cancer patients treated with hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were independently reviewed off-line by four observers (one radiation oncologist, one junior and two senior RTTs) and benchmarked with on-line CBCT positioning performed by a radiation oncologist immediately prior to treatment. CBCT positioning was based on manual soft-tissue registration. Agreement between observers was evaluated using weighted Cohen's kappa statistics. In total, 152 CBCT-based prostate positioning procedures were reviewed by each observer. The mean (± standard deviation) of the differences between off- and on-line CBCT-simCT registration translations along the three directions (antero-posterior, latero-lateral and cranio-caudal) and rotation around the antero-posterior axis were - 0.7 (3.6) mm, 1.9 (2.7) mm, 0.9 (3.6) mm and - 1.8 (5.0) degrees, respectively. Satisfactory interobserver agreement was found, being substantial (weighted kappa > 0.6) in 10 of 16 comparisons and moderate (0.41-0.60) in the remaining six comparisons. CBCT interpretation performed by RTTs is comparable to that of radiation oncologists. Our study might be helpful in the quality assurance of radiotherapy and the optimization of competencies. Further investigation should include larger sample sizes, a greater number of observers and validated methodology in order to assess interobserver variability and its impact on high-precision prostate cancer IGRT. In the future, it should enable the wider implementation of complex and evolving radiotherapy technologies. (orig.)

  18. Bone and soft tissue ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Brown, M.L.; Joyce, J.W.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses clinical features and imaging techniques for ischemic necrosis, a common problem in the foot, particularly in diabetics and patients with other vascular diseases. Necrosis of bone and soft tissues will be considered separately as the underlying etiology and imaging evaluation differ considerably

  19. Spontaneous soft tissue hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, A; Darnige, L; Sapoval, M; Pellerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous muscle hematomas are a common and serious complication of anticoagulant treatment. The incidence of this event has increased along with the rise in the number of patients receiving anticoagulants. Radiological management is both diagnostic and interventional. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the main tool for the detection of hemorrhage to obtain a positive, topographic diagnosis and determine the severity. Detection of an active leak of contrast material during the arterial or venous phase is an indication for the use of arterial embolization. In addition, the interventional radiological procedure can be planned with CTA. Arterial embolization of the pedicles that are the source of the bleeding is an effective technique. The rate of technical and clinical success is 90% and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Computed Radiography: An Innovative Inspection Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, William A.; Councill, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Florida Power and Light Company's (FPL) Nuclear Division combined two diverse technologies to create an innovative inspection technique, Computed Radiography, that improves personnel safety and unit reliability while reducing inspection costs. This technique was pioneered in the medical field and applied in the Nuclear Division initially to detect piping degradation due to flow-accelerated corrosion. Component degradation can be detected by this additional technique. This approach permits FPL to reduce inspection costs, perform on line examinations (no generation curtailment), and to maintain or improve both personnel safety and unit reliability. Computed Radiography is a very versatile tool capable of other uses: - improving the external corrosion program by permitting inspections underneath insulation, and - diagnosing system and component problems such as valve positions, without the need to shutdown or disassemble the component. (authors)

  1. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging of soft tissue disorders of the equine carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Common soft tissue disorders of the equine carpus are fluctuating or firm soft tissue swellings, wounds and draining tracts. Survey radiography may show the size, position and origin of the swellings and reveals soft tissue calcification, accumulation of air and radiopaque foreign material. Contrast radiography enables accurate visualization of the size, shape, position and origin of fluctuating soft tissue swellings, demonstrates abnormal intersynovial communication and allows precise demonstration of the extent of puncture wounds and draining tracts. Ultrasonography allows differentiation between a firm solid or thick-walled cystic lesion, clearly reveals injuries to tendons, muscle and ligaments, reveals minor irregularities of the wall and the lumen of distended tendon sheaths and may demonstrate radiolucent foreign material more clearly than contrast radiography

  2. A comparison of digital tomosynthesis and chest radiography in evaluating airway lesions using computed tomography as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Ji Yung; Lee, Ki Yeol; Yu, Ami; Kim, Je-Hyeong; Lee, Seung Heon; Choi, Jung Won; Kang, Eun-Young; Oh, Yu Whan

    2016-09-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and chest radiography for detecting airway abnormalities, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference. We evaluated 161 data sets from 149 patients (91 with and 70 without airway abnormalities) who had undergone radiography, DTS, and CT to detect airway problems. Radiographs and DTS were evaluated to localize and score the severity of the airway abnormalities, and to score the image quality using CT as a reference. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC), McNemar's test, weighted kappa, and the paired t-test were used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity of DTS was higher (reader 1, 93.51 %; reader 2, 94.29 %) than chest radiography (68.83 %; 71.43 %) in detecting airway lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of DTS (90.91 %; 94.70 %) was also significantly better than that of radiography (78.03 %; 82.58 %, all p chest radiography (1.83, 2.74; p < 0.05) in the results of both readers. The inter-observer agreement with respect to DTS findings was moderate and superior when compared to radiography findings. DTS is a more accurate and sensitive modality than radiography for detecting airway lesions that are easily obscured by soft tissue structures in the mediastinum. • Digital tomosynthesis offers new diagnostic options for airway lesions. • Digital tomosynthesis is more sensitive and accurate than radiography for airway lesions. • Digital tomosynthesis shows better image quality than radiography. • Assessment of lesion severity, via tomosynthesis is comparable to computed tomography.

  3. Soft Tissue Sarcoma—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soft tissue sarcomas are malignant tumors that arise in any of the mesodermal tissues of the extremities, trunk and retroperitoneum, or head and neck. Soft tissue sarcomas may be heterogeneous. Find evidence-based information on soft tissue sarcoma treatment and research.

  4. Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography, intraoral radiography, and periodontal probing for periodontal bone defects measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarlo A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT produces high-quality data about diagnosis and periodontal treatment. To date, there is not enough research regarding periodontal bone measurement using CBCT. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of CBCT in measuring periodontal defects to that of intraoral radiography and probing methods."nMaterials and Methods: Two-hundred and eighteen artificial osseous defects (buccal and lingual infrabony, interproximal, horizontal, crater, dehiscence and fenestration defects were created on 13 mandibles of dry skulls. The mandibles were put into a plexiglass box full of water to simulate soft tissue. CBCT images, radiographic images taken with parallel technique and direct measurements using a WHO periodontal probe were recorded and compared to a standard reference (digital caliper. Inter and intra observe consistencies were assessed using Intra class correlation coefficient and pearson correlation."nResults: Inter and intra observer consistencies were high for CBCT and probing methods (ICC- Intra class correlation coefficient>88%, but moderate for intraoral radiography (ICC-Intra class correlation coefficient > 54%. There were not any significant differences between observers for all techniques (P>0/05. According to paired T-test analysis, mean difference for CBCT technique (0.01 mm was lower than that for probing (0.04 mm and radiography (0.62 mm. CBCT was able to measure all kinds of lesions, but radiography could not measure defects in the buccal and lingual sites."nConclusion: All three modalities are useful for identifying periodontal defects. Compared to probing and radiography, the CBCT technique has the most accuracy in measuring periodontal defects.

  5. Facial soft tissue thickness in North Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushri Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Forensic facial reconstruction is an attempt to reproduce a likeness of facial features of an individual, based on characteristics of the skull, for the purpose of individual identification - The aim of this study was to determine the soft tissue thickness values of individuals of Bareilly population, Uttar Pradesh, India and to evaluate whether these values can help in forensic identification. Study design: A total of 40 individuals (19 males, 21 females were evaluated using spiral computed tomographic (CT scan with 2 mm slice thickness in axial sections and soft tissue thicknesses were measured at seven midfacial anthropological facial landmarks. Results: It was found that facial soft tissue thickness values decreased with age. Soft tissue thickness values were less in females than in males, except at ramus region. Comparing the left and right values in individuals it was found to be not significant. Conclusion: Soft tissue thickness values are an important factor in facial reconstruction and also help in forensic identification of an individual. CT scan gives a good representation of these values and hence is considered an important tool in facial reconstruction- This study has been conducted in North Indian population and further studies with larger sample size can surely add to the data regarding soft tissue thicknesses.

  6. Direct detector radiography versus dual reading computed radiography: feasibility of dose reduction in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Michael; Uffmann, Martin; Weber, Michael; Balassy, Csilla; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Prokop, Mathias

    2006-01-01

    The image quality of dual-reading computed radiography and dose-reduced direct radiography of the chest was compared in a clinical setting. The study group consisted of 50 patients that underwent three posteroanterior chest radiographs within minutes, one image obtained with a dual read-out computed radiography system (CR; Fuji 5501) at regular dose and two images with a flat panel direct detector unit (DR; Diagnost, Philips). The DR images were obtained with the same and with 50% of the dose used for the CR images. Images were evaluated in a blinded side-by-side comparison. Eight radiologists ranked the visually perceivable difference in image quality using a three-point scale. Then, three radiologists scored the visibility of anatomic landmarks in low and high attenuation areas and image noise. Statistical analysis was based on Friedman tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests at a significance level of P<0.05. DR was judged superior to CR for the delineation of structures in high attenuation areas of the mediastinum even when obtained with 50% less dose (P<0.001). The visibility of most pulmonary structures was judged equivalent with both techniques, regardless of acquisition dose and speed level. Scores for image noise were lower for DR compared with CR, with the exception of DR obtained at a reduced dose. Thus, in this clinical preference study, DR was equivalent or even superior to the most modern dual read-out CR, even when obtained with 50% dose. A further dose reduction does not appear to be feasible for DR without significant loss of image quality. (orig.)

  7. Soft tissue modelling with conical springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nadzeri; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza N; Subic, Aleksandar; Smith, Julian; Shirinzadeh, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for real-time modelling soft tissue deformation. It improves the traditional mass-spring model with conical springs to deal with nonlinear mechanical behaviours of soft tissues. A conical spring model is developed to predict soft tissue deformation with reference to deformation patterns. The model parameters are formulated according to tissue deformation patterns and the nonlinear behaviours of soft tissues are modelled with the stiffness variation of conical spring. Experimental results show that the proposed method can describe different tissue deformation patterns using one single equation and also exhibit the typical mechanical behaviours of soft tissues.

  8. Electroroentgenography in diagnosis of soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vintergal'ter, S.F.; Vishevnik, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    Clinical, electroroentgenographic and X-ray studies of soft tissues were carried out in 425 patients with malignant (75), benign (246) soft tissue tumors and in cases of such soft tissue pathologies of the extremities and body (104). The paper discusses the technicalities of electroroentgenography which produces on one roentgenogram separate images of all components of soft tissues and bones in a given segment. A comparions of image quality assured by electroroentgeno- and roentgenography did not establish any significant difference in soft tissue tumor semiotics

  9. Radiological protection procedures for industrial applications of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Josilto Oliveira de

    2009-03-01

    Due to its very particular characteristics, industrial radiography is responsible for roughly half of the relevant accidents in nuclear industry, in developed as well as in developing countries, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Thus, safety and radiological protection in industrial gamma radiography have been receiving especial treatment by regulatory authorities of most Member States. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate, from the radioprotection point of view, the main advantages of computed radiography (CR) for filmless industrial radiography. In order to accomplish this, both techniques, i.e. conventional and filmless computed radiography were evaluated and compared through practical studies. After the studies performed at the present work it was concluded that computed radiography significantly reduces the inherent doses, reflecting in smaller restricted areas and costs, with consequent improvement in radiological protection and safety. (author)

  10. [Update on soft tissue sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Binh Nguyen; Tabrizi, Reza; Dagada, Corinne; Trufflandier, Nathalie; St ckle, Eberhard; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Important refinements have taken place in the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma with extensive use of immuno-histochemistry. New entities have been described, while malignant histiocytofibroma, the most diagnosed sarcoma type during the last two decades, has been dismembered. As for prognosis, the new UICC classification is effectively more discriminating in the definition of prognostic groups; but the usefullness of new biological or genetic markers remains to be assessed. Several breakthrough have taken place in the last years in the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma. Isolated limb perfusion with TNF, hyperthermia and melphalan have proven its efficacy, and is now an alternative to preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for limb sparing treatment of the primary tumor site or to amputation. For systemic treatments, novel cytostatic drugs have been shown to be active in sarcomas, including ecteinascidine (ET743) and Glivec (STI571). This last drug has been shown to be remarkably active in c-kit+ stromal sarcoma of the gastro-intestinal tract. It can hopefully regarded as an example for targeted therapies, which may come with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the fundamental, specific genetic alterations shown in sarcoma.

  11. Soft-tissue tension total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Akiho; Wilton, Tim J

    2004-08-01

    It is far from clear how best to define the proper strength of soft-tissue tensioning in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We attached a torque driver to the Monogram balancer/tensor device and measured soft-tissue tension in full extension and 90 degrees flexion during TKA. In our surgical procedure, when we felt proper soft-tissue tension was being applied, the mean distraction force was noted to be 126N in extension and 121N in flexion. There was no significant correlation between soft-tissue tension and the postoperative flexion angle finally achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the actual distraction forces in relation to soft-tissue tension in TKA. Further study may reveal the most appropriate forces to achieve proper soft-tissue tension in the wide variety of circumstances presenting at knee arthroplasty.

  12. Computer aided display of multiple soft tissue anatomical surfaces for simultaneous structural and area-dose appreciation in 3D-radiationtherapy planning. 115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.J.; Mott, D.J.; Wilkinson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    For radiotherapy applications a 3D display that includes soft tissues is required but the presentation of all anatomical structures is often unnecessary and is potentially confusing. A tumour volume and a small number of critical organs, usually embedded within other soft tissue anatomy, are likely to be all that can be clearly displayed when presented in a 3D format. The inclusion of dose data (in the form of isodose lines or surfaces) adds to the complication of any 3D display. A solution to this problem is to incorporate the presentation of dose distribution into the technique used to provide the illusion of 3D. This illusion can be provided by either depth cueing or by the hypothetical illumination of spatially defined object surfaces. The dose distribution from irradiation fields or, in the case of brachytherapy from radioactive sources, can be regarded as a source of illumination for tumour and critical organs. The intensity of illumination at any point on a tissue surface represents the dose at that point. Such an approach also allows the variation of dose over a given surface (and by extension, over the corresponding volume) to be quantified using histogram techniques. This may be of value in analysing and comparing techniques in which vulnerable tissue surfaces are irradiated. The planning of intracavitary treatments for cervical cancer is one application which might benefit from the display approach described above. Here the variation of dose over the mucosal surfaces of the bladder and the rectum is of particular interest, since dose related morbidity has often been reported following these treatments. 7 refs.; 8 figs

  13. Performance evaluation of a computed radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussilhe, J.; Fallet, E. [Carestream Health France, 71 - Chalon/Saone (France); Mango, St.A. [Carestream Health, Inc. Rochester, New York (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Computed radiography (CR) standards have been formalized and published in Europe and in the US. The CR system classification is defined in those standards by - minimum normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNRN), and - maximum basic spatial resolution (SRb). Both the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast sensitivity of a CR system depend on the dose (exposure time and conditions) at the detector. Because of their wide dynamic range, the same storage phosphor imaging plate can qualify for all six CR system classes. The exposure characteristics from 30 to 450 kV, the contrast sensitivity, and the spatial resolution of the KODAK INDUSTREX CR Digital System have been thoroughly evaluated. This paper will present some of the factors that determine the system's spatial resolution performance. (authors)

  14. PENGGUNAAN COMPUTED RADIOGRAPHY UNTUK IDENTIFIKASI MADU LEBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI MAIYENA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on identification of honey bee using Computed Radiography has been done. The testing was carried out by providing digital radiograph of the three types of honey bee. The voltage of the x-ray generator was varied at 50 kV, 60 kV and 70 kV, while filament current was set at 100 mA and exposure time was at 5 ms. Honey bee was identified based on the image line profile that indicated the distribution of linear absorption coefficient (µ for each sample. The analyses on the image line profile showed that at the voltage of 50 kV and 70 kV the three kinds of the honey bee can be distinguished. However, at the voltage of 60 kV the difference among honey bee was unable to be identified.

  15. Computed radiography in neonatal intensive care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlo, L.; Bighi, S.; Cervi, P.M.; Lupi, L.

    1991-01-01

    The Authors report their experience in the employment of a computerized digital radiographic system in Neonatal Intensive Care. The analog screen-film system is replaced by photosensitive imaging plates, scanned after X-ray exposure by a laser that releases the digital image, which can then be manipulated on computer work-stations. In a period of twelve months about 200 chest-abdomen X-ray examinations in Neonatal Intensive Care have been performed using this method with good technical and diagnostic results. The use of digital radiography in the neonatal area is of high interest: this system produces good quality images, there is a reduction in radiation dose and 'retakes', the system allows selective enhancement of different structures and their magnification. (orig.)

  16. Soft tissue response and facial symmetry after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermker, Kai; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Jung, Susanne; Dirksen, Dieter

    2014-09-01

    In orthognathic surgery aesthetic issues and facial symmetry are vital parameters in surgical planning. Aim of this investigation was to document and analyze the results of orthognathic surgery on the base of a three-dimensional photogrammetric assessment, to assess the soft tissue response related to the skeletal shift and the alterations in facial symmetry after orthognathic surgery. In this prospective clinical trial from January 2010 to June 2011, 104 patients were examined who underwent orthognathic surgery due to mono- or bimaxillary dysgnathia. The standardized measurements, based on optical 3D face scans, took place one day before orthognathic surgery (T1) and one day before removal of osteosynthesis material (T2). Soft tissue changes after procedures involving the mandible showed significant positive correlations and strong soft tissue response (p  0.05). The facial surfaces became more symmetric and harmonic with the exception of surgical maxillary expansion, but improvement of facial symmetry revealed no statistical significance. Soft tissue response after orthognathic surgery and symmetry are only partially predictable, especially in the maxillary and midfacial region. Computer programs predicting soft tissue changes are not currently safely reliable and should not be used or with caution to demonstrate a patient potential outcome of surgery. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Giant cell tumor of soft tissue: a case report with emphasis on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moon Young; Jee, Won-Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Chan Kwon [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Pathology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ie Ryung [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yang-Guk [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-03

    Giant cell tumor of soft tissue is a rare neoplasm, histologically resembling giant cell tumor of bone. In this report, we describe a deep and solid giant cell tumor of soft tissue interpreted as a benign soft tissue tumor based on magnetic resonance (MR) findings with hypointense to intermediate signals on T2-weighted images and impeded diffusivity (water movement) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which could suggest a giant-cell-containing benign soft tissue tumor, despite the malignancy suggested by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a 35-year-old male. To our knowledge, this report introduces the first deep, solid giant cell tumor of soft tissue with MR features of a giant-cell-containing benign soft tissue tumor, despite the malignancy-mimicking findings on {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. (orig.)

  18. Computed radiography imaging plates and associated methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nathaniel F.; Moses, Alex K.

    2015-08-18

    Computed radiography imaging plates incorporating an intensifying material that is coupled to or intermixed with the phosphor layer, allowing electrons and/or low energy x-rays to impart their energy on the phosphor layer, while decreasing internal scattering and increasing resolution. The radiation needed to perform radiography can also be reduced as a result.

  19. Three-dimensional CT imaging of soft-tissue anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Magid, D.; Kuhlman, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional display of computed tomographic data has been limited to skeletal structures. This was in part related to the reconstruction algorithm used, which relied on a binary classification scheme. A new algorithm, volumetric rendering with percentage classification, provides the ability to display three-dimensional images of muscle and soft tissue. A review was conducted of images in 35 cases in which muscle and/or soft tissue were part of the clinical problem. In all cases, individual muscle groups could be clearly identified and discriminated. Branching vessels in the range of 2.3 mm could be identified. Similarly, lymph nodes could be clearly defined. High-resolution three-dimensional images were found to be useful both in providing an increased understanding of complex muscle and soft tissue anatomy and in surgical planning

  20. Computer radiography-X-ray with vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waitiki, C.

    2006-01-01

    Computer radiography describes an entire process of creating a digital image including acquiring, processing, presenting and managing the image data. the cassettes are special in that they use an imaging plate instead of films. the imaging plate is coated with storage phosphors which captures x-ray as they pass through the patient. the imaging plate is read with a bar code reader and the imaging plate number recorded in the computer. The cassette is then loaded in the reader unit where it is read using infra-red light which excites the particles on the plate which in turn illuminates and picked by photo-sensors which converts the signal into digital pulses. the pulses then run through a board which converts it into an image which is then displayed on the control console. The plate then runs through the erasure section where it is exposed to yellow light, which erases the plate. The IP is then put back in the cassette and locked and can be reused for the next episode

  1. Compact, open-architecture computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.; Lim, A.; Kangarloo, H.; Eldredge, S.; Loloyan, M.; Chuang, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) was introduced in 1982, and its basic system design has not changed. Current CR systems have certain limitations: spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratios are lower than those of screen-film systems, they are complicated and expensive to build, and they have a closed architecture. The authors of this paper designed and implemented a simpler, lower-cost, compact, open-architecture CR system to overcome some of these limitations. The open-architecture system is a manual-load-single-plate reader that can fit on a desk top. Phosphor images are stored in a local disk and can be sent to any other computer through standard interfaces. Any manufacturer's plate can be read with a scanning time of 90 second for a 35 x 43-cm plate. The standard pixel size is 174 μm and can be adjusted for higher spatial resolution. The data resolution is 12 bits/pixel over an x-ray exposure range of 0.01-100 mR

  2. Computed tomography in facial trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilkha, A.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), plain radiography, and conventional tomography were performed on 30 patients with facial trauma. CT demonstrated bone and soft-tissue involvement. In all cases, CT was superior to tomography in the assessment of facial injury. It is suggested that CT follow plain radiography in the evaluation of facial trauma

  3. Bilateral, symmetrical soft tissue calcifications in the face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Josue; Rosenthal, Daniel I.

    2010-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman with jaw pain and a history of bisphosphonate use was shown on radiography to have ill-defined soft tissue calcifications overlying the maxilla, mandible, and zygomatic bones bilaterally. The bones were normal. CT revealed similar findings. Although a broad imaging differential diagnosis was initially considered, further questioning of the patient revealed a history of facial injections with a calcium hydroxylapatite product for cosmetic purposes. The appearance of this increasingly popular treatment should be recognized to avoid errors in interpretation. (orig.)

  4. Bilateral, symmetrical soft tissue calcifications in the face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Josue; Rosenthal, Daniel I. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-04-15

    A 50-year-old woman with jaw pain and a history of bisphosphonate use was shown on radiography to have ill-defined soft tissue calcifications overlying the maxilla, mandible, and zygomatic bones bilaterally. The bones were normal. CT revealed similar findings. Although a broad imaging differential diagnosis was initially considered, further questioning of the patient revealed a history of facial injections with a calcium hydroxylapatite product for cosmetic purposes. The appearance of this increasingly popular treatment should be recognized to avoid errors in interpretation. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence of Soft Tissue Calcifications in CBCT Images of Mandibular Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojastepour, Leila; Haghnegahdar, Abdolaziz; Sayar, Hamed

    2017-06-01

    Most of the soft tissue calcifications within the head and neck region might not be accompanied by clinical symptoms but may indicate some pathological conditions. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of mandibular region. In this cross sectional study the CBCT images of 602 patients including 294 men and 308 women with mean age 41.38±15.18 years were evaluated regarding the presence, anatomical location; type (single or multiple) and size of soft tissue calcification in mandibular region. All CBCT images were acquired by NewTom VGi scanner. Odds ratio and chi-square tests were used for data analysis and p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. 156 out of 602 patients had at least one soft tissue calcification in their mandibular region (25.9%. of studied population with mean age 51.7±18.03 years). Men showed significantly higher rate of soft tissue calcification than women (30.3% vs. 21.8%). Soft tissue calcification was predominantly seen at posterior region of the mandible (88%) and most of them were single (60.7%). The prevalence of soft tissue calcification increased with age. Most of the detected soft tissue calcifications were smaller than 3mm (90%). Soft tissue calcifications in mandibular area were a relatively common finding especially in posterior region and more likely to happen in men and in older age group.

  6. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  7. Some malpractices in application of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ruihong; Jia Shaotian; Wang Yusheng; Li Baohua; Chen Lin; Wang Zhenguang; Liu Jianxin; Gong Jingyue; Liu Daoyong; Xie Xuesong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To improve the CR image quality and to promote the digital image standard constitution by analyzing the common problems and malpractices in application of computed radiography. Methods: Phenomenon and reasons of 107 CR junk-films from nine three-'A'-hospitals were analyzed, discussed, recorded, and statistised by 20 radiologists, radiographers and engineers. Results: Among 107 junk films, there are 36 cases (33.64%) of incorrect operations, 29 cases (27.10%) of artifacts in reading and transferring the data of IP, 15 cases (14.02%) of artifacts in IP system, and 13 cases (12.15%) of selection of inappropriate radiographic parameters, and 9 cases (8.41%) of printer-failures, and 5 cases (4.67%) of inappropriate post-processing techniques. By analyzing the reasons of 107 junk films we found that 60.74% were due to less responsibilities and incorrect operations, and 35.51% were due to new problems in CR techniques, and other were due to inappropriate post-processing techniques. Conclusion: Responsibilities, operation regulations, digital image quality standards, studying of new techniques and appropriate use of the post-processing techniques are the key points for improving the CR image quality and the diagnosis level. (authors)

  8. Nuclear imaging using Fuji Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodono, Hiraku; Tarusawa, Nobuko; Katto, Keiichi; Miyakawa, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Sadao; Shinozaki, Tatsuyo

    1988-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of the Fuji Computed Radiography system (FCR) in nuclear medicine. The basic principle of the system is the conversion of the X-ray energy pattern into digital signals utilizing scanning laser stimulated luminescence. A Rollo phantom filled with 12 mCi of Tc-99m pertechnetate was used in this study. In imaging by the FCR, a low energy high resolution parallel hole collimator for a gamma camera was placed over the phantom and photons through the collimator were stored on a single imaging plate (IP) or 3 IPs covered by the lead plate, 0.3 mm in thickness. For imaging, it took 30 minutes by a single IP and 20 minutes by 3 IPs with the lead plate respectively. Each image of the phantom by the FCR was compared with that of obtained by a gamma camera. The image by a single IP was inferior in quality than that of by a gamma camera. However using 3 IPs with the lead plate, same quality image as by a gamma camera was obtained. The image by 3 IPs is similar to that of by 3 IPs with the lead plate. Based on the results, we performed liver and lung imaging by FCR using 3 IPs. The imaging time is twenty minutes. The images obtained with FCR are as good as the scinticamera image. However it has two major flawes in that the sensitivity is poor and the imaging time is long. Furthermore, at present this method can only be employed for static imaging. However we feel that future improvements in the FCR system will overcome these problems. (author)

  9. Chest X ray effective doses estimation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Esra Abdalrhman Dfaalla

    2013-06-01

    Conventional chest radiography is technically difficult because of wide in tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Computed radiography (CR) offers a different approach utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. photostimulable phosphors overcome some image quality limitations of chest imaging. The objective of this study was to estimate the effective dose in computed radiography at three hospitals in Khartoum. This study has been conducted in radiography departments in three centres Advanced Diagnostic Center, Nilain Diagnostic Center, Modern Diagnostic Center. The entrance surface dose (ESD) measurement was conducted for quality control of x-ray machines and survey of operators experimental techniques. The ESDs were measured by UNFORS dosimeter and mathematical equations to estimate patient doses during chest X rays. A total of 120 patients were examined in three centres, among them 62 were males and 58 were females. The overall mean and range of patient dosed was 0.073±0.037 (0.014-0.16) mGy per procedure while the effective dose was 3.4±01.7 (0.6-7.0) mSv per procedure. This study compared radiation doses to patients radiographic examinations of chest using computed radiology. The radiation dose was measured in three centres in Khartoum- Sudan. The results of the measured effective dose showed that the dose in chest radiography was lower in computed radiography compared to previous studies.(Author)

  10. The use of time-of-flight camera for navigating robots in computer-aided surgery: monitoring the soft tissue envelope of minimally invasive hip approach in a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, David; Klug, Sebastian; Moctezuma, Jose Luis; Nogler, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) cameras can guide surgical robots or provide soft tissue information for augmented reality in the medical field. In this study, a method to automatically track the soft tissue envelope of a minimally invasive hip approach in a cadaver study is described. An algorithm for the TOF camera was developed and 30 measurements on 8 surgical situs (direct anterior approach) were carried out. The results were compared to a manual measurement of the soft tissue envelope. The TOF camera showed an overall recognition rate of the soft tissue envelope of 75%. On comparing the results from the algorithm with the manual measurements, a significant difference was found (P > .005). In this preliminary study, we have presented a method for automatically recognizing the soft tissue envelope of the surgical field in a real-time application. Further improvements could result in a robotic navigation device for minimally invasive hip surgery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Microwave tomography for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues: feasibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Althausen, Peter; Williams, Thomas; Abubakar, Aria; Bulyshev, Alexander; Sizov, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    It is important to assess the viability of extremity soft tissues, as this component is often the determinant of the final outcome of fracture treatment. Microwave tomography (MWT) and sensing might be able to provide a fast and mobile assessment of such properties. MWT imaging of extremities possesses a complicated, nonlinear, high dielectric contrast inverse problem of diffraction tomography. There is a high dielectric contrast between bone and soft tissue in the extremities. A contrast between soft tissue abnormalities is less pronounced when compared with the high bone-soft tissue contrast. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of MWT for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, i.e. to detect a relatively small contrast within soft tissues in closer proximity to high contrast boney areas. Both experimental studies and computer simulation were performed. Experiments were conducted using live pigs with compromised blood flow and compartment syndrome within an extremity. A whole 2D tomographic imaging cycle at 1 GHz was computer simulated and images were reconstructed using the Newton, MR-CSI and modified Born methods. Results of experimental studies demonstrate that microwave technology is sensitive to changes in the soft tissue blood content and elevated compartment pressure. It was demonstrated that MWT is feasible for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, circulatory-related changes, blood flow and elevated compartment pressure

  12. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for soft tissue sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Skin and soft-tissue infec tions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-01

    Jun 1, 2010 ... Patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) often initially present to family physicians. ..... Nosocomial infections are often caused by MRSA or mixed .... site infections are good hand hygiene, good surgical technique.

  14. Deep soft tissue leiomyoma of the thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.T.; Saifuddin, A.; Sandison, A.

    1999-01-01

    A case of ossified leiomyoma of the deep soft tissues of the left thigh is presented. The radiographic appearance suggested a low-grade chondrosarcoma. MRI of the lesion showed signal characteristics similar to muscle on both T1- and T2-weighted spin echo sequences with linear areas of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images consistent with medullary fat in metaplastic bone. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a benign ossified soft tissue leiomyoma. (orig.)

  15. Pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas and nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwala Sandeep

    2006-01-01

    Tumors arising from the soft tissues are uncommon in children, accounting for about 6% of all childhood malignancies. More than half (53%) of these originate from the striated muscles and are called rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) the remaining are nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS). Almost two-thirds of RMS cases are diagnosed in children < 6 years of age. They can arise at varied locations like the head and neck region, genitourinary tract, extremities, trunk and retrope...

  16. Dermal fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, patients are demanding not only enhancement to their dental (micro) esthetics, but also their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Soft tissue augmentation via dermal filling agents may be used to correct facial defects such as wrinkles caused by age, gravity, and trauma; thin lips; asymmetrical facial appearances; buccal fold depressions; and others. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles, history, techniques, materials, complications, and clinical controversies regarding dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation.

  17. Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone

  18. Soft tissue deformation modelling through neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan

    2018-05-30

    Soft tissue deformation modelling forms the basis of development of surgical simulation, surgical planning and robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery. This paper presents a new methodology for modelling of soft tissue deformation based on reaction-diffusion mechanics via neural dynamics. The potential energy stored in soft tissues due to a mechanical load to deform tissues away from their rest state is treated as the equivalent transmembrane potential energy, and it is distributed in the tissue masses in the manner of reaction-diffusion propagation of nonlinear electrical waves. The reaction-diffusion propagation of mechanical potential energy and nonrigid mechanics of motion are combined to model soft tissue deformation and its dynamics, both of which are further formulated as the dynamics of cellular neural networks to achieve real-time computational performance. The proposed methodology is implemented with a haptic device for interactive soft tissue deformation with force feedback. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methodology exhibits nonlinear force-displacement relationship for nonlinear soft tissue deformation. Homogeneous, anisotropic and heterogeneous soft tissue material properties can be modelled through the inherent physical properties of mass points. Graphical abstract Soft tissue deformation modelling with haptic feedback via neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.

  19. Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radiography is discussed as a method for nondestructive evaluation of internal flaws of solids. Gamma ray and X-ray equipment are described along with radiographic film, radiograph interpretation, and neutron radiography.

  20. Study of check image using computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    There are two image forming methods both a check image and a portal image in the linacogram. It has been established the image forming method in the check image using computed radiography (CR). On the other hand, it is not established the image forming method in the portal image using CR yet. Usually, in the electric portal imaging device (EPID) is mainly used just before radiotherapy start. The usefulness of the portal image forming method by CR using in place of EPID is possible to confirm the precision for determining to specific position at the irradiate part and to the irradiate method for the human organs. There are some technical problems that, since in the early time, the linac graphy (LG) image have low resolution power. In order to improve to the resolution power in LG image, CR image technologies have been introduced to the check image forming method. Heavy metallic sheet (HMS) is used to the front side of CR-IP cassette, and high contactness sponge is used to the back side of the cassette. Improved contactness between HMS and imaging plate (IP) by means of the high contactness sponge contributed to improve the resolution power in the check images. A lot of paper which is connected with these information have been reported. Imaging plate ST-III should be used to maintain high sensitivity in the check film image forming method. The same image forming method in the check image established by CR has been introduced into the portal image forming method in order to improve the resolution power. However, as a result, it couldn't acquired high resolution image forming in the portal images because of the combination of ST-III and radiotherapy dose. After several trials, it has been recognized that HR-V imaging plate for mammography is the most useful application to maintain high resolution power in the portal images. Also, it is possible to modify the image quality by changing GS parameter which is one of image processing parameters in CR. Furthermore, in case

  1. Soft-tissue mineralization in Werner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Antonio; Costantini, Alessandro Maria; Brigida, Raffaela; Antoniol, Onorina Monica; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Universita Cattolica School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele [Universita Cattolica School of Medicine, Department of Geriatrics, Rome (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Werner syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by clinical signs of premature aging, short stature, scleroderma-like skin changes, endocrine abnormalities, cataracts, and an increased incidence of malignancies. We report on a 48-year-old woman with Werner syndrome associated with intracranial meningiomas who had extensive musculoskeletal manifestations including osteoporosis of the extremities, extensive tendinopathy about the ankles, osteomyelitis of the phalanges of the first left toe, abundant soft-tissue calcification, and two dense ossified soft-tissue masses, with cortical bone and trabeculae arising from the posterosuperior aspect of the calcanei and extending into Kager fat pads. A review of previous descriptions of the radiological abnormalities of Werner syndrome indicates that the presence of soft-tissue calcifications has either not been noted or been mentioned only briefly. Moreover, there is no mention of bony masses associated with Werner syndrome in the world literature, and this would appear to be the first report of this kind. (orig.)

  2. Necrotising soft tissue infection following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Necrotising fasciitis is a rare but rapidly progressive soft tissue disease which can lead to extensive necrosis, systemic sepsis and death. Including this case, only 7 other cases have been reported in the world literature with only 2 others affecting the patient post mastectomy.This 59 year old Caucasian lady presented with severe soft tissue infection soon after mastectomy, which was successfully treated with a combination of debridement, triangulation, VAC© dressing and skin grafting.Necrotising soft tissue infections following mastectomy are rapidly progressive and potentially extremely serious. It is essential that a high index of clinical suspicion is maintained together with prompt aggressive treatment in a multidisciplinary environment to prevent worsening physical and psychological sequelae.

  3. Deep soft tissue leiomyoma of the thigh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, G.M.T.; Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Brockley Hill (United Kingdom); Sandison, A. [Department of Pathology, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    A case of ossified leiomyoma of the deep soft tissues of the left thigh is presented. The radiographic appearance suggested a low-grade chondrosarcoma. MRI of the lesion showed signal characteristics similar to muscle on both T1- and T2-weighted spin echo sequences with linear areas of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images consistent with medullary fat in metaplastic bone. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a benign ossified soft tissue leiomyoma. (orig.) With 3 figs., 13 refs.

  4. Post-radiation soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yasuhiko; Kuratsu, Shigeyuki; Myoui, Akira; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Aozasa, Katsuyuki; Uchida, Atsumasa; Ono, Keiro

    1993-01-01

    Seven patients received radiation for malignancies, and two received for benign tumors. The latency period from radiation to symptom ranged from two years to 36 years (mean 17.2 years). Post-radiation soft tissue sarcomas (PRS) comprised six cases of malignant fibrous histiocytomas, two leiomyosarcomas, and one angiosarcoma. The five-year survival of PRS was 16.7% showing a worse prognosis than spontaneously occurring soft tissue sarcomas. Seven PRS occurred superficially, and two were deeply located. Four cases occurring in the superficial tissues had histories of radiation-induced dermatitis. The radiation-induced dermatitis was suggested to be a risk factor for development of PRS. (author)

  5. Cellular immunotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven Eric; Fishman, Mayer; Conley, Anthony P.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Antonia, Scott; Chiappori, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Soft tissue sarcomas are rare neoplasms, with approximately 9,000 new cases in the United States every year. Unfortunately, there is little progress in the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcomas in the past two decades beyond the standard approaches of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Immunotherapy is a modality complementary to conventional therapy,. It is appealing because functional anti-tumor activity could affect both local-regional and systemic disease and act over a prolonged period of time. In this report, we review immunotherapeutic investigative strategies being developed, including several tumor vaccine, antigen vaccine, and dendritic cell vaccine strategies. PMID:22401634

  6. Vascularization of soft tissue engineering constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Carletto, Rodrigo

    with mechanical properties in the range of soft tissues has not been fully achieved. My project focused on the fabrication and the active perfusion of hydrogel constructs with multi-dimensional vasculature and controlled mechanical properties targeting soft tissues. Specifically, the initial part of the research...... nanotechnology-based paradigm for engineering vascularised liver tissue for transplantation”) and the Danish National Research Foundation and Villum Foundation’s Center for Intelligent Drug delivery and sensing Using microcontainers and Nanomechanics (Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF122)....

  7. Soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooper, T M

    2012-02-03

    A retrospective review of 33 cases of soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity presenting over a 10 year period was undertaken. The history, patterns of referral, diagnostic investigations, procedures undertaken and outcomes were studied. We found there was a frequent delay in diagnosis and sometimes misinterpretation of biopsy specimens. Patients were seen by a variety of specialists from disciplines such as general surgery, plastic surgery, orthopaedic surgery and rheumatology. Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas, often allowing local control of the tumour without amputation. We believe there should be early referral of patients having these tumours to a centre where a combined multidisciplinary approach can be undertaken.

  8. First cosmic-ray images of bone and soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdja, Dusan; Bikit, Istvan; Bikit, Kristina; Slivka, Jaroslav; Hansman, Jan; Oláh, László; Varga, Dezső

    2016-11-01

    More than 120 years after Roentgen's first X-ray image, the first cosmic-ray muon images of bone and soft tissue are created. The pictures, shown in the present paper, represent the first radiographies of structures of organic origin ever recorded by cosmic rays. This result is achieved by a uniquely designed, simple and versatile cosmic-ray muon-imaging system, which consists of four plastic scintillation detectors and a muon tracker. This system does not use scattering or absorption of muons in order to deduct image information, but takes advantage of the production rate of secondaries in the target materials, detected in coincidence with muons. The 2D image slices of cow femur bone are obtained at several depths along the bone axis, together with the corresponding 3D image. Real organic soft tissue, polymethyl methacrylate and water, never seen before by any other muon imaging techniques, are also registered in the images. Thus, similar imaging systems, placed around structures of organic or inorganic origin, can be used for tomographic imaging using only the omnipresent cosmic radiation.

  9. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable ag...

  10. MRI evaluation of soft tissue hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Diez, A.I.; Ros Mendoza, L.H.; Villacampa, V.M.; Cozar, M.; Fuertes, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    Infestation in soft tissue by Echinococcus granulosus is not a common disease, and its diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory data and radiological findings. The aim of our retrospective study is to give an overview of the different signs and patterns shown by MRI that can be useful in characterizing soft tissue hydatid disease. The MRI images obtained in seven patients with soft tissue and subcutaneous hydatidosis were reviewed. Typical signs of hydatidosis were multivesicular lesions with or without hypointense peripheral ring (''rim sign''). Related to the presence and absence, respectively, of viable scolices in the microscopic exam, daughter cysts were presented either as high signal intensity or low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Low-intensity detached layers within the cyst and peripheral enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA were also presented. Atypical signs were presented in an infected muscular cyst, a subcutaneous unilocular cyst and several unilocular cysts. Knowledge of the different patterns in MRI of soft tissue hydatid disease can be useful in diagnosing this entity. We observed that the ''rim sign'' is not as common as in other locations, and in addition, MRI seems to be of assistance when evaluating the vitality of the cysts. (orig.)

  11. MRI evaluation of soft tissue hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Diez, A.I.; Ros Mendoza, L.H.; Villacampa, V.M.; Cozar, M.; Fuertes, M.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2000-03-01

    Infestation in soft tissue by Echinococcus granulosus is not a common disease, and its diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory data and radiological findings. The aim of our retrospective study is to give an overview of the different signs and patterns shown by MRI that can be useful in characterizing soft tissue hydatid disease. The MRI images obtained in seven patients with soft tissue and subcutaneous hydatidosis were reviewed. Typical signs of hydatidosis were multivesicular lesions with or without hypointense peripheral ring (''rim sign''). Related to the presence and absence, respectively, of viable scolices in the microscopic exam, daughter cysts were presented either as high signal intensity or low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Low-intensity detached layers within the cyst and peripheral enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA were also presented. Atypical signs were presented in an infected muscular cyst, a subcutaneous unilocular cyst and several unilocular cysts. Knowledge of the different patterns in MRI of soft tissue hydatid disease can be useful in diagnosing this entity. We observed that the ''rim sign'' is not as common as in other locations, and in addition, MRI seems to be of assistance when evaluating the vitality of the cysts. (orig.)

  12. Olaratumab for advanced soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Alexander; O'brien, Michael P; Agulnik, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Olaratumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα). Its antagonistic behavior inhibits the receptor's tyrosine kinase activity, thereby, turning off the downstream signaling cascades responsible for soft tissue sarcoma tumorigenesis. In October 2016, olaratumab received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for its use in combination with doxorubicin for treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Areas covered: This drug profile takes a comprehensive look at the clinical studies leading to FDA approval of olaratumab as well as its safety and efficacy as a front-line treatment option for sarcoma patients. The literature search was primarily conducted using PubMed. Expert commentary: The combination of olaratumab plus doxorubicin has provided a new front-line therapeutic option for soft tissue sarcoma patients. An open-label phase Ib and randomized phase II trial in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma demonstrated that the addition of olaratumab to doxorubicin prolonged progression-free survival by 2.5 months and overall survival by 11.8 months when compared to doxorubicin alone. Of importance, this clinically meaningful increase in overall survival did not come at the expense of a significantly greater number of toxicities. A phase III confirmatory trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02451943) will be completed in 2020.

  13. Ultrasonographic findings of benign soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Sung; Oh, Dong Heon; Jung, Tae Gun; Kim, Yong Kil; Kwon, Jung Hyeok

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the characteristic sonographic features of benign soft tissue tumors and to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic imaging. We retrospectively reviewed ultrasonographic images of 70 cases in 68 patients with histologically proved benign soft tissue tumors. The tumors include 33 lipomas, 11 hemangiomas, 11 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, 2 fibromas, 1 mesenchymoma, and 1 myxoma. The sonographic appearances of the lesions were mainly solid in 53 cases(33 lipomas, 8 hemangiomas, 2 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 2 fibromas and 1 mesenchymoma), mainly cystic in 14 cases(1 hemangioma, 8 lymphangiomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, and 1 myxomal), and mixed in 3 cases(2 hemangiomas and 1 lymphangioma). Although an accurate histologic prediction could not be made in most cases, certain patterns appeared to be characteristic of specific tumor types. 26 cases(78%) of lipoma were seen as lentiform, iso- or hyperechoic, solid mass. Hemangioma had variable appearance and characteristic calcifications were seen in 3 cases. Unicameral or multiseptated cystic mass with variable thickness of echogenic septa and solid portion was the characteristic finding of lymhangioma. Neurilemmoma showed lobulated, oval to round , relatively hypoechoic mass or with without internal cystic portion. Sonographic evaluation of benign soft tissue tumors is useful in demonstrating the location, size, extent, and internal characteristic of the mass. A relatively confident diagnosis can made when the characteristic features of the benign soft tissue tumor are present on sonographic imaging

  14. Ultrasonographic findings of benign soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Sung; Oh, Dong Heon; Jung, Tae Gun; Kim, Yong Kil; Kwon, Jung Hyeok [Dongkang Genernal Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To clarify the characteristic sonographic features of benign soft tissue tumors and to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic imaging. We retrospectively reviewed ultrasonographic images of 70 cases in 68 patients with histologically proved benign soft tissue tumors. The tumors include 33 lipomas, 11 hemangiomas, 11 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, 2 fibromas, 1 mesenchymoma, and 1 myxoma. The sonographic appearances of the lesions were mainly solid in 53 cases(33 lipomas, 8 hemangiomas, 2 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 2 fibromas and 1 mesenchymoma), mainly cystic in 14 cases(1 hemangioma, 8 lymphangiomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, and 1 myxomal), and mixed in 3 cases(2 hemangiomas and 1 lymphangioma). Although an accurate histologic prediction could not be made in most cases, certain patterns appeared to be characteristic of specific tumor types. 26 cases(78%) of lipoma were seen as lentiform, iso- or hyperechoic, solid mass. Hemangioma had variable appearance and characteristic calcifications were seen in 3 cases. Unicameral or multiseptated cystic mass with variable thickness of echogenic septa and solid portion was the characteristic finding of lymhangioma. Neurilemmoma showed lobulated, oval to round , relatively hypoechoic mass or with without internal cystic portion. Sonographic evaluation of benign soft tissue tumors is useful in demonstrating the location, size, extent, and internal characteristic of the mass. A relatively confident diagnosis can made when the characteristic features of the benign soft tissue tumor are present on sonographic imaging.

  15. Soft tissue Burkitt's lymphoma: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Barredo, R.; Fernandez Echevarria, M.A.; Riego, M. del; Canga, A.

    1998-01-01

    An unusual case is reported of a soft tissue mass in the lower extremity, without bone involvement, in an 85-year-old woman; the histopathological diagnosis was Burkitt's lymphoma. Pertinent clinical history, histological examination, and imaging procedures allowed early diagnosis. To our knowledge, the radiological findings in Burkitt's lymphoma with this unusual clinical presentation have not been described previously. (orig.)

  16. Soft tissue sarcoma - Compliance with guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, PHA; Schaapveld, M; Otter, R; Hoekstra, HJ

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Because soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare, guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with STS were developed. Because the diagnostic management is essential for definitive treatment, adherence to these guidelines is important. METHODS. Primary STS registered by the

  17. MAXILLOFACIAL SOFT TISSUE INJURIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-09

    Sep 9, 2012 ... Conclusion: The leading causes of MF-STIs apparently differ from those of skeletal fractures. INTRODUCTION. Maxillofacial (MF) soft tissue injuries (STIs) are often overlooked in clinical surveys compared to fractures, yet these injuries negatively impact both on function and esthetics. Previous surveys on ...

  18. Soft Tissue Sarcomas In Children And Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajciova, V.

    2008-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare tumors, they may occur at any age. It is heterogenous group of different histology types, different biology and different clinical behavior. Different treatment strategy is used for children and adults. Adolescents with sarcomas could be managed by both pediatric and medical oncologists. Decision regarding location of treatment should be based on the best patient interest. (author)

  19. NMR imaging of soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval-Jeantet, M.; Tobolsk, F.; Delepine, N.; Delepine, G.; Roger, B.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary findings on NMR imaging of 30 soft tissue tumors demonstrated the indispensable value of this examination (particularly when a surface antenna is used) for preoperative investigation and diagnosis of tumoral recurrence when compared with other radiologic techniques. The possible potential of NMR imaging for characterization of tissues, apart from lipoma or liposarcoma, cannot be evaluated at the present time [fr

  20. Biodegradable elastomeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pêgo, A.P.; Poot, Andreas A.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Elastomeric copolymers of 1,3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) and copolymers of TMC and D,L-lactide (DLLA) have been evaluated as candidate materials for the preparation of biodegradable scaffolds for soft tissue engineering. TMC-DLLA copolymers are amorphous and degrade more

  1. Bones - joints - soft tissues II. 7. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Frommhold, W.

    1991-01-01

    With the publication of the 2nd part to Volume VI, 'Bones - joints - soft tissues', the 7th edition of 'Diagnostic radiology in the hospital and medical practice' is complete. The advances made particularly during the past decade in the field of diagnostic radiology have made it neccesary for all the individual sections to be completely revised. Recently developed methods of imaging like sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography are increasingly used as a replacement for or, at least, an adjunct to conventional X-ray procedures. Owing to the development and continuous refinement of related methods of intervention the gap between mere diagnostic applications and therapeutic uses of radiology could eventually be closed. The issues mainly discussed in this volume are bone fractures and healing, bone transplantation, osteopathy and osteoarthropathy, fibrous dyplasia or Albright's disease, Pagetoid osteitis, genetically transmitted constitutional disorders of the skeleton and soft tissue changes. While in the key sections on bone fractures and healing, osteopathy and osteoarthropathy as well as constitutional genetic disorders X-ray techniques are still described as the prevailing method of diagnosis, diseases of soft tissues now are much more commonly diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging. (orig./MG) With 2248 figs., 59 tabs [de

  2. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawia M Kassab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Moawia M KassabDivision of Periodontics, Marquette University, School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures.Keywords: case report, connective tissue, dental implants, allograft, coronally positioned flap

  3. Computed radiography versus mobile direct radiography for bedside chest radiographs: impact of dose on image quality and reader agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boo, D. W.; Weber, M.; Deurloo, E. E.; Streekstra, G. J.; Freling, N. J.; Dongelmans, D. A.; Schaefer-Prokop, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    To asses the image quality and potential for dose reduction of mobile direct detector (DR) chest radiography as compared with computed radiography (CR) for intensive care unit (ICU) chest radiographs (CXR). Three groups of age-, weight- and disease-matched ICU patients (n=114 patients; 50 CXR per

  4. Assessment of survey radiography and comparison with x-ray computed tomography for detection of hyperfunctioning adrenocortical tumors in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhout, G.; Stolp, R.; Rijnberk, A.; Waes, P.F.G.M. van

    1990-01-01

    Results of abdominal survey radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) were compared in 13 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism histologically attributed to adrenocortical tumors. X-ray computed tomography enabled accurate localization of the tumor in all 13 dogs. Apart from 2 poorly demarcated irregular-shaped and mineralized carcinomas, there were no differences between adenoma (n = 3) and carcinoma (n = 10) on CT images. In 1 dog, invasion of the caudal vena cava by the tumor was suggested on CT images and was confirmed during surgery. Suspicion of adhesions between tumors of the right adrenal gland and the caudal vena cava on the basis of CT images was confirmed during surgery in only 2 of 6 dogs. Survey radiography allowed accurate localization of the tumor in 7 dogs (4 on the right side and 3 on the left). In 6 of these dogs, the tumor was visible as a well-demarcated soft tissue mass and, in the other dog, as a poorly demarcated mineralized mass. The smallest tumor visualized on survey radiographs had a diameter of 20 mm on CT images. Six tumors with diameter less than or equal to 20 mm were not visualized on survey radiographs. In 1 of these dogs, a mineralized nodule was found in the left adrenal region, without evidence of a mass. In a considerable number of cases, survey radiography can provide presurgical localization of adrenocortical tumors in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism; CT is redundant in these instances. In the absence of positive radiographic findings, CT is valuable for localization of adrenocortical tumors

  5. Computed radiography dose optimization in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juste, B.; Verdu, G.; Tortosa, R.; Villaescusa, J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation dose reduction in pediatric X-ray imaging is especially important because of children radiation sensitivity. For any radiographic examination performed at a fixed radiographic tube potential, the patient absorbed dose is directly proportional to the value of milliampere-seconds (mAs) selected by the operator. Nevertheless, reducing X-ray exposure has the unavoidable disadvantage of increasing the quantum noise in the resultant image. The objective of this work is to identify the minimum tube current setting required for maintaining accurate examinations, to modify, if required, the daily protocols applied at La Fe de Valencia Universitary Hospital. To accomplish this goal, a noise addition software has been developed in order to study the diagnostic accuracy as a function of reducing dose by artificially increasing the image noise. The noise addition tool has been applied to several thorax images acquired from pediatric unit to simulate new lower dose radiographies and allow medical researchers to study how lower dose affects the patient pneumonia diagnosis. (author)

  6. Prevalence of bone and soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücetürk, Güven; Sabah, Dündar; Keçeci, Burçin; Kara, Ahmet Duran; Yalçinkaya, Selçuk

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approach is a necessity for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of bone and soft tissue tumors. The Ege University Musculoskeletal Tumor Council offers consultation services to other hospitals in the Aegean region. Since 1988 the Council has met weekly and spent approximately 1,500 hours evaluating almost 6,000 patients with suspected skeletal system tumors. Our objective was to present the data obtained from this patient group. A total of 5,658 patients, suspected to have a musculoskeletal tumor, were evaluated retrospectively. Multiple records of the patients due to multiple attendance to the Council were excluded. The prevalance of the bone and soft tissue tumors in these patients were analysed. Malignant mesenchymal tumors accounted for 39.7% of the total patients, benign tumors for 17%, tumor-like lesions for 17.8% and metastatic carsinomas for 8.6%. Malignant bone tumors were 50.2% and malignant soft tissue tumors were 49.8% of all the sarcomas. Among the malignant bone tumors the most common was osteosarcomas at a rate of 33.6%, followed by Ewing-PNET at 25.5%, chondrosarcomas at 19.4% and haematopoietic tumors at 17.6%. Pleomorphic sarcomas (24.5%), liposarcoma (16.4%), synovial sarcoma (13%) and undifferential sarcomas (8.8%) were the most common types of malignant sof tissue tumors. Benign soft tissue tumors (48%), benign cartilage tumors (28%), giant cell tumor (15%) and osteogenic tumors (9%) were found among the benign tumors. Hemangioma, lipoma, agressive fibromatosis, enchondroma, solitary chondroma and osteoid osteoma were the most common tumors in their groups. Lung (27%), breast (24%), gastrointestinal system (10.5%) and kidney (8.2%) carcinomas were the most common primary sites of the bone metastasis. Turkey still lacks a comprehensive series indicating the incidence and diagnostic distribution of bone and soft tissue tumors. The presented data would add to our knowledge on the specific rates of the bone and soft tissue

  7. Studies on the Fuji computed radiography depended on the panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Shiota, Satoru; Takazawa, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Toru; Takagi, Yoshiko; Funamoto, Choichiro

    1986-01-01

    The Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) developed recently involves the following procedures; photography in the same way as the hitherto radiography, printing auto imaging plate of photostimulable phospher, conversion to electric signals, and recording reproduced images by computerization. Highly valuable images for diagnoses in the medical field have already been obtained by the FCR. Then, we attempted to study FCR images panoramically radiographed for jaw lesions in the field of oral surgery. Method for study: As the samples to be studied, the selected subjects were cases of periodontal diseases, fracture of the jaw, odontogenic cyst and tumor, etc. In the present study the FCR images of panoramic radiography were compared with hitherto panoramic flat radiograms. Result of study: Although the images of the FCR vary depending on the methods of treatment, that is, on how gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement are, the method of purpose-fitting treatment provided diagnostically significant images for grasping bone lesions. The images obtained from this FCR permitted us to grasp more distinctly condition of alveolar bone resorption in periodontal diseases, running of minute fracture lines in fracture of the jaw, and characteristic images of bone resorption in odontogenic cysts and tumor, etc. Thus the images of the FCR are highly useful in diagnosing bone lesions, but granularity of the images themselves have still been questioned, and additionally the images vary depending on the methods of gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement. Therefore further repeat studies are probably needed for these questions. (author)

  8. Soft tissue masses of extremities: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seok Hyun; Yang, Seoung Oh; Choi, Jong Chul; Park, Byeong Ho; Lee, Ki Nam; Choi, Sun Seob; Chung, Duck Hwan [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    To evaluate MR findings of soft tissue masses in extremities and to find the helpful findings of distinguish benignity from malignancy, 28 soft tissue masses (22 benign and 6 malignant) in extremities were reviewed. TI-weighted, proton density, T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA enhanced images were obtained. MR images allowed a specific diagnosis in large number of benign masses, such as hemangioma(8/9), lipoma(2/2), angiolipoma(1/1), epidermoid cyst(2/2), myositis ossificans(1/1), synovial chondromatosis(1/1) and pigmented villonodular synovitis(1/2). Specific diagnosis was difficult in the rest of the masses including malignancy. However, inhomogeneous signal intensities with necrosis and inhomogeneous enhancement may suggest malignant masses.

  9. Vascularization of soft tissue engineering constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Carletto, Rodrigo

    nanotechnology-based paradigm for engineering vascularised liver tissue for transplantation”) and the Danish National Research Foundation and Villum Foundation’s Center for Intelligent Drug delivery and sensing Using microcontainers and Nanomechanics (Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF122).......Vascularization is recognized to be the biggest challenge for the fabrication of tissues and finally, organs in vitro. So far, several fabrication techniques have been proposed to create a perfusable vasculature within hydrogels, however, the vascularization and perfusion of hydrogels...... with mechanical properties in the range of soft tissues has not been fully achieved. My project focused on the fabrication and the active perfusion of hydrogel constructs with multi-dimensional vasculature and controlled mechanical properties targeting soft tissues. Specifically, the initial part of the research...

  10. Soft-tissue amyloidoma with associated plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhas Saha Dalal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue amyloidoma with features similar to plasmacytoma, in absence of systemic amyloidosis, is an extremely rare finding. We hereby report the case of a 77 year old man who presented with a painless, nodular swelling on chest wall, diagnosed as soft tissue amyloidoma with plasma cell infiltration. Congo red staining was done to prove the presence of amyloid which showed characteristic "apple-green" birefringence on polarized microscopy. The plasma cells were monoclonal in origin as demonstrated by serum protein and immunofixation electrophoresis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second such reported case. However close follow up is required, as this patient may develop multiple myeloma in future.

  11. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M.

    2001-01-01

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  12. Soft tissue sarcoma - diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruka, W.; Rutkowski, P.; Krzakowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress in the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS), both primary tumor and local recurrences/metastatic disease, has been achieved in recent years. Surgery is essential modality, but the use of combined treatment (standard combination of surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy in selected cases and perioperative rehabilitation) in highly-experienced centers increased possibility of cure and limitations of extent of local surgery. Current combined therapy together with the use of reconstructive methods allows for limb-sparing surgery in majority of soft tissue sarcoma patients (amputation in 10% of cases as compared to approximately 50% in the 1960 - 70s). The slow, but constant, increase of rate of soft tissue sarcoma patients with long-term survival has been observed. Contemporary 5-year overall survival rate in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcomas is 55 -78%. In case of diagnosis of metastatic disease the prognosis is still poor (survival of approximately 1 year). Good results of local therapy may be expected only after planned (e.g., after preoperative biopsy - tru - cut or incisional) radical surgical excision of primary tumor with pathologically negative margins (R0 resection). Following appropriate diagnostic check-up, adjuvant radiotherapy is necessary in the majority of patients treated with radical surgery need, as well as long-term rehabilitation and follow-up examinations in treating center are needed for at least 5 years. The progress is due to the introduction of targeted therapy acting on molecular or genetic cellular disturbances detected during studies on etiopathogenetic mechanisms of sarcoma subtypes. In view of rarity of sarcomas and necessity of multidisciplinary therapy, the crucial issue is that management of these tumors should be hold in experienced oncological sarcoma centers. (authors)

  13. Fibre-Matrix Interaction in Soft Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zaoyang

    2010-01-01

    Although the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue has been extensively studied, the interaction between the collagen fibres and the ground matrix has not been well understood and is therefore ignored by most constitutive models of soft tissue. In this paper, the human annulus fibrosus is used as an example and the potential fibre-matrix interaction is identified by careful investigation of the experimental results of biaxial and uniaxial testing of the human annulus fibrosus. First, the uniaxial testing result of the HAF along the axial direction is analysed and it is shown that the mechanical behaviour of the ground matrix can be well simulated by the incompressible neo-Hookean model when the collagen fibres are all under contraction. If the collagen fibres are stretched, the response of the ground matrix can still be described by the incompressible neo-Hookean model, but the effective stiffness of the matrix depends on the fibre stretch ratio. This stiffness can be more than 10 times larger than the one obtained with collagen fibres under contraction. This phenomenon can only be explained by the fibre-matrix interaction. Furthermore, we find that the physical interpretation of this interaction includes the inhomogeneity of the soft tissue and the fibre orientation dispersion. The dependence of the tangent stiffness of the matrix on the first invariant of the deformation tensor can also be explained by the fibre orientation dispersion. The significant effect of the fibre-matrix interaction strain energy on mechanical behaviour of the soft tissue is also illustrated by comparing some simulation results.

  14. Extremity exams optimization for computed radiography; Otimizacao de exames de extremidade para radiologia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, Ana Luiza M.; Alves, Allan Felipe F.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A., E-mail: analuiza@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Pina, Diana R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2013-08-15

    The computed radiography (CR) has become the most used device for image acquisition, since its introduction in the 80s. The detection and early diagnosis, obtained through CR examinations, are important for the successful treatment of diseases of the hand. However, the norms used for optimization of these images are based on international protocols. Therefore, it is necessary to determine letters of radiographic techniques for CR system, which provides a safe medical diagnosis, with doses as low as reasonably achievable. The objective of this work is to develop an extremity homogeneous phantom to be used in the calibration process of radiographic techniques. In the construction process of the simulator, it has been developed a tissues' algorithm quantifier using Matlab®. In this process the average thickness was quantified from bone and soft tissues in the region of the hand of an anthropomorphic simulator as well as the simulators' material thickness corresponding (aluminum and Lucite) using technique of mask application and removal Gaussian histogram corresponding to tissues of interest. The homogeneous phantom was used to calibrate the x-ray beam. The techniques were implemented in a calibrated hand anthropomorphic phantom. The images were evaluated by specialists in radiology by the method of VGA. Skin entrance surface doses were estimated (SED) corresponding to each technique obtained with their respective tube charge. The thicknesses of simulators materials that constitute the homogeneous phantom determined in this study were 19.01 mm of acrylic and 0.81 mm of aluminum. A better picture quality with doses as low as reasonably achievable decreased dose and tube charge around 53.35% and 37.78% respectively, compared normally used by radiology diagnostic routine clinical of HCFMB-UNESP. (author)

  15. Physical image quality of computed radiography in mammography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norriza Mohd Isa; Muhammad Jamal Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan; Fatimah Othman

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Mammography is a screening procedure that mostly used for early detection of breast cancer. In digital imaging system, Computed Radiography is a cost-effective technology that applied indirect conversion detector. The paper presents physical image quality parameter measurements namely modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of Computed Radiography in mammography system. MTF was calculated from two different orientations of slanted images of an edge test device and NNPS was estimated using flat-field image. Both images were acquired using a standard mammography beam quality. DQE was determined by applying the MTF and NNPS values into our developed software program. Both orientations have similar DQE characteristics. (author)

  16. Soft-Tissue Chondroma of Anterior Gingiva: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhana Lakshmi Jeyasivanesan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft-tissue chondroma is a rare, benign, slow-growing tumor made up of heterotopic cartilaginous tissue. It occurs most commonly in the third and fourth decades in the hands and feet. Oral soft-tissue chondromas are uncommon and soft-tissue chondroma of gingiva is extremely uncommon. Here, we report an unusual case of soft-tissue chondroma of gingiva in a 50-year-old woman.

  17. Digital computed radiography in industrial X-ray testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Onel, Y.; Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U.

    2001-01-01

    Computed radiography is used for X-ray testing in many industrial applications. There are different systems depending on the application, e.g. fast systems for detection of material inhomogeneities and slower systems with higher local resolution for detection of cracks and fine details, e.g. in highly stressed areas or in welded seams. The method is more dynamic than film methods, and digital image processing is possible during testing [de

  18. Computed radiography simulation using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, S.C.A.; Souza, E.M.; Silva, A.X.; Lopes, R.T.

    2009-01-01

    Simulating x-ray images has been of great interest in recent years as it makes possible an analysis of how x-ray images are affected owing to relevant operating parameters. In this paper, a procedure for simulating computed radiographic images using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX is proposed. The sensitivity curve of the BaFBr image plate detector as well as the characteristic noise of a 16-bit computed radiography system were considered during the methodology's development. The results obtained confirm that the proposed procedure for simulating computed radiographic images is satisfactory, as it allows obtaining results comparable with experimental data. (author)

  19. Computed radiography simulation using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, S.C.A. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste (CCMAT)/UEZO, Av. Manuel Caldeira de Alvarenga, 1203, Campo Grande, 23070-200, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, E.M. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [PEN/COPPE-DNC/Poli CT, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cassiano, D.H. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    Simulating X-ray images has been of great interest in recent years as it makes possible an analysis of how X-ray images are affected owing to relevant operating parameters. In this paper, a procedure for simulating computed radiographic images using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX is proposed. The sensitivity curve of the BaFBr image plate detector as well as the characteristic noise of a 16-bit computed radiography system were considered during the methodology's development. The results obtained confirm that the proposed procedure for simulating computed radiographic images is satisfactory, as it allows obtaining results comparable with experimental data.

  20. An electromechanical based deformable model for soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2009-11-01

    Soft tissue deformation is of great importance to surgery simulation. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviours of soft tissues, modelling of soft tissue deformation is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a new deformable model for simulation of soft tissue deformation from the electromechanical viewpoint of soft tissues. Soft tissue deformation is formulated as a reaction-diffusion process coupled with a mechanical load. The mechanical load applied to a soft tissue to cause a deformation is incorporated into the reaction-diffusion system, and consequently distributed among mass points of the soft tissue. Reaction-diffusion of mechanical load and non-rigid mechanics of motion are combined to govern the simulation dynamics of soft tissue deformation. An improved reaction-diffusion model is developed to describe the distribution of the mechanical load in soft tissues. A three-layer artificial cellular neural network is constructed to solve the reaction-diffusion model for real-time simulation of soft tissue deformation. A gradient based method is established to derive internal forces from the distribution of the mechanical load. Integration with a haptic device has also been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with haptic feedback. The proposed methodology does not only predict the typical behaviours of living tissues, but it also accepts both local and large-range deformations. It also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous deformations by simple modification of diffusion coefficients.

  1. Modern Soft Tissue Pathology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book comprehensively covers modern soft tissue pathology and includes both tumors and non-neoplastic entities. Soft tissues make up a large bulk of the human body, and they are susceptible to a wide range of diseases. Many soft-tissue tumors are biologically very aggressive, and the chance of them metastasizing to vital organs is quite high. In recent years, the outlook

  2. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection: Diagnostic Accuracy of Physical Examination, Imaging, and LRINEC Score: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Shannon M; Tran, Alexandre; Cheng, Wei; Rochwerg, Bram; Kyeremanteng, Kwadwo; Seely, Andrew J E; Inaba, Kenji; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2018-04-18

    We sought to summarize accuracy of physical examination, imaging, and Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score in diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) in adults with a soft tissue infection clinically concerning for NSTI. NSTI is a life-threatening diagnosis. Delay to diagnosis and surgical management is associated with increased mortality. We searched 6 databases from inception through November 2017. We included English-language studies reporting diagnostic accuracy of testing or LRINEC Score. Outcome was NSTI confirmed by surgery or histopathology. Two reviewers screened all citations and extracted data independently. Summary measures were obtained from the Hierarchical Summary Receiver Operating Characteristic model. From 2,290 citations, we included 23 studies (n = 5982). Of physical examination signs, pooled sensitivity and specificity for fever was 46.0% and 77.0% respectively, for hemorrhagic bullae 25.2% and 95.8%, and for hypotension 21.0% and 97.7%. Computed tomography (CT) had sensitivity of 88.5% and specificity of 93.3%, while plain radiography had sensitivity of 48.9% and specificity of 94.0%. Finally, LRINEC ≥ 6 had sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 84.8%, while LRINEC ≥ 8 had sensitivity of 40.8% and specificity of 94.9%. Absence of any 1 physical examination feature (eg, fever or hypotension) is not sufficient to rule-out NSTI. CT is superior to plain radiography. LRINEC had poor sensitivity, and should not be used to rule-out NSTI. Given the poor sensitivity of these tests, a high clinical suspicion warrants early surgical consultation for definitive diagnosis and management.

  3. Fuji computed radiography (FCR) for the diagnosis of spinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Waga, Shiro; Kojima, Tadashi

    1987-01-01

    Since April, 1985, we have, in co-operation with the Fuji Film Co., Ltd., used Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) in the diagnosis of spinal disorders. FCR is a new computed radiographic system which uses an energy-storage phosphorus panel called an ''Imaging Plate'' as an image sensor. The ''Imaging Plate'' can be used to obtain radiographs in exactly the same way as the screen-film combination used in conventional radiography; X-rays are exposed on the ''Imaging Plate'' instead of X-ray film in the conventional fashion, and then the ''Imaging Plate'' is calculated. The processed digital data from the scans is transformed into a picture by means of digital-to-analogue conversion. The pictures are always clear and beautiful. Plain films of the spine taken by FCR are even clearer, even in the cervicothoracic region, where it is usually difficult to obtain clear cervicothoracic films in conventional radiography. We can obtain much precise information about the spinal posterior osteophytes and grafted bone, even when the patients are immobilized in a Halo apparatus. In myelography, the pictures are also clearer; we can see how the root or roots are compressed, how the dura and cord are involved in patients with cervical disc disease, and even the very narrow space between the cord and an intradural tumor. FCR is thus very useful in observing spinal disorders, either in plain films or myelography. (author)

  4. Quality comparison of direct digital panoramic radiography and computed radiography panoramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Goodarzipour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Digital panoramic X-ray images can be captured using photostimulable phosphors or solid-state detectors (i.e. charge-coupled devices and Flat-Panels. The first category is defined as computed radiography (CR or semi-direct radiography. The second technology that uses solid-state detectors is known as direct digital radiography (DDR. Both of these technologies have their own advantages and disadvantages. One of the most important fields in comparison of these systems is their resultant image quality. The purpose of this study was to compare the subjective image quality of DDR and CR digital panoramic system, and to assess the overall density and contrast of their images. METHODS: 200 patients were randomly allocated to two digital systems: Promax [central control digital (CCD] and XC [photostimulable phosphor plates (PSP]. Image quality was evaluated in six regions on a 3-point scale by three oral and maxillofacial radiologists independently. In addition, observers assessed overall density and contrast of each image on a 3-point scale. RESULTS: Using chi-square test, no statistically significant differences were found (P >0.05 in subjective image quality of anatomic structures between the two radiographic systems. But DDR system outperformed CR system in overall density and contrast of the image. P values for both overall density and contrast of the images was less than 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The subjective image quality of CR and DDR panoramic systems in specified anatomic regions were found statistically comparable in this study. In overall density and contrast of the radiographs, DDR system proved better than CR system.

  5. Soft tissue chondroma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeri H

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Soft tissue chondroma is a rare slow-growing benign cartilage forming tumor. Tumors of this kind arise from the relative mesenchymal tissue and have tendency to occur in the fingers and toes. Due to its rarity, this tumor is likely to go undiagnosed. Histopathological examination usually reveals the correct diagnosis."n"nCase presentation: Hereby, we report a case of soft tissue chondroma in a 27 year-old woman presented with a slow-growing mass in the volar aspect of her right hand. The tumor had developed over a 7-month period. The skeletal system was unremarkable on X-ray evaluation. The lesion was excised and the histopathological findings revealed a well-delineated cartilaginous neoplasm with lobular pattern. The tumor was composed of mature chondrocytes without atypia and the findings were compatible with chondroma."n"nConclusion: There are various hypotheses about the etiology of soft tissue chondromas and their microscopic findings are variable. They have a good prognosis. Recurrence is rare and malignant transformation has not been reported yet.

  6. Soft tissue augmentation 2006: filler fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Arnold William

    2006-01-01

    As an increasing number of patients seek esthetic improvement through minimally invasive procedures, interest in soft tissue augmentation and filling agents is at an all-time high. One reason for this interest is the availability of botulinum toxin type A, which works superbly in the upper face. The rejuvenation of the upper face has created much interest in injectable filling agents and implant techniques that work equally well in the restoration of the lower face. One of the central tenets of soft tissue augmentation is the concept of the three-dimensional face. The youthful face has a soft, full appearance, as opposed to the flat, pulled, two-dimensional look often achieved by more traditional surgical approaches. Injectable filling agents can augment and even at times, replace pulling. Additionally, with the lip as the focal center of the lower face, subtle lip enhancement is here to stay, and is in fact, the number one indication for injectable fillers. Moreover, minimally invasive soft tissue augmentation offers cosmetic enhancement without the cost and recovery time associated with more invasive procedures. As more and more physicians take interest in minimally invasive surgery, courses in cosmetic surgery techniques are becoming increasingly popular at the medical meetings of many specialties. Today, physicians have a much larger armamentarium of techniques and materials with which to improve facial contours, ameliorate wrinkles, and provide esthetic rejuvenation to the face. For a substance or device to be amenable for soft tissue augmentation in the medical community, it must meet certain criteria. It must have both a high "use" potential, producing cosmetically pleasing results with a minimum undesirable reactions, and have a low abuse potential in that widespread or incorrect or indiscriminate use would not result in significant morbidity. It must be nonteratogenic, noncarcinogenic, and nonmigratory. In addition, the agent must provide predictable

  7. Biomarkers of necrotising soft tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Simonsen, Ulf; Garred, Peter

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mortality and amputation rates are still high in patients with necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTIs). It would be ideal to have a set of biomarkers that enables the clinician to identify high-risk patients with NSTI on admission. The objectives of this study are to evaluate...... and mortality in patients with NSTI and that HBOT reduces the inflammatory response. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, observational study being conducted in a tertiary referral centre. Biomarkers will be measured in 114 patients who have been operatively diagnosed with NSTI. On admission, baseline...

  8. Imaging of tuberculosis. Pt. 5. Peripheral osteoarticular and soft-tissue tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugosson, C. [Dept. of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Nyman, R.S. [Dept. of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Brismar, J. [Dept. of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Larsson, S.G. [Dept. of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Lindahl, S. [Dept. of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Lundstedt, C. [Dept. of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-07-01

    Purpose: To assess frequency, location, and appearance of peripheral osteoarticular and soft-tissue tuberculosis (TB). Material and Methods: Twenty-five of 503 patients with TB had peripheral osteoarticular TB and 5 had soft-tissue TB. Chest radiography, CT, and MR imaging were applied. Results: The location of the osteoarticular lesion was articular/epiphyseal in 14 patients, articular/metaphyseal in 3, and metaphyseal without joint involvement in 3. Involvement of flat bone was found in 4 patients (5 lesions). The morphologic appearance was similar to that of a lytic tumour in 9 patients (10 lesions) and that of a destructive joint lesion in 16 patients. The soft-tissue TB in all 5 patients presented as an abscess. Twelve patients had a total of 20 additional sites of involvement: Chest in 9, abdomen in 4, spine in 4, the neck in 3, and the central nervous system in one patient. Conclusion: On the basis of radiologic appearance, it can be difficult to differentiate peripheral osteoarticular and soft-tissue TB from other degenerative, inflammatory, or neoplastic disorders, and the importance of a high awareness is stressed in order to reach an early diagnosis. (orig.).

  9. Imaging of tuberculosis. Pt. 5. Peripheral osteoarticular and soft-tissue tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Nyman, R.S.; Brismar, J.; Larsson, S.G.; Lindahl, S.; Lundstedt, C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess frequency, location, and appearance of peripheral osteoarticular and soft-tissue tuberculosis (TB). Material and Methods: Twenty-five of 503 patients with TB had peripheral osteoarticular TB and 5 had soft-tissue TB. Chest radiography, CT, and MR imaging were applied. Results: The location of the osteoarticular lesion was articular/epiphyseal in 14 patients, articular/metaphyseal in 3, and metaphyseal without joint involvement in 3. Involvement of flat bone was found in 4 patients (5 lesions). The morphologic appearance was similar to that of a lytic tumour in 9 patients (10 lesions) and that of a destructive joint lesion in 16 patients. The soft-tissue TB in all 5 patients presented as an abscess. Twelve patients had a total of 20 additional sites of involvement: Chest in 9, abdomen in 4, spine in 4, the neck in 3, and the central nervous system in one patient. Conclusion: On the basis of radiologic appearance, it can be difficult to differentiate peripheral osteoarticular and soft-tissue TB from other degenerative, inflammatory, or neoplastic disorders, and the importance of a high awareness is stressed in order to reach an early diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Vascular imaging with contrast agent in hard and soft tissues using microcomputed-tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blery, P; Pilet, P; Bossche, A Vanden-; Thery, A; Guicheux, J; Amouriq, Y; Espitalier, F; Mathieu, N; Weiss, P

    2016-04-01

    Vascularization is essential for many tissues and is a main requisite for various tissue-engineering strategies. Different techniques are used for highlighting vasculature, in vivo and ex vivo, in 2-D or 3-D including histological staining, immunohistochemistry, radiography, angiography, microscopy, computed tomography (CT) or micro-CT, both stand-alone and synchrotron system. Vascularization can be studied with or without a contrast agent. This paper presents the results obtained with the latest Skyscan micro-CT (Skyscan 1272, Bruker, Belgium) following barium sulphate injection replacing the bloodstream in comparison with results obtained with a Skyscan In Vivo 1076. Different hard and soft tissues were perfused with contrast agent and were harvested. Samples were analysed using both forms of micro-CT, and improved results were shown using this new micro-CT. This study highlights the vasculature using micro-CT methods. The results obtained with the Skyscan 1272 are clearly defined compared to results obtained with Skyscan 1076. In particular, this instrument highlights the high number of small vessels, which were not seen before at lower resolution. This new micro-CT opens broader possibilities in detection and characterization of the 3-D vascular tree to assess vascular tissue engineering strategies. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Artery Soft-Tissue Modelling for Stent Implant Training System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality technology can be utilised to provide new systematic training methods for surgical procedures. Our aim is to build a simulator that allows medical students to practice the coronary stent implant procedure and avoids exposing patients to risks. The designed simulation system consists of a virtual environment and a haptic interface, in order to provide both the visualization of the coronary arteries and the tactile and force feedback generated during the interactions of the surgical instruments in the virtual environment. Since the arteries are soft tissues, their shape may change during an operation; for this reason physical modelling of the organs is necessary to render their behaviour under the influence of surgeon's instruments. The idea is to define a model that computes the displacement of the tissue versus time; from the displacement it is possible to calculate the response of the tissue to the surgical tool external stimuli. Information about tools displacements and tissue responses are also used to graphically model the artery wall and virtual surgical instrument deformations generated as a consequence of their coming into contact. In order to obtain a realistic simulation, the Finite Element Method has been used to model the soft tissues of the artery, using linear elasticity to reduce computational time and speed up interaction rates.

  12. Advances in computed radiography systems and their physical imaging characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.; Davies, A.G.; Kengyelics, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiological imaging is progressing towards an all-digital future, across the spectrum of medical imaging techniques. Computed radiography (CR) has provided a ready pathway from screen film to digital radiography and a convenient entry point to PACS. This review briefly revisits the principles of modern CR systems and their physical imaging characteristics. Wide dynamic range and digital image enhancement are well-established benefits of CR, which lend themselves to improved image presentation and reduced rates of repeat exposures. However, in its original form CR offered limited scope for reducing the radiation dose per radiographic exposure, compared with screen film. Recent innovations in CR, including the use of dual-sided image readout and channelled storage phosphor have eased these concerns. For example, introduction of these technologies has improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by approximately 50 and 100%, respectively, compared with standard CR. As a result CR currently affords greater scope for reducing patient dose, and provides a more substantive challenge to the new solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors

  13. A method to optimize the processing algorithm of a computed radiography system for chest radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C S; Liney, G P; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2007-09-01

    A test methodology using an anthropomorphic-equivalent chest phantom is described for the optimization of the Agfa computed radiography "MUSICA" processing algorithm for chest radiography. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the lung, heart and diaphragm regions of the phantom, and the "system modulation transfer function" (sMTF) in the lung region, were measured using test tools embedded in the phantom. Using these parameters the MUSICA processing algorithm was optimized with respect to low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution. Two optimum "MUSICA parameter sets" were derived respectively for maximizing the CNR and sMTF in each region of the phantom. Further work is required to find the relative importance of low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution in chest images, from which the definitive optimum MUSICA parameter set can then be derived. Prior to this further work, a compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was applied to a range of clinical images. A group of experienced image evaluators scored these images alongside images produced from the same radiographs using the MUSICA parameter set in clinical use at the time. The compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was shown to produce measurably better images.

  14. Internal anatomy of the hornbill casque described by radiography, contrast radiography, and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kathryn C

    2007-03-01

    Hornbills are distinguished from most other avian taxa by the presence of a casque on the dorsal maxillary beak, which, in all but 1 of the 54 extant hornbill species, is described as essentially an air-filled cavity enclosed by minimal cancellous bone. The external casque has been described in detail, but little has been described about its internal anatomy and the communications between the casque and the paranasal sinuses. In this study, 10 intact casque and skull specimens of 7 hornbill species were collected opportunistically at necropsy. The anatomy of the casque and the skull for each of the specimens was examined by radiography, contrast radiography, and computed tomography. After imaging, 8 specimens were submitted for osteologic preparation to directly visualize the casque and the skull interior. Through this standardized review, the baseline anatomy of the internal casque was described, including identification of a novel casque sinus within the paranasal sinus system. These observations will assist clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the casque in hornbill species.

  15. New Therapeutic Targets in Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demicco, Elizabeth G; Maki, Robert G; Lev, Dina C.; Lazar, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are an uncommon and diverse group of more than 50 mesenchymal malignancies. The pathogenesis of many of these is poorly understood, but others have begun to reveal the secrets of their inner workings. With considerable effort over recent years, soft tissue sarcomas have increasingly been classified on the basis of underlying molecular alterations. In turn, this has allowed the development and application of targeted agents in several specific, molecularly defined, sarcoma subtypes. This review will focus the rationale for targeted therapy in sarcoma, with emphasis on the relevance of specific molecular factors and pathways in both translocation-associated sarcomas and in genetically complex tumors. In addition, we will address some of the early successes in sarcoma targeted therapy as well as a few challenges and disappointments in this field. Finally we will discuss several possible opportunities represented by poorly understood, but potentially promising new therapeutic targets, as well as several novel biologic agents currently in preclinical and early phase I/II trials. This will provide the reader with context for understanding the current state this field and a sense of where it may be headed in the coming years. PMID:22498582

  16. Computers in dental radiography: a scenario for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The recent emergence of cost-effective computing power makes it possible to integrate sophisticated data-sampling and image-interpretation techniques into dental radiography for the first time. A prototype system is being developed to permit clinical information expressed in three dimensions--plus time--to be made visible almost instantly. The associated X-ray dose for a complete three-dimensional survey of a selected dental region is predicted to be less than that required for a single conventional periapical radiograph exposed on D-speed film

  17. Temperature dependence of postmortem MR quantification for soft tissue discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Schwendener, Nicole; Jackowski, Christian [University of Bern, From the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J. [University of Linkoeping, The Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    To investigate and correct the temperature dependence of postmortem MR quantification used for soft tissue characterization and differentiation in thoraco-abdominal organs. Thirty-five postmortem short axis cardiac 3-T MR examinations were quantified using a quantification sequence. Liver, spleen, left ventricular myocardium, pectoralis muscle and subcutaneous fat were analysed in cardiac short axis images to obtain mean T1, T2 and PD tissue values. The core body temperature was measured using a rectally inserted thermometer. The tissue-specific quantitative values were related to the body core temperature. Equations to correct for temperature differences were generated. In a 3D plot comprising the combined data of T1, T2 and PD, different organs/tissues could be well differentiated from each other. The quantitative values were influenced by the temperature. T1 in particular exhibited strong temperature dependence. The correction of quantitative values to a temperature of 37 C resulted in better tissue discrimination. Postmortem MR quantification is feasible for soft tissue discrimination and characterization of thoraco-abdominal organs. This provides a base for computer-aided diagnosis and detection of tissue lesions. The temperature dependence of the T1 values challenges postmortem MR quantification. Equations to correct for the temperature dependence are provided. (orig.)

  18. Temperature dependence of postmortem MR quantification for soft tissue discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Schwendener, Nicole; Jackowski, Christian; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate and correct the temperature dependence of postmortem MR quantification used for soft tissue characterization and differentiation in thoraco-abdominal organs. Thirty-five postmortem short axis cardiac 3-T MR examinations were quantified using a quantification sequence. Liver, spleen, left ventricular myocardium, pectoralis muscle and subcutaneous fat were analysed in cardiac short axis images to obtain mean T1, T2 and PD tissue values. The core body temperature was measured using a rectally inserted thermometer. The tissue-specific quantitative values were related to the body core temperature. Equations to correct for temperature differences were generated. In a 3D plot comprising the combined data of T1, T2 and PD, different organs/tissues could be well differentiated from each other. The quantitative values were influenced by the temperature. T1 in particular exhibited strong temperature dependence. The correction of quantitative values to a temperature of 37 C resulted in better tissue discrimination. Postmortem MR quantification is feasible for soft tissue discrimination and characterization of thoraco-abdominal organs. This provides a base for computer-aided diagnosis and detection of tissue lesions. The temperature dependence of the T1 values challenges postmortem MR quantification. Equations to correct for the temperature dependence are provided. (orig.)

  19. Real-time radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography for nonintrusive waste drum characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Roberson, G.P.

    1994-07-01

    We are investigating and developing the application of x-ray nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) methods to nonintrusively characterize 208-liter (55-gallon) mixed waste drums. Mixed wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive materials. We are investigating the use of x-ray NDE methods to verify the content of documented waste drums and determine if they can be used to identify hazardous and nonconforming materials. These NDE methods are also being used to help waste certification and hazardous waste management personnel at LLNL to verify/confirm and/or determine the contents of waste. The gamma-ray NDA method is used to identify the intrinsic radioactive source(s) and to accurately quantify its strength. The NDA method may also be able to identify some hazardous materials such as heavy metals. Also, we are exploring techniques to combine both NDE and NDA data sets to yield the maximum information from these nonintrusive, waste-drum characterization methods. In this paper, we report an our x-ray NDE R ampersand D activities, while our gamma-ray NDA activities are reported elsewhere in the proceedings. We have developed a data, acquisition scanner for x-ray NDE real-time radiography (RTR), as well as digital radiography transmission computed tomography (TCT) along with associated computational techniques for image reconstruction, analysis, and display. We are using this scanner and real-waste drums at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In this paper, we discuss some issues associated with x-ray imaging, describe the design construction of an inexpensive NDE drum scanner, provide representative DR and TCT results of both mock- and real-waste drums, and end with a summary of our efforts and future directions. The results of these scans reveal that RTR, DR, and CT imaging techniques can be used in concert to provide valuable information about the interior of low-level-, transuranic-, and mock-waste drums without

  20. A new ChainMail approach for real-time soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2016-07-03

    This paper presents a new ChainMail method for real-time soft tissue simulation. This method enables the use of different material properties for chain elements to accommodate various materials. Based on the ChainMail bounding region, a new time-saving scheme is developed to improve computational efficiency for isotropic materials. The proposed method also conserves volume and strain energy. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed ChainMail method can not only accommodate isotropic, anisotropic and heterogeneous materials but also model incompressibility and relaxation behaviors of soft tissues. Further, the proposed method can achieve real-time computational performance.

  1. GPU-based real-time soft tissue deformation with cutting and haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtecuisse, Hadrien; Jung, Hoeryong; Allard, Jérémie; Duriez, Christian; Lee, Doo Yong; Cotin, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a series of contributions in the field of real-time simulation of soft tissue biomechanics. These contributions address various requirements for interactive simulation of complex surgical procedures. In particular, this article presents results in the areas of soft tissue deformation, contact modelling, simulation of cutting, and haptic rendering, which are all relevant to a variety of medical interventions. The contributions described in this article share a common underlying model of deformation and rely on GPU implementations to significantly improve computation times. This consistency in the modelling technique and computational approach ensures coherent results as well as efficient, robust and flexible solutions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fuji computed radiography (FCR) for the diagnosis of spinal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Waga, Shiro; Kojima, Tadashi

    1987-04-01

    Since April, 1985, we have, in co-operation with the Fuji Film Co., Ltd., used Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) in the diagnosis of spinal disorders. FCR is a new computed radiographic system which uses an energy-storage phosphorus panel called an ''Imaging Plate'' as an image sensor. The ''Imaging Plate'' can be used to obtain radiographs in exactly the same way as the screen-film combination used in conventional radiography; X-rays are exposed on the ''Imaging Plate'' instead of X-ray film in the conventional fashion, and then the ''Imaging Plate'' is calculated. The processed digital data from the scans is transformed into a picture by means of digital-to-analogue conversion. The pictures are always clear and beautiful. Plain films of the spine taken by FCR are even clearer, even in the cervicothoracic region, where it is usually difficult to obtain clear cervicothoracic films in conventional radiography. We can obtain much precise information about the spinal posterior osteophytes and grafted bone, even when the patients are immobilized in a Halo apparatus. In myelography, the pictures are also clearer; we can see how the root or roots are compressed, how the dura and cord are involved in patients with cervical disc disease, and even the very narrow space between the cord and an intradural tumor. FCR is thus very useful in observing spinal disorders, either in plain films or myelography.

  3. Dimensional Changes of Fresh Sockets With Reactive Soft Tissue Preservation: A Cone Beam CT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Capparé, Paolo; Crespi, Giovanni; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Gherlone, Enrico Felice

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dimensional changes of the fresh sockets grafted with collagen sheets and maintenance of reactive soft tissue, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Tooth extractions were performed with maximum preservation of the alveolar housing, reactive soft tissue was left into the sockets and collagen sheets filled bone defects. Cone beam computed tomography were performed before and 3 months after extractions. One hundred forty-five teeth, 60 monoradiculars and 85 molars, were extracted. In total, 269 alveoli were evaluated. In Group A, not statistically significant differences were found between monoradiculars, whereas statistically significant differences (P 0.05) for all types of teeth. This study reported an atraumatic tooth extraction, reactive soft tissue left in situ, and grafted collagen sponge may be helpful to reduce fresh socket collapse after extraction procedures.

  4. Roentgenographic studies on the soft tissue profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Won; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1971-01-01

    Modern orthodontics implies not only occlusal excellence, but also the positioning of teeth to produce optimal facial harmony for the individual patients. Several methods have been used in the study of facial height, width and depth were made from living subjects. These methods, however, complicate to control the subjects, therefore many investigators have used profile cephalometric technics. Practically, cephalometric technics were used in orthodontic treatment, maxillo-facial surgery and anthropometric studies. Author was studied to investigate the normal standards of soft tissue profile in Korean adolescences. The subjects consisted of 53 males and 54 females from 17 to 22 years of age and with normal occlusion and acceptable profile. Aluminum filter was designed to obtain both hard and soft tissue structures on a single film. Eight profile landmarks were plotted and drawn on the tracings of all cephalograms and eighteen depth, height an d angles were measured from each landmarks of the cephalograms. The following conclusions were obtained from this studies; 1. Total facial convexity was 170.75 in males and females samples and lower facial and labiomandibular convexity were each of 141.44, 171.05. 2. Maxillary and mandibular sulcus angulations were 137.61, 129.52 and upper and lower lip inclinations were each of 12 3.26 and 49.56 in male and females. 3. Soft tissue depth of several points were as follows; Subnasale 18.74 mm in males and 16.65 mm in females Pogonion 13.40 mm in males and 13.07 mm in females upper lip 14.06 mm in males and 11.91 mm in females lower lip 15.46 mm, 13.63 in males and females 4. The protrusion of nose were 16.28 mm in males and 15.56 mm in females 5. The vertical length of upper and lower lips were 25.67 mm, 52.96 mm and the lip posture was indicated 93.43 per cent (closed state) in centric occlusions.

  5. Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography of late Bronze Age Cremation Urns from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels; Amsgaard Ebsen, Jannie

    2012-01-01

    To improve methods used to study prehistoric cremation rituals, cremation urns from the Danish late Bronze Age were examined using Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography (Digital X-ray). During microexcavation, the digital images were used as registration tool. Our results suggest...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed radiography in Achilles tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenaga, Tateo; Hachiya, Junichi; Miyasaka, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Radiography (CR) were performed in 15 patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture who were treated conservatively without surgery. MRI was obtained using Toshiba MRT 50 A superconductive machine, operaing at 0.5 Tesla. CR was performed by CR-101, Fuji Medical System. In fresh cases, ruptured tendons showed intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. Thickening of the tendon was observed in all cases except in very acute stage. Configuration of thickend tendons tends to be dumbbell shape in subacute stage and fusiform in chronic stage of more than six months after the initial trauma. In cases which showed high signal intensity at the ruptured area both on T1 and T2 weighted images, migration of fat into the sapces between the ruptured tendons was considered to be the major source of increased signal intensity. Computed radiography showed thickening of the tendon, blurring of anterior margin of the tendon, and decreased translucency of pre-Achilles fat pad. However, MRI better demonstrated the details of ruptured tendons when compared to CR, and thought to be an usefull way of following up the healing process of the ruptured tendon to facilitate more reasonable judgement of the time of removing plaster casts and stating exercise. (author)

  7. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Michèle; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel

    2009-10-01

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  8. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kind, Michele; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel

    2009-01-01

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  9. Imaging the hard/soft tissue interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, Alistair; Paxton, Jennifer Z; Grover, Liam M

    2014-03-01

    Interfaces between different tissues play an essential role in the biomechanics of native tissues and their recapitulation is now recognized as critical to function. As a consequence, imaging the hard/soft tissue interface has become increasingly important in the area of tissue engineering. Particularly as several biotechnology based products have made it onto the market or are close to human trials and an understanding of their function and development is essential. A range of imaging modalities have been developed that allow a wealth of information on the morphological and physical properties of samples to be obtained non-destructively in vivo or via destructive means. This review summarizes the use of a selection of imaging modalities on interfaces to date considering the strengths and weaknesses of each. We will also consider techniques which have not yet been utilized to their full potential or are likely to play a role in future work in the area.

  10. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Angiographic picture of soft tissue desmoid fibromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitaev, N.S.; Kuznetsova, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Arteriography was performed in 35 patients with soft tissue desmoid fibromas. Angiographic semiotics of this disease was described. The frequency of detectability of symptoms in the arterial, parenchymatous and venous phases was analyzed. A tumor in the arterial phase was shown to be of normevascular or moderately hypervascular type without noticeable winding of the nutrient arteries, such features of malignancy as lacunae and ''tumor'' vessels being absent. In the parenchymatous phase desmoid tumors were shown to accumulate moderately a contrast substance, a tumor contour at a vast length was ill defined and poorly marked from surrounding tissues. The venous phase was less noticeable and the time of its appearance was usually within normal. In general by most of its parameters the angiographic picture of agressive fibromatosis corresponded to that of benign tumors and could be used for differential diagnosis of desmoid fibromas and some types of tissue sarcomas

  12. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kind, Michele [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Institut Bergonie, 229 cours de l' Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)], E-mail: kind@bergonie.org; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel [Departement de Pathologie, Institut Bergonie, 229 cours de l' Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)

    2009-10-15

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  13. Mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Arsenovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman presented with a 1 year history of a painless, subcutaneous lump on the right buttock. Clinical examination showed an approximately 6 cm large subcutaneous mass covered by apparently normal-looking skin. No inguinal lymphadenopathy was found. The mass was excised with the clinical diagnosis of fibroma. Histologically, the lesion was consistent with mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue, a very rare, benign mesenchymal neoplasm with myofibroblastic differentiation. After surgical excision she was free of recurrence over a period of 8 months. This article also challenges the theory that suggests the origin of this tumor to be from the embryonic mammary tissue, adding another case of a site other than the milk lines.

  14. Necrotizing soft tissue infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestorović Milica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI is a life-threatening condition, characterized by widely spread necrosis of skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia and muscles. Treatment involves surgical debridement and broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. Mortality is still high due to diagnostic delays. NSTI is rare in general population, there are even less literature data of this condition in pregnancy. Timely diagnosis and therapy is crucial for outcome of these patients. Clinicians should have in mind NSTI in patients with perianal infections, especially in cases where immunosuppressive role of pregnancy is present. Case outline. We present a case of a 21-year-old pregnant woman with NSTI spreading from perianal region. The patient was admitted to hospital in the 31st week of otherwise healthy twin pregnancy one day after incision of perianal abscess. At admission she was examined by a gynecologist; vital signs were stable, laboratory results showed the presence of infection. She was referred for another surgical procedure and broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed. The next morning the patient complained of intense abdominal pain. Clinical exam revealed only discrete redness of the skin tender on palpation, crepitating. She was immediately referred to surgery. Intraoperative findings revealed massive soft tissue infection spreading up to the chest wall. Wide skin incisions and debridement were performed. The patient developed septic shock and after initial resuscitation gynecologist confirmed intrauterine death of twins and indicated labor induction. Over the next few days the patient’s general condition improved. On several occasions the wounds were aggressively debrided under general anesthesia, which left the patient with large abdominal wall defect. Twenty-three days after the initial operation, the defect was reconstructed with partial-thickness skin grafts, providing satisfactory results. Conclusion. Diagnosis and outcome of

  15. Pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas and nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwala Sandeep

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors arising from the soft tissues are uncommon in children, accounting for about 6% of all childhood malignancies. More than half (53% of these originate from the striated muscles and are called rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS the remaining are nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS. Almost two-thirds of RMS cases are diagnosed in children < 6 years of age. They can arise at varied locations like the head and neck region, genitourinary tract, extremities, trunk and retroperitoneum. Pathologically RMS is now classified as superior, intermediate and poor outcome histologies. For stratification of treatment and also comparison of results the RMS are now staged both by the clinical grouping and the TNM staging systems. The ultimate outcome depends on the site, extent of disease and histology. Currently, approximately 70% of the patients survive for 5 years or more and are probably cured. This is credited to the use of multi-modal, risk-adapted therapy, refinements in tumor grouping and better supportive care which has emerged out of cooperative studies like Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS and the International Society of Pediatric Oncology studies (SIOP. The treatment involves chemotherapy, radiotherapy and organ/function preserving surgery. The gold standard chemotherapy is still vincristine, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide (VAC regime with high doses of intensity bone marrow rescue with colony stimulating factors. The NRSTS are rare and of heterogenous histologies and so it has been difficult to arrive at a treatment strategy for these. What is definitely understood is that these are usually immature and poorly differentiated tumors that respond poorly to chemotherapy and so surgical resection forms the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy to prevent local recurrences. In all likelihood, the molecular analysis of RMS will further refine current classification schemes and knowledge of genetic features of

  16. ChainMail based neural dynamics modeling of soft tissue deformation for surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-07-20

    Realistic and real-time modeling and simulation of soft tissue deformation is a fundamental research issue in the field of surgical simulation. In this paper, a novel cellular neural network approach is presented for modeling and simulation of soft tissue deformation by combining neural dynamics of cellular neural network with ChainMail mechanism. The proposed method formulates the problem of elastic deformation into cellular neural network activities to avoid the complex computation of elasticity. The local position adjustments of ChainMail are incorporated into the cellular neural network as the local connectivity of cells, through which the dynamic behaviors of soft tissue deformation are transformed into the neural dynamics of cellular neural network. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed neural network approach is capable of modeling the soft tissues' nonlinear deformation and typical mechanical behaviors. The proposed method not only improves ChainMail's linear deformation with the nonlinear characteristics of neural dynamics but also enables the cellular neural network to follow the principle of continuum mechanics to simulate soft tissue deformation.

  17. Quality assurance of computed and digital radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, C.; Gorman, D.; Byrne, P.; Larkin, A.; Dowling, A.; Malone, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography (DR) are replacing traditional film screen radiography as hospitals move towards digital imaging and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). Both IPEM and KCARE have recently published quality assurance and acceptance testing guidelines for DR. In this paper, the performance of a range of CR and DR systems is compared. Six different manufacturers are included. Particular attention is paid to the performance of the systems under automatic exposure control (AEC). The patient is simulated using a range of thicknesses of tissue equivalent material. Image quality assessment was based on detector assessment protocols and includes pixel value measures as well as subjective assessment using Leeds Test Objects. The protocols for detector assessment cover a broad range of tests and in general detectors (whether DR or CR) performed satisfactorily. The chief limitation in performing these tests was that not all systems provided ready access to pixel values. Subjective tests include the use of the Leeds TO20. As part of this work, suggested reference values are provided to calculate the TO20 image quality factor. One consequence of moving from film screen to digital technologies is that the dynamic range of digital detectors is much wider, and increased exposures are no longer evident from changes in image quality. As such, AEC is a key parameter for CR and DR. Dose was measured using a standard phantom as a basic means of comparing systems. In order to assess the AEC performance, exit doses were also measured while varying phantom thickness. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated on a number of systems where pixel values were available. SNR was affected by the selection of acquisition protocol. Comparisons between different technologies and collation of data will help refine acceptance thresholds and contribute to optimising dose and image quality. (authors)

  18. Soft tissue metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed by {sup 18}F FDG PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Califano, Ines; Quildrian, Sergio; Otero, Jose; Coduti, Martin; Califano, Leonardo; Rojas Bilbao, Erica, E-mail: ines.m.califano@gmail.com [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    Distant metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer are unusual; lung and bones are the most frequently affected sites. Soft tissue metastases (STM) are extremely rare. We describe two cases of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer metastasizing to soft tissues. Both patients had widespread metastatic disease; clinically asymptomatic soft tissue metastases were found by 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F FDG PET-CT), and confirmed by cytological and/or histopathological studies. These findings underscore the ability of {sup 18}F FDG PET-CT in accurately assessing the extent of the disease, as well as the utility of the method to evaluate regions of the body that are not routinely explored. (author)

  19. Hydatid disease of the soft tissues of the lower limb: findings in three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Marco, V.; Zidan, A.; Marco, C.

    1993-01-01

    Three cases of hydatid disease are reported, all presenting as soft tissue lesions in the lower extremities. All three cases were studied with ultrasound (US), two with computed tomography (CT), and two with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques. Two patients presented with multivesicular lesions which were considered diagnostic of hydatid disease. The third patient showed a lesion with a predominantly solid pattern, closely mimicking a soft-tissue neoplasm. US was not diagnostic, but MR outlined vesicular structures and a fibrous pericyst. Hydatid disease presenting in the soft tissues can therefore be diagnosed with confidence when it shows multivesicular lesions but MR may be the most useful imaging technique when a complex or solid pattern is present. (orig.)

  20. Primary hydatid cyst in the soft tissue of the face: An exceptional occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To emphasize that solitary hydatid cyst can be localized in the soft tissue and present as a soft tissue mass even in an unusual site like face, we report the case of a 42-year-old male patient presenting with a slowly growing mass in right temporal region. Computed tomography (CT scan showed an encapsulated mass with multiple cysts. Histopathological examination revealed the characteristic findings, which were consistent with soft-tissue hydatid disease. In the absence of visceral organ involvement, this is the first reported case of a primary subcutaneous hydatid cyst in the skin of face in India. In the English literature, only one case of this kind has been reported till date. When imaging methods confirm cystic nature of a swelling, even in unusual sites, one should always keep a possibility of hydatid cyst and manage accordingly during surgery to avoid precipitation of acute anaphylaxis.

  1. Industrial radiography with Ir-192 using computed radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngernvijit, Narippawaj; Punnachaiya, Suvit; Chankow, Nares; Sukbumperng, Ampai; Thong-Aram, Decho

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the utilization of a low activity Ir-192 gamma source for industrial radiographic testing using the Computed Radiography (CR) system. Due to a photo-salbutamol Imaging Plate (I P) using in CR is much more radiation sensitive than a type II film with lead foil intensifying screen, the exposure time with CR can be significantly reduced. For short-lived gamma-ray source like Ir-192 source, the exposure time must be proportionally increased until it is not practical particularly for thick specimens. Generally, when the source decays to an activity of about 5 Ci or less, it will be returned to the manufacturer as a radioactive waste. In this research, the optimum conditions for radiography of a 20 mm thick welded steel sample with 2.4 Ci Ir-192 was investigated using the CR system with high resolution image plate, i.e. type Bas-SR of the Fuji Film Co. Ltd. The I P was sandwiched by a pair of 0.25 mm thick Pb intensifying sere en. Low energy scattered radiations was filtered by placing another Pb sheet with a thickness of 3 mm under the cassette. It was found that the CR image could give a contrast sensitivity of 2.5 % using only 3-minute exposure time which was comparable to the image taken by the type II film with Pb intensifying screen using the exposure time of 45 minutes

  2. Conventional radiography and computed tomography of cardiac assist devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffel, Hans; Stolzmann, Paul; Desbiolles, Lotus; Leschka, Sebastian; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Schertler, Thomas; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Wilhelm, Markus J.; Lachat, Mario [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    Patients intended for circulatory support by cardiac assist devices (CAD) usually suffer from end-stage acute or chronic heart failure. Since the introduction of CAD in 1963 by DeBakey and coworkers, the systems have gone through a substantial evolution and have been increasingly used in the intervening decades. The spectrum of CAD includes a variety of systems serving to assist the systolic function of the left ventricle, the right ventricle, or both. Conventional radiography and multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) are the most commonly used radiological techniques for imaging patients with a CAD. CT is very useful for evaluating CAD systems by using both two- and three-dimensional reconstructions of the volumetric data sets. The two techniques together allow for the comprehensive assessment of patients with devices by imaging the in- and outflow cannulae, the anastomoses, the position of the pump, as well as associated complications. A close collaboration with cardiac surgeons with expertise in the field of circulatory support is deemed necessary for adequate image interpretation. This article describes the technical diversity of the currently available CAD systems. The imaging characteristics on conventional radiography and multislice spiral CT as well as the typical complications of their use are demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. MRI of soft tissue abnormalities: a primary cause of sickle cell crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, F.; Zwass, A.; Staron, R.B.; Haramati, N.

    1993-01-01

    The early manifestations of sickle cell crisis in soft tissues are important to recognize, though rarely manifest on radiographs and difficult to evaluate on computed tomography and bone scans. Documentation is critical, however, if appropriate judgments as to emergency treatment versus conservative measures are to be made. Seventeen adults seen in the emergency room or hospitalized in presumed sickle cells crisis underwent magnetic resonance imaging within 24-72 h of presentation. Results indicate that magnetic resonance imaging is a sensitive modality for documenting early soft tissue pathology which may be the predominant or sole cause of sickle cell crisis. (orig.)

  4. Correlation Between Bone and Soft Tissue Thickness in Maxillary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Esfahanizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine buccal bone and soft tissue thicknesses and their correlation in the maxillary anterior region using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT.Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 330 sound maxillary incisors in 60 patients with a mean age of 37.5 years were assessed by CBCT scans. For better visualization of soft tissue, patients were asked to use plastic retractors in order to retract their lips and cheeks away from the gingival tissue before taking the scans. Measurements were made in three different positions: at the crest and at 2 and 5mm apical to the crest. The cementoenamel junction‒crest distance was measured. for data analyses, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient, ANOVA and intraclass correlation coefficient were used.Results: There were mildly significant linear associations between labial soft tissue and bone thickness in the canines and incisors (r<0.40, P<0.05, but no association was found for the lateral incisors. The mean thickness of buccal bone differed significantly in the maxillary anterior teeth, being greater for the lateral incisors (P<0.05. For soft tissue thickness, the results were the same, and the least thickness was recorded for the canines. There was a mild association between labial soft tissue and bone thickness in canines and incisors (r=0.2, P=0.3, but no such linear association was seen for the lateral incisors.Conclusions: The mean thickness of buccal bone and soft tissue in the anterior maxilla was <1mm and there was a mild linear correlation between them.Keywords: Facial Bones; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Maxilla; Esthetics, Dental

  5. Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Review of 19 Cases. | Eyesan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although soft tissue sarcoma is a rare tumour, it accounts for a significant proportion of malignancies seen in many orthopaedic practices. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the pattern of presentation of extremity soft tissue sarcoma and the treatment outcome in our patients. Method: This is a 3 year ...

  6. Soft-tissue metastasis revealing a pancreatic adenocarcinoma: One ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soft tissue metastases from pancreatic adenocarcinoma are rare lesions and can be the source of diagnostic confusion both clinically and pathologically. To our knowledge, one patient has been reported on with soft tissue lesions that ultimately disclose a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We report here on a patient who ...

  7. Rehabilitation effect of exercise with soft tissue manipulation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rehabilitation effect of exercise with soft tissue manipulation in patients with lumbar muscle strain. H Li, H Zhang, S Liu, Y Wang, D Gai, Q Lu, H Gan, Y Shi, W Qi. Abstract. Objective: To study the rehabilitation effect of exercise with soft tissue manipulation therapy for patients with lumbar muscle strain. Methods: Patients with ...

  8. Soft tissue deformation estimation by spatio-temporal Kalman filter finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadian, Mehran; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan; Shin, Jaehyun

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissue modeling plays an important role in the development of surgical training simulators as well as in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgeries. It has been known that while the traditional Finite Element Method (FEM) promises the accurate modeling of soft tissue deformation, it still suffers from a slow computational process. This paper presents a Kalman filter finite element method to model soft tissue deformation in real time without sacrificing the traditional FEM accuracy. The proposed method employs the FEM equilibrium equation and formulates it as a filtering process to estimate soft tissue behavior using real-time measurement data. The model is temporally discretized using the Newmark method and further formulated as the system state equation. Simulation results demonstrate that the computational time of KF-FEM is approximately 10 times shorter than the traditional FEM and it is still as accurate as the traditional FEM. The normalized root-mean-square error of the proposed KF-FEM in reference to the traditional FEM is computed as 0.0116. It is concluded that the proposed method significantly improves the computational performance of the traditional FEM without sacrificing FEM accuracy. The proposed method also filters noises involved in system state and measurement data.

  9. SU-F-P-06: Moving From Computed Radiography to Digital Radiography: A Collaborative Approach to Improve Image Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, D; Mlady, G; Selwyn, R [University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valenti, D; Bateman, T; Norris, V [University of New Mexico Hospital, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To bring together radiologists, technologists, and physicists to utilize post-processing techniques in digital radiography (DR) in order to optimize image acquisition and improve image quality. Methods: Sub-optimal images acquired on a new General Electric (GE) DR system were flagged for follow-up by radiologists and reviewed by technologists and medical physicists. Various exam types from adult musculoskeletal (n=35), adult chest (n=4), and pediatric (n=7) were chosen for review. 673 total images were reviewed. These images were processed using five customized algorithms provided by GE. An image score sheet was created allowing the radiologist to assign a numeric score to each of the processed images, this allowed for objective comparison to the original images. Each image was scored based on seven properties: 1) overall image look, 2) soft tissue contrast, 3) high contrast, 4) latitude, 5) tissue equalization, 6) edge enhancement, 7) visualization of structures. Additional space allowed for additional comments not captured in scoring categories. Radiologists scored the images from 1 – 10 with 1 being non-diagnostic quality and 10 being superior diagnostic quality. Scores for each custom algorithm for each image set were summed. The algorithm with the highest score for each image set was then set as the default processing. Results: Images placed into the PACS “QC folder” for image processing reasons decreased. Feedback from radiologists was, overall, that image quality for these studies had improved. All default processing for these image types was changed to the new algorithm. Conclusion: This work is an example of the collaboration between radiologists, technologists, and physicists at the University of New Mexico to add value to the radiology department. The significant amount of work required to prepare the processing algorithms, reprocessing and scoring of the images was eagerly taken on by all team members in order to produce better quality

  10. SU-F-P-06: Moving From Computed Radiography to Digital Radiography: A Collaborative Approach to Improve Image Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D; Mlady, G; Selwyn, R; Valenti, D; Bateman, T; Norris, V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To bring together radiologists, technologists, and physicists to utilize post-processing techniques in digital radiography (DR) in order to optimize image acquisition and improve image quality. Methods: Sub-optimal images acquired on a new General Electric (GE) DR system were flagged for follow-up by radiologists and reviewed by technologists and medical physicists. Various exam types from adult musculoskeletal (n=35), adult chest (n=4), and pediatric (n=7) were chosen for review. 673 total images were reviewed. These images were processed using five customized algorithms provided by GE. An image score sheet was created allowing the radiologist to assign a numeric score to each of the processed images, this allowed for objective comparison to the original images. Each image was scored based on seven properties: 1) overall image look, 2) soft tissue contrast, 3) high contrast, 4) latitude, 5) tissue equalization, 6) edge enhancement, 7) visualization of structures. Additional space allowed for additional comments not captured in scoring categories. Radiologists scored the images from 1 – 10 with 1 being non-diagnostic quality and 10 being superior diagnostic quality. Scores for each custom algorithm for each image set were summed. The algorithm with the highest score for each image set was then set as the default processing. Results: Images placed into the PACS “QC folder” for image processing reasons decreased. Feedback from radiologists was, overall, that image quality for these studies had improved. All default processing for these image types was changed to the new algorithm. Conclusion: This work is an example of the collaboration between radiologists, technologists, and physicists at the University of New Mexico to add value to the radiology department. The significant amount of work required to prepare the processing algorithms, reprocessing and scoring of the images was eagerly taken on by all team members in order to produce better quality

  11. Management of pediatric radiation dose using Fuji computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCutcheon, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the technical details of Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) and its use as it relates to managing pediatric dose for X-ray examinations. Since its introduction in 1983, Fuji (Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.) has developed an extensive set of menu selections with default processing algorithms and corresponding display processing parameters modified for all pediatric exam types. Continued development of imaging plate technology, FCR reader design and image processing have all contributed to improving image quality and creating the opportunity to lower the dose required for pediatric exams. Fuji continues to advance CR and electronic imaging technologies; some of these developments, that may enable lower dose examinations for pediatric imaging in the future, are also described in this paper. (orig.)

  12. Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbar, S G; Nukavarapu, S P; Laurencin, C T; James, R

    2008-01-01

    Electrospinning has emerged to be a simple, elegant and scalable technique to fabricate polymeric nanofibers. Pure polymers as well as blends and composites of both natural and synthetics have been successfully electrospun into nanofiber matrices. Physiochemical properties of nanofiber matrices can be controlled by manipulating electrospinning parameters to meet the requirements of a specific application. Such efforts include the fabrication of fiber matrices containing nanofibers, microfibers, combination of nano-microfibers and also different fiber orientation/alignments. Polymeric nanofiber matrices have been extensively investigated for diversified uses such as filtration, barrier fabrics, wipes, personal care, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently electrospun nanofiber matrices have gained a lot of attention, and are being explored as scaffolds in tissue engineering due to their properties that can modulate cellular behavior. Electrospun nanofiber matrices show morphological similarities to the natural extra-cellular matrix (ECM), characterized by ultrafine continuous fibers, high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity and variable pore-size distribution. Efforts have been made to modify nanofiber surfaces with several bioactive molecules to provide cells with the necessary chemical cues and a more in vivo like environment. The current paper provides an overlook on such efforts in designing nanofiber matrices as scaffolds in the regeneration of various soft tissues including skin, blood vessel, tendon/ligament, cardiac patch, nerve and skeletal muscle

  13. Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbar, S G; Nukavarapu, S P; Laurencin, C T [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia, VA 22908 (United States); James, R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, VA 22908 (United States)], E-mail: laurencin@virginia.edu

    2008-09-01

    Electrospinning has emerged to be a simple, elegant and scalable technique to fabricate polymeric nanofibers. Pure polymers as well as blends and composites of both natural and synthetics have been successfully electrospun into nanofiber matrices. Physiochemical properties of nanofiber matrices can be controlled by manipulating electrospinning parameters to meet the requirements of a specific application. Such efforts include the fabrication of fiber matrices containing nanofibers, microfibers, combination of nano-microfibers and also different fiber orientation/alignments. Polymeric nanofiber matrices have been extensively investigated for diversified uses such as filtration, barrier fabrics, wipes, personal care, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently electrospun nanofiber matrices have gained a lot of attention, and are being explored as scaffolds in tissue engineering due to their properties that can modulate cellular behavior. Electrospun nanofiber matrices show morphological similarities to the natural extra-cellular matrix (ECM), characterized by ultrafine continuous fibers, high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity and variable pore-size distribution. Efforts have been made to modify nanofiber surfaces with several bioactive molecules to provide cells with the necessary chemical cues and a more in vivo like environment. The current paper provides an overlook on such efforts in designing nanofiber matrices as scaffolds in the regeneration of various soft tissues including skin, blood vessel, tendon/ligament, cardiac patch, nerve and skeletal muscle.

  14. MR imaging of soft-tissue masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, H.; Murakami, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Matsubara, T.; Tsumurai, Y.; Masuda, S.; Terauchi, M.; Ozawa, K.; Arimizu, N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the ability of T2*-weighted gradient-field-echo (T2*FE) MR imaging to image soft-tissue masses. The series included 26 cases, including 17 benign tumors, four malignant tumors, and five others. Images were obtained on a 0.5-T magnet with T2*FE imaging (300/22 [repetition time msec/echo time msec], 20 degree). Results were compared with those of T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (500/20--40) and T2-weighted SE (T2SE) images (2,000/80). T2*FE images were similar to T2SE images with respect to the signal intensity and internal architecture of the masses in many cases. In some instances, they were superior to T2SE images in depicting special features such as a hemosiderin deposit or in delineating the masses and adjacent fat tissues. Shorter (about one-third or two-thirds) scanning time was required to obtain T2*FE images than to obtain T2SE images

  15. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Fasciitis after Intramuscular Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Abbate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing soft tissue fasciitis (NSTIs or necrotizing fasciitis is an infrequent and serious infection. Herein, we describe the clinical course of a female patient who received a diagnosis of NSTIs after gluteus intramuscular injection. We also report the results of our review of published papers from 1997 to 2017. Since now, 19 cases of NSTIs following intramuscular injections have been described. We focus on the correlation between intramuscular injection and NSTIs onset, especially in immunosuppressed patients treated with corticosteroids, suffering from chronic diseases or drug addicted. Intramuscular injections can provoke severe tissue trauma, representing local portal of infection, even if correctly administrated. Otherwise, it is important not to inject drug in subcutaneous, which is a less vascularized area and therefore more susceptible to infections. Likewise, a proper injecting technique and aspiration prior to injection seem to be valid measure to prevent intra-arterial or para-arterial drug injection with the consequent massive inflammatory reaction. Necrosis at the infection site appears to be independent of the drug, and it is a strong additional risk factor for NSTIs.

  16. CT Imaging of facial trauma. The role of different types of reconstruction. Part II - soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myga-Porosilo, J.; Sraga, W.; Borowiak, H.; Jackowska, Z.; Kluczewska, E.; Skrzelewski, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Injury to facial soft tissues as a complication of skeleton fractures is an important problem among patients with facial trauma. The aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial injuries of soft tissue. Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton underwent a CT scan with the use of GE Hispeed Qx/i scanner. For each patient: a two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR) were conducted. Post-injury lesions of soft tissues were assessed. During the assessment of the post-injury lesions of soft tissues, the following features were evaluated: Extra ocular muscle and fat tissue herniation through fractures in the medial and inferior orbital walls. Fluid in the sinuses and in the nasal cavity. Subcutaneous tissue emphysema. Results: For subcutaneous emphysema and sinus fluid imaging, both the axial and the 2D image reconstruction proved comparably effective. However, 2D reconstructions were superior to transverse plane images with regard to herniations into fractures of the inferior orbital wall. 3D reconstruction has no importance in diagnosing soft tissue injuries. Conclusions: Multiplanar CT reconstructions increase the effectiveness of imaging of orbital tissue herniations, especially in case of fractures in the inferior orbital wall. In suspected soft tissue herniations, as well as prior to surgical treatment, spiral CT with 2D multiplanar reconstructions should be the method of choice. (authors)

  17. Assessment of weld thickness loss in offshore pipelines using computed radiography and computational modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, S.C.A.; Souza, E.M.; Oliveira, D.F.; Silva, A.X.; Lopes, R.T.; Marinho, C.; Camerini, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to guarantee the structural integrity of oil plants it is crucial to monitor the amount of weld thickness loss in offshore pipelines. However, in spite of its relevance, this parameter is very difficult to determine, due to both the large diameter of most pipes and the complexity of the multi-variable system involved. In this study, a computational modeling based on Monte Carlo MCNPX code is combined with computed radiography to estimate the weld thickness loss in large-diameter offshore pipelines. Results show that computational modeling is a powerful tool to estimate intensity variations in radiographic images generated by weld thickness variations, and it can be combined with computed radiography to assess weld thickness loss in offshore and subsea pipelines.

  18. Age determination of soft tissue hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayer, Bernhard; Hassler, Eva; Petrovic, Andreas; Widek, Thomas; Ogris, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2014-11-01

    In clinical forensic medicine, the estimation of the age of injuries such as externally visible subcutaneous hematomas is important for the reconstruction of violent events, particularly to include or exclude potential suspects. Since the estimation of the time of origin based on external inspection is unreliable, the aim of this study was to use contrast in MRI to develop an easy-to-use model for hematoma age estimation. In a longitudinal study, artificially created subcutaneous hematomas were repetitively imaged using MRI over a period of two weeks. The hemorrhages were created by injecting autologous blood into the subcutaneous tissue of the thigh in 20 healthy volunteers. For MRI, standard commercially available sequences, namely proton-density-weighted, T2 -weighted and inversion recovery sequences, were used. The hematomas' MRI data were analyzed regarding their contrast behavior using the most suitable sequences to derive a model allowing an objective estimation of the age of soft tissue hematomas. The Michelson contrast between hematoma and muscle in the proton-density-weighted sequence showed an exponentially decreasing behavior with a dynamic range of 0.6 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.1. The contrast of the inversion recovery sequences showed increasing characteristics and was hypointense for TI = 200ms and hyperintense for TI =1000ms. These sequences were used to create a contrast model. The cross-validation of the model finally yielded limits of agreement for hematoma age determination (corresponding to ±1.96 SD) of ±38.7h during the first three days and ±54 h for the entire investigation period. The developed model provides lookup tables which allow for the estimation of a hematoma's age given a single contrast measurement applicable by a radiologist or a forensic physician. This is a first step towards an accurate and objective dating method for subcutaneous hematomas, which will be particularly useful in child abuse. Copyright © 2014 John

  19. Musculoskeletal Application of Ultrasound Elastography: Soft Tissue Lipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ja Young; Hong, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Su Jin

    2010-01-01

    Real-time freehand elastography. Conventional ultrasonography (US) and real-time freehand US elastography were performed in nine patients (M:F = 4:5: mean age, 53 years: 29-64 years) with soft-tissue lipoma confirmed by surgical resection. The elastogram was color-coded by 256 scales according to the degree of strain induced by light compression. The relative strains for lipoma and surrounding soft tissue were measured and mean strains were examined by using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. The elastograms showed red to sky-blue color in all lipomas and predominantly black in surrounding soft tissue. The mean relative strain (±standard deviation) was 67.9±28.5, 77.1±25.3, 63.3±31.2, and 15.7±18.3 for total, intramuscular, and subcutaneous lipoma, and surrounding soft tissue, respectively. The mean strain of the lipoma was significantly higher than one of surrounding soft tissue (p = .008, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Real-time elastography yields characteristic elastographic features of soft tissue lipoma distinguishing from those of adjacent soft tissues

  20. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  1. MR Histoanatomical Distribution of 290 Soft-tissue Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, In Sook; Lee, Gee Won; Kim, Jeung Il; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Won Taek [Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    This study was designed too identify the MR histoanatomical distribution of soft-tissue tumors. A total of 290 soft-tissue tumors of 281 patients were analyzed by the use of MR imaging and were pathologically confirmed after surgical resection or a biopsy. There were 120 malignant soft-tissue tumors including tumors of an intermediate malignancy and 170 benign tumors. The histoanatomical locations were divided into three types: 'type I' with superficial layer tumors that involved the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue, 'type II' with deep layer tumors that involved the muscle or tendon and 'type III' with soft tissue tumors that involved both the superficial and deep layers. Soft-tissue tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 75% included dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, glomus tumor, angiolipoma, leiomyosarcoma and lymphoma as 'type I' tumors. 'Type II' tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 75% included liposarcoma, fibromatosis, papillary endothelial hyperplasia and rhabdomyosarcoma. 'Type III' tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 50% included neurofibromatosis. The MR histoanatomical distributions of soft tissue tumors are useful in the differential pathological diagnosis when a soft-tissue tumor has a nonspecific MR appearance.

  2. Optimization and real-time control for laser treatment of heterogeneous soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yusheng; Fuentes, David; Hawkins, Andrea; Bass, Jon M; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2009-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of thermotherapies in cancer treatment requires an accurate characterization of the bioheat transfer processes in soft tissues. Due to the biological and structural complexity of tumor (soft tissue) composition and vasculature, it is often very difficult to obtain reliable tissue properties that is one of the key factors for the accurate treatment outcome prediction. Efficient algorithms employing in vivo thermal measurements to determine heterogeneous thermal tissues properties in conjunction with a detailed sensitivity analysis can produce essential information for model development and optimal control. The goals of this paper are to present a general formulation of the bioheat transfer equation for heterogeneous soft tissues, review models and algorithms developed for cell damage, heat shock proteins, and soft tissues with nanoparticle inclusion, and demonstrate an overall computational strategy for developing a laser treatment framework with the ability to perform real-time robust calibrations and optimal control. This computational strategy can be applied to other thermotherapies using the heat source such as radio frequency or high intensity focused ultrasound.

  3. Estimating patient-specific soft-tissue properties in a TKA knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Joseph A; Kaufman, Michelle K; Hutter, Erin E; Granger, Jeffrey F; Beal, Matthew D; Piazza, Stephen J; Siston, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical technique is one factor that has been identified as critical to success of total knee arthroplasty. Researchers have shown that computer simulations can aid in determining how decisions in the operating room generally affect post-operative outcomes. However, to use simulations to make clinically relevant predictions about knee forces and motions for a specific total knee patient, patient-specific models are needed. This study introduces a methodology for estimating knee soft-tissue properties of an individual total knee patient. A custom surgical navigation system and stability device were used to measure the force-displacement relationship of the knee. Soft-tissue properties were estimated using a parameter optimization that matched simulated tibiofemoral kinematics with experimental tibiofemoral kinematics. Simulations using optimized ligament properties had an average root mean square error of 3.5° across all tests while simulations using generic ligament properties taken from literature had an average root mean square error of 8.4°. Specimens showed large variability among ligament properties regardless of similarities in prosthetic component alignment and measured knee laxity. These results demonstrate the importance of soft-tissue properties in determining knee stability, and suggest that to make clinically relevant predictions of post-operative knee motions and forces using computer simulations, patient-specific soft-tissue properties are needed. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparison of computed tomography and radiography for detecting changes induced by malignant nasal neoplasia in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.; Beck, E.R.; LeCouteur, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of computed tomography and radiography to detect changes associated with nasal neoplasia was compared in dogs. Eighteen areas or anatomic structures were evaluated in 21 dogs for changes indicative of neoplasia. Computed tomography was superior (P < or = 0.05) to radiography for detecting changes in 14 of 18 areas. Radiography was not superior for detecting changes in any structure or area. Computed tomography reveals vital information not always detected radiographically to assist in providing a prognosis and in planning treatment for nasal neoplasms in dogs

  5. MYTHS vesus reality in computed radiography image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango, Steve; Castro, Luiz

    2009-01-01

    As NDE operation - particularly radiographic testing - ransition form analog to digital technologies such as computed radiography (CR), users are learning that there's more to digital image quality than meets the eye. In fact, there are ultiple factors that determine the final perceived image quality of a computed radiograph. Many of these factors are misunderstood, and some are touted as the ''key parameter'' or ''magic bullet'' in producing optiumum image quality, In reality, such claims are oversimplified, and are more marketing hype than reality. The truth?. Perceived image quality results form the cascaded effects of many factor - such as sharpness, system noise, spot size and pixel size, subject contrast, bit depth, radiographic technique, and so on. Many of these factors are within the control of rdiographers or designers of equipment and media. This paper will explain some of these key factors, dispel some of the myths surrounding them, and will show that qualities such as bigger, smaller, more, or less are not always better when it comes to CR image quality. (authors)

  6. Idiopathic Soft Tissue Calcification in an Extremity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a-15-days-old infant presenting with firm palpable thickening of the left leg soft tissues along with induration. Radiographs of the leg revealed generalized calcification of soft tissues. No obvious underlying cause could be identified for tissue calcification and hence termed as Idiopathic calcinois cutis. There are reports of this condition in Pediatric and Dermatology literature, but very few reports in orthopedic literature. The aim of this report is to highlight the pathogenesis, course and review of literature of this relatively uncommon condition which can easily be mistaken by Orthopedic or General Surgeons for infective bony of soft tissue infection.

  7. Phase contrast enhanced high resolution X-ray imaging and tomography of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Dammer, Jiri; Hanus, Robert; Holy, Tomas; Pospisil, Stanislav; Tykva, Richard; Uher, Josef; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    A tabletop system for digital high resolution and high sensitivity X-ray micro-radiography has been developed for small-animal and soft-tissue imaging. The system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the semiconductor hybrid position sensitive Medipix2 pixel detector. Transmission radiography imaging, conventionally based only on absorption, is enhanced by exploiting phase-shift effects induced in the X-ray beam traversing the sample. Phase contrast imaging is realized by object edge enhancement. DAQ is done by a novel fully integrated USB-based readout with online image generation. Improved signal reconstruction techniques make use of advanced statistical data analysis, enhanced beam hardening correction and direct thickness calibration of individual pixels. 2D and 3D micro-tomography images of several biological samples demonstrate the applicability of the system for biological and medical purposes including in-vivo and time dependent physiological studies in the life sciences

  8. Clinical Evaluation of a Dual-Side Readout Technique Computed Radiography System in Chest Radiography of Premature Neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlander, A.; Hansson, J.; Soederberg, J.; Steneryd, K.; Baath, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recently, the dual-side readout technique has been introduced in computed radiography, leading to an increase in detective quantum efficiency (DQE) compared with the single-side readout technique. Purpose: To evaluate if the increase in DQE with the dual-side readout technique results in a higher clinical image quality in chest radiography of premature neonates at no increase in radiation dose. Material and Methods: Twenty-four chest radiographs of premature neonates were collected from both a single-side readout technique system and a double-side readout technique system. The images were processed in the same image-processing station in order for the comparison to be only dependent on the difference in readout technique. Five radiologists rated the fulfillment of four image quality criteria, which were based on important anatomical landmarks. The given ratings were analyzed using visual grading characteristics (VGC) analysis. Results: The VGC analysis showed that the reproduction of the carina with the main bronchi and the thoracic vertebrae behind the heart was better with the dual-side readout technique, whereas no significant difference for the reproduction of the central vessels or the peripheral vessels could be observed. Conclusions: The results indicate that the higher DQE of the dual-side readout technique leads to higher clinical image quality in chest radiography of premature neonates at no increase in radiation dose. Keywords: Digital radiography; lung; observer performance; pediatrics; thorax

  9. Injection resorbable polymer shells for soft tissue augmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Kersch

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available CSIR researchers have developed an injectable, resorbable soft tissue bulking product that has potential applications in fields ranging from heart and recontructive surgery, to minimally invasive cosmetic surgery. Biomaterials research is very...

  10. MRI features of soft-tissue lumps and bumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, K.D.; Tandon, A.A.; Ho, B.C.S.; Chong, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    Superficial soft-tissue lesions are frequently encountered by radiologists in everyday practice. Characterization of these soft-tissue lesions remains problematic, despite advances in imaging. By systematically using clinical history, anatomical location, and signal intensity characteristics on MRI images, one can determine the diagnosis for the subset of determinate lesions that have characteristic clinical and imaging features as well as narrow the differential diagnoses for lesions with non-specific or indeterminate characteristics. In this review, a spectrum of histologically proven benign and malignant superficial soft-tissue lesions from a single institution will be presented. In addition, a few tumour-like conditions will be included as they can be encountered during imaging of soft-tissue masses

  11. Peripheral soft tissue ewing's sarcoma: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Shegufta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 22 years male patient presented with gradual left forearm swelling for 6 months. X ray forearm revealed large soft tissue swelling with tiny calcification and mild scalloping at inner aspect of ulna and ultrasonogram (USG revealed soft tissue mass having calcification and necrotic areas within and spectral Doppler showed arterial type of blood flow with no augmentation. Later computerized tomography (CT scan showed soft tissue mass with necrotic area and calcification with no bony involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with contrast revealed a large heterogeneously enhancing lobulated mixed intensity lesion in antero-medial compartment of the left forearm involving flexor group of muscles causing displacement of fat plane. MRI and subsequent histopathology of the lesion revealed it as a rare soft tissue Ewing’s sarcoma / primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET in extremity. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(2: 43-46

  12. Temporal digital subtraction radiography with a personal computer digital workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircos, L.; Holt, W.; Khademi, J.

    1990-01-01

    Technique have been developed and implemented on a personal computer (PC)-based digital workstation to accomplish temporal digital subtraction radiography (TDSR). TDSR is useful in recording radiologic change over time. Thus, this technique is useful not only for monitoring chronic disease processes but also for monitoring the temporal course of interventional therapies. A PC-based digital workstation was developed on a PC386 platform with add-in hardware and software. Image acquisition, storage, and processing was accomplished using 512 x 512 x 8- or 12-bit frame grabber. Software and hardware were developed to accomplish image orientation, registration, gray scale compensation, subtraction, and enhancement. Temporal radiographs of the jaws were made in a fixed and reproducible orientation between the x-ray source and image receptor enabling TDSR. Temporal changes secondary to chronic periodontal disease, osseointegration of endosseous implants, and wound healing were demonstrated. Use of TDSR for chest imaging was also demonstrated with identification of small, subtle focal masses that were not apparent with routine viewing. The large amount of radiologic information in images of the jaws and chest may obfuscate subtle changes that TDSR seems to identify. TDSR appears to be useful as a tool to record temporal and subtle changes in radiologic images

  13. Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography (DRCT) Product Improvement Plan (PIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Roney; Bob Pink; Karen Wendt; Robert Seifert; Mike Smith

    2010-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing and deploying x-ray inspection systems for chemical weapons containers for the past 12 years under the direction of the Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM). In FY-10 funding was provided to advance the capabilities of these systems through the DRCT (Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography) Product Improvement Plan (PIP), funded by the PMNSCM. The DRCT PIP identified three research tasks; end user study, detector evaluation and DRCT/PINS integration. Work commenced in February, 2010. Due to the late start and the schedule for field inspection of munitions at various sites, it was not possible to spend sufficient field time with operators to develop a complete end user study. We were able to interact with several operators, principally Mr. Mike Rowan who provided substantial useful input through several discussions and development of a set of field notes from the Pueblo, CO field mission. We will be pursuing ongoing interactions with field personnel as opportunities arise in FY-11.

  14. Soft tissue healing in alveolar socket preservation technique: histologic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Gaia; Rasperini, Giulio; Obot, Gregory; Farronato, Davide; Dellavia, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    After tooth extraction, 14 alveolar sockets were grafted with porous bovine bone mineral particles and covered with non-cross-linked collagen membrane (test group), and 14 alveolar sockets were left uncovered. At 5 and 12 weeks, microvascular density (MVD), collagen content, and amount of lymphocytes (Lym) T and B were analyzed in soft tissue. At 5 weeks, MVD was significantly lower and Lym T was significantly higher in tests than in controls (P healing process of the soft tissue.

  15. Digital radiography: are the manufacturers' settings too high? Optimisation of the Kodak digital radiography system with aid of the computed radiography dose index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Sinead E.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturers offer exposure indices as a safeguard against overexposure in computed radiography, but the basis for recommended values is unclear. This study establishes an optimum exposure index to be used as a guideline for a specific CR system to minimise radiation exposures for computed mobile chest radiography, and compares this with manufacturer guidelines and current practice. An anthropomorphic phantom was employed to establish the minimum milliamperes consistent with acceptable image quality for mobile chest radiography images. This was found to be 2 mAs. Consecutively, 10 patients were exposed with this optimised milliampere value and 10 patients were exposed with the 3.2 mAs routinely used in the department of the study. Image quality was objectively assessed using anatomical criteria. Retrospective analyses of 717 exposure indices recorded over 2 months from mobile chest examinations were performed. The optimised milliampere value provided a significant reduction of the average exposure index from 1840 to 1570 (p<0.0001). This new ''optimum'' exposure index is substantially lower than manufacturer guidelines of 2000 and significantly lower than exposure indices from the retrospective study (1890). Retrospective data showed a significant increase in exposure indices if the examination was performed out of hours. The data provided by this study emphasise the need for clinicians and personnel to consider establishing their own optimum exposure indices for digital investigations rather than simply accepting manufacturers' guidelines. Such an approach, along with regular monitoring of indices, may result in a substantial reduction in patient exposure. (orig.)

  16. Performance characteristics of a Kodak computed radiography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, C D; Peppler, W W; Dobbins, J T

    1999-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a photostimulable phosphor based computed radiographic (CR) system were studied. The modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the Kodak Digital Science computed radiography (CR) system (Eastman Kodak Co.-model 400) were measured and compared to previously published results of a Fuji based CR system (Philips Medical Systems-PCR model 7000). To maximize comparability, the same measurement techniques and analysis methods were used. The DQE at four exposure levels (30, 3, 0.3, 0.03 mR) and two plate types (standard and high resolution) were calculated from the NPS and MTF measurements. The NPS was determined from two-dimensional Fourier analysis of uniformly exposed plates. The presampling MTF was determined from the Fourier transform (FT) of the system's finely sampled line spread function (LSF) as produced by a narrow slit. A comparison of the slit type ("beveled edge" versus "straight edge") and its effect on the resulting MTF measurements was also performed. The results show that both systems are comparable in resolution performance. The noise power studies indicated a higher level of noise for the Kodak images (approximately 20% at the low exposure levels and 40%-70% at higher exposure levels). Within the clinically relevant exposure range (0.3-3 mR), the resulting DQE for the Kodak plates ranged between 20%-50% lower than for the corresponding Fuji plates. Measurements of the presampling MTF with the two slit types have shown that a correction factor can be applied to compensate for transmission through the relief edges.

  17. Correlation of the clinical and physical image quality in chest radiography for average adults with a computed radiography imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the quality of visually graded patient (clinical) chest images and a quantitative assessment of chest phantom (physical) images acquired with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. The results of a previously published study, in which four experienced image evaluators graded computer-simulated postero-anterior chest images using a visual grading analysis scoring (VGAS) scheme, were used for the clinical image quality measurement. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and effective dose efficiency (eDE) were used as physical image quality metrics measured in a uniform chest phantom. Although optimal values of these physical metrics for chest radiography were not derived in this work, their correlation with VGAS in images acquired without an antiscatter grid across the diagnostic range of X-ray tube voltages was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Clinical and physical image quality metrics increased with decreasing tube voltage. Statistically significant correlations between VGAS and CNR (R=0.87, pchest CR images acquired without an antiscatter grid. A statistically significant correlation has been found between the clinical and physical image quality in CR chest imaging. The results support the value of using CNR and eDE in the evaluation of quality in clinical thorax radiography.

  18. Regional Analysis of Soft Tissue Thickness on Korean Buttocks and Application to Fasciocutaneous Flap Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Yup Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Various shapes and designs of the gluteal artery perforator flap have been used for treating sacral pressure sores and reconstructing breasts. To establish the ideal fasciocutaneous flap design for use in the gluteal area, the soft tissue thickness distribution was measured. Methods Twenty-one buttocks of adult Korean cadavers were analyzed through rectangular subfascial dissection. Each buttock was divided horizontally into 10 sections and vertically into 10 sections, and then, the thickness at the corners of the sections was measured. For the sake of comparison and statistical verification with living bodies, computed tomography (CT images of 120 buttocks of patients were randomly selected. Five horizontal sections and 4 vertical sections were made, and the thickness at each corner was recorded. Results According to the dissection and the CT images, the area with the thinnest soft tissues in the buttock was around the posterior superior iliac spine, close to the sacral area. The thickest area was the superolateral area of the buttock, which was 3.24 times and 2.15 times thicker than the thinnest area in the studies on cadaver anatomy and the CT images, respectively. Conclusions The thickness of the soft tissues in the buttocks differed by area. The superolateral area had the thickest soft tissues, and the superomedial area had the thinnest. This study includes information on the distribution of the thickness of the gluteal soft tissues of Koreans. The outcome of this study may contribute to the design of effective local flaps for pressure sore reconstruction and free flaps for breast reconstruction.

  19. Assessment of cone beam CT registration for prostate radiation therapy: fiducial marker and soft tissue methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Timothy; Owen, Rebecca; Holt, Tanya; Fielding, Andrew; Biggs, Jennifer; Parfitt, Matthew; Coates, Alicia; Roberts, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the consistency and accuracy of radiation therapists (RTs) performing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) alignment to fiducial markers (FMs) (CBCTFM ) and the soft tissue prostate (CBCTST ). Six patients receiving prostate radiation therapy underwent daily CBCTs. Manual alignment of CBCTFM and CBCTST was performed by three RTs. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using a modified Bland-Altman analysis for each alignment method. Clinically acceptable 95% limits of agreement with the mean (LoAmean ) were defined as ±2.0 mm for CBCTFM and ±3.0 mm for CBCTST . Differences between CBCTST alignment and the observer-averaged CBCTFM (AvCBCTFM ) alignment were analysed. Clinically acceptable 95% LoA were defined as ±3.0 mm for the comparison of CBCTST and AvCBCTFM . CBCTFM and CBCTST alignments were performed for 185 images. The CBCTFM 95% LoAmean were within ±2.0 mm in all planes. CBCTST 95% LoAmean were within ±3.0 mm in all planes. Comparison of CBCTST with AvCBCTFM resulted in 95% LoA of -4.9 to 2.6, -1.6 to 2.5 and -4.7 to 1.9 mm in the superior-inferior, left-right and anterior-posterior planes, respectively. Significant differences were found between soft tissue alignment and the predicted FM position. FMs are useful in reducing inter-observer variability compared with soft tissue alignment. Consideration needs to be given to margin design when using soft tissue matching due to increased inter-observer variability. This study highlights some of the complexities of soft tissue guidance for prostate radiation therapy. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  20. Assessment of cone beam CT registration for prostate radiation therapy: fiducial marker and soft tissue methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, Timothy; Owen, Rebecca; Holt, Tanya; Fielding, Andrew; Biggs, Jennifer; Parfitt, Matthew; Coates, Alicia; Roberts, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the consistency and accuracy of radiation therapists (RTs) performing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) alignment to fiducial markers (FMs) (CBCT FM ) and the soft tissue prostate (CBCT ST ). Six patients receiving prostate radiation therapy underwent daily CBCTs. Manual alignment of CBCT FM and CBCT ST was performed by three RTs. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using a modified Bland–Altman analysis for each alignment method. Clinically acceptable 95% limits of agreement with the mean (LoA mean ) were defined as ±2.0 mm for CBCT FM and ±3.0 mm for CBCT ST . Differences between CBCT ST alignment and the observer-averaged CBCT FM (AvCBCT FM ) alignment were analysed. Clinically acceptable 95% LoA were defined as ±3.0 mm for the comparison of CBCT ST and AvCBCT FM . CBCT FM and CBCT ST alignments were performed for 185 images. The CBCT FM 95% LoA mean were within ±2.0 mm in all planes. CBCT ST 95% LoA mean were within ±3.0 mm in all planes. Comparison of CBCT ST with AvCBCT FM resulted in 95% LoA of −4.9 to 2.6, −1.6 to 2.5 and −4.7 to 1.9 mm in the superior–inferior, left–right and anterior–posterior planes, respectively. Significant differences were found between soft tissue alignment and the predicted FM position. FMs are useful in reducing inter-observer variability compared with soft tissue alignment. Consideration needs to be given to margin design when using soft tissue matching due to increased inter-observer variability. This study highlights some of the complexities of soft tissue guidance for prostate radiation therapy.

  1. Development of computer-aided auto-ranging technique for a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, M.; Shimura, K.; Nakajima, N.; Kato, H.

    1988-01-01

    For a computed radiography system, the authors developed a computer-aided autoranging technique in which the clinically useful image data are automatically mapped to the available display range. The preread image data are inspected to determine the location of collimation. A histogram of the pixels inside the collimation is evaluated regarding characteristic values such as maxima and minima, and then the optimal density and contrast are derived for the display image. The effect of the autoranging technique was investigated at several hospitals in Japan. The average rate of films lost due to undesirable density or contrast was about 0.5%

  2. Optimized path planning for soft tissue resection via laser vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Weston; Cornwell, Neil; Tucker, Matthew; Mann, Brian; Codd, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Robotic and robotic-assisted surgeries are becoming more prevalent with the promise of improving surgical outcomes through increased precision, reduced operating times, and minimally invasive procedures. The handheld laser scalpel in neurosurgery has been shown to provide a more gentle approach to tissue manipulation on or near critical structures over classical tooling, though difficulties of control have prevented large scale adoption of the tool. This paper presents a novel approach to generating a cutting path for the volumetric resection of tissue using a computer-guided laser scalpel. A soft tissue ablation simulator is developed and used in conjunction with an optimization routine to select parameters which maximize the total resection of target tissue while minimizing the damage to surrounding tissue. The simulator predicts the ablative properties of tissue from an interrogation cut for tuning and simulates the removal of a tumorous tissue embedded on the surface of healthy tissue using a laser scalpel. We demonstrate the ability to control depth and smoothness of cut using genetic algorithms to optimize the ablation parameters and cutting path. The laser power level, cutting rate and spacing between cuts are optimized over multiple surface cuts to achieve the desired resection volumes.

  3. Soft tissue sarcoma nomograms and their incorporation into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, Dario; Miceli, Rosalba; Mariani, Luigi; Raut, Chandrajit P; Gronchi, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    The accurate prediction of prognosis in patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a challenging issue. Extreme variability in the clinical and pathological characteristics of this family of tumors hinders the simple stratification of patients into meaningful prognostic cohorts. Precision medicine tools for the prediction of prognosis, such as nomograms, enable personalized computation of outcome based on clinical and pathological characteristics of both patient and tumor. The eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual moved from a "population-based" to a "personalized" approach endorsing high-quality nomograms to improve clinician prediction ability in definite patient subgroups. The first nomogram for STS was published in 2002, and this was followed by several prognostic predictors offered to clinicians. Focusing on a specific STS subgroup or site, nomograms can take into consideration highly specific factors relevant only in that particular scenario, thereby maximizing prognostic ability. The objective of this review was to critically evaluate available nomograms for patients with STS to provide clinicians and researchers with a choice of the most optimal tool for each specific patient. Cancer 2017;123:2802-20. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Collecting and Storing Tissue, Blood, and Bone Marrow Samples From Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma or Other Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  5. Study of distribution dose for chest radiography using the computational model ALDERSON/EGSnrc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, B.C.; Menezes, C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical dosimetry uses Computational Exposure Models (MCE) to perform dose studies in situations of radiation exposure without the need for individuals to be exposed. MCEs are essentially composed of a simulator of the radioactive source, a Monte Carlo code, and a phantom of voxels representing the human anatomy. The objective of this work was to perform a study of the dose distribution in the thoracic region in radiographic exams using the MCE ALDERSON / EGSnrc. For that, virtual simulations were performed using Monte Carlo Method techniques to calculate the dose in the simulator of voxels representative of the thoracic region. The results show that most beam energy was deposited in the skeleton for all simulated radiological techniques, while smaller fractions were deposited in the lungs and soft tissue. For example, at 90 kV voltage, 14% of the energy was deposited in the bone medium, while lungs and soft tissue receive only 5 and 3%, respectively. It is concluded that the ALDERSON / EGSnrc MCE can be used for studies of the dose distribution on chest radiographs used in radiodiagnosis practice, thus optimizing dose absorbed in the patient in clinical exams

  6. Current Molecular Targeted Therapies for Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Systemic treatment options for bone and soft tissue sarcomas remained unchanged until the 2000s. These cancers presented challenges in new drug development partly because of their rarity and heterogeneity. Many new molecular targeting drugs have been tried in the 2010s, and some were approved for bone and soft tissue sarcoma. As one of the first molecular targeted drugs approved for solid malignant tumors, imatinib’s approval as a treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs has been a great achievement. Following imatinib, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs have been approved for GISTs such as sunitinib and regorafenib, and pazopanib was approved for non-GIST soft tissue sarcomas. Olaratumab, the monoclonal antibody that targets platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR-α, was shown to extend the overall survival of soft tissue sarcoma patients and was approved in 2016 in the U.S. as a breakthrough therapy. For bone tumors, new drugs are limited to denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL inhibitor, for treating giant cell tumors of bone. In this review, we explain and summarize the current molecular targeting therapies approved and in development for bone and soft tissue sarcomas.

  7. Review of soft tissue augmentation in the face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Newman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available James NewmanFacial Plastic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CAFacial Plastic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: A primary pillar of facial rejuvenation is the replacement of soft tissue atrophy via a variety of augmentation techniques. The techniques can be classified into three categories, skeletal onlay grafts, subcutaneous volumizers, and dermal fillers. While onlay grafts and subcutaneous volumizers have the most persistent results, the emergence of improved dermal fillers in the past 5 years has become increasingly popular. An accurate diagnosis of the level(s of soft tissue atrophy in the face needs to be made prior to selection of the category or combination of techniques. In the younger patient, the selection of a dermal filler or combination of fillers can be adequate for treatment. A comparison of the composition and characteristics of the available dermal fillers are discussed in detail to assist the clinician in understanding the actual mechanism of soft tissue augmentation. In the more advanced aging face, a combination of the three categories may be necessary to produce optimal results. Just as dermal fillers have become more differentiated to increase their longevity, the non-injectible long-lasting implants are becoming more developed to mimic accurate viscoelastic properties of the facial soft tissues. All three classes of augmentation techniques can provide patients with very satisfactory results as part of overall facial rejuvenation.Keywords: soft tissue, dermal fillers, facial implants, facial augmentation

  8. Roentgenographic study on maxillofacial soft tissue in the mixed dentition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hei; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain the cephalometric maxillofacial soft tissue measurements and to define the differences that exist between male and female on the soft tissue profile who had normal occlusion in mixed dentitions. For the object of this study, cephalometric radiographs were obtained from the centric occlusion with the relaxed lip position. Copper filter was designed to obtain both hard and soft tissue structure on the same film. The subjects consist of 100 male and 100 female from 8 to 12.4 years with the normal occlusion and acceptable profiles. The author measured facial depth, vertical height from the cephalometric soft tissue profiles in the mixed dentitions. The significant test was performed to compare male with females. The following results were obtained from the study 1. In facial convexity, much more larger female than that of male. 2. Inclination of the lip posture was more larger in maxilla (male) and in female more larger in the mandible. 3. The thickness of soft tissue was thicker in male, the height of nose was more prominent in female. 4. There were no significant differences in both sexes.

  9. Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue restoration and nasal airflow in extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jason M; Porter, W M Ruger; Ridgely, Ryan C; Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Bell, Phil R; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2014-11-01

    The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their small body size (which mitigated allometric concerns) and their tendency to preserve nasal soft tissues within their hypermineralized skulls. Hypermineralization directly preserved portions of the olfactory turbinates along with an internal nasal ridge that we regard as potentially an osteological correlate for respiratory conchae. Fossil specimens were CT-scanned, and nasal cavities were segmented and restored. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the nasal capsule was functionally tested in a virtual environment using computational fluid dynamics by running air through multiple models differing in nasal soft-tissue conformation: a bony-bounded model (i.e., skull without soft tissue) and then models with soft tissues added, such as a paranasal septum, a scrolled concha, a branched concha, and a model combining the paranasal septum with a concha. Deviations in fluid flow in comparison to a phylogenetically constrained sample of extant diapsids were used as indicators of missing soft tissue. Models that restored aspects of airflow found in extant diapsids, such as appreciable airflow in the olfactory chamber, were judged as more likely. The model with a branched concha produced airflow patterns closest to those of extant diapsids. These results from both paleontological observation and airflow modeling indicate that S. validum and other pachycephalosaurids could have had both olfactory and respiratory conchae. Although respiratory conchae have been linked to endothermy, such conclusions require caution in that our re-evaluation of the reptilian nasal apparatus indicates that respiratory conchae may be more widespread

  10. Heavy-ion radiography and heavy-ion computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; McFarland, E.W.; Tobias, C.a.

    1982-02-01

    Heavy-ion projection and CT radiography is being developed into a safe, low-dose, noninvasive radiological procedure that can quantitate and image small density differences in human tissues. The applications to heavy-ion mammography and heavy-ion CT imaging of the brain in clinical patients suggest their potential value in cancer diagnosis

  11. Method and Apparatus for Computed Imaging Backscatter Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor); Meng, Christopher (Inventor); Sabri, Nissia (Inventor); Dugan, Edward T. (Inventor); Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods of x-ray backscatter radiography are provided. A single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing x-ray radiation to image subsurface features is disclosed, capable of scanning a region using a fan beam aperture and gathering data using rotational motion.

  12. A novel soft tissue prediction methodology for orthognathic surgery based on probabilistic finite element modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoops, Paul G M; Borghi, Alessandro; Ruggiero, Federica; Badiali, Giovanni; Bianchi, Alberto; Marchetti, Claudio; Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Breakey, Richard W F; Jeelani, Owase; Dunaway, David J; Schievano, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Repositioning of the maxilla in orthognathic surgery is carried out for functional and aesthetic purposes. Pre-surgical planning tools can predict 3D facial appearance by computing the response of the soft tissue to the changes to the underlying skeleton. The clinical use of commercial prediction software remains controversial, likely due to the deterministic nature of these computational predictions. A novel probabilistic finite element model (FEM) for the prediction of postoperative facial soft tissues is proposed in this paper. A probabilistic FEM was developed and validated on a cohort of eight patients who underwent maxillary repositioning and had pre- and postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans taken. Firstly, a variables correlation assessed various modelling parameters. Secondly, a design of experiments (DOE) provided a range of potential outcomes based on uniformly distributed input parameters, followed by an optimisation. Lastly, the second DOE iteration provided optimised predictions with a probability range. A range of 3D predictions was obtained using the probabilistic FEM and validated using reconstructed soft tissue surfaces from the postoperative CBCT data. The predictions in the nose and upper lip areas accurately include the true postoperative position, whereas the prediction under-estimates the position of the cheeks and lower lip. A probabilistic FEM has been developed and validated for the prediction of the facial appearance following orthognathic surgery. This method shows how inaccuracies in the modelling and uncertainties in executing surgical planning influence the soft tissue prediction and it provides a range of predictions including a minimum and maximum, which may be helpful for patients in understanding the impact of surgery on the face.

  13. Necrotizing soft-tissue infection: Laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing soft tissue infections score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI can be rapidly progressive and polymicrobial in etiology. Establishing the element of necrotizing infection poses a clinical challenge. A 64-year-old diabetic patient presented to our hospital with a gangrenous patch on anterior abdominal wall, which progressed to an extensive necrotizing lesion within 1 week. Successive laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing softtissue infections (LRINEC scores confirmed the necrotizing element. Cultures yielded Enterococci, Acinetobacter species and Apophysomyces elegans and the latter being considered as an emerging agent of Zygomycosis in immunocompromised hosts. Patient was managed with antibiotics, antifungal treatment and surgical debridement despite which he succumbed to the infection. NSTI′s require an early and aggressive management and LRINEC score can be applied to establish the element of necrotizing pathology. Isolation of multiple organisms becomes confusing to establish the etiological role. Apophysomyces elegans, which was isolated in our patient is being increasingly reported in cases of necrotizing infections and may be responsible for high morbidity and mortality. This scoring has been proposed as an adjunct tool to Microbiological diagnosis when NSTI′s need to be diagnosed early and managed promptly to decrease mortality and morbidity, which however may not come in handy in an immunocompromised host with polymicrobial aggressive infection.

  14. Ultrasound of soft tissue masses of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Teh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most soft tissue mass lesions of the hand are benign. Ganglia are the commonest lesions encountered, followed by giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath. Malignant tumors are rare. Often a specific diagnosis can be achieved on imaging by considering the location and anatomical relations of the lesion within the hand or wrist, and assessing its morphology. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent modality for evaluating soft tissue tumors with its multiplanar capability and ability to characterize tissue. Ultrasound plays a complementary role to MRI. It is often the initial modality used for assessing masses as it is cheap and available, and allows reliable differentiation of cystic from solid lesions, along with a real time assessment of vascularity. This review describes the US appearances of the most frequently encountered soft tissue masses of the wrist and hand, correlating the findings with MRI where appropriate.

  15. Weak light emission of soft tissues induced by heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Durando, Giovanni; Boschi, Federico

    2018-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to show that soft tissue interaction with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or direct heating leads to a weak light emission detectable using a small animal optical imaging system. Our results show that the luminescence signal is detectable after 30 min of heating, resembling the time scale of delayed luminescence. The imaging of a soft tissue after heating it using an HIFU field shows that the luminescence pattern closely matches the shape of the cone typical of the HIFU beam. We conclude that heating a soft tissue using two different sources leads to the emission of a weak luminescence signal from the heated region with a decay half-life of a few minutes (4 to 6 min). The origin of such light emission needs to be further investigated.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Oscar M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used in the management of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies for diagnosing and assessing extent of lesions and for evaluating response to therapy. MR imaging studies often involve a combination of T1- and T2-weighted images in addition to MR angiography and fat-suppressed post-contrast sequences. The MR imaging features of these vascular anomalies when combined with clinical findings can aid in diagnosis. In cases of complex vascular malformations and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies, MR imaging can be used to evaluate accompanying soft-tissue and bone anomalies. This article reviews the MR imaging protocols and appearances of the most common pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies. (orig.)

  17. Diode Laser Application in Soft Tissue Oral Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azma, Ehsan; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Diode laser with wavelengths ranging from 810 to 980 nm in a continuous or pulsed mode was used as a possible instrument for soft tissue surgery in the oral cavity. Discussion: Diode laser is one of laser systems in which photons are produced by electric current with wavelengths of 810, 940 and 980nm. The application of diode laser in soft tissue oral surgery has been evaluated from a safety point of view, for facial pigmentation and vascular lesions and in oral surgery excision; for example frenectomy, epulis fissuratum and fibroma. The advantages of laser application are that it provides relatively bloodless surgical and post surgical courses with minimal swelling and scarring. We used diode laser for excisional biopsy of pyogenic granuloma and gingival pigmentation. Conclusion: The diode laser can be used as a modality for oral soft tissue surgery PMID:25606331

  18. Carbon ion radiotherapy in bone and soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Tadashi; Imai, Reiko; Kagei, Kenji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yanagi, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2006-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is the world's first heavy ion accelerator complex dedicated to medical use in a hospital environment. Heavy ions have superior depth-dose distribution and greater cell-killing capability. In June 1996, clinical research for the treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas was begun using carbon ions generated by the HIMAC. As of February 2006, a total of the 278 patients with bone and soft tissue sarcoma had been enrolled into the clinical trial. Most of the patients had locally advanced and/or medically inoperable tumors. The clinical trial revealed that carbon ion radiotherapy provided definite local control and offered a survival advantage without unacceptable morbidity in bone and soft tissue sarcomas that were hard to cure with other modalities. (author)

  19. Unilateral hypertrophy of tensor fascia lata: a soft tissue tumor simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, 55905, SW Rochester, MN (United States); Department of Radiology A21, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wenger, D.E. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, 55905, SW Rochester, MN (United States); Shives, T.C. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Unni, K.K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2003-11-01

    To describe the imaging findings in eight cases of unilateral tensor fascia lata (TFL) hypertrophy presenting as soft tissue masses. Imaging studies and medical charts of eight patients were reviewed retrospectively. The imaging studies included five radiographs, five computed tomography (CT) and six magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. The majority of patients (seven of eight) presented with a palpable proximal anterior thigh mass. One patient was asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed. There were six females and two males. Ages ranged from 27 to 86 years old (mean 61). MRI and CT showed unilateral enlargement of the TFL muscle in all cases. TFL muscle hypertrophy is an uncommon clinical entity, which can simulate a soft tissue tumor. The characteristic appearance on CT or MRI allows a confident diagnosis of muscle hypertrophy to be made, avoiding unnecessary biopsy or surgical intervention. (orig.)

  20. Unilateral hypertrophy of tensor fascia lata: a soft tissue tumor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilaslan, H.; Wenger, D.E.; Shives, T.C.; Unni, K.K.

    2003-01-01

    To describe the imaging findings in eight cases of unilateral tensor fascia lata (TFL) hypertrophy presenting as soft tissue masses. Imaging studies and medical charts of eight patients were reviewed retrospectively. The imaging studies included five radiographs, five computed tomography (CT) and six magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. The majority of patients (seven of eight) presented with a palpable proximal anterior thigh mass. One patient was asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed. There were six females and two males. Ages ranged from 27 to 86 years old (mean 61). MRI and CT showed unilateral enlargement of the TFL muscle in all cases. TFL muscle hypertrophy is an uncommon clinical entity, which can simulate a soft tissue tumor. The characteristic appearance on CT or MRI allows a confident diagnosis of muscle hypertrophy to be made, avoiding unnecessary biopsy or surgical intervention. (orig.)

  1. Soft-tissue facial characteristics of attractive Chinese men compared to normal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Li, Junfang; He, Hong; Huang, Na; Tang, Youchao; Wang, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    To compare the facial characteristics of attractive Chinese men with those of reference men. The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks were collected in 40 healthy reference men and in 40 "attractive" men, soft tissue facial angles, distances, areas, and volumes were computed and compared using analysis of variance. When compared with reference men, attractive men shared several similar facial characteristics: relatively large forehead, reduced mandible, and rounded face. They had a more acute soft tissue profile, an increased upper facial width and middle facial depth, larger mouth, and more voluminous lips than reference men. Attractive men had several facial characteristics suggesting babyness. Nonetheless, each group of men was characterized by a different development of these features. Esthetic reference values can be a useful tool for clinicians, but should always consider the characteristics of individual faces.

  2. Radiology and pathology of malignant fibrous histiocytomas of the soft tissues a report of ten cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.J.; Lois, J.F.; Gomes, A.S.; Mirra, J.M.; Deutsch, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH) are believed to originate from histiocytes and are composed of malignant cells with spindle or round shapes. We evaluated ten MFH of the soft tissues by plain roentgenograms, computed tomography (CT), and angiography and subdivided them into four grades of anaplasia and five predominant histologic variants. The variants of MFH demonstrated different vascular patterns. The extension of the lesions could be determinded by CT and angiography. CT is the method of choice in the assessment of size and extent of MFH of the soft tissues. When intra-arterial chemotherapy is indicated the angiograms obtained at each catheter placement may substitute CT in follow-up studies obviating additional diagnostic procedures. (orig.)

  3. Radiology and pathology of malignant fibrous histiocytomas of the soft tissues; a report of ten cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H.J.; Lois, J.F.; Gomes, A.S.; Mirra, J.M.; Deutsch, L.S.

    1985-03-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH) are believed to originate from histiocytes and are composed of malignant cells with spindle or round shapes. We evaluated ten MFH of the soft tissues by plain roentgenograms, computed tomography (CT), and angiography and subdivided them into four grades of anaplasia and five predominant histologic variants. The variants of MFH demonstrated different vascular patterns. The extension of the lesions could be determinded by CT and angiography. CT is the method of choice in the assessment of size and extent of MFH of the soft tissues. When intra-arterial chemotherapy is indicated the angiograms obtained at each catheter placement may substitute CT in follow-up studies obviating additional diagnostic procedures.

  4. Toward high-speed 3D nonlinear soft tissue deformation simulations using Abaqus software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Ashraf; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    We aim to achieve a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a porcine liver deformation under a surgical tool pressure using the commercial finite element software Abaqus. The liver geometry is obtained using magnetic resonance imaging, and a nonlinear constitutive law is employed to capture large deformations of the tissue. Effects of implicit versus explicit analysis schemes, element type, and mesh density on computation time are studied. We find that Abaqus explicit and implicit solvers are capable of simulating nonlinear soft tissue deformations accurately using first-order tetrahedral elements in a relatively short time by optimizing the element size. This study provides new insights and guidance on accurate and relatively fast nonlinear soft tissue simulations. Such simulations can provide force feedback during robotic surgery and allow visualization of tissue deformations for surgery planning and training of surgical residents.

  5. Ballistic impacts on an anatomically correct synthetic skull with a surrogate skin/soft tissue layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Peter; Carr, Debra; Arm, Richard; Gibb, Iain; Hunt, Nicholas; Delaney, Russ J

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to further develop a synthetic model of ballistic head injury by the addition of skin and soft tissue layers to an anatomically correct polyurethane skull filled with gelatine 10% by mass. Six head models were impacted with 7.62 x 39 mm full metal jacket mild steel core (FMJ MSC) bullets with a mean velocity of 652 m/s. The impact events were filmed with high-speed cameras. The models were imaged pre- and post-impact using computed tomography. The models were assessed post impact by two experienced Home Office pathologists and the images assessed by an experienced military radiologist. The findings were scored against real injuries. The entry wounds, exit wounds and fracture patterns were scored positively, but the synthetic skin and soft tissue layer was felt to be too extendable. Further work is ongoing to address this.

  6. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  7. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of peripheral soft tissue hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M C; Stull, M A; Patt, R H; Freedman, M T [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Teitelbaum, G P [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiology University of Southern California, Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Lack, E E [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Pathology; Bogumill, G P [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    1990-10-01

    Ten patients with soft tissue hemangiomas outside the central nervous system were studied with MR imaging. Eight patients were studied at 1.5 Tesla (T) with T{sub 1}-weighted and triple echo T{sub 2}-weighted sequences. Two additional patients were imaged on a 0.5-T system. The MR images were correlated with images from other modalities. It was found that prolonged T{sub 2}-weighted imaging together with standard spin echo T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} pulse sequences is a good substitute for contrast-enhanced CT and arteriographic evaluation of soft tissue hemangiomas. (orig./DG).

  9. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection Occurring after Exposure to Mycobacterium marinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani S. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous infections caused by Mycobacterium marinum have been attributed to aquarium or fish exposure after a break in the skin barrier. In most instances, the upper limbs and fingers account for a majority of the infection sites. While previous cases of necrotizing soft tissue infections related to M. marinum have been documented, the importance of our presenting case is to illustrate the aggressive nature of M. marinum resulting in a persistent necrotizing soft tissue infection of a finger that required multiple aggressive wound debridements, followed by an amputation of the affected extremity, in order to hasten recovery.

  10. Preoperative radiotherapy for bone and soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Seiichi; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Amino, Katsuhisa; Manabe, Jun; Yamashita, Takashi; Kaneta, Kouichi; Furuya, Kohtaro; Isobe, Yasushi.

    1989-01-01

    The role of preoperative radiotherapy was evaluated in 16 cases with soft tissue sarcoma and 13 cases with osteosarcoma. Nine osteosarcoma cases underwent radiotherapy of whole lesion, and 4 cases had radiotherapy only of the surgically uncurable portion. There were no local recurrences in M0 cases, but skin necrosis occurred in the whole radiation group. As for the soft tissue sarcomas, local recurrence was not seen in virgin cases, but two cases which had received previous treatment showed local recurrence. There were no cases with severe side effects. Partial radiotherapy was effective as preoperative treatment for osteosarcoma. Preoperative radiotherapy is better than postoperative radiotherapy from many standpoints. (author)

  11. Real-time haptic cutting of high-resolution soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Westermann, Rüdiger; Dick, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We present our systematic efforts in advancing the computational performance of physically accurate soft tissue cutting simulation, which is at the core of surgery simulators in general. We demonstrate a real-time performance of 15 simulation frames per second for haptic soft tissue cutting of a deformable body at an effective resolution of 170,000 finite elements. This is achieved by the following innovative components: (1) a linked octree discretization of the deformable body, which allows for fast and robust topological modifications of the simulation domain, (2) a composite finite element formulation, which thoroughly reduces the number of simulation degrees of freedom and thus enables to carefully balance simulation performance and accuracy, (3) a highly efficient geometric multigrid solver for solving the linear systems of equations arising from implicit time integration, (4) an efficient collision detection algorithm that effectively exploits the composition structure, and (5) a stable haptic rendering algorithm for computing the feedback forces. Considering that our method increases the finite element resolution for physically accurate real-time soft tissue cutting simulation by an order of magnitude, our technique has a high potential to significantly advance the realism of surgery simulators.

  12. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy-particle radiography has clinical potential as a newly developed noninvasive low-dose imaging procedure that provides increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high-energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program for medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low-dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures, brain and spinal neoplasms, and the heart. The potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, is now proving to be an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, and for the early detection of small soft-tissue tumors at low radiation dose

  13. Complicated acute appendicitis presenting as a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerle, Corinne; Gelpke, Hans; Breitenstein, Stefan; Staerkle, Ralph F

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a rare complication of acute appendicitis with perforation through the abdominal wall. The case points out that an intraabdominal origin should be considered in patients presenting with rapidly spreading soft tissue infections of the trunk. A 58-year-old European woman presented to our hospital with a 1-week history of severe abdominal pain accompanied by rapidly spreading erythema and emphysema of the lower abdomen. On admission, the patient was in septic shock with leukocytosis and elevation of C-reactive protein. Among other diagnoses, necrotizing fasciitis was suspected. Computed tomography showed a large soft tissue infection with air-fluid levels spreading through the lower abdominal wall. During the operation, we found a perforated appendicitis breaking through the fascia and causing a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall. Appendicitis was the origin of the soft tissue infection. The abdominal wall was only secondarily involved. Even though perforated appendicitis as an etiology of a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal wall cellulitis. The distinction between rapidly spreading subcutaneous infection with abscess formation and early onset of necrotizing fasciitis is often difficult and can be confirmed only by surgical intervention.

  14. Análise de carcinomas epidermóides por meio de radiografia panorâmica e tomografia computadorizada Analysis of squamous cell carcinomas by means of panoramic radiography and computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cáceres PEREIRA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo correlacionar aspectos radiográficos como, localização e extensão do tumor, infiltração óssea e de tecidos moles e destruição das corticais, obtidos nas radiografias panorâmicas com os encontrados nas tomografias computadorizadas (TCs. Os aspectos radiográficos de 48 pacientes com diagnóstico histopatológico de carcinomas epidermóides, localizados em várias regiões do complexo buco-maxilo-facial, foram analisados por 4 radiologistas. As radiografias panorâmicas e as tomografias computadorizadas foram realizadas nos hospitais e clínicas da Universidade de Iowa (EUA, FUNDECTO - USP e Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo (SP, Brasil. Como resultados, obtivemos a grande limitação da radiografia panorâmica em determinar a localização e extensão do tumor, com delimitações bastante imprecisas da lesão. Já as TCs ofereceram resultados mais direcionados como: invasão do tumor em direção a estruturas moles adjacentes, extensão da destruição óssea, bem como a profundidade da lesão, que foram confirmados com os achados cirúrgicos. Concluímos que a tomografia computadorizada demonstrou ser uma técnica bastante sensível na detecção do comprometimento ósseo e do envolvimento de tecidos moles, proporcionando, assim, o auxílio no diagnóstico e no planejamento do tratamento. No entanto, a radiografia panorâmica foi muito pouco sensível e eficaz, por mostrar apenas margens imprecisas e pouco nítidas da lesão, não avaliando o envolvimento de tecidos moles.The purpose of this work was to compare radiographic findings, such as localization and extension of tumors toward the bone and soft tissues, in panoramic radiography and computed tomography (CT. Four radiologists assessed the radiographic findings of 48 patients with the histopathological diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in different sites of the maxillofacial region. Panoramic radiographs and computed

  15. Computed radiography versus mobile direct radiography for bedside chest radiographs: Impact of dose on image quality and reader agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boo, D.W.; Weber, M.; Deurloo, E.E.; Streekstra, G.J.; Freling, N.J.; Dongelmans, D.A.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To asses the image quality and potential for dose reduction of mobile direct detector (DR) chest radiography as compared with computed radiography (CR) for intensive care unit (ICU) chest radiographs (CXR). Methods and materials: Three groups of age-, weight- and disease-matched ICU patients (n = 114 patients; 50 CXR per acquisition technique) underwent clinically indicated bedside CXR obtained with either CR (single read-out powder plates) or mobile DR (GOS-TFT detectors) at identical or 50% reduced dose (DR 50% ). Delineation of anatomic structures and devices used for patient monitoring, overall image quality and disease were scored by four readers. In 12 patients pairs of follow-up CR and DR images were available, and in 15 patients pairs of CR and DR 50% images were available. In these pairs the overall image quality was also compared side-by-side. Results: Delineation of anatomy in the mediastinum was scored better with DR or DR 50% than with CR. Devices used for patient monitoring were seen best with DR, with DR 50% being superior to CR. In the side-by-side comparison, the overall image quality of DR and DR 50% was rated better than CR in 96% (46/48) and 87% (52/60), respectively. Inter-observer agreement for the assessment of pathology was fair for CR and DR 50% (κ = 0.33 and κ = 0.39, respectively) and moderate for DR (κ = 0.48). Conclusion: Mobile DR units offer better image quality than CR for bedside chest radiography and allow for 50% dose reduction. Inter-observer agreement increases with image quality and is superior with DR, while DR 50% and CR are comparable.

  16. ultrasound reflecting the morphological properties in soft tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Torben; Larsen, Torben; Court-Payen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is an image modality providing the examiner with real-time images which reflect the morphological properties in soft tissue. Different types of transducers are used for different kind of exams. US is cheap, fast, and safe. US is widely used in abdominal imaging including obstetrics...

  17. Trochanteric Soft Tissue Thickness and Hip Fracture in Older Men

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Carrie M.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Freitas, Sinara S.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Greater thickness of the tissue extending laterally from the greater trochanter has been associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in women. The effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness on the risk of incident hip fracture has not been evaluated in men.

  18. Multiphase poroelastic finite element models for soft tissue structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    During the last two decades, biological structures with soft tissue components have been modeled using poroelastic or mixture-based constitutive laws, i.e., the material is viewed as a deformable (porous) solid matrix that is saturated by mobile tissue fluid. These structures exhibit a highly nonlinear, history-dependent material behavior; undergo finite strains; and may swell or shrink when tissue ionic concentrations are altered. Give the geometric and material complexity of soft tissue structures and that they are subjected to complicated initial and boundary conditions, finite element models (FEMs) have been very useful for quantitative structural analyses. This paper surveys recent applications of poroelastic and mixture-based theories and the associated FEMs for the study of the biomechanics of soft tissues, and indicates future directions for research in this area. Equivalent finite-strain poroelastic and mixture continuum biomechanical models are presented. Special attention is given to the identification of material properties using a porohyperelastic constitutive law ans a total Lagrangian view for the formulation. The associated FEMs are then formulated to include this porohyperelastic material response and finite strains. Extensions of the theory are suggested in order to include inherent viscoelasticity, transport phenomena, and swelling in soft tissue structures. A number of biomechanical research areas are identified, and possible applications of the porohyperelastic and mixture-based FEMs are suggested. 62 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Soft tissue artifact in canine kinematic gait analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwencke, M.; Smolders, L.A.; Bergknut, N.; Gustas, P.; Meij, B.P.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Vet Surg. 2012 Oct;41(7):829-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.01021.x. Soft tissue artifact in canine kinematic gait analysis. Schwencke M, Smolders LA, Bergknut N, Gustås P, Meij BP, Hazewinkel HA. Source Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals,, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,

  20. Biofilm in group A streptococcal necrotizing soft tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemens, Nikolai; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Shambat, Srikanth Mairpady

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus (GAS) is a life-threatening, rapidly progressing infection. At present, biofilm is not recognized as a potential problem in GAS necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI), as it is typically linked to chronic infections or associated with forei...

  1. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, M.B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.; Arnell, P.; Rosén, A.; Nekludov, M.; Karlsson, Y.; Bergey, F.; Saccenti, E.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Perner, A.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Hyldegaard, O.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating

  2. Ultrasound elastography assessment of bone/soft tissue interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Biren J; Yang, Xu; Chaudhry, Anuj; Shajudeen, Peer Shafeeq; Nair, Sanjay P; Righetti, Raffaella; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio; Krouskop, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of elastographic imaging techniques to assess the bone/soft tissue interface, a region that has not been previously investigated but may provide important information about fracture and bone healing. The performance of axial strain elastograms and axial shear strain elastograms at the bone/soft tissue interface was studied ex vivo on intact and fractured canine and ovine tibias. Selected ex vivo results were corroborated on intact sheep tibias in vivo. The elastography results were statistically analyzed using elastographic image quality tools. The results of this study demonstrate distinct patterns in the distribution of the normalized local axial strains and axial shear strains at the bone/soft tissue interface with respect to the background soft tissue. They also show that the relative strength and distribution of the elastographic parameters change in the presence of a fracture and depend on the degree of misalignment between the fracture fragments. Thus, elastographic imaging modalities might be used in the future to obtain information regarding the integrity of bones and to assess the severity of fractures, alignment of bone fragments as well as to follow bone healing. (paper)

  3. Ultrasound elastography assessment of bone/soft tissue interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Biren J.; Yang, Xu; Chaudhry, Anuj; Shafeeq Shajudeen, Peer; Nair, Sanjay P.; Weiner, Bradley K.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Krouskop, Thomas A.; Righetti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of elastographic imaging techniques to assess the bone/soft tissue interface, a region that has not been previously investigated but may provide important information about fracture and bone healing. The performance of axial strain elastograms and axial shear strain elastograms at the bone/soft tissue interface was studied ex vivo on intact and fractured canine and ovine tibias. Selected ex vivo results were corroborated on intact sheep tibias in vivo. The elastography results were statistically analyzed using elastographic image quality tools. The results of this study demonstrate distinct patterns in the distribution of the normalized local axial strains and axial shear strains at the bone/soft tissue interface with respect to the background soft tissue. They also show that the relative strength and distribution of the elastographic parameters change in the presence of a fracture and depend on the degree of misalignment between the fracture fragments. Thus, elastographic imaging modalities might be used in the future to obtain information regarding the integrity of bones and to assess the severity of fractures, alignment of bone fragments as well as to follow bone healing.

  4. Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

  5. Hard and soft tissue surgical complications in dental implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shahid R

    2015-05-01

    This article discusses surgical complications associated with the placement of dental implants, specifically focusing on how they occur (etiology), as well as their management and prevention. Dental implant surgical complications can be classified into those of hard and soft tissues. In general, complications can be avoided with thorough preoperative treatment planning and proper surgical technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Soft tissue cephalometric analysis applied to Himachali ethnic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The modern society considers facial attractiveness as an important physical attribute. The great variance in soft tissue drape of the human face complicates accurate assessment of the soft tissue profile, and it is a known fact that facial features of different ethnic groups differ significantly. This study was undertaken to establish norms for Himachali ethnic population. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised lateral cephalograms taken in natural head position of 100 normal individuals (50 males, 50 females. The cephalograms were analyzed by Arnett soft tissue cephalometric analysis for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Student's t-test was used to compare the means of the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between Himachali males and females in certain key parameters. Males have thicker soft tissue structures and a more acute nasolabial angle than females. Males have longer faces and females have greater interlabial gap and maxillary incisor exposure. Males have more deep-set facial structures than females. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences were found between Himachali males and females in certain key parameters. Differences were also noted between other ethnic groups and Himachali faces.

  7. Fat-containing soft-tissue masses in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Elizabeth F; Eutsler, Eric P; Navarro, Oscar M

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of soft-tissue masses in children can be difficult because of the frequently nonspecific clinical and imaging characteristics of these lesions. However key findings on imaging can aid in diagnosis. The identification of macroscopic fat within a soft-tissue mass narrows the differential diagnosis considerably and suggests a high likelihood of a benign etiology in children. Fat can be difficult to detect with sonography because of the variable appearance of fat using this modality. Fat is easier to recognize using MRI, particularly with the aid of fat-suppression techniques. Although a large portion of fat-containing masses in children are adipocytic tumors, a variety of other tumors and mass-like conditions that contain fat should be considered by the radiologist confronted with a fat-containing mass in a child. In this article we review the sonographic and MRI findings in the most relevant fat-containing soft-tissue masses in the pediatric age group, including adipocytic tumors (lipoma, angiolipoma, lipomatosis, lipoblastoma, lipomatosis of nerve, and liposarcoma); fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (fibrous hamartoma of infancy and lipofibromatosis); vascular anomalies (involuting hemangioma, intramuscular capillary hemangioma, phosphate and tensin homologue (PTEN) hamartoma of soft tissue, fibro-adipose vascular anomaly), and other miscellaneous entities, such as fat necrosis and epigastric hernia.

  8. Soft tissue technique - lateral view of the foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyss, R.

    1980-02-01

    For exact anatomic analysis, radiographs are made of and correlated with anatomic sections of a cadaver foot. Three regions are being differentiated: The dorsal and the plantar and the calcaneal region. Normal findings are being presented as well as some pathologic soft tissue changes with special emphasis on the syndrome of 'high edge calcaneus'.

  9. Soft tissue technique - lateral view of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyss, R.

    1980-01-01

    For exact anatomic analysis, radiographs are made of and correlated with anatomic sections of a cadaver foot. Three regions are being differentiated: The dorsal and the plantar and the calcaneal region. Normal findings are being presented as well as some pathologic soft tissue changes with special emphasis on the syndrome of 'high edge calcaneus'. (orig.) [de

  10. Aspergillus: a rare primary organism in soft-tissue infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Lyle, G; Hanly, M; Yeh, K A

    1998-02-01

    Nonclostridial necrotizing soft-tissue infections are usually polymicrobial, with greater than 90 per cent involving beta-hemolytic streptococci or coagulase-positive staphylococci. The remaining 10 per cent are usually due to Gram-negative enteric pathogens. We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman with bilateral lower extremity fungal soft tissue infections. She underwent multiple surgical debridements of extensive gangrenous necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous fat associated with severe acute arteritis. Histopathological examination revealed Aspergillus niger as the sole initial pathogen. Despite aggressive surgical debridement, allografts, and intravenous amphotericin B, her condition clinically deteriorated and she ultimately died of overwhelming infection. Treatment for soft-tissue infections include surgical debridement and intravenous antibiotics. More specifically, Aspergillus can be treated with intravenous amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, and rifampin. Despite these treatment modalities, necrotizing fascitis is associated with a 60 per cent mortality rate. Primary fungal pathogens should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft-tissue infections.

  11. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (Patera Foot) in Immigrants, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Ángel-Moreno, Alfonso; Hernández-Cabrera, Michele; Pisos-Álamo, Elena; Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodriguez, Cristina; Calderín-Ortega, Antonio; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2009-01-01

    An unusual skin and soft tissue infection of the lower limbs has been observed in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa who cross the Atlantic Ocean crowded on small fishing boats (pateras). Response to conventional treatment is usually poor. Extreme extrinsic factors (including new pathogens) may contribute to the etiology of the infection and its pathogenesis. PMID:19331742

  12. Recurrence and Mortality after Surgical Treatment of Soft Tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Africa, patients with soft tissue sarcomas generally present late and have to travel long distances to treatment centers. Many do not benefit from radiotherapy and chemotherapy after the surgical procedure due to inadequate resources. As such recurrence rates may be much higher than those reported elsewhere (11).

  13. MIB-1 expression and iododeoxyuridine labelling in soft tissue sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V; Høyer, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between immunohistochemical estimates of proliferative activity and expression of bcl-2 protein and mutant p53 protein in 23 cases of soft tissue sarcoma. Furthermore, the reproducibility of estimates of proliferative activity was analysed and correlations between...

  14. Facial soft tissue analysis among various vertical facial patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeelani, W.; Fida, M.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The emergence of soft tissue paradigm in orthodontics has made various soft tissue parameters an integral part of the orthodontic problem list. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare various facial soft tissue parameters on lateral cephalograms among patients with short, average and long facial patterns. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the lateral cephalograms of 180 adult subjects divided into three equal groups, i.e., short, average and long face according to the vertical facial pattern. Incisal display at rest, nose height, upper and lower lip lengths, degree of lip procumbency and the nasolabial angle were measured for each individual. The gender differences for these soft tissue parameters were determined using Mann-Whitney U test while the comparison among different facial patterns was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Significant differences in the incisal display at rest, total nasal height, lip procumbency, the nasolabial angle and the upper and lower lip lengths were found among the three vertical facial patterns. A significant positive correlation of nose and lip dimensions was found with the underlying skeletal pattern. Similarly, the incisal display at rest, upper and lower lip procumbency and the nasolabial angle were significantly correlated with the lower anterior facial height. Conclusion: Short facial pattern is associated with minimal incisal display, recumbent upper and lower lips and acute nasolabial angle while the long facial pattern is associated with excessive incisal display, procumbent upper and lower lips and obtuse nasolabial angle. (author)

  15. Fat-containing soft-tissue masses in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheybani, Elizabeth F. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Eutsler, Eric P. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Navarro, Oscar M. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    The diagnosis of soft-tissue masses in children can be difficult because of the frequently nonspecific clinical and imaging characteristics of these lesions. However key findings on imaging can aid in diagnosis. The identification of macroscopic fat within a soft-tissue mass narrows the differential diagnosis considerably and suggests a high likelihood of a benign etiology in children. Fat can be difficult to detect with sonography because of the variable appearance of fat using this modality. Fat is easier to recognize using MRI, particularly with the aid of fat-suppression techniques. Although a large portion of fat-containing masses in children are adipocytic tumors, a variety of other tumors and mass-like conditions that contain fat should be considered by the radiologist confronted with a fat-containing mass in a child. In this article we review the sonographic and MRI findings in the most relevant fat-containing soft-tissue masses in the pediatric age group, including adipocytic tumors (lipoma, angiolipoma, lipomatosis, lipoblastoma, lipomatosis of nerve, and liposarcoma); fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (fibrous hamartoma of infancy and lipofibromatosis); vascular anomalies (involuting hemangioma, intramuscular capillary hemangioma, phosphate and tensin homologue (PTEN) hamartoma of soft tissue, fibro-adipose vascular anomaly), and other miscellaneous entities, such as fat necrosis and epigastric hernia. (orig.)

  16. Assessing the quality of force feedback in soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basafa, Ehsan; Sefati, Shahin; Okamura, Allison M

    2011-01-01

    Many types of deformable models have been proposed for simulation of soft tissue in surgical simulators, but their realism in comparison to actual tissue is rarely assessed. In this paper, a nonlinear mass-spring model is used for realtime simulation of deformable soft tissues and providing force feedback to a human operator. Force-deformation curves of real soft tissue samples were obtained experimentally, and the model was tuned accordingly. To test the realism of the model, we conducted two human-user experiments involving palpation with a rigid probe. First, in a discrimination test, users identified the correct category of real and virtual tissue better than chance, and tended to identify the tissues as real more often than virtual. Second, users identified real and virtual tissues by name, after training on only real tissues. The sorting accuracy was the same for both real and virtual tissues. These results indicate that, despite model limitations, the simulation could convey the feel of touching real tissues. This evaluation approach could be used to compare and validate various soft-tissue simulators.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (MRSA) has become a key pathogen in skin and soft-tissue infections. (SSTIs). The emergence of ..... SSTI isolates; (iii) improved hospital infection control guidelines and practices to prevent .... So exposed in the field. And he'll never run off ...

  18. Radiological protection procedures for industrial applications of computed radiography; Procedimentos de protecao radiologica em aplicacoes industriais da radiografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Josilto Oliveira de

    2009-03-15

    Due to its very particular characteristics, industrial radiography is responsible for roughly half of the relevant accidents in nuclear industry, in developed as well as in developing countries, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Thus, safety and radiological protection in industrial gamma radiography have been receiving especial treatment by regulatory authorities of most Member States. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate, from the radioprotection point of view, the main advantages of computed radiography (CR) for filmless industrial radiography. In order to accomplish this, both techniques, i.e. conventional and filmless computed radiography were evaluated and compared through practical studies. After the studies performed at the present work it was concluded that computed radiography significantly reduces the inherent doses, reflecting in smaller restricted areas and costs, with consequent improvement in radiological protection and safety. (author)

  19. Computed simulation of radiographies of pipes - validation of techniques for wall thickness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, C.; Tillack, G.R.; Nockemann, C.; Wenzel, L.

    1995-01-01

    A macroscopic model of radiographic NDE methods and applications is given. A computer-aided approach for determination of wall thickness from radiographs is presented, guaranteeing high accuracy and reproducibility of wall thickness determination by means of projection radiography. The algorithm was applied to computed simulations of radiographies. The simulation thus offers an effective means for testing such automated wall thickness determination as a function of imaging conditions, pipe geometries, coatings, and media tracking, and likewise is a tool for validation and optimization of the method. (orig.) [de

  20. Real-time simulation of the nonlinear visco-elastic deformations of soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basafa, Ehsan; Farahmand, Farzam

    2011-05-01

    Mass-spring-damper (MSD) models are often used for real-time surgery simulation due to their fast response and fairly realistic deformation replication. An improved real time simulation model of soft tissue deformation due to a laparoscopic surgical indenter was developed and tested. The mechanical realization of conventional MSD models was improved using nonlinear springs and nodal dampers, while their high computational efficiency was maintained using an adapted implicit integration algorithm. New practical algorithms for model parameter tuning, collision detection, and simulation were incorporated. The model was able to replicate complex biological soft tissue mechanical properties under large deformations, i.e., the nonlinear and viscoelastic behaviors. The simulated response of the model after tuning of its parameters to the experimental data of a deer liver sample, closely tracked the reference data with high correlation and maximum relative differences of less than 5 and 10%, for the tuning and testing data sets respectively. Finally, implementation of the proposed model and algorithms in a graphical environment resulted in a real-time simulation with update rates of 150 Hz for interactive deformation and haptic manipulation, and 30 Hz for visual rendering. The proposed real time simulation model of soft tissue deformation due to a laparoscopic surgical indenter was efficient, realistic, and accurate in ex vivo testing. This model is a suitable candidate for testing in vivo during laparoscopic surgery.

  1. Bones - joints - soft tissues II. 7. rev. ed. Knochen - Gelenke - Weichteile II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dihlmann, W. (Roentgeninstitut, Allgemeines Krankenhaus Barmbek, Hamburg (Germany)); Frommhold, W. (Radiologische Klinik, Tuebingen Univ. (Germany)) (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    With the publication of the 2nd part to Volume VI, 'Bones - joints - soft tissues', the 7th edition of 'Diagnostic radiology in the hospital and medical practice' is complete. The advances made particularly during the past decade in the field of diagnostic radiology have made it neccesary for all the individual sections to be completely revised. Recently developed methods of imaging like sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography are increasingly used as a replacement for or, at least, an adjunct to conventional X-ray procedures. Owing to the development and continuous refinement of related methods of intervention the gap between mere diagnostic applications and therapeutic uses of radiology could eventually be closed. The issues mainly discussed in this volume are bone fractures and healing, bone transplantation, osteopathy and osteoarthropathy, fibrous dyplasia or Albright's disease, Pagetoid osteitis, genetically transmitted constitutional disorders of the skeleton and soft tissue changes. While in the key sections on bone fractures and healing, osteopathy and osteoarthropathy as well as constitutional genetic disorders X-ray techniques are still described as the prevailing method of diagnosis, diseases of soft tissues now are much more commonly diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging. (orig./MG) With 2248 figs., 59 tabs.

  2. Dual energy radiography using active detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.; Poage, T.F.; Alvarez, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    A new technology has been implemented using an open-quotes active-detectorclose quotes comprised of two computed radiography (CR) imaging plates in a sandwich geometry for dual-energy radiography. This detector allows excellent energy separation, short exposure time, and high signal to noise ratio (SNR) for clinically robust open-quotes bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images with minimum patient motion. Energy separation is achieved by two separate exposures at widely different kVp's: the high energy (120 kVp + 1.5 mm Cu filter) exposure is initiated first, followed by a short burst of intense light to erase the latent image on the front plate, and then a 50 kVp (low energy) exposure. A personal computer interfaced to the x-ray generator, filter wheel, and active detector system orchestrates the acquisition sequence within a time period of 150 msec. The front and back plates are processed using a CR readout algorithm with fixed speed and wide dynamic range. open-quotes Bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images are calculated by geometric alignment of the two images and application of dual energy decomposition algorithms on a pixel by pixel basis. Resultant images of a calibration phantom demonstrate an increase of SNR 2 / dose by ∼73 times when compared to a single exposure open-quotes passive-detectorclose quotes comprised of CR imaging plates, and an ∼8 fold increase compared to a screen-film dual-energy cassette comprised of different phosphor compounds. In conclusion, dual energy imaging with open-quotes active detectorclose quotes technology is clinically feasible and can provide substantial improvements over conventional methods for dual-energy radiography

  3. Imaging of soft tissue malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemni, H.; Bakir, D.; Ben Ahmed, S.; Kraiem, C.; Mrad Dali, K.; Tlili-Graiess, K.; Mnif, Z.; Jeddi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare and potentially highly malignant sarcoma. The authors report 6 cases of MFH in various sites : two in the chest wall, one in the pelvis, two in the gluteal zones and one on the scalp. Ultrasonography and computed tomography were the main imaging methods used in the assessment of the structure and extension of the tumor. A poor prognosis was noted in four cases: death within a few months in the two thoracic sites, recurrence in the pelvic and scalp lesions, radical surgery allowed recovery in two cases. A review of the literature showed that MRI and CT are complementary in the initial staging and follow-up these patients. (author)

  4. Trochanteric Soft Tissue Thickness and Hip Fracture in Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Carrie M.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Freitas, Sinara S.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Greater thickness of the tissue extending laterally from the greater trochanter has been associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in women. The effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness on the risk of incident hip fracture has not been evaluated in men. Methods: We measured trochanteric soft tissue thickness by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for all incident hip fracture cases (n = 70) and 222 randomly selected noncases in older men (≥65 yr) enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Differences in tissue thickness between cases and controls were examined. Changes in fall force and factor-of-risk (the ratio of force from a sideways fall to femoral bone strength) associated with tissue thickness were determined. The relative risk for incident hip fracture per sd decrease in tissue thickness was calculated. Results: Mean trochanteric soft tissue thickness did not differ significantly between cases and noncases (29.1 ± 11.9 vs 31.0 ± 11.5 mm; P = 0.2). Although increased tissue thickness reduced both the estimates of fall force and the factor-of-risk, tissue thickness was not associated with the risk of hip fracture (age- and bone mineral density-adjusted relative risk per sd decrease in tissue thickness = 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.70–1.16). Conclusions: In this study of elderly community-dwelling men, we found no significant association between trochanteric soft tissue thickness and incident hip fracture. Trochanteric soft tissue thickness in these men was less than previously reported in older women and may explain the difference between these results and those reported in women. PMID:19017753

  5. Checklist and scoring system for the assessment of soft tissue preservation in CT examinations of human mummies. Application to the Tyrolean Iceman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, Stephanie [Trauma Center Murnau (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Trauma Center Murnau and Paracelsus Medical Univ. Salzburg, Murnau (Germany). Inst. of Biomechanics; Pernter, Patrizia [Central Hospital, Bozen (Italy). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Anatomy, Histology and Anthropology; Zesch, Stephanie; Rosendahl, Wilfried [Reiss-Engelhorn Museen, Mannheim (Germany). German Mummy Project; Hotz, Gerhard [Natural History Museum of Basel (Switzerland). Anthropology; Zink, Albert R. [EURAC-Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, Bolzano (Italy)

    2017-12-15

    Soft tissues make a skeleton into a mummy and they allow for a diagnosis beyond osteology. Following the approach of structured reporting in clinical radiology, a recently developed checklist was used to evaluate the soft tissue preservation status of the Tyrolean Iceman using computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to apply the ''Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies'' to the Tyrolean Iceman, and to compare the Iceman's soft tissue preservation score to the scores calculated for other mummies. A whole-body (CT) (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) consisting of five scans, performed in January 2013 in the Department of Radiodiagnostics, Central Hospital, Bolzano, was used (slice thickness 0.6mm; kilovolt ranging from80 to 140). For standardized evaluation the ''CT Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in Human Mummies'' was used. All checkpoints under category ''A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System'' and more than half in category ''B. Organs and Organ Systems'' were observed. The scoring system accounted for a total score of 153 (out of 200). The comparison of the scores between the Iceman and three mummy collections from Vilnius, Lithuania, and Palermo, Sicily, as well as one Egyptian mummy resulted in overall higher soft tissue preservation scores for the Iceman. Application of the checklist allowed for standardized assessment and documentation of the Iceman's soft tissue preservation status. The scoring system allowed for a quantitative comparison between the Iceman and other mummies. The Iceman showed remarkable soft tissue preservation.

  6. Checklist and scoring system for the assessment of soft tissue preservation in CT examinations of human mummies. Application to the Tyrolean Iceman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissues make a skeleton into a mummy and they allow for a diagnosis beyond osteology. Following the approach of structured reporting in clinical radiology, a recently developed checklist was used to evaluate the soft tissue preservation status of the Tyrolean Iceman using computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to apply the ''Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies'' to the Tyrolean Iceman, and to compare the Iceman's soft tissue preservation score to the scores calculated for other mummies. A whole-body (CT) (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) consisting of five scans, performed in January 2013 in the Department of Radiodiagnostics, Central Hospital, Bolzano, was used (slice thickness 0.6mm; kilovolt ranging from80 to 140). For standardized evaluation the ''CT Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in Human Mummies'' was used. All checkpoints under category ''A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System'' and more than half in category ''B. Organs and Organ Systems'' were observed. The scoring system accounted for a total score of 153 (out of 200). The comparison of the scores between the Iceman and three mummy collections from Vilnius, Lithuania, and Palermo, Sicily, as well as one Egyptian mummy resulted in overall higher soft tissue preservation scores for the Iceman. Application of the checklist allowed for standardized assessment and documentation of the Iceman's soft tissue preservation status. The scoring system allowed for a quantitative comparison between the Iceman and other mummies. The Iceman showed remarkable soft tissue preservation.

  7. The clinical application of computed radiography in bedside photography of newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Sen; Guo Tianchang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the computed radiography in bedside photography of newborn, especially in chest radiography. Methods: Bedside CR images were selected in 100 cases randomly. The exposure parameters were optimized using the large latitude of CR. The details of images were post-processed and adjusted using spatial tuning technique. Then CR photography was compared with conventional X-ray photography. Results: The images acquired with CR had good contrast, high definition, and little distortion, in which the condemned image rate was 1%. While in conventional X-ray photography, the unsuccessful imaging rate is 9%. Conclusion: Bedside computed radiography of new-born, especially the chest imaging, is very helpful to improve image quality and positive rate of the diagnosis. (authors)

  8. Progress in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelle, A.

    2016-01-01

    Because of its practical aspect digital radiography is more and more used in the industrial sector. There are 2 kinds of digital radiography. First, the 'computed radiography' that uses a photon-stimulated screen, and after radiation exposure this screen must be read by an analyser to get a digit image. The second type is the 'direct radiography' that allows one to get a digit radiograph of the object directly. Digital radiography uses the same radioactive nuclides as radiography with silver films: cobalt, iridium or selenium. The spatial resolution of digital radiography is less good than with classical silver film radiography but digital radiography offers a better visual contrast. (A.C.)

  9. Diode laser soft-tissue surgery: advancements aimed at consistent cutting, improved clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Georgios E

    2013-01-01

    Laser dentistry and soft-tissue surgery, in particular, have become widely adopted in recent years. Significant cost reductions for dental lasers and the increasing popularity of CADCAM, among other factors, have contributed to a substantial increase in the installed base of dental lasers, especially soft-tissue lasers. New development in soft-tissue surgery, based on the modern understanding of laser-tissue interactions and contact soft-tissue surgery mechanisms, will bring a higher quality and consistency level to laser soft-tissue surgery. Recently introduced diode-laser technology enables enhanced control of side effects that result from tissue overheating and may improve soft-tissue surgical outcomes.

  10. Observer training for computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in chest radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boo, Diederick W.; van Hoorn, François; van Schuppen, Joost; Schijf, Laura; Scheerder, Maeke J.; Freling, Nicole J.; Mets, Onno; Weber, Michael; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether short-term feedback helps readers to increase their performance using computer-aided detection (CAD) for nodule detection in chest radiography. The 140 CXRs (56 with a solitary CT-proven nodules and 84 negative controls) were divided into four subsets of 35; each were read in a

  11. Rib Radiography versus Chest Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Rib Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Atsushi

    2018-05-01

     The accurate diagnosis of rib fractures is important in chest trauma. Diagnostic images following chest trauma are usually obtained via chest X-ray, chest computed tomography, or rib radiography. This study evaluated the diagnostic characteristics of rib radiography and chest computed tomography.  Seventy-five rib fracture patients who underwent both chest computed tomography and rib radiography between April 2008 and December 2013 were included. Rib radiographs, centered on the site of pain, were taken from two directions. Chest computed tomography was performed using a 16-row multidetector scanner with 5-mm slice-pitch without overlap, and axial images were visualized in a bone window.  In total, 217 rib fractures were diagnosed in 75 patients. Rib radiography missed 43 rib fractures in 24 patients. The causes were overlap with organs in 15 cases, trivial fractures in 21 cases, and injury outside the imaging range in 7 cases. Left lower rib fractures were often missed due to overlap with the heart, while middle and lower rib fractures were frequently not diagnosed due to overlap with abdominal organs. Computed tomography missed 21 rib fractures in 17 patients. The causes were horizontal fractures in 10 cases, trivial fractures in 9 cases, and insufficient breath holding in 1 case.  In rib radiography, overlap with organs and fractures outside the imaging range were characteristic reasons for missed diagnoses. In chest computed tomography, horizontal rib fractures and insufficient breath holding were often responsible. We should take these challenges into account when diagnosing rib fractures. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Diagnostic Imaging of the Lower Respiratory Tract in Neonatal Foals: Radiography and Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascola, Kara M; Joslyn, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis and monitoring of lower respiratory disease in neonatal foals. Radiography is most widely available to equine practitioners and is the primary modality that has been used for the characterization of respiratory disease in foals. Computed tomography imaging, although still limited in availability to the general practitioner, offers advantages over radiography and has been used diagnostically in neonatal foals with respiratory disease. Recognition of appropriate imaging protocols and patient-associated artifacts is critical for accurate image interpretation regardless of the modality used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intramodality and intermodality agreement in radiography and computed tomography of equine distal limb fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crijns, C P; Martens, A; Bergman, H-J; van der Veen, H; Duchateau, L; van Bree, H J J; Gielen, I M V L

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly accessible in equine referral hospitals. To document the level of agreement within and between radiography and CT in characterising equine distal limb fractures. Retrospective descriptive study. Images from horses that underwent radiographic and CT evaluation for suspected distal limb fractures were reviewed, including 27 horses and 3 negative controls. Using Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa analysis, the level of agreement among 4 observers for a predefined set of diagnostic characteristics for radiography and CT separately and for the level of agreement between the 2 imaging modalities were documented. Both CT and radiography had very good intramodality agreement in identifying fractures, but intermodality agreement was lower. There was good intermodality and intramodality agreement for anatomical localisation and the identification of fracture displacement. Agreement for articular involvement, fracture comminution and fracture fragment number was towards the lower limit of good agreement. There was poor to fair intermodality agreement regarding fracture orientation, fracture width and coalescing cracks; intramodality agreement was higher for CT than for radiography for these features. Further studies, including comparisons with surgical and/or post mortem findings, are required to determine the sensitivity and specificity of CT and radiography in the diagnosis and characterisation of equine distal limb fractures. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Imaging suspected cervical spine injury: Plain radiography or computed tomography? Systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, Gavin [Diagnostic Radiographer, Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust, Colchester General Hospital, Turner Road, Colchester, CO4 5JL Essex (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gavincain8@hotmail.com; Shepherdson, Jane; Elliott, Vicki; Svensson, Jon [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 9PT Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom); Brennan, Patrick [UCD School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Health Science Building, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-02-15

    Aim: (1) to establish which modality offers the greatest accuracy in the detection of cervical spine injury (CSI) Following trauma: plain radiography or computed tomography (CT), and (2) make an evidence-based recommendation for the initial imaging modality of choice. Method: A systematic literature review was performed to identify primary research studies which compare the diagnostic accuracy of plain radiography and CT with the results of a reference standard in the detection of CSI. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Direct and Pubmed Central databases was conducted. Results: Ten studies were identified. Critical appraisal identified limitations among all studies. There was heterogeneity in the sensitivity estimates for plain radiography, whereas estimates for CT were consistently high. Examination of the reported sensitivities shows that CT outperforms plain radiography in the detection of CSI. Conclusion: CT is superior to plain radiography in the detection of CSI. However, the optimal imaging strategy depends on the patients' relative risk of injury. If at high-risk cervical CT is indicated. If at low-risk the increased cost and radiation exposure mean that screening CT may not be warranted, good-quality plain radiographs are sufficient.

  15. Multidisciplinary ''limb salvage'' treatment of soft tissue and skeletal sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisenburger, T.H.; Eilber, F.R.; Grant, T.T.; Morton, D.L.; Mirra, J.J.; Steinberg, M.; Rickles, D.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of treating primary bone and soft tissue tumors, as with most other malignancies, is to control the disease locally and systematically while preserving as much function as possible. For soft tissue sarcomas the results following radical excision and post-operative radiation therapy with preservation of the limb have equaled the control rates of amputation. However, local recurrence rates of approximately 25-30% are reported for high-grade lesions of the proximal lower extremity. Amputations provides excellent local control for osteosarcoma but the functional results may be less than optimal. In an attempt to achieve limb salvage for these tumors, a multidisciplinary protocol was developed using intra-arterial doxorubicin, pre-operative radiation therapy and limb-sparing radical wide excision followed by post-operative chemotherapy for presumed micro-metastatic disease

  16. Radiation-induced soft-tissue and bone sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Chu, F.C.; Woodard, H.Q.; Melamed, R.; Huvos, A.; Cantin, J.

    1978-01-01

    From the records of Memorial Hospital of the past 50 years, 47 cases with an established diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma were identified and divided into two groups: the first included 20 cases of soft-tissue sarcoma arising from irradiated tissues, and the second comprised 27 cases of bone sarcoma arising from normal bones in the irradiated field. Medians for the latent periods from irradiation to diagnosis of bone and soft-tissue sarcoma were 11 and 12, years, respectively. In bone sarcomas, the latent period was longer after larger radiation doses and children appeared to be more susceptible to cancer induction than adults. Criteria for establishing the diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma and the magnitude of the risk of bone sarcoma are discussed

  17. Soft Tissue Coverage of the Lower Limb following Oncological Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Christine; Panzica, Martin; Dastagir, Khaled; Krettek, Christian; Vogt, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of lower limb tumors has been shifted by advancements in adjuvant treatment protocols and microsurgical reconstruction from limb amputation to limb salvage. Standard approaches include oncological surgery by a multidisciplinary team in terms of limb sparing followed by soft tissue reconstruction and adjuvant therapy when indicated. For the development of a comprehensive surgical plan, the identity of the tumor should first be determined by histology after biopsy. Then the surgical goal and comprehensive treatment concept should be developed by a multidisciplinary tumor board and combined with soft tissue reconstruction. In this article, plastic surgical reconstruction options for soft coverage of the lower extremity following oncological surgery will be described along with the five clinical cases.

  18. Soft tissue coverage of the lower limb following oncological surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eRadtke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of lower limb tumours has been shifted by advancements in adjuvant treatment protocols and microsurgical reconstruction from limb amputation to limb salvage. Standard approaches include oncological surgery by a multidisciplinary team in terms of limb sparing followed by soft tissue reconstruction and adjuvant therapy when indicated. For development of a comprehensive surgical plan, the identity of the tumour should first be determined by histology after biopsy. Then the surgical goal and comprehensive treatment concept should be developed by a multidisciplinary tumour board and combined with soft tissue reconstruction. In this article, plastic surgical reconstruction options for soft coverage of the lower extremity following oncologic surgery will be described along with five clinical cases.

  19. A novel method for soft tissue retraction during periapical surgery using 3D technology: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Aldowaisan, A; Dawood, A

    2017-08-01

    This case report describes a new approach to isolation and soft tissue retraction during endodontic surgery using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), computer-aided design (CAD) and three-dimensional (3D) printing. A 53-year-old patient presented for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left central incisor. It was decided to treat this tooth with a microsurgical approach. The data from the diagnostic CBCT scan were also used to make a physical model of the operative site, and CAD software was used to design a soft tissue retractor to be used during the patient's surgery. A custom retractor was then fabricated using a 3D printer. The custom-made retractor enhanced visualization and soft tissue handling during the patient's surgery. The patient was asymptomatic at a 1-year review. No abnormalities were detected during her clinical examination, and radiographic examination revealed complete healing of the surgical site. The significance of proper soft tissue retraction in periapical microsurgery is underemphasized. Geometric data from CBCT scans may be harvested for a variety of uses, adding value to the examination. 3D printing is a promising technology that may potentially have many uses in endodontic surgery. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Realistic soft tissue deformation strategies for real time surgery simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yunhe; Zhou, Xiangmin; Zhang, Nan; Tamma, Kumar; Sweet, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A volume-preserving deformation method (VPDM) is developed in complement with the mass-spring method (MSM) to improve the deformation quality of the MSM to model soft tissue in surgical simulation. This method can also be implemented as a stand-alone model. The proposed VPDM satisfies the Newton's laws of motion by obtaining the resultant vectors form an equilibrium condition. The proposed method has been tested in virtual surgery systems with haptic rendering demands.

  1. Non-neoplastic conditions presenting as soft-tissue tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crundwell, N. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); O' Donnell, P. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: asif.saifuddin@rnoh.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Review of referrals to our unit over the last 7 years showed that of approximately 750 cases referred as soft-tissue tumours, 132 were subsequently diagnosed as non-neoplastic lesions. The imaging characteristics of these lesions are presented to differentiate them from neoplasms. The most common diagnoses were myositis ossificans, ganglion cyst, abscess/infection, bursitis and synovitis. The imaging features of other rarer conditions will also be discussed.

  2. Photon activation analysis of soft tissues of marine invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.

    2001-01-01

    We have determined levels of elements in soft tissues of 23 species of marine invertebrates by photon activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentration levels of Mg and Rb were almost same for all samples determined. On the contrary, relatively high concentration of elements were observed for Ni in mid-gut gonads of ear shells, As in gills, hepatopancreas, and muscles of several species of Crustaceans. (author)

  3. Non-neoplastic conditions presenting as soft-tissue tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crundwell, N.; O'Donnell, P.; Saifuddin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Review of referrals to our unit over the last 7 years showed that of approximately 750 cases referred as soft-tissue tumours, 132 were subsequently diagnosed as non-neoplastic lesions. The imaging characteristics of these lesions are presented to differentiate them from neoplasms. The most common diagnoses were myositis ossificans, ganglion cyst, abscess/infection, bursitis and synovitis. The imaging features of other rarer conditions will also be discussed

  4. Characterization of Soft Tissue Tumors by Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekcevik, Yeliz; Kahya, Mehmet Onur; Kaya, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a noninvasive method for investigation of tumor histological content. It has been applied for some musculoskeletal tumors and reported to be useful. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors and to determine if ADC can help differentiate these tumors. DWI was performed on 25 histologically proven soft tissue masses. It was obtained with a single-shot echo-planar imaging technique using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) machine. The mean ADC values were calculated. We grouped soft tissue tumors as benign cystic, benign solid or mixed, malignant cystic and malignant solid or mixed tumors and compared mean ADC values between these groups. There was only one patient with a malignant cystic tumor and was not included in the statistical analysis. The median ADC values of benign and malignant tumors were 2.31 ± 1.29 and 0.90 ± 0.70 (median ± interquartile range), respectively. The mean ADC values were different between benign and malignant tumors (P = 0.031). Benign cystic tumors had significantly higher ADC values than benign solid or mixed tumors and malignant solid or mixed tumors (p values were < 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Malignant solid or mixed tumors had lower ADC values than benign solid or mixed tumors (P = 0.02). Our preliminary results have shown that although there is some overlap between benign and malignant tumors, adding DWI, MR imaging to routine soft tissue tumor protocols may improve diagnostic accuracy

  5. Pediatric Benign Soft Tissue Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Alexandra; Karlis, Vasiliki

    2016-02-01

    Despite the many types of oral pathologic lesions found in infants and children, the most commonly encountered are benign soft tissue lesions. The clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and treatment algorithms of pathologies in the age group from birth to 18 years of age are summarized based on their prevalence in each given age distribution. Treatment modalities include both medical and surgical management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Wilms tumor arising in extracoelomic paravertebral soft tissues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulligan, Linda

    2012-02-01

    Extrarenal Wilms tumor (ERWT) is a well-established entity which most commonly arises within the genitourinary tract, including intracoelomic paranephric soft tissue. Rarely, ERWT arises within teratoma, and it tends to occur predominantly in distinct settings, such as females with spinal defects and males with testicular teratomas. We report a unique ERWT arising within an extracoelomic teratoma of the paraspinal musculature, thereby expanding the range of reported locations for this unusual tumor.

  7. Oncogenic osteomalacia associated with soft tissue chondromyxoid fibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Mi E-mail: jmpark@cmc.cuk.ac.kr; Woo, Young Kyun; Kang, Moo Il; Kang, Chang Suk; Hahn, Seong Tae

    2001-08-01

    Oncogenic osteomalacia is a rarely described clinical entity characterized by hypophosphatemia, phosphaturia, and a low concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. It is most often associated with benign mesenchymal tumor and can be cured with surgical removal of the tumor. In this paper, we present a case of oncogenic osteomalacia caused by chondromyxoid fibroma in the soft tissue of the sole of the foot in a 56-year-old woman.

  8. Oncogenic osteomalacia associated with soft tissue chondromyxoid fibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Woo, Young Kyun; Kang, Moo Il; Kang, Chang Suk; Hahn, Seong Tae

    2001-01-01

    Oncogenic osteomalacia is a rarely described clinical entity characterized by hypophosphatemia, phosphaturia, and a low concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 . It is most often associated with benign mesenchymal tumor and can be cured with surgical removal of the tumor. In this paper, we present a case of oncogenic osteomalacia caused by chondromyxoid fibroma in the soft tissue of the sole of the foot in a 56-year-old woman

  9. Development of computer assisted learning program using cone beam projection for head radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazeko, Kazuma; Araki, Misao; Kajiwara, Hironori; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kuwayama, Jun; Karube, Shuhei; Hashimoto, Takeyuki; Shinohara, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We present a computer assisted learning (CAL) program to simulate head radiography. The program provides cone beam projections of a target volume, simulating three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) of a head phantom. The generated image is 512 x 512 x 512 pixels with each pixel 0.6 mm on a side. The imaging geometry, such as X-ray tube orientation and phantom orientation, can be varied. The graphical user interface (GUI) of the CAL program allows the study of the effects of varying the imaging geometry; each simulated projection image is shown quickly in an adjoining window. Simulated images with an assigned geometry were compared with the image obtained using the standard geometry in clinical use. The accuracy of the simulated image was verified through comparison with the image acquired using radiography of the head phantom, subsequently processed with a computed radiography system (CR image). Based on correlation coefficient analysis and visual assessment, it was concluded that the CAL program can satisfactorily simulate the CR image. Therefore, it should be useful for the training of head radiography. (author)

  10. Does transitioning from computed radiography (CR) to direct radiography (DR) with portable imaging systems affect workflow efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Raja L.; Roth, Christopher G.; Smith, Elizabeth; Dave, Jaydev K.

    2018-03-01

    In digital radiography, computed radiography (CR) technology is based on latent image capture by storage phosphors whereas direct radiography (DR) technology is based either on indirect conversion using a scintillator or direct conversion using a photoconductor. DR-based portable imaging systems may enhance workflow efficiency. The purpose of this work was to investigate changes in workflow efficiency at a tertiary healthcare center after transitioning from CR to DR technology for imaging with portable x-ray units. An IRB exemption was obtained. Data for all inpatient-radiographs acquired with portable x-ray units from July-2014 till June-2015 (period 1) with CR technology (AMX4 or AMX4+ portable unit from GE Healthcare, NX workstation from Agfa Healthcare for digitization), from July-2015 till June-2016 (period 2) with DR technology (Carestream DRX-Revolution x-ray units and DRX-1C image receptors) and from July-2016 till January-2017 (period 3; same DR technology) were extracted using Centricity RIS-IC (GE Healthcare). Duration between the imaging-examination scheduled time and completed time (timesch-com) was calculated and compared using non-parametric tests (between the three time periods with corrections for multiple comparisons; three time periods were used to identify if there were any other potential temporal trends not related to transitioning from CR to DR). IBM's SPSS package was used for statistical analysis. Overall data was obtained from 33131, 32194, and 18015 cases in periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Independent-Samples Kruskal-Wallis test revealed a statistically significant difference in timesch-com across the three time periods (χ2(2, n= 83,340) = 2053, p < 0.001). The timesch-com was highest for period 1 i.e., radiographs acquired with CR technology (median: 64 minutes) and it decreased significantly for radiographs acquired with DR technology in periods 2 (median: 49 minutes; p < 0.001) and 3 (median∶ 44 minutes; p < 0.001). Overall

  11. Soft Tissue Surgical Procedures for Optimizing Anterior Implant Esthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Andreas L.; Kotsakis, Georgios A.; McHale, Michelle G.; Lareau, Donald E.; Hinrichs, James E.; Romanos, Georgios E.

    2015-01-01

    Implant dentistry has been established as a predictable treatment with excellent clinical success to replace missing or nonrestorable teeth. A successful esthetic implant reconstruction is predicated on two fundamental components: the reproduction of the natural tooth characteristics on the implant crown and the establishment of soft tissue housing that will simulate a healthy periodontium. In order for an implant to optimally rehabilitate esthetics, the peri-implant soft tissues must be preserved and/or augmented by means of periodontal surgical procedures. Clinicians who practice implant dentistry should strive to achieve an esthetically successful outcome beyond just osseointegration. Knowledge of a variety of available techniques and proper treatment planning enables the clinician to meet the ever-increasing esthetic demands as requested by patients. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the implant surgeon's rationale and techniques beyond that of simply placing a functional restoration in an edentulous site to a level whereby an implant-supported restoration is placed in reconstructed soft tissue, so the site is indiscernible from a natural tooth. PMID:26124837

  12. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Moreno, Antonio; Salas, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections are often seen in clinical practice, yet their microbiological diagnosis is among the most complex of laboratory tasks. The diagnosis of a skin and a soft tissue infection is generally based on clinical criteria and not microbiological results. A microbiological diagnosis is reserved for cases in which the etiology of infection is required, e.g., when the infection is particularly severe, when less common microorganisms are suspected as the causative agent (e.g. in immunocompromised patients), when response to antimicrobial treatment is poor, or when a longstanding wound does not heal within a reasonable period of time. We report the indications, sampling and processing techniques, and interpretation criteria for various culture types, including quantitative cultures from biopsy or tissue specimens and semiquantitative and qualitative cultures performed on all types of samples. For non-invasive samples taken from open wounds, application of the Q index to Gram stains is a cost-effective way to standardize sample quality assessment and interpretation of the pathogenic involvement of the different microorganisms isolated from cultures. All these issues are covered in the SEIMC microbiological procedure number 22: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues) (2nd ed., 2006, www.seimc.org/protocolos/microbiologia).

  13. A Novel Nonlinear Parameter Estimation Method of Soft Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Tong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The elastic parameters of soft tissues are important for medical diagnosis and virtual surgery simulation. In this study, we propose a novel nonlinear parameter estimation method for soft tissues. Firstly, an in-house data acquisition platform was used to obtain external forces and their corresponding deformation values. To provide highly precise data for estimating nonlinear parameters, the measured forces were corrected using the constructed weighted combination forecasting model based on a support vector machine (WCFM_SVM. Secondly, a tetrahedral finite element parameter estimation model was established to describe the physical characteristics of soft tissues, using the substitution parameters of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio to avoid solving complicated nonlinear problems. To improve the robustness of our model and avoid poor local minima, the initial parameters solved by a linear finite element model were introduced into the parameter estimation model. Finally, a self-adapting Levenberg–Marquardt (LM algorithm was presented, which is capable of adaptively adjusting iterative parameters to solve the established parameter estimation model. The maximum absolute error of our WCFM_SVM model was less than 0.03 Newton, resulting in more accurate forces in comparison with other correction models tested. The maximum absolute error between the calculated and measured nodal displacements was less than 1.5 mm, demonstrating that our nonlinear parameters are precise.

  14. Reconstruction of soft tissue after complicated calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, E Antti; Kuokkanen, Hannu O M; Koskinen, Seppo K; Tukiainen, Erkki J

    2004-01-01

    A total of 35 flap reconstructions were done to cover exposed calcaneal bones in 31 patients. All patients had calcaneal fractures, 19 of which were primarily open. Soft tissue reconstruction for the closed fractures was indicated by a postoperative wound complication. A microvascular flap was used for reconstruction in 21 operations (gracilis, n = 11; anterolateral thigh, n = 5; rectus abdominis, n = 3; and latissimus dorsi, n = 2). A suralis neurocutaneous flap was used in eight, local muscle flaps in three, and local skin flaps in three cases. The mean follow-up time was 14 months (range 3 months-4 years). One suralis flap failed and was replaced by a latissimus dorsi flap. Necrosis of the edges that required revision affected three flaps. Deep infection developed in two patients and delayed wound healing in another four. During the follow-up the soft tissues healed in all patients and there were no signs of calcaneal osteitis. Flaps were considered too bulky in five patients. Soft tissues heal most rapidly with microvascular flaps. In the long term, gracilis muscle covered with free skin grafts gives a good contour to the foot. The suralis flap is reliable and gives a good final aesthetic outcome. Local muscles can be transposed for reconstruction in small defects.

  15. Soft tissue wound healing around teeth and dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculean, Anton; Gruber, Reinhard; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2014-04-01

    To provide an overview on the biology and soft tissue wound healing around teeth and dental implants. This narrative review focuses on cell biology and histology of soft tissue wounds around natural teeth and dental implants. The available data indicate that: (a) Oral wounds follow a similar pattern. (b) The tissue specificities of the gingival, alveolar and palatal mucosa appear to be innately and not necessarily functionally determined. (c) The granulation tissue originating from the periodontal ligament or from connective tissue originally covered by keratinized epithelium has the potential to induce keratinization. However, it also appears that deep palatal connective tissue may not have the same potential to induce keratinization as the palatal connective tissue originating from an immediately subepithelial area. (d) Epithelial healing following non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy appears to be completed after a period of 7–14 days. Structural integrity of a maturing wound between a denuded root surface and a soft tissue flap is achieved at approximately 14-days post-surgery. (e) The formation of the biological width and maturation of the barrier function around transmucosal implants requires 6–8 weeks of healing. (f) The established peri-implant soft connective tissue resembles a scar tissue in composition, fibre orientation, and vasculature. (g) The peri-implant junctional epithelium may reach a greater final length under certain conditions such as implants placed into fresh extraction sockets versus conventional implant procedures in healed sites. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Thallium-201 scintigraphy for bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuumi, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sunayama, Chiaki; Matsuda, Eizo; Asada, Naohiro; Taki, Junichi; Sumiya, Hisashi; Miyauchi, Tsutomu; Tomita, Katsuro [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of thallium-201 scintigraphy in bone and soft tissue tumors. Pre-therapy scintigraphy was undertaken in a total of 136 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis, consisting of 74 with malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, 39 with benign ones, 12 with diseases analogous to tumors, and 11 others. Thallium activity was graded on a scale of 0-4: 0=background activity, 1=equivocal activity, 2=definitive activity, but less than myocardium, 3=definite activity equal to myocardium, and 4=activity greater than myocardium. In the group of malignant tumors, thallium-201 uptake was found in 80%, although it was low for chondrosarcoma (2/8) and malignant Schwannoma (one/3). The group of benign tumors, however, showed it in only 41%, being restricted to those with giant cell tumors, chondroblastoma, fibromatosis, and osteoid osteoma. Thallium-201 uptake was also found in all 8 patients with metastatic tumors. In 23 patients undergoing thallium imaging before and after chemotherapy, scintigraphic findings revealed a high correlation with histopathological findings. Thus, thallium-201 scintigraphy may be potentially used to distinguish malignant from benign bone and soft tissue tumors, except for a few histopathological cases, as well as to determine loco-regional metastases and response to chemotherapy. (N.K.).

  17. Soft Tissue Masses of Hand: A Radio-Pathological Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Aditi; Prakash, Mahesh; Gupta, Pankaj; Tripathy, Satyaswarup; Kakkar, Nandita; Srinivasan, Radhika; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate soft tissue masses of the hand with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (USG) and to correlate imaging findings with pathological findings. Material and Methods. Thirty-five patients with soft tissue masses of the hand were evaluated with high resolution USG and contrast enhanced MRI of the hand, prospectively over a period of 2.5 years. The radiological diagnosis was then compared with cytology/histopathology. Results. There were a total of 19 (55%) females. The mean age was 27.45 ± 14.7 years. Majority (45%) of cases were heteroechoic. Four cases were predominantly hyperechoic. These were later diagnosed as lipomas. Four cases were anechoic (diagnosed as ganglions). Only four lesions showed hyperintense signal on T1-weighted images. Out of these, 3 were lipomas and one was cavernous haemangioma. Three lesions were hypointense on T2-weighted images. All these lesions were diagnosed as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. A correct diagnosis was possible on MRI in 80% of cases (n = 28). Conclusion. MRI provides specific findings for diagnosis of certain soft tissue lesions of the hand. Ultrasonography allows accurate diagnosis of hemangioma/vascular malformations. However, in most conditions, imaging findings are nonspecific and diagnosis rests on pathologic evaluation

  18. A continuum mechanics constitutive framework for transverse isotropic soft tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, D.; Jérusalem, A.; Garzon-Hernandez, S.; Zaera, R.; Arias, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a continuum constitutive framework for the mechanical modelling of soft tissues that incorporates strain rate and temperature dependencies as well as the transverse isotropy arising from fibres embedded into a soft matrix is developed. The constitutive formulation is based on a Helmholtz free energy function decoupled into the contribution of a viscous-hyperelastic matrix and the contribution of fibres introducing dispersion dependent transverse isotropy. The proposed framework considers finite deformation kinematics, is thermodynamically consistent and allows for the particularisation of the energy potentials and flow equations of each constitutive branch. In this regard, the approach developed herein provides the basis on which specific constitutive models can be potentially formulated for a wide variety of soft tissues. To illustrate this versatility, the constitutive framework is particularised here for animal and human white matter and skin, for which constitutive models are provided. In both cases, different energy functions are considered: Neo-Hookean, Gent and Ogden. Finally, the ability of the approach at capturing the experimental behaviour of the two soft tissues is confirmed.

  19. Pazopanib for the treatment of soft-tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heudel P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Heudel,1 Philippe Cassier,1 Olfa Derbel,1 Armelle Dufresne,1 Pierre Meeus,2 Philippe Thiesse,3 Dominique Ranchère-Vince,4 Jean Yves Blay,1 Isabelle Ray-Coquard1,51Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Surgical Oncology, 3Department of Radiology, 4Department of Pathology, Leon Berard Center, Lyon, 5EAM 4128 Sante-Individu-Societe, Lyon University, Lyon, FranceAbstract: Pazopanib is a multikinase inhibitor which potently inhibits the activity of major receptor tyrosine kinases, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-a, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-a, and c-Kit. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 in the United States for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, pazopanib has been tested in advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma. Unlike other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, a statistically significant efficacy in phase II but also in randomized phase III studies has been shown. In comparison with sunitinib or sorafenib, pazopanib has a similar toxicity profile and is generally well tolerated. This review details the development of this new therapeutic class in the treatment of metastatic soft-tissue sarcomas.Keywords: soft-tissue sarcoma, pazopanib, tyrosine kinase inhibitor

  20. Medical image of the week: necrotizing soft tissue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 70-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease, chronic back pain, and general debilitation presented to the emergency department with complaints of fever, weakness and right buttock discomfort. Physical exam was remarkable for a temperature of 101.7º F, and for moderate erythema of the skin of the right inguinal area and right buttock, with associated tenderness. Laboratory exam was significant for a WBC of 22.7 K/ɥL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 82 mm, and serum creatinine phosphokinase of 2856 U/L. CAT of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated extensive gluteal and perineal soft tissue inflammation with gas formation, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection (Figures 1 and 2. Three basic subsets of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs have been described. Type I infections are the most common form and are characterized by a polymicrobial process typically involving gram positive cocci, gram negative rods, and anaerobes. Type I infections occur ...

  1. A biphasic model for bleeding in soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jui; Chong, Kwitae; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Teran, Joseph; Benharash, Peyman; Dutson, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of blood passing through soft tissues in the body is important for medical applications. The current study aims to capture the effect of tissue swelling and the transport of blood under bleeding or hemorrhaging conditions. The soft tissue is considered as a non-static poro-hyperelastic material with liquid-filled voids. A biphasic formulation effectively, a generalization of Darcy's law-is utilized, treating the phases as occupying fractions of the same volume. The interaction between phases is captured through a Stokes-like friction force on their relative velocities and a pressure that penalizes deviations from volume fractions summing to unity. The soft tissue is modeled as a hyperelastic material with a typical J-shaped stress-strain curve, while blood is considered as a Newtonian fluid. The method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics is used to discretize the conservation equations based on the ease of treating free surfaces in the liquid. Simulations of swelling under acute hemorrhage and of draining under gravity and compression will be demonstrated. Ongoing progress in modeling of organ tissues under injuries and surgical conditions will be discussed.

  2. THE POTENTIAL VALUE OF ULTRASOUND IN DIAGNOSIS OF SOFT TISSUE SARCOMA (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Frolova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature data on the potential value of ultrasound imaging in diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma were analyzed. Ultrasound in B-regime was used to assess the extent of soft tissue sarcoma, Doppler ultrasonography was used to study tumor vascularization and sonoelastography was useful to differentiate benign from malignant tumors of soft tissues. The analysis of diagnostic value of ultrasound in detection of soft tissue lesions was carried out.  Criteria characterizing various histological types of tumors were identified.

  3. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray radiography is a very common technique used to check the homogeneity of a material or the inside of a mechanical part. Generally the radiation that goes through the material to check, produced an image on a sensitized film. This method requires time because the film needs to be developed, digital radiography has no longer this inconvenient. In digital radiography the film is replaced by digital data and can be processed as any computer file. This new technique is promising but its main inconvenient is that today its resolution is not so good as that of film radiography. (A.C.)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of soft-tissue metastases: our experience at an orthopedic oncology center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammon, Jennifer; Jain, Abhishek; Bleakney, Robert; Mohankumar, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of metastasis presenting as a soft-tissue mass. A retrospective chart review was performed on 51 patients who presented to an orthopedic oncology center with soft-tissue masses, with a histology-proven diagnosis of soft-tissue metastasis, over a 14-year period. Their magnetic resonance imaging, primary origin, and follow-up have been assessed. Soft-tissue metastasis was identified in patients ranging from 18 to 85 years old. Most (80%) of the masses were located deep to the deep fascia. In our cohort of patients, melanoma was the most common primary malignancy contributing to soft-tissue metastasis (21.8%). Among soft-tissue metastasis from solid organs, breast and lung were the most frequent (9.1% each). Five patients had soft-tissue metastases from an unknown primary. Imaging diagnosis of soft-tissue metastases is challenging as it can demonstrate imaging appearances similar to primary soft-tissue sarcoma. The presence of a known malignancy may not be evident in everyone, and even if available, histopathology will be necessary for diagnosis if this is the only site of recurrence/metastasis to differentiate from a primary soft-tissue sarcoma. Moreover, soft-tissue metastasis may be the initial presentation of a malignancy. Primary malignancies with soft-tissue metastasis carry a poor prognosis; hence, prompt diagnosis and management in essential. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of soft-tissue metastases: our experience at an orthopedic oncology center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammon, Jennifer; Jain, Abhishek; Bleakney, Robert; Mohankumar, Rakesh [Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    To assess the prevalence and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of metastasis presenting as a soft-tissue mass. A retrospective chart review was performed on 51 patients who presented to an orthopedic oncology center with soft-tissue masses, with a histology-proven diagnosis of soft-tissue metastasis, over a 14-year period. Their magnetic resonance imaging, primary origin, and follow-up have been assessed. Soft-tissue metastasis was identified in patients ranging from 18 to 85 years old. Most (80%) of the masses were located deep to the deep fascia. In our cohort of patients, melanoma was the most common primary malignancy contributing to soft-tissue metastasis (21.8%). Among soft-tissue metastasis from solid organs, breast and lung were the most frequent (9.1% each). Five patients had soft-tissue metastases from an unknown primary. Imaging diagnosis of soft-tissue metastases is challenging as it can demonstrate imaging appearances similar to primary soft-tissue sarcoma. The presence of a known malignancy may not be evident in everyone, and even if available, histopathology will be necessary for diagnosis if this is the only site of recurrence/metastasis to differentiate from a primary soft-tissue sarcoma. Moreover, soft-tissue metastasis may be the initial presentation of a malignancy. Primary malignancies with soft-tissue metastasis carry a poor prognosis; hence, prompt diagnosis and management in essential. (orig.)

  6. MR imaging of soft tissue tumors and tumor-like lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laor, Tal [Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, 45229, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of a soft tissue mass in a child should proceed with a differential diagnosis in mind, based on the clinical history, age of the child, and location of the abnormality. Small, superficial masses can be initially evaluated with sonography. More extensive or deep lesions usually require cross-sectional imaging. With the exception of myositis ossificans, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has largely replaced the use of computed tomography. MR imaging is used to delineate the extent of a lesion, to evaluate response to therapy, and to monitor postoperative complications. There is great overlap in the MR imaging characteristics of benign and malignant lesions, making tissue sampling imperative for diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Computed and conventional chest radiography: a comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, K.; Abdullah, B.J.J.; Ng, K-H.; Hussain, A.F.; Mahmud, R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the image quality and entrance skin dose (ESD) for film-screen and computed chest radiography. Analysis of the image quality and dose on chest radiography was carried out on a conventional X-ray unit using film-screen, storage phosphor plates and selenium drum direct chest radiography. For each receptor, ESD was measured in 60 patients using thermoluminescent dosemeters. Images were printed on 35 x 43 cm films. Image quality was assessed subjectively by evaluation of anatomic features and estimation of the image quality, following the guidelines established by the protocols of the Commission of the European Communities. There was no statistically significant difference noted between the computed and conventional images (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P>0.05). Imaging of the mediastinum and peripheral lung structures were better visualized with the storage phosphor and selenium drum technique than with the film-screen combination. The patients' mean ESD for chest radiography using the storage phosphor, film-screen combination and selenium drum was 0.20, 0.20 and 0.25 mGy, respectively, with no statistically significant difference with P > 0.05 (χ 2 tests) Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  8. Angiofibroma of soft tissue: clinicopathologic study of 2 cases of a recently characterized benign soft tissue tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Sun, Ke; Li, Changshui; Zheng, Jiangjiang; Yu, Jingjing; Jin, Jie; Xia, Wenping

    2013-01-01

    Angiofibroma of soft tissue is a very recently characterized, histologically distinctive benign mesenchymal neoplasm of unknown cellular origin composed of 2 principal components, the spindle cell component and very prominent stromal vasculatures. It usually occurs in middle-aged adults, with a female predominance. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathologic details of 2 other examples of this benign tumor. Both patients were middle-aged male and presented with a slow-growing, painless mass located in the deep-seated soft tissue of thigh and left posterior neck region, respectively. Grossly, both tumors were well-demarcated, partial encapsulated of a grayish-white color with firm consistence. Histologically, one case showed morphology otherwise identical to those have been described before, whereas the other case showed in areas being more cellular than most examples of this subtype tumor had, with the lesional cells frequently exhibiting short fascicular, vaguely storiform and occasionally swirling arrangements, which posed a challenging differential diagnosis. Immunostains performed on both tumors did not confirm any specific cell differentiation with lesional cells only reactive for vimentin and focally desmin and negative for all the other markers tested. This report serves to broaden the morphologic spectrum of angiofibroma of soft tumor. Awareness of this tumor is important to prevent misdiagnosis as other more aggressive soft tissue tumor.

  9. Simplified techniques of cerebral angiography using a mobile X-ray unit and computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondo, Gakuji; Ishiwata, Yusuke; Yamashita, Toshinori; Iida, Takashi; Moro, Yutaka

    1989-01-01

    Simplified techniques of cerebral angiography using a mobile X-ray unit and computed radiography (CR) are discussed. Computed radiography is a digital radiography system in which an imaging plate is used as an X-ray detector and a final image is displayed on the film. In the angiograms performed with CR, the spatial frequency components can be enhanced for the easy analysis of fine blood vessels. Computed radiography has an automatic sensitivity and a latitude-setting mechanism, thus serving as an 'automatic camera.' This mechanism is useful for radiography with a mobile X-ray unit in hospital wards, intensive care units, or operating rooms where the appropriate setting of exposure conditions is difficult. We applied this mechanism to direct percutaneous carotid angiography and intravenous digital subtraction angiography with a mobile X-ray unit. Direct percutaneous carotid angiography using CR and a mobile X-ray unit were taken after the manual injection of a small amount of a contrast material through a fine needle. We performed direct percutaneous carotid angiography with this method 68 times on 25 cases from August 1986 to December 1987. Of the 68 angiograms, 61 were evaluated as good, compared with conventional angiography. Though the remaining seven were evaluated as poor, they were still diagnostically effective. This method is found useful for carotid angiography in emergency rooms, intensive care units, or operating rooms. Cerebral venography using CR and a mobile X-ray unit was done after the manual injection of a contrast material through the bilateral cubital veins. The cerebral venous system could be visualized from 16 to 24 seconds after the beginning of the injection of the contrast material. We performed cerebral venography with this method 14 times on six cases. These venograms were better than conventional angiograms in all cases. This method may be useful in managing patients suffering from cerebral venous thrombosis. (J.P.N.)

  10. Analyze image quality and comparative study between conventional and computed radiography applied to the inspection of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Silva, Aline S.S.; Nascimento, Joseilson R.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    Piping system design takes into account relevant factors such as: internal coating, dimensioning, vibration system, adequate supports and principally, piping material. Cost is a decisive factor in the phase of material selection. The non-destructive testing method most commonly employed in industry to analyze the structure of an object is radiographic testing. Computed radiography (CR) is a quicker and much more efficient alternative to conventional radiography but, although CR presents numerous advantages, testing procedures are still largely based on trial and error, due to the lack of a consecrated methodology to choose parameters as it exists for conventional radiography. Notwithstanding, this paper presents a study that uses the technique of computed radiography to analyze metal alloys. These metal alloys are used as internal pipe coating aiming to protect against corrosion and cracks. This study seeks to evaluate parameters such as basic spatial resolution, Normalized Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNRN), contrast, intensity and also to compare conventional radiography with CR. (author)

  11. Interventions for preventing lower limb soft-tissue running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S; Yeung, Ella W; Gillespie, Lesley D

    2011-07-06

    Overuse soft-tissue injuries occur frequently in runners. Stretching exercises, modification of training schedules, and the use of protective devices such as braces and insoles are often advocated for prevention. This is an update of a review first published in 2001. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (March 2011); The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4; MEDLINE (1966 to January 2011); EMBASE (1980 to January 2011); and international trial registries (17 January 2011). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating interventions to prevent lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias (relating to sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data) and extracted data. Data were adjusted for clustering if necessary and pooled using the fixed-effect model when appropriate. We included 25 trials (30,252 participants). Participants were military recruits (19 trials), runners from the general population (three trials), soccer referees (one trial), and prisoners (two trials). The interventions tested in the included trials fell into four main preventive strategies: exercises, modification of training schedules, use of orthoses, and footwear and socks. All 25 included trials were judged as 'unclear' or 'high' risk of bias for at least one of the four domains listed above.We found no evidence that stretching reduces lower limb soft-tissue injuries (6 trials; 5130 participants; risk ratio [RR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.65 to 1.12). As with all non-significant results, this is compatible with either a reduction or an increase in soft-tissue injuries. We found no evidence to support a training regimen of conditioning exercises to improve strength, flexibility and coordination (one trial; 1020 participants; RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.87).We found no

  12. Flash X-Ray Apparatus With Spectrum Control Functions For Medical Use And Fuji Computed Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, H.; Sato, E.; Hayasi, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Arima, H.; Hoshino, F.

    1985-02-01

    Flash radiographic bio-medical studies at sub-microsecond intervals were performed by using both a new type of flash X-ray(FX) apparatus with spectrum control functions and Fuji Computed Radiography(FCR). This single flasher tends to have a comparatively long exposure time and the electric pulse width of the FX wave form is about 0.3,usec. The maximum FX dose is about 50mR at 1m per pulse, and the effective focal spot varies according to condenser charging voltage, A-C distance, etc., ranging from 1.0 to 3.0mm in diameter, but in the low dose rate region it can be reduced to less than 1.0mm in diameter. The FX dose is determined by the condenser charging voltage and the A-C distance, while the FX spectrum is determined by the average voltage of the FX tube and filters. Various clear FX images were obtained by controlling the spectrum and dose. FCR is a new storage medium for medical radiography developed by the Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. and this apparatus has various image forming functions: low dose radiography, film density control, image contrast control, subtraction management and others. We have used this new apparatus in conjunction with our FX radiography and have obtained some new and interesting biomedical radiograms: the edge enhancement image, the instantaneous enlarged image, and the single exposure energy subtraction image using the FX spectrum distribution.

  13. Phosphorus MRS study in bone and soft-tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangke; Jiang Baoguo

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the metabolite changes in bone and soft-tissue tumors using phosphorus MRS for better understanding of the phospholipid metabolite and energy metabolite of tumors, which will provide more information for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Methods: Phosphorus MRS and MRI were performed in 14 bone and soft-tissue tumor patients (benign 6, malignant 8) and 19 healthy volunteers at 2.0 T. The areas under the peak of various metabolite in spectra were measured. The ratios of the other metabolite related to β-ATP, ATP, and Pcr were calculated. Intracellular pH was calculated according to the chemical shift change of Pi relative to Pcr. Results: The ratio of PME/β-ATP, PME/ATP, Pcr/PME in both benign and malignant group, intracellular pH in malignant group and LEP/Pcr in benign group were higher than that of the normal group significantly (P < 0.01). the ratios of Pi/Pcr in benign and malignant group, PDE/ATP, PDE/β-ATP, LET/Pcr, Pi/β-ATP in malignant group and LET/β-ATP in benign group were significantly different from that of the normal group (P < 0.05). Between benign and malignant tumors group, the ratios of Pcr/PME and Intracellular pH were different significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The in vivo phosphorus MRS can non-invasively find abnormal phospholipid metabolite, energy metabolite and pH changes in bone and soft tissue tumors

  14. Histologic response of soft tissue sarcoma to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, C.G.; Schiller, A.L.; Suit, H.D.; Mankin, H.J.; Rosenberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with soft tissue sarcoma had preoperative radiotherapy, limb-sparing marginal surgical resection and whole-mount tumor histologic analysis. Incisional biopsy specimens before radiotherapy were reviewed for tumor type, grade, and extent of necrosis. Preoperative radiotherapy was given in either of two regimens: 13 patients received a mean total dose of 5250 cGy in one daily 180 to 200 cGy fractions and 14 patients a mean total dose of 4770 cGy in two daily fractions of 180 to 200 cGy separated by 4 hours. Twenty-one specimens had at least 80% necrosis or severely altered cells, a 3+ to 4+ response. Grade and size of the tumor appeared to be indicators of response to treatment rather than histologic type. Three of five patients (60%) with Grade 1, eight of 11 patients (73%) with Grade 2 lesions, and ten of 11 patients (91%) with Grade 3 tumors had 80% or greater necrosis or severely altered cells. For tumors 10 cm or less in greatest diameter, the 3+ to 4+ histologic response was seen in 12 of 14 patients (86%) whereas for lesions greater than 10 cm, this response was observed in nine of 13 patients (69%). For patients with Grade 2 or 3 soft tissue sarcoma, 13 of 14 patients (93%) treated with two fractions per day and two of four patients (50%) receiving one fraction per day exhibited significant response. All six patients treated twice daily for lesions greater than 10 cm had 3+ to 4+ histologic response compared to three of seven (43%) patients treated once per day. Therefore, grade and size of soft tissue sarcoma are important predictors of response to radiotherapy and preoperative twice daily radiotherapy may more likely permit the conservative surgical excision of sarcomas of borderline resectability

  15. Histologic assessment of peritumoral edema in soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Lawrence M.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Catton, Charles; Ferguson, Peter; Blackstein, Martin; Kandel, Rita A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether satellite tumor cells can be identified histologically in the tissues surrounding a soft tissue sarcoma and whether their presence correlates with increased T 2 -weighted signal intensity on MRI. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with a high-grade extremity or truncal soft tissue sarcoma underwent preoperative MRI. The extent of high T 2 -weighted signal changes in the tissues surrounding tumor, thought to represent peritumoral edema/reactive changes, was determined. Twelve patients received i.v. gadolinium, and contrast enhancement was determined. All patients underwent surgical resection in the absence of preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The presence of tumor cells in the surrounding tissues was determined histologically in representative paraffin-embedded sections and correlated with the MRI findings. Results: The extent of peritumoral T 2 -weighted MRI signal changes ranged from 0 to 7.1 cm (mean, 2.5 cm); contrast enhancement ranged from 0 to 5.3 cm (mean, 1.1 cm). Sarcoma cells were identified histologically in the tissues beyond the tumor in 10 of 15 cases. In 6 cases, tumor cells were located within 1 cm of the tumor margin, and in 4 cases, malignant cells were found at a distance >1 cm and up to a maximum of 4 cm. The location of tumor cells beyond the margin did not correlate with tumor size nor did it correlate with the location or extent of peritumoral changes. Conclusion: The ability to identify tumor cells beyond the margin of a soft tissue sarcoma has important implications in planning appropriate targets for treatment. This could influence the use of new radiotherapy technologies such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy that aim to minimize treatment volumes through conformal planning

  16. Does the ratio and thickness of prevertebral soft tissue provide benefit in blunt cervical spine injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, J-P; Chin, C-C; Yeh, C-N; Chen, J-F; Lee, S-T; Fang, J-F; Liao, C-C

    2013-06-01

    Although many reports advocate computed tomography (CT) as the initial surveillance tool for occult cervical spine injury (CSI) at the emergency department (ED), the role of a lateral cervical spine radiograph (LCSX) has still not been replaced. We hypothesized that the increased width of the prevertebral soft tissue on an LCSX provides helpful information for selecting the high-risk patients who need to be evaluated with more accurate diagnostic tools. This was a retrospective and consecutive series of injured patients requiring cervical spine evaluation who were first imaged with three-view plain films at the ED. The prevertebral soft tissue thickness (PVST) and ratio of prevertebral soft tissue thickness to the cervical vertebrae diameter (PVST ratio) were calculated on the LCSX. Suspicion of CSI was confirmed by either CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. A total of 826 adult trauma patients requiring cervical spine evaluation were enrolled. The C3 PVST and PVST ratio were significantly different between patients with or without upper cervical area injury (UCAI, 8.64 vs. 5.49 mm, and 0.394 vs. 0.276, respectively), and, likewise, the C6 PVST and PVST ratio for patients with or without lower cervical area injury (LCAI, 16.89 vs. 14.66 mm, and 0.784 vs. 0.749, respectively). The specificity was greater than 90 % in predicting UCAI and LCAI when combining these two parameters. This method maximizes the usefulness of LCSX during the initial assessment of a conscious patient with blunt head and neck injury, especially for the identification of high-risk patients requiring prompt CT or MRI; on the other hand, it prevents the overuse of these high-cost imaging studies as initial diagnostic tools.

  17. Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Bevacizumab and Radiotherapy for Resectable Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sam S.; Duda, Dan G.; Karl, Daniel L.; Kim, Tae-Min; Kambadakone, Avinash R.; Chen, Yen-Lin; Rothrock, Courtney; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Nielsen, G. Petur; Kirsch, David G.; Choy, Edwin; Harmon, David C.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Dreyfuss, Jonathan; Ancukiewicz, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated that angiogenesis inhibitors can increase the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). We sought to examine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab (BV) and RT in soft tissue sarcomas and explore biomarkers to help determine the treatment response. Methods and Materials: Patients with ≥5 cm, intermediate- or high-grade soft tissue sarcomas at significant risk of local recurrence received neoadjuvant BV alone followed by BV plus RT before surgical resection. Correlative science studies included analysis of the serial blood and tumor samples and serial perfusion computed tomography scans. Results: The 20 patients had a median tumor size of 8.25 cm, with 13 extremity, 1 trunk, and 6 retroperitoneal/pelvis tumors. The neoadjuvant treatment was well tolerated, with only 4 patients having Grade 3 toxicities (hypertension, liver function test elevation). BV plus RT resulted in ≥80% pathologic necrosis in 9 (45%) of 20 tumors, more than double the historical rate seen with RT alone. Three patients had a complete pathologic response. The median microvessel density decreased 53% after BV alone (p <.05). After combination therapy, the median tumor cell proliferation decreased by 73%, apoptosis increased 10.4-fold, and the blood flow, blood volume, and permeability surface area decreased by 62–72% (p <.05). Analysis of gene expression microarrays of untreated tumors identified a 24-gene signature for treatment response. The microvessel density and circulating progenitor cells at baseline and the reduction in microvessel density and plasma soluble c-KIT with BV therapy also correlated with a good pathologic response (p <.05). After a median follow-up of 20 months, only 1 patient had developed local recurrence. Conclusions: The results from the present exploratory study indicated that BV increases the efficacy of RT against soft tissue sarcomas and might reduce the incidence of local recurrence. Thus, this regimen warrants

  18. Quantitative dynamic ¹⁸FDG-PET and tracer kinetic analysis of soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusten, Espen; Rødal, Jan; Revheim, Mona E; Skretting, Arne; Bruland, Oyvind S; Malinen, Eirik

    2013-08-01

    To study soft tissue sarcomas using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog tracer [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)FDG), to investigate correlations between derived PET image parameters and clinical characteristics, and to discuss implications of dynamic PET acquisition (D-PET). D-PET images of 11 patients with soft tissue sarcomas were analyzed voxel-by-voxel using a compartment tracer kinetic model providing estimates of transfer rates between the vascular, non-metabolized, and metabolized compartments. Furthermore, standard uptake values (SUVs) in the early (2 min p.i.; SUVE) and late (45 min p.i.; SUVL) phases of the PET acquisition were obtained. The derived transfer rates K1, k2 and k3, along with the metabolic rate of (18)FDG (MRFDG) and the vascular fraction νp, was fused with the computed tomography (CT) images for visual interpretation. Correlations between D-PET imaging parameters and clinical parameters, i.e. tumor size, grade and clinical status, were calculated with a significance level of 0.05. The temporal uptake pattern of (18)FDG in the tumor varied considerably from patient to patient. SUVE peak was higher than SUVL peak for four patients. The images of the rate constants showed a systematic pattern, often with elevated intensity in the tumors compared to surrounding tissue. Significant correlations were found between SUVE/L and some of the rate parameters. Dynamic (18)FDG-PET may provide additional valuable information on soft tissue sarcomas not obtainable from conventional (18)FDG-PET. The prognostic role of dynamic imaging should be investigated.

  19. Fine tuning of work practices of common radiological investigations performed using computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, Roshan S.; Timothy Peace, B.S.; Sunny, S.; Victor Raj, D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The advent of the computed radiography (CR) has brought about remarkable changes in the field of diagnostic radiology. A relatively large cross-section of the human population is exposed to ionizing radiation on account of common radiological investigations. This study is intended to audit radiation doses imparted to patients during common radiological investigations involving the use of CR systems. Method: The entrance surface doses (ESD) were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for various radiological investigations performed using the computed radiography (CR) systems. Optimization of radiographic techniques and radiation doses was done by fine tuning the work practices. Results and conclusion: Reduction of radiation doses as high as 47% was achieved during certain investigations with the use of optimized exposure factors and fine-tuned work practices

  20. Cone beam computed tomography and intraoral radiography for diagnosis of dental abnormalities in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roza, Marcello R.; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda S.; Silva, Luiz Antonio F.; Barriviera, Mauricio; Januario, Alessandro L.; Bezerra, Ana Cristina B.

    2011-01-01

    The development of veterinary dentistry has substantially improved the ability to diagnose canine and feline dental abnormalities. Consequently, examinations previously performed only on humans are now available for small animals, thus improving the diagnostic quality. This has increased the need for technical qualification of veterinary professionals and increased technological investments. This study evaluated the use of cone beam computed tomography and intraoral radiography as complementary exams for diagnosing dental abnormalities in dogs and cats. Cone beam computed tomography was provided faster image acquisition with high image quality, was associated with low ionizing radiation levels, enabled image editing, and reduced the exam duration. Our results showed that radiography was an effective method for dental radiographic examination with low cost and fast execution times, and can be performed during surgical procedures

  1. Computerized tomography in bone and soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Yasushi; Kaneta, Koichi; Kawaguchi, Tomoyoshi; Wada, Shigehito; Matsumoto, Seiichi

    1982-01-01

    The contribution to pretreatment evaluation and surgical planning of 238 CT image of bone and soft tissue lesions was evaluated. Their accuracy was studied by careful postoperative examination of gross surgical specimens and histologic sections. CT was helpful in delineating the anatomic extent of lesions and, therefore, in planning the appropriate resection. CT was of little help in confirming or detecting residual or recurrent tumor after prior resection. CT was not accurate or helpful in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions when the clinical presentation and roentgenographic findings were confusing. (author)

  2. Unexpected complication associated with balneotherapy: Skin and soft tissue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alım, Bülent; Bostancı, Fahrettin; Servi, M. Alperen; Ćetinel, Sinan; Bingöl, M. Ozan

    2017-04-01

    Balneotherapy cure is an ongoing process, but patients can benefit most when cure is complete. For these reason, patients should be closely monitored and necessary precautions should be taken in terms of the complications that may occur in order to prevent the interruption or discontinuation of balneotherapy. Here, we wanted to represent a case that developed left leg soft tissue infection during the application of balneotherapy and because of this reason we stopped the balneotherapy As a result, when balneotherapy is planned for patients with risk factors such as diabetes and obesity, frequent examination of the skin and the application of skin moisturizers will be beneficial to prevent itching and skin dryness.

  3. Immunoglobulin G for patients with necrotising soft tissue infection (INSTINCT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin B.; Hjortrup, Peter B.; Hansen, Marco B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the INSTINCT trial was to assess the effect of intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin G (IVIG) compared with placebo on self-reported physical function in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI). Methods: We randomised 100 patients...... with NSTI 1:1 to masked infusion of 25 g of IVIG (Privigen, CSL Behring) or an equal volume of 0.9% saline once daily for the first 3 days of ICU admission. The primary outcome was the physical component summary (PCS) score of the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) 6 months after randomisation...

  4. Delayed reconstruction of mangled lower extremities: soft tissue management

    OpenAIRE

    Tiftikçioğlu, Yiğit Özer; Erçin, Burak Sercan; Erdem, Mehmet; Biçer, Ahmet; Özkayın, Nadir; Özek, Cüneyt

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to propose a new, practical and versatile algorithm for the management of traumatic lower limb soft tissue wounds for patients who did not undergo early reconstruction.Materials and methods: A total of 81 patients (54 males, 27 females; mean age 37.1 years; range 11 to 64 years) managed due to complex lower limb injuries at our institution between January 2008 and December 2012 were analyzed retrospectively in this study. Age and gender of the patients, type of tra...

  5. Finite-element modeling of soft tissue rolling indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangpradit, Kiattisak; Liu, Hongbin; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal D

    2011-12-01

    We describe a finite-element (FE) model for simulating wheel-rolling tissue deformations using a rolling FE model (RFEM). A wheeled probe performing rolling tissue indentation has proven to be a promising approach for compensating for the loss of haptic and tactile feedback experienced during robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (H. Liu, D. P. Noonan, B. J. Challacombe, P. Dasgupta, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Rolling mechanical imaging for tissue abnormality localization during minimally invasive surgery, " IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 404-414, Feb. 2010; K. Sangpradit, H. Liu, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Tissue identification using inverse finite element analysis of rolling indentation," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , Kobe, Japan, 2009, pp. 1250-1255; H. Liu, D. Noonan, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "The rolling approach for soft tissue modeling and mechanical imaging during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2008, pp. 845-850; H. Liu, P. Puangmali, D. Zbyszewski, O. Elhage, P. Dasgupta, J. S. Dai, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "An indentation depth-force sensing wheeled probe for abnormality identification during minimally invasive surgery," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H, vol. 224, no. 6, pp. 751-63, 2010; D. Noonan, H. Liu, Y. Zweiri, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "A dual-function wheeled probe for tissue viscoelastic property identification during minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , 2008, pp. 2629-2634; H. Liu, J. Li, Q. I. Poon, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Miniaturized force indentation-depth sensor for tissue abnormality identification," IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2010, pp. 3654-3659). A sound understanding of wheel-tissue rolling interaction dynamics will facilitate the evaluation of signals from rolling indentation. In this paper, we model the dynamic interactions between a wheeled probe and a

  6. MR characterization of post-irradiation soft tissue edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.L.; Zink-Brody, G.C.; Patten, R.M.; Koh Wuijin; Conrad, E.U.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. Radiation therapy is often used to treat bone und soft tissue neoplasms, and commonly results in soft tissue edema in the radiation field. However, the time course, distribution and degree of this edema have not been well characterized. Our study was carried out to better define these features of the edema seen following neutron and photon radiation therapy. Results. In general, soft tissue signal intensity in the radiation field initially increased over time, peaking at about 6 months for neutron-treated patients and at about 12-18 months for photon-treated patients. Signal intensity then decreased slowly over time. However, at the end of the follow-up period, signal intensity remained elevated for most patients in both groups. Signal intensity in a particular tissue was greater and tended to persist longer on STIR sequences than on T2-weighted sequences. Survival analysis of signal intensity demonstrated much longer edema survival times for neutron-treated patients than for photon-treated patients. Signal intensity increase in the intramuscular septa persisted for much longer than for fat or muscle. A mild increase in size was noted in the subcutaneous fat and intramuscular septa. Muscle, on the other hand, showed a decrease in size following treatment. This was mild for the photon-treated group and more marked for the neutron-treated group. Conclusions. There is a relatively wide variation in the duration and degree of post-irradiation edema in soft tissues. This edema seems to persist longer in the intramuscular septa than in fat or muscle. Although the duration of follow-up was limited, our study suggests that this edema resolves in roughly half the photon-treated patients within 2-3 years post-treatment and in less than 20% of neutron-treated patients by 3-4 years post-treatment. Muscle atrophy was seen in both photon- and neutron-treated patients, but was more severe in the neutron-treated group. (orig./vhe). With 4 figs

  7. MRI findings of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Demao; Meng Quanfei; Chen Yinming; Zhou Chunxiang; Gao Zhenhua; Yang Zheng; Wang Liantang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe MR findings in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the soft tissue. Methods: MR manifestations of 11 cases of IMT of the soft tissue were retrospectively analyzed, and the MR findings were correlated with surgical and histological results. Results: The pathological classification of the tumors was type I in 1 case, type II in 4 cases, mainly type II admixed with type I in 3 cases, and mainly type II admixed with type III in 3 eases. In 4 cases with primary tumor, the tumors were spheroid in shape, with well-defined margin and pseudocapsule. In 2 eases with primary axillary tumor and 5 cases with recurrent tumor, the tumors were irregular in shape, with ill-defined margin and invasion of adjacent structures. The tumors were mainly isointensive in T 1 -weighted images. Tumors of different pathological classifications had different signal intensities in T 2 -weighted images: 1 case of type I tumor was bright; 4 cases of type II tumor and 3 cases of type II tumor admixed with type I tumor were slightly bright; 3 cases of type II tumor admixed with type III were isointense or slightly hypointense in signal. All of the 11 cases in the study exhibited 'pitaya cross-section sign' in T 2 -weighted sequence, which referred to discrete punctuate foci of relatively hypointensity in the background of hyperintensity, slightly hypointensity or isointensity. All of the 11 cases exhibited inhomogeneously significant enhancement after gadolinium administration. In the follow-up of the 6 eases of primary tumor, 4 cases had recurrence, 1 case had no recurrence, and 1 case was lost in the follow-up process. In the follow-up of the 5 cases of recurrent tumor, 4 cases showed recurrence again, and 3 cases were lost in the follow-up process. Conclusions: The IMT of the soft tissue has characteristic MR features. The signal intensity of the tumor on T2-weighted sequence could reflect the pathological type of the tumor' to some extent. 'pitaya cross

  8. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M. B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.

    2018-01-01

    these to patient-important outcomes. With this protocol and statistical analysis plan we describe the methods used to obtain data and the details of the planned analyses. Methods: The INFECT study is a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study. Patients with NSTIs are enrolled in five Scandinavian......Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating...

  9. Computerized tomography in bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isobe, Yasushi; Kaneta, Koichi; Kawaguchi, Tomoyoshi; Wada, Shigehito; Matsumoto, Seiichi (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo. Hospital)

    1982-11-01

    The contribution to pretreatment evaluation and surgical planning of 238 CT image of bone and soft tissue lesions was evaluated. Their accuracy was studied by careful postoperative examination of gross surgical specimens and histologic sections. CT was helpful in delineating the anatomic extent of lesions and, therefore, in planning the appropriate resection. CT was of little help in confirming or detecting residual or recurrent tumor after prior resection. CT was not accurate or helpful in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions when the clinical presentation and roentgenographic findings were confusing.

  10. Automatic measurement system for congenital hip dislocation using a computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, M.; Minato, K.; Hirakawa, A.; Kuwahara, M.

    1988-01-01

    Acetabular angle which is a diagnostic parameter of congenital hip dislocation has been measured manually in conventional X-ray film system. Using digital image directly provided from a computed radiography, an automatic measurement system was developed for this parameter. The process of the measurement was completed within a reasonable time, and accurate enough. The system was combined with an image database, so that it would be a measurement tool of PACS

  11. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shoichi

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, from an historic point of view, fundamental concepts on digital imaging were reviewed to provide a foundation for discussion of digital radiography. Secondly, this review summarized the results of ongoing research in computed radiography that replaces the conventional film-screen system with a photo-stimulable phosphor plate; and thirdly, image quality, radiation protection, and image processing techniques were discussed with emphasis on picture archiving and communication system environment as our final goal. Finally, future expansion of digital radiography was described based on the present utilization of computed tomography at the National Defense Medical College Hospital. (author) 60 refs

  12. A comparison of numerical methods used for finite element modelling of soft tissue deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Pathmanathan, P

    2009-05-01

    Soft tissue deformation is often modelled using incompressible non-linear elasticity, with solutions computed using the finite element method. There are a range of options available when using the finite element method, in particular the polynomial degree of the basis functions used for interpolating position and pressure, and the type of element making up the mesh. The effect of these choices on the accuracy of the computed solution is investigated, using a selection of model problems motivated by typical deformations seen in soft tissue modelling. Model problems are set up with discontinuous material properties (as is the case for the breast), steeply changing gradients in the body force (as found in contracting cardiac tissue), and discontinuous first derivatives in the solution at the boundary, caused by a discontinuous applied force (as in the breast during mammography). It was found that the choice of pressure basis functions is vital in the presence of a material interface, higher-order schemes do not perform as well as may be expected when there are sharp gradients, and in general it is important to take the expected regularity of the solution into account when choosing a numerical scheme. © IMechE 2009.

  13. A comparison of numerical methods used for finite element modelling of soft tissue deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Pathmanathan, P; Gavaghan, D; Whiteley, J

    2009-01-01

    Soft tissue deformation is often modelled using incompressible non-linear elasticity, with solutions computed using the finite element method. There are a range of options available when using the finite element method, in particular the polynomial degree of the basis functions used for interpolating position and pressure, and the type of element making up the mesh. The effect of these choices on the accuracy of the computed solution is investigated, using a selection of model problems motivated by typical deformations seen in soft tissue modelling. Model problems are set up with discontinuous material properties (as is the case for the breast), steeply changing gradients in the body force (as found in contracting cardiac tissue), and discontinuous first derivatives in the solution at the boundary, caused by a discontinuous applied force (as in the breast during mammography). It was found that the choice of pressure basis functions is vital in the presence of a material interface, higher-order schemes do not perform as well as may be expected when there are sharp gradients, and in general it is important to take the expected regularity of the solution into account when choosing a numerical scheme. © IMechE 2009.

  14. Computed tomography and plain radiography in experimental fracture healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, E.M.; Goldstein, S.A.; Ku, J.; Smith, P.; Matthews, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the relative contribution of plain radiographs and computed tomography to the assessment of fracture healing under experimental circumstances. In 15 sheep, we performed midshaft femoral osteotomies and internal fixation of the resultant segmental fractures. Radiographs were obtained preoperatively and immediately postoperatively. Animals were sacrificed at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and 36 weeks after surgery, and the femoral specimens radiographed. After removal of the internal fixation devices, computed tomographic scans of the specimens were performed. Computed tomography may be of value in the evaluation of fractures of long bones in those cases in which clinical examination and plain radiographs fail to give adequate information as to the status of healing. (orig./SHA)

  15. Computed tomography angiography reveals stenosis and aneurysmal dilation of an aberrant right subclavian artery causing systemic blood pressure misreading in an old Pekinese dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Eom, Kidong; Yoon, Hakyoung

    2017-06-16

    A 14-year-old dog weighing 4 kg presented with hypotension only in the right forelimb. Thoracic radiography revealed a round soft tissue opacity near the aortic arch and below the second thoracic vertebra on a lateral view. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography clearly revealed stenosis and aneurysmal dilation of an aberrant right subclavian artery. Stenosis and aneurysm of an aberrant subclavian artery should be included as a differential diagnosis in dogs showing a round soft tissue opacity near the aortic arch and below the thoracic vertebra on the lateral thoracic radiograph.

  16. Trabectedin for Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Erlinda M; Sankhala, K Kumar; Chawla, Neal; Chawla, Sant P

    2016-07-01

    Trabectedin (ET743, Yondelis(®), manufactured by Baxter Oncology GmbH, Halle/Westfalen, Germany, for Janssen Products, LP, Horsham, PA), derived from the marine ascidian, Ecteinascidia turbinata, is a natural alkaloid with multiple complex mechanisms of action. On 23 October 2015, 15 years after the results of the first Phase 1 clinical trial using trabectedin for chemotherapy-resistant solid malignancies was reported, and 8 years after its approval in Europe, the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) finally approved trabectedin for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma that has failed a prior anthracycline-containing regimen. Approval was based on the results of a pivotal Phase 3 trial involving a 2:1 randomization of 518 patients (who were further stratified by soft tissue sarcoma subtype), in which a significant improvement in progression-free survival was reported in the trabectedin-treated group vs. the dacarbazine-treated group (p concept. In short, trabectedin is an old new drug with proven potential to impact the lives of patients with soft tissue sarcoma and other solid malignancies. Sarcoma Oncology Center, Santa Monica, CA 90405.

  17. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc; Penel, Nicolas; Mortier, Laurent; Vanseymortier, Luc; Robin, Y.M.; Gosset, Pierre; Cotten, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  18. Mechanical characterization of bioprinted in vitro soft tissue models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ting; Ouyang, Liliang; Sun, Wei; Yan, Karen Chang

    2013-01-01

    Recent development in bioprinting technology enables the fabrication of complex, precisely controlled cell-encapsulated tissue constructs. Bioprinted tissue constructs have potential in both therapeutic applications and nontherapeutic applications such as drug discovery and screening, disease modelling and basic biological studies such as in vitro tissue modelling. The mechanical properties of bioprinted in vitro tissue models play an important role in mimicking in vivo the mechanochemical microenvironment. In this study, we have constructed three-dimensional in vitro soft tissue models with varying structure and porosity based on the 3D cell-assembly technique. Gelatin/alginate hybrid materials were used as the matrix material and cells were embedded. The mechanical properties of these models were assessed via compression tests at various culture times, and applicability of three material constitutive models was examined for fitting the experimental data. An assessment of cell bioactivity in these models was also carried out. The results show that the mechanical properties can be improved through structure design, and the compression modulus and strength decrease with respect to time during the first week of culture. In addition, the experimental data fit well with the Ogden model and experiential function. These results provide a foundation to further study the mechanical properties, structural and combined effects in the design and the fabrication of in vitro soft tissue models. (paper)

  19. Bone/soft-tissue enrichment ratio in skeletal scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuschel, W.

    1982-01-01

    The thesis aimed at establishing normal values for the enrichment intensity of sup(99m)Tc-MDP above the sacrum (S) as reference point for spongy bones in relation to soft-tissue (ST) enrichment (S/St ratio). A normal range for S/ST was determined for five age groups which was given separately for males and females. In addition, the question was examined what causes there could be for S/ST exceeding, the norm or an increased F/ST ratio (F=femur centre) between bone and soft tissue. The question was studied whether or not beniguity or malignancy of a base disease has an important influence on F/ST values. Dependence of F/ST values from primary tumour localization and the tendency of metastatic spread in bones were investigated in malignoma patients. In addition, an assessment was made of what correlation existed, between the laboratory parameters measured, particularly alkaline phosphatase, and the F/ST values. The questions were examined what correlation existed between the F/ST values established and scintiscan findings; whether or not solitary radionuclide enrichments or multiple foci were found in the scintiscan; and what influence the number of foci had on the F/ST values. In tumour patients, the question examined what correlation existed between a tumour-specific treatment and the F/ST values. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Pitfalls in soft tissue sarcoma imaging: chronic expanding hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahed, Kiarash; Khazai, Behnaz; Umpierrez, Monica; Subhawong, Ty K; Singer, Adam D

    2018-01-01

    Solid or nodular enhancement is typical of soft tissue sarcomas although high grade soft tissue sarcomas and those with internal hemorrhage often appear heterogeneous with areas of nonenhancement and solid or nodular enhancement. These MRI findings often prompt an orthopedic oncology referral, a biopsy or surgery. However, not all masses with these imaging findings are malignant. We report the multimodality imaging findings of two surgically proven chronic expanding hematomas (CEH) with imaging features that mimicked sarcomas. A third case of nonenhancing CEH of the lower extremity is also presented as a comparison. It is important that in the correct clinical scenario with typical imaging findings, the differential diagnosis of a chronic expanding hematoma be included in the workup of these patients. An image-guided biopsy of nodular tissue within such masses that proves to be negative for malignancy should not necessarily be considered discordant. A correct diagnosis may prevent a morbid unnecessary surgery and may indicate the need for a conservative noninvasive follow-up with imaging.

  1. A case of lethal soft tissue injuries due to assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagawa Y

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Youichi Yanagawa,1 Yoshimasa Kanawaku,2 Jun Kanetake21Department of Emergency and Disaster Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, 2Department of Forensic Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, JapanAbstract: A 42-year-old male had been assaulted by his family over the two previous days and went into a deep coma. When the emergency technician arrived, the patient was in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest. On arrival, his electrocardiogram showed asystole. His body showed swelling with subcutaneous hemorrhage, suggesting multiple contusional wounds. Serum biochemistry evaluation revealed blood urea nitrogen of 80 mg/dL, creatinine of 5.99 mg/dL, creatine phosphokinase of 10,094 IU/L, and potassium of 11.0 mEq/L. Advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation failed to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation. Laboratory findings revealed rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and hyperkalemia. Autopsy did not indicate the direct cause of death to be traumatic organ injuries. Because trauma was not the direct reason of death, we speculated that the patient died of hyperkalemia induced by multiple contusional soft tissue injuries, following rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis, and acute renal failure. The physician should maintain a high index of suspicion for hyperkalemia induced by rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, especially in patients presenting with symptoms of multiple soft tissue injuries with massive subcutaneous hemorrhaging.Keywords: contusion, rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, hyperkalemia

  2. Intraoperative radiotherapy in the multidisciplinary management of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, F.A.; Abuchaibe, O.; Escude, L.; Santos, M.; Villas, C.; Beguiristain, J.L.; Amillo, S.; Canadell, J.

    1989-01-01

    From 1984 to 1989 locally advanced stages of soft tissue sarcomas have been systematically approached with maximal surgical resection, IORT (10-20 Gy) boost to the tumor bed (high risk or residual disease areas) and conventional fractionated external beam postoperative radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was given to patients with high cellular grade sarcomas. Nineteen patients with localized soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities were treated and local control was obtained in 18/19 cases (95%). Distant metastasis developed in 2 patients and 15 patients are alive with no evidence of disease. The median follow-up time of the entire group is 27+ months (range 2+ to 43+ months). Severe IORT toxicity consisting in unreversible peripheral neuropathy has been observed in 3 patients. Another group of 24 patients had tumor located in central anatomical areas (3 head and neck, 7 trunk, 6 retroperitoneal, 3 glutens, 3 pelvis, 1 rectal, 1 bladder). Local control has been obtained in 15 patients (62%). Distant metastasis developed in 3 patients and 11 are alive and free of malignant disease. The median follow-up in this group is 14.5+ months (range from 4 to 50+ months). Severe neuropathy was observed in 1 patient. Severe neurological damage is a preoccupying finding that merits a word of caution in the development of IORT protocols, as what single dose can be selected in areas including nerves in treatment field

  3. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Penel, Nicolas [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Oncology, Lille (France); Mortier, Laurent [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Dermatology, Hopital Claude Huriez, Lille (France); Vanseymortier, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Surgery, Lille (France); Robin, Y.M. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Departement of Pathology, Lille (France); Gosset, Pierre [Groupement Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique-Faculte Libre de Medecine de Lille, Department of Pathology, Hopital Saint-Philibert, Lomme (France); Cotten, Anne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Centre Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-03-15

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  4. Avoiding Complications in Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurup, A. Nicholas; Schmit, Grant D.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Atwell, Thomas D.; Schmitz, John J.; Weisbrod, Adam J.; Woodrum, David A.; Eiken, Patrick W.; Callstrom, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    As with percutaneous ablation of tumors in the liver, lungs, and kidneys, ablation of bone and non-visceral soft tissue tumors carries risk, primarily from collateral damage to vital structures in proximity to the target tumor. Certain risks are of particular interest when ablating bone and non-visceral soft tissue tumors, namely neural or skin injury, bowel injury, fracture, and gas embolism from damaged applicators. Ablation of large volume tumors also carries special risk. Many techniques may be employed by the interventional radiologist to minimize complications when treating tumors in the musculoskeletal system. These methods include those to depict, displace, or monitor critical structures. Thus, measures to provide thermoprotection may be active, such as careful ablation applicator placement and use of various displacement techniques, as well as passive, including employment of direct temperature, radiographic, or neurophysiologic monitoring techniques. Cementoplasty should be considered in certain skeletal locations at risk of fracture. Patients treated with large volume tumors should be monitored for renal dysfunction and properly hydrated. Finally, ablation applicators should be cautiously placed in the constrained environment of intact bone.

  5. Avoiding Complications in Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, A. Nicholas, E-mail: kurup.anil@mayo.edu; Schmit, Grant D., E-mail: schmit.grant@mayo.edu; Morris, Jonathan M., E-mail: morris.jonathan@mayo.edu; Atwell, Thomas D., E-mail: atwell.thomas@mayo.edu; Schmitz, John J., E-mail: schmitz.john@mayo.edu; Weisbrod, Adam J., E-mail: weisbrod.adam@mayo.edu; Woodrum, David A., E-mail: woodrum.david@mayo.edu; Eiken, Patrick W., E-mail: eiken.patrick@mayo.edu; Callstrom, Matthew R., E-mail: callstrom.matthew@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-02-15

    As with percutaneous ablation of tumors in the liver, lungs, and kidneys, ablation of bone and non-visceral soft tissue tumors carries risk, primarily from collateral damage to vital structures in proximity to the target tumor. Certain risks are of particular interest when ablating bone and non-visceral soft tissue tumors, namely neural or skin injury, bowel injury, fracture, and gas embolism from damaged applicators. Ablation of large volume tumors also carries special risk. Many techniques may be employed by the interventional radiologist to minimize complications when treating tumors in the musculoskeletal system. These methods include those to depict, displace, or monitor critical structures. Thus, measures to provide thermoprotection may be active, such as careful ablation applicator placement and use of various displacement techniques, as well as passive, including employment of direct temperature, radiographic, or neurophysiologic monitoring techniques. Cementoplasty should be considered in certain skeletal locations at risk of fracture. Patients treated with large volume tumors should be monitored for renal dysfunction and properly hydrated. Finally, ablation applicators should be cautiously placed in the constrained environment of intact bone.

  6. Soft tissue reconstruction for calcaneal fractures or osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, C; Cooper, P

    2001-01-01

    A systematic approach of the surgical management of a calcaneal fracture can minimize the potential of soft tissue complications. When reducing a closed calcaneal fracture, the incision used affects the postoperative complications. The L-shaped incision with the horizontal limb lying on the lateral glabrous junction ensures maximum blood flow to either side of the incision. Whether or not the wound can be closed primarily depends on the preexisting edema, the lost calcaneal height, and the delay between the fracture and reduction (Fig. 20). The wrinkle test is a good indicator that the incision can be closed primarily if the amount of height restored is minimal. If the edema is too great, steps should be taken to reduce it sufficiently to allow successful wound closure. If the wound, after reduction, is too wide to allow primary closure, an ADM flap laterally or an AHM flap medially should be used. For larger defects, a free flap should be considered. The three important steps to reconstruction of soft tissue defects around the calcaneus include good blood supply, a infection-free wound, and the simplest soft tissue reconstructive option that covers the wound successfully. Adequate blood supply can be determined by the use of Doppler. If the supply is inadequate, revascularization is necessary before proceeding. Achieving a clean wound requires aggressive debridement, intravenous antibiotics, and good wound care. Adjuncts that can help in achieving a clean wound include topical antibiotics (silver sulfadiazine), the VAC, and hyperbaric oxygen. Osteomyelitis has to be treated aggressively. Any suspicious bone has to be removed. Only clean, healthy, bleeding bone is left behind. Antibiotic beads can be useful when there is doubt as to whether the cancellous bone is infection-free. The beads are not a substitute for good debridement, however. Soft tissue reconstruction ranges from delayed primary closure to the use of microsurgical free flaps (Fig. 21). When bone or

  7. Updated Lagrangian finite element formulations of various biological soft tissue non-linear material models: a comprehensive procedure and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Molly T; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2016-01-01

    Simplified material models are commonly used in computational simulation of biological soft tissue as an approximation of the complicated material response and to minimize computational resources. However, the simulation of complex loadings, such as long-duration tissue swelling, necessitates complex models that are not easy to formulate. This paper strives to offer the updated Lagrangian formulation comprehensive procedure of various non-linear material models for the application of finite element analysis of biological soft tissues including a definition of the Cauchy stress and the spatial tangential stiffness. The relationships between water content, osmotic pressure, ionic concentration and the pore pressure stress of the tissue are discussed with the merits of these models and their applications.

  8. Computed radiography and the workstation in a study of the cervical spine. Technical and cost implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J. M.; Lopez-Galiacho, N.; Martinez, M.

    1999-01-01

    To demonstrate the advantages of computed radiography and the workstation in assessing the images acquired in a study of the cervical spine. Lateral projections of cervical spine obtained using a computed radiography system in 63 ambulatory patients were studied in a workstation. Images of the tip of the odontoid process. C1-C2, basion-opisthion and C7 were visualized prior to and after their transmission and processing, and the overall improvement in their diagnostic quality was assessed. The rate of detection of the tip of the odontoid process, C1-C2, the foramen magnum and C/ increased by 17,6, 11 and 14 percentage points, respectively. Image processing improved the diagnostic quality in over 75% of cases. Image processing in a workstation improved the visualization of the anatomical points being studied and the diagnostic quality of the images. These advantages as well as the possibility of transferring the images to a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) are convincing reasons for using digital radiography. (Author) 7 refs

  9. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Radiation Dose-Equivalent Radiography, Multidetector Computed Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Fractures of Adult Cadaveric Wrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jakob; Benndorf, Matthias; Reidelbach, Carolin; Krauß, Tobias; Lampert, Florian; Zajonc, Horst; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Fiebich, Martin; Goerke, Sebastian M

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of radiography, to radiography equivalent dose multidetector computed tomography (RED-MDCT) and to radiography equivalent dose cone beam computed tomography (RED-CBCT) for wrist fractures. As study subjects we obtained 10 cadaveric human hands from body donors. Distal radius, distal ulna and carpal bones (n = 100) were artificially fractured in random order in a controlled experimental setting. We performed radiation dose equivalent radiography (settings as in standard clinical care), RED-MDCT in a 320 row MDCT with single shot mode and RED-CBCT in a device dedicated to musculoskeletal imaging. Three raters independently evaluated the resulting images for fractures and the level of confidence for each finding. Gold standard was evaluated by consensus reading of a high-dose MDCT. Pooled sensitivity was higher in RED-MDCT with 0.89 and RED-MDCT with 0.81 compared to radiography with 0.54 (P = radiography (P radiography. Readers are more confident in their reporting with the cross sectional modalities. Dose equivalent cross sectional computed tomography of the wrist could replace plain radiography for fracture diagnosis in the long run.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary diseases using x-ray darkfield radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    In this work we develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for classification of pulmonary disease for grating-based x-ray radiography. In addition to conventional transmission radiography, the grating-based technique provides a dark-field imaging modality, which utilizes the scattering...... properties of the x-rays. This modality has shown great potential for diagnosing early stage emphysema and fibrosis in mouse lungs in vivo. The CAD scheme is developed to assist radiologists and other medical experts to develop new diagnostic methods when evaluating grating-based images. The scheme consists...... of three stages: (i) automatic lung segmentation; (ii) feature extraction from lung shape and dark-field image intensities; (iii) classification between healthy, emphysema and fibrosis lungs. A study of 102 mice was conducted with 34 healthy, 52 emphysema and 16 fibrosis subjects. Each image was manually...

  11. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  12. Comparison of soft-tissue orbital morphometry in attractive and normal Italian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Chiarella; Dolci, Claudia; Grandi, Gaia; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Laino, Alberto; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2015-01-01

    To identify esthetic characteristics of the orbital soft tissues of attractive Italian adult women and men. Three-dimensional computerized digitizers were used to collect the coordinates of facial landmarks in 199 healthy, normal subjects aged 18 to 30 years (71 women, 128 men; mean age, 22 years) and in 126 coetaneous attractive subjects (92 women, 34 men; mean age, 20 years) selected during beauty competitions. From the landmarks, six linear distances, two ratios, six angles, and two areas were calculated. Attractive subjects were compared with normal ones by computing z-scores. Intercanthal width was reduced while eye fissure lengths were increased in both genders. Orbital heights (os-or) were increased only in attractive women, with a significant gender-related difference. The inclinations of the eye fissure were increased in attractive subjects, while the inclinations of the orbit were reduced. For several of the analyzed measurements, similar patterns of z-scores were observed for attractive men and women (r  =  .883). Attractive women and men had several specific esthetic characteristics in their orbital soft tissues; esthetic reference values can be used to determine optimal goals in surgical treatment.

  13. Intramuscular keratocyst as a soft tissue counterpart of keratocystic odontogenic tumor: differential diagnosis by immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Essa, Ahmed; Babkair, Hamzah; Mikami, Toshihiko; Shingaki, Susumu; Kobayashi, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Takafumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), a developmental jaw cyst previously referred to as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), typically arises in the jawbone. In this article, however, we report a case of KCOT located within the temporalis muscle. We compared its immunohistochemical profiles with those of authentic jaw KCOT, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, and epidermoid cyst in order to consider whether a soft tissue counterpart of KCOT could be a separate disease entity. The patient was a 46-year-old man with a well-defined cystic lesion within the left temporalis muscle. On computed tomographic images, the lesion was recognized as a cystic lesion, although KCOT was not included in the clinical differential diagnoses. The location of the lesion was not within bone but, rather, within the temporalis muscle that was attached to the jawbones. Our review of the literature has disclosed more than 20 peripheral KCOT cases of the oral mucosa and more than 10 cases of the skin, but only 1 case arising in muscle. Immunohistochemical investigation of the present intramuscular case reveals KCOT-characteristic profiles distinct from the other 3 types of cysts investigated. The results indicate that KCOT-like lesions can arise within soft tissues, although use of the term odontogenic might seem inappropriate in those cases. © 2013.

  14. In vivo characterisation of soft tissue tumours by 1.5-T proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, F.; Mazzetti, S.; Grignani, G.; Rosa, G.De; Aglietta, M.; Anselmetti, G.C.; Stasi, M.; Regge, D. [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Candiolo, Torino (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    To determine whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can help differentiate between benign and malignant soft tissue lesions, and to assess if there is a correlation between 1H-MRS data and the mitotic index. MR measurements were performed in 43 patients with soft tissue tumours >15 mm in diameter. Six cases were excluded for technical failure. Examinations were performed at 1.5 T using a single-voxel point resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) with TR/TE = 2000/150 ms. The volume of interest was positioned within the lesion avoiding inclusion of necrotic regions. In all patients, a histological diagnosis was obtained and the corresponding mitotic index was also computed. 1H-MRS results and histopathological findings were compared using the chi-squared test and correlation coefficient. Choline was detected in 18/19 patients with malignant tumours and in 3/18 patients with benign lesions. The three benign lesions included one desmoid tumour, one ossificans myositis and one eccrine spiradenoma. Choline was not detected in 15 patients with benign lesions or in one patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Resulting 1H-MRS sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 83% respectively. Absence of choline peak is highly predictive of benign tumours suggesting that 1H-MRS can help to differentiate malignant from benign tumours. (orig.)

  15. In vivo characterisation of soft tissue tumours by 1.5-T proton MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, F.; Mazzetti, S.; Grignani, G.; Rosa, G.De; Aglietta, M.; Anselmetti, G.C.; Stasi, M.; Regge, D.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can help differentiate between benign and malignant soft tissue lesions, and to assess if there is a correlation between 1H-MRS data and the mitotic index. MR measurements were performed in 43 patients with soft tissue tumours >15 mm in diameter. Six cases were excluded for technical failure. Examinations were performed at 1.5 T using a single-voxel point resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) with TR/TE = 2000/150 ms. The volume of interest was positioned within the lesion avoiding inclusion of necrotic regions. In all patients, a histological diagnosis was obtained and the corresponding mitotic index was also computed. 1H-MRS results and histopathological findings were compared using the chi-squared test and correlation coefficient. Choline was detected in 18/19 patients with malignant tumours and in 3/18 patients with benign lesions. The three benign lesions included one desmoid tumour, one ossificans myositis and one eccrine spiradenoma. Choline was not detected in 15 patients with benign lesions or in one patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Resulting 1H-MRS sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 83% respectively. Absence of choline peak is highly predictive of benign tumours suggesting that 1H-MRS can help to differentiate malignant from benign tumours. (orig.)

  16. Facial soft tissue thickness database of Gujarati population for forensic craniofacial reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Lodha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The forensic facial reconstruction is a scientific art to construct the ante-mortem face from the human skull. The facial recognition is made by reconstructing the contours of the facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT.These FSTT data are essential for probable face reconstruction but the data of FSTT at particular anthropological landmarks differ in various ethnic groups. Until now several works have been reported on different population but no study exists in which the FSTT of a Gujarati population has been measured. The aim of this study is to compile a set of soft tissue depth data of Gujarati population of India to add to existing literature on FSTT. Computed tomography (CT-scan has been utilized to measure the 25 different FSTT landmarks of 324 male and 165 female. Present study shows significant differences in certain FSTT of Gujarati population from that of other populations. Our compiled data set of FSTT for the Gujarati population is important in understanding craniofacial characteristics of the Gujarati population and potentially be helpful in forensic identification.

  17. Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Amy L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for performing dynamic elastography of soft tissue samples. By sensing nanoscale displacements with optical coherence tomography, a chirped, modulated force is applied to acquire the mechanical spectrum of a tissue sample within a few seconds. This modulated force is applied via magnetic nanoparticles, named 'nanotransducers', which are diffused into the tissue, and which contribute negligible inertia to the soft tissue mechanical system. Using this novel system, we observed that excised tissues exhibit mechanical resonance modes which are well described by a linear damped harmonic oscillator. Results are validated by using cylindrical tissue phantoms of agarose in which resonant frequencies (30-400 Hz) are consistent with longitudinal modes and the sample boundary conditions. We furthermore show that the Young's modulus can be computed from their measured resonance frequencies, analogous to resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for stiff material analysis. Using this new technique, named magnetomotive resonant acoustic spectroscopy (MRAS), we monitored the relative stiffening of an excised rat liver during a chemical fixation process.

  18. Soft-tissue volumetric changes following monobloc distraction procedure: analysis using digital three-dimensional photogrammetry system (3dMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fuan Chiang; Kawamoto, Henry K; Federico, Christina; Bradley, James P

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that monobloc advancement by distraction osteogenesis resulted in decreased morbidity and greater advancement with less relapse compared with acute monobloc advancement with bone grafting. In this study, we examine the three-dimensional (3D) volumetric soft-tissue changes in monobloc distraction.Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis who underwent monobloc distraction from 2002 to 2010 at University of California-Los Angeles Craniofacial Center were studied (n = 12). We recorded diagnosis, indications for the surgery, and volumetric changes for skeletal and soft-tissue midface structures (preoperative/postoperative [6 weeks]/follow-up [>1 year]). Computed tomography scans and a digital 3D photogrammetry system were used for image analysis.Patients ranged from 6 to 14 years of age (mean, 10.1 years) at the time of the operation (follow-up 2-11 years); mean distraction advancement was 19.4 mm (range, 14-25 mm). There was a mean increase in the 3D volumetric soft-tissue changes: 99.5 ± 4.0 cm(3) (P < 0.05) at 6 weeks and 94.9 ± 3.6 cm(3) (P < 0.05) at 1-year follow-up. When comparing soft-tissue changes at 6 weeks postoperative to 1-year follow-up, there were minimal relapse changes. The overall mean 3D skeletal change was 108.9 ± 4.2 cm. For every 1 cm of skeletal gain, there was 0.78 cm(3) of soft-tissue gain.Monobloc advancement by distraction osteogenesis using internal devices resulted in increased volumetric soft-tissue changes, which remained stable at 1 year. The positive linear correlation between soft-tissue increments and bony advancement can be incorporated during the planning of osteotomies to achieve optimum surgical outcomes with monobloc distraction.

  19. Differentiating lung abscess and empyema: radiography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, D.D.; Federle, M.P.; Goodman, P.C.; Podrasky, A.E.; Webb, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Conventional chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans of 70 inflammatory thoracic lesions in 63 patients were reviewed and scored for diagnostic features. Pathologic confirmation of the final diagnosis was available in 42% (5/12) of lung abscesses and 31% (18/58) of empyemas. CT alone was sufficient to correctly diagnose 100% (70/70) of cases. Diagnostic information not available from conventional chest radiographs was obtained in 47% (33/70) of cases; in an additional 34% of patients, CT more accurately defined the extent of disease. The most reliable CT features for the differential diagnosis of lung abscess and empyema were wall characteristics, pleural separation, and lung compression. Conventional radiographic features such as size, shape, and the angle of the lesion with the chest wall were less helpful, though also best assessed by CT

  20. Validation od computational model ALDERSON/EGSnrc for chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, Bianca C.; Santos, André L. dos; Menezes, Claudio J.M.

    2017-01-01

    To perform dose studies in situations of exposure to radiation, without exposing individuals, the numerical dosimetry uses Computational Exposure Models (ECM). Composed essentially by a radioactive source simulator algorithm, a voxel phantom representing the human anatomy and a Monte Carlo code, the ECMs must be validated to determine the reliability of the physical array representation. The objective of this work is to validate the ALDERSON / EGSnrc MCE by through comparisons between the experimental measurements obtained with the ionization chamber and virtual simulations using Monte Carlo Method to determine the ratio of the input and output radiation dose. Preliminary results of these comparisons showed that the ECM reproduced the results of the experimental measurements performed with the physical phantom with a relative error of less than 10%, validating the use of this model for simulations of chest radiographs and estimates of radiation doses in tissues in the irradiated structures

  1. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Abe, Takayuki; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Ogawa, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA-950) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P pulmonary emphysema. The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tomosynthesis were 0.875, 0.968, 0.955 and 0.910, respectively, whereas the values for radiography were 0.479, 0.913, 0.815 and 0.697, respectively. For both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity increased with increasing LAA-950. The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA-950. • Tomosynthesis showed significantly better diagnostic performance for pulmonary emphysema than radiography. • Interobserver agreement for tomosynthesis was significantly higher than that for radiography. • Sensitivity increased with increasing LAA -950 in both tomosynthesis and radiography. • Tomosynthesis imparts a similar radiation dose to two projection chest radiography. • Radiation dose and cost of tomosynthesis are lower than those of MDCT.

  2. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Hematological and Chemical Abnormalities in Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Comparative Study in Patients with Benign and Malignant Soft Tissue Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariizumi, Takashi; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Ogose, Akira; Sasaki, Taro; Hotta, Tetsuo; Hatano, Hiroshi; Morita, Tetsuro; Endo, Naoto

    2018-01-01

    The value of routine blood tests in malignant soft tissue tumors remains uncertain. To determine if these tests can be used for screening, the routine pretreatment blood test findings were retrospectively investigated in 359 patients with benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. Additionally, the prognostic potential of pretreatment blood abnormalities was evaluated in patients with soft tissue sarcomas. We compared clinical factors and blood tests findings between patients with benign and malignant soft tissue tumors using univariate and multivariate analysis. Subsequently, patients with malignant tumors were divided into two groups based on blood test reference values, and the prognostic significance of each parameter was evaluated. In the univariate analysis, age, tumor size, and tumor depth were significant clinical diagnostic factors. Significant increases in the granulocyte count, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) levels were found in patients with malignant soft tissue tumors. Multiple logistic regression showed that tumor size and ESR were independent factors that predicted malignant soft tissue tumors. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that granulocyte counts, γ-GTP levels, and CRP levels correlated significantly with overall survival. Thus, pretreatment routine blood tests are useful diagnostic and prognostic markers for diagnosing soft tissue sarcoma. © 2018 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  3. Case report 488: Post-traumatic myositis ossificans mimicking a soft tissue neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, L.; Ramamurthy, S.; Jablokow, V.; Van Drunen, M.; Kaplan, E.

    1988-01-01

    A case of post-traumatic myosotis ossificans (MO) in a young man with only a vague history of preceding physical trauma to the area of the lesion was presented. Imaging modalities, including plain film radiography, CT, contrast angiography and bone scintigraphy, could not exclude a malignancy with a reliable degree of certainty. The biopsy specimen was consistent with MO but could easily be misinterpreted as a sarcomatous lesion. A diagnosis of MO was only established by a scrupulous analysis of all clinical, radiological, scintigraphic and microscopic findings and unnecessary extensive surgery for a malignancy was avoided. The correlative radiological and pathological features in distinguishing post-traumatic myositis ossificans from such lesions as soft tissue osteosarcoma or parosteal osteosarcoma were described and the meaning of the term zoning phenomenon was elucidated. It was emphasized that utilizing the zonal phenomenon (both pathologically and radiologically) ensures a correct diagnosis most of the time. However, it must be emphasized that this zoning phenomenon is not established in the early stages of post-traumatic myositis ossificans. (oerig./MG)

  4. Photoactivated Composite Biomaterial for Soft Tissue Restoration in Rodents and in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hillel, Alexander T.; Unterman, Shimon; Nahas, Zayna; Reid, Branden; Coburn, Jeannine M.; Axelman, Joyce; Chae, Jemin J.; Guo, Qiongyu; Trow, Robert; Thomas, Andrew; Hou, Zhipeng; Lichtsteiner, Serge; Sutton, Damon; Matheson, Christine; Walker, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Soft tissue reconstruction often requires multiple surgical procedures that can result in scars and disfiguration. Facial soft tissue reconstruction represents a clinical challenge because even subtle deformities can severely affect an individual’s social and psychological function. We therefore developed a biosynthetic soft tissue replacement composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) that can be injected and photocrosslinked in situ with transdermal ligh...

  5. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the acromium with soft tissue extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.; Fornasier, V.; Holtby, R.

    2000-01-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma is an unusual, benign tumor of cartilaginous origin and represents less than 1% of all primary bone tumors. It usually involves the long bones around the knee joint or the flat bones of the pelvis or ribs. Soft tissue extension is also thought to be rare in these lesions. They are usually eccentrically located in the metaphyses of the long bones and centrally in the flat bones. The radiographic appearances are characteristically those of a single, lytic lesion with lobulated margins, septations, cortical expansion and a sclerotic rim. Histologically, they display a lobulated pattern with spindle-shaped cells lying within a myxoid matrix with areas of hyaline cartilage. The differential diagnosis includes giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma or enchondroma as well as chondrosarcoma. The rarity of these lesions may render the diagnosis difficult to make, especially when the lesion involves an unusual site such as the acromium. (orig.)

  6. Facial soft tissue thicknesses: Noise, signal, and P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Carl N; Munn, Lachlan; Caple, Jodi

    2015-12-01

    Facial soft tissue thicknesses (FSTTs) hold an important role in craniofacial identification, forming the underlying quantitative basis of craniofacial superimposition and facial approximation methods. It is, therefore, important that patterns in FSTTs be correctly described and interpreted. In prior FSTT literature, small statistically significant differences have almost universally been overemphasized and misinterpreted to reflect sex and ancestry effects when they instead largely encode nuisance statistical noise. Here we examine FSTT data and give an overview of why P-values do not mean everything. Scientific inference, not mechanical evaluation of P, should be awarded higher priority and should form the basis of FSTT analysis. This hinges upon tempered consideration of many factors in addition to P, e.g., study design, sampling, measurement errors, repeatability, reproducibility, and effect size. While there are multiple lessons to be had, the underlying message is foundational: know enough statistics to avoid misinterpreting background noise for real biological effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic value of proliferation in pleomorphic soft tissue sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seinen, Jojanneke M; Jönsson, Mats; Bendahl, Pär-Ola O

    2012-01-01

    = 1.6-12.1), Top2a (hazard ratio = 2.2, CI = 1.2-3.5) and high S-phase fraction (hazard ratio = 1.8, CI = 1.2-3.7) significantly correlated with risk for metastasis. When combined with currently used prognostic factors, Ki-67, S-phase fraction and Top2a fraction contributed to refined identification...... of prognostic risk groups. Proliferation, as assessed by expression of Ki-67 and Top2a and evaluation of S-phase fraction and applied to statistical decision-tree models, provides prognostic information in soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity and trunk wall. Though proliferation contributes independently...... to currently applied prognosticators, its role is particularly strong when few other factors are available, which suggests a role in preoperative decision-making related to identification of high-risk individuals who would benefit from neoadjuvant therapy....

  8. Quality of life and patients' expectations in soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robin L; Cesne, Axel Le

    2018-05-01

    Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is essential for holistic care. Greater efforts are required to incorporate HRQoL measures into clinical trials and daily practice. Considerable HRQoL data are available for localized soft tissue sarcomas (STS), particularly in the orthopedic setting. In future, HRQoL is expected to become increasingly important in the evaluation of palliative therapy in advanced STS. A patient-centric approach is advocated for STS management. Greater awareness of STS by nonspecialist clinicians, and timely referral to specialized sarcoma reference centers, is crucial for patient welfare. The patient is central to shared decision-making during consultations and during case review in tumor boards. The management approach to STS should be collaborative, involving a multidisciplinary team, multiple centers and patient advocacy groups.

  9. Sample preparation procedure for PIXE elemental analysis on soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubica, B.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Lekka, M.

    1997-01-01

    Trace element analysis is one of the most important field in analytical chemistry. There are several instrumental techniques which are applied for determinations of microscopic elemental content. The PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique is one of the nuclear techniques that is commonly applied for such purpose due to its multielemental analysis possibilities. The aim of this study was to establish the optimal conditions for target preparation procedure. In this paper two different approaches to the topic are presented and widely discussed. The first approach was the traditional pellet technique and the second one was mineralization procedure. For the analysis soft tissue such as liver was used. Some results are also presented on water samples. (author)

  10. Soft tissue appearance of a bone-seeker radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, L.; Hafenscher, I.; Baranyai, T.

    1994-01-01

    In the course of our routine whole body skeletal imaging - mainly done for metastatic screening - we were often faced with the nonosseous appearance of the polyphosphate-bound technetium /Foszfon/ as the tracer. A Toshiba GCA-901A/SA digital camera has been used in whole body scan mode. The paradoxity of bone-seekers' accumulation in soft tissues leads to the assumption that not only osteoblasts are able to incorporate the radiotracer but also cells in excited phagocytic state, too. Such states can be induced by inflammatory processes-no matter whether sterile or not - accompanied by some increase in local perfusion. Documentative cases of mastopathy, indurative trombo phlebitis, subacute and chronic postoperative wound healing will be shown with quite different imaging intensity. This should call also attention to avoid misinterpretations. (author)

  11. Soft tissue manifestations of early rheumatic disease. Imaging with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treitl, M.; Panteleon, A.; Koerner, M.; Becker-Gaab, C.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in early rheumatic diseases manifesting at the soft tissues of the hand using a retrospective analysis. A total of 186 MRI examinations of patients with clinical suspicion of a rheumatic disease were evaluated in a consensus reading by two experienced radiologists. All imaging patterns were assessed with respect to their type and localization. Under blinded and non-blinded conditions diagnoses were correlated with final clinical diagnosis. The most frequent diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 45.7%) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA, 15.6%). The mean correlation between clinical and MRI diagnosis (r) was 0.75 in blinded and 0.853 in non-blinded reading (p [de

  12. Magnetic resonance tomography in skeletal and soft tissue traumas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiris, Morten G.

    2000-01-01

    MRI has revolutionised the diagnostic yield in musculo-skeletal trauma. Studies have documented that MRI can be an accurate, cost-effective means of assessing injuries in the knee, the foot and the ankle and it may also be cost-effective in other anatomic locations. MRTI may have a significant impact on decision-making in relation to these patients and on the follow-up. The patient does not need to be moved for evaluation in all the anatomical planes. Each study can also be post-processes if necessary. MRI may be used in patients with fractures for evaluation of complications. The fracture lines as well as accompanying soft tissue damage are well documented

  13. Therapeutic Ultrasound Enhancement of Drug Delivery to Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George; Wang, Peng; Lewis, George; Olbricht, William

    2009-04-01

    Effects of exposure to 1.58 MHz focused ultrasound on transport of Evans Blue Dye (EBD) in soft tissues are investigated when an external pressure gradient is applied to induce convective flow through the tissue. The magnitude of the external pressure gradient is chosen to simulate conditions in brain parenchyma during convection-enhanced drug delivery (CED) to the brain. EBD uptake and transport are measured in equine brain, avian muscle and agarose brain-mimicking phantoms. Results show that ultrasound enhances EBD uptake and transport, and the greatest enhancement occurs when the external pressure gradient is applied. The results suggest that exposure of the brain parenchyma to ultrasound could enhance penetration of material infused into the brain during CED therapy.

  14. Morel-Lavallee Lesion (MLL) Mimicking A Soft Tissue Neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Hasan, Roumina; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Maddukuri, Satish Babu; Puppala, Radha

    2015-04-01

    Morel-lavallee lesion (MLL) represents post traumatic subcutaneous cyst generally overlying bony prominences like greater trochanter, lower back, knee and scapula. A 51-year-old man presented with a swelling in left thigh since six years which was insidious in onset, gradually progressive in size and not associated with pain, fever or discharge. There was no history of trauma or any associated constitutional symptoms. Since there was no history of trauma recalled by the patient the clinical dilemma was between soft tissue sarcoma and cold abscess. We report a case of slow growing painless mass lesion of thigh, diagnosed on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as morel lavallee lesion and describe its salient imaging features with treatment options.

  15. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the acromium with soft tissue extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, D. [Departments of Anatomic and Clinical Pathology, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Orthopedic and Arthritic Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fornasier, V. [Department of Anatomical Pathology and Cytology, St. Michael' s Hospital, Wellesley-Central Site, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Holtby, R. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Orthopedic and Arthritic Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-03-30

    Chondromyxoid fibroma is an unusual, benign tumor of cartilaginous origin and represents less than 1% of all primary bone tumors. It usually involves the long bones around the knee joint or the flat bones of the pelvis or ribs. Soft tissue extension is also thought to be rare in these lesions. They are usually eccentrically located in the metaphyses of the long bones and centrally in the flat bones. The radiographic appearances are characteristically those of a single, lytic lesion with lobulated margins, septations, cortical expansion and a sclerotic rim. Histologically, they display a lobulated pattern with spindle-shaped cells lying within a myxoid matrix with areas of hyaline cartilage. The differential diagnosis includes giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma or enchondroma as well as chondrosarcoma. The rarity of these lesions may render the diagnosis difficult to make, especially when the lesion involves an unusual site such as the acromium. (orig.)

  16. Photothermal lesions in soft tissue induced by optical fiber microheaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel-Domínguez, Reinher; Moreno-Álvarez, Paola; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Chavarría, Anahí; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Photothermal therapy has shown to be a promising technique for local treatment of tumors. However, the main challenge for this technique is the availability of localized heat sources to minimize thermal damage in the surrounding healthy tissue. In this work, we demonstrate the use of optical fiber microheaters for inducing thermal lesions in soft tissue. The proposed devices incorporate carbon nanotubes or gold nanolayers on the tips of optical fibers for enhanced photothermal effects and heating of ex vivo biological tissues. We report preliminary results of small size photothermal lesions induced on mice liver tissues. The morphology of the resulting lesions shows that optical fiber microheaters may render useful for delivering highly localized heat for photothermal therapy.

  17. Soft-tissue sarcomas. Current aspects of diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohenberger, P.

    1996-01-01

    The decisive factor for promising therapy of soft-tissue sarcomas is primary therapy provided in an experienced tumour unit. This centre must offer the entire spectrum of surgery (vascular, reconstruction and orthopaedic surgery) leading into an interdisciplinary treatment regimen. Initially, MRI would appear to be sufficient for diagnosis. On the other hand, the presence of an experienced pathologist conversant with all means of cytogenetic tumour classification is essential. For interdisciplinary therapy, a radiotherapist with hyperthermia equipment, nuclear medicine specialists and medical oncologists are indispensable. All personnel must be familiar with the special problems associated with sarcomas. The current trend is indeed toward a select number of centres where such skills are focused. (orig.) [de

  18. Adult Head and Neck Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Treatment and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra P. Singh

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-six patients were seen, of whom 24 were treated at this unit, the remainder only receiving advice. The median age of the patients was 46 years. Most of the sarcomas were deep and of high or intermediate grade with a median size of 5.5 cm. Eleven different histological subtypes were identified. Wide excision was possible only in 21% of the cases. 42% of the patients developed local recurrence and 42% developed metastatic disease usually in the lungs. Overall survival was 49% at 5 years. Tumour size was the most important prognostic factor. Adult head and neck soft tissue sarcomas have a high mortality rate with a high risk of local recurrence and metastatic disease. The rarity of the disease would suggest that centralisation of care could lead to increased expertise and better outcomes.

  19. Real-time simulation of biological soft tissues: a PGD approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroomandi, S; González, D; Alfaro, I; Bordeu, F; Leygue, A; Cueto, E; Chinesta, F

    2013-05-01

    We introduce here a novel approach for the numerical simulation of nonlinear, hyperelastic soft tissues at kilohertz feedback rates necessary for haptic rendering. This approach is based upon the use of proper generalized decomposition techniques, a generalization of PODs. Proper generalized decomposition techniques can be considered as a means of a priori model order reduction and provides a physics-based meta-model without the need for prior computer experiments. The suggested strategy is thus composed of an offline phase, in which a general meta-model is computed, and an online evaluation phase in which the results are obtained at real time. Results are provided that show the potential of the proposed technique, together with some benchmark test that shows the accuracy of the method. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Validation of Computed Radiography (CR) Exposure Chart for Stainless Steel and Aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassir, M.A.; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Arshad Yassin

    2015-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is a technique that is currently used to complement the conventional radiography in Non Destructive Testing (NDT). With CR, phosphorous base imaging plate (IP) is used to acquire digital radiographic images. The degree of absorption by the IP is proportional to the intensity of the dose received. The IP stores latent image which subsequently digitized by the CR reader. Prior to radiography exposure, the radiation dosage is determined by referring to the exposure chart. Exposure chart is one of the most important tools for achieving acceptable quality radiographs. Therefore, it is important to have a reliable and accurate exposure chart. The aim of this study is to test and validate exposure charts that were developed based on the statistical analysis of the digital radiographic grey values. The charts produced were for stainless steel and aluminum. According to EN 14784-2:2005, acceptable normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR N ) for testing class A and class B shall have minimum 70 and 120 respectively. (author)

  1. Probability of detection - Comparative study of computed and film radiography for high-energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, R.; Venugopal, M.; Prasad, T.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Suitability of computed radiography with Ir-192, Co-60 and up to 9 MeV x-rays for weld inspections is of importance to many heavy engineering and aerospace industries. CR is preferred because of lesser exposure and processing time as compared to film based radiography and also digital images offers other advantages such as image enhancements, quantitative measurements and easier archival. This paper describes systemic experimental approaches and image quality metrics to compare imaging performance of CR with film-based radiography. Experiments were designed using six-sigma methodology to validate performance of CR for steel thickness up to 160 mm with Ir- 192, Co-60 and x-ray energies varying from 100 kV up to 9 MeV. Weld specimens with defects such as lack of fusion, penetration, cracks, concavity, and porosities were studied for evaluating radiographic sensitivity and imaging performance of the system. Attempts were also made to quantify probability of detection using specimens with artificial and natural defects for various experimental conditions and were compared with film based systems. (authors)

  2. No evidence of increased risk of soft tissue sarcomas in the neighborhood of a steel foundry in Verona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benedetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas in Verona (Italy and residence near a steel foundry, whose emissions of dioxin-like compounds may be relevant. Exposure to total suspended particulate (TSP emitted from the plant as estimated by ADMS-urban dispersion model was used as an indirect index of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Verona municipality was divided in six subareas according to the decreasing levels of estimated TSP exposure, and soft tissue sarcomas cases were mapped according to residence at time of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios were computed. No statistically significant departures between observed and expected cases were detected as illustrated by trend-test results.

  3. Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

    2014-01-01

    Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

  4. Systemic Aspects of Soft Tissue Rheumatic Disorders (STRDs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owlia, M. B.; Mehrpoor, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the markers of systemic inflammation in soft tissue rheumatic disorders (STRDs). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Rheumatology Clinic, Yazd, Iran, from November 2010 to December 2011. Methodology: Patients aged 20 years or above with known diagnosis of STRD according to clinical criteria and/ or paraclinical investigations for at least 3 weeks duration were longitudinally followed. Patients with diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, hypothyroidism, or any other known systemic conditions (other than diabetes mellitus) were excluded. After careful and detailed history taking, laboratory tests indicating systemic inflammation including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and routine screening rheumatologic tests were assessed. Results: Of the 90 patients, 75% were female and 25% were male and 28 (31.1%) of patients had diabetes mellitus. Fifty six (62%) and 49 (54%) of all studies cases had some degrees of morning stiffness and remarkable fatigue respectively. Twenty two (24%) had elevated CRP and 5 (5.5%) had abnormal ESR. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-CCP was positive in 5 (5.5%) and 12 (13.3%) of patients accordingly. Three (3.3%) patients suffered from anemia of chronic disease. Mean ESR was 48 A +- 7.34 (hl) and mean CRP was 10.06 A +- 1.96 mg/dl. Mean RF was 10.8 A +- 1.64 U/ml and mean anti- CCP was 18.5 A +- 2.71 U/ml. Mean hemoglobin was between 10.4 A +- 1.01 g/dl. Conclusion: Features of subtle systemic inflammation are positive in some cases of soft tissue rheumatism. (author)

  5. Diagnostic sensitivity of ultrasound, radiography and computed tomography for gender determination in four species of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Francesco; Volta, Antonella; Pelizzone, Igor; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Parmigiani, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Gender determination is frequently requested by reptile breeders, especially for species with poor or absent sexual dimorphism. The aims of the current study were to describe techniques and diagnostic sensitivities of ultrasound, radiography, and computed tomography for gender determination (identification of hemipenes) in four species of lizards. Nineteen lizards of known sex, belonging to four different species (Pogona vitticeps, Uromastyx aegyptia, Tiliqua scincoides, Gerrhosaurus major) were prospectively enrolled. With informed owner consent, ultrasound, noncontrast CT, contrast radiography, and contrast CT (with contrast medium administered into the cloaca) were performed in conscious animals. Imaging studies were reviewed by three different operators, each unaware of the gender of the animals and of the results of the other techniques. The lizard was classified as a male when hemipenes were identified. Nineteen lizards were included in the study, 10 females and nine males. The hemipenes were seen on ultrasound in only two male lizards, and appeared as oval hypoechoic structures. Radiographically, hemipenes filled with contrast medium appeared as spindle-shaped opacities. Noncontrast CT identified hemipenes in only two lizards, and these appeared as spindle-shaped kinked structures with hyperattenuating content consistent with smegma. Hemipenes were correctly identified in all nine males using contrast CT (accuracy of 100%). Accuracy of contrast radiography was excellent (94.7%). Accuracy of ultrasound and of noncontrast CT was poor (64.3% and 63.1%, respectively). Findings from the current study supported the use of contrast CT or contrast radiography for gender determination in lizards. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  6. MR imaging of uncommon soft tissue tumors in the foot: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kim, Jee Young; Sung, Mi Sook; Kim, Ki Tae [The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The large variety of masses occur in the foot. The foot is a comparatively rare site of soft tissue neoplasms. MRI has greatly improved the ability to detect and delineate soft tissue lesions and is now considered the gold-standard imaging technique in their investigation. Recently, we have encountered rare soft tissue tumors of the foot. The presented cases include benign masses such as granuloma annulare, angiomyoma, neural fibrolipoma, and giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, as well as malignant tumors such as melanoma, synovial sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. We wish to illustrate the MR findings of these uncommon soft tissue mors to aid in their diagnosis.

  7. Soft tissue and it’s affect on craniofacial growth and the dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansjur Nasir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue dysfunction, mouth breathing, tongue thrusting, incorrect swallowing and other myofunctional habits effect on malocclusion, poor facial development and relapse also Temporo Mandibular Joint (TMJ Disorder as well. How the dynamics of form and function affect the dentition, skeletal structures and the face. Soft tissues control dental position and should be considered in conjunction with any treatment. Treatment of soft tissue dysfunction will stable the result the orthodontic treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of soft tissue dysfunction is the responsibility of the General Dentist and Pedodontist and Orthodontist as well.

  8. Real-time deformation of human soft tissues: A radial basis meshless 3D model based on Marquardt's algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianyong; Luo, Zu; Li, Chunquan; Deng, Mi

    2018-01-01

    When the meshless method is used to establish the mathematical-mechanical model of human soft tissues, it is necessary to define the space occupied by human tissues as the problem domain and the boundary of the domain as the surface of those tissues. Nodes should be distributed in both the problem domain and on the boundaries. Under external force, the displacement of the node is computed by the meshless method to represent the deformation of biological soft tissues. However, computation by the meshless method consumes too much time, which will affect the simulation of real-time deformation of human tissues in virtual surgery. In this article, the Marquardt's Algorithm is proposed to fit the nodal displacement at the problem domain's boundary and obtain the relationship between surface deformation and force. When different external forces are applied, the deformation of soft tissues can be quickly obtained based on this relationship. The analysis and discussion show that the improved model equations with Marquardt's Algorithm not only can simulate the deformation in real-time but also preserve the authenticity of the deformation model's physical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yoshitake [Keio University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nippon Koukan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa (Japan); Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Kuribayashi, Sachio [Keio University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Takayuki [Keio University School of Medicine, Center for Clinical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Kenji [Nippon Koukan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA{sub -950}) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P < 0.0001) of tomosynthesis than radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tomosynthesis were 0.875, 0.968, 0.955 and 0.910, respectively, whereas the values for radiography were 0.479, 0.913, 0.815 and 0.697, respectively. For both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity increased with increasing LAA{sub -950}. The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA{sub -950}. (orig.)

  10. Highly sensitive detection of the soft tissues based on refraction contrast by in-plane diffraction-enhanced imaging CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, Tetsuya; Hashimoto, Eiko; Maksimenko, Anton; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Arai, Yoshinori; Shimao, Daisuke; Ichihara, Shu; Ando, Masami

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the recently proposed computed tomography (CT) technique based on refractive effects for biomedical use, which reconstructs the in-plane refractive-index gradient vector field in a cross-sectional plane of interest by detecting the angular deviation of the beam, refracted by a sample, from the incident beam, using the diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) method. The CT has advantages for delineating biological weakly absorbing soft tissues over the conventional absorption-contrast CT because of the use of phase sensitive detection. The paper aims to define the imaging scheme rigidly and to demonstrate its efficacy for non-destructive measurement of biomedical soft-tissue samples without imaging agent. We first describe the imaging principle of in-plane DEI-CT from the physico-mathematical viewpoints in detail, and investigate what physical quantities are extracted from the reconstructed images. Then, we introduce the imaging system using the synchrotron radiation as a light source, constructed at beamline BL-14B in KEK, Japan. Finally, we demonstrate the advantage of the refraction-based image for non-destructive analysis of biological sample by investigating the image of human breast cancer tumors obtained using the imaging system. Here, the refraction- and the apparent absorption-based images obtained simultaneously by the in-plane DEI-CT are compared. Also, the conventional absorption-based image obtained using micro-computed tomography (μCT) imaging system is compared with them. Thereby, it is shown that the refraction contrast much more sensitively delineates the soft tissues than the absorption contrast. In addition, the radiologic-histologic correlation study not only validates the efficacy for imaging soft tissues, but also produces the potential that the pathological inspection for the breast cancer tumors may be feasible non-destructively

  11. Emergency repair of upper extremity large soft tissue and vascular injuries with flow-through anterolateral thigh free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yi; Fu, Guo; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Yan, Li-Wei; Zhu, Qing-Tang; Gu, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Qi, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Complex extremity trauma commonly involves both soft tissue and vascular injuries. Traditional two-stage surgical repair may delay rehabilitation and functional recovery, as well as increase the risk of infections. We report a single-stage reconstructive surgical method that repairs soft tissue defects and vascular injuries with flow-through free flaps to improve functional outcomes. Between March 2010 and December 2016 in our hospital, 5 patients with severe upper extremity trauma received single-stage reconstructive surgery, in which a flow-through anterolateral thigh free flap was applied to repair soft tissue defects and vascular injuries simultaneously. Cases of injured artery were reconstructed with the distal trunk of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. A segment of adjacent vein was used if there was a second artery injury. Patients were followed to evaluate their functional recoveries, and received computed tomography angiography examinations to assess peripheral circulation. Two patients had post-operative thumb necrosis; one required amputation, and the other was healed after debridement and abdominal pedicle flap repair. The other 3 patients had no major complications (infection, necrosis) to the recipient or donor sites after surgery. All the patients had achieved satisfactory functional recovery by the end of the follow-up period. Computed tomography angiography showed adequate circulation in the peripheral vessels. The success of these cases shows that one-step reconstructive surgery with flow-through anterolateral thigh free flaps can be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with complex upper extremity trauma with soft tissue defects and vascular injuries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of chest radiographs with computed radiography and conventional analog films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, C.; Brown, K.; Dalter, S.; Milos, M.J.; Huang, H.K.; Kangarloo, H.; Boechat, I.M.; Batra, P.

    1988-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic is used to compare the image quality of films obtained digitally using computed radiography (CR) and conventionally using analog film following fluoroscopic examination. Twenty-four cases, some with a solitary noncalcified nodule and/or pneumothorax, were collected. Ten radiologists have been tested viewing analog and CR digital films separately. Preliminary results indicate that there is no significant difference in the ability to detect either a pneumothorax or a solitary noncalcified nodule when comparing CR digital film with conventional analog film. A comparison of the CR digital image displayed on a 2,048-line monitor against analog and CR digital film is in progress

  13. Effect of exposure time reduction towards sensitivity and SNR for computed radiography (CR) application in NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapizah Rahim; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Noorhazleena Azaman; Shaharudin Sayuti; Siti Madiha Muhammad Amir; Arshad Yassin; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity study of Computed Radiography (CR) system with reduction of exposure time is presented. The purposes of this research are to determine the behavior of SNR toward three different thicknesses (step wedge; 5, 10 and 15 mm) and the ability of CR system to recognize hole type penetrameter when the exposure time decreased up to 80 % according to the exposure chart (D7; ISOVOLT Titan E). It is shown that the SNR is decreased with decreasing of exposure time percentage but the high quality image is achieved until 80 % reduction of exposure time. (author)

  14. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Abe, Takayuki; Ogawa, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA -950 ) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P -950 . The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA -950 . (orig.)

  15. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia: a comparative evaluation of plain chest radiography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu Manavijit; Mukhopadhyay Sima; Sharma, S.K. [All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-02-01

    Plain chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) of the chest were performed on 10 patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE). Chest radiographs revealed bilateral diffuse lesions in the lungs of all the patients with relative sparing of lower lobes in one patient. However, computed tomography revealed bilateral diffuse lung lesions in all of the patients with relative sparing of lower lobes in three patients. In seven (70%) of the 10 patients, CT provided additional information. Computed tomography was found to be superior for the detection of reticulonodular pattern, bronchiectasis, air trapping, calcification and mediastinal adenopathy. No correlation was found between pulmonary function and gas exchange data using CT densities. There was also no correlation between the absolute eosinophil count (AEC) and the radiological severity of lesions. In six patients, high-resolution CT (HRCT) was performed in addition to conventional CT (CCT), and nodularity of lesions was better appreciated in these patients. It is concluded from this study that CT is superior to plain radiography for the evaluation of patients with TPE. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. Dimensional soft tissue changes following soft tissue grafting in conjunction with implant placement or around present dental implants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskevicius, Lukas; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Juodzbalys, Gintaras

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review changes in mucosal soft tissue thickness and keratinised mucosa width after soft tissue grafting around dental implants. An electronic literature search was conducted of the MEDLINE database published between 2009 and 2014. Sequential screenings at the title, abstract, and full-text levels were performed. Clinical human studies in the English language that had reported changes in soft tissue thickness or keratinised mucosa width after soft tissue grafting at implant placement or around a present implant at 6-month follow-up or longer were included. The search resulted in fourteen articles meeting the inclusion criteria: Six of them reported connective tissue grafting around present dental implants, compared to eight at the time of implant placement. Better long-term soft tissue thickness outcomes were reported for soft tissue augmentation around dental implants (0.8-1.4 mm), compared with augmentation at implant placement (-0.25-1.43 mm). Both techniques were effective in increasing keratinised tissue width: at implant placement (2.5 mm) or around present dental implants (2.33-2.57 mm). The present systematic review discovered that connective tissue grafts enhanced keratinised mucosa width and soft tissue thickness for an observation period of up to 48 months. However, some shrinkage may occur, resulting in decreases in soft tissue, mostly for the first three months. Further investigations using accurate evaluation methods need to be done to evaluate the appropriate time for grafting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. CAT & MAUS: A novel system for true dynamic motion measurement of underlying bony structures with compensation for soft tissue movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Monk, Paul; Murray, David; Noble, J Alison; Mellon, Stephen

    2017-09-06

    Optoelectronic motion capture systems are widely employed to measure the movement of human joints. However, there can be a significant discrepancy between the data obtained by a motion capture system (MCS) and the actual movement of underlying bony structures, which is attributed to soft tissue artefact. In this paper, a computer-aided tracking and motion analysis with ultrasound (CAT & MAUS) system with an augmented globally optimal registration algorithm is presented to dynamically track the underlying bony structure during movement. The augmented registration part of CAT & MAUS was validated with a high system accuracy of 80%. The Euclidean distance between the marker-based bony landmark and the bony landmark tracked by CAT & MAUS was calculated to quantify the measurement error of an MCS caused by soft tissue artefact during movement. The average Euclidean distance between the target bony landmark measured by each of the CAT & MAUS system and the MCS alone varied from 8.32mm to 16.87mm in gait. This indicates the discrepancy between the MCS measured bony landmark and the actual underlying bony landmark. Moreover, Procrustes analysis was applied to demonstrate that CAT & MAUS reduces the deformation of the body segment shape modeled by markers during motion. The augmented CAT & MAUS system shows its potential to dynamically detect and locate actual underlying bony landmarks, which reduces the MCS measurement error caused by soft tissue artefact during movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Observer training for computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in chest radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boo, Diederick W; van Hoorn, François; van Schuppen, Joost; Schijf, Laura; Scheerder, Maeke J; Freling, Nicole J; Mets, Onno; Weber, Michael; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M

    2012-08-01

    To assess whether short-term feedback helps readers to increase their performance using computer-aided detection (CAD) for nodule detection in chest radiography. The 140 CXRs (56 with a solitary CT-proven nodules and 84 negative controls) were divided into four subsets of 35; each were read in a different order by six readers. Lesion presence, location and diagnostic confidence were scored without and with CAD (IQQA-Chest, EDDA Technology) as second reader. Readers received individual feedback after each subset. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) were calculated for readings with and without CAD with respect to change over time and impact of CAD. CAD stand-alone sensitivity was 59 % with 1.9 false-positives per image. Mean AUC slightly increased over time with and without CAD (0.78 vs. 0.84 with and 0.76 vs. 0.82 without CAD) but differences did not reach significance. The sensitivity increased (65 % vs. 70 % and 66 % vs. 70 %) and specificity decreased over time (79 % vs. 74 % and 80 % vs. 77 %) but no significant impact of CAD was found. Short-term feedback does not increase the ability of readers to differentiate true- from false-positive candidate lesions and to use CAD more effectively. • Computer-aided detection (CAD) is increasingly used as an adjunct for many radiological techniques. • Short-term feedback does not improve reader performance with CAD in chest radiography. • Differentiation between true- and false-positive CAD for low conspicious possible lesions proves difficult. • CAD can potentially increase reader performance for nodule detection in chest radiography.

  19. An investigation of automatic exposure control calibration for chest imaging with a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R; Avery, G; Balcam, S; Needler, L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of three physical image quality metrics in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. The metrics assessed were signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQ m ), all measured using a uniform chest phantom. Subsequent calibration curves were derived to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range. Each curve was assessed for its clinical appropriateness by generating computer simulated chest images with correct detector air kermas for each tube voltage, and grading these against reference images which were reconstructed at detector air kermas correct for the constant detector dose indicator (DDI) curve currently programmed into the AEC device. All simulated chest images contained clinically realistic projected anatomy and anatomical noise and were scored by experienced image evaluators. Constant DDI and CNR curves do not appear to provide optimized performance across the diagnostic energy range. Conversely, constant eNEQ m  and SNR do appear to provide optimized performance, with the latter being the preferred calibration metric given as it is easier to measure in practice. Medical physicists may use the SNR image quality metric described here when setting up and optimizing AEC devices for chest radiography CR systems with a degree of confidence that resulting clinical image quality will be adequate for the required clinical task. However, this must be done with close cooperation of expert image evaluators, to ensure appropriate levels of detector air kerma. (paper)

  20. An investigation of automatic exposure control calibration for chest imaging with a computed radiography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Avery, G; Balcam, S; Needler, L; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2014-05-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of three physical image quality metrics in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. The metrics assessed were signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQm), all measured using a uniform chest phantom. Subsequent calibration curves were derived to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range. Each curve was assessed for its clinical appropriateness by generating computer simulated chest images with correct detector air kermas for each tube voltage, and grading these against reference images which were reconstructed at detector air kermas correct for the constant detector dose indicator (DDI) curve currently programmed into the AEC device. All simulated chest images contained clinically realistic projected anatomy and anatomical noise and were scored by experienced image evaluators. Constant DDI and CNR curves do not appear to provide optimized performance across the diagnostic energy range. Conversely, constant eNEQm and SNR do appear to provide optimized performance, with the latter being the preferred calibration metric given as it is easier to measure in practice. Medical physicists may use the SNR image quality metric described here when setting up and optimizing AEC devices for chest radiography CR systems with a degree of confidence that resulting clinical image quality will be adequate for the required clinical task. However, this must be done with close cooperation of expert image evaluators, to ensure appropriate levels of detector air kerma.

  1. Subcutaneous Emphysema in Non-Necrotizing Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ehsani-Nia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 63-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis who was sent to the emergency department by his primary care provider for further evaluation of left upper extremity crepitus. The patient fell onto his left elbow two days prior to presentation resulting in immediate swelling and a small laceration. He complained of minimal pain and denied fevers or chills. His medications included metformin, tocilizumab, methotrexate and prednisone. In the ED, the patient was well-appearing, afebrile, with a normal heart rate and in no acute distress. Examination of the left upper extremity revealed no tenderness to palpation but marked crepitus with a scabbed laceration over his olecranon process and was neurovascularly intact. White blood cell count (WBC, sodium, glucose, inflammatory markers and lactate were all within normal limits. Significant findings: X-Rays of the elbow revealed diffuse striated lucencies throughout the soft tissue, consistent with extensive subcutaneous air throughout the superficial and deep tissues. There was no evidence of a fracture. Discussion: The initiating mechanism for necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs is a disruption of the fascial planes, most commonly by trauma. The inoculated bacteria rapidly spread and surgical debridement is necessary.1-3 Early recognition and disposition to the operating room in 51 are correlated with increased morbidity and mortality.5 Additionally, it has been found that immunocompromised patients exhibit atypical presentations of NSTIs.6 The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC score is often used to risk stratify patients when there is suspicion for an NSTI.7 The patient discussed here had a LRINEC score of 0. However, the physical exam finding of crepitus, coupled with his history of immunocompromised status and subcutaneous air on X-ray made the diagnosis of NSTI seem likely. However, upon surgical exploration

  2. Computed tomography in sport injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.; Rupp, N.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability. (orig.)

  3. Computed tomography in sport injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M; Rupp, N

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability.

  4. [Distal soft-tissue procedure in hallux valgus deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, D; Wingenfeld, C; Frank, D; Bouillon, B; König, D P

    2016-04-01

    Distal, lateral soft tissue release to restore mediolateral balance of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint in hallux valgus deformity. Incision of the adductor hallucis tendon from the fibular sesamoid, the lateral capsule, the lateral collateral ligament, and the lateral metatarsosesamoid ligament. Hallux valgus deformities or recurrent hallux valgus deformities with an incongruent MTP joint. General medical contraindications to surgical interventions. Painful stiffness of the MTP joint, osteonecrosis, congruent joint. Relative contraindications: connective tissue diseases (Marfan syndrome, Ehler-Danlos syndrome). Longitudinal, dorsal incision in the first intermetatarsal web space between the first and second MTP joint. Blunt dissection and identification of the adductor hallucis tendon. Release of the adductor tendon from the fibular sesamoid. Incision of the lateral capsule, the lateral collateral ligament, and the lateral metatarsosesamoid ligament. Postoperative management depends on bony correction. In joint-preserving procedures, dressing for 3 weeks in corrected position. Subsequently hallux valgus orthosis at night and a toe spreader for a further 3 months. Passive mobilization of the first MTP joint. Postoperative weight-bearing according to the osteotomy. A total of 31 patients with isolated hallux valgus deformity underwent surgery with a Chevron and Akin osteotomy and a distal medial and lateral soft tissue balancing. The mean preoperative intermetatarsal (IMA) angle was 12.3° (range 11-15°); the hallux valgus (HV) angle was 28.2° (25-36°). The mean follow-up was 16.4 months (range 12-22 months). The mean postoperative IMA correction ranged between 2 and 7° (mean 5.2°); the mean HV correction was 15.5° (range 9-21°). In all, 29 patients (93%) were satisfied or very satisfied with the postoperative outcome, while 2 patients (7%) were not satisfied due to one delayed wound healing and one recurrent hallux valgus deformity. There were no

  5. Radiation-induced pseudotumor following therapy for soft tissue sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Lacey F.; Kransdorf, Mark J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Buskirk, Steven J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); O' Connor, Mary I. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Menke, David M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and imaging appearance of radiation induced pseudotumors in patients following radiation therapy for extremity soft tissue sarcomas. We retrospectively reviewed the serial magnetic resonance (MR) images of 24 patients following radiation therapy for extremity soft tissue sarcomas. A total of 208 exams were reviewed (mean, 8.7 exams per patient) and included all available studies following the start of radiation therapy. Exams were analyzed for the identification of focal signal abnormalities within the surgical bed suggesting local tumor recurrence. Histopathologic correlation was available in nine patients suspected of having local tumor recurrence. Additional information recorded included patient demographics, tumor type and location, radiation type, and dose. The study group consisted of 12 men and 12 women, having an average age of 63 years (range, 39-88 years). Primary tumors were malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n = 13), leiomyosarcoma (n = 6), liposarcoma (n = 3), synovial sarcoma (n = 1), and extraskeletal chondrosarcoma (n = 1). All lesions were high-grade sarcomas, except for two myxoid liposarcomas. Average patient radiation dose was 5,658 cGy (range, 4,500-8,040 cGy). Average follow-up time was 63 months (range, 3-204 months). Focal signal abnormalities suggesting local recurrence were seen in nine (38%) patients. Three of the nine patients with these signal abnormalities were surgically proven to have radiation-induced pseudotumor. The pseudotumors developed between 11 and 61 months following the initiation of radiation therapy (mean, 38 months), with an average radiation dose of 5,527 cGy (range, 5,040-6,500 cGy). MR imaging demonstrated a relatively ill-defined ovoid focus of abnormal signal and intense heterogeneous enhancement with little or no associated mass effect. MR imaging of radiation-induced pseudotumor typically demonstrates a relatively ill-defined ovoid mass-like focus of intense

  6. Reconstruction of soft tissue defects around the ankle and foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan Dogra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soft tissue defects over ankle and foot region are encountered quite frequently following road traffic trauma and surgery. Management of such cases is a challenging task for any reconstructive surgeon because of paucity of skin and relative poor vascular status of skin in this region. Hence, invariably such cases require microsurgical free flap coverage, expertise for which may not be available at all the centers, such procedures require long operating hours and suitable recipient vessel may not be available in crush injuries. Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive patients having soft tissue defects around ankle and foot region who underwent various reconstructive procedures in a medical college hospital during last 2 years form the basis of this study. This study was carried out to enlist various etiological factors and reconstructive surgical procedures employed to manage such cases without microsurgery. Results: The age of these patients ranged from 9 to 72 years. Twenty-five patients were males while 05 were females, with a mean age of 25 years. Road traffic accidents happened to be the primary cause of such defects in as many as 15 patients, cycle spoke trauma in 02 patients, implant exposure following orthopedic surgery in 6 patients, diabetic angiopathy in 4 patients and chronic osteomyelitis in 3 patients. The site of the defect was lower fourth of tibia in 16 patients, dorsum of foot in 2 patients, sole in 5 patients, medial aspect of ankle in 02 cases, lateral aspect in 02 cases and retro calcaneal region in 03 cases. In 10 cases distally based superficial sural artery flap was used to reconstruct the defect. In step rotation flap was used to provide sensory flap cover in the weight bearing heel in 04 cases. Inferiorly based fasciocutanenous flaps in 09 cases and muscle flaps were used in 07 cases. Conclusion: Distally based sural artery based flaps are very handy to provide skin cover around ankle and malleolar

  7. Effectiveness of Vascular Markers (Immunohistochemical Stains) in Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Namra; Mushtaq, Sajid; Akhter, Noreen; Hussain, Mudassar; Hassan, Usman

    2018-05-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of IHC markers of vascular origin like CD31, CD34, FLI1 and ERG in vascular soft tissue sarcomas including angiosarcomas, Kaposi sarcomas, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and a non-vascular soft tissue sarcoma (Epithelioid sarcoma). Descriptive study. Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from 2011 to 2017. Diagnosed cases of angiosarcomas (n=48), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (n=9), Kaposi sarcoma (n=9) and epithelioid sarcoma (n=20) were selected. Immunohistochemical staining as performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. The sections were stained for the following markers: CD34 (VENTANA clone Q Bend 10), CD31 (Leica clone 1 A 10), FLI1 (CELL MARQUE clone MRQ-1) and ERG (CELL MARQUE clone EP111). A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 8/48 cases of angiosarcomas with triple positivity in 6 cases. Eight cases showed positivity for only CD31 and ERG and 2 cases showed positivity for only ERG. A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 3/9 cases of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with positivity for all markers in 2 cases. Combined positivity for ERG and CD34 was seen in 2 cases and on 4 cases only CD31 immunohistochemical was solely applied with 100% positivity. FLI1 was not applied on any case. Among 9 cases of Kaposi sarcoma, ERG, CD34 and CD31 in combination were applied on only 1 case with triple positivity. Remaining cases show positivity for either CD34, CD31 or FLI1. Majority of cases of epithelioid sarcomas were diagnosed on the basis of cytokeratin and CD34 positivity with loss of INI1. The other vascular markers showed negativity in all cases. Among these four markers, ERG immunohistochemical stain is highly effective for endothelial differentiation due to its specific nuclear staining pattern in normal blood vessel endothelial cells (internal control) as well as neoplastic cells of vascular tumors and lack of background staining.

  8. Subungual Hypervascular Soft Tissue Chondroma Mimicking a Glomus Tumor: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Chun; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae

    2009-01-01

    Soft tissue chondroma, or extraskeletal chondroma, is a relatively rare, benign cartilaginous tumor that occurs most frequently in the hands and feet - a subungual location is quite rare. The authors describe a subungual soft tissue chondroma in a 25-year-old man that was visualized as a hypervascular mass on color Doppler ultrasonography and initially misdiagnosed as a glomus tumor

  9. Subungual Hypervascular Soft Tissue Chondroma Mimicking a Glomus Tumor: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Chun; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae [Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Soft tissue chondroma, or extraskeletal chondroma, is a relatively rare, benign cartilaginous tumor that occurs most frequently in the hands and feet - a subungual location is quite rare. The authors describe a subungual soft tissue chondroma in a 25-year-old man that was visualized as a hypervascular mass on color Doppler ultrasonography and initially misdiagnosed as a glomus tumor

  10. Soft tissue augmentation techniques and materials used in the oral cavity : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.; Farré-Guasch, E.; Sándor, G.K.; Gibbs, S.; Jager, D.J.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Oral soft tissue augmentation or grafting procedures are often necessary to achieve proper wound closure after deficits resulting from tumor excision, clefts, trauma, dental implants, and tooth recessions. Materials and Methods: Autologous soft tissue grafts still remain the gold standard

  11. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogenous group of malignant tumors that originate from primitive mesenchymal tissue and account for 7% of all childhood tumors. Get detailed information about clinical presentation, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent soft tissue sarcoma in this summary for clinicians.

  12. Traumatic hallux varus repair utilizing a soft-tissue anchor: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitz, J M; Kaczander, B I

    2000-01-01

    Hallux varus is usually iatrogenic in nature; however, congenital and acquired etiologies have been described in the literature. The authors present a case of traumatic hallux varus secondary to rupture of the adductor tendon. Surgical correction was performed using a soft tissue anchor for maintenance of the soft tissues utilized for repair.

  13. Evaluation of reproducibility and reliability of 3D soft tissue analysis using 3D stereophotogrammetry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plooij, J.M.; Swennen, G.R.J.; Rangel, F.A.; Maal, T.J.J.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Berge, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    In 3D photographs the bony structures are neither available nor palpable, therefore, the bone-related landmarks, such as the soft tissue gonion, need to be redefined. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility and reliability of 49 soft tissue landmarks, including newly defined

  14. Automated planning volume definition in soft-tissue sarcoma adjuvant brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eva K.; Fung, Albert Y.C.; Zaider, Marco; Brooks, J. Paul

    2002-01-01

    In current practice, the planning volume for adjuvant brachytherapy treatment for soft-tissue sarcoma is either not determined a priori (in this case, seed locations are selected based on isodose curves conforming to a visual estimate of the planning volume), or it is derived via a tedious manual process. In either case, the process is subjective and time consuming, and is highly dependent on the human planner. The focus of the work described herein involves the development of an automated contouring algorithm to outline the planning volume. Such an automatic procedure will save time and provide a consistent and objective method for determining planning volumes. In addition, a definitive representation of the planning volume will allow for sophisticated brachytherapy treatment planning approaches to be applied when designing treatment plans, so as to maximize local tumour control and minimize normal tissue complications. An automated tumour volume contouring algorithm is developed utilizing computational geometry and numerical interpolation techniques in conjunction with an artificial intelligence method. The target volume is defined to be the slab of tissue r cm perpendicularly away from the curvilinear plane defined by the mesh of catheters. We assume that if adjacent catheters are over 2r cm apart, the tissue between the two catheters is part of the tumour bed. Input data consist of the digitized coordinates of the catheter positions in each of several cross-sectional slices of the tumour bed, and the estimated distance r from the catheters to the tumour surface. Mathematically, one can view the planning volume as the volume enclosed within a minimal smoothly-connected surface which contains a set of circles, each circle centred at a given catheter position in a given cross-sectional slice. The algorithm performs local interpolation on consecutive triplets of circles. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated based on its performance on a collection of

  15. Automated planning volume definition in soft-tissue sarcoma adjuvant brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fung, Albert Y.C.; Zaider, Marco [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Brooks, J. Paul [School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2002-06-07

    In current practice, the planning volume for adjuvant brachytherapy treatment for soft-tissue sarcoma is either not determined a priori (in this case, seed locations are selected based on isodose curves conforming to a visual estimate of the planning volume), or it is derived via a tedious manual process. In either case, the process is subjective and time consuming, and is highly dependent on the human planner. The focus of the work described herein involves the development of an automated contouring algorithm to outline the planning volume. Such an automatic procedure will save time and provide a consistent and objective method for determining planning volumes. In addition, a definitive representation of the planning volume will allow for sophisticated brachytherapy treatment planning approaches to be applied when designing treatment plans, so as to maximize local tumour control and minimize normal tissue complications. An automated tumour volume contouring algorithm is developed utilizing computational geometry and numerical interpolation techniques in conjunction with an artificial intelligence method. The target volume is defined to be the slab of tissue r cm perpendicularly away from the curvilinear plane defined by the mesh of catheters. We assume that if adjacent catheters are over 2r cm apart, the tissue between the two catheters is part of the tumour bed. Input data consist of the digitized coordinates of the catheter positions in each of several cross-sectional slices of the tumour bed, and the estimated distance r from the catheters to the tumour surface. Mathematically, one can view the planning volume as the volume enclosed within a minimal smoothly-connected surface which contains a set of circles, each circle centred at a given catheter position in a given cross-sectional slice. The algorithm performs local interpolation on consecutive triplets of circles. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated based on its performance on a collection of

  16. A systematic review on the effect of serious games and wearable technology used in rehabilitation of patients with traumatic bone and soft tissue injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Henriëtte A. W.; Graafland, Maurits; Goslings, J. Carel; Schijven, Marlies P.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects on functional outcomes and treatment adherence of wearable technology and serious games (i.e., interactive computer applications with specific purposes useful in the 'real world') currently applied in physical rehabilitation of patients after traumatic bone and soft tissue

  17. Development of a computer simulation system of intraoral radiography using perspective volume rendering of CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Kazutoshi; Tanaka, Takemasa; Yoshiura, Kazunori; Tokumori, Kenji; Kanda, Shigenobu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a computer simulation system for intraoral radiography as an educational aid for radiographic training for dental students. A dried skull was scanned with a multidetector CT, and the series of slice data was transferred to a workstation. A software AVS Express Developer was used to construct the x-ray projected images from the CT slice data. Geometrical reproducibilities were confirmed using numerical phantoms. We simulated images using the perspective projection method with an average value algorithm on this software. Simulated images were compared with conventional film images projected from the same geometrical positions, including eccentric projection. Furthermore, to confirm the changes of the image depending on the projection angles of the x-ray beam, we constructed simulation images in which the root apexes were enhanced with the maximum value algorithm. Using this method, high resolution simulated images with perspective projection, as opposed to parallel, were constructed. Comparing with conventional film images, all major anatomic components could be visualized easily. Any intraoral radiographs at an arbitrary angular projection could be simulated, which was impossible in the conventional training schema for radiographic technique. Therefore, not only standard projected images but also eccentric projections could be displayed. A computer simulation system of intraoral radiography with this method may be useful for training in intraoral radiographic technique for dental students. (author)

  18. X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography analysis of a famous brazilian painting from XIX century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Davi F.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2009-01-01

    This work used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Computed Radiography (CR) to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 μA, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P portable computed radiography scanner and a Fuji imaging plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a complete composition hidden underneath the visible paint layer.(author)

  19. Estimation of dose to patients undergoing computed radiography x-ray examinations in some Khartoum hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badri, Fatima Abulgasiem Abdulrhman

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the entrance surface air kerma to the patient during x-ray examination to (chest PA, lumbar spine AP and Lat, pelvis AP) by using computed radiography (CR) in different three hospitals in Khartoum. Three x-ray machines were covered. A total of 135 patients were evaluated. The entrance surface air kerma was calculated for each patient from the exposure parameters using cal dose software version 3.5. The obtained results showed that, the entrance surface air kerma range founded to be (0.28-1.59) for chest PA, (1.98-2.62) for lumbar spine and (0.438-2.47) for pelvis AP. The higher entrance surface air kerma for all projections were observed in Center 1, except for pelvis it is higher in center 2. And the lower entrance surface air kerma were observed in center 3. This study recommends that CR operator must to be used to achieve optimize the patient dose by use the best strategies available for reducing radiation dose, computed radiography must be used with high level of training for medical staff to reduce the dose, each radiology department should implement a patient dose measurement quality assurance programme, doses to the patients should be regularly monitored and the proposed national DRLs should be taken as guidance for optimization.(Author)

  20. Daily quality control in computed radiography mammography using the manufacturer phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubiak, Rosangela R.; Messias, Pricila C.; Oliveira, Carlla M.

    2011-01-01

    The quality control (QC) in mammography system involves a large amount of test tools, which implies a large space for storage and a high number of exposure. This work describes a QC system using a phantom, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) One Shot Phantom M Plus, that evaluates several parameters with just one exposure. The software offers tests with annual, semi-annual, quarterly, weekly and daily periodicity, and analyzes the conformities of the mammography equipment, image plate and cassettes. Because of the high number of tests, it was evaluated the daily test only for seven months in two mammography equipment. The test, through the software and its image, allows the analysis of ten parameters in QC. The evaluation of these parameters was realized by the average of the values provided by the software. Only one of the evaluated items showed not conformity, but this was observed and the necessary corrections were realized. The monitoring of use of FCR Mammography QC software with the FCR One Shot Phantom M Plus was realized and through this we could investigate that the quality program provided by the system is appropriate for the radiology services that has the Fuji Computed Radiography system. (author)

  1. X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography analysis of a famous brazilian painting from XIX century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Davi F.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear], e-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; Pedreira, Andrea [Museu Nacional de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Computed Radiography (CR) to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 {mu}A, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 {mu}A, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P portable computed radiography scanner and a Fuji imaging plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a complete composition hidden underneath the visible paint layer.(author)

  2. Thermal-mechanical deformation modelling of soft tissues for thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza; Subic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues is of great importance for thermal ablation. This paper presents a method by integrating the heating process with thermal-induced mechanical deformations of soft tissues for simulation and analysis of the thermal ablation process. This method combines bio-heat transfer theories, constitutive elastic material law under thermal loads as well as non-rigid motion dynamics to predict and analyze thermal-mechanical deformations of soft tissues. The 3D governing equations of thermal-mechanical soft tissue deformation are discretized by using the finite difference scheme and are subsequently solved by numerical algorithms. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively predict the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues, and can be used for the thermal ablation therapy to effectively control the delivered heat energy for cancer treatment.

  3. Extracranial soft-tissue swelling: a normal postmortem radiographic finding or a sign of trauma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strouse, P.J.; Caplan, M.; Owings, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine if extracranial soft-tissue swelling is an expected postmortem finding or a sign of trauma. Materials and methods. Extracranial soft-tissue thickness was measured at 5 standardized locations on postmortem skull films obtained of 18 infants with no evidence of trauma on autopsy. The same measurements were performed on the skull films of 100 living children, all less than 3 years old and without clinical history of trauma. Results. Extracranial soft tissues measured only slightly greater in the postmortem group than on films of living children; however, the difference did achieve statistical significance. Conclusion. Minimal extracranial soft-tissue swelling is a normal finding on a postmortem skeletal survey. The presence of substantial or asymmetric extracranial soft-tissue swelling should be viewed with suspicion for trauma. (orig.)

  4. Extracranial soft-tissue swelling: a normal postmortem radiographic finding or a sign of trauma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, P.J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (United States); Caplan, M. [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Owings, C.L. [Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, C. S. Mott Children`s Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Objective. To determine if extracranial soft-tissue swelling is an expected postmortem finding or a sign of trauma. Materials and methods. Extracranial soft-tissue thickness was measured at 5 standardized locations on postmortem skull films obtained of 18 infants with no evidence of trauma on autopsy. The same measurements were performed on the skull films of 100 living children, all less than 3 years old and without clinical history of trauma. Results. Extracranial soft tissues measured only slightly greater in the postmortem group than on films of living children; however, the difference did achieve statistical significance. Conclusion. Minimal extracranial soft-tissue swelling is a normal finding on a postmortem skeletal survey. The presence of substantial or asymmetric extracranial soft-tissue swelling should be viewed with suspicion for trauma. (orig.) With 2 tabs., 5 refs.

  5. Adult soft tissue sarcomas: conventional therapies and molecularly targeted approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Rossi, Carlo R; Brandes, Alba; Nitti, Donato

    2006-02-01

    The therapeutic approach to soft tissue sarcomas (STS) has evolved over the past two decades based on the results from randomized controlled trials, which are guiding physicians in the treatment decision-making process. Despite significant improvements in the control of local disease, a significant number of patients ultimately die of recurrent/metastatic disease following radical surgery due to a lack of effective adjuvant treatments. In addition, the characteristic chemoresistance of STS has compromised the therapeutic value of conventional antineoplastic agents in cases of unresectable advanced/metastatic disease. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the prognosis of patients with STS. Recent advances in STS biology are paving the way to the development of molecularly targeted therapeutic strategies, the efficacy of which relies not only on the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development/progression but also on the personalization of the therapeutic regimen according to the molecular features of individual tumours. In this work, we review the state-of-the-art of conventional treatments for STS and summarize the most promising findings in the development of molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches.

  6. Bone and soft tissue tumors of hip and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloem, Johan L., E-mail: j.l.bloem@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Reidsma, Inge I., E-mail: i.i.reidsma@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Objective is to identify epidemiologic and radiologic criteria allowing specific diagnoses of tumors and tumor-like lesions in the hip region and pelvis, and to optimize pre-operative staging. Patients with pelvic tumors are usually older, and their tumors are larger relative to patients with tumors in extremities. The majority of tumors in the pelvis are malignant (metastases, myeloma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing-, osteo-, and MFH/fibrosarcoma), while those in the proximal femur are in majority benign (fibrous dysplasia, solitary bone cyst, and osteoid osteoma). Soft tissue masses in the thigh in the elderly are typically sarcomas without tumor specific signs. Common tumor-like lesions occurring in the hip and pelvis that can mimic neoplasm are: infections (including tuberculosis), insufficiency/avulsion fractures, cysts, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and Paget's disease. Local MR staging is based on the compartmental anatomy. The psoas and gluteal muscles are easily invaded by sarcoma originating in the ileum. The pectineus muscle protects the neurovascular bundle at the level of the hip. The thigh is separated into three compartments, some structures (Sartorius muscle) cross borders between compartments. Immobile joints (SI-joints, osteoarthritic hip) are relatively easily crossed by sarcoma and giant cell tumor.

  7. What is current practice in soft tissue sarcoma grading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golouh, R.; Bracko, M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. Most published grading systems of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are somewhat subjective and it seems that there is no definite consensus among experts which of them is the most effective. The aim of this study was to collect data from practicing pathologists and to get some insight in the practice of STS grading. Subjects. A questionnaire was sent to 135 pathologists chosen randomly. Results. There were 88 responders from 30 countries from 5 continents. Most responders (85%) grade STS, more frequently in Europe than in non-European countries. Three-grade system is preferred by both European and non-European pathologists, who use it in almost 77% and 67%, respectively. They apply the criteria set by FNCLCC in 37.3%, by NCI in 24%, by Broders in 12% and by Markhede in 1.4%. In Europe, FNCLCC system is the most widely used. Beside classical histological criteria, other modern methods are applied by more than one half of the responders. Immunohistochemical evaluation of proliferation markers is the method most widely used, followed by molecular markers and DNA flow cytometry. Conclusion. The results of our study indicate that most pathologists consider histologic grade of STS as a valuable, however not completely satisfactory predictor of a patient's survival. (author)

  8. Soft tissue strain measurement using an optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Siew Lok; Tay, Cho Jui; Goh, Cho Hong James

    2008-11-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a non-contact optical technique that allows the full-field estimation of strains on a surface under an applied deformation. In this project, the application of an optimized DIC technique is applied, which can achieve efficiency and accuracy in the measurement of two-dimensional deformation fields in soft tissue. This technique relies on matching the random patterns recorded in images to directly obtain surface displacements and to get displacement gradients from which the strain field can be determined. Digital image correlation is a well developed technique that has numerous and varied engineering applications, including the application in soft and hard tissue biomechanics. Chicken drumstick ligaments were harvested and used during the experiments. The surface of the ligament was speckled with black paint to allow for correlation to be done. Results show that the stress-strain curve exhibits a bi-linear behavior i.e. a "toe region" and a "linear elastic region". The Young's modulus obtained for the toe region is about 92 MPa and the modulus for the linear elastic region is about 230 MPa. The results are within the values for mammalian anterior cruciate ligaments of 150-300 MPa.

  9. Micromechanics and constitutive modeling of connective soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a micromechanical model for connective soft tissues based on the available histological evidences is developed. The proposed model constituents i.e. collagen fibers and ground matrix are considered as hyperelastic materials. The matrix material is assumed to be isotropic Neo-Hookean while the collagen fibers are considered to be transversely isotropic hyperelastic. In order to take into account the effects of tissue structure in lower scales on the macroscopic behavior of tissue, a strain energy density function (SEDF) is developed for collagen fibers based on tissue hierarchical structure. Macroscopic response and properties of tissue are obtained using the numerical homogenization method with the help of ABAQUS software. The periodic boundary conditions and the proposed constitutive models are implemented into ABAQUS using the DISP and the UMAT subroutines, respectively. The existence of the solution and stable material behavior of proposed constitutive model for collagen fibers are investigated based on the poly-convexity condition. Results of the presented micromechanics model for connective tissues are compared and validated with available experimental data. Effects of geometrical and material parameters variation at microscale on macroscopic mechanical behavior of tissues are investigated. The results show that decrease in collagen content of the connective tissues like the tendon due to diseases leads 20% more stretch than healthy tissue under the same load which can results in connective tissue malfunction and hypermobility in joints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Demographics, Microbiology and Outcome in Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chance Witt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI are potentially severe infections that have a high morbidity and mortality even with modern medical care. This study examines factors associated with outcomes in patients with NSTI in an academic tertiary care hospital. Design: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with NSTI between 2003 and 2008. Baseline demographics and comorbid conditions, laboratory and clinical parameters, timing of surgery, and outcomes, including length of stay and mortality, were compared with univariate analysis; significant factors were then analyzed for their effects on mortality using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Sixty-nine patients with NSTI were analyzed; 61% were men. Diabetes (39% was the most common comorbid condition. Most infections (55% were polymicrobial. The most common organism in monomicrobial infections was Staphylococcus aureus, and 50 % of these isolates were methicillin resistant. Nine patients (13% required amputation. Mortality was 20%, and the most significant predictor of mortality was a higher respiratory rate on admission (p=0.02. Conclusion: Patients in this series frequently had diabetes, usually had polymicrobial infections, and had a 20% mortality rate.

  11. Combining Targeted Agents With Modern Radiotherapy in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Philip; Houghton, Peter; Kirsch, David G.; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Xu-Welliver, Meng; Dicker, Adam P.; Ahmed, Mansoor; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Teicher, Beverly A.; Coleman, C. Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Curran, Walter J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved understanding of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) biology has led to better distinction and subtyping of these diseases with the hope of exploiting the molecular characteristics of each subtype to develop appropriately targeted treatment regimens. In the care of patients with extremity STS, adjunctive radiation therapy (RT) is used to facilitate limb and function, preserving surgeries while maintaining five-year local control above 85%. In contrast, for STS originating from nonextremity anatomical sites, the rate of local recurrence is much higher (five-year local control is approximately 50%) and a major cause of death and morbidity in these patients. Incorporating novel technological advancements to administer accurate RT in combination with novel radiosensitizing agents could potentially improve local control and overall survival. RT efficacy in STS can be increased by modulating biological pathways such as angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation, cell survival signaling, and cancer-host immune interactions. Previous experiences, advancements, ongoing research, and current clinical trials combining RT with agents modulating one or more of the above pathways are reviewed. The standard clinical management of patients with STS with pretreatment biopsy, neoadjuvant treatment, and primary surgery provides an opportune disease model for interrogating translational hypotheses. The purpose of this review is to outline a strategic vision for clinical translation of preclinical findings and to identify appropriate targeted agents to combine with radiotherapy in the treatment of STS from different sites and/or different histology subtypes. PMID:25326640

  12. Leiomyosarcoma: A rare soft tissue cancer arising from multiple organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorawar Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma (LMS, a smooth muscle connective tissue tumor, is a rare form of cancer which accounts for 5–10% of soft tissue sarcomas. This type of cancer is highly unpredictable. LMS is a resistant type of cancer and can remain in the dormant state for long time. It can recur in the later stages of life. LMS has been reported in different animals including humans. A wide literature search was done. The PubMed database was used to search for journal articles on the occurrence of LMS in different organs from 1950 to 2016. LMS has been reported to be associated with different organs, including esophagus, stomach, intestine, anus and uterus. In this article, an attempt has been made to review the studies based on occurrence of LMS with respect to the organs affected and frequency of publications. Finding the organ-associated occurrence of LMS may be useful in assessing the overall risk and formulating future cancer preventive strategies.

  13. Head and neck soft tissue sarcomas treated with radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas K. Vitzthum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck soft tissue sarcomas (HNSTSs are rare and heterogeneous cancers in which radiation therapy (RT has an important role in local tumor control (LC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes and patterns of treatment failure in patients with HNSTS treated with RT. A retrospective review was performed of adult patients with HNSTS treated with RT from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2012. LC, locoregional control (LRC, disease-free survival (DFS, overall survival (OS, and predictors thereof were assessed. Forty-eight patients with HNSTS were evaluated. Five-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of LC, LRC, DFS, and OS were 87, 73, 63, and 83%, respectively. Angiosarcomas were found to be associated with worse LC, LRC, DFS, and OS. Patients over the age of 60 had lower rates of DFS. HNSTSs comprise a diverse group of tumors that can be managed with various treatment regimens involving RT. Angiosarcomas have higher recurrence and mortality rates.

  14. Light ion irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linstadt, D.; Castro, J.R.; Phillips, T.L.; Petti, P.L.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.; Schoethaler, R.; Rayner, A.

    1990-09-01

    Between 1978 and 1989, 32 patients with unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma underwent light ion (helium, neon) irradiation with curative intent at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The tumors were located in the trunk in 22 patients and head and neck in 10. Macroscopic tumor was present in 22 at the time of irradiation. Two patients had tumors apparently induced by previous therapeutic irradiation. Follow-up times for surviving patients ranged from 4 to 121 months (median 27 months). The overall 3-year actuarial local control rate was 62%; the corresponding survival rate was 50%. The 3-year actuarial control rate for patients irradiated with macroscopic tumors was 48%, while none of the patients with microscopic disease developed local recurrence (100%). The corresponding 3-year actuarial survival rates were 40% (macroscopic) and 78% (microscopic). Patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma did notably well; the local control rate and survival rate were 64% and 62%, respectively. Complications were acceptable; there were no radiation related deaths, while two patients (6%) required operations to correct significant radiation-related injuries. These results appear promising compared to those achieved by low -LET irradiation, and suggest that this technique merits further investigation

  15. Angiographic findings of congenital vascular malformation in soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dae Seob; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, Jin Wook; Moon, Woo Kyung; Han, Man Chung

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical, plain radiographic, and angiographic findings of congenital vascular malformation of the soft tissue. Retrospective analysis was performed in 36 patients. Pathological diagnosis was done in 25 patients by surgery and the others were clinically and angiographically diagnosed. On the basis of angiographic findings, we classified the lesions to three groups as arteriovenous malformation (AVM), hemangioma, and venous malformation. In pathologically proven 25 cases, we compared the angiographic diagnosis with the pathologic diagnosis. By angiographic classification, AVM was 13 cases, hemangioma 16 cases, and venous malformation 7 cases. The locations of the lesions were upper extremities in 14 cases, lower extremities in 20 cases, both extremities in 1 case, and back in 1 case. Clinical findings were bruit and thrill in 13 cases(12 AVMs,1 hemangioma) and varicosities in 16 cases(11 AVMs, 3 hemangiomas and 2 venous malformations). The varicosities in AVM were pulsating nature, but not in hemangioma and venous malformation. The concordance rate of the angiographic and pathologic diagnosis was 100%(6/6) in AVM, 71%(10/14) in hemangioma and 60% (3/5) in venous malformation. We think that angiography is an essential study for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of congenital vascular malformation

  16. Occurrence of Comorbidities before and after Soft Tissue Sarcoma Diagnosis

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    Myrthe P. P. van Herk-Sukel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data is limited on the burden of common comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD, respiratory disease and diabetes, or comorbidities related to cancer and its treatment, such as anemia and depression, in patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS. Patients and Methods. From the Dutch Pathology Registry linked to the PHARMO database (including data on drug use and hospitalizations, 533 patients with STS were selected during 2000–2007 and matched 1 : 10 to cancer-free controls. The occurrences of comorbidities were assessed in the 12 months before and after STS diagnosis. Results. STS patients were 2–4 times more likely to have comorbidities at diagnosis compared with cancer-free controls. The incidence of CVD, anemia, and depression after STS diagnosis differed significantly from cancer-free controls and decreased during followup from 40–124 per 1,000 person-years (py during the first six months to 11–38 per 1,000 py more than 12 months after diagnosis. The incidence of respiratory disease and diabetes among STS patients remained stable during followup (5–21 per 1,000 py and did not differ significantly from cancer-free controls. Conclusions. STS patients were more likely to have comorbidities before cancer diagnosis and to develop CVD, anemia, and depression after diagnosis compared to cancer-free controls.

  17. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Nikita

    2015-11-21

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation.

  18. Elastic properties of synthetic materials for soft tissue modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansy, H A; Grahe, J R; Sandler, R H

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical models of soft tissue are useful for studying vibro-acoustic phenomena. They may be used for validating mathematical models and for testing new equipment and techniques. The objective of this study was to measure density and visco-elastic properties of synthetic materials that can be used to build such models. Samples of nine different materials were tested under dynamic (0.5 Hz) compressive loading conditions. The modulus of elasticity of the materials was varied, whenever possible, by adding a softener during manufacturing. The modulus was measured over a nine month period to quantify the effect of ageing and softener loss on material properties. Results showed that a wide range of the compression elasticity modulus (10 to 1400 kPa) and phase (3.5 0 -16.7 0 ) between stress and strain were possible. Some materials tended to exude softener over time, resulting in a weight loss and elastic properties change. While the weight loss under normal conditions was minimal in all materials (<3% over nine months), loss under accelerated weight-loss conditions can reach 59%. In the latter case an elasticity modulus increase of up to 500% was measured. Key advantages and limitations of candidate materials were identified and discussed

  19. The obesity paradox in patients with severe soft tissue infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Diaz, Arturo J; Lin, Elissa; Williams, Katherine; Jiang, Wei; Patel, Vihas; Shimizu, Naomi; Metcalfe, David; Olufajo, Olubode A; Cooper, Zara; Havens, Joaquim; Salim, Ali; Askari, Reza

    2017-09-01

    The "obesity paradox" has been demonstrated in chronic diseases but not in acute surgery. We sought to determine whether obesity is associated with improved outcomes in patients with severe soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The 2006 to 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify adult patients with SSTIs. Patients were categorized into nonobese and obese (nonmorbid [body mass index 30 to 39.9] and morbid [body mass index ≥ 40]). Logistic regression provided risk-adjusted association between obesity categories and inhospital mortality. There were 2,868 records with SSTI weighted to represent 14,080 patients. Obese patients were less likely to die in hospital than nonobese patients (odds ratio [OR] = .42; 95% confidence interval [CI], .25 to .70; P = .001). Subanalysis revealed a similar trend, with lower odds of mortality in nonmorbid obesity (OR = .46; 95% CI, .23 to .91; P = .025) and morbid obesity (OR = .39; 95% CI, .19 to .80; P = .011) groups. Obesity is independently associated with reduced inhospital mortality in patients with SSTI regardless of the obesity classification. This suggests that the obesity paradox exists in this acute surgical population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Soft tissue deformation using a Hierarchical Finite Element Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Alessandro; Bello, Fernando; Darzi, Ara

    2004-01-01

    Simulating soft tissue deformation in real-time has become increasingly important in order to provide a realistic virtual environment for training surgical skills. Several methods have been proposed with the aim of rendering in real-time the mechanical and physiological behaviour of human organs, one of the most popular being Finite Element Method (FEM). In this paper we present a new approach to the solution of the FEM problem introducing the concept of parent and child mesh within the development of a hierarchical FEM. The online selection of the child mesh is presented with the purpose to adapt the mesh hierarchy in real-time. This permits further refinement of the child mesh increasing the detail of the deformation without slowing down the simulation and giving the possibility of integrating force feedback. The results presented demonstrate the application of our proposed framework using a desktop virtual reality (VR) system that incorporates stereo vision with integrated haptics co-location via a desktop Phantom force feedback device.

  1. Comparative study on computed orthopantomography and film radiographic techniques in the radiography of temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tao; Ning Lixia; Liu Yuai; Li Ningyi; Chen Feng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the computed orthopantomography (COPT) with Shriller radiography(SR), film orthopantomography (FOPT) and other traditional radiographic techniques in the radiography of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Methods: Ninty-eight cases were randomly divided into 3 groups, and the open and close positions of TMJs of both sides were examined with SR, FOPT, and COPT, respectively. The satisfactory rates of the X-ray pictures were statistically analyzed with Pearson chi-square in SPSS10.0, and the satisfactory rates were analyzed with q test between the groups. Results: One hundred and forty-four of the open and close positions of 144 TMJ pictures of the COPT group, 128 of 128 of the FOPT group, and 6 of 120 of the SR group were satisfactory in the mandible ramus of the TMJ, with satisfactory rate being 100%, 100%, and 5%, respectively (P 0.01), respectively between FOPT and COPT groups. The difference was not statistically significant. The exposure was as follows: COPT, 99-113 mAs; FOPT, 210-225 mAs; and SR, 48-75 mAs. Therefore, COPT and FOPT were superior to SR in the pictures of the mandible ramus, coronoid process, and incisure, but inferior in the joint space pictures. The satisfactory rates of the condylar process and articular tubercle were same in the 3 groups. The exposure of the FOPT group was greater than that of the COPT and SR groups. Conclusion: COPT is superior to SR and FOPT in TMJ radiography, and should be applied widely in the clinic. (authors)

  2. Acute Knee Trauma: Analysis of Multidetector Computed Tomography Findings and Comparison with Conventional Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, A.O.T.; Kiuru, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of acute knee trauma and to compare radiography with MDCT in patients referred ta level 1 trauma center. Material and Methods: During a 5-year period, a total of 415 MDCT examinations were performed on 409 patients with acute knee trauma to reveal complex fracture anatomy or rule out a fracture. MDCT and primary radiographs were re-evaluated with respect to fracture location and trauma mechanism. Tibial plateau fractures were further analyzed depending on anatomical location: anterior-medial, anterior-lateral, posterior-lateral, and posterior-medial regions. Maximal depression of the tibial articular surface was measured. Findings on the primary knee radiographs were compared with MDCT findings. Results: Of the 409 patients, 356 (87%) had a knee fracture. A total of 451 fractures were found in all anatomic regions: distal femur ( n = 49), proximal tibia ( n 307), patella ( n = 23), and proximal fibula ( n = 72). Primary radiographs were available in 316 (76%) cases. Of these, 225 (71%) had MDCT in order to reveal the fracture anatomy better, and 91 (29%) had a subsequent MDCT after negative plain radiographs. Overall sensitivity of radiography was 83%, while negative predictive value was 49%. On radiography, tibial plateau articular depression was underestimated in all regions except when the fracture consisted of the whole half of the anterior or posterior plateau. The three main injury mechanisms were traffic accident, a simple fall, and sport. In 49 cases (15%), primary radiographs were suboptimal due to positioning. Conclusion: In severely injured patients, diagnostically sufficient radiographs are difficult to obtain, and therefore a negative radiograph is not reliable in ruling out a fracture. In these patients, MDCT is a fast and accurate examination and is also recommended in patients with tibial plateau fractures or complex knee injuries in order to evaluate the fracture adequately

  3. Basilar skull fracture in a Thoroughbred colt: Radiography or computed tomography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kin Lim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-year-old Thoroughbred colt was presented to the Equine Clinic, Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital for head trauma after rearing and falling backwards, hitting his head on the ground. Following medical therapy for acute onset neurological impairment secondary to a suspected basilar skull fracture, the horse was anaesthetised and computed tomography of the skull was performed. A diagnosis of a comminuted basilar skull fracture was made and skull radiographs were taken for comparison. The horse was subsequently euthanased owing to the poor prognosis; necropsy findings were compatible with imaging findings. The value and limitation of computed tomography versus radiography for the diagnosis of basilar skull fracture are discussed in this report. Introduction

  4. Basilar skull fracture in a Thoroughbred colt: Radiography or computed tomography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kin Lim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-year-old Thoroughbred colt was presented to the Equine Clinic, Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital for head trauma after rearing and falling backwards, hitting his head on the ground. Following medical therapy for acute onset neurological impairment secondary to a suspected basilar skull fracture, the horse was anaesthetised and computed tomography of the skull was performed. A diagnosis of a comminuted basilar skull fracture was made and skull radiographs were taken for comparison. The horse was subsequently euthanased owing to the poor prognosis; necropsy findings were compatible with imaging findings. The value and limitation of computed tomography versus radiography for the diagnosis of basilar skull fracture are discussed in this report.

  5. Comparative study of mesothelioma and asbestosis using computed tomography and conventional chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, T.G.; Efremidis, S.C.; Cohen, B.; Dan, S.; Efremidis, A.; Chahinian, A.P.; Teirstein, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study using computed tomography and conventional posteroanterior radiography was performed on 27 patients with mesothelioma and 13 patients with advanced asbestosis. The major pathologic features of both asbestosis and mesothelioma were well demonstrated by both modalities; computed tomography demonstrated the findings more frequently and in greater detail. No distinguishing features could be established based on configuration and size of the lesion. Many pleural plaques associated with advanced asbestosis were large and irregular and resembled those associated with mesothelioma. However, nodular involvement of the pleural fissures, pleural effusion, and ipsilateral volume loss with a fixed mediastinum were features predominating in mesothelioma. Growth determination of the plaques associated with asbestosis may be of minimal value since such plaques also undergo growth due to active inflammatory changes

  6. Face-based smoothed finite element method for real-time simulation of soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Andrea; Bessard Duparc, Rémi; Bui, Huu Phuoc; Paulus, Christoph J.; Peterlik, Igor; Cotin, Stéphane

    2017-03-01

    In soft tissue surgery, a tumor and other anatomical structures are usually located using the preoperative CT or MR images. However, due to the deformation of the concerned tissues, this information suffers from inaccuracy when employed directly during the surgery. In order to account for these deformations in the planning process, the use of a bio-mechanical model of the tissues is needed. Such models are often designed using the finite element method (FEM), which is, however, computationally expensive, in particular when a high accuracy of the simulation is required. In our work, we propose to use a smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) in the context of modeling of the soft tissue deformation. This numerical technique has been introduced recently to overcome the overly stiff behavior of the standard FEM and to improve the solution accuracy and the convergence rate in solid mechanics problems. In this paper, a face-based smoothed finite element method (FS-FEM) using 4-node tetrahedral elements is presented. We show that in some cases, the method allows for reducing the number of degrees of freedom, while preserving the accuracy of the discretization. The method is evaluated on a simulation of a cantilever beam loaded at the free end and on a simulation of a 3D cube under traction and compression forces. Further, it is applied to the simulation of the brain shift and of the kidney's deformation. The results demonstrate that the method outperforms the standard FEM in a bending scenario and that has similar accuracy as the standard FEM in the simulations of the brain-shift and of the kidney's deformation.

  7. Hybrid Carbon-Based Scaffolds for Applications in Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafdi, Khalid; Joseph, Robert M.; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.

    2012-01-01

    Current biomedical scaffolds utilized in surgery to repair soft tissues commonly fail to meet the optimal combination of biomechanical and tissue regenerative properties. Carbon is a scaffold alternative that potentially optimizes the balance between mechanical strength, durability, and function as a cell and biologics delivery vehicle that is necessary to restore tissue function while promoting tissue repair. The goals of this study were to investigate the feasibility of fabricating hybrid fibrous carbon scaffolds modified with biopolymer, polycaprolactone and to analyze their mechanical properties and ability to support cell growth and proliferation. Environmental scanning electron microscopy, micro-computed tomography, and cell adhesion and cell proliferation studies were utilized to test scaffold suitability as a cell delivery vehicle. Mechanical properties were tested to examine load failure and elastic modulus. Results were compared to an acellular dermal matrix scaffold control (GraftJacket® [GJ] Matrix), selected for its common use in surgery for the repair of soft tissues. Results indicated that carbon scaffolds exhibited similar mechanical maximums and capacity to support fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in comparison with GJ. Fibroblast adhesion and proliferation was collinear with carbon fiber orientation in regions of sparsely distributed fibers and occurred in clusters in regions of higher fiber density and low porosity. Overall, fibroblast adhesion and proliferation was greatest in lower porosity carbon scaffolds with highly aligned fibers. Stepwise multivariate regression showed that the variability in maximum load of carbon scaffolds and controls were dependent on unique and separate sets of parameters. These finding suggested that there were significant differences in the functional implications of scaffold design and material properties between carbon and dermis derived scaffolds that affect scaffold utility as a tissue replacement

  8. Reliability of Soft Tissue Model Based Implant Surgical Guides; A Methodological Mistake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Siamak; Dastjerdi, Elahe Vahid

    2012-08-20

    Abstract We were interested to read the paper by Maney P and colleagues published in the July 2012 issue of J Oral Implantol. The authors aimed to assess the reliability of soft tissue model based implant surgical guides reported that the accuracy was evaluated using software. 1 I found the manuscript title of Maney P, et al. incorrect and misleading. Moreover, they reported twenty-two sites (46.81%) were considered accurate (13 of 24 maxillary and 9 of 23 mandibular sites). As the authors point out in their conclusion, Soft tissue models do not always provide sufficient accuracy for implant surgical guide fabrication.Reliability (precision) and validity (accuracy) are two different methodological issues in researches. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, likelihood ratio positive (true positive/false negative) and likelihood ratio negative (false positive/ true negative) as well as odds ratio (true results\\false results - preferably more than 50) are among the tests to evaluate the validity (accuracy) of a single test compared to a gold standard.2-4 It is not clear that the reported twenty-two sites (46.81%) which were considered accurate related to which of the above mentioned estimates for validity analysis. Reliability (repeatability or reproducibility) is being assessed by different statistical tests such as Pearson r, least square and paired t.test which all of them are among common mistakes in reliability analysis 5. Briefly, for quantitative variable Intra Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and for qualitative variables weighted kappa should be used with caution because kappa has its own limitation too. Regarding reliability or agreement, it is good to know that for computing kappa value, just concordant cells are being considered, whereas discordant cells should also be taking into account in order to reach a correct estimation of agreement (Weighted kappa).2-4 As a take home message, for reliability and validity analysis, appropriate tests should be

  9. Accuracy of digital peripical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography in detecting external root resorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creanga, Adriana Gabriela [Division of Dental Diagnostic Science, Rutgers School of Dental Medicine, Newark (United States); Geha, Hassem; Sankar, Vidya; Mcmahan, Clyde Alex; Noujeim, Marcel [University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio (United States); Teixeira, Fabrico B. [Dept. of Endodontics, University of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital intraoral radiography in diagnosing simulated small external root resorption cavities. Cavities were drilled in 159 roots using a small spherical bur at different root levels and on all surfaces. The teeth were imaged both with intraoral digital radiography using image plates and with CBCT. Two sets of intraoral images were acquired per tooth: orthogonal (PA) which was the conventional periapical radiograph and mesioangulated (SET). Four readers were asked to rate their confidence level in detecting and locating the lesions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of each modality in detecting the presence of lesions, the affected surface, and the affected level. Analysis of variation was used to compare the results and kappa analysis was used to evaluate interobserver agreement. A significant difference in the area under the ROC curves was found among the three modalities (P=0.0002), with CBCT (0.81) having a significantly higher value than PA (0.71) or SET (0.71). PA was slightly more accurate than SET, but the difference was not statistically significant. CBCT was also superior in locating the affected surface and level. CBCT has already proven its superiority in detecting multiple dental conditions, and this study shows it to likewise be superior in detecting and locating incipient external root resorption.

  10. Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun

    In this thesis, a new approach is introduced that provides estimates of shear elasticity and shear viscosity using time-domain measurements of shear waves in viscoelastic media. Simulations of shear wave particle displacements induced by an acoustic radiation force are accelerated significantly by a GPU. The acoustic radiation force is first calculated using the fast near field method (FNM) and the angular spectrum approach (ASA). The shear waves induced by the acoustic radiation force are then simulated in elastic and viscoelastic media using Green's functions. A parallel algorithm is developed to perform these calculations on a GPU, where the shear wave particle displacements at different observation points are calculated in parallel. The resulting speed increase enables rapid evaluation of shear waves at discrete points, in 2D planes, and for push beams with different spatial samplings and for different values of the f-number (f/#). The results of these simulations show that push beams with smaller f/# require a higher spatial sampling rate. The significant amount of acceleration achieved by this approach suggests that shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs. Shear wave elasticity imaging determines the mechanical parameters of soft tissue by analyzing measured shear waves induced by an acoustic radiation force. To estimate the shear elasticity value, the widely used time-of-flight method calculates the correlation between shear wave particle velocities at adjacent lateral observation points. Although this method provides accurate estimates of the shear elasticity in purely elastic media, our experience suggests that the time-of-flight (TOF) method consistently overestimates the shear elasticity values in viscoelastic media because the combined effects of diffraction, attenuation, and dispersion are not considered. To address this problem, we have developed an approach that directly accounts for all

  11. Soft tissue reinforcement interposition flaps in hypospadias repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To discuss the role and mechanism of action of soft tissue reinforcement interposition flaps (STRIFs in hypospadias repairs (reinforced hypospadiac urethroplasties. Materials and Methods: Between 2000-2005, 120 consecutive hypospadiacs (distal 85, mid 20, proximal 15, who underwent primary reinforced urethroplasties employing different types of STRIFs, were retrospectively analyzed. The STRIFs were highly vascular soft tissue pedicled flaps (devoid of epithelium interposed between neo-urethras and the covering skin to reinforce the neo-urethras against fistula formation. The STRIFs were harvested, without much donor site deformity, from: preputial skin, penile skin and scrotal skin by de-epithelialization. Those from Buck′s fascia, corpus spongiosum and tunica vaginalis are STRIFs without epithelium anyway, therefore do not need de-epithelialization. Redo urethroplasties and micropenises were not included. Seven patients were excluded because they had incomplete follow-up. The remaining 113 (distal 84, mid 17, proximal 12 were followed up for nine to 40 months for number, size, location, spontaneous closure and persistence of urethro-cutaneous fistula (UCF, and other complications with regard to the severity of hypospadias, method of neourethral re-construction, types of STRIFs employed and skin cover used. A total of 158 STRIFs and 124 skin covers were used in 113 hypospadiac urethroplasties. Results: The first surgery was curative in 74 (65% of 113 patients. In the remaining 39 (35%, various complications included 12 urethro-cutaneous fistulas (UCFs, 10 urethral strictures, six cases each of penile torsion and meatal stenosis and five cases each of superficial necrosis and poor cosmesis. Of these 39 patients, 25 (64% recovered with conservative treatment and 14 (36% required re-operation, i.e. UCFs and strictures in four cases each and penile torsion, meatal stenosis and dog-ears in two cases each. All the 12 UCFs were single

  12. Dose reduction using non lineal diffusion and smoothing filters in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, M.G.; Juste, B.; Vidal, V.; Verdú, G.; Mayo, P.; Rodenas, F.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Computed Radiography (CR) into clinical practice has been followed by a high increase in the number of examinations performed and overdose cases in patients, especially children in pediatric applications. Computed radiographic images are corrupted by noise because either data acquisition or data transmission. The level of this inherent noise is related with the X-ray dose exposure: lower radiation exposure involves higher noise level. The main aim of this work is to reduce the noise present in a low radiation dose CR image in order to the get a CR image of the same quality as a higher radiation exposure image. In this work, we use a non lineal diffusion filtering method to reduce the noise level in a CR, this means that we are able to reduce the exposure, milliampere-second (mAs), and the dose absorbed by the patients. In order to get an optimal result, the diffusive filter is complemented with a smoothing filter with edge detection in order to preserve edges. Therefore, the proposed method consists in obtaining a good quality CR image for diagnostic purposes by selection of lower X-ray exposure jointly with a reduction of the noise. We conclude that a good solution to minimize the dose to patients, especially children in pediatric applications, in X-ray computed radiography consists in decreasing the mAs of the X-ray exposure and then processing the image with the proposed method. - Highlights: • We have investigated the techniques to obtain the image quality to make a confident diagnosis. • We have used diffusion and smoothing filter in order to reduce the exposure. • Reducing CR doses, especially in pediatric applications. • The new CR images allow medical researchers to analyze how low dose affects the patient diagnosis

  13. Thallium scintigraphy used in the evaluation of soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilloni, A.; Brooks, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use of thallium scintigraphy in tumour localisation is a promising diagnostic modality. Thallium has a good affinity for numerous tumour types including sarcomas. Its properties as a potassium analogue result in active uptake via the sodium- potassium ATP-ase pump enabling its use in evaluating tumour extent, viability, staging, localisation and treatment. This case illustrates the role of thallium in tumour staging. A 67-year-old woman with a fibrous histiocytoma resected from the right foot four months previously presented with pain in the ribs, lower back and feet. A bone scan was performed to assess the possibility of metastatic disease. Several abnormal foci were seen on the bone scan suggestive of metastatic disease. A thallium scan was performed to confirm the bone scan result after a subsequent CT scan showed no evidence of this extensive disease. Static images of the whole body were acquired on an Elscinct 400AG 20 minutes post i.v. injection of 3.5 mCi of thallium. Focal areas of increased thallium uptake were seen in the 11th rib posteriorly and in the left sacroiliac region corresponding with sites on the bone scan suggesting metastases. However, an extensive area of uptake was also observed in the right inguinal region which had no corresponding abnormalities in the bone study. This was thought to be tumour metastasis in an inguinal Iymph node, which was retrospectively confirmed on an earlier CT scan of the pelvis. This study demonstrates the usefulness of thallium in the detection of soft tissue tumours and metastases. Thallium also exhibits potential in the assessment of tumour extent and viability pre- and post-treatment. This potential needs to be explored further in patient management

  14. overall cost in recurrent soft-tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash O. Naghavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Adjuvant brachytherapy (AB with immediate (IR and staged reconstruction (SR are distinct treatment modalities available for patients with recurrent soft tissue sarcoma (STS. Although SR may offer local control and toxicity benefit, it requires additional upfront procedures, and there is no evidence that it improves overall survival. With the importance of value-based care, our goal is to identify which technique is more cost effective. Material and methods : A retrospective review of 22 patients with recurrent extremity STS treated with resection followed by AB alone. Hospital charges were used to compare the cost between SR and IR at the time of initial treatment, at 6-month intervals following surgery, and cumulative cost comparisons at 18 months. Results : Median follow-up was 31 months. Staged reconstruction (n = 12 was associated with an 18-month local control benefit (85% vs. 42%, p = 0.034, compared to IR (n = 10. Staged reconstruction had a longer hospital stay during initial treatment (10 vs. 3 days, p = 0.002, but at 18 months, the total hospital stay was no longer different (11 vs. 11 days. Initially, there was no difference in the cost of SR and IR. With longer follow-up, cost eventually favored SR, which was attributed primarily to the costs associated with local failure (LF. On multivariate analysis, cost of initial treatment was associated with length of hospital stay (~$4.5K per hospital day, p < 0.001, and at 18 months, the cumulative cost was ~175K lower with SR (p = 0.005 and $58K higher with LF (p = 0.02. Conclusions : In recurrent STS, SR has a longer initial hospital stay when compared to IR. At 18 months, SR had lower rates of LF, translating to lower total costs for the patient. SR is the more cost-effective brachytherapy approach in the treatment of STS, and should be considered as healthcare transitions into value-based medicine.

  15. Adjuvant radiotherapy with brachytherapy boost in soft tissue sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Cortesi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The standard primary treatment for soft tissue sarcoma (STS is a wide surgical resection, preceded or followed by radiotherapy. Purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the efficacy of perioperative brachytherapy (BRT plus postoperative external beam radiation therapy (EBRT in patients with intermediate-high risk STS. Material and methods : BRT delivered dose was 20 Gy. External beam radiation therapy was delivered with 3D-technique using multiple beams. The prescribed dose was 46 Gy to the PTV. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CHT was used in patients with potentially chemosensitive histological subtypes. The primary aim of the study was to analyze overall survival (OS and local control (LC in a large patient population treated with surgery, perioperative BRT, and adjuvant EBRT ± CHT. Secondary objective was to identify prognostic factors for patients outcome in terms of LC, disease-free survival (DFS, and OS. Results : From 2000 to 2011, 107 patients presenting 2-3 grade (FNLCC primary or recurrent STS were treated with surgery, perioperative BRT, and adjuvant EBRT ± CHT. Five-year LC and OS were 80.9% and 87.4%, respectively. At univariate analysis, a higher LC was recorded in primary vs. recurrent tumors (p = 0.015, and in lower limb tumors vs. other sites (p = 0.027. An improved DFS was recorded in patients with lower limb tumors vs. other sites (p = 0.034. Conclusions : The combination of BRT and EBRT was able to achieve satisfactory results even in a patients population with intermediate-high risk STS. Patients with recurrent or other than lower limb sited tumors show a worse LC.

  16. Adjuvant radiotherapy with brachytherapy boost in soft tissue sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Annalisa; Galuppi, Andrea; Arcelli, Alessandra; Romani, Fabrizio; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Stefano; Ferraro, Andrea; Farioli, Andrea; Gambarotti, Marco; Righi, Alberto; Macchia, Gabriella; Deodato, Francesco; Cilla, Savino; Buwenge, Milly; Valentini, Vincenzo; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Donati, Davide; Cammelli, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The standard primary treatment for soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a wide surgical resection, preceded or followed by radiotherapy. Purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the efficacy of perioperative brachytherapy (BRT) plus postoperative external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with intermediate-high risk STS. Material and methods BRT delivered dose was 20 Gy. External beam radiation therapy was delivered with 3D-technique using multiple beams. The prescribed dose was 46 Gy to the PTV. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CHT) was used in patients with potentially chemosensitive histological subtypes. The primary aim of the study was to analyze overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) in a large patient population treated with surgery, perioperative BRT, and adjuvant EBRT ± CHT. Secondary objective was to identify prognostic factors for patients outcome in terms of LC, disease-free survival (DFS), and OS. Results From 2000 to 2011, 107 patients presenting 2-3 grade (FNLCC) primary or recurrent STS were treated with surgery, perioperative BRT, and adjuvant EBRT ± CHT. Five-year LC and OS were 80.9% and 87.4%, respectively. At univariate analysis, a higher LC was recorded in primary vs. recurrent tumors (p = 0.015), and in lower limb tumors vs. other sites (p = 0.027). An improved DFS was recorded in patients with lower limb tumors vs. other sites (p = 0.034). Conclusions The combination of BRT and EBRT was able to achieve satisfactory results even in a patients population with intermediate-high risk STS. Patients with recurrent or other than lower limb sited tumors show a worse LC. PMID:28725250

  17. In vivo facial soft tissue thicknesses of adult Australians.

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    Stephan, Carl N; Preisler, Rory

    2018-01-01

    Facial soft tissue thicknesses (FSTT) set important quantitative guides in craniofacial identification, but so far Australian FSTTs have only been published for supine cadavers. This study aimed to use B-mode ultrasound to measure FSTTs in living Australians (N=63 participants; n 1 =52 [x¯=21 years, s=2 years]; and n 2 =11 [x¯=54years, s=13years]) using 14 craniometric landmarks with participants in both upright and supine positions. The multiple pre-existing Australian cadaver investigations (n=7 reporting FSTT means and 6 of these reporting raw datasets) enabled living and cadaveric samples drawn from the same parent population to be compared. By using a non-invasive and safe imaging method (no ionising radiation) repeated measurements could be taken in the in vivo participants to gauge measurement reliability (and compare to pre-existing reliability for cadaver measurements): mean r-TEM=12%; max r-TEM=25%. In terms of changes between upright and supine positions (as measured by B-mode ultrasound) only 2 of 14 measured landmarks had FSTT changes in excess of 1mm. Comparisons of the in vivo ultrasound data to pre-existing needle puncture studies demonstrated that mean B-mode ultrasound measurements were very similar to cadaver values. Contrary to popular thought, but in keeping with the findings of prior meta-analyses, cadaver FSTT data are good proxies to living subjects, at least as measured by ultrasound. To increase sample sizes and triangulate upon ground truth FSTT values, weighted grand means combining all Australian samples were calculated (n range=280-385) and compared to the multi-group 2018 adult T-Tables (max. n=10,333). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Presentation of Soft-tissue Infections and its Management: A Study of 100 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baldev; Singh, Sukha; Khichy, Sudhir; Ghatge, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    Soft-tissue infections vary widely in their nature and severity. A clear approach to the management must allow their rapid identification and treatment as they can be life-threatening. Clinical presentation of soft-tissue infections and its management. A prospective study based on 100 patients presenting with soft-tissue infections was done. All the cases of soft-tissue infections were considered irrespective of age, sex, etiological factors, or systemic disorders. The findings were evaluated regarding the pattern of soft-tissue infections in relation to age and sex, clinical presentation, complications, duration of hospital stay, management, and mortality. The most commonly involved age group was in the range of 41-60 years with male predominance. Abscess formation (45%) was the most common clinical presentation. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the most common associated comorbid condition. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common culture isolate obtained. The most common complication seen was renal failure. Patients with surgical site infections had maximum duration of stay in the hospital. About 94% of the cases of soft-tissue infections were managed surgically. Mortality was mostly encountered in the cases of complications of cellulitis. Skin and soft-tissue infections are among the most common infections encountered by the emergency physicians. Ignorance, reluctance to treatment, economic constraints, and illiteracy delay the early detection and the initiation of proper treatment. Adequate and timely surgical intervention in most of the cases is of utmost importance to prevent the complications and reduce the mortality.

  19. Soft Tissue Tumor Immunohistochemistry Update: Illustrative Examples of Diagnostic Pearls to Avoid Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi; Henderson-Jackson, Evita; Qian, Xiaohua; Bui, Marilyn M

    2017-08-01

    - Current 2013 World Health Organization classification of tumors of soft tissue arranges these tumors into 12 groups according to their histogenesis. Tumor behavior is classified as benign, intermediate (locally aggressive), intermediate (rarely metastasizing), and malignant. In our practice, a general approach to reaching a definitive diagnosis of soft tissue tumors is to first evaluate clinicoradiologic, histomorphologic, and cytomorphologic features of the tumor to generate some pertinent differential diagnoses. These include the potential line of histogenesis and whether the tumor is benign or malignant, and low or high grade. Although molecular/genetic testing is increasingly finding its applications in characterizing soft tissue tumors, currently immunohistochemistry still not only plays an indispensable role in defining tumor histogenesis, but also serves as a surrogate for underlining molecular/genetic alterations. Objective- To provide an overview focusing on the current concepts in the classification and diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, incorporating immunohistochemistry. This article uses examples to discuss how to use the traditional and new immunohistochemical markers for the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. Practical diagnostic pearls, summary tables, and figures are used to show how to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. - Data were obtained from pertinent peer-reviewed English-language literature and the authors' first-hand experience as bone and soft tissue pathologists. - -The ultimate goal for a pathologist is to render a specific diagnosis that provides diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic information to guide patient care. Immunohistochemistry is integral to the diagnosis and management of soft tissue tumors.

  20. Effect of bone-soft tissue friction on ultrasound axial shear strain elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Songyuan; Chaudhry, Anuj; Kim, Namhee; Reddy, J N; Righetti, Raffaella

    2017-07-12

    Bone-soft tissue friction is an important factor affecting several musculoskeletal disorders, frictional syndromes and the ability of a bone fracture to heal. However, this parameter is difficult to determine using non-invasive imaging modalities, especially in clinical settings. Ultrasound axial shear strain elastography is a non-invasive imaging modality that has been used in the recent past to estimate the bonding between different tissue layers. As most elastography methods, axial shear strain elastography is primarily used in soft tissues. More recently, this technique has been proposed to assess the bone-soft tissue interface. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a variation in bone-soft tissue friction coefficient in the resulting axial shear strain elastograms. Finite element poroelastic models of bone specimens exhibiting different bone-soft tissue friction coefficients were created and mechanically analyzed. These models were then imported to an ultrasound elastography simulation module to assess the presence of axial shear strain patterns. In vitro experiments were performed to corroborate selected simulation results. The results of this study show that the normalized axial shear strain estimated at the bone-soft tissue interface is statistically correlated to the bone-soft tissue coefficient of friction. This information may prove useful to better interpret ultrasound elastography results obtained in bone-related applications and, possibly, monitor bone healing.