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Sample records for soft ritening cheesse

  1. Soft Connected Spaces and Soft Paracompact Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fucai Lin

    2013-01-01

    Soft topological spaces are considered as mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties, and a fuzzy topological space is a special case of the soft topological space. The purpose of this paper is to study soft topological spaces. We introduce some new concepts in soft topological spaces such as soft closed mapping, soft open mappings, soft connected spaces and soft paracompact spaces. We also redefine the concept of soft points such that it is reasonable in soft topological spaces. Mo...

  2. Soft leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Giudice, Gian F.; Raidal, Martti

    2003-01-01

    We study 'soft leptogenesis', a new mechanism of leptogenesis which does not require flavour mixing among the right-handed neutrinos. Supersymmetry soft-breaking terms give a small mass splitting between the CP-even and CP-odd right-handed sneutrino states of a single generation and provide a CP-violating phase sufficient to generate a lepton asymmetry. The mechanism is successful if the lepton-violating soft bilinear coupling is unconventionally (but not unnaturally) small. The values of the right-handed neutrino masses predicted by soft leptogenesis can be low enough to evade the cosmological gravitino problem

  3. Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M

    2018-04-09

    This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics. It will also suggest how and why soft robotics is more than simply a minor technical "tweak" on hard robotics and propose a unique role for chemistry, and materials science, in this field. Soft robotics is, at its core, intellectually and technologically different from hard robotics, both because it has different objectives and uses and because it relies on the properties of materials to assume many of the roles played by sensors, actuators, and controllers in hard robotics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... archiving. The Soft Clouding Project is part of LARM - a major infrastructure combining research in and access to sound and radio archives in Denmark. In 2012 the LARM infrastructure will consist of more than 1 million hours of radio, combined with metadata who describes the content. The idea is to analyse...... the concept of ‘infrastructure’ and ‘interface’ on a creative play with the fundamentals of LARM (and any sound archive situation combining many kinds and layers of data and sources). This paper will present and discuss the Soft clouding project from the perspective of the three practices and competencies...

  5. Soft Neutrosophic Ring and Soft Neutrosophic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the theory of neutrosophic rings and neutrosophic fields to soft sets and construct soft neutrosophic rings and soft neutrosophic fields. We also extend neutrosophic ideal theory to form soft neutrosophic ideal over a neutrosophic ring and soft neutrosophic ideal of a soft neutrosophic ring. We have given many examples to illustrate the theory of soft neutrosophic rings and soft neutrosophic fields and display many properties of these. At the end of this paper we gave soft neutrosophic ring homomorphism.

  6. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound a...

  7. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  8. Soft mappings space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Taha Yasin; Bayramov, Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Various soft topologies are being introduced on a given function space soft topological spaces. In this paper, soft compact-open topology is defined in functional spaces of soft topological spaces. Further, these functional spaces are studied and interrelations between various functional spaces with soft compact-open topology are established.

  9. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  10. Soft Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalkowski, Ireneusz

    1997-01-01

    This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)

  11. Soft set theory and topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Georgiou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study and discuss the soft set theory giving new definitions, examples, new classes of soft sets, and properties for mappings between different classes of soft sets. Furthermore, we investigate the theory of soft topological spaces and we present new definitions, characterizations, and properties concerning the soft closure, the soft interior, the soft boundary, the soft continuity, the soft open and closed maps, and the soft homeomorphism.

  12. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  13. The soft notion of China's 'soft power'

    OpenAIRE

    Breslin, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    · Although debates over Chinese soft power have increased in\\ud recent years, there is no shared definition of what ‘soft power’\\ud actually means. The definition seems to change depending on\\ud what the observer wants to argue.\\ud · External analyses of soft power often include a focus on\\ud economic relations and other material (hard) sources of power\\ud and influence.\\ud · Many Chinese analyses of soft power focus on the promotion of a\\ud preferred (positive) understanding of China’s inter...

  14. Soft b-compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkan Özkan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of generalized soft open sets in soft generalized topological spaces as a generalization of compact spaces, called soft b-compact spaces, is introduced and studied. A soft generalized topological space is soft b-compact if every soft b-open soft cover of (F,E contains a finite soft subcover. We characterize soft b-compact space and study some of their basic properties.

  15. Complex fuzzy soft multisets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkouri, Abd Ulazeez M.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we combine two definitions, namely fuzzy soft multiset and complex fuzzy set to construct the definition of a complex fuzzy soft multiset and study its properties. In other words, we study the extension of a fuzzy soft multiset from real numbers to complex numbers. We also introduce its basic operations, namely complement, union and intersection. Some examples are given.

  16. Fuzzy Soft Multiset Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. Alkhazaleh et al. in 2011 introduced the definition of a soft multiset as a generalization of Molodtsov's soft set. In this paper we give the definition of fuzzy soft multiset as a combination of soft multiset and fuzzy set and study its properties and operations. We give examples for these concepts. Basic properties of the operations are also given. An application of this theory in decision-making problems is shown.

  17. Soft hair as a soft wig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Porrati, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We consider large gauge transformations of gravity and electromagnetism in D=4 asymptotically flat spacetime. Already at the classical level, we identify a canonical transformation that decouples the soft variables from the hard dynamics. We find that only the soft dynamics is constrained by BMS or large U(1) charge conservation. Physically this corresponds to the fact that sufficiently long-wavelength photons or gravitons that are added to the in-state will simply pass through the interaction region; they scatter trivially in their own sector. This implies in particular that the large gauge symmetries bear no relevance to the black hole information paradox. We also present the quantum version of soft decoupling. As a consistency check, we show that the apparent mixing of soft and hard modes in the original variables arises entirely from the long range field of the hard charges, which is fixed by gauge invariance and so contains no additional information.

  18. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  19. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  20. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...... at some of the Technical Universities....

  1. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  2. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  3. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... removed Causes In most cases, it's not clear what causes soft tissue sarcoma. In general, cancer occurs when cells develop ... of cell that develops the genetic mutation determines what type of soft tissue sarcoma you have. For example, angiosarcoma begins in ...

  4. Soft buckling actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-12-26

    A soft actuator is described, including: a rotation center having a center of mass; a plurality of bucklable, elastic structural components each comprising a wall defining an axis along its longest dimension, the wall connected to the rotation center in a way that the axis is offset from the center of mass in a predetermined direction; and a plurality of cells each disposed between two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and configured for connection with a fluid inflation or deflation source; wherein upon the deflation of the cell, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle in the predetermined direction. A soft actuating device including a plurality of the soft actuators and methods of actuation using the soft actuator or soft actuating device disclosed herein are also described.

  5. Fuzzy soft connected sets in fuzzy soft topological spaces II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce some different types of fuzzy soft connected components related to the different types of fuzzy soft connectedness and based on an equivalence relation defined on the set of fuzzy soft points of X. We have investigated some very interesting properties for fuzzy soft connected components. We show that the fuzzy soft C5-connected component may be not exists and if it exists, it may not be fuzzy soft closed set. Also, we introduced some very interesting properties for fuzzy soft connected components in discrete fuzzy soft topological spaces which is a departure from the general topology.

  6. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  7. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  8. Soft morphological image resizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseff, Pavel A.

    1997-04-01

    One important problem in computer vision and image processing is image resizing. Current techniques are generally based on different interpolation methods. These methods are convenient but the downsampled or upsampled image will include new gray values which are not present in the original image. Soft morphological interpolation is a new technique for resampling discrete data. The soft morphological operations are an alternative to the standard morphological operation. The generic description of hierarchical soft morphological transformations was done previously. The further development of soft morphological operations by a hierarchical structural system uses the relaxation of the requirement that the result of the operation must be the r-th largest or smallest value of the corresponding multiset, where r is an order index of the internal hard center. We will assume that any reasonable integer value is acceptable. The purpose of this paper is to derive the sot morphological convolution and compare the result of this convolution with the cubic convolution and Gaussian pyramid.

  9. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  10. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…

  11. ON SOME DECOMPOSITIONS OF FUZZY SOFT CONTINUITY

    OpenAIRE

    Gain, Pradip Kumar; Mukherjee, Prakash; Chakraborty, Ramkrishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    – In this article, some open-like fuzzy soft sets such as fuzzy soft semi-open set, fuzzy soft preopen set, fuzzy soft α-open set and corresponding variants of fuzzy soft continuous functions are introduced and discussed. Some other variants of fuzzy soft sets such as fuzzy soft semi-preclosed set, fuzzy soft t-set, fuzzy soft α*-set, fuzzy soft regular open set, fuzzy soft B-set, fuzzy soft C-set and fuzzy soft D(α)-set are defined and some properties of these sets are studied and investigat...

  12. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used...... to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate soft biometrics, either using conventional biometrics approaches or just from images alone. These three strands...... combine to form what is now known as soft biometrics. We survey the achievements that have been made in recognition by and in estimation of these parameters, describing how these approaches can be used and where they might lead to. The approaches lead to a new type of recognition, and one similar...

  13. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  14. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  15. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  16. Soft actuators and soft actuating devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-10-17

    A soft buckling linear actuator is described, including: a plurality of substantially parallel bucklable, elastic structural components each having its longest dimension along a first axis; and a plurality of secondary structural components each disposed between and bridging two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components; wherein every two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and the secondary structural components in-between define a layer comprising a plurality of cells each capable of being connected with a fluid inflation or deflation source; the secondary structural components from two adjacent layers are not aligned along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis; and the secondary structural components are configured not to buckle, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle along the second axis to generate a linear force, upon the inflation or deflation of the cells. Methods of actuation using the same are also described.

  17. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  18. Soft tissue mixed tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Hiraishi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed tumors are relatively common in the skin and salivary glands, but extremely rare in soft tissues, often resulting in diagnostic problems. The occurrence of these tumors in the hand is especially limited. In this article we report the clinical, radiological, and histological features of a mixed tumor of the hypothenar region of the right hand.

  19. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane

    2008-01-01

    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  20. Soft matrices on soft multisets in an optimal decision process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Arzu Erdem; Aras, Cigdem Gunduz; Cakalli, Huseyin; Sonmez, Ayse

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce a concept of a soft matrix on a soft multiset, and investigate how to use soft matrices to solve decision making problems. An algorithm for a multiple choose selection problem is also provided. Finally, we demonstrate an illustrative example to show the decision making steps.

  1. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  2. Soft skills and dental education

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N. H.; Naimie, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses ...

  3. Hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazra, Admi; Syafruddin; Lestari, Riri; Catur Wicaksono, Gandung

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to extend the hesitant fuzzy soft sets to hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets by merging the concept of hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy sets and soft sets. The authors define some operations on hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy sets, such as complement, union and intersection, and obtain related properties. The similar operations are defined on hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, and also some properties such as assosiative and De Morgan’s laws are obtained.

  4. On Neutrosophic Soft Topological Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin Bera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of connectedness and compactness on neutrosophic soft topological space have been introduced along with the investigation of their several characteristics. Some related theorems have been established also. Then, the notion of neutrosophic soft continuous mapping on a neutrosophic soft topological space and it’s properties are developed here.

  5. Joint and Soft Tissue Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injections Joint and Soft Tissue Injections Share Print What is a joint and soft tissue injection? Joint and soft tissue injections are shots ... many injections do I need and how often? What restrictions do I have after an ... tissue injection, treatment April 1, 2004 Copyright © American Academy ...

  6. From Soft Sculpture to Soft Robotics: Retracing a Physical Aesthetics of Bio-Morphic Softness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    the soft sculpture that started proliferating in the late 1960s. Critical descriptions of these works, interestingly, frequently emphasize their similarities with living organisms and bodies as a central tenet of their aesthetics. The paper seeks to articulate aspects of a contiguity between softness...... science. Recently, soft robotics technology has also started to make its way into art, design, and architecture. This paper attempts to think an aesthetics of softness and the life-like through an artistic tradition deeply imbricated with an interrogation of softness and its physical substrates, namely...... and the life-like in these works through readings that draw on concepts from technical soft robotics research and the description of life in physics (via entropy). It is argued, that fractions of soft sculpture anticipate central interests and notions present in contemporary technical soft robotics research....

  7. Clinical management of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, H.M.; Verweij, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is concerned with the clinical management of soft tissue sarcomas. Topics covered include: Radiotherapy; Pathology of soft tissue sarcomas; Surgical treatment of soft tissue sarcomas; and Chemotherapy in advanced soft tissue sarcomas

  8. Soft Expert Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. Many researchers have studied this theory, and they created some models to solve problems in decision making and medical diagnosis, but most of these models deal only with one expert. This causes a problem with the user, especially with those who use questionnaires in their work and studies. In our model, the user can know the opinion of all experts in one model. So, in this paper, we introduce the concept of a soft expert set, which will more effective and useful. We also define its basic operations, namely, complement, union intersection AND, and OR. Finally, we show an application of this concept in decision-making problem.

  9. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    to material detail; an eye for fit and comfort on bodies with diverse shapes and movement capabilities; openness to a diversity of meanings that may be generated; as well as consideration of wearers’ intimate relations with technology. Soft wearables allow for greater scope within these requirements....... In this article, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of designing soft wearables, applying notions of situatedness and personal meaning-making to understand and posit values in relation to outcomes. We present three design cases that focus on body, material, and context; and reflect on how the different......; diverse capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. Textiles behave in particular ways. They are part of culture. No matter a person’s views on fashion, dress, their own or others’ body, they will have an intimate...

  10. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus...... the understanding of relations and the coherence of processes of influence/power/governance, the article introduces a communications model of decision-making processes as processes of influence....

  11. Soft-sediment mullions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  12. Fracture in Soft Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole

    Fracture is a phenomenon that is generally associated with solids. A key element in fracture theory is the so-called weakest link idea that fracture initiates from the largest pre-existing material imperfection. However, recent work has demonstrated that fracture can also happen in liquids, where...... surface tension will act to suppress such imperfections. Therefore, the weakest link idea does not seem immediately applicable to fracture in liquids. This presentation will review fracture in liquids and argue that fracture in soft liquids is a material property independent of pre-existing imperfections....... The following questions then emerge: What is the material description needed to predict crack initiation, crack speed and crack shape in soft materials and liquids....

  13. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  14. Natural soft leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Yuval; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    Successful soft leptogenesis requires small B-terms for the right-handed sneutrinos and a large CP violating phase between the A- and B-terms. We show that this situation is realized naturally within the framework of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. The A-term is dominated by contribution from gauge mediation, while supergravity effects are more important for the B-term. The different origins naturally explain simultaneously the smallness of the B-term and the large CP violating phase. The most stringent bounds on the model come from the cosmological gravitino problem. We find a viable parameter region with very light gravitino m 3/2 ∼< 16 eV, providing a consistent framework for supersymmetry phenomenology, soft leptogenesis and cosmology

  15. Towards Soft Computing Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Krušina, Pavel; Petrová, Zuzana

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2000), s. 859-868 ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2000 Works hop on Soft Computing. Milovy, 27.11.2000-28.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489; GA ČR GA201/99/P057 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : hybrid systems * intelligent agents Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. Holiday fun with soft gluons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Emissions of soft gluons from energetic particles play an important role in collider processes. While the basic physics of soft emissions is simple, it gives rise to a variety of interesting and intricate phenomena (non-global logs, Glauber phases, super-leading logs, factorization breaking). After an introduction, I will review progress in resummation methods such as Soft-Collinear Effective Theory driven by a better understanding of soft emissions. I will also show some new results for computations of soft-gluon effects in gap-between-jets and isolation-cone cross sections.

  17. Some Results on Fuzzy Soft Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gunduz (Aras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some important properties of fuzzy soft topological spaces. Furthermore, fuzzy soft continuous mapping, fuzzy soft open and fuzzy soft closed mappings, and fuzzy soft homeomorphism for fuzzy soft topological spaces are given and structural characteristics are discussed and studied.

  18. Soft Ultrathin Electronics Innervated Adaptive Fully Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang

    2018-02-05

    Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Soft Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Richard A L

    2002-01-01

    The author states in the preface of the book that the aim is '...to give a unified overview of the various aspects of the physics of soft condensed matter'. The book succeeds in fulfilling this aim in many respects. The style is fluent and concise and gives the necessary explanations to make its content understandable to people with some knowledge of the basic principles of physics. The content of the book is complete enough to give a panoramic view of the landscape of soft condensed matter. The first two chapters give, respectively, a short introduction and a presentation of forces, energies and timescales, giving a general overview and pointing out the particular importance of different aspects such as timescales, which are much more important in soft condensed matter than in traditional or 'hard' condensed matter. The next chapter, devoted to phase transition, recalls that the equilibrium between two phases is controlled by free energy considerations. Spinodal decomposition is presented as a counterpart of nucleation and growth. Again, characteristic length scales are considered and applied to a phase separation mixture of polymers in a common solvent. The following three chapters are devoted respectively to specific topics: colloidal dispersion, polymers and gelation. The stability and phase behaviour of colloids are related to the interaction between colloidal particles. Properties of colloidal crystals as well as colloidal dispersion are depicted in terms of stabilization of crystalline colloids. The flow properties of colloidal dispersion are presented in terms of free energy minimization and the structure of the dispersion. After a brief introduction to polymer chemistry and architecture, the coil-globule transition is discussed. Viscoelasticity of polymers is described and discussed by introducing the notion of entanglement. This leads to the introduction of the tube model and the theory of reptation. The sol-gel transition is presented phenomenologically

  20. Topological Structure of Vague Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce vague soft topological spaces which are defined over an initial universe with a fixed set of parameters. The notions of vague soft open sets, vague soft closed sets, vague soft interior, vague soft closure, and vague soft boundary are introduced and their basic properties and relations are investigated. Furthermore, with the help of examples they established that some properties of topological spaces and soft topological spaces do not hold in vague soft topological spaces. Vague soft connectedness and vague soft compactness are also studied.

  1. Remarks on soft omega-closed sets in soft topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Rebecca Paul

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces soft omega-closed sets in soft topological spaces and establishes the relationship between other existing generlised closed sets in soft topological spaces. It derives the basic properties of soft omega-closed sets. As an application it proves that a soft omega-closed set in a soft compact space is soft compact.

  2. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Aggarwal, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 71-year-old woman with a history of metastatic ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset, rapidly progressing painful rash in the genital region and lower abdominal wall. She was febrile to 103°F, heart rate was 114 beats per minute, and respiratory rate was 24 per minute. Her exam was notable for a toxic-appearing female with extensive areas of erythema, tenderness, and induration to her lower abdomen, intertriginous areas, and perineum with intermittent segments of crepitus without hemorrhagic bullae or skin breakdown. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT of the abdominal and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast revealed inflammatory changes, including gas and fluid collections within the ventral abdominal wall extending to the vulva, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection. Discussion: Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection of the skin and soft tissues that requires an early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality. Classified into several subtypes based on the type of microbial infection, necrotizing fasciitis can rapidly progress to septic shock or death if left untreated.1 Diagnosing necrotizing fasciitis requires a high index of suspicion based on patient risk factors, presentation, and exam findings. Definitive treatment involves prompt surgical exploration and debridement coupled with IV antibiotics.2,3 Clinical characteristics such as swelling, disproportionate pain, erythema, crepitus, and necrotic tissue should be a guide to further diagnostic tests.4 Unfortunately, lab values such as white blood cell count and lactate imaging studies have high sensitivity but low specificity, making the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis still largely a clinical one.4,5 CT is a reliable method to exclude the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections (sensitivity of 100%, but is only moderately reliable in correctly identifying such infections (specificity of 81%.5 Given the emergent

  3. Soft skills and dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z

    2013-05-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C

    2017-05-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Calisti, M.; Picardi, G.; Laschi, C.

    2017-01-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human���robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human���robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This p...

  6. The Countabilities of Soft Topological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Weijian Rong

    2012-01-01

    Soft topological spaces are considered as mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties, and a fuzzy topological space is a special case of the soft topological space. The purpose of this paper is to study soft topological spaces. We introduce some new concepts in soft topological spaces such as soft first-countable spaces, soft second-countable spaces and soft separable spaces, and some basic properties of these concepts are explored.

  7. Soft Robotic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Juleon Taylor

    In this thesis a survey on soft robotic actuators is conducted. The actuators are classified into three main categories: Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAM), Electronic Electroactive Polymers (Electric EAP), and Ionic Electroactive Polymers (Ionic EAP). Soft robots can have many degrees and are more compliant than hard robots. This makes them suitable for applications that are difficult for hard robots. For each actuator background history, build materials, how they operate, and modeling are presented. Multiple actuators in each class are reviewed highlighting both their use and their mathematical formulation. In addition to the survey the McKibben actuator was chosen for fabrication and in-depth experimental analysis. Four McKibben actuators were fabricated using mesh sleeve, barbed hose fittings, and different elastic bladders. All were actuated using compressed air. Tensile tests were performed for each actuator to measure the tension force as air pressure increased from 20 to 100 psi in 10 psi increments. To account for material relaxation properties eleven trials for each actuator were run for 2-3 days. In conclusion, the smallest outer diameter elastic bladder was capable of producing the highest force due to the larger gap between the bladder and the sleeve.

  8. Modeling Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kurt

    Soft matter science or soft materials science is a relatively new term for the science of a huge class of rather different materials such as colloids, polymers (of synthetic or biological origin), membranes, complex molecular assemblies, complex fluids, etc. and combinations thereof. While many of these systems are contained in or are even the essential part of everyday products ("simple" plastics such as yoghurt cups, plastic bags, CDs, many car parts; gels and networks such as rubber, many low fat foods, "gummi" bears; colloidal systems such as milk, mayonnaise, paints, almost all cosmetics or body care products, the border lines between the different applications and systems are of course not sharp) or as biological molecules or assemblies (DNA, proteins, membranes and cytoskeleton, etc.) are central to our existence, others are basic ingredients of current and future high tech products (polymers with specific optical or electronic properties, conducting macromolecules, functional materials). Though the motivation is different in life science rather than in materials science biomolecular simulations, the basic structure of the problems faced in the two fields is very similar.

  9. Soft skills and Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, technical university graduates are expected to acquire a set of not only hard skills but soft ones as well, which are in the first instance communication skills that can be developed through active and interactive methods during in-class learning. The issue related to communicative skills development is being discussed in different countries throughout the world. This problem is faced by university graduates from Europe, the US and Russia, and in the East. The learning process exploits a variety of electronic platforms, which, on the one hand, significantly increase the pool of students, but, on the other hand, hinder the development of communicative skills. This poses the question about blended learning which combines active and interactive teaching methods with e-learning. Consider a good example of these two types of combined student activity obtained using interactive methods in the Moodle course “Professional training in English” designed for the Bachelor's Degree Programs, Tomsk Polytechnic University (Tomsk, Russia. This paper considers the main types of tasks used in the e-course. It is shown that the teacher’s first aim is to be not a scientific knowledge translator, but to foster a creative educational environment by selecting an optimal teaching strategy through modern educational technology; an e-course is a good teaching aid to build hard and soft skills.

  10. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  11. Some Results on Soft Multi Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tokat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, at first we recall the concept of soft multiset. Then some results which we obtained on soft multisets were given. Moreover, in this paper, the notion of soft multi topology was introduced and some results on soft multi topology and the concept of the soft multi base were presented.

  12. Embodying Soft Wearables Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The value of engaging sensory motor skills in the design and use of smart systems is increasingly recognized. Yet robust and reliable methods for development, reporting and transfer are not fully understood. This workshop investigates the role of embodied design research techniques in the context...... of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...... or approach. Then small groups will create mash-ups of techniques, exploring ways that the new approaches might be coherently reported. By applying such methods to the problem of their reporting, we hope to deepen understanding of how to move towards nuanced and repeatable methods for embodied design...

  13. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  14. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Claudine

    1999-01-01

    What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.

  15. Soft-collinear supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Timothy; Elor, Gilly; Larkoski, Andrew J.

    2017-03-01

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with super-symmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is cconstructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence be-tween SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in "collinear superspace", a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.

  16. Soft-collinear supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Elor, Gilly [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larkoski, Andrew J. [Physics Department, Reed College,Portland, OR 97202 (United States); Center for Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-03

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in “collinear superspace', a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.

  17. Soft α-Open Sets and Soft α-Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Akdag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce soft α-sets on soft topological spaces and study some of their properties. We also investigate the concepts of soft α-continuous and soft α-open functions and discuss their relationships with soft continuous and other weaker forms of soft continuous functions. Also counterexamples are given to show the noncoincidence of these functions.

  18. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  19. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  20. Combination of interval set and soft set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyun Qin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory and interval set theory are all mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties. This paper is devoted to the discussion of soft interval set and its application. The notion of soft interval sets is introduced by combining soft set and interval set. Several operations on soft interval sets are presented in a manner parallel to that used in defining operations on soft sets and the lattice structures of soft interval sets are established. In addition, a soft interval set based decision making problem is analyzed.

  1. Soft Neutrosophic Loops and Their Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic loop,soft neutosophic biloop, soft neutrosophic N -loop with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic loop, the so called soft strong neutrosophic loop which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also found in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  2. Soft tissue angiosarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, P.H.; Lindberg, R.D.; Barkley, H.T.

    1981-12-01

    From 1949 to 1979, 12 patients with soft tissue angiosarcoma received radiotherapy (alone or in combination with other modalities of treatment) with curative intent at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. The primary site was the head and neck in six patients (scalp, four; maxillary antrum, one; and oral tongue, one), the breast in four patients, and the thigh in two patients. All four patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp had advanced multifocal tumors, and two of them had clinically positive neck nodes. None of these tumors were controlled locally, and local recurrences occurred within and/or at a distance from the generous fields of irradiation. The remaining two patients with head and neck lesions had their disease controlled by surgery and postoperative irradiation. Three of the four angiosarcomas of the breast were primary cases which were treated by a combination of surgery (excisional biopsy, simple mastectomy, radical mastectomy) and postoperative irradiation. One patient also received adjuvant chemotherapy. The fourth patient was treated for scar recurrence after radical mastectomy. All four patients had their disease locally controlled, and two of them have survived over 5 years. The two patients with angiosarcoma of the thigh were treated by conservative surgical excision and postoperative irradiation. One patient had her disease controlled; the other had a local recurrence requiring hip disarticulation and subsequent hemipelvectomy for salvage.

  3. Softly Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gabadadze, Gregory T

    2004-01-01

    Large-distance modification of gravity may be the mechanism for solving the cosmological constant problem. A simple model of the large-distance modification -- four-dimensional (4D) gravity with the hard mass term-- is problematic from the theoretical standpoint. Here we discuss a different model, the brane-induced gravity, that effectively introduces a soft graviton mass. We study the issues of unitarity, analyticity and causality in this model in more than five dimensions. We show that a consistent prescription for the poles of the Green's function can be specified so that 4D unitarity is preserved. However, in certain instances 4D analyticity cannot be maintained when theory becomes higher dimensional. As a result, one has to sacrifice 4D causality at distances of the order of the present-day Hubble scale. This is a welcome feature for solving the cosmological constant problem, as was recently argued in the literature. We also show that, unlike the 4D massive gravity, the model has no strong-coupling probl...

  4. Hard evidence on soft skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Kautz, Tim

    2012-08-01

    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills -personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies.

  5. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.) [de

  6. Some Local Properties of Soft Semi-Open Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some local properties by soft semi-open sets. For example, soft semi-neighborhoods of the soft point, soft semi-first-countable spaces and soft semi-pu-continuous at the soft point are given. Furthermore, we define soft semi-connectedness and prove that a soft topological space is soft semiconnected if and only if both soft semi-open and soft semi-closed sets are only ∅ and X~.

  7. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  8. Recursion relations from soft theorems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hui [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, Hamburg, D-22761 (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma, 00133 (Italy)

    2016-03-14

    We establish a set of new on-shell recursion relations for amplitudes satisfying soft theorems. The recursion relations can apply to those amplitudes whose additional physical inputs from soft theorems are enough to overcome the bad large-z behaviour. This work is a generalization of the recursion relations recently obtained by Cheung et al. for amplitudes in scalar effective field theories with enhanced vanishing soft behaviours, which can be regarded as a special case of those with non-vanishing soft limits. We apply the recursion relations to tree-level amplitudes in various theories, including amplitudes in the Akulov-Volkov theory and amplitudes containing dilatons of spontaneously-broken conformal symmetry.

  9. Modular Joints for Soft Robots

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, optimize, and build several modular soft robotic joints which have between 3 and 6 degrees of freedom (DOF). These designs will be lighter,...

  10. Engineering applications of soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cortés, Margarita-Arimatea; Rojas, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between Soft Computing techniques and their applications to complex engineering problems. In each chapter we endeavor to explain the basic ideas behind the proposed applications in an accessible format for readers who may not possess a background in some of the fields. Therefore, engineers or practitioners who are not familiar with Soft Computing methods will appreciate that the techniques discussed go beyond simple theoretical tools, since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise in such areas. At the same time, the book will show members of the Soft Computing community how engineering problems are now being solved and handled with the help of intelligent approaches. Highlighting new applications and implementations of Soft Computing approaches in various engineering contexts, the book is divided into 12 chapters. Further, it has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently of the others.

  11. Necrotizing soft-tissue infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenholz, D H

    1988-02-01

    A variety of infections are encountered by the practicing surgeon. Uncommonly, a patient presents with minimal external manifestations of a deep surgical soft-tissue infection. Early aggressive intervention is required to minimize the morbidity in these often debilitated patients.

  12. Lubrication of soft viscoelastic solids

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Anupam; Karpitschka, Stefan; Venner, Cornelis H.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2015-01-01

    Lubrication flows appear in many applications in engineering, biophysics, and in nature. Separation of surfaces and minimisation of friction and wear is achieved when the lubrication fluid builds up a lift force. In this paper we analyse soft lubricated contacts by treating the solid walls as viscoelastic: soft materials are typically not purely elastic, but dissipate energy under dynamical loading conditions. We present a method for viscoelastic lubrication and focus on three canonical examp...

  13. Soft ideal topological space and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Borah

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce fuzzy soft ideal and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological spaces and some properties of this space. Also we introduce fuzzy soft $I$-open set, fuzzy soft $\\alpha$-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft pre-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft semi-$I$-open set and fuzzy soft $\\beta$-$I$-open set and discuss some of their properties.

  14. [Soft tissue rheumatism in erderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepański, Leszek

    2008-01-01

    Disorders of soft, peri-articular tissues are a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in elderly patients. Nevertheless, most physicians underestimate the role of soft tissue rheumatism in the pathomechanism of the pain. The impairments of soft tissue can not be diagnosed by X-rays examinations, whereas degenerative lesions of joints are easy diagnosed using this method even despite of their uncertain role in producing the symptoms. The incidence of pain syndromes originated from soft tissues differ regarding to the age of patients. In young subjects the incidence of all of them is generally low. Syndromes provoked by overloading during work: repetitive strain syndrome, canal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, golfers elbow, shoulder tendon coin disorders and myofascial pain syndrome are common in middle-aged patients. The morbidity of fibromialgia syndrome is also lower in old people probably as the result of diminished numbers and degenerative changes in nociceptive fibers. The syndromes prevailing in elderly patients include trochanteric syndrome and the pain syndromes provoked by muscle spasm depended on posture abnormalities. In the soft tissue pain syndrome prevention adapted to old age kinesitherapy and avoiding muscle overloading are recommended. Soft tissue pain syndromes are usually treated with non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. In local pain syndromes better results can be obtained by local treatment. Local injections of glikocorticosteroids are usually very effective and safe.

  15. Dissecting soft radiation with factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2014-05-01

    An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It can receive contributions from soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in Z+jet and H+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects. We use a QCD factorization theorem to predict the dependence on the jet radius R, jet p T , jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. The nonperturbative contributions involve only odd powers of R, and the linear R term is universal for quark and gluon jets. The hadronization model in PYTHIA8 agrees well with these properties. The perturbative soft initial state radiation (ISR) has a contribution that depends on the jet area in the same way as the underlying event. This degeneracy is broken by the jet p T dependence. The size of this soft ISR contribution is proportional to the color state of the initial partons, yielding the same positive contribution for gg→Hg and gq→Zq, but a negative interference contribution for q anti q→Zg. Hence, measuring these dependencies allows one to separate hadronization, soft ISR, and MPI contributions in the data.

  16. Soft Mobility and Urban Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some European cases referred to promotion of soft mobility as a new lifestyle aimed to improve benefits on environment and urban liveability. Soft mobility includes any non-motorized transport (human powered mobility. According to this, soft mobility refers to pedestrian, bicycle, roller skate and skateboard transfers. It could be indented as “zeroimpact” mobility too. As a matter of fact, the words to define this way of moving have not been codified yet, therefore mobilitè douce, soft mobility, slow traffic are synonymous in referring mainly to pedestrians and cyclists to indicate alternative to car use. Soft mobility, indeed, can be defined as a special form of sustainable mobility able to optimize urban liveability, by keeping the individual right to move. At present, cities are engaged in defining policies, procedures and interventions to further “slow traffic”, both to relieve the traffic congestion, and to work for regeneration and environmental improvements. This asks for an in-depth cooperation between different political and administrative levels to achieve common objectives of development more attentive to environmental concerns. Despite this increasing attention, the idea of a “network” for soft mobility has not been yet achieved and the supply of integrated facilities and services as an alternative to the car use seems to be still difficult of accomplishment. High disparity characterizes European countries in promoting soft mobility: despite a prolific production of laws and roles referred to emergency of adopting alternative ways of moving to minimize negatives impacts (especially air and noise pollution as very threat to health due to car dependence for urban short distance too. And yet, soft mobility could represent a real occasion of urban and territorial regeneration aimed to rehabilitate some disused paths and routes (greenways. Some successful European cases show how it is possible to

  17. Neutrosophic Parameterized Soft Relations and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Deli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of relation on neutrosophic parameterized soft set (NP- soft sets theory. We have studied some related properties and also put forward some propositions on neutrosophic parameterized soft relation with proofs and examples. Finally the notions of symmetric, transitive, reflexive, and equivalence neutrosophic parameterized soft set relations have been established in our work. Finally a decision making method on NP-soft sets is presented.

  18. Mechanics and Physics of Soft Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qihan

    2016-01-01

    Materials where thermal energy is comparable to the interaction energy between molecules are called soft materials. Soft materials are everywhere in our life: food, rubber, polymer diaper, our own body, etc. The thermal fluctuation endows soft materials with fundamentally different behavior comparing to hard materials like metals and ceramics. This dissertation studies three aspects of the mechanics and physics of soft materials, as is reviewed below. First, soft materials are generally s...

  19. Radiosensitivity of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Iwasaki, Katsuro; Suzuki, Ryohei; Monzen, Yoshio; Hombo, Zenichiro

    1989-01-01

    The correlation between the effectiveness of radiation therapy and the histology of soft tissue sarcomas was investigated. Of 31 cases with a soft tissue sarcoma of an extremity treated by conservative surgery and postoperative radiation of 3,000-6,000 cGy, local recurrence occurred in 12; 5 out of 7 synovial sarcomas, 4 of 9 MFH, one of 8 liposarcomas, none of 4 rhabdomyosarcomas and 2 of 3 others. As for the histological subtyping, the 31 soft tissue sarcomas were divided into spindle cell, pleomorphic cell, myxoid and round cell type, and recurrence rates were 75%, 33.3%, 16.7% and 0%, respectively. From the remarkable difference in recurrent rate, it was suggested that round cell and myxoid type of soft tissue sarcomas showed a high radiosensitivity compared to the spindle cell type with low sensitivity. Clarifying the degree of radiosensitivity is helpful in deciding on the management of limb salvage in soft tissue sarcomas of an extremity. (author)

  20. The decline of soft power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Pimenova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the origins and stages of the evolution of the concept of “soft power” in the political practice of the key countries in the world. This concept is both theoretical and practical product since it synthesizes and represents the direction of the application by a state its of social and political resources. It is significant to trace the transformation of the views of the author of the term J. Nye on the essential elements and mechanisms of “soft power”. The author examines the concept of “soft power” as an element of the US strategy to maintain its leadership in the world. In this regard, for other countries the use of “soft power” may be less effective for their own political purposes, because the concept is tuned to the specific characteristics of US policy. Moreover, with change in the international environment, Wash-ington modernizes the concept, of “smart power”. The author draws attention to the fact that the conditions for the use of turning it in “soft power” are likely to have been changed for the other states. The author concludes that there is a need to revise the existing theoretical approaches to the image of the state in the international arena and to develop new tools that can take into account the complex cultural, tourism, educational opportunities and achievements of every state.

  1. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  2. Soft theorems from anomalous symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-tin; Wen, Congkao

    2015-12-01

    We discuss constraints imposed by soft limits for effective field theories arising from symmetry breaking. In particular, we consider those associated with anomalous conformal symmetry as well as duality symmetries in supergravity. We verify these soft theorems for the dilaton effective action relevant for the a-theorem, as well as the one-loop effective action for N=4 supergravity. Using the universality of leading transcendental coefficients in the α' expansion of string theory amplitudes, we study the matrix elements of operator R 4 with half maximal supersymmetry. We construct the non-linear completion of R 4 that satisfies both single and double soft theorems up to seven points. This supports the existence of duality invariant completion of R 4.

  3. Soft theorems from anomalous symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu-tin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2015-12-22

    We discuss constraints imposed by soft limits for effective field theories arising from symmetry breaking. In particular, we consider those associated with anomalous conformal symmetry as well as duality symmetries in supergravity. We verify these soft theorems for the dilaton effective action relevant for the a-theorem, as well as the one-loop effective action for N=4 supergravity. Using the universality of leading transcendental coefficients in the α{sup ′} expansion of string theory amplitudes, we study the matrix elements of operator R{sup 4} with half maximal supersymmetry. We construct the non-linear completion of R{sup 4} that satisfies both single and double soft theorems up to seven points. This supports the existence of duality invariant completion of R{sup 4}.

  4. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

  5. Soft QGP probes with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC a hot and dense medium of deconfided partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is created. Its global properties can be characterized by the measurements of particles in the low transverse momentum (or "soft") regime, which represent the majority of created particles. In this report we outline a selection of measurements of the soft probes by the ALICE experiment in pp, p--Pb, and Pb--Pb collisions. The paper focuses on recent flow measurements via angular correlations and femtoscopic studies. The first ever preliminary analysis of $\\mathrm{K}^0_{\\rm S}\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}$ femtoscopy is also presented.

  6. Orbital soft-tissue trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazen, J Levi; Lantos, Joshua; Gupta, Ajay; Lelli, Gary J; Phillips, C Douglas

    2014-08-01

    In the clinical assessment of orbital trauma, visual acuity and extraocular muscle motility are critical for rapid evaluation of injury severity. However, assessment of these parameters may be limited by edema and concomitant injuries. Imaging may further delineate the trauma pattern and extent of injury. This review focuses on orbital soft-tissue injuries that can exist with or without orbital fracture. Imaging techniques and soft-tissue injuries, including those involving the anterior chamber, iris and ciliary body, lens, globe, posterior segment, and optic nerve, are reviewed, in addition to intraocular foreign bodies and cavernous-carotid fistulas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A-Soft Separation Axioms in Soft Topological Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Abd –Al-Hani Al-Sweedi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The important science tools in a different kinds and  specialties , that considered the basic mainstay of ( the set theory and because of  huge development in all life fields. This causes great problems , that need solution and parallel tools for those developments , so the scientis become responsible to work on the development of number theory and open new horizons , that a new science had appeared  which is  ( soft figures theory which is considered the important tool to solve most difficult problems or overcome them ,in these sciences and their specific life specialization, economy, medicine , geometry and others. Also the theory of soft numbers had entered in general topology in power full and active way. The last years a new science has appeared is (soft topological space.              The main idea of this research is to define the separation axioms in  (soft topological space  and practically in certain point , and to study the most important  properties and results of it .

  8. Soft Neutrosophic Groupoids and Their Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic groupoid and their generalization with the discuissionf of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic groupoid, the so called soft strong neutrosophic goupoid which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also found in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  9. Biocompatible mesoporous and soft nanoarchitectures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelova, A.; Angelov, Borislav; Mutafchieva, R.; Lesieur, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2015), s. 214-232 ISSN 1574-1443 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : soft nanoarchitectures * lipid bilayer building block * self-assembled nanochannel networks Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.308, year: 2015

  10. Soft QCD measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Results from recent soft QCD measurements by LHC experiments ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf and TOTEM are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive and identified particle spectra, underlying event and hadronic chains. Results from particle correlations in all three collision systems, namely pp, pPb and PbPb, exhibit unexpected similarities.

  11. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2016-01-01

    People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

  12. Lubrication of soft viscoelastic solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, Anupam; Karpitschka, Stefan; Venner, Cornelis H.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2016-01-01

    Lubrication flows appear in many applications in engineering, biophysics and nature. Separation of surfaces and minimisation of friction and wear is achieved when the lubricating fluid builds up a lift force. In this paper we analyse soft lubricated contacts by treating the solid walls as

  13. Lubrication of soft viscoelastic solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, Anupam; Karpitschka, Stefan; Venner, Cornelis H.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2015-01-01

    Lubrication flows appear in many applications in engineering, biophysics, and in nature. Separation of surfaces and minimisation of friction and wear is achieved when the lubrication fluid builds up a lift force. In this paper we analyse soft lubricated contacts by treating the solid walls as

  14. Glass transition of soft colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Adrian-Marie; Truzzolillo, Domenico; Galvan-Myoshi, Julian; Dieudonné-George, Philippe; Trappe, Véronique; Berthier, Ludovic; Cipelletti, Luca

    2018-04-01

    We explore the glassy dynamics of soft colloids using microgels and charged particles interacting by steric and screened Coulomb interactions, respectively. In the supercooled regime, the structural relaxation time τα of both systems grows steeply with volume fraction, reminiscent of the behavior of colloidal hard spheres. Computer simulations confirm that the growth of τα on approaching the glass transition is independent of particle softness. By contrast, softness becomes relevant at very large packing fractions when the system falls out of equilibrium. In this nonequilibrium regime, τα depends surprisingly weakly on packing fraction, and time correlation functions exhibit a compressed exponential decay consistent with stress-driven relaxation. The transition to this novel regime coincides with the onset of an anomalous decrease in local order with increasing density typical of ultrasoft systems. We propose that these peculiar dynamics results from the combination of the nonequilibrium aging dynamics expected in the glassy state and the tendency of colloids interacting through soft potentials to refluidize at high packing fractions.

  15. An Opinion on Soft Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Mikhailovitch Astakhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes different aspects of the "soft power" of Russia. The author affirms that in this field the country doesn't have well defined strategies policy. To Russia has the excellent potential for the promotion of its positive image. This potential is primarily due to the famous Russian science, literature, music and art. But this "natural"potential has to be used in the national interests abroad. In recent years the Russian government has made some important steps in cultural diplomacy, in particular for the promotion of Russian language and supporting Russian Diaspora. However, much more has to be done not only in these directions, but also in propaganda and counterpropaganda to meet information pressure against Russia. In this connection, to form properly all directions of the policy of "soft power", is desirable to use the experience of other countries. The states who pretend to have an important place in the world, consider "soft power" as a strategic policy aiming to strengthen their geopolitical positions. In this context the author offers some suggestions concerning different organizational aspects. Special attention is given to the coordination of the activities of all structures involved in the policy of "soft power ".

  16. Modeling soft interface dominated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The two main continuum frameworks used for modeling the dynamics of soft multiphase systems are the Gibbs dividing surface model, and the diffuse interface model. In the former the interface is modeled as a two dimensional surface, and excess properties such as a surface density, or surface energy

  17. Soft lithography of ceramic patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, Ole; Nedelcu, M.; Steiner, U.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer-based precursor solutions are patterned using a soft-lithographic patterning technique to yield sub-micrometer-sized ceramic patterns. By using a polymer-metal-nitrate solution as a lithographic resist, we demonstrate a micromolding procedure using a simple rubber stamp that yields a

  18. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...... for grounding on soft bottoms....

  19. Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.

  20. Soft-Collinear Effective Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    I will review the basic principles about Soft-Collinear Effective Theory. I will focus on how it can be used to understand factorization properties and how one can resum large logarithms arising from infrared physics using the renormalization group evolution.

  1. Sheet Bending using Soft Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, J.

    2011-05-01

    Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most

  2. Soft x-ray Planetary Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to prototype a soft X-ray Imager for planetary applications that has the sensitivity to observe solar system sources of soft  X-ray emission. A strong...

  3. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  5. General Information about Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Childhood ...

  6. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Childhood ...

  8. General Information about Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  9. Treatment Options for Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Childhood ...

  10. Stages of Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Childhood ...

  11. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... not listed here. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cosmegen (Dactinomycin) Dactinomycin Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Eribulin Mesylate Gleevec ( ...

  12. Applications of Soft Sets in -Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Alshehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty and vagueness. In this paper, we apply the concept of soft sets to K-algebras and investigate some properties of Abelian soft K-algebras. We also introduce the concept of soft intersection K-algebras and investigate some of their properties.

  13. Hardware for soft computing and soft computing for hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Nedjah, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Single and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Computation (MOEA),  Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Fuzzy Controllers (FCs), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant colony Optimization (ACO) are becoming omnipresent in almost every intelligent system design. Unfortunately, the application of the majority of these techniques is complex and so requires a huge computational effort to yield useful and practical results. Therefore, dedicated hardware for evolutionary, neural and fuzzy computation is a key issue for designers. With the spread of reconfigurable hardware such as FPGAs, digital as well as analog hardware implementations of such computation become cost-effective. The idea behind this book is to offer a variety of hardware designs for soft computing techniques that can be embedded in any final product. Also, to introduce the successful application of soft computing technique to solve many hard problem encountered during the design of embedded hardware designs. Reconfigurable em...

  14. Wanted: Soft Skills for Today's Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Barton J.

    2017-01-01

    Educating high school students for both college and career is difficult. Teaching trade skills seems alien to the academic culture. But new research indicates that soft skills are quite important to judgments of employability and that youth learn many soft skills in traditional academic subjects (e.g., literature). A focus on soft skills allows…

  15. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

  16. Applications of Soft Union Sets in the Ring Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Yang

    2013-01-01

    through discussing quotient soft subsets, an approach for constructing quotient soft union rings is made. Finally, isomorphism theorems of λ,μ-soft union rings related to invariant soft sets are discussed.

  17. Soft Pomeron in Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Costa, Miguel S; Djurić, Marko

    2016-01-01

    We study the graviton Regge trajectory in Holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J < 2, which includes the scattering domain of negative Maldelstam variable t. The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV$^{-2}$ for the slope of the soft pomeron. The intercept of the secondary pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account.

  18. Soft computing for business intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Rafael; Cobo, Angel; Marx, Jorge; Valdés, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The book Soft Computing for Business Intelligence is the remarkable output of a program based on the idea of joint trans-disciplinary research as supported by the Eureka Iberoamerica Network and the University of Oldenburg. It contains twenty-seven papers allocated to three sections: Soft Computing, Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery, and Knowledge Management and Decision Making. Although the contents touch different domains they are similar in so far as they follow the BI principle “Observation and Analysis” while keeping a practical oriented theoretical eye on sound methodologies, like Fuzzy Logic, Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL), Rough Sets and other softcomputing elements. The book tears down the traditional focus on business, and extends Business Intelligence techniques in an impressive way to a broad range of fields like medicine, environment, wind farming, social collaboration and interaction, car sharing and sustainability.

  19. Packing of soft asymmetric dumbbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić, Anđela; Bozorgui, Behnaz; Cacciuto, Angelo

    2011-06-09

    We use numerical simulations to study the phase behavior of a system of purely repulsive soft dumbbells as a function of size ratio of the two components and their relative degree of deformability. We find a plethora of different phases, which includes most of the mesophases observed in self-assembly of block copolymers but also crystalline structures formed by asymmetric, hard binary mixtures. Our results detail the phenomenological behavior of these systems when softness is introduced in terms of two different classes of interparticle interactions: (a) the elastic Hertz potential, which has a finite energy cost for complete overlap of any two components, and (b) a generic power-law repulsion with tunable exponent. We discuss how simple geometric arguments can be used to account for the large structural variety observed in these systems and detail the similarities and differences in the phase behavior for the two classes of potentials under consideration.

  20. Time matters in soft proofing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Y. Hardeberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One of latest developments for pre-press applications is the concept of soft proofing, which aims to provide an accurate preview on a monitor of how the final document will appear once it is printed. At the core of this concept is the problem of identifying, for any printed color, the most similar color the monitor can display. This problem is made difficult by such factors as varying viewing conditions, color gamut limitations, or the less studied color memory shift.Color matching experiments are usually done by examining samples viewed simultaneously. However, in soft proofing applications, the proof and the print are not always viewed together. This paper attempts to shed more light on the difference between simultaneous and time-spaced color matching, in order to contribute to improving the accuracy of soft proofs. A color matchingexperiment setup has been established in which observers were asked to match a color patch displayed on a LCD monitor, by adjusting its RGB values, to another color patch printed out on paper. In the first part of the experiment the two colors were viewed simultaneously. In the second part, the observers were asked to produce the match according to a previously memorized color. According to the obtained results, the color appearance attributes lightness and chroma were the most difficult components for the observers to remember, generating huge differences with the simultaneous match, whereas hue was the component which varied the least. This indicates that for soft proofing, getting the hues right is of primordial importance.

  1. Microwave applications of soft ferrites

    CERN Document Server

    Pardavi-Horvath, M P

    2000-01-01

    Signal processing requires broadband, low-loss, low-cost microwave devices (circulators, isolators, phase shifters, absorbers). Soft ferrites (garnets, spinels, hexaferrites), applied in planar microwave devices, are reviewed from the point of view of device requirements. Magnetic properties, specific to operation in high-frequency electromagnetic fields, are discussed. Recent developments in thick film ferrite technology and device design are reviewed. Magnetic losses related to planar shape and inhomogeneous internal fields are analyzed.

  2. Soft Space Planning in Cities unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    This paper analyses contemporary experiments of building governance capacity in new soft spaces in Denmark through processes of spatial strategy-making. The paper argues that new soft spaces are emerging in Danish spatial planning, which set out to promote more effective forms of strategic spatial...... of critical questions about whether the normative arguments in the soft space literature are unfounded, or whether the significance of soft spaces is simply overrated in the planning literature. Furthermore, it is argued that critical attention needs to be paid to the prevalence of soft spaces in spatial...

  3. Advance Trends in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Kacprzyk, Janusz; WCSC 2013

    2014-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Soft Computing (WCSC), which was held in San Antonio, TX, USA, on December 16-18, 2013. It presents start-of-the-art theory and applications of soft computing together with an in-depth discussion of current and future challenges in the field, providing readers with a 360 degree view on soft computing. Topics range from fuzzy sets, to fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics, neuro-fuzzy systems, fuzzy control, decision making in fuzzy environments, image processing and many more. The book is dedicated to Lotfi A. Zadeh, a renowned specialist in signal analysis and control systems research who proposed the idea of fuzzy sets, in which an element may have a partial membership, in the early 1960s, followed by the idea of fuzzy logic, in which a statement can be true only to a certain degree, with degrees described by numbers in the interval [0,1]. The performance of fuzzy systems can often be improved with the help of optimization techniques, e.g. evolutionary co...

  4. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  5. SoftAR: visually manipulating haptic softness perception in spatial augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punpongsanon, Parinya; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

    2015-11-01

    We present SoftAR, a novel spatial augmented reality (AR) technique based on a pseudo-haptics mechanism that visually manipulates the sense of softness perceived by a user pushing a soft physical object. Considering the limitations of projection-based approaches that change only the surface appearance of a physical object, we propose two projection visual effects, i.e., surface deformation effect (SDE) and body appearance effect (BAE), on the basis of the observations of humans pushing physical objects. The SDE visualizes a two-dimensional deformation of the object surface with a controlled softness parameter, and BAE changes the color of the pushing hand. Through psychophysical experiments, we confirm that the SDE can manipulate softness perception such that the participant perceives significantly greater softness than the actual softness. Furthermore, fBAE, in which BAE is applied only for the finger area, significantly enhances manipulation of the perception of softness. We create a computational model that estimates perceived softness when SDE+fBAE is applied. We construct a prototype SoftAR system in which two application frameworks are implemented. The softness adjustment allows a user to adjust the softness parameter of a physical object, and the softness transfer allows the user to replace the softness with that of another object.

  6. Soft Skills for Hard Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Knoth, Petr; Kuchma, Iryna; Schmidt, Birgit; Rettberg, Najla; Rogrigues, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Marine and Earth Science graduates will be under increasing pressure in future to delve into research questions of relevance to societal challenges. Even fundamental research focused on basic processes of the environment and universe will in the coming decade need to justify their societal impact. As the Research Excellence Frameworks (REF) for research evaluation shift more and more away from the classical Impact Factor and number of peer-reviewed publications to "societal impact", the question remains whether the current graduates, and future researchers, are sufficiently prepared to deal with this reality. The essential compliment of skills beyond research excellence, rigor and method are traditionally described as "soft skills". This includes how to formulate an argument, how to construct a scientific publication, how to communicate such publications to non-experts, place them in context of societal challenges and relevant policies, how to write a competitive proposal and "market" one's research idea to build a research group around an interesting research topic. Such "soft skills" can produce very measurable and concrete impact for career development, but are rarely provided systematically and coherently by graduate schools in general. The presentation will focus on Open Science as a set of "soft skills", and demonstrate why graduate schools should train Open Science competencies alongside research excellence by default. Open Science is about removing all barriers to research process and outputs, both published and unpublished, and directly supports transparency and reproducibility of the research process. Open Science as a set of news competencies can also foster unexpected collaborations, engage citizen scientists into co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as use concepts of Open Science to transfer new knowledge to the knowledge-based private sector, and help them with formulating more competitive research proposals in future.

  7. Softly broken N=2 QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís; Kounnas, Costas; Marino, M; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Distler, Jacques; Kounnas, Costas; Marino, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the possible soft breaking of N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with and without matter flavour preserving the analyticity properties of the Seiberg-Witten solution. For small supersymmetry breaking parameter with respect to the dynamical scale of the theory we obtain an exact expression for the effective potential. We describe in detail the onset of the confinement transition and some of the patterns of chiral symmetry breaking. If we extrapolate the results to the limit where supersymmetry decouples, we obtain hints indicating that perhaps a description of the QCD vacuum will require the use of Lagrangians containing simultaneously mutually non-local degrees of freedom (monopoles and dyons).

  8. CONARC Soft Skills Training Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-05

    Individual Training US Continental Army Comand Ur0 I1 DEPARTMENT401F THE ARMY 4ISAUM Wl ENS INTSTES CONCT TAL ARMY COMMAO FO" MTNO VIMIWM 23U3 ATIT-3 5 April...Commander US Continental Army Command MAJOR GENERAL IRA A. UwT, JR. Deputy Chief of Staff for Individual Training US Continental Army Comand i...Numerous ’hard skills’ are embedded within what we are now referring to as ’soft-skill’ courses. One must know both how to design a bridge and how to

  9. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  10. Promoting renewables through soft loans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcks, C.

    1999-01-01

    The DtA, founded in 1950s, is a federal institution owned by the German government. It assists the government to implement its economic, environmental and social policy. Financial assistance is being granted mainly through soft loans. Such loans are a flexible instrument, permitting to partially correct prices without severely distorting market forces. They assure total financing while spreading the subsidy over the entire period of the engagement. This avoids windfall opportunities often related to direct subsidies. Investors, therefore, have an intrinsic motivation to only submit sound and profitable projects. (orig./RHM)

  11. Soft mode of lead zirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'ko, G.F.; Prisedskij, V.V.; Klimov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    Anisotropic diffusional scattering of electrons on PbZrO 3 crystal in the temperature range of phase transition has been recorded. As a result of its analysis it has been established that in lead zirconate the rotational vibrational mode G 25 plays the role of soft mode. The experiment is carried out using PbZrO 3 monocrystals in translucent electron microscope EhM-200, operating in the regime of microdiffraction at accelerating voltage of 150 kV and beam current 50 μA; sample preparation is realized using the method of shearing and fragmentation

  12. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F.; Stubbs, Alana Y.; Graham, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  13. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  15. Constructing Amplitudes from Their Soft Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-09

    The existence of universal soft limits for gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes has been known for a long time. The properties of the soft limits have been exploited in numerous ways; in particular for relating an n-point amplitude to an (n-1)-point amplitude by removing a soft particle. Recently, a procedure called inverse soft was developed by which 'soft' particles can be systematically added to an amplitude to construct a higher-point amplitude for generic kinematics. We review this procedure and relate it to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion. We show that all tree-level amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity up through seven points can be constructed in this way, as well as certain classes of NMHV gauge-theory amplitudes with any number of external legs. This provides us with a systematic procedure for constructing amplitudes solely from their soft limits.

  16. Soft And Hard Skills of Social Worker

    OpenAIRE

    HANTOVÁ, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with soft and hard skills relevant to the profession of social worker. The theoretical part at first evaluates and analyzes important soft and hard skills necessary for people working in the field of social work. Then these skills are compared. The practical part illustrates the use of soft and hard skills in practice by means of model scenes and deals with the preferences in three groups of people ? students of social work, social workers and people outside the sphere, namely ...

  17. Soft Thermal Sensor with Mechanical Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Qi, Dianpeng; Liu, Zhiyuan; Chandran, Bevita K; Wang, Ting; Yu, Jiancan; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    A soft thermal sensor with mechanical adaptability is fabricated by the combination of single-wall carbon nanotubes with carboxyl groups and self-healing polymers. This study demonstrates that this soft sensor has excellent thermal response and mechanical adaptability. It shows tremendous promise for improving the service life of soft artificial-intelligence robots and protecting thermally sensitive electronics from the risk of damage by high temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [Diagnosis of calcified deposits in soft tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybier, M; Laredo, J D; Parlier, C; Champsaur, P

    1997-01-01

    Calcific deposit within soft tissues is frequently a clue for diagnosis. The radiological analysis of a calcific deposit within soft tissues includes the following aspects: the basic structure of the calcification, the grade of differentiation of the calcification, the site of the calcification, the number of calcific deposits, the shape of the calcification, the changes in the adjacent non-calcified soft tissues and in the adjacent bone, the course of the clinical signs, the course of the radiological abnormalities.

  19. Soft errors in modern electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaidis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the most advanced research results and technological developments enabling understanding, qualifying and mitigating the soft errors effect in advanced electronics, including the fundamental physical mechanisms of radiation induced soft errors, the various steps that lead to a system failure, the modelling and simulation of soft error at various levels (including physical, electrical, netlist, event driven, RTL, and system level modelling and simulation), hardware fault injection, accelerated radiation testing and natural environment testing, s

  20. Soldering sheets using soft solders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Brožek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains strength tests results of joints soldered using lead and leadless soft solders. For tests lead solders types Pb60Sn40 and Sn60Pb40 and leadless soft solders types Sn95.5Ag3.8Cu0.7 and Sn96Ag4 were used. As basic materials steel sheet, zinc-coated steel sheet, copper sheet and brass sheet 100 x 20 x 1 mm was the test samples size. Always two sheets were cleaned and jointed together. For heating the propane-butane + air flame was used. Then the tested assemblies were loaded using the universal tensile-strength testing machine till to failure. At the tests the force needed for assemblies failure and failure type (in soldered joint, in basic material were recorded. From measured data the solder strength was calculated. From the experiment results it follows that from the point of view of the soldered joints strength as well of the solder strength relatively small differences were found. At the same time it is evident that the joint strength and solder strength depend on soldered material type and on soldered joint lapping length. On the basis of carried out experiments it can be stated that the substitution of lead solders by leadless solders is possible without risk of soldered joints strength decrease.

  1. Deformed soft matter under constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Martin

    In the last few decades, an increasing number of physicists specialized in soft matter, including polymers, have turned their attention to biologically relevant materials. The properties of various molecules and fibres, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and filaments of all sorts, are studied to better understand their behaviours and functions. Self-assembled biological membranes, or lipid bilayers, are also the focus of much attention as many life processes depend on these. Small lipid bilayers vesicles dubbed liposomes are also frequently used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this thesis, work is presented on both the elastic properties of polymers and the response of lipid bilayer vesicles to extrusion in narrow-channels. These two areas of research may seem disconnected but they both concern deformed soft materials. The thesis contains four articles: the first presenting a fundamental study of the entropic elasticity of circular chains; the second, a simple universal description of the effect of sequence on the elasticity of linear polymers such as DNA; the third, a model of the symmetric thermophoretic stretch of a nano-confined polymer; the fourth, a model that predicts the final sizes of vesicles obtained by pressure extrusion. These articles are preceded by an extensive introduction that covers all of the essential concepts and theories necessary to understand the work that has been done.

  2. Development of artificial soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kiyoshi

    1995-01-01

    When foundation base rocks are deeper than the level of installing structures or there exist weathered rocks and crushed rocks in a part of base rocks, often sound artificial base rocks are made by substituting the part with concrete. But in the construction of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the foundation base rocks consist of mudstone, and the stiffness of concrete is large as compared with the surrounding base rocks. As the quality of the substituting material, the nearly same stiffness as that of the surrounding soft rocks and long term stability are suitable, and the excellent workability and economical efficiency are required, therefore, artificial soft rocks were developed. As the substituting material, the soil mortar that can obtain the physical property values in stable form, which are similar to those of Nishiyama mudstone, was selected. The mechanism of its hardening and the long term stability, and the manufacturing plant are reported. As for its application to the base rocks of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the verification test at the site and the application to the base rocks for No. 7 plant reactor building and other places are described. (K.I.)

  3. A Soft Parallel Kinematic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward L; Case, Jennifer C; Kramer-Bottiglio, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we describe a novel holonomic soft robotic structure based on a parallel kinematic mechanism. The design is based on the Stewart platform, which uses six sensors and actuators to achieve full six-degree-of-freedom motion. Our design is much less complex than a traditional platform, since it replaces the 12 spherical and universal joints found in a traditional Stewart platform with a single highly deformable elastomer body and flexible actuators. This reduces the total number of parts in the system and simplifies the assembly process. Actuation is achieved through coiled-shape memory alloy actuators. State observation and feedback is accomplished through the use of capacitive elastomer strain gauges. The main structural element is an elastomer joint that provides antagonistic force. We report the response of the actuators and sensors individually, then report the response of the complete assembly. We show that the completed robotic system is able to achieve full position control, and we discuss the limitations associated with using responsive material actuators. We believe that control demonstrated on a single body in this work could be extended to chains of such bodies to create complex soft robots.

  4. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude.

  5. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude. PMID:20657817

  6. Distributed Wind Soft Costs: A Beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Tony; Forsyth,Trudy; Preus, Robert; Christol, Corrie; Orrell, Alice; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-06-14

    Tony Jimenez presented this overview of distributed wind soft costs at the 2016 Small Wind Conference in Stevens Point, Wisconsin, on June 14, 2016. Soft costs are any non-hardware project costs, such as costs related to permitting fees, installer/developer profit, taxes, transaction costs, permitting, installation, indirect corporate costs, installation labor, and supply chain costs. This presentation provides an overview of soft costs, a distributed wind project taxonomy (of which soft costs are a subset), an alpha data set project demographics, data summary, and future work in this area.

  7. MANAGEMENT SOFT-FACTORS IN INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Fatkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available No proper attention is given in existing management theories and concepts to systematization and analysis of non-material management factors, so-called «soft-factors». In industries, management soft-factors may be treated in a broader way. An example of a broader treatment of management soft-factors is given for the system of state regulation of foreign trade activities in industries along with specification, determination and rating of organizational and administrative management soft-factors.

  8. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Hughes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilises the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are not best suited. This requires a paradigm shift in the methods and materials used to develop robots such that they can adapt to and work safely in human environments. One solution to this is soft robotics, which enables soft interactions with the surroundings whilst maintaining the ability to apply significant force. This review paper assess the current materials and methods, actuation methods and sensors which are used in the development of soft manipulators. The achievements and shortcomings of recent technology in these key areas are evaluated, and this paper concludes with a discussion on the potential impacts of soft manipulators on industry and society.

  9. A Recipe for Soft Fluidic Elastomer Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Andrew D; Katzschmann, Robert K; Rus, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    This work provides approaches to designing and fabricating soft fluidic elastomer robots. That is, three viable actuator morphologies composed entirely from soft silicone rubber are explored, and these morphologies are differentiated by their internal channel structure, namely, ribbed, cylindrical, and pleated. Additionally, three distinct casting-based fabrication processes are explored: lamination-based casting, retractable-pin-based casting, and lost-wax-based casting. Furthermore, two ways of fabricating a multiple DOF robot are explored: casting the complete robot as a whole and casting single degree of freedom (DOF) segments with subsequent concatenation. We experimentally validate each soft actuator morphology and fabrication process by creating multiple physical soft robot prototypes.

  10. SUPRA SOFT SEPARATION AXIOMS AND SUPRA IRRESOLUTENESS BASED ON SUPRA B-SOFT SETS

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El-latif, Alaa Mohamed; Hosny, Rodyna Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces supra soft b-separation axioms based on the supra b-open soft sets which are more general than supra open soft sets. We investigate the relationships between these supra soft separation axioms. Furthermore, with the help of examples it is established that the converse does not hold. We show that, a supra soft topological space (X; t;E) is supra soft b-T1-space, if xE is supra b-closed soft set in for each x 2 X. Also, we prove that xE is supra b-closed soft set for each ...

  11. Charge density glass dynamics – Soft potentials and soft modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljaković, K.; Starešinić, D.; Lasjaunias, J.C.; Remenyi, G.; Mélin, R.; Monceau, P.; Sahling, S.

    2012-01-01

    An universal fingerprint of glasses has been found in low-temperature thermodynamic properties of charge/spin density wave (C/SDW) systems. Deviations from the well-known Debye, elastic continuum prediction for specific heat (flat C p /T 3 plot) appear as two anomalies; the upturn below 1 K and a broad bump at T∼10 K (named Boson peak in glasses). The first one, inherent of localized two level systems within the shalow corrugated phase space, exhibits slow relaxation with the complex dynamics. The second one, “Boson peak-like peak” was attributed to the pinned mode and incomplete softening of CDW superstructural mode. We discuss similar C p (T) features found also in incommensurate dielectrics with well documented soft-mode anomalies.

  12. Charge density glass dynamics - Soft potentials and soft modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biljakovic, K., E-mail: katica@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, HR-10001, Zagreb, P.O. Box 304 (Croatia); Staresinic, D., E-mail: damirs@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, HR-10001, Zagreb, P.O. Box 304 (Croatia); Lasjaunias, J.C., E-mail: jean-claude.lasjaunias@pop3.grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Remenyi, G., E-mail: Gyorgy.Remenyi@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Melin, R., E-mail: Regis.Melin@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Monceau, P., E-mail: pierre.monceau@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Sahling, S., E-mail: sven.olaf@gmail.com [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Dresden, D-01062, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    An universal fingerprint of glasses has been found in low-temperature thermodynamic properties of charge/spin density wave (C/SDW) systems. Deviations from the well-known Debye, elastic continuum prediction for specific heat (flat C{sub p}/T{sup 3} plot) appear as two anomalies; the upturn below 1 K and a broad bump at T{approx}10 K (named Boson peak in glasses). The first one, inherent of localized two level systems within the shalow corrugated phase space, exhibits slow relaxation with the complex dynamics. The second one, 'Boson peak-like peak' was attributed to the pinned mode and incomplete softening of CDW superstructural mode. We discuss similar C{sub p}(T) features found also in incommensurate dielectrics with well documented soft-mode anomalies.

  13. Cyclic Soft Groups and Their Applications on Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Aktaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

  14. Soft Copy Imagery Interpretation Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMonica, Gary L.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of an interactive automated multisensor soft copy imagery exploitation work-station is described. A brief history of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and predecessor equipment/systems is presented along with performance achieved during field training exercises in Central Europe to illustrate the comparative effectiveness of this generic software reconfigurable workstation. The workstation was designed to increase the rate of imagery exploitation while minimizing the personnel skill level and training required for proficiency. Characteristics include real-time screening of scrolling sensor imagery, superpositioning of cue symbols, rapid accessing of collateral data base information, and near real-time computer-assisted reporting. Frame processing enables real-time rotation, warp/dewarp, and roam. Convolution filtering permits edge enhancement and haze reduction.

  15. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.L.; Delrue, F.; De Schepper, A.M.A. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Salgado, R. [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    A soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst located in the right gluteus medius of a 21-year-old man is reported. On conventional radiography, the lesion demonstrated a spherically trabeculated mass with a calcific rim. On CT scan, it showed a well-organized peripheral calcification resembling a myositis ossificans. On MRI, it presented as a multilocular, cystic lesion with fluid-fluid levels. The lesion had no solid components except for intralesional septa. Although findings on imaging and histology were identical to those described in classical aneurysmal bone cyst, diagnosis was delayed because of lack of knowledge of this entity and its resemblance to the more familiar post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans). (orig.)

  16. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  17. Soft lithography for concentrator photovoltaic CPV - system's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soft lithography for concentrator photovoltaic CPV - system's application. ... Soft lithography for concentrator photovoltaic CPV - system's application. N.L. Chiromawa, K Ibrahim, M.H. Ali, U.M. Gana, A.O. Musa, N.I. Mannawi, A.A. ... Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Micro-Fresnel lens,Photovoltaic, Solar cells, PMMA, PDMS ...

  18. Novelty Search for Soft Robotic Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methenitis, G.; Hennes, D.; Izzo, D.; Visser, A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of soft robots in future space exploration is still a far-fetched idea, but an attractive one. Soft robots are inherently compliant mechanisms that are well suited for locomotion on rough terrain as often faced in extra-planetary environments. Depending on the particular application and

  19. [Metastatic hypernephroma in oral soft tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Conde, R; López Cedrún, J L; Aguirre Urízar, J M; Rosell Cerro, M; Llarena Ibarguren, R

    1990-05-01

    Oral metastatic tumors are rare. A case of primary affection of oral soft tissues by metastatic hypernefroma, without radiologic evidence of bone involvement, is presented in this paper. Review of the literature reveals that the gingiva is the commonest location of metastatic hypernephroma in the oral soft tissues. The most important clinicopathology and therapeutic features are also reviewed.

  20. Soft theorems from conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipstein, Arthur E. [II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-06-24

    Strominger and collaborators recently proposed that soft theorems for gauge and gravity amplitudes can be interpreted as Ward identities of a 2d CFT at null infinity. In this paper, we will consider a specific realization of this CFT known as ambitwistor string theory, which describes 4d Yang-Mills and gravity with any amount of supersymmetry. Using 4d ambtwistor string theory, we derive soft theorems in the form of an infinite series in the soft momentum which are valid to subleading order in gauge theory and sub-subleading order in gravity. Furthermore, we describe how the algebra of soft limits can be encoded in the braiding of soft vertex operators on the worldsheet and point out a simple relation between soft gluon and soft graviton vertex operators which suggests an interesting connection to color-kinematics duality. Finally, by considering ambitwistor string theory on a genus one worldsheet, we compute the 1-loop correction to the subleading soft graviton theorem due to infrared divergences.

  1. RUSSIAN SOFT POWER: ORIGINS, INSTITUTIONS, EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sergunin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper examines conceptual and institutional aspects ofRussia’s soft power strategy over the last decade.Methodology: research is made on the basis of the institutional approach which requires the analysis of both configuration and internal structure of the object. The study of an institution’s behavior and its interaction with the external environment is an integral part of this approach as well.Results: The sources of Moscow's interest in the soft power strategy are explained. Various methods, techniques and institutional mechanisms that are used by Moscow to exercise its soft power in its geopolitical neighborhood are explored. The effectiveness of Russia’s soft power politics is evaluated.Practical implications: the results of this research can be taken into consideration by the Russian governmental agencies responsible for the soft power strategies (e.g. the Rossotrudnichestvo and ‘Russian world’.

  2. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  3. 4th World Conference on Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasov, Ali; Yager, Ronald; Shahbazova, Shahnaz; Reformat, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This book reports on advanced theories and cutting-edge applications in the field of soft computing. The individual chapters, written by leading researchers, are based on contributions presented during the 4th World Conference on Soft Computing, held May 25-27, 2014, in Berkeley. The book covers a wealth of key topics in soft computing, focusing on both fundamental aspects and applications. The former include fuzzy mathematics, type-2 fuzzy sets, evolutionary-based optimization, aggregation and neural networks, while the latter include soft computing in data analysis, image processing, decision-making, classification, series prediction, economics, control, and modeling. By providing readers with a timely, authoritative view on the field, and by discussing thought-provoking developments and challenges, the book will foster new research directions in the diverse areas of soft computing. .

  4. Soft error mechanisms, modeling and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sayil, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various radiation soft-error mechanisms such as soft delays, radiation induced clock jitter and pulses, and single event (SE) coupling induced effects. In addition to discussing various radiation hardening techniques for combinational logic, the author also describes new mitigation strategies targeting commercial designs. Coverage includes novel soft error mitigation techniques such as the Dynamic Threshold Technique and Soft Error Filtering based on Transmission gate with varied gate and body bias. The discussion also includes modeling of SE crosstalk noise, delay and speed-up effects. Various mitigation strategies to eliminate SE coupling effects are also introduced. Coverage also includes the reliability of low power energy-efficient designs and the impact of leakage power consumption optimizations on soft error robustness. The author presents an analysis of various power optimization techniques, enabling readers to make design choices that reduce static power consumption an...

  5. Glass transition in soft-sphere dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RamIrez-Gonzalez, P E; Medina-Noyola, M

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic equivalence among mono-disperse soft-sphere fluids is employed in the framework of the self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics to calculate the ideal glass transition phase diagram of model soft-sphere colloidal dispersions in the softness-concentration state space. The slow dynamics predicted by this theory near the glass transition is compared with available experimental data for the decay of the intermediate scattering function of colloidal dispersions of soft-microgel particles. Increasing deviations from this simple scheme occur for increasingly softer potentials, and this is studied here using the Rogers-Young static structure factor of the soft-sphere systems as the input of the SCGLE theory, without assuming a priori the validity of the equivalence principle above.

  6. Integrating soft sensor systems using conductive thread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lijun; Jeronimo, Karina; Wei, Tianqi; Nemitz, Markus P.; Lyu, Geng; Stokes, Adam A.

    2018-05-01

    We are part of a growing community of researchers who are developing a new class of soft machines. By using mechanically soft materials (MPa modulus) we can design systems which overcome the bulk-mechanical mismatches between soft biological systems and hard engineered components. To develop fully integrated soft machines—which include power, communications, and control sub-systems—the research community requires methods for interconnecting between soft and hard electronics. Sensors based upon eutectic gallium alloys in microfluidic channels can be used to measure normal and strain forces, but integrating these sensors into systems of heterogeneous Young’s modulus is difficult due the complexity of finding a material which is electrically conductive, mechanically flexible, and stable over prolonged periods of time. Many existing gallium-based liquid alloy sensors are not mechanically or electrically robust, and have poor stability over time. We present the design and fabrication of a high-resolution pressure-sensor soft system that can transduce normal force into a digital output. In this soft system, which is built on a monolithic silicone substrate, a galinstan-based microfluidic pressure sensor is integrated with a flexible printed circuit board. We used conductive thread as the interconnect and found that this method alleviates problems arising due to the mechanical mismatch between conventional metal wires and soft or liquid materials. Conductive thread is low-cost, it is readily wetted by the liquid metal, it produces little bending moment into the microfluidic channel, and it can be connected directly onto the copper bond-pads of the flexible printed circuit board. We built a bridge-system to provide stable readings from the galinstan pressure sensor. This system gives linear measurement results between 500-3500 Pa of applied pressure. We anticipate that integrated systems of this type will find utility in soft-robotic systems as used for wearable

  7. Nonspecificity of Chronic Soft Tissue Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Tunks

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent (or chronic pain occurs with a prevalence of about 10% in the adult population, and chronic soft tissue pain is especially problematic. Criteria for diagnosis of these soft tissue pain disorders appear to suffer from specificity problems, even though they appear to be sensitive in distinguishing normal from soft tissue pain sufferers. A few decades ago the term 'neuraesthenia' was used as a diagnosis in individuals who now would probably be diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and anxiety disorders with fatigue. Soft tissue pain provokes skepticism, especially among third-party payers, and controversy among clinicians. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated sex differences in the prevalence of widespread pain and multiple tender points, which are distributed variably throughout the adult population and tend to be correlated with subjective symptoms. Although there is a tendency for these syndromes to persist, follow-up studies show that they tend to vary in extent and sometimes show remissions over longer follow-up, casting doubt about the distinctions between chronic diffuse pains and localized chronic soft tissue pains. Because both accidents and soft tissue pains are relatively prevalent problems, the possibility of chance coincidence of accident and chronic soft tissue pain in an individual creates the need to be cautious in attributing these syndromes to specific accidents in medicolegal situations. At the same time, the available evidence does not support a generally dismissive attitude towards these patients.

  8. New Concepts and Applications in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, János; Várkonyi-Kóczy, Annamária

    2013-01-01

                  The book provides a sample of research on the innovative theory and applications of soft computing paradigms.             The idea of Soft Computing was initiated in 1981 when Professor Zadeh published his first paper on soft data analysis and constantly evolved ever since. Professor Zadeh defined Soft Computing as the fusion of the fields of fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN) and probabilistic reasoning (PR), with the latter subsuming belief networks, evolutionary computing including DNA computing, chaos theory and parts of learning theory into one multidisciplinary system. As Zadeh said the essence of soft computing is that unlike the traditional, hard computing, soft computing is aimed at an accommodation with the pervasive imprecision of the real world. Thus, the guiding principle of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness, low solution cost and better rapport with reality. ...

  9. On the exactness of soft theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Andrea L.; Huang, Yu-tin; Li, Zhizhong; Wen, Congkao

    2017-12-01

    Soft behaviours of S-matrix for massless theories reflect the underlying symmetry principle that enforces its masslessness. As an expansion in soft momenta, sub-leading soft theorems can arise either due to (I) unique structure of the fundamental vertex or (II) presence of enhanced broken-symmetries. While the former is expected to be modified by infrared or ultraviolet divergences, the latter should remain exact to all orders in perturbation theory. Using current algebra, we clarify such distinction for spontaneously broken (super) Poincaré and (super) conformal symmetry. We compute the UV divergences of DBI, conformal DBI, and A-V theory to verify the exactness of type (II) soft theorems, while type (I) are shown to be broken and the soft-modifying higher-dimensional operators are identified. As further evidence for the exactness of type (II) soft theorems, we consider the α' expansion of both super and bosonic open strings amplitudes, and verify the validity of the translation symmetry breaking soft-theorems up to O({α}^' 6}) . Thus the massless S-matrix of string theory "knows" about the presence of D-branes.

  10. Fast-moving soft electronic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiefeng; Li, Guorui; Liang, Yiming; Cheng, Tingyu; Dai, Jing; Yang, Xuxu; Liu, Bangyuan; Zeng, Zedong; Huang, Zhilong; Luo, Yingwu; Xie, Tao; Yang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Soft robots driven by stimuli-responsive materials have unique advantages over conventional rigid robots, especially in their high adaptability for field exploration and seamless interaction with humans. The grand challenge lies in achieving self-powered soft robots with high mobility, environmental tolerance, and long endurance. We are able to advance a soft electronic fish with a fully integrated onboard system for power and remote control. Without any motor, the fish is driven solely by a soft electroactive structure made of dielectric elastomer and ionically conductive hydrogel. The electronic fish can swim at a speed of 6.4 cm/s (0.69 body length per second), which is much faster than previously reported untethered soft robotic fish driven by soft responsive materials. The fish shows consistent performance in a wide temperature range and permits stealth sailing due to its nearly transparent nature. Furthermore, the fish is robust, as it uses the surrounding water as the electric ground and can operate for 3 hours with one single charge. The design principle can be potentially extended to a variety of flexible devices and soft robots.

  11. Energy efficiency of mobile soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Langquan; Zhu, Liangliang; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2017-11-15

    The performance of mobile soft robots is usually characterized by their locomotion/velocity efficiency, whereas the energy efficiency is a more intrinsic and fundamental criterion for the performance evaluation of independent or integrated soft robots. In this work, a general framework is established to evaluate the energy efficiency of mobile soft robots by considering the efficiency of the energy source, actuator and locomotion, and some insights for improving the efficiency of soft robotic systems are presented. Proposed as the ratio of the desired locomotion kinetic energy to the input mechanical energy, the energy efficiency of locomotion is found to play a critical role in determining the overall energy efficiency of soft robots. Four key factors related to the locomotion energy efficiency are identified, that is, the locomotion modes, material properties, geometric sizes, and actuation states. It is found that the energy efficiency of most mobile soft robots reported in the literature is surprisingly low (mostly below 0.1%), due to the inefficient mechanical energy that essentially does not contribute to the desired locomotion. A comparison of the locomotion energy efficiency for several representative locomotion modes in the literature is presented, showing a descending ranking as: jumping ≫ fish-like swimming > snake-like slithering > rolling > rising/turning over > inchworm-like inching > quadruped gait > earthworm-like squirming. Besides, considering the same locomotion mode, soft robots with lower stiffness, higher density and larger size tend to have higher locomotion energy efficiency. Moreover, a periodic pulse actuation instead of a continuous actuation mode may significantly reduce the input mechanical energy, thus improving the locomotion energy efficiency, especially when the pulse actuation matches the resonant states of the soft robots. The results presented herein indicate a large and necessary space for improving the locomotion energy

  12. Design of a Soft Robot with Multiple Motion Patterns Using Soft Pneumatic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yu; Dong, Wei; Du, Zhijiang

    2017-11-01

    Soft robots are made of soft materials and have good flexibility and infinite degrees of freedom in theory. These properties enable soft robots to work in narrow space and adapt to external environment. In this paper, a 2-DOF soft pneumatic actuator is introduced, with two chambers symmetrically distributed on both sides and a jamming cylinder along the axis. Fibers are used to constrain the expansion of the soft actuator. Experiments are carried out to test the performance of the soft actuator, including bending and elongation characteristics. A soft robot is designed and fabricated by connecting four soft pneumatic actuators to a 3D-printed board. The soft robotic system is then established. The pneumatic circuit is built by pumps and solenoid valves. The control system is based on the control board Arduino Mega 2560. Relay modules are used to control valves and pressure sensors are used to measure pressure in the pneumatic circuit. Experiments are conducted to test the performance of the proposed soft robot.

  13. [Soft skills : Somewhat different doping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, H J

    2018-02-01

    Doping actually means the taking of illegal substances or the use of forbidden methods to increase or maintain performance. Diseases associated with age and functional decline can lead to constraints in the activities of daily living and this leads to loss of autonomy; therefore, doping in its different variations is used to try to achieve performance, which would not otherwise be possible. A somewhat different method is soft skills, i.e. personal, social and methodological competences, which are adopted to remain fit with the help of selection and compensation. One of the main cornerstones for healthy aging apart from medical interventions is physical activity and to keep training up to old age. An early beginning with sports activities and to continue practicing sport in a variety of forms into old age, plays a decisive role in healthy aging. There are also many recommendations for nutrition, such as changing eating habits and the composition of nourishment to counteract the process of aging. With increasing age the interests and life style also change and therefore early planning is absolutely necessary. Preservation of cognitive capabilities is one of the most important requirements to overcome aging. Not only the cognitive resources must be promoted but also attention must be paid to the resilience to deal with losses. Resilience plays a key role. People with a positive attitude to living with old age show less functional physical impairment and recover from illness more quickly. Humor, optimism and physical activity are crucial for successful aging.

  14. Electronically soft phases in manganites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milward, G C; Calderón, M J; Littlewood, P B

    2005-02-10

    The phenomenon of colossal magnetoresistance in manganites is generally agreed to be a result of competition between crystal phases with different electronic, magnetic and structural order; a competition which can be strong enough to cause phase separation between metallic ferromagnetic and insulating charge-modulated states. Nevertheless, closer inspection of phase diagrams in many manganites reveals complex phases where the two order parameters of magnetism and charge modulation unexpectedly coexist. Here we show that such experiments can be naturally explained within a phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau theory. In contrast to models where phase separation originates from disorder or as a strain-induced kinetic phenomenon, we argue that magnetic and charge modulation coexist in new thermodynamic phases. This leads to a rich diagram of equilibrium phases, qualitatively similar to those seen experimentally. The success of this model argues for a fundamental reinterpretation of the nature of charge modulation in these materials, from a localized to a more extended 'charge-density wave' picture. The same symmetry considerations that favour textured coexistence of charge and magnetic order may apply to many electronic systems with competing phases. The resulting 'electronically soft' phases of matter with incommensurate, inhomogeneous and mixed order may be general phenomena in correlated systems.

  15. Soft energy vs nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    During the early 1960s, a plentiful, inexpensive supply of petroleum enabled Japanese industry to progress rapidly; however, almost all of this petroleum was imported. Even after the first oil crisis of 1973, the recent annual energy consumption of Japan is calculated to be about 360 million tons in terms of petroleum, and actual petroleum forms 73% of total energy. It is necessary for Japan to reduce reliance on petroleum and to diversify energy resources. The use of other fossil fuels, such as coal, LNG and LPG, and hydraulic energy, is considered as an established alternative. In this presentation, the author deals with new energy, namely soft energy and nuclear energy, and discusses their characteristics and problems. The following kinds of energy are dealt with: a) Solar energy, b) Geothermal energy, c) Ocean energy (tidal, thermal, wave), d) Wind energy, e) Biomass energy, f) Hydrogen, g) Nuclear (thermal, fast, fusion). To solve the energy problem in future, assiduous efforts should be made to develop new energy systems. Among them, the most promising alternative energy is nuclear energy, and various kinds of thermal reactor systems have been developed for practical application. As a solution to the long-term future energy problem, research on and development of fast breeder reactors and fusion reactors are going on. (author)

  16. Soft drop jet mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Roloff, Jennifer Kathryn; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Calculations of jet substructure observables that are accurate beyond leading-logarithm accuracy have recently become available. Such observables are significant not only for probing the collinear regime of QCD that is largely unexplored at a hadron collider, but also for improving the understanding of jet substructure properties that are used in many studies at the Large Hadron Collider. This poster documents a measurement of the first jet substructure quantity at a hadron collider to be calculated at next-to-next-to-leading-logarithm accuracy. The normalized, differential cross-section is measured as a function of log( ρ^2), where ρ is the ratio of the soft-drop mass to the ungroomed jet transverse momentum. This quantity is measured in dijet events from 32.9 ifb of sqrt(s) = 13 TeV proton-proton collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector. The data are unfolded to correct for detector effects and compared to precise QCD calculations and leading-logarithm particle-level Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Design, fabrication and control of soft robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T.

    2015-05-01

    Conventionally, engineers have employed rigid materials to fabricate precise, predictable robotic systems, which are easily modelled as rigid members connected at discrete joints. Natural systems, however, often match or exceed the performance of robotic systems with deformable bodies. Cephalopods, for example, achieve amazing feats of manipulation and locomotion without a skeleton; even vertebrates such as humans achieve dynamic gaits by storing elastic energy in their compliant bones and soft tissues. Inspired by nature, engineers have begun to explore the design and control of soft-bodied robots composed of compliant materials. This Review discusses recent developments in the emerging field of soft robotics.

  18. Practical applications of soft computing in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing has been presented not only with the theoretical developments but also with a large variety of realistic applications to consumer products and industrial systems. Application of soft computing has provided the opportunity to integrate human-like vagueness and real-life uncertainty into an otherwise hard computer program. This book highlights some of the recent developments in practical applications of soft computing in engineering problems. All the chapters have been sophisticatedly designed and revised by international experts to achieve wide but in-depth coverage. Contents: Au

  19. Camouflage and display for soft machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Stephen A; Shepherd, Robert F; Kwok, Sen Wai; Stokes, Adam A; Nemiroski, Alex; Whitesides, George M

    2012-08-17

    Synthetic systems cannot easily mimic the color-changing abilities of animals such as cephalopods. Soft machines--machines fabricated from soft polymers and flexible reinforcing sheets--are rapidly increasing in functionality. This manuscript describes simple microfluidic networks that can change the color, contrast, pattern, apparent shape, luminescence, and surface temperature of soft machines for camouflage and display. The color of these microfluidic networks can be changed simultaneously in the visible and infrared--a capability that organisms do not have. These strategies begin to imitate the functions, although not the anatomies, of color-changing animals.

  20. Small-angle scattering on soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, K.

    1994-01-01

    Small angle x-ray and neutron scattering provides tools for investigation of structures on the length scale 10 to 1000 A. This is the length scale which is relevant for many topics within soft materials, like biological macromolecules, polymers, colloids, etc. The very large difference between the scattering amplitude of neutrons by regular hydrogen and deuterium makes neutron scattering a very important technique within soft condensed matter. The basic theory for small angle scattering is reviewed. Experimental results obtained by small angle scattering are shown, with emphasis on soft materials. (author). 33 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  1. SOFT ROBOTICS. A 3D-printed, functionally graded soft robot powered by combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Nicholas W; Tolley, Michael T; Overvelde, Johannes T B; Weaver, James C; Mosadegh, Bobak; Bertoldi, Katia; Whitesides, George M; Wood, Robert J

    2015-07-10

    Roboticists have begun to design biologically inspired robots with soft or partially soft bodies, which have the potential to be more robust and adaptable, and safer for human interaction, than traditional rigid robots. However, key challenges in the design and manufacture of soft robots include the complex fabrication processes and the interfacing of soft and rigid components. We used multimaterial three-dimensional (3D) printing to manufacture a combustion-powered robot whose body transitions from a rigid core to a soft exterior. This stiffness gradient, spanning three orders of magnitude in modulus, enables reliable interfacing between rigid driving components (controller, battery, etc.) and the primarily soft body, and also enhances performance. Powered by the combustion of butane and oxygen, this robot is able to perform untethered jumping. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Nonlinear Properties of Soft Glass Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Henrik

    -infrared applications and the THz applications. In the mid-infrared, it is investigated whether soft glasses are a suitable candidate for supercontinuum generation (SCG). A few commercially available fluoride fibers are tested for their zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW), a key property when determining the possibility......This thesis builds around the investigation into using soft glass materials for midinfrared and THz applications. Soft glasses is a term that cov ers a wide range of chemical compositions where many are yet to be fully investigated. The work in this thesis is separated in two parts, the mid...... of SCG in a fiber. A group of soft glasses, namely the chalcogenides, are known to display two photon absorption (TPA) which could potentially limit the SCG when this is initiated within the frequency range where this nonlinear process occur. An analytic model is presented to estimate the soliton self...

  3. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  4. Subleading soft graviton theorem for loop amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2017-11-01

    Superstring field theory gives expressions for heterotic and type II string loop amplitudes that are free from ultraviolet and infrared divergences when the number of non-compact space-time dimensions is five or more. We prove the subleading soft graviton theorem in these theories to all orders in perturbation theory for S-matrix elements of arbitrary number of finite energy external states but only one external soft graviton. We also prove the leading soft graviton theorem for arbitrary number of finite energy external states and arbitrary number of soft gravitons. Since our analysis is based on general properties of one particle irreducible effective action, the results are valid in any theory of quantum gravity that gives finite result for the S-matrix order by order in perturbation theory without violating general coordinate invariance.

  5. Adaptive Control Methods for Soft Robots

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — I propose to develop methods for soft and inflatable robots that will allow the control system to adapt and change control parameters based on changing conditions...

  6. Skin and soft tissue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Verma, K K

    2001-07-01

    Abstract. Normal skin is heavily colonized by bacterial flora. The most common are the various nonpathogenic gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (coagulase-negative). Skin and soft tissue infections are usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pyogenes. This article discusses common and some not so common bacterial skin infections, including impetigo, folliculitis, furncles and carbuncles, cellulitis and erysipelas, gangrenous cellulitis, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome and scarlet fever. Impetigo and ecthyma are common bacterial infections of the skin commonly caused by S. aureus and / or Group A streptoccus. In mild and localized impetigo topical antibiotics whereas in widespread or severe one and in ecthyma systemic antibiotics like, cloxacillin, erythromycin, azithromycin or cephalexin should be used. Folliculitis, furunculosis and carbuncle are folliculocentric infections caused by S. aureus involving the variable depth and extent of the follicle(s) and surrounding tissue. These conditions can be treated with topical or systemic antibiotics like cloxacillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or vancomycin. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a toxin mediated exfoliative dermatosis caused by S. aureus of phase group II. Intravenous penicillinase-resistant anti-staphylococcal antibiotics like methicillin, cloxacillin, cephalosporin or erythromycin are required. Erysipelas and cellulitis are acute infections of dermal and subcutaneous tissues caused most frequently by Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (erysipelas) or S. aureus requiring systemic antibiotics like oral or intravenous penicillin, erythromycin, cephalexin, cloxacillin, vacomycin, minocycline or ciprofloxacin depending upon the severity, suspected causative organism and culture/sensitivity results. Gangrenous cellulitis is characterized by infection with necrosis of skin and underlying subcutaneous tissue due to various

  7. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    . De Cauwer H , Somville F , Sabbe M , Mortelmans LJ . Hospitals: soft target for terrorism? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(1):94-100.

  8. High energy evolution of soft gluon cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuvaev, A.; Wallon, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we derive an evolution equation for the gluon density in soft gluon cascades emitted from any colored source, in the leading logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. We show that this equation has the same form as the BFKL equation in the forward case. An explicit expression for the total cascade wavefunction involving an arbitrary number of soft gluons is obtained. Renormalization of the colored source wavefunction turns out to be responsible for the reggeization of the source. (orig.)

  9. High energy evolution of soft gluon cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuvaev, A. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg district (Russian Federation); Wallon, S. [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we derive an evolution equation for the gluon density in soft gluon cascades emitted from any colored source, in the leading logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. We show that this equation has the same form as the BFKL equation in the forward case. An explicit expression for the total cascade wavefunction involving an arbitrary number of soft gluons is obtained. Renormalization of the colored source wavefunction turns out to be responsible for the reggeization of the source. (orig.)

  10. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed

  11. Pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas and nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwala Sandeep

    2006-01-01

    Tumors arising from the soft tissues are uncommon in children, accounting for about 6% of all childhood malignancies. More than half (53%) of these originate from the striated muscles and are called rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) the remaining are nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS). Almost two-thirds of RMS cases are diagnosed in children < 6 years of age. They can arise at varied locations like the head and neck region, genitourinary tract, extremities, trunk and retrope...

  12. Exact Soft Confidence-Weighted Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jialei; Zhao, Peilin; Hoi, Steven C. H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new Soft Confidence-Weighted (SCW) online learning scheme, which enables the conventional confidence-weighted learning method to handle non-separable cases. Unlike the previous confidence-weighted learning algorithms, the proposed soft confidence-weighted learning method enjoys all the four salient properties: (i) large margin training, (ii) confidence weighting, (iii) capability to handle non-separable data, and (iv) adaptive margin. Our experimental results show ...

  13. Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoou, Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.

  14. Assessing fluoride levels of carbonated soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, J R; Kiritsy, M C; Levy, S M; Wefel, J S

    1999-11-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excessive total fluoride intake during tooth development. Some children may receive substantial intake from soft drinks, but few studies have reported fluoride levels in soft drinks. The authors examined the fluoride concentrations of 332 soft drinks. Soft drinks were purchased from Iowa grocery stores. To identify production sites, the authors recorded product details and batch numbers. After decarbonating the drinks, the authors assayed samples for fluoride content using a fluoride ion-specific electrode, and reported the results in parts per million, or ppm, using appropriate standards and duplicate assessments. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the findings. The fluoride levels of the products ranged from 0.02 to 1.28 ppm, with a mean level of 0.72 ppm. Fluoride levels exceeded 0.60 ppm for 71 percent of the products. Results varied substantially by production site, even within the same company and for the same product. There were no substantial differences between flavors or between diet and regular soft drinks. The majority of soft drinks had fluoride levels exceeding 0.60 ppm. Variation in fluoride levels probably is due largely to the different water sources used in production. With no fluoride levels marked on the soft drink products or easily available from the manufacturers, it is not possible for clinicians or consumers to directly estimate fluoride ingestion from carbonated beverages. Therefore, to reduce the risk of dental fluorosis, dental and medical practitioners should be cautious about prescribing dietary fluoride supplements to preschool-aged children in nonfluoridated areas who consume large quantities of carbonated soft drinks.

  15. Soft tissue and esthetic considerations around implants

    OpenAIRE

    Joann Pauline George; Sangeeta Dhir

    2015-01-01

    The health of the peri – implant tissues play an important in the long term outcome of dental implants. The absence of keratinized gingiva (KG) may be a risk factor for developing recession or peri –implantitis. However there is still ambiguity in the need for keratinized gingiva around dental implants. The preservation and reconstruction of soft tissue around dental implants is an integral component of dental Implantology. There is no long-term evidence whether augmented soft tissues can be ...

  16. Soft leptogenesis in the inverse seesaw model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayoa, Julia; Concepion Gonzalez-Garcia, Maria; Rius, Nuria

    2007-02-01

    We consider leptogenesis induced by soft supersymmetry breaking terms (``soft leptogenesis''), in the context of the inverse seesaw mechanism. In this model there are lepton number (L) conserving and L-violating soft supersymmetry-breaking B-terms involving the singlet sneutrinos which, together with the — generically small — L-violating parameter responsible of the neutrino mass, give a small mass splitting between the four singlet sneutrino states of a single generation. In combination with the trilinear soft supersymmetry breaking terms they also provide new CP violating phases needed to generate a lepton asymmetry in the singlet sneutrino decays. We obtain that in this scenario the lepton asymmetry is proportional to the L-conserving soft supersymmetry-breaking B-term, and it is not suppressed by the L-violating parameters. Consequently we find that, as in the standard see-saw case, this mechanism can lead to sucessful leptogenesis only for relatively small value of the relevant soft bilinear coupling. The right-handed neutrino masses can be sufficiently low to elude the gravitino problem. Also the corresponding Yukawa couplings involving the lightest of the right-handed neutrinos are constrained to be ∑|Y1k|2lesssim10-7 which generically implies that the neutrino mass spectrum has to be strongly hierarchical.

  17. [Soft contactlenses in general practice (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B

    1975-07-01

    In contrast to the hard lenses the soft lens has enough permeability for oxygen and water-soluble substances, whereas high molecular substances, bacteria and virus cannot penetrate the soft lenses, so long as their surfaces are intact. The two principal production methods, the spin cast method and the lathe-turned method are compared. The duration of wearing of the soft lens depends on the deposits of proteins from the tears on the surface of the lens and the desinfection method. The daily boiling of the lenses shortens their useful life, while chemical desinfection causes besides bacteriolysis, damage of the corneal cell protein. The new cleaners on the base of proteolytic plant enzymes promise good results. For the optical correction of astigmatism with more than 1 cyl, soft lenses with conic outer surface are used or combinations of a soft and a hard lens (Duosystem). The therapeutic use of soft lenses has as aim: protection of the cornea against mechanical irritation, release of pain, protracted administration output of medicaments. Further indications for use: aseptic corneal inflammation and corneal defects.

  18. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-min Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  19. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Zheng-min; Ge, Su-qin; Wang, Xi-guang; Li, Zhi-xiong; Xia, Qing-lin; Wang, Dao-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  20. On topological structures of fuzzy parametrized soft sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Serkan; Zorlutuna, Idris

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the topological structure of fuzzy parametrized soft sets and fuzzy parametrized soft mappings. We define the notion of quasi-coincidence for fuzzy parametrized soft sets and investigated its basic properties. We study the closure, interior, base, continuity, and compactness and properties of these concepts in fuzzy parametrized soft topological spaces.

  1. Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1994-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial

  2. Building China’s soft power for a peaceful rise

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner

    2009-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic progress and steady increase in its international influence, China has gradually embarked on the soft power idea and has made developing its soft power as its national strategy. We argue that China’s soft power strategy is in accordance to Chinese Confucian culture and political value and fits well with its grand strategy of peaceful rise. Based on existing conceptualizations of soft power, we expanded the sources of soft power to six pillars: cul...

  3. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  4. Conservative Soft Power: Liberal soft power bias and the ‘hidden’ attraction of Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Kaczmarska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The study of soft power in international relations suffers from a liberal democratic bias. Throughout the literature, liberal concepts and values are assumed to be universal in their appeal. This bias has led scholars to underestimate Russian soft power by instrumentalizing it, that is, to see...... it purely as the effect of government-sponsored programs, and to focus primarily on the cultural pillar of soft power. This paper argues, alternatively, that Russia’s conservative values and illiberal governance models generate admiration and followership, even outside of what Russia claims to be its post......-Soviet sphere of influence. Crucially, this admiration and followership perform the traditional function of soft power: generating support for controversial Russian foreign policy decisions. Admitting that soft power can be based on conservative values is necessary not only to understand Russia’s foreign policy...

  5. The mechanics of soft biological composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thao D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Grazier, John Mark; Boyce, Brad Lee; Jones, Reese E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-01

    Biological tissues are uniquely structured materials with technologically appealing properties. Soft tissues such as skin, are constructed from a composite of strong fibrils and fluid-like matrix components. This was the first coordinated experimental/modeling project at Sandia or in the open literature to consider the mechanics of micromechanically-based anisotropy and viscoelasticity of soft biological tissues. We have exploited and applied Sandia's expertise in experimentation and mechanics modeling to better elucidate the behavior of collagen fibril-reinforced soft tissues. The purpose of this project was to provide a detailed understanding of the deformation of ocular tissues, specifically the highly structured skin-like tissue in the cornea. This discovery improved our knowledge of soft/complex materials testing and modeling. It also provided insight into the way that cornea tissue is bio-engineered such that under physiologically-relevant conditions it has a unique set of properties which enhance functionality. These results also provide insight into how non-physiologic loading conditions, such as corrective surgeries, may push the cornea outside of its natural design window, resulting in unexpected non-linear responses. Furthermore, this project created a clearer understanding of the mechanics of soft tissues that could lead to bio-inspired materials, such as highly supple and impact resistant body armor, and improve our design of human-machine interfaces, such as micro-electrical-mechanical (MEMS) based prosthetics.

  6. Stretchable and Soft Electronics using Liquid Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael D

    2017-07-01

    The use of liquid metals based on gallium for soft and stretchable electronics is discussed. This emerging class of electronics is motivated, in part, by the new opportunities that arise from devices that have mechanical properties similar to those encountered in the human experience, such as skin, tissue, textiles, and clothing. These types of electronics (e.g., wearable or implantable electronics, sensors for soft robotics, e-skin) must operate during deformation. Liquid metals are compelling materials for these applications because, in principle, they are infinitely deformable while retaining metallic conductivity. Liquid metals have been used for stretchable wires and interconnects, reconfigurable antennas, soft sensors, self-healing circuits, and conformal electrodes. In contrast to Hg, liquid metals based on gallium have low toxicity and essentially no vapor pressure and are therefore considered safe to handle. Whereas most liquids bead up to minimize surface energy, the presence of a surface oxide on these metals makes it possible to pattern them into useful shapes using a variety of techniques, including fluidic injection and 3D printing. In addition to forming excellent conductors, these metals can be used actively to form memory devices, sensors, and diodes that are completely built from soft materials. The properties of these materials, their applications within soft and stretchable electronics, and future opportunities and challenges are considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Soft Dielectric Elastomer Oscillators Driving Bioinspired Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F Markus; Schlatter, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A

    2017-12-01

    Entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. To produce them, we must integrate control and actuation in the same soft structure. Soft actuators (e.g., pneumatic and hydraulic) exist but electronics are hard and stiff and remotely located. We present novel soft, electronics-free dielectric elastomer oscillators, which are able to drive bioinspired robots. As a demonstrator, we present a robot that mimics the crawling motion of the caterpillar, with an integrated artificial nervous system, soft actuators and without any conventional stiff electronic parts. Supplied with an external DC voltage, the robot autonomously generates all signals that are necessary to drive its dielectric elastomer actuators, and it translates an in-plane electromechanical oscillation into a crawling locomotion movement. Therefore, all functional and supporting parts are made of polymer materials and carbon. Besides the basic design of this first electronic-free, biomimetic robot, we present prospects to control the general behavior of such robots. The absence of conventional stiff electronics and the exclusive use of polymeric materials will provide a large step toward real animal-like robots, compliant human machine interfaces, and a new class of distributed, neuron-like internal control for robotic systems.

  8. Injectable silk foams for soft tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Lo, Tim J; Fournier, Eric P; Brown, Joseph E; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Gil, Eun S; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Leisk, Gary G; Kaplan, David L

    2015-02-18

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration is demonstrated. Adipose-derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10-d period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3-month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure is applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Soft tissue and esthetic considerations around implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann Pauline George

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The health of the peri – implant tissues play an important in the long term outcome of dental implants. The absence of keratinized gingiva (KG may be a risk factor for developing recession or peri –implantitis. However there is still ambiguity in the need for keratinized gingiva around dental implants. The preservation and reconstruction of soft tissue around dental implants is an integral component of dental Implantology. There is no long-term evidence whether augmented soft tissues can be maintained over time and are able to influence the peri-implant bone levels. Among the various soft tissue augmentation techniques Apically positioned flap with vestibuloplasty , Free gingival grafts and Connective tissue grafts are documented as the most predictable methods to increase the width of KG. Autogenous grafts increase the soft tissue thickness and improve aesthetics compared to non-grafted sites. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the need for KG around implants and the techniques to preserve and augment KG. It is difficult to arrive at a definitive conclusion due to scarcity of well designed studies in literature. Reliable evidence is lacking to suggest the ideal soft tissue augmentation/preservation techniques. Long term randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to provide a clearer image.

  10. Microscale soft robotics motivations, progress, and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jaeyoun (Jay)

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the technological basics and applications of small-scale (mm to sub-mm in length-scales) soft robots and devices, written for researchers in both academia and industry. Author Jaeyoun Kim presents technological motivations, enabling factors, and examples in an inter-linked fashion, making it easy for readers to understand and explore how microscale soft robots are a solution to researchers in search of technological platforms for safe, human-friendly biomedical devices. A compact and timely introduction, this book summarizes not only the enabling factors for soft robots and MEMS devices, but also provides a survey of progress in the field and looks to the future in terms of the material, design, and application aspects this new technology demonstrates.

  11. Surface tension and deformation in soft adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Katharine

    Modern contact mechanics was originally developed to account for the competition between adhesion and elasticity for relatively stiff deformable materials like rubber, but much softer sticky materials are ubiquitous in biology, engineering, and everyday consumer products. In such soft materials, the solid surface tension can also play an important role in resisting shape change, and significantly modify the physics of contact with soft matter. We report indentation and pull-off experiments that bring small, rigid spheres into adhesive contact with compliant silicone gel substrates, varying both the surface functionalization of the spheres and the bulk elastic properties of the gels. We map the resulting deformation profiles using optical microscopy and image analysis. We examine the substrate geometry in light of capillary and elastic theories in order to explore the interplay of surface tension and bulk elasticity in governing soft adhesion.

  12. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  13. Soft-tissue mineralization in Werner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Antonio; Costantini, Alessandro Maria; Brigida, Raffaela; Antoniol, Onorina Monica; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Universita Cattolica School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele [Universita Cattolica School of Medicine, Department of Geriatrics, Rome (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Werner syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by clinical signs of premature aging, short stature, scleroderma-like skin changes, endocrine abnormalities, cataracts, and an increased incidence of malignancies. We report on a 48-year-old woman with Werner syndrome associated with intracranial meningiomas who had extensive musculoskeletal manifestations including osteoporosis of the extremities, extensive tendinopathy about the ankles, osteomyelitis of the phalanges of the first left toe, abundant soft-tissue calcification, and two dense ossified soft-tissue masses, with cortical bone and trabeculae arising from the posterosuperior aspect of the calcanei and extending into Kager fat pads. A review of previous descriptions of the radiological abnormalities of Werner syndrome indicates that the presence of soft-tissue calcifications has either not been noted or been mentioned only briefly. Moreover, there is no mention of bony masses associated with Werner syndrome in the world literature, and this would appear to be the first report of this kind. (orig.)

  14. Damage Models for Soft Tissues: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenguang

    Damage to soft tissues in the human body has been investigated for applications in healthcare, sports, and biomedical engineering. This paper reviews and classifies damage models for soft tissues to summarize achievements, identify new directions, and facilitate finite element analysis. The main ideas of damage modeling methods are illustrated and interpreted. A few key issues related to damage models, such as experimental data curve-fitting, computational effort, connection between damage and fractures/cracks, damage model applications, and fracture/crack extension simulation, are discussed. Several new challenges in the field are identified and outlined. This review can be useful for developing more advanced damage models and extending damage modeling methods to a variety of soft tissues.

  15. Scale-invariance in soft gamma repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Sang, Yu; Wang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    The statistical properties of the soft gamma repeater SGR J1550-5418 are investigated carefully. We find that the cumulative distributions of fluence, peak flux and duration can be well fitted by a bent power law, while the cumulative distribution of waiting time follows a simple power law. In particular, the probability density functions of fluctuations of fluence, peak flux, and duration have a sharp peak and fat tails, which can be well fitted by a q-Gaussian function. The q values keep approximately steady for different scale intervals, indicating a scale-invariant structure of soft gamma repeaters. Those results support that the origin of soft gamma repeaters is crustquakes of neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375203, 11675182, 11690022, 11603005), and Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (106112016CDJCR301206)

  16. Necrotising soft tissue infection following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Necrotising fasciitis is a rare but rapidly progressive soft tissue disease which can lead to extensive necrosis, systemic sepsis and death. Including this case, only 7 other cases have been reported in the world literature with only 2 others affecting the patient post mastectomy.This 59 year old Caucasian lady presented with severe soft tissue infection soon after mastectomy, which was successfully treated with a combination of debridement, triangulation, VAC© dressing and skin grafting.Necrotising soft tissue infections following mastectomy are rapidly progressive and potentially extremely serious. It is essential that a high index of clinical suspicion is maintained together with prompt aggressive treatment in a multidisciplinary environment to prevent worsening physical and psychological sequelae.

  17. On single and double soft behaviors in NLSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Luo, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the single and double soft behaviors of tree level off-shell currents and on-shell amplitudes in nonlinear sigma model (NLSM). We first propose and prove the leading soft behavior of the tree level currents with a single soft particle. In the on-shell limit, this single soft emission becomes the Adler’s zero. Then we establish the leading and subleading soft behaviors of tree level currents with two adjacent soft particles. With a careful analysis of the on-shell limit, we obtain the double soft behaviors of on-shell amplitudes where the two soft particles are adjacent to each other. By applying Kleiss-Kuijf (KK) relation, we further obtain the leading and subleading behaviors of amplitudes with two nonadjacent soft particles.

  18. Magnetization loss of nanocrystalline soft magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohrer, Sybille; Herzer, Giselher

    2009-01-01

    FeCuNbSiB-ribbons with optimized nanocrystalline microstructure possess a unique combination of near-zero magnetostriction, high saturation induction and low magnetization losses. Due to the absence of distinct intrinsic anisotropies, the magnetization curve can be adjusted by field-annealing to square or flat shape. It is well known that excess losses are an important loss component of soft magnets with square hysteresis loop. Yet, even cores of flat type loop can show significant excess losses. The paper reviews the loss mechanisms for excess losses in nanocrystalline soft magnets on the basis of Kerr-microscopy observation and loss theory and compares it to amorphous materials.

  19. International Conference on Soft Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Bijaya

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in International Conference on Soft Computing Systems (ICSCS 2015) held at Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Chennai, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the emerging areas of Soft Computing in Engineering and Technology. The book is organized in two volumes and discusses a wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  20. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  1. Cellular immunotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven Eric; Fishman, Mayer; Conley, Anthony P.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Antonia, Scott; Chiappori, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Soft tissue sarcomas are rare neoplasms, with approximately 9,000 new cases in the United States every year. Unfortunately, there is little progress in the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcomas in the past two decades beyond the standard approaches of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Immunotherapy is a modality complementary to conventional therapy,. It is appealing because functional anti-tumor activity could affect both local-regional and systemic disease and act over a prolonged period of time. In this report, we review immunotherapeutic investigative strategies being developed, including several tumor vaccine, antigen vaccine, and dendritic cell vaccine strategies. PMID:22401634

  2. Vascularization of soft tissue engineering constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Carletto, Rodrigo

    with mechanical properties in the range of soft tissues has not been fully achieved. My project focused on the fabrication and the active perfusion of hydrogel constructs with multi-dimensional vasculature and controlled mechanical properties targeting soft tissues. Specifically, the initial part of the research...... nanotechnology-based paradigm for engineering vascularised liver tissue for transplantation”) and the Danish National Research Foundation and Villum Foundation’s Center for Intelligent Drug delivery and sensing Using microcontainers and Nanomechanics (Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF122)....

  3. Printing soft matter in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Ryan L.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-12-01

    Light- and ink-based three-dimensional (3D) printing methods allow the rapid design and fabrication of materials without the need for expensive tooling, dies or lithographic masks. They have led to an era of manufacturing in which computers can control the fabrication of soft matter that has tunable mechanical, electrical and other functional properties. The expanding range of printable materials, coupled with the ability to programmably control their composition and architecture across various length scales, is driving innovation in myriad applications. This is illustrated by examples of biologically inspired composites, shape-morphing systems, soft sensors and robotics that only additive manufacturing can produce.

  4. Soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooper, T M

    2012-02-03

    A retrospective review of 33 cases of soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity presenting over a 10 year period was undertaken. The history, patterns of referral, diagnostic investigations, procedures undertaken and outcomes were studied. We found there was a frequent delay in diagnosis and sometimes misinterpretation of biopsy specimens. Patients were seen by a variety of specialists from disciplines such as general surgery, plastic surgery, orthopaedic surgery and rheumatology. Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas, often allowing local control of the tumour without amputation. We believe there should be early referral of patients having these tumours to a centre where a combined multidisciplinary approach can be undertaken.

  5. Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

  6. Preliminary Findings of Soft Yaw Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    As wind turbines increase in size and the demands for lifetime also increases, new methods of load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and hence dampen the loads to the system. This paper presents work previous done on this subject...... with foucus on hydraulic yaw systems. By utilizing the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine studies shows that a significant reduction in fatigue loads to the yaw system and rotor shaft is possible by the soft yaw drive concept....

  7. Magnetism and metallurgy of soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Soft magnetic materials are economically and technologically the most important of all magnetic materials. In particular, the development of new materials and novel applications for the computer and telecommunications industries during the past few decades has immensely broadened the scope and altered the nature of soft magnetic materials. In addition to metallic substances, nonmetallic compounds and amorphous thin films are coming increasingly important. This thorough, well-organized volume - on of the most comprehensive treatments available - offers a coherent, logical presentation of the p

  8. Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bolf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problems in industrial plants is the inability of the real time and continuous measurement of key process variables.Absence of key value measurement in a timely manner aggravates control, but it does not mean that it is always an impossible step. As an alternative, the use of soft sensors as a substitute for process analyzers and laboratory testing is suggested. With the soft sensors, the objective is to develop an inferential model to estimate infrequently measured variables and laboratory assays using the frequently measured variables. By development of soft sensors based on measurement of continuous variables (such as flow, temperature, pressure it is possible to estimate the difficult- -to-measure variables as well as product quality and emissions usually carried by laboratory assays.Software sensors, as part of virtual instrumentation, are focused on assessing the system state variables and quality products by applying the model, thus replacing the physical measurement and laboratory analysis. Multiple linear/nonlinear regression methods and artificial intelligence methods (such as neural network, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are usually applied in the design of soft sensor models for identification of nonlinear processes.Review of published research and industrial application in the field of soft sensors is given with the methods of soft sensor development and nonlinear dynamic model identification. Based on soft sensors, it is possible to estimate

  9. Evaluation of a Soft Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoensap-Kelly, Piyawan; Broussard, Lauren; Lindsly, Mallory; Troy, Megan

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a soft skills employee training program. We examined willingness to learn and delivery methods (face-to-face vs. online) and their associations with the training outcomes in terms of learning and behavioral change. Results showed that neither participants' willingness to learn nor delivery…

  10. Immunoglobulin for necrotising soft tissue infections (INSTINCT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin Bruun; Lange, Theis; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTI) are aggressive infections that can result in severe disability or death. Intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin G (IVIG) is used as supplementary treatment for patients with NSTIs. The level of evidence is very low, but suggests that IVIG may...

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF MACROBENTHIC FAUNA OF SOFT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quantitative distribution of the macrofauna inhabiting soft substrata in the Swartkops estuary has been ... INTRODUCTION. Between 1950 and 1954 a qualitative study of the intertidal plants and animals of the Swartkops estuary was made by Macnae (1957). Studies ...... amount of organic matter - 0,24 mgN/g dry sand).

  12. Novel experimentally observed phenomena in soft matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The resulting flow is non-Newtonian and is characterized by features such as shear rate-dependent viscosities and nonzero normal stresses. This article begins with an introduction to some unusual flow properties displayed by soft matter. Experiments that report a spectrum of novel phenomena exhibited by these materials, ...

  13. Modelling of soft impingement during solidification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    soft impingement problem and related to shape instability by constitutional supercooling theory. This analysis correctly predicts the spheroidal grain formation during stir casting or rheocasting. This model can also be used to explain the grain refinement of magnesium alloys by zirconium addition wherein spheroidal grains ...

  14. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects

  15. Soft Governance Instruments in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    Following recent theoretical and conceptual developments this paper examines the extent to which the gradual introduction and unfolding of new soft instruments in the European Union is in fact changing the EUs system of governance and the nature of the European integration process. The paper...

  16. Flexidrive: a soft artificial muscle motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Tse, Tony C. H.; Inamura, Tokushu; O'Brien, Benjamin; McKay, Thomas; Gisby, Todd

    2011-04-01

    We use our thumbs and forefingers to rotate an object such as a control knob on a stereo system by moving our finger relative to our thumb. Motion is imparted without sliding and in a precise manner. In this paper we demonstrate how an artificial muscle membrane can be used to mimic this action. This is achieved by embedding a soft gear within the membrane. Deformation of the membrane results in deformation of the polymer gear and this can be used for motor actuation by rotating the shaft. The soft motors were fabricated from 3M VHB4905 membranes 0.5mm thick that were pre-stretched equibiaxially to a final thickness of 31 μm. Each membrane had polymer acrylic soft gears inserted at the center. Sectors of each membrane (60° sector) were painted on both sides with conducting carbon grease leaving gaps between adjoining sectors to avoid arcing between them. Each sector was electrically connected to a power supply electrode on the rigid acrylic frame via narrow avenues of carbon-grease. The motors were supported in rigid acrylic frames aligned concentrically. A flexible shaft was inserted through both gears. Membranes were charged using a step wave PWM voltage signal delivered using a Biomimetics Lab EAP Control unit. Both membrane viscoelasticity and the resisting torque on the shaft influence motor speed by changing the effective circumference of the flexible gear. This new soft motor opens the door to artificial muscle machines molded as a single part.

  17. Scientific Clusters as Components of Soft Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гийем Акерман

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a comparative analysis of the scientific clusters of “Skolkovo” and “Sophia Antipolis” like soft power elements in the context of transforming modernization. The research is based on the political, economic and social transformation links.

  18. Dynamics and Rheology of Soft Colloidal Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yu Ho

    2015-01-20

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The linear viscoelastic (LVE) spectrum of a soft colloidal glass is accessed with the aid of a time-concentration superposition (TCS) principle, which unveils the glassy particle dynamics from in-cage rattling motion to out-of-cage relaxations over a broad frequency range 10-13 rad/s < ω < 101 rad/s. Progressive dilution of a suspension of hairy nanoparticles leading to increased intercenter distances is demonstrated to enable continuous mapping of the structural relaxation for colloidal glasses. In contrast to existing empirical approaches proposed to extend the rheological map of soft glassy materials, i.e., time-strain superposition (TSS) and strain-rate frequency superposition (SRFS), TCS yields a LVE master curve that satis fies the Kramers-Kronig relations which interrelate the dynamic moduli for materials at equilibrium. The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model and literature data further support the general validity of the TCS concept for soft glassy materials.

  19. Soft chemical routes to semiconductor nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soft chemistry has emerged as an important means of generating nanocrystals, nanowires and other nanostructures of semiconducting materials. We describe the synthesis of CdS and other metal chalcogenide nanocrystals by a solvothermal route. We also describe the synthesis of nanocrystals of AlN, GaN and InN by the ...

  20. Soft microgel particles at fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, Omkar

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the use of soft microgel particles based on a thermosensitive poly- mer, poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) to stabilize a fluid interface. We also study the effect of temperature on the adsorption kinetics and the interfacial behaviour of these particles on air-water and oil-water

  1. Teamwork, Soft Skills, and Research Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Anaïs; Tozer, Wade C; Westoby, Mark

    2017-02-01

    We provide a list of soft skills that are important for collaboration and teamwork, based on our own experience and from an opinion survey of team leaders. Each skill can be learned to some extent. We also outline workable short courses for graduate schools to strengthen teamwork and collaboration skills among research students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ROI of Soft-Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Judith; Tingley, Judith C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of a team-building workshop demonstrates that all four levels of Donald Kirkpatrick's classic evaluation model could be applied to soft skills training. Results show that such training can be tied to productivity measures and evaluated as a return on investment. (JOW)

  3. Soft energy paths toward a durable peace

    CERN Document Server

    Lovins, Amory B

    1977-01-01

    Introduction ; energy strategy : the road not taken ? ; methods of exploring the energy future ; energy quality ; scale ; capital costs of hard technologies ; capital costs of transitional and soft technologies ; comparative capital costs and the role of electrification ; sociopolitics ; values ; rebottling the nuclear genie

  4. Olaratumab for advanced soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Alexander; O'brien, Michael P; Agulnik, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Olaratumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα). Its antagonistic behavior inhibits the receptor's tyrosine kinase activity, thereby, turning off the downstream signaling cascades responsible for soft tissue sarcoma tumorigenesis. In October 2016, olaratumab received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for its use in combination with doxorubicin for treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Areas covered: This drug profile takes a comprehensive look at the clinical studies leading to FDA approval of olaratumab as well as its safety and efficacy as a front-line treatment option for sarcoma patients. The literature search was primarily conducted using PubMed. Expert commentary: The combination of olaratumab plus doxorubicin has provided a new front-line therapeutic option for soft tissue sarcoma patients. An open-label phase Ib and randomized phase II trial in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma demonstrated that the addition of olaratumab to doxorubicin prolonged progression-free survival by 2.5 months and overall survival by 11.8 months when compared to doxorubicin alone. Of importance, this clinically meaningful increase in overall survival did not come at the expense of a significantly greater number of toxicities. A phase III confirmatory trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02451943) will be completed in 2020.

  5. Facial soft tissue changes after orthodontic treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-09

    Sep 9, 2013 ... Conclusion: There were significant changes in facial soft tissue esthetics after orthodontic treatment for class II and. III cases. ... Departments of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, 1Mevlana University, Konya ,Turkey. Access this ..... after functional appliance treatment.

  6. Soft matter approaches to food structuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    We give an overview of the many opportunities that arise from approaching food structuring from the perspective of soft matter physics. This branch of physics employs concepts that build upon the seminal work of van der Waals, such as free volume, the mean field, and effective temperatures. All

  7. MRI evaluation of soft tissue hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Diez, A.I.; Ros Mendoza, L.H.; Villacampa, V.M.; Cozar, M.; Fuertes, M.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2000-03-01

    Infestation in soft tissue by Echinococcus granulosus is not a common disease, and its diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory data and radiological findings. The aim of our retrospective study is to give an overview of the different signs and patterns shown by MRI that can be useful in characterizing soft tissue hydatid disease. The MRI images obtained in seven patients with soft tissue and subcutaneous hydatidosis were reviewed. Typical signs of hydatidosis were multivesicular lesions with or without hypointense peripheral ring (''rim sign''). Related to the presence and absence, respectively, of viable scolices in the microscopic exam, daughter cysts were presented either as high signal intensity or low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Low-intensity detached layers within the cyst and peripheral enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA were also presented. Atypical signs were presented in an infected muscular cyst, a subcutaneous unilocular cyst and several unilocular cysts. Knowledge of the different patterns in MRI of soft tissue hydatid disease can be useful in diagnosing this entity. We observed that the ''rim sign'' is not as common as in other locations, and in addition, MRI seems to be of assistance when evaluating the vitality of the cysts. (orig.)

  8. Preliminary Findings of Soft Yaw Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    As wind turbines increase in size and the demands for lifetime also increases, new methods of load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and hence dampen the loads to the system. This paper presents work previous done on this subject...

  9. Biomarkers of necrotising soft tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Simonsen, Ulf; Garred, Peter

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mortality and amputation rates are still high in patients with necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTIs). It would be ideal to have a set of biomarkers that enables the clinician to identify high-risk patients with NSTI on admission. The objectives of this study are to evaluate...

  10. DNA controlled assembly of soft nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stefan; Simonsen, Adam Cohen; Jakobsen, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    DNA-encoding of solid nanoparticles requires surfacechemistry, which is often tedious and not generally applicable. In the present study non-covalently attached DNA are used to assemble soft nanoparticles (liposomes) in solution. This process displays remarkably sharp thermal transitions from ass...

  11. Soft-Capture Mechanism For Collet Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, John E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Soft-capture mechanism part of latching-and-rigidifying mechanism joining strut rigidly to node on truss. Latching-and-rigidifying mechanism of spreading-collet type, in which collet inserted into base that mates with collet to assure proper alignment, then collet spread to rigidify joint, fixing alignment. Designed to be operable by heavily gloved hand or by robot.

  12. Advances in Soft Denture Liners: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohammed Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Soft denture liners are used in complete and partial removable dentures to distribute functional loads homogeneously on the denture-bearing tissues. These materials are recommended in cases of irregular bone resorption, bony undercuts, thin atrophic mucosa, immediate prosthesis, healing after implant placement, and for patients with bruxism and xerostomia. The resilient lining materials can be categorized as plasticized acrylic resins or silicone elastomers. The plasticized acrylic resin comprises of acrylic polymers and copolymers, a liquid containing an acrylic monomer and plasticisers, such as ethyl alcohol and/or ethyl acetate responsible for preserving the material softness. The silicone elastomers, consisting of dimethylsiloxane polymers, with a chemical composition similar to that of the silicone impression materials devoid of leachable plasticisers, retain their elastic properties for prolonged periods. Most of the currently available materials have several disadvantages, including color stability, long-term resiliency, abrasion resistance, bond strength and porosity. Several modifications have been done recently to overcome of these disadvantages of the soft liners. The current review summarizes the recent developments in soft liners.

  13. Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems Methodology and MCDA tools. L Scott. Abstract. This paper presents two different analytical approaches that may be useful in developing an understanding of developmental local government (DLG). DLG implies a significant commitment with respect to ...

  14. tt in the soft-gluon approximation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    April 2002 physics pp. 575–590. QCD corrections to decay-lepton polar and azimuthal angular distributions in ee+ee- t t in the soft-gluon approximation. SAURABH D RINDANI ... accurate determination of its couplings will have to await the construction of a linear e ·e collider. ..... is the azimuthal angle of the l· momentum.

  15. Soft chemical routes to semiconductor nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soft chemical routes to semiconductor nanostructures. UJJAL K GAUTAM1,2, KRIPASINDHU SARDAR1,2, F L DEEPAK1 and C N R RAO1,2,∗. 1Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit and CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry,. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O.,. Bangalore 560 ...

  16. China's Soft Power Diplomacy in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses the new geo-political and geo-economic strategic relationship between China and Southeast Asia. Is Chinese soft power encroachment into Southeast Asia creating greater stability, does it jeopardize US interests and what is the impact on the regime-types, economic restructuring...

  17. Soft Lenses | Kuming | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of cases fitted with Bionite soft lenses is described. Good results were obtained in bullous keratopathy, dry eyes, early and moderately advanced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and pemphigoid, and some cases of indolent corneal ulcers. The lenses appear to be a most effective replacement for tarsorrhaphy, haptic ...

  18. The softness of an atom in a molecule and a functional group softness definition; an LCAO scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambiagi, M.; Giambiagi, M.S. de; Pires, J.M.; Pitanga, P.

    1987-01-01

    We introduce a scale for the softness of an atom in different molecules and we similarly define a functional group softness. These definitions, unlike previous ones, are not tied to the finite difference approximation neither, hence, to valence state ionization potentials and electron affinities; they result from the LCAO calculation itself. We conclude that a) the softness of an atom in a molecule shows wide variations; b) the geometric average of the softnesses of the atoms in the molecule gives the most consistent results for the molecular softnesses; c) the functional group softness is transferable within a homologous series. (Author) [pt

  19. 3D printed soft parallel actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharian, Ali; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Khoo, Sui Yang; Noshadi, Amin; Kaynak, Akif

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a 3-dimensional (3D) printed soft parallel contactless actuator for the first time. The actuator involves an electro-responsive parallel mechanism made of two segments namely active chain and passive chain both 3D printed. The active chain is attached to the ground from one end and constitutes two actuator links made of responsive hydrogel. The passive chain, on the other hand, is attached to the active chain from one end and consists of two rigid links made of polymer. The actuator links are printed using an extrusion-based 3D-Bioplotter with polyelectrolyte hydrogel as printer ink. The rigid links are also printed by a 3D fused deposition modelling (FDM) printer with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) as print material. The kinematics model of the soft parallel actuator is derived via transformation matrices notations to simulate and determine the workspace of the actuator. The printed soft parallel actuator is then immersed into NaOH solution with specific voltage applied to it via two contactless electrodes. The experimental data is then collected and used to develop a parametric model to estimate the end-effector position and regulate kinematics model in response to specific input voltage over time. It is observed that the electroactive actuator demonstrates expected behaviour according to the simulation of its kinematics model. The use of 3D printing for the fabrication of parallel soft actuators opens a new chapter in manufacturing sophisticated soft actuators with high dexterity and mechanical robustness for biomedical applications such as cell manipulation and drug release.

  20. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawia M Kassab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Moawia M KassabDivision of Periodontics, Marquette University, School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures.Keywords: case report, connective tissue, dental implants, allograft, coronally positioned flap

  1. Phoneme-based speech segmentation using hybrid soft computing framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Mousmita

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses intelligent system design using soft computing and similar systems and their interdisciplinary applications. It also focuses on the recent trends to use soft computing as a versatile tool for designing a host of decision support systems.

  2. Artificial softness sensing - an automatic apparatus for measuring viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I.; Kudo, Y.; Ichimaru, K.

    1975-01-01

    Synthetic polymer models of several degrees of softness were subjected to standard creep tests to determine their viscoelastic characteristics. The automatic measuring apparatus and the theory of measurement used in modeling the human recognition of the softness factor are described.

  3. Supersoft lithography: Candy-based fabrication of soft silicone microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Christopher; Labuz, Joseph M.; Shao, Yue; Fu, Jianping; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    We designed a fabrication technique able to replicate microstructures in soft silicone materials (E silicone processing conditions, and used as templates for replica molding. Microstructures fabricated in soft silicones can then be easily released by dissolving the template in water. We anticipate that this technique will be of particular importance in replicating physiologically soft, microstructured environments for cell culture, and demonstrate a first application in which intrinsically soft microstructures are used to measure forces generated by fibroblast-laden contractile tissues. PMID:26245893

  4. Modern Soft Tissue Pathology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book comprehensively covers modern soft tissue pathology and includes both tumors and non-neoplastic entities. Soft tissues make up a large bulk of the human body, and they are susceptible to a wide range of diseases. Many soft-tissue tumors are biologically very aggressive, and the chance of them metastasizing to vital organs is quite high. In recent years, the outlook for soft-tissue cancers has brightened dramatically due to the increased accuracy of the pathologist's tools.

  5. "Soft Skills": A Phrase in Search of Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Miriam L.; Anderson, Lorien; Boyden, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Soft skills are a collection of people management skills, important to many professions and job positions, including academic librarianship. Yet the concept of soft skills lacks definition, scope, instrumentation, and systematic education and training. This literature review explores the definition of "soft skills"; contrasts skills with…

  6. Soft Skills Assessment: Theory Development and the Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills have become a subject of increasing interest in lifelong learning. Soft skills development is intended to enable and enhance personal development, participation in learning and success in employment. The assessment of soft skill is therefore widely practised, but there is little in the way of research or evidence on how well this…

  7. 3D printed electrically-driven soft actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh; Habtour, Ed Mansour; Park, Sung-Hyun; Gardea, Frank; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Soft robotics is an emerging field enabled by advances in the development of soft materials with properties commensurate to their biological counterparts, for the purpose of reproducing locomotion and other distinctive capabilities of active biological organisms. The development of soft actuators is

  8. Erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.; Voss, H.P.; Ruben, J.L.; Jager, D.J.; Vieira, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink available in 3 different flavours is compared with the erosion effect of some common soft drinks. Several basic parameters of the soft drinks were determined: pH, titratable acidity, and the calcium as well as phosphate

  9. Medical students' perceptions of their development of 'soft skills' Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical students' perceptions of their development of 'soft skills' Part II : The development of 'soft skills' through 'guiding and growing' ... Soft skills include professional interpersonal and social skills, communication skills, and professional and ethical attitudes. ... Interaction with patients was considered the most important.

  10. Soft rot erwiniae: from genes to genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Ian K; Bell, Kenneth S; Holeva, Maria C; Birch, Paul R J

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY The soft rot erwiniae, Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca), E. carotovora ssp. carotovora (Ecc) and E. chrysanthemi (Ech) are major bacterial pathogens of potato and other crops world-wide. We currently understand much about how these bacteria attack plants and protect themselves against plant defences. However, the processes underlying the establishment of infection, differences in host range and their ability to survive when not causing disease, largely remain a mystery. This review will focus on our current knowledge of pathogenesis in these organisms and discuss how modern genomic approaches, including complete genome sequencing of Eca and Ech, may open the door to a new understanding of the potential subtlety and complexity of soft rot erwiniae and their interactions with plants. The soft rot erwiniae are members of the Enterobacteriaceae, along with other plant pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora and human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. Although the genus name Erwinia is most often used to describe the group, an alternative genus name Pectobacterium was recently proposed for the soft rot species. Ech mainly affects crops and other plants in tropical and subtropical regions and has a wide host range that includes potato and the important model host African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha). Ecc affects crops and other plants in subtropical and temperate regions and has probably the widest host range, which also includes potato. Eca, on the other hand, has a host range limited almost exclusively to potato in temperate regions only. Disease symptoms: Soft rot erwiniae cause general tissue maceration, termed soft rot disease, through the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Environmental factors such as temperature, low oxygen concentration and free water play an essential role in disease development. On potato, and possibly other plants, disease symptoms may differ, e.g. blackleg disease is associated

  11. SOPHIA: Soft Orthotic Physiotherapy Hand Interactive Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair C. McConnell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design, fabrication, and initial testing of a Soft Orthotic Physiotherapy Hand Interactive Aid (SOPHIA for stroke rehabilitation. SOPHIA consists of (1 a soft robotic exoskeleton, (2 a microcontroller-based control system driven by a brain–machine interface (BMI, and (3 a sensorized glove for passive rehabilitation. In contrast to other rehabilitation devices, SOPHIA is the first modular prototype of a rehabilitation system that is capable of three tasks: aiding extension based assistive rehabilitation, monitoring patient exercises, and guiding passive rehabilitation. Our results show that this prototype of the device is capable of helping healthy subjects to open their hand. Finger extension is triggered by a command from the BMI, while using a variety of sensors to ensure a safe motion. All data gathered from the device will be used to guide further improvements to the prototype, aiming at developing specifications for the next generation device, which could be used in future clinical trials.

  12. Buckling of paramagnetic chains in soft gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shilin; Pessot, Giorgio; Cremer, Peet; Weeber, Rudolf; Holm, Christian; Nowak, Johannes; Odenbach, Stefan; Menzel, Andreas M; Auernhammer, Günter K

    2016-01-07

    We study the magneto-elastic coupling behavior of paramagnetic chains in soft polymer gels exposed to external magnetic fields. To this end, a laser scanning confocal microscope is used to observe the morphology of the paramagnetic chains together with the deformation field of the surrounding gel network. The paramagnetic chains in soft polymer gels show rich morphological shape changes under oblique magnetic fields, in particular a pronounced buckling deformation. The details of the resulting morphological shapes depend on the length of the chain, the strength of the external magnetic field, and the modulus of the gel. Based on the observation that the magnetic chains are strongly coupled to the surrounding polymer network, a simplified model is developed to describe their buckling behavior. A coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation model featuring an increased matrix stiffness on the surfaces of the particles leads to morphologies in agreement with the experimentally observed buckling effects.

  13. Soft-tissue amyloidoma with associated plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhas Saha Dalal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue amyloidoma with features similar to plasmacytoma, in absence of systemic amyloidosis, is an extremely rare finding. We hereby report the case of a 77 year old man who presented with a painless, nodular swelling on chest wall, diagnosed as soft tissue amyloidoma with plasma cell infiltration. Congo red staining was done to prove the presence of amyloid which showed characteristic "apple-green" birefringence on polarized microscopy. The plasma cells were monoclonal in origin as demonstrated by serum protein and immunofixation electrophoresis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second such reported case. However close follow up is required, as this patient may develop multiple myeloma in future.

  14. Capturing gas in soft granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Lee, Jeremy; Xu, Feng; Lee, Sungyon

    2017-11-01

    Bubble migration through soft granular materials involves a strong coupling between the bubble dynamics and the deformation of the material. This process is relevant to a variety of natural and industrial systems, from fluidized-bed reactors to the migration and venting of biogenic gas in sediments. Here, we study this process experimentally by injecting air into a quasi-2D, liquid-saturated packing of soft particles and measuring the morphology of the bubbles as they invade and then rise due to buoyancy. By systematically varying the confining stress, we show that the competition between buoyancy, capillarity, and elasticity leads to complex bubble-migration dynamics that transition from fluidization to pathway opening to pore invasion, with a strong and surprising impact on the amount of air trapped in the system. The authors are grateful for support from the Royal Society (IE150885), the John Fell Oxford University Press Research Fund, and the Maurice Lubbock Memorial Fund.

  15. Renormalization group approach to soft gluon resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple proof of the all-order exponentiation of soft logarithmic corrections to hard processes in perturbative QCD. Our argument is based on proving that all large logs in the soft limit can be expressed in terms of a single dimensionful variable, and then using the renormalization group to resum them. Beyond the next-to-leading log level, our result is somewhat less predictive than previous all-order resummation formulae, but it does not rely on non-standard factorization, and it is thus possibly more general. We use our result to settle issues of convergence of the resummed series, we discuss scheme dependence at the resummed level, and we provide explicit resummed expressions in various factorization schemes

  16. A Statistical Ensemble for Soft Granular Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Silke; O'Hern, Corey; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2007-03-01

    Work on packings of soft spheres (PRE 68, 011306 (2003)) has shown the existence of a Jamming transition and has highlighted the need for a general statistical framework to describe granular packings. This work presents an extension of the formalism proposed by Edwards (Physica A 157, 1080 (1989)) to packings of soft particles. We base our analysis on a height formalism developed in two dimensions (PRL 88, 115505 (2002)) to extract a topological invariant γ, the trace of the global stress tensor, which is conserved under internal rearrangements of the system. Upon assuming a flat measure in γ-space, we can derive a canonical distribution of the local γ-values in a grain packing. We then check the predictions of this ensemble against distributions of mechanically stable packings of frictionless disks obtained from computer simulations. Work supported by NSF-DMR 0549762.

  17. Fossilization of soft tissue in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, D E; Kear, A J

    1993-03-05

    Some of the most remarkable fossils preserve cellular details of soft tissues. In many of these, the tissues have been replaced by calcium phosphate. This process has been assumed to require elevated concentrations of phosphate in sediment pore waters. In decay experiments modern shrimps became partially mineralized in amorphous calcium phosphate, preserving cellular details of muscle tissue, particularly in a system closed to oxygen. The source for the formation of calcium phosphate was the shrimp itself. Mineralization, which was accompanied by a drop in pH, commenced within 2 weeks and increased in extent for at least 4 to 8 weeks. This mechanism halts the normal loss of detail of soft-tissue morphology before fossilization. Similar closed conditions would prevail where organisms are rapidly overgrown by microbial mats.

  18. Silo outflow of soft frictionless spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed; Trittel, Torsten; Börzsönyi, Tamás; Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Outflow of granular materials from silos is a remarkably complex physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied with simple objects like monodisperse hard disks in two dimensions (2D) and hard spheres in 2D and 3D. For those materials, empirical equations were found that describe the discharge characteristics. Softness adds qualitatively new features to the dynamics and to the character of the flow. We report a study of the outflow of soft, practically frictionless hydrogel spheres from a quasi-2D bin. Prominent features are intermittent clogs, peculiar flow fields in the container, and a pronounced dependence of the flow rate and clogging statistics on the container fill height. The latter is a consequence of the ineffectiveness of Janssen's law: the pressure at the bottom of a bin containing hydrogel spheres grows linearly with the fill height.

  19. Planar elongation of soft polymeric networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Hassager, Ole; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    A new test fixture for the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks with application towards pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The concept of this new geometry is to elongate a tube-like sample by keeping the perimeter constant....... To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation. Particle tracking and video recording were used to detect to what extent the imposed strain rate and the sample perimeter remained constant. It was observed that, by using...... an appropriate choice of initial sample height, perimeter, and thickness, the planar stretch ratio will follow lambda(t) = h(t)/h(0) = exp((epsilon)overdot t), with h(t) being the height at time t and (epsilon)overdot the imposed constant strain rate. The perimeter would decrease by a few percent only, which...

  20. Soft Snakes: Construction, Locomotion, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branyan, Callie; Courier, Taylor; Fleming, Chloe; Remaley, Jacquelin; Hatton, Ross; Menguc, Yigit

    We fabricated modular bidirectional silicone pneumatic actuators to build a soft snake robot, applying geometric models of serpenoid swimmers to identify theoretically optimal gaits to realize serpentine locomotion. With the introduction of magnetic connections and elliptical cross-sections in fiber-reinforced modules, we can vary the number of continuum segments in the snake body to achieve more supple serpentine motion in a granular media. The performance of these gaits is observed using a motion capture system and efficiency is assessed in terms of pressure input and net displacement. These gaits are optimized using our geometric soap-bubble method of gait optimization, demonstrating the applicability of this tool to soft robot control and coordination.

  1. [Soft tissue techniques in hallux valgus surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waizy, H; Bouillon, B; Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Claaßen, L; Danniilidis, K; Plaaß, C; Arbab, D

    2017-05-01

    The hallux valgus represents combined bony and soft tissue pathology. In addition to known bony surgical procedures, addressing the soft tissue with regard to the anatomical structures, the surgical technique and the extent of correction are discussed.The goal of the operation is the restoration of the physiological balance between the active and passive stabilizing factors of the MTP-I-joint. The joint capsule, the ligaments and the tendons of the first ray act directly as stabilizing structures, whereas the hind foot and the position of the upper ankle have an indirect influence on the MTP-I-joint.The present work gives an overview of the pathoanatomy of the MTP-I-joint in the hallux valgus pathology. The individual anatomical structures are presented with regard to their physiological and pathological influence and the possible therapeutic options.

  2. Physics of soft impact and cratering

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the impact dynamics and cratering of soft matter to describe its importance, difficulty, and wide applicability to planetary-related problems. A comprehensive introduction to the dimensional analysis and constitutive laws that are necessary to discuss impact mechanics and cratering is first provided. Then, particular coverage is given to the impact of granular matter, which is one of the most crucial constituents for geophysics. While granular matter shows both solid-like and fluid-like behaviors, neither solid nor fluid dynamics is sufficient to fully understand the physics of granular matter. In order to reveal its fundamental properties, extensive impact tests have been carried out recently. The author reveals the findings of these recent studies as well as what remains unsolved in terms of impact dynamics. Impact crater morphology with various soft matter impacts also is discussed intensively. Various experimental and observational results up to the recent Itokawa asteroid’s terrain...

  3. Carbonated soft drinks and carbonyl stress burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Keisuke; Nakayama, Masaaki; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yaeko; Sato, Toshinobu; Kohno, Masahiro; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2009-12-01

    Carbonated soft drinks reportedly contain methylglyoxal (MG), which is strongly associated with human carbonyl stress. We sought to evaluate the effects of carbonated drink intake on human carbonyl stress. We measured MG levels in 4 commercial beverage brands, and evaluated the changes in plasma MG in healthy subjects following the intake of carbonated drinks. By 30 min after intake of samples containing high glucose and high MG, the levels of plasma MG, glucose, insulin and uric acid had increased significantly, and then returned to basal levels by 120 min. After intake of the low-calorie carbonated samples containing little MG, there were no increases in plasma MG. Our results suggest that glucose-containing carbonated soft drinks are associated with increases in not only glucose but also carbonyl burden.

  4. Soft collinear effective theory for gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Takemichi; Yunesi, Arash

    2018-03-01

    We present how to construct a soft collinear effective theory (SCET) for gravity at the leading and next-to-leading powers from the ground up. The soft graviton theorem and decoupling of collinear gravitons at the leading power are manifest from the outset in the effective symmetries of the theory. At the next-to-leading power, certain simple structures of amplitudes, which are completely obscure in Feynman diagrams of the full theory, are also revealed, which greatly simplifies calculations. The effective Lagrangian is highly constrained by effectively multiple copies of diffeomorphism invariance that are inevitably present in gravity SCET due to mode separation, an essential ingredient of any SCET. Further explorations of effective theories of gravity with mode separation may shed light on Lagrangian-level understandings of some of the surprising properties of gravitational scattering amplitudes. A gravity SCET with an appropriate inclusion of Glauber modes may serve as a powerful tool for studying gravitational scattering in the Regge limit.

  5. Physical Agents for Soft Tissue Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The clinical management of soft tissue injuries of the lower limb commonly includes physical agents such as electrotherapy or ultrasound. However, the evidence about the effectiveness of physical agents varies, and their use remains controversial. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), published in the July 2016 issue of JOSPT, examined the benefits and safety risks of various physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Importantly, the review looked closely at the quality of the RCTs and focused on studies with low risk of bias. In this Perspectives for Practice, the authors explain the impact of their findings for clinicians treating patients with such musculoskeletal conditions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):555. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0503.

  6. Soft gluon emission in coloured quark scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, J.; Meuldemans, R.; Mohammad, I.; Taylor, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    In order to investigate the infrared behaviour of non-Abelian gauge theories the leading logarithms in the bremsstrahlung of two soft gluons by a coloured quark scattered in an external colourless potential have been calculated. In the calculations only diagrams containing exactly one Yang-Mills vertex have been used alongside with the dimensional infrared regularization. An expression is obtained exhibiting a crucial difference between QCD and QED

  7. [Epidemiology of odontogenous soft-tissue infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrä, A

    1989-09-01

    Between 1950 and 1986, 11,839 patients were ambulant and stationary treated with odontogenous soft-tissue infections. In the aetiology the Periodontitis apicalis and wounds after tooth extractions are in the highest position. Odontogenous infections were rearly found in tenderage. In ambulant patients the subperiosteal submucous localisation was predominated, in stationary the position near the border of the lower jaw. The first molar and the premolares were the chief cause of the infections.

  8. Compliance among soft contact lens wearers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzman, Tomislav; Barišić Kutija, Marija; Masnec, Sanja; Jandroković, Sonja; Mrazovac, Danijela; Jurišić, Darija; Škegro, Ivan; Kalauz, Miro; Kordić, Rajko

    2014-01-01

    Contact lens compliance is proven to be crucial for preventing lens wear-related complications because of the interdependence of the steps in lens care regime and their influence on lens system microbial contamination. Awareness of the patients' lens handling compliance as well as correct recognition of non-compliant behaviours is the basis for creating more targeted strategies for patient education. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in ...

  9. Soft Photon Effects on Vacuum Power Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    on Tnsulator, ev V i~ Enery atUnity Secondary Etission Rate, ev ~j Angle Between Insulator and~ Electric Field, Degrees uf 106 Farad Ky 10~ v ns 10...AFWLAqTW, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117, (Jan 1981). 7. Reinovsky, Robert E. et al, "Soft X-Ray Fffects on Vacuum Power Transport," unpublished paper...Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Advanced Concepts Branch, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117, (Jan 1981). 8. Degnan, J. Laboratory Notebook and

  10. Soft tissue augmentation in dermatology - 2009 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Gold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of products available to dermatologists for soft tissue augmentation has grown significantly over the past several years in the US. This manuscript will review the various hyaluronic acid fillers and other Food and Drug Administration -approved products we are utilizing for our patients in the rejuvenation process. It is hoped that through this article clinicians will feel more comfortable using these products in their everyday practice of dermatology.

  11. Soft tissue sarcoma - diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruka, W.; Rutkowski, P.; Krzakowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress in the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS), both primary tumor and local recurrences/metastatic disease, has been achieved in recent years. Surgery is essential modality, but the use of combined treatment (standard combination of surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy in selected cases and perioperative rehabilitation) in highly-experienced centers increased possibility of cure and limitations of extent of local surgery. Current combined therapy together with the use of reconstructive methods allows for limb-sparing surgery in majority of soft tissue sarcoma patients (amputation in 10% of cases as compared to approximately 50% in the 1960 - 70s). The slow, but constant, increase of rate of soft tissue sarcoma patients with long-term survival has been observed. Contemporary 5-year overall survival rate in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcomas is 55 -78%. In case of diagnosis of metastatic disease the prognosis is still poor (survival of approximately 1 year). Good results of local therapy may be expected only after planned (e.g., after preoperative biopsy - tru - cut or incisional) radical surgical excision of primary tumor with pathologically negative margins (R0 resection). Following appropriate diagnostic check-up, adjuvant radiotherapy is necessary in the majority of patients treated with radical surgery need, as well as long-term rehabilitation and follow-up examinations in treating center are needed for at least 5 years. The progress is due to the introduction of targeted therapy acting on molecular or genetic cellular disturbances detected during studies on etiopathogenetic mechanisms of sarcoma subtypes. In view of rarity of sarcomas and necessity of multidisciplinary therapy, the crucial issue is that management of these tumors should be hold in experienced oncological sarcoma centers. (authors)

  12. Neutron scattering studies on soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Rintaro; Kanaya, Toshiji

    2010-01-01

    We review recent progress of neutron scattering studies on soft matters using various techniques such as small angle neutron scattering, neutron spin echo, backscattering, time-of-flight technique, reflectivity and grazing-incident small angle neutron scattering. In the present review, we focus on functionalized polymers such as polyrotaxane, Nafion, polymer/nano composite system, and casein protein thin films, which are of great interest from both scientific and industrial viewpoints. We also state some future experiments at J-PARC. (author)

  13. The jet mass distribution after Soft Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzani, Simone; Schunk, Lais; Soyez, Gregory

    2018-02-01

    We present a first-principle computation of the mass distribution of jets which have undergone the grooming procedure known as Soft Drop. This calculation includes the resummation of the large logarithms of the jet mass over its transverse momentum, up to next-to-logarithmic accuracy, matched to exact fixed-order results at next-to-leading order. We also include non-perturbative corrections obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations and discuss analytic expressions for hadronisation and Underlying Event effects.

  14. Soft radiative strength in warm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Nelson, R O; Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2004-01-01

    Unresolved transitions in the nuclear γ-ray cascade produced in the decay of excited nuclei are best described by statistical concepts: a continuous radiative strength function (RSF) and level density yield mean values of transition matrix elements. Data on the soft (E γ < 3-4 MeV) RSF for transitions between warm states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) have, however, remained elusive

  15. Otitis media in five cats associated with soft palate abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbridge, N T; Baines, E A; Baines, S J

    2012-08-04

    The medical records of five cats that were diagnosed with otitis media and soft palate abnormalities, three of which had concurrent otitis interna, were reviewed retrospectively. The animals presented with unilateral or bilateral otitis media or otitis interna associated with soft palate hypoplasia (four cases) or unilateral soft palate cleft (one case). Otitis media was confirmed by radiography, CT or MRI. The soft palate abnormalities present were discovered on oropharyngeal examination at induction of anaesthesia. These five cases provide additional support of a link between otitis media and soft palate abnormalities in cats, as reported in humans and dogs.

  16. Soft law as a new mode of governance

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses soft law as a mode of EU governance. European soft law can be qualified as a relatively ‘new’ mode, notably due to its dramatic proliferation and the increasing involvement of private actors. The concept of ‘soft law’ is viable on the premiss that normativity may be graduated (‘the continuum view’). Soft law deploys specific legal effects apart from outright legal bindingness, and not merely political or otherwise factual effects. The legal effects of European soft law flow...

  17. China's soft power and growing influence in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Edward F.

    2008-01-01

    The term "soft power" was coined by Joseph S. Nye Jr. of Harvard. The definition of soft power has expanded over the years and continues to grow. In most contexts, the United States is the focus of debate over its use of or lack of soft power and the appropriateness and positive or negative effects generated. In more recent times, China has had a diplomatic makeover and has begun utilizing its soft power capabilities. By no means is China able to surpass the United States soft power capabili...

  18. Prosthetic soft contact lenses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Masumi; Toshida, Hiroshi; Takahiro, Itagaki; Murakami, Akira

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the use of the prosthetic iris-tinted soft contact lens, the SEED Opaque, during the past 5 years. The records of 42 outpatients (48 eyes) for whom the prosthetic soft contact lens was prescribed in the contact lens clinic of Juntendo University Hospital from July 2001 to June 2005 were investigated. An investigation was conducted in regard to the tint patterns of the prosthetic soft contact lens and the presence or absence of a transparent part in the middle, as a brown iris with a clear pupil or a solid pupil. The diagnosis, purpose of prescription, age when that lens was prescribed, complications, and changes in corrected visual acuities were analyzed retrospectively from the medical records. The mean age at the first prescription, total number of years of wearing prosthetic contact lenses, total number of prescriptions, and mean period to use each SEED Opaque lens were compared. The mean age at the first prescription of solid-pupil lens wearers was significantly younger than that for clear-pupil lens wearers (Ppossible to adjust the color and size of the cosmetic part and the pupil diameter. Further, corrected visual acuities could improve with the clear-pupil type for patients who had prescribed for improvement of visual function.

  19. Soft drink consumption in Sri Lankan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Nilantha; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2012-08-01

    To determine the factors associated with sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption in adolescents from Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study where the data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Government, private and international schools in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Adolescents aged 17 years attending sixty-five schools. Overall 82 % consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks once weekly or more often, while 77 % and 48 % consumed sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks and sugar-sweetened fruit drinks once weekly or more often. Being a boy (OR = 1·44; 95 % CI 1·02, 2·03), attending a private/international school (OR = 4·12; 95 % CI 1·94, 8·75), mother's level of education (OR = 1·53; 95 % CI 1·03, 2·28) and father's occupation (middle level: OR = 2·39; 95 % CI 1·63, 3·52; upper level: OR = 2·48; 95 % CI 1·35, 4·56) were independently associated with the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The majority of adolescents in this sample consumed sugar-sweetened beverages once weekly or more often. It was evident that some sociodemographic factors were associated with the consumption of these drinks.

  20. Soft Biometrics; Human Identification Using Comparative Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel A; Nixon, Mark S; Stevenage, Sarah V

    2014-06-01

    Soft biometrics are a new form of biometric identification which use physical or behavioral traits that can be naturally described by humans. Unlike other biometric approaches, this allows identification based solely on verbal descriptions, bridging the semantic gap between biometrics and human description. To permit soft biometric identification the description must be accurate, yet conventional human descriptions comprising of absolute labels and estimations are often unreliable. A novel method of obtaining human descriptions will be introduced which utilizes comparative categorical labels to describe differences between subjects. This innovative approach has been shown to address many problems associated with absolute categorical labels-most critically, the descriptions contain more objective information and have increased discriminatory capabilities. Relative measurements of the subjects' traits can be inferred from comparative human descriptions using the Elo rating system. The resulting soft biometric signatures have been demonstrated to be robust and allow accurate recognition of subjects. Relative measurements can also be obtained from other forms of human representation. This is demonstrated using a support vector machine to determine relative measurements from gait biometric signatures-allowing retrieval of subjects from video footage by using human comparisons, bridging the semantic gap.

  1. Exploring soft constraints on effective actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Massimo; Guerrieri, Andrea L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”,I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma, 00133 (Italy); Huang, Yu-tin; Lee, Chao-Jung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Taiwan University,No. 1 Roosevelt Road Sec. 4, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wen, Congkao [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”,I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma, 00133 (Italy)

    2016-10-10

    We study effective actions for simultaneous breaking of space-time and internal symmetries. Novel features arise due to the mixing of Goldstone modes under the broken symmetries which, in contrast to the usual Adler’s zero, leads to non-vanishing soft limits. Such scenarios are common for spontaneously broken SCFT’s. We explicitly test these soft theorems for N=4 sYM in the Coulomb branch both perturbatively and non-perturbatively. We explore the soft constraints systematically utilizing recursion relations. In the pure dilaton sector of a general CFT, we show that all amplitudes up to order s{sup n}∼∂{sup 2n} are completely determined in terms of the k-point amplitudes at order s{sup k} with k≤n. Terms with at most one derivative acting on each dilaton insertion are completely fixed and coincide with those appearing in the conformal DBI, i.e. DBI in AdS. With maximal supersymmetry, the effective actions are further constrained, leading to new non-renormalization theorems. In particular, the effective action is fixed up to eight derivatives in terms of just one unknown four-point coefficient and one more coefficient for ten-derivative terms. Finally, we also study the interplay between scale and conformal invariance in this context.

  2. Flexoelectricity in soft materials and biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qian; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Flexoelectricity and the concomitant emergence of electromechanical size-effects at the nanoscale have been recently exploited to propose tantalizing concepts such as the creation of "apparently piezoelectric" materials without piezoelectric materials, e.g. graphene, emergence of "giant" piezoelectricity at the nanoscale, enhanced energy harvesting, among others. The aforementioned developments pertain primarily to hard ceramic crystals. In this work, we develop a nonlinear theoretical framework for flexoelectricity in soft materials. Using the concept of soft electret materials, we illustrate an interesting nonlinear interplay between the so-called Maxwell stress effect and flexoelectricity, and propose the design of a novel class of apparently piezoelectric materials whose constituents are intrinsically non-piezoelectric. In particular, we show that the electret-Maxwell stress based mechanism can be combined with flexoelectricity to achieve unprecedentedly high values of electromechanical coupling. Flexoelectricity is also important for a special class of soft materials: biological membranes. In this context, flexoelectricity manifests itself as the development of polarization upon changes in curvature. Flexoelectricity is found to be important in a number of biological functions including hearing, ion transport and in some situations where mechanotransduction is necessary. In this work, we present a simple linearized theory of flexoelectricity in biological membranes and some illustrative examples.

  3. Immunotherapy for Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenori Uehara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy have improved clinical outcomes of patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas, the prognosis of patients has plateaued over these 20 years. Immunotherapies have shown the effectiveness for several types of advanced tumors. Immunotherapies, such as cytokine therapies, vaccinations, and adoptive cell transfers, have also been investigated for bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Cytokine therapies with interleukin-2 or interferons have limited efficacy because of their cytotoxicities. Liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE, an activator of the innate immune system, has been approved as adjuvant therapeutics in combination with conventional chemotherapy in Europe, which has improved the 5-year overall survival of patients. Vaccinations and transfer of T cells transduced to express chimeric antigen receptors have shown some efficacy for sarcomas. Ipilimumab and nivolumab are monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit immune checkpoint mechanisms. These antibodies have recently been shown to be effective for patients with melanoma and also investigated for patients with sarcomas. In this review, we provide an overview of various trials of immunotherapies for bone and soft tissue sarcomas, and discuss their potential as adjuvant therapies in combination with conventional therapies.

  4. 6th International Workshop Soft Computing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Kovačević, Branko

    2016-01-01

    These volumes constitute the Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Soft Computing Applications, or SOFA 2014, held on 24-26 July 2014 in Timisoara, Romania. This edition was organized by the University of Belgrade, Serbia in conjunction with Romanian Society of Control Engineering and Technical Informatics (SRAIT) - Arad Section, The General Association of Engineers in Romania - Arad Section, Institute of Computer Science, Iasi Branch of the Romanian Academy and IEEE Romanian Section.                 The Soft Computing concept was introduced by Lotfi Zadeh in 1991 and serves to highlight the emergence of computing methodologies in which the accent is on exploiting the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solution cost. Soft computing facilitates the use of fuzzy logic, neurocomputing, evolutionary computing and probabilistic computing in combination, leading to the concept of hybrid intelligent systems.        The combination of ...

  5. Digital Fourier microscopy for soft matter dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Cerbino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Soft matter is studied with a large portfolio of methods. Light scattering and video microscopy are the most employed at optical wavelengths. Light scattering provides ensemble-averaged information on soft matter in the reciprocal space. The wave-vectors probed correspond to length scales ranging from a few nanometers to fractions of millimetre. Microscopy probes the sample directly in the real space, by offering a unique access to the local properties. However, optical resolution issues limit the access to length scales smaller than approximately 200 nm. We describe recent work that bridges the gap between scattering and microscopy. Several apparently unrelated techniques are found to share a simple basic idea: the correlation properties of the sample can be characterized in the reciprocal space via spatial Fourier analysis of images collected in the real space. We describe the main features of such digital Fourier microscopy (DFM), by providing examples of several possible experimental implementations of it, some of which not yet realized in practice. We also provide an overview of experimental results obtained with DFM for the study of the dynamics of soft materials. Finally, we outline possible future developments of DFM that would ease its adoption as a standard laboratory method. (topical review)

  6. Soft Robotics: from scientific challenges to technological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C.

    2016-05-01

    Soft robotics is a recent and rapidly growing field of research, which aims at unveiling the principles for building robots that include soft materials and compliance in the interaction with the environment, so as to exploit so-called embodied intelligence and negotiate natural environment more effectively. Using soft materials for building robots poses new technological challenges: the technologies for actuating soft materials, for embedding sensors into soft robot parts, for controlling soft robots are among the main ones. This is stimulating research in many disciplines and many countries, such that a wide community is gathering around initiatives like the IEEE TAS TC on Soft Robotics and the RoboSoft CA - A Coordination Action for Soft Robotics, funded by the European Commission. Though still in its early stages of development, soft robotics is finding its way in a variety of applications, where safe contact is a main issue, in the biomedical field, as well as in exploration tasks and in the manufacturing industry. And though the development of the enabling technologies is still a priority, a fruitful loop is growing between basic research and application-oriented research in soft robotics.

  7. Theory of electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ohshima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate theoretically the electrostatics and electrokinetics of a soft particle, i.e. a hard particle covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. The electric properties of soft particles in an electrolyte solution, which differ from those of hard particles, are essentially determined by the Donnan potential in the surface layer. In particular, the Donnan potential plays an essential role in the electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles. Furthermore, the concept of zeta potential, which is important in the electrokinetics of hard particles, loses its physical meaning in the electrokinetics of soft particles. In this review, we discuss the potential distribution around a soft particle, the electrostatic interaction between two soft particles, and the motion of a soft particle in an electric field.

  8. Finite element analysis of stress relaxation in soft denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Abe, Y; Okane, H; Tsuga, K

    2000-08-01

    To gather knowledge related to establishing criteria for selecting soft denture liners for individual patients, the effects of certain properties of soft denture liners on stress distribution were evaluated by two-dimensional finite element analysis. A partial mandibular edentulous ridge crest was modelled. Six combinations of thickness (mucosa: 1 or 2 mm; soft denture liner: 1, 2, or 3 mm) and 18 combinations of Young's modulus (mucosa: three kinds; soft denture liner: six kinds) were analysed. The ratio of maximum to minimum stress in the mucosa (stress ratio) was calculated to estimate stress concentration. In the case of thin mucosa (1 mm thickness), the lower the Young's modulus of the soft denture liner, the lower the stress ratio. However, if the soft denture liner had a lower Young's modulus than the mucosa, stress concentrated adversely. These results suggest that the elasticity of the soft denture liner should match the elasticity of the mucosa to obtain the optimum cushioning effect.

  9. The killing efficiency of soft iron shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    A cooperative research effort between the ammunition industry and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is aimed at finding a suitable non-toxic substitute for lead shot. A contract study by an independent research organization evaluated ways of coating or detoxifying lead shot or replacing it with another metal. As a result of that study, the only promising candidate is soft iron. Previous tests of hard iron shot had suggested that its killing effectiveness was poor at longer ranges due to the lower density. In addition, its hardness caused excessive damage to shotgun barrels. A unique, automated shooting facility was constructed at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to test the killing effectiveness of soft iron shot under controlled conditions. Tethered game-farm mallards were transported across a shooting point in a manner simulating free flight. A microswitch triggered a mounted shotgun so that each shot was 'perfect.' A soft iron shot, in Number 4 size, was produced by the ammunition industry and loaded in 12-gauge shells to give optimum ballistic performance. Commercial loads of lead shot in both Number 4 and Number 6 size were used for comparison. A total of 2,010 ducks were shot at ranges of 30 to 65 yards and at broadside and head-on angles in a statistically designed procedure. The following data were recorded for each duck: time until death, broken wing or leg bones, and number of embedded shot. Those ducks not killed outright were held for 10 days. From these data, ducks were categorized as 'probably bagged,' 'probably lost cripples,' or survivors. The test revealed that the killing effectiveness of this soft iron shot was superior to its anticipated performance and close to that obtained with commercial lead loads containing an equal number of pellets. Bagging a duck, in terms of rapid death or broken wing, was primarily dependent on the probability of a shot striking that vital area, and therefore a function of range. There was no indication

  10. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  11. Contest-driven soft-robotics boost: the RoboSoft Grand Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Calisti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design process, the implementation and the results of a novel roboticcontest addressing soft robots, named RoboSoft Grand Challenge. Application-oriented taskswere proposed in three different scenarios where soft robotics is particularly lively: manipulation,terrestrial and underwater locomotion. Starting from about sixty expressions of interest submittedby international teams distributed across the world, nineteen robots were eventually selectedto participate in the challenge in two of the initially proposed scenarios, i.e. manipulation andterrestrial locomotion. Results highlight both the effectiveness and limitations of state of the artsoft robots with respect to the selected tasks. The paper will also focus on some of the advantagesand disadvantages of contests as technology-steering mechanisms, including what we calledreductionist design, a phenomenon in which simplistic solutions are devised to purposely tacklethe proposed tasks, possibly hindering more general and desired technological advancements.

  12. Scaling in soft spheres: fragility invariance on the repulsive potential softness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michele, Cristiano De; Sciortino, Francesco; Coniglio, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    We address the question of the dependence of the fragility of glass forming supercooled liquids on the 'softness' of an interacting potential by performing numerical simulation of a binary mixture of soft spheres with different power n of the interparticle repulsive potential. We show that the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients for various n collapses onto a universal curve, supporting the unexpected view that fragility is not related to the hard core repulsion. We also find that the configurational entropy correlates with the slowing down of the dynamics for all studied n. (letter to the editor)

  13. Decomposition of Fuzzy Soft Sets with Finite Value Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young Bae

    2014-01-01

    The notion of fuzzy soft sets is a hybrid soft computing model that integrates both gradualness and parameterization methods in harmony to deal with uncertainty. The decomposition of fuzzy soft sets is of great importance in both theory and practical applications with regard to decision making under uncertainty. This study aims to explore decomposition of fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces. Scalar uni-product and int-product operations of fuzzy soft sets are introduced and some related properties are investigated. Using t-level soft sets, we define level equivalent relations and show that the quotient structure of the unit interval induced by level equivalent relations is isomorphic to the lattice consisting of all t-level soft sets of a given fuzzy soft set. We also introduce the concepts of crucial threshold values and complete threshold sets. Finally, some decomposition theorems for fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces are established, illustrated by an example concerning the classification and rating of multimedia cell phones. The obtained results extend some classical decomposition theorems of fuzzy sets, since every fuzzy set can be viewed as a fuzzy soft set with a single parameter. PMID:24558342

  14. [Neurological soft signs in early onset schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgou Gaha, S; Halayem Dhouib, S; Amado, I; Bouden, A

    2015-06-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle neurological abnormalities that cannot be linked to the achievement of a specific region of the central nervous system and which are not part of a particular neurological syndrome. These signs are observed in the case of diseases supporting the neurodevelopmental model such as schizophrenia in general and its early form defined notably by an age of onset of less than 18 years. Indeed, the NSS belong to a set of clinical, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical markers reflecting neurodevelopmental brain abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence, the scores, and the nature of neurological soft signs (NSS) in adolescent patients suffering from early onset schizophrenia diagnosis in comparison to healthy controls, and to explore the correlations between NSS and the demographic, clinical and therapeutic features of these patients. Twelve adolescents were recruited in the Child Psychiatry Department at the Razi Hospital (Tunisia), with the diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV supplemented by the Kiddie SAD PL. They were matched by age and educational level with twelve healthy controls without psychiatric family or personal history. The clinical status of the patients was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Neurological soft signs (NSS) were rated with the Neurological Soft Signs Examination (NSSE) by Krebs et al. (2000) for the two groups. This scale is composed of 23 items exploring motor coordination, motor integrative function, sensory integration, involuntary movements and quality of lateralization. The mean age of our population was 14.7 years. The average age of onset of the disease was 12.2 years. The sex-ratio was 1.4. Educational level was 7.4 years. The PANSS mean total score was 74.3. The mean daily dose, in chlorpromazine equivalents, was 523.9 mg/day. Four patients received a strict monotherapy of

  15. Lipid protrusions membrane softness, and enzymatic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Høyrup, P.; Callisen, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    The activity of phospholipase A(2) on lipid bilayers displays a characteristic lag burst behavior that has previously been shown to reflect the physical properties of the substrate. It has remained unclear which underlying molecular mechanism is responsible for this phenomenon. We propose here...... protrusion modes and mechanical softness of phospholipid bilayers and on the other side the activity of enzymes acting on lipid bilayers composed of different unsaturated lipids. Specifically, our experiments show a correlation between the bilayer bending rigidity and the apparent Arrhenius activation energy...

  16. Alveolar soft part sarcoma: A rare diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS is an extremely rare disease arising from connective tissues with a propensity for recurrence and metastasis. Clinically, it can be confused with hemangioma or arterio-venous malformations. Thus, a high index of suspicion and histopathological examination are required to make a definitive diagnosis. We report a case of recurrent ASPS in a young female with multiple sites involvement without any features of metastasis who has been treated with excision of the symptomatic lesions followed by chemotherapy.

  17. Laser induced forward transfer of soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla-Papavlu, A; Dinca, V; Luculescu, C; Dinescu, M; Shaw-Stewart, J; Lippert, T; Nagel, M

    2010-01-01

    A strong research effort is presently aimed at patterning methodologies for obtaining controlled defined micrometric polymeric structures for a wide range of applications, including electronics, optoelectronics, sensors, medicine etc. Lasers have been identified as appropriate tools for processing of different materials, such as ceramics and metals, but also for soft, easily damageable materials (biological compounds and polymers). In this work we study the dynamics of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) with a gap between the donor and the receiver substrates, which is the basis for possible applications that require multilayer depositions with high spatial resolution

  18. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable...... agents may induce severe complications, but they will normally disappear spontaneously in a few months. Slowly biodegradable or nonresorbable fillers may give rise to severe reactions that show little or no tendency to spontaneous improvement. They may appear several years after the injection, when...

  19. Soft computing in computer and information science

    CERN Document Server

    Fray, Imed; Pejaś, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a carefully selected and reviewed collection of papers presented during the 19th Advanced Computer Systems conference ACS-2014. The Advanced Computer Systems conference concentrated from its beginning on methods and algorithms of artificial intelligence. Further future brought new areas of interest concerning technical informatics related to soft computing and some more technological aspects of computer science such as multimedia and computer graphics, software engineering, web systems, information security and safety or project management. These topics are represented in the present book under the categories Artificial Intelligence, Design of Information and Multimedia Systems, Information Technology Security and Software Technologies.

  20. A new prescription for soft gluon resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Riccardo; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    We present a new prescription for the resummation of the divergent series of perturbative corrections, due to soft gluon emission, to hard processes near threshold in perturbative QCD (threshold resummation). This prescription is based on Borel resummation, and contrary to the commonly used minimal prescription, it does not introduce a dependence of resummed physical observables on the kinematically unaccessible x→0 region of parton distributions. We compare results for resummed deep-inelastic scattering obtained using the Borel prescription and the minimal prescription and exploit the comparison to discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure

  1. Mobility of inorganic nanoparticles in soft matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Jan; Fornal, Piotr

    2009-04-01

    The 100 nm hematite Fe2O3 particles in gelatin gel, dense water solution of sugar, commercial paints, foam, cosmetic cream and friable powder exhibit the mobility in the range of mm/s which was determined from the analysis of the resonance absorption line shape. In the solution of sugar the movement is correlated for particle-particle distance less then 300 nm. The Mössbauer spectroscopy of the iron bearing nanoparticles is proposed as a novel experimental technique for the investigation of the dynamical and structural properties of the soft matter at the mesoscoipic scale.

  2. Structure and Transport Anomalies in Soft Colloids

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya

    2013-04-01

    Anomalous trends in nanoparticle correlation and motion are reported in soft nanoparticle suspensions using static and dynamic x-ray scattering measurements. Contrary to normal expectations, we find that particle-particle correlations decrease and particle dynamics become faster as volume fraction rises above a critical particle loading associated with overlap. Our observations bear many similarities to the cascade of structural and transport anomalies reported for complex, network forming molecular fluids such as water, and are argued to share similar physical origins. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  3. Superpropulsion of Droplets and Soft Elastic Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufaste, Christophe; Chagas, Gabriela Ramos; Darmanin, Thierry; Claudet, Cyrille; Guittard, Frédéric; Celestini, Franck

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of droplets and soft elastic objects propelled with a catapult. Experiments show that the ejection velocity depends on both the projectile deformation and the catapult acceleration dynamics. With a subtle matching given by a peculiar value of the projectile/catapult frequency ratio, a 250% kinetic energy gain is obtained as compared to the propulsion of a rigid projectile with the same engine. This superpropulsion has strong potentialities: actuation of droplets, sorting of objects according to their elastic properties, and energy saving for propulsion engines.

  4. Soft start technique for diesel generator sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredlund, Lars

    1986-01-01

    A diesel motor in a nuclear power plant should be of a well-proven design. It is designed for long periods of trouble-free duty, but not for the frequent and rapid test starts called for by the technical specifications. In order to decrease the dynamic forces and thermal stresses, a soft-start scheme has been implemented. By limiting the fuel injection the diesel generator will reach full speed in appr. 30 seconds. The fuel limiter is a pneumatic cylinder which mechanically limits the travel of the terminal shaft of the governor. (author)

  5. Ambient temperature modelling with soft computing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertini, Ilaria; Ceravolo, Francesco; Citterio, Marco; Di Pietra, Biagio; Margiotta, Francesca; Pizzuti, Stefano; Puglisi, Giovanni [Energy, New Technology and Environment Agency (ENEA), Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); De Felice, Matteo [Energy, New Technology and Environment Agency (ENEA), Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); University of Rome ' ' Roma 3' ' , Dipartimento di Informatica e Automazione (DIA), Via della Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    This paper proposes a hybrid approach based on soft computing techniques in order to estimate monthly and daily ambient temperature. Indeed, we combine the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and the simple Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to effectively train artificial neural networks (ANN) in such a way that the BP algorithm initialises a few individuals of the GA's population. Experiments concerned monthly temperature estimation of unknown places and daily temperature estimation for thermal load computation. Results have shown remarkable improvements in accuracy compared to traditional methods. (author)

  6. Chronic urticaria treated with soft nasal filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old boy having two attacks of urticaria per day for the last 5 years and intermittent attacks of sneezing and rhinorrhoea, and without any clues to the causative agent in spite of a detailed history and follow up, showed almost complete relief on wearing an ordinary cloth mask for 3 days. He was subsequently trained to use the soft nasal filters and obtained almost 80% relief in urticaria and complete relief in rhinitis during the next 1 year. Wearing the mask for 2 days again led to complete relief and further training in the proper use of the filters was helpful.

  7. 22nd International Conference on Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This proceeding book contains a collection of selected accepted papers of the Mendel conference held in Brno, Czech Republic in June 2016. The proceedings book contains three chapters which present recent advances in soft computing including intelligent image processing. The Mendel conference was established in 1995 and is named after the scientist and Augustinian priest Gregor J. Mendel who discovered the famous Laws of Heredity. The main aim of the conference is to create a regular possibility for students, academics and researchers to exchange ideas and novel research methods on a yearly basis.

  8. Cooperative Signaling with Soft Information Combining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Decode-and-Forward (DF scheme using distributed Turbo code (DTC for a three-node (source, relay, and destination wireless cooperative communication system. The relay decodes, then interleaves, and reencodes the decoded data. It then forwards the reencoded packet and its instantaneous receive SNR to the destination. The performances using both ideal and quantized SNR are studied. The destination uses a modified metric within a Turbo decoding algorithm to scale the soft information calculated for the relay code. The proposed scheme is simple to implement and performs well.

  9. EU Soft Power and the Capability-Expectations Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.

    2013-01-01

    does little to address the weakness of the EU as a foreign policy actor. This article elaborates on the soft power concept and on the interplay between hard and soft power as seen in the EU’s foreign policy. It argues that in few of the roles the EU seeks to fulfil does soft power in itself bridge...... the gap between the expectations and the capabilities. Rather, soft power, when it is present, widens that gap even further by adding to expectations, thus leading to even greater eventual disillusionment when the EU’s hard power capabilities do not match.......The European Union has in the past ten years frequently emphasised its soft power as its primary currency in international affairs. Yet a systematic analysis of the EU’s foreign policy performance, through the prism of the classic ‘capability-expectations gap’, suggests that soft power in itself...

  10. Fast Transition between High-soft and Low-soft States in GRS 1915 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    intensity in GRS 1758 − 258. Though transition from low-hard to high-soft states are seen in many Galactic black hole candidate sources, a transition between two different intensity states (high and low) with similar physical parameters of the accretion disk was not observed in GRS 1915 + 105 or in any other black hole ...

  11. Fast Transition between High-soft and Low-soft States in GRS 1915 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Short periodic flickering with different amplitudes is seen during the observations of classes γ, µ and δ. During the observations of classes θ, β, and ν, the amplitude variation is accompanied by soft X-ray dips with duration of a few tens of seconds to hundreds of seconds. It is observed that the properties of the source during ...

  12. Soft Computing Applications : Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop Soft Computing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, János; Várkonyi-Kóczy, Annamária; Dombi, Joszef; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

                    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 5thInternational Workshop on Soft Computing Applications (SOFA 2012).                                The book covers a broad spectrum of soft computing techniques, theoretical and practical applications employing knowledge and intelligence to find solutions for world industrial, economic and medical problems. The combination of such intelligent systems tools and a large number of applications introduce a need for a synergy of scientific and technological disciplines in order to show the great potential of Soft Computing in all domains.                   The conference papers included in these proceedings, published post conference, were grouped into the following area of research: ·         Soft Computing and Fusion Algorithms in Biometrics, ·         Fuzzy Theory, Control andApplications, ·         Modelling and Control Applications, ·         Steps towa...

  13. Alpha particle induced soft errors in NMOS RAMs: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, P.M.; Wilkins, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper aims to explain the alpha particle induced soft error phenomenon using the NMOS dynamic random access memory (RAM) as a model. It discusses some of the many techniques experimented with by manufacturers to overcome the problem, and gives a review of the literature covering most aspects of soft errors in dynamic RAMs. Finally, the soft error performance of current dynamic RAM and static RAM products from several manufacturers are compared. (author)

  14. Poroelastic Foams for Simple Fabrication of Complex Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C; An, Xintong; Robinson, Sanlin S; van Meerbeek, Ilse M; O'Brien, Kevin W; Zhao, Huichan; Shepherd, Robert F

    2015-11-04

    Open-celled, elastomeric foams allow the simple design of fully 3D pneumatic soft machines using common forming techniques. This is demonstrated through the fabrication of simple actuators and an entirely soft, functional fluid pump formed in the shape of the human heart. The device pumps at physiologically relevant frequencies and pressures and attains a flow rate higher than all previously reported soft pumps. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Soft biometrics using clothing attributes for human identification

    OpenAIRE

    Jaha, Emad Sami

    2016-01-01

    Recently, soft biometrics has emerged as a novel attribute-based person description for identification. It is likely that soft biometrics can be deployed where other biometrics cannot, and have stronger invariance properties than traditional vision-based biometrics, such as invariance to illumination and contrast. Previously, a variety of soft body and face biometrics have been used for identifying people and have increasingly garnered more research interest and are often considered as major ...

  16. Strain-accelerated dynamics of soft colloidal glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen

    2011-04-11

    We have investigated strain-accelerated dynamics of soft glasses theoretically and experimentally. Mechanical rheology measurements performed on a variety of systems reveal evidence for the speeding-up of relaxation at modest shear strains in both step and oscillatory shear flows. Using the soft glassy rheology (SGR) model framework, we show that the observed behavior is a fundamental, but heretofore unexplored attribute of soft glasses. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  17. Understanding soft condensed matter via modeling and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, An-Chang

    2011-01-01

    All living organisms consist of soft matter. For this reason alone, it is important to be able to understand and predict the structural and dynamical properties of soft materials such as polymers, surfactants, colloids, granular matter and liquids crystals. To achieve a better understanding of soft matter, three different approaches have to be integrated: experiment, theory and simulation. This book focuses on the third approach - but always in the context of the other two.

  18. Measuring device for soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.

    1978-09-01

    An instrument for the measurement of the absorbed energy per unit area of diagnostic X-rays in soft human tissue was developed. The instrument is intended for dosimetry applications in the field of dental and small skeleton radiography and for mammography. The detector assembly consists of a Polyvinyltoluene scintillator 2.54 diametre x 5.08 cm CsSb semitransparent head-on vacuum phototube. Polyvinyltoluene being a pure hydrocarbon may be considered a good representative material of human soft tissue concerning the absorption of X-rays. In the photon energy range of interest, 5 - 40 keV, the mass energy absorption coefficient for muscle tissue and for PVT differ about a factor 2 due to the considerable content of Oxygen in muscle tissue. This is to some extend reflected in the photon energy response characteristic for the instrument. For human adipose, the characteristic is practically flat from 5- 40 keV. The instrument is integrating the absorbed power per unit area and the digital display shows Joules/m 2 . The range for the instrument is from 000.1 μJ/m 2 to 19.99 J/m 2 (absorbed energy in 5 cm tissue). (author)

  19. Studies on soft centered coated snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithra, A S; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Babylatha, R; Archana, S N; Bhat, K K

    2013-04-01

    Roasted groundnut seeds, amaranth and dates pulp formed the center filling which was coated with sugar, breadings, desiccated coconut and roasted Bengalgram flour (BGF) to get 4 coated snacks. Physicochemical characteristics, microbiological profile, sorption behaviour and sensory quality of 4 coated snacks were determined. Centre filling to coating ratio of the products were in the range of 3:2-7:1, the product having BGF coating had the thinnest coating. Center filling had soft texture and the moisture content was 10.2-16.2% coating had lower moisture content (4.4-8.6%) except for Bengal gram coating, which had 11.1% moisture. Sugar coated snack has lowest fat (11.6%) and protein (7.2%) contents. Desiccated coconut coated snack has highest fat (25.4%) and Bengal gram flour coated snack had highest protein content (15.4%). Sorption studies showed that the coated snack had critical moisture content of 11.2-13.5%. The products were moisture sensitive and hence require packaging in films having higher moisture barrier property. In freshly prepared snacks coliforms, yeast and mold were absent. Mesophillic aerobes count did not show significant change during 90 days of storage at 27 °C and 37 °C. Sensory analysis showed that products had a unique texture due to combined effect of fairly hard coating and soft center. Flavour and overall quality of all the products were rated as very good.

  20. Thermal Transport in Soft PAAm Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the interface between human and machine becomes blurred, hydrogel incorporated electronics and devices have emerged to be a new class of flexible/stretchable electronic and ionic devices due to their extraordinary properties, such as softness, mechanically robustness, and biocompatibility. However, heat dissipation in these devices could be a critical issue and remains unexplored. Here, we report the experimental measurements and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conduction in polyacrylamide (PAAm hydrogels. The thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogels can be modulated by both the effective crosslinking density and water content in hydrogels. The effective crosslinking density dependent thermal conductivity in hydrogels varies from 0.33 to 0.51 Wm−1K−1, giving a 54% enhancement. We attribute the crosslinking effect to the competition between the increased conduction pathways and the enhanced phonon scattering effect. Moreover, water content can act as filler in polymers which leads to nearly 40% enhancement in thermal conductivity in PAAm hydrogels with water content vary from 23 to 88 wt %. Furthermore, we find the thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogel is insensitive to temperature in the range of 25–40 °C. Our study offers fundamental understanding of thermal transport in soft materials and provides design guidance for hydrogel-based devices.

  1. Hard And Soft QCD Physics In ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomeit Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hard and soft QCD results using proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are reported. Charged-particle distributions and forward-backward correlations have been studied in low-luminosity minimum bias data taken at centre-of-mass energies of √s = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV. Recent measurements on underlying event characteristics using charged-particle jets are also presented. The results are tested against various phenomenological soft QCD models implemented in Monte-Carlo generators. A summary of hard QCD measurements involving high transverse momentum jets is also given. Inclusive jet and dijet cross-sections have been measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and are compared to expectations based on NLO pQCD calculations corrected for non-perturbative effects as well as to NLO Monte Carlo predictions. Recent studies exploiting jet substructure techniques to identify hadronic decays of boosted massive particles are reported.

  2. S-alkylation of soft scorpionates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan-Nair, Rajeev; Moore, Dean; Chalmers, Kirsten; Wallace, Dawn; Diamond, Louise M; Darby, Lisa; Armstrong, David R; Reglinski, John; Spicer, Mark D

    2013-02-11

    The alkylation reactions of soft scorpionates are reported. The hydrotris(S-alkyl-methimazolyl)borate dications (alkyl = methyl, allyl, benzyl), which were prepared by the reaction of Tm(Me) anion and primary alkyl halides, have been isolated and structurally characterised. The reaction is, however, not universally successful. DFT analysis of these alkylation reactions (C=S versus B-H alkylation) indicates that the observed outcome is driven by kinetic factors. Extending the study to incorporate alternative imine thiones (mercaptobenzothiazole, bz; thiazoline, tz) led to the structural characterisation of di[aquo-μ-aquohydrotris(mercaptobenzothiazolyl)boratosodium], which contains sodium atoms in the κ(3)-S,S,S coordination mode. Alkylation of Na[Tbz] and Na[tzTtz] leads to decomposition resulting in the formation of the simple S-alkylated heterocycles. The analysis of the species involved in these reactions shows an inherent weakness in the B-N bond in soft scorpionates, which has implications for their use in more advanced chemistry. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Drop impact on spherical soft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Simeng; Bertola, Volfango

    2017-08-01

    The impact of water drops on spherical soft surfaces is investigated experimentally through high-speed imaging. The effect of a convex compliant surface on the dynamics of impacting drops is relevant to various applications, such as 3D ink-jet printing, where drops of fresh material impact on partially cured soft substrates with arbitrary shape. Several quantities which characterize the morphology of impacting drops are measured through image-processing, including the maximum and minimum spreading angles, length of the wetted curve, and dynamic contact angle. In particular, the dynamic contact angle is measured using a novel digital image-processing scheme based on a goniometric mask, which does not require edge fitting. It is shown that the surface with a higher curvature enhances the retraction of the spreading drop; this effect may be due to the difference of energy dissipation induced by the curvature of the surface. In addition, the impact parameters (elastic modulus, diameter ratio, and Weber number) are observed to significantly affect the dynamic contact angle during impact. A quantitative estimation of the deformation energy shows that it is significantly smaller than viscous dissipation.

  4. Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumor of Soft Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chin Peng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT of soft parts is a rare, nonmetastasizing tumor of uncertain lineage which was first reported in 1996. Here, we report a case of PHAT and review the literature. A 49-year-old man presented with a soft and progressively enlarging mass over the right buttock for several years. On suspicion that the mass was a right gluteal lipoma, he underwent surgical excision. The excised lesion measured 14 × 6 × 3.5 cm. It had a variegated appearance with a white-tan to yellowish color on the cut surface. Some punctate hemorrhage and vessel thrombosis were seen. Microscopically, the tumor was a PHAT characterized by clusters of ectatic, fibrin-lined, thin-walled vessels, which were surrounded by a mitotically inert, spindled, pleomorphic, neoplastic stroma that contained a variable inflammatory component. Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells were positive for CD34, and negative for S-100, HMB45 and actin. The patient experienced local recurrence 6 months later. The recurrent tumor was widely excised. No evidence of metastasis was found during the 18 months after the second operation. The recurrent lesion had a microscopic appearance that was similar to the initial lesion.

  5. Higher spin black holes with soft hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumiller, Daniel [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Pérez, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Prohazka, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2016-10-21

    We construct a new set of boundary conditions for higher spin gravity, inspired by a recent “soft Heisenberg hair”-proposal for General Relativity on three-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of a set of affine û(1) current algebras. Its associated canonical charges generate higher spin soft hair. We focus first on the spin-3 case and then extend some of our main results to spin-N, many of which resemble the spin-2 results: the generators of the asymptotic W{sub 3} algebra naturally emerge from composite operators of the û(1) charges through a twisted Sugawara construction; our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the Euclidean solutions space independently of the values of the charges; solutions, which we call “higher spin black flowers”, are stationary but not necessarily spherically symmetric. Finally, we derive the entropy of higher spin black flowers, and find that for the branch that is continuously connected to the BTZ black hole, it depends only on the affine purely gravitational zero modes. Using our map to W-algebra currents we recover well-known expressions for higher spin entropy. We also address higher spin black flowers in the metric formalism and achieve full consistency with previous results.

  6. Fringe instability in constrained soft elastic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaoting; Cohen, Tal; Zhang, Teng; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Abeyaratne, Rohan; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-11-04

    Soft elastic layers with top and bottom surfaces adhered to rigid bodies are abundant in biological organisms and engineering applications. As the rigid bodies are pulled apart, the stressed layer can exhibit various modes of mechanical instabilities. In cases where the layer's thickness is much smaller than its length and width, the dominant modes that have been studied are the cavitation, interfacial and fingering instabilities. Here we report a new mode of instability which emerges if the thickness of the constrained elastic layer is comparable to or smaller than its width. In this case, the middle portion along the layer's thickness elongates nearly uniformly while the constrained fringe portions of the layer deform nonuniformly. When the applied stretch reaches a critical value, the exposed free surfaces of the fringe portions begin to undulate periodically without debonding from the rigid bodies, giving the fringe instability. We use experiments, theory and numerical simulations to quantitatively explain the fringe instability and derive scaling laws for its critical stress, critical strain and wavelength. We show that in a force controlled setting the elastic fingering instability is associated with a snap-through buckling that does not exist for the fringe instability. The discovery of the fringe instability will not only advance the understanding of mechanical instabilities in soft materials but also have implications for biological and engineered adhesives and joints.

  7. New Therapeutic Targets in Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demicco, Elizabeth G; Maki, Robert G; Lev, Dina C.; Lazar, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are an uncommon and diverse group of more than 50 mesenchymal malignancies. The pathogenesis of many of these is poorly understood, but others have begun to reveal the secrets of their inner workings. With considerable effort over recent years, soft tissue sarcomas have increasingly been classified on the basis of underlying molecular alterations. In turn, this has allowed the development and application of targeted agents in several specific, molecularly defined, sarcoma subtypes. This review will focus the rationale for targeted therapy in sarcoma, with emphasis on the relevance of specific molecular factors and pathways in both translocation-associated sarcomas and in genetically complex tumors. In addition, we will address some of the early successes in sarcoma targeted therapy as well as a few challenges and disappointments in this field. Finally we will discuss several possible opportunities represented by poorly understood, but potentially promising new therapeutic targets, as well as several novel biologic agents currently in preclinical and early phase I/II trials. This will provide the reader with context for understanding the current state this field and a sense of where it may be headed in the coming years. PMID:22498582

  8. Introduction to soft-collinear effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Becher, Thomas; Ferroglia, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Among resummation techniques for perturbative QCD in the context of collider and flavor physics, soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) has emerged as both a powerful and versatile tool, having been applied to a large variety of processes, from B-meson decays to jet production at the LHC.  This book provides a concise, pedagogical introduction to this technique. It discusses the expansion of Feynman diagrams around the high-energy limit, followed by the explicit construction of the effective Lagrangian - first for a scalar theory, then for QCD. The underlying concepts are illustrated with the quark vector form factor at large momentum transfer, and the formalism is applied to compute soft-gluon resummation and to perform transverse-momentum resummation for the Drell-Yan process utilizing renormalization group evolution in SCET. Finally, the infrared structure of n-point gauge-theory amplitudes is analyzed by relating them to effective-theory operators. This text is suitable for graduate students and non-spe...

  9. Desa wisata sebagai aset soft power Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machya Astuti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tourism village plays significant role for strengthening Indonesia soft power. The experience of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY province proves that the development of tourism villages contribute in promoting “the power” of Indonesia through art, culture, custom and food to international society. Tourism Villages that located at Sleman, Bantul, Gunungkidul, Kulonprogo and city of Yogyakarta (called as tourism kampong succeeded in attracting foreigners to stay and live as villagers, enjoy villagers daily live and learn Javanese culture. The study was conducted by observation and interviews. Data were analyzed with descriptive qualitative techniques. Data categorized and given a qualitative analysis of narrative. This research showed that tourism village is a new kind of tourism object that produce a new close relationship between Indonesian people and foreigners, functioned as a tool to make foreigners love Indonesia, prolong their stay in Indonesia, and promote Indonesian culture when they come back to their country. DIY’s experience is a best practice for other provinces in Indonesia to develop and promote its own distinctive tradition and culture through tourism villages. Finally, this effort will contribute in supporting Indonesia soft power.

  10. Biocompatibility of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencoglu, Maria F. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Spurri, Amanda [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Franko, Mitchell [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, Jihua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Hensley, Dale K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Heldt, Caryn L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Saha, Dipendu [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2014-08-21

    We report that soft-templated mesoporous carbon is morphologically a non-nano type of carbon. It is a relatively newer variety of biomaterial, which has already demonstrated its successful role in drug delivery applications. To investigate the toxicity and biocompatibility, we introduced three types of mesoporous carbons with varying synthesis conditions and pore textural properties. We compared the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pore width and performed cytotoxicity experiments with HeLa cells, cell viability studies with fibroblast cells and hemocomapatibility studies. Cytotoxicity tests reveal that two of the carbons are not cytotoxic, with cell survival over 90%. The mesoporous carbon with the highest surface area showed slight toxicity (~70% cell survival) at the highest carbon concentration of 500 μg/mL. Fibroblast cell viability assays suggested high and constant viability of over 98% after 3 days with no apparent relation with materials property and good visible cell-carbon compatibility. No hemolysis (<1%) was confirmed for all the carbon materials. Protein adsorption experiments with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen revealed a lower protein binding capacity of 0.2–0.6 mg/m2 and 2–4 mg/m2 for BSA and fibrinogen, respectively, with lower binding associated with an increase in surface area. The results of this study confirm the biocompatibility of soft-templated mesoporous carbons.

  11. Soft computing techniques in voltage security analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Kabir

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on soft computing techniques for enhancing voltage security in electrical power networks. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been chosen as a soft computing tool, since such networks are eminently suitable for the study of voltage security. The different architectures of the ANNs used in this book are selected on the basis of intelligent criteria rather than by a “brute force” method of trial and error. The fundamental aim of this book is to present a comprehensive treatise on power system security and the simulation of power system security. The core concepts are substantiated by suitable illustrations and computer methods. The book describes analytical aspects of operation and characteristics of power systems from the viewpoint of voltage security. The text is self-contained and thorough. It is intended for senior undergraduate students and postgraduate students in electrical engineering. Practicing engineers, Electrical Control Center (ECC) operators and researchers will also...

  12. Soft drinks and in vitro dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Brent L; Hagen Ii, Ted W; Mayhew, Susan L; Crumpton, Brooks; Sanders, Tyler; Horne, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent the in vitro exposure of healthy teeth to various commonly consumed carbonated soft drinks may precipitate dental erosion. Forty-two healthy, extracted, previously unerupted human molars were weighed prior to, during, and after suspension in various sugared and diet or zero-calorie carbonated beverages for 20 days; the specimens were stored at room temperature while being stirred at 275 rpm. The percentage decrease in tooth weight from before to after exposure represented the weight loss due to enamel erosion; values in the experimental groups varied from 3.22% to 44.52% after 20 days' exposure. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe testing at a level of α = 0.05. Nonsugared drinks (diet and zero-calorie) as a whole were more erosive than sugared beverages. A significant positive correlation was found between the amount of titratable acid and percentage of tooth erosion, while a significant negative correlation was revealed between the beverage pH and percentage of tooth erosion. No significant correlations were found between calcium or phosphate ion concentrations and the amount of erosion. It appears that enamel erosion is dependent on not only the beverage flow rate, pH, and amount of titratable acid, but also whether the soft drink is of the diet or zero-calorie variety, which reflects the type of artificial sweetener present.

  13. Modeling of Magnetostriction of Soft Elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, Andriushchenko; Leonid, Afremov; Mariya, Chernova

    2014-01-01

    Small magnetic particles placed in a relatively soft polymer (with elastic modulus E ∼ 10 ÷ 100 kPa) are magnetically soft elastomers. The external magnetic field acts on each particle which leads to microscopic deformation of the material and consequently to changing of its shape – magnetostriction. For purposes of studying of magnetostriction the model of movable cellular automata (MCA), in which a real heterogeneous material is an ensemble of interacting elements of finite size – automata, is used. It's supposed to be that the motion of each automata can be described by Newton's Second law. The force acting on the i-th automata consists of the following components: volume-dependent force acting on the automata i which is caused by pressure from the surrounding automata; force of an external magnetic field acting on the i-th automata with some magnetic moment; and normal and tangential interaction force between a pair of i and j automata. This approach was used for modeling of magnetostriction elastomer

  14. Soft Matter Lubrication: Does Solid Viscoelasticity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putignano, Carmine; Dini, Daniele

    2017-12-06

    Classical lubrication theory is unable to explain a variety of phenomena and experimental observations involving soft viscoelastic materials, which are ubiquitous and increasingly used in e.g. engineering and biomedical applications. These include unexpected ruptures of the lubricating film and a friction-speed dependence, which cannot be elucidated by means of conventional models, based on time-independent stress-strain constitutive laws for the lubricated solids. A new modeling framework, corroborated through experimental measurements enabled via an interferometric technique, is proposed to address these issues: Solid/fluid interactions are captured thanks to a coupling strategy that makes it possible to study the effect that solid viscoelasticity has on fluid film lubrication. It is shown that a newly defined visco-elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (VEHL) regime can be experienced depending on the degree of coupling between the fluid flow and the solid hysteretic response. Pressure distributions show a marked asymmetry with a peak at the flow inlet, and correspondingly, the film thickness reveals a pronounced shrinkage at the flow outlet; friction is heavily influenced by the viscoelastic hysteresis which is experienced in addition to the viscous losses. These features show significant differences with respect to the classical elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime response that would be predicted when solid viscoelasticity is neglected. A simple yet powerful criterion to assess the importance of viscoelastic solid contributions to soft matter lubrication is finally proposed.

  15. Supersoft lithography: candy-based fabrication of soft silicone microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Christopher; Labuz, Joseph M; Shao, Yue; Fu, Jianping; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    We designed a fabrication technique able to replicate microstructures in soft silicone materials (E candy' recipes from the confectionery industry were modified to be compatible with silicone processing conditions, and used as templates for replica molding. Microstructures fabricated in soft silicones can then be easily released by dissolving the template in water. We anticipate that this technique will be of particular importance in replicating physiologically soft, microstructured environments for cell culture, and demonstrate a first application in which intrinsically soft microstructures are used to measure forces generated by fibroblast-laden contractile tissues.

  16. Multisensory softness perceived compliance from multiple sources of information

    CERN Document Server

    Luca, Massimiliano Di

    2014-01-01

    Offers a unique multidisciplinary overview of how humans interact with soft objects and how multiple sensory signals are used to perceive material properties, with an emphasis on object deformability. The authors describe a range of setups that have been employed to study and exploit sensory signals involved in interactions with compliant objects as well as techniques to simulate and modulate softness - including a psychophysical perspective of the field. Multisensory Softness focuses on the cognitive mechanisms underlying the use of multiple sources of information in softness perception. D

  17. Material parameter identification and inverse problems in soft tissue biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Sam

    2017-01-01

    The articles in this book review hybrid experimental-computational methods applied to soft tissues which have been developed by worldwide specialists in the field. People developing computational models of soft tissues and organs will find solutions for calibrating the material parameters of their models; people performing tests on soft tissues will learn what to extract from the data and how to use these data for their models and people worried about the complexity of the biomechanical behavior of soft tissues will find relevant approaches to address this complexity.

  18. Upgrading ideas about the concept of Soft Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Montero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This short note is devoted to introduce the discussion carried out along this special issue on the concept of Soft Computing by key researchers in the field. We shall stress some aspects of the conception and origins of Soft Computing, supported by the scientific relevance of its participants. The contributors will show their own view about a single question, What is Soft Computing?, covering answers from a general historical approach to the role of some specific tools within their expertise. This discussion represents an extremely interesting view about the concept of Soft Computing, its meaning, its related techniques and its relationship with close fields.

  19. Soft Pneumatic Bending Actuator with Integrated Carbon Nanotube Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Giffney

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The excellent compliance and large range of motion of soft actuators controlled by fluid pressure has lead to strong interest in applying devices of this type for biomimetic and human-robot interaction applications. However, in contrast to soft actuators fabricated from stretchable silicone materials, conventional technologies for position sensing are typically rigid or bulky and are not ideal for integration into soft robotic devices. Therefore, in order to facilitate the use of soft pneumatic actuators in applications where position sensing or closed loop control is required, a soft pneumatic bending actuator with an integrated carbon nanotube position sensor has been developed. The integrated carbon nanotube position sensor presented in this work is flexible and well suited to measuring the large displacements frequently encountered in soft robotics. The sensor is produced by a simple soft lithography process during the fabrication of the soft pneumatic actuator, with a greater than 30% resistance change between the relaxed state and the maximum displacement position. It is anticipated that integrated resistive position sensors using a similar design will be useful in a wide range of soft robotic systems.

  20. Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in advanced memory devices

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ibe, Eishi; Yahagi, Yasuo; Kameyama, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in semiconductor memory devices are currently a major concern in reliability issues. Understanding the mechanism and quantifying soft-error rates are primarily crucial for the design and quality assurance of semiconductor memory devices. This book covers the relevant up-to-date topics in terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors, and aims to provide succinct knowledge on neutron-induced soft errors to the readers by presenting several valuable and unique features. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Introduction (238 KB). Table A.30 mentioned in Appendix A.6 on

  1. Recent Advances in Soft E-Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Mondal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available E-textiles (electronic textiles are fabrics that possesses electronic counterparts and electrical interconnects knitted into them, offering flexibility, stretchability, and a characteristic length scale that cannot be accomplished using other electronic manufacturing methods currently available. However, knitting is only one of the technologies in e-Textile integration. Other technologies, such as sewing, embroidery, and even single fiber-based manufacture technology, are widely employed in next-generation e-textiles. Components and interconnections are barely visible since they are connected intrinsically to soft fabrics that have attracted the attention of those in the fashion and textile industries. These textiles can effortlessly acclimatize themselves to the fast-changing wearable electronic markets with digital, computational, energy storage, and sensing requirements of any specific application. This mini-review focuses on recent advances in the field of e-textiles and focuses particularly on the materials and their functionalities.

  2. Sarcomas of Soft Tissue and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Andrea; Dirksen, Uta; Bielack, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The definition of soft tissue and bone sarcomas include a large group of several heterogeneous subtypes of mesenchymal origin that may occur at any age. Among the different sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma are aggressive high-grade malignancies that often arise in adolescents and young adults. Managing these malignancies in patients in this age bracket poses various clinical problems, also because different therapeutic approaches are sometimes adopted by pediatric and adult oncologists, even though they are dealing with the same condition. Cooperation between pediatric oncologists and adult medical oncologists is a key step in order to assure the best treatment to these patients, preferably through their inclusion into international clinical trials. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Perubahan Eksternal, Soft Skills Dan Kurikulum Kesehatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfindri Elfindri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini menyoroti begitu pentingnya tingkah laku kesehatan rumah tangga ‘household health behavior’1 didorong dan direkayasa untuk meminimumkan efek dari persebaran virus. Sekiranya pengetahuan dan kesadaran akan hal ini rendah, maka untuk kasus negara berkembang seperti Indonesia, perkembangan berbagai jenis penyakit degeneratif akan semakin sulit dicegah. Meluasnya persoalan ini kemudian akan berdampak kepada semakin besarnya biaya pencegahannya, dan dampak dari kecepatan virus bisa berbahaya lebih besar lagi. Salah satu implikasi adalah pencegahan dapat dilakukan melalui perbaikan kurikulum pendidikan akan bahaya dari persebaran virus. AIDS, FLU Burung, Flu Babi, Demam Berdarah, dan sebagainya cukup memusingkan pelayanan kesehatan, termasuk insektisida. Pemutakhiran kurikulum tentunya bermanfaat untuk memajukan pendidikan kesehatan, khususnya pendidikan keperawatan, unsur soft skills sangat penting, selain dari perubahan kognitif.

  4. Shape-matching soft mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaali, M J; Janbaz, S; Strano, M; Vergani, L; Zadpoor, A A

    2018-01-17

    Architectured materials with rationally designed geometries could be used to create mechanical metamaterials with unprecedented or rare properties and functionalities. Here, we introduce "shape-matching" metamaterials where the geometry of cellular structures comprising auxetic and conventional unit cells is designed so as to achieve a pre-defined shape upon deformation. We used computational models to forward-map the space of planar shapes to the space of geometrical designs. The validity of the underlying computational models was first demonstrated by comparing their predictions with experimental observations on specimens fabricated with indirect additive manufacturing. The forward-maps were then used to devise the geometry of cellular structures that approximate the arbitrary shapes described by random Fourier's series. Finally, we show that the presented metamaterials could match the contours of three real objects including a scapula model, a pumpkin, and a Delft Blue pottery piece. Shape-matching materials have potential applications in soft robotics and wearable (medical) devices.

  5. Yield stress materials in soft condensed matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Daniel; Denn, Morton M.; Berthier, Ludovic; Divoux, Thibaut; Manneville, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear flow behavior in response to external mechanical forces due to the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur: the yield stress. Both the physical origin and rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior are discussed and an overview is given of experimental techniques available to measure the yield stress. Recent progress is discussed concerning a microscopic theoretical description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing, in particular, the role played by relaxation time scales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and nonlocal effects in confined geometries.

  6. Insights from soft X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Niefind, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    The diffraction pattern of a protein crystal is normally a product of the interference of electromagnetic waves scattered by electrons of the crystalline sample. The diffraction pattern undergoes systematic changes in case additionally X-ray absorption occurs, meaning if the wavelength of the pri......The diffraction pattern of a protein crystal is normally a product of the interference of electromagnetic waves scattered by electrons of the crystalline sample. The diffraction pattern undergoes systematic changes in case additionally X-ray absorption occurs, meaning if the wavelength...... of the primary X-ray beam is relatively close to the absorption edge of selected elements of the sample. The resulting effects are summarized as "anomalous dispersion" and can be always observed with "soft" X-rays (wavelength around 2 A) since they match the absorption edges of sulfur and chlorine...

  7. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  8. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Analysis of Soft Switched Electronic Ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Spanik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most perspective light sources are based on principle of electric discharge in gases. Feature of this phenomena is nonlinear impedance characteristic. Ballast interconnected between line and light source adapts requirements of light source to possibilities/requirements of the line. Today solution of modern ballast is based is based upon high frequency switch mode power supply, the cuts many disadvantages of standartd magnetic ballast off. The article describes development of high frequency electronic ballast for linear fluorescent tube in the frame of grant project 1/9025/02 with accent to soft switching. The most important advantages of this solutions are compactness, flicker-free lumen effeciency increase and reduced EMI interferencies.

  10. Soft hairy warped black hole entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumiller, Daniel; Hacker, Philip; Merbis, Wout

    2018-02-01

    We reconsider warped black hole solutions in topologically massive gravity and find novel boundary conditions that allow for soft hairy excitations on the horizon. To compute the associated symmetry algebra we develop a general framework to compute asymptotic symmetries in any Chern-Simons-like theory of gravity. We use this to show that the near horizon symmetry algebra consists of two u (1) current algebras and recover the surprisingly simple entropy formula S = 2 π( J 0 + + J 0 - ), where J 0 ± are zero mode charges of the current algebras. This provides the first example of a locally non-maximally symmetric configuration exhibiting this entropy law and thus non-trivial evidence for its universality.

  11. Slow creep in soft granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-05-14

    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  12. Correlation decay in certain soft billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Balint, P

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the 2D finite horizon periodic Lorentz gas, soft planar billiard systems with axis-symmetric potentials are studied in this paper. Since Sinai's celebrated discovery that elastic collisions of a point particle with strictly convex scatterers give rise to hyperbolic, and consequently, nice ergodic behaviour, several authors (most notably Sinai, Kubo, Knauf) have found potentials with analogous properties. These investigations concluded in the work of V. Donnay and C. Liverani who obtained general conditions for a 2-D rotationally symmetric potential to provide ergodic dynamics. Our main aim here is to understand when these potentials lead to stronger stochastic properties, in particular to exponential decay of correlations and central limit theorem. In the main argument we work with systems in general for which the rotation function satisfies certain conditions. One of these conditions has already been used by Donnay and Liverani to obtain hyperbolicity and ergodicity. What we prove is that if, in...

  13. Embodiment design of soft continuum robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjie Kang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary project where mechatronic engineers worked alongside biologists to develop a soft robotic arm that captures key features of octopus anatomy and neurophysiology. The concept of embodiment (the dynamic coupling between sensory-motor control, anatomy, materials and environment that allows for the animal to achieve adaptive behaviours is used as a starting point for the design process but tempered by current engineering technologies and approaches. In this article, the embodied design requirements are first discussed from a robotic viewpoint by taking into account real-life engineering limitations; then, the motor control schemes inspired by octopus nervous system are investigated. Finally, the mechanical and control design of a prototype is presented that appropriately blends bio-inspiration and engineering limitations. Simulated and experimental results show that the developed continuum robotic arm is able to reproduce octopus-like motions for bending, reaching and grasping.

  14. Improve Toolmarks' Impressions in Soft Wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Nir; Volkov, Nikolai; Tsach, Tsadok

    2017-05-01

    When the forensic toolmarks laboratory receives for examination and comparison a tool that is suspected of having been involved in a crime, the expert performs tests designed to determine whether or not the specific tool generates the same toolmarks as those found at the crime scene. This is performed by testing tool striation on a piece of soft metal, such as lead, and examining the marks left by the tool. Studies have shown that wax may be an optimal material for this purpose. This study examines the use of wax at different temperatures and shows that quality of results is better when the wax is cooled (recommended temperature is -18°C). At this temperature, the wax is flexible enough but does not smear and is not sticky. This makes the obtained marks clearer and of better quality. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Elastic softness of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, A. C.

    2018-01-26

    Much recent attention has been devoted towards unravelling the microscopic optoelectronic properties of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP). Here we investigate by coherent inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy and Brillouin light scattering, low frequency acoustic phonons in four different hybrid perovskite single crystals: MAPbBr3, FAPbBr3, MAPbI3 and α-FAPbI3 (MA: methylammonium, FA: formamidinium). We report a complete set of elastic constants caracterized by a very soft shear modulus C44. Further, a tendency towards an incipient ferroelastic transition is observed in FAPbBr3. We observe a systematic lower sound group velocity in the technologically important iodide-based compounds compared to the bromide-based ones. The findings suggest that low thermal conductivity and hot phonon bottleneck phenomena are expected to be enhanced by low elastic stiffness, particularly in the case of the ultrasoft α-FAPbI3.

  16. Completely extruded talus without soft tissue attachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Rak; Jeong, Jae Jung; Lee, Ho Seong; Kim, Sang Woo; Suh, Jin-Soo

    2011-01-01

    A completely extruded talus without any remaining soft tissue attachments is extremely rare. The present report describes treatment of a 45-year-old man who sustained a completely extruded talus injury following a rock-climbing fall. Upon admission, the extruded talus was deep-frozen in our bone bank. The open ankle joint underwent massive wound debridement and irrigation for 3 days. Four days later we performed a primary subtalar fusion between the extruded talus and the calcaneus, anticipating revascularization from the calcaneus. However, aseptic loosening and osteolysis developed around the screw and talus. At 12 months post-trauma we performed a tibiocalcaneal ankle fusion with a femoral head allograft to fill the talar defect. Follow-up at 24 months post-trauma showed the patient had midfoot motion, tibio-talar-calcaneal fusion, and was able partake in 4-hour physical activity twice per week. PMID:24765266

  17. Sintered soft magnetic materials. Properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. A.; Calero, J. A.; Dougan, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    A comparison is presented of the characteristics and production requirements of a variety of materials used to produce sintered soft magnetic parts. These include pure iron, phosphorous-iron, silicon-iron, nickel-iron, and cobalt-iron, together with new coated materials based on encapsulated iron powders. In these bonded materials an organic and/or inorganic insulator is used to coat the metallic powder particles giving a magnetic composite. The suitability of the different materials for use in both direct and alternating current applications is reviewed, and examples are provided of their application in both the automotive and other sectors. The results of a comparative study of motors using stators and rotors based on both conventional laminated materials and the insulated iron powders are presented, in which the new materials show advantages of reduced hysteresis losses at high frequencies, and isotropy of magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the applications of these materials in electrical motors requires the modification of existing designs.

  18. Soft particles at a fluid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Hadi; Harting, Jens; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2015-11-01

    Particles added to a fluid interface can be used as a surface stabilizer in the food, oil and cosmetic industries. As an alternative to rigid particles, it is promising to consider highly deformable particles that can adapt their conformation at the interface. In this study, we compute the shapes of soft elastic particles using molecular dynamics simulations of a cross-linked polymer gel, complemented by continuum calculations based on the linear elasticity. It is shown that the particle shape is not only affected by the Young's modulus of the particle, but also strongly depends on whether the gel is partially or completely wetting the fluid interface. We find that the molecular simulations for the partially wetting case are very accurately described by the continuum theory. By contrast, when the gel is completely wetting the fluid interface the linear theory breaks down and we reveal that molecular details have a strong influence on the equilibrium shape.

  19. The National Si-Soft Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-Y.; Trappey, Charles V.

    2003-01-01

    Taiwan's electronics industry emerged in the 1960s with the creation of a small but well planned integrated circuit (IC) packaging industry. This industry investment led to bolder investments in research, laboratories, and the island's first semiconductor foundries in the 1980s. Following the success of the emerging IC manufacturers and design houses, hundreds of service firms and related industries (software, legal services, substrate, chemical, and test firms among others) opened for business and completed Taiwan's IC manufacturing supply chain. The challenge for Taiwan's electronics industry is to take the lead in the design, manufacture, and marketing of name brand electronic products. This paper introduces the Si-Soft (silicon software) Project, a national initiative that builds on Taiwan's achievements in manufacturing (referred to as Si-Hard or silicon hardware) to launch a new wave of companies. These firms will contribute to the core underlying technology (intellectual property) used in the creation of electronic products

  20. Tunable Soft X-Ray Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtele, Jonathan; Gandhi, Punut; Gu, X.-W.; Fawley, William M.; Reinsch, Matthia; Penn, Gregory; Kim, K.-J.; Lindberg, Ryan; Zholents, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a tunable soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) photon source is presented and studied numerically. The concept is based on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), wherein two modulator-chicane sections impose high harmonic structure with much greater efficacy as compared to conventional high harmonic FELs that use only one modulator-chicane section. The idea proposed here is to replace the external laser power sources in the EEHG modulators with FEL oscillators, and to combine the bunching of the beam with the production of radiation. Tunability is accomplished by adjusting the magnetic chicanes while the two oscillators remain at a fixed frequency. This scheme eliminates the need to develop coherent sources with the requisite power, pulse length, and stability requirements by exploiting the MHz bunch repetition rates of FEL continuous wave (CW) sources driven by superconducting (SC) linacs. We present time-dependent GINGER simulation results for an EEHG scheme with an oscillator modulator at 43 nm employing 50percent reflective dielectric mirrors and a second modulator employing an external, 215-nm drive laser. Peak output of order 300 MW is obtained at 2.7 nm, corresponding to the 80th harmonic of 215 nm. An alternative single-cavity echo-oscillator scheme based on a 13.4 nm oscillator is investigated with time-independent simulations that a 180-MW peak power at final wavelength of 1.12 nm. Three alternate configurations that use separate bunches to produce the radiation for EEHG microbunching are also presented. Our results show that oscillator-based soft x-ray FELs driven by CWSC linacs are extremely attractive because of their potential to produce tunable radiation at high average power together with excellent longitudinal coherence and narrow spectral bandwidth.

  1. Iron-based superconductors via soft chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friederichs, Gina Maya

    2015-01-01

    This thesis provides new soft chemistry approaches to Fe-based superconductors. Mild syntheses were demonstrated to be able to overcome difficulties, occurring in conventional synthesis and to enable the access to new metastable phases. A solvent-based metathesis reaction led to β-FeSe exclusively. Contrary to solid state syntheses, the formation of hexagonal α-FeSe could be avoided under mild conditions. The deintercalation of interstitial Fe (by formation of Fe 3 O 4 ) could be proven by low temperature O 2 -annealing of Fe 1+x Te 1-y Se y . By using redox (de)intercalations K 1-x Fe 2-y Se 2 , metastable Na 1-x Fe 2-y As 2 and Na 1-x ((Fe 1-y Co y ) 1-z As) 2 could successfully be obtained at room temperature. The mild synthesis conditions led to compounds like FeSe and K 1-x Fe 2-y Se 2 which exhibited different physical properties than found by conventional high temperature methods. In general, the developed (de)intercalation reactions represent a new, universally applicable tool in order to manipulate the structure along with the properties of Fe-based superconductors. The basic structural features of the characteristic FeX 4/4 tetrahedral layers, however, are preserved. Soft chemistry syntheses have been shown to allow the formation of a variety of phases, like Na 1-x Fe 2-y As 2 , Na 1-x ((Fe 1-y Co y ) 1-z As) 2 and K 1-x Fe 2-y Se 2 . Hence, especially low temperature approaches may enable the realization of complex stacking sequences, potentially leading to the fulfillment of the greatest goal in the research of superconductors - room temperature superconductivity.

  2. Pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas and nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwala Sandeep

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors arising from the soft tissues are uncommon in children, accounting for about 6% of all childhood malignancies. More than half (53% of these originate from the striated muscles and are called rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS the remaining are nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS. Almost two-thirds of RMS cases are diagnosed in children < 6 years of age. They can arise at varied locations like the head and neck region, genitourinary tract, extremities, trunk and retroperitoneum. Pathologically RMS is now classified as superior, intermediate and poor outcome histologies. For stratification of treatment and also comparison of results the RMS are now staged both by the clinical grouping and the TNM staging systems. The ultimate outcome depends on the site, extent of disease and histology. Currently, approximately 70% of the patients survive for 5 years or more and are probably cured. This is credited to the use of multi-modal, risk-adapted therapy, refinements in tumor grouping and better supportive care which has emerged out of cooperative studies like Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS and the International Society of Pediatric Oncology studies (SIOP. The treatment involves chemotherapy, radiotherapy and organ/function preserving surgery. The gold standard chemotherapy is still vincristine, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide (VAC regime with high doses of intensity bone marrow rescue with colony stimulating factors. The NRSTS are rare and of heterogenous histologies and so it has been difficult to arrive at a treatment strategy for these. What is definitely understood is that these are usually immature and poorly differentiated tumors that respond poorly to chemotherapy and so surgical resection forms the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy to prevent local recurrences. In all likelihood, the molecular analysis of RMS will further refine current classification schemes and knowledge of genetic features of

  3. Necrotizing soft tissue infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestorović Milica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI is a life-threatening condition, characterized by widely spread necrosis of skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia and muscles. Treatment involves surgical debridement and broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. Mortality is still high due to diagnostic delays. NSTI is rare in general population, there are even less literature data of this condition in pregnancy. Timely diagnosis and therapy is crucial for outcome of these patients. Clinicians should have in mind NSTI in patients with perianal infections, especially in cases where immunosuppressive role of pregnancy is present. Case outline. We present a case of a 21-year-old pregnant woman with NSTI spreading from perianal region. The patient was admitted to hospital in the 31st week of otherwise healthy twin pregnancy one day after incision of perianal abscess. At admission she was examined by a gynecologist; vital signs were stable, laboratory results showed the presence of infection. She was referred for another surgical procedure and broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed. The next morning the patient complained of intense abdominal pain. Clinical exam revealed only discrete redness of the skin tender on palpation, crepitating. She was immediately referred to surgery. Intraoperative findings revealed massive soft tissue infection spreading up to the chest wall. Wide skin incisions and debridement were performed. The patient developed septic shock and after initial resuscitation gynecologist confirmed intrauterine death of twins and indicated labor induction. Over the next few days the patient’s general condition improved. On several occasions the wounds were aggressively debrided under general anesthesia, which left the patient with large abdominal wall defect. Twenty-three days after the initial operation, the defect was reconstructed with partial-thickness skin grafts, providing satisfactory results. Conclusion. Diagnosis and outcome of

  4. Tunable Soft X-Ray Oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan; Gandhi, Punut; Gu, X-W; Fawley, William M; Reinsch, Matthia; Penn, Gregory; Kim, K-J; Lindberg, Ryan; Zholents, Alexander

    2010-09-17

    A concept for a tunable soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) photon source is presented and studied numerically. The concept is based on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), wherein two modulator-chicane sections impose high harmonic structure with much greater efficacy as compared to conventional high harmonic FELs that use only one modulator-chicane section. The idea proposed here is to replace the external laser power sources in the EEHG modulators with FEL oscillators, and to combine the bunching of the beam with the production of radiation. Tunability is accomplished by adjusting the magnetic chicanes while the two oscillators remain at a fixed frequency. This scheme eliminates the need to develop coherent sources with the requisite power, pulse length, and stability requirements by exploiting the MHz bunch repetition rates of FEL continuous wave (CW) sources driven by superconducting (SC) linacs. We present time-dependent GINGER simulation results for an EEHG scheme with an oscillator modulator at 43 nm employing 50percent reflective dielectric mirrors and a second modulator employing an external, 215-nm drive laser. Peak output of order 300 MW is obtained at 2.7 nm, corresponding to the 80th harmonic of 215 nm. An alternative single-cavity echo-oscillator scheme based on a 13.4 nm oscillator is investigated with time-independent simulations that a 180-MW peak power at final wavelength of 1.12 nm. Three alternate configurations that use separate bunches to produce the radiation for EEHG microbunching are also presented. Our results show that oscillator-based soft x-ray FELs driven by CWSC linacs are extremely attractive because of their potential to produce tunable radiation at high average power together with excellent longitudinal coherence and narrow spectral bandwidth.

  5. Multiscale mechanical modeling of soft biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2008-10-01

    Soft biological tissues include both native and artificial tissues. In the human body, tissues like the articular cartilage, arterial wall, and heart valve leaflets are examples of structures composed of an underlying network of collagen fibers, cells, proteins and molecules. Artificial tissues are less complex than native tissues and mainly consist of a fiber polymer network with the intent of replacing lost or damaged tissue. Understanding of the mechanical function of these materials is essential for many clinical treatments (e.g. arterial clamping, angioplasty), diseases (e.g. arteriosclerosis) and tissue engineering applications (e.g. engineered blood vessels or heart valves). This thesis presents the derivation and application of a multiscale methodology to describe the macroscopic mechanical function of soft biological tissues incorporating directly their structural architecture. The model, which is based on volume averaging theory, accounts for structural parameters such as the network volume fraction and orientation, the realignment of the fibers in response to strain, the interactions among the fibers and the interactions between the fibers and the interstitial fluid in order to predict the overall tissue behavior. Therefore, instead of using a constitutive equation to relate strain to stress, the tissue microstructure is modeled within a representative volume element (RVE) and the macroscopic response at any point in the tissue is determined by solving a micromechanics problem in the RVE. The model was applied successfully to acellular collagen gels, native blood vessels, and electrospun polyurethane scaffolds and provided accurate predictions for permeability calculations in isotropic and oriented fiber networks. The agreement of model predictions with experimentally determined mechanical properties provided insights into the mechanics of tissues and tissue constructs, while discrepancies revealed limitations of the model framework.

  6. Measuring information transfer in a soft robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K; Schmidt, N; Pfeifer, R

    2015-05-13

    Soft robots can exhibit diverse behaviors with simple types of actuation by partially outsourcing control to the morphological and material properties of their soft bodies, which is made possible by the tight coupling between control, body, and environment. In this paper, we present a method that will quantitatively characterize these diverse spatiotemporal dynamics of a soft body based on the information-theoretic approach. In particular, soft bodies have the ability to propagate the effect of actuation through the entire body, with a certain time delay, due to their elasticity. Our goal is to capture this delayed interaction in a quantitative manner based on a measure called momentary information transfer. We extend this measure to soft robotic applications and demonstrate its power using a physical soft robotic platform inspired by the octopus. Our approach is illustrated in two ways. First, we statistically characterize the delayed actuation propagation through the body as a strength of information transfer. Second, we capture this information propagation directly as local information dynamics. As a result, we show that our approach can successfully characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of the soft robotic platform, explicitly visualizing how information transfers through the entire body with delays. Further extension scenarios of our approach are discussed for soft robotic applications in general.

  7. Soft Legged Wheel-Based Robot with Terrestrial Locomotion Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years robotics has been influenced by a new approach, soft-robotics, bringing the idea that safe interaction with user and more adaptation to the environment can be achieved by exploiting easily deformable materials and flexible components in the structure of robots. In 2016, the soft-robotics community has promoted a new robotics challenge, named RoboSoft Grand Challenge, with the aim of bringing together different opinions on the usefulness and applicability of softness and compliancy in robotics. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a terrestrial robot based on two soft legged wheels. The tasks predefined by the challenge were set as targets in the robot design, which finally succeeded to accomplish all the tasks. The wheels of the robot can passively climb over stairs and adapt to slippery grounds using two soft legs embedded in their structure. The soft legs, fabricated by integration of soft and rigid materials and mounted on the circumference of a conventional wheel, succeed to enhance its functionality and easily adapt to unknown grounds. The robot has a semi stiff tail that helps in the stabilization and climbing of stairs. An active wheel is embedded at the extremity of the tail in order to increase the robot maneuverability in narrow environments. Moreover two parallelogram linkages let the robot to reconfigure and shrink its size allowing entering inside gates smaller than its initial dimensions.

  8. Peer Assessment of Soft Skills and Hard Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aimao

    2012-01-01

    Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…

  9. Soft skills for TQM in Higher Education Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PhD Everard van Kemenade

    2012-01-01

    The hard side in total quality management of measurement and data analysis can only be successful if it is replenished with the soft side, the people side. This conclusion has serious consequences for the education of professionals, especially managers. Managers should be trained in soft skills,

  10. Impulsive behavior in solar soft X-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.; Strong, K. T.; Dennis, B. R.; Zarro, D.; Inda, M.; Kosugi, T.; Sakao, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Yohkoh soft X-ray telescope has observed impulsive, thermal, soft X-ray emission at the footpoints of magnetic loops during solar flares. The soft X-ray (thermal) time profiles at the footpoints closely match the hard X-ray (nonthermal) time profiles, directly demonstrating the heating of the lower solar atmosphere on short timescales during the interval of nonthermal energy release. This phenomenon is the rule, rather than the exception, occurring in the majority of flares that we have examined with the Yohkoh data. We illustrate the impulsive behavior with data from the major flare of 1992 January 26. For this flare, the soft X-ray peak times matched the hard X-ray peak times within the time resolution of the soft X-ray measurements (about 10 s), and the soft and hard X-ray locations match within the resolution of the hard X-ray imager. The impulsive soft X-ray emission clearly has a thermal spectral signature, but not at the high temperature of a 'superhot' source. We conclude that the impulsive soft X-ray emission comes from material heated by precipitating electrons at loop footpoints and evaporating from the deeper atmosphere into the flaring flux tube.

  11. Significance of Soft Zone Sediments at the SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the origin, extent and stability of ''soft zones'' in the carbonate bearing strata at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of this study, a comprehensive historical compendium of how soft zones have been addressed during the past 47 years at SRS is reviewed.

  12. Developing Soft Skills in Millennial Students: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough-Billups, Mary Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed the deficiency in soft skills of millennial workers in the United States. The weakness or absence of soft skills of millennial workers is problematic because Millennials are rapidly increasing in the workplace as large numbers of baby boomers are retiring. The purpose of this study was to obtain the expert opinions of a sample…

  13. Description of soft sediment deformational structure of the Campano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several soft sediment deformational structures were identified during fieldwork survey carried out on exposures of Gombe Formation in the Gongola sub–basin of the Northern Benue Trough at Gombe and environs. These soft sediment deformational structures includes: simple internal cusps, which occur wide spread ...

  14. Soft Play Detection in Shooter Games Using Hit Matrix Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Laasonen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft play is a form of cheating where players deliberately play easy against each other. We evaluate different methods for detecting the players engaging in soft play in shooter games using data generated with synthetic players. These methods are used when analysing the hit matrix of the game.

  15. Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2007-12-15

    Devices become increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft errors primarily caused problems for space and high-atmospheric computing applications. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming significant even at terrestrial altitudes. The soft error vulnerability of iterative linear algebra methods, which many scientific applications use, is a critical aspect of the overall application vulnerability. These methods are often considered invulnerable to many soft errors because they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show that iterative methods can be vulnerable to soft errors, with a high rate of silent data corruptions. We quantify this vulnerability, with algorithms generating up to 8.5% erroneous results when subjected to a single bit-flip. Further, we show that detecting soft errors in an iterative method depends on its detailed convergence properties and requires more complex mechanisms than simply checking the residual. Finally, we explore inexpensive techniques to tolerate soft errors in these methods.

  16. Decay constants in soft wall AdS/QCD revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R.F. Braga

    2016-12-01

    We show here that a modified framework of soft wall AdS/QCD involving an additional dimensionfull parameter, associated with an ultraviolet energy scale, provides decay constants decreasing with radial excitation level. In this version of the soft wall model the two point function of gauge theory operators is calculated at a finite position of the anti-de Sitter space radial coordinate.

  17. Meal pattern and soft drink consumption among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... soft drinks on a daily basis in the past one week preceding the survey. Conclusion: The study revealed that meal skipping, snacking and soft drink consumption were common among this adolescent population. Public enlightenment campaign and school food policies that promote healthy eating habits are recommended.

  18. 3D printing for soft robotics – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Jahan Zeb; Sajid, Memoon; Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Shah, Imran; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Wook; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Soft robots have received an increasing attention due to their advantages of high flexibility and safety for human operators but the fabrication is a challenge. Recently, 3D printing has been used as a key technology to fabricate soft robots because of high quality and printing multiple materials at the same time. Functional soft materials are particularly well suited for soft robotics due to a wide range of stimulants and sensitive demonstration of large deformations, high motion complexities and varied multi-functionalities. This review comprises a detailed survey of 3D printing in soft robotics. The development of key 3D printing technologies and new materials along with composites for soft robotic applications is investigated. A brief summary of 3D-printed soft devices suitable for medical to industrial applications is also included. The growing research on both 3D printing and soft robotics needs a summary of the major reported studies and the authors believe that this review article serves the purpose.

  19. Soft Skills Training: An Annotated Guide to Selected Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Wilhelmina A.; Lee, Deitra H.; Lindquist, Malinda A.

    This guidebook presents data from a two-part study that reviewed existing literature on soft work skills, defined soft skills, and determined their importance to employers. The study also identified programs that were teaching those skills. Researchers contacted 90 organizations, asking for detailed written materials about themselves. The 53 that…

  20. Hegemony or Survival: South Africa's Soft Power and the Challenge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The literature on South African politics makes widespread reference to the culture of xenophobia. There is also a small but growing body of literature on South Africa's soft power currencies. However, no study has attempted to comprehensively examine the nexus between South Africa's soft power and its culture of ...

  1. Neutrosophic Soft Multi-Set Theory and Its Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Deli; Said Broumi; Mumtaz Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we introduce the concept of neutrosophic soft multi-set theory and study their properties and operations. Then, we give a decision making meth-ods for neutrosophic soft multi-set theory. Finally, an ap-plication of this method in decision making problems is presented.

  2. Neutrosophic Soft Multi-Set Theory and Its Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Deli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the concept of neutrosophic soft multi-set theory and study their properties and operations. Then, we give a decision making methods for neutrosophic soft multi-set theory. Finally, an application of this method in decision making problems is presented.

  3. ON SYSTEMATIZING OF THE EXTRA-ARTICULAR SOFT TISSUE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Zborovskiy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions of medical and social importance of soft tissue rheumatism, including their prevalence, the problems of their nomenclature, classification and unification of diagnostics as well are considered, the new versions of classification of soft tissue rheumatism and diagnostic criteria of primary fibromyalgia syndrome are olTered.

  4. Competition soft law in national courts - Quo vadis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Zlatina

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on an empirical data-set of 103 national competition cases of EU Member States, which contain judicial reasoning on supranational, Commission-issued competition soft law. The paper enquires into the possible reasons for detected national judicial attitudes to supranational soft

  5. Analysis of selected metallic impurities in soft drinks marketed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty brands of soft drinks commonly consumed in Lagos, Nigeria were analyzed for lead, cadmium, nickel, silver, chromium and zinc using standard biochemical procedures. The aim was to determine whether the concentrations of toxic metals in commonly consumed soft drinks are below or above the upper limit for ...

  6. Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Review of 19 Cases. | Eyesan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although soft tissue sarcoma is a rare tumour, it accounts for a significant proportion of malignancies seen in many orthopaedic practices. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the pattern of presentation of extremity soft tissue sarcoma and the treatment outcome in our patients. Method: This is a 3 year ...

  7. Consumption pattern, Attitudes and Nutrition Knowledge on Soft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health problems have been increasing as a result of excessive soft drink consumption in western countries. Increased sweet taste preference, advanced technology and reasonably cheap prices of soft drinks are contributing factors for this increased consumption. Yet to our understanding it is not well established what are ...

  8. Tissue Friendly Pendulum: Soft Liner to prevent Tissue Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal mucosal irritation is commonly encountered with the Pendulum appliance. The efficiency of soft liners in reducing tissue irritation has been well documented in the field of prosthodontics. The following article describes an innovative technique where soft liner can be used to reduce palatal mucosal irritation caused by pendulum appliance.

  9. Enhanced gluten properties in soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soft kernel durum wheat is a relatively recent development (Morris et al. 2011 Crop Sci. 51:114). The soft kernel trait exerts profound effects on kernel texture, flour milling including break flour yield, milling energy, and starch damage, and dough water absorption (DWA). With the caveat of reduce...

  10. The Hard Facts about Soft-Skills Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Although many trainers are using off-the-shelf courseware in a broad soft-skills training program, the perfect product has yet to be developed. Many multimedia soft-skills programs are custom developed for specific companies. Continuing technological improvements may make them more universally useful. (JOW)

  11. The conceptualisation of "soft skills" among medical students before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    conceptualisation of soft skills by final-year medical students of the traditional curriculum with those of final-year students who had followed the reformed ... Conclusion: The educational and training efforts of the reformed curriculum are ... development of these skills and attitudes, which we collectively called “soft skills”.

  12. Ensemble of randomized soft decision trees for robust classification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is found that an ensembleof randomized soft decision trees has outperformed the related existing soft decision tree. Robustness against the presence of noise is shown by injecting various levels of noise into the training set and a comparison is drawnwith other related methods which favors the proposed method.

  13. Effects of material properties on soft contact dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, A.; Malik, M.A.; Ghafoor, A.

    2009-01-01

    The superiority of deformable human fingertips as compared to hard robot gripper fingers for grasping and manipulation has led to a number of investigations with robot hands employing elastomers or materials such as fluids or powders beneath a membrane at the fingertips. In this paper, to analyze the stability of dynamic control of an object grasped between two soft fingertips through a soft interface using the viscoelastic material between the manipulating fingers and a manipulated object is modeled through bond graph method (BGM). The fingers are made viscoelastic by using springs and dampers. Detailed bond graph modeling (BGM) of the contact phenomenon with two soft-finger contacts considered to be placed against each other on the opposite sides of the grasped object as is generally the case in a manufacturing environment is presented. The stiffness of the springs is exploited in order to achieve the stability in the soft-grasping which includes friction between the soft finger contact surfaces and the object, The paper also analyses stability of dynamic control through a soft interface between a manipulating finger and a manipulated object. It is shown in the paper that the system stability depends on the visco-elastic material properties of the soft interface. Method of root locus is used to analyze this phenomenon. The paper shows how the weight of the object coming downward is controlled by the friction between the fingers and the object during the application of contact forces by varying the damping and the stiffness in the soft finger. (author)

  14. Appeal and Perceived Naturalness of a Soft Robotic Tentacle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Soft robotics technology has been proposed for a number of applications that involve human-robot interaction. This study investigates how a silicone-based pneumatically actuated soft robotic tentacle is perceived in interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data was gathered from questionnaires (N...

  15. The adhesion of modern soft relining materials to acrylic dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więckiewicz, Włodzimierz; Kasperski, Jacek; Więckiewicz, Mieszko; Miernik, Marta; Król, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Silicone-based liners are widespread materials in prosthetic dentistry. Their mechanical properties have to meet several key requirements such as adequate adhesion to denture base polymers in order to provide right function of masticatory system and oral hygiene. The aim of this paper was to evaluate and compare tensile and shear bond strengths values of three modern autopolimeryzed silicone relining materials bonded to acrylic plates. Three silicone-based soft relining materials were investigated in this study (A-Soft Line 30, Bosworth Dentusil and Elite Super Soft). A total of 78 specimens were prepared: 13 of each material (total: 39) for testing tensile bond strength and 13 of each material for testing shear bond strength (total: 39). The obtained data were analyzed statistically. The average tensile bond strength results were 0.86 MPa for Bosworth Dentusil, 1.00 MPa for Elite Super Soft and 1.25 MPa for A-Soft Line 30. The silicone-based relining materials had different average values of shear bond strength: 0.67 MPa Elite Super Soft; 1.32 MPa A-Soft Line 30 and 1.57 MPa Bosworth Dentusil. As the result of the study it can be concluded that all tested materials have acceptable adhesion values to acrylic resin. According to tensile and shear bond strengths tests the best adhesive properties has A-Soft Line 30.

  16. Soft-photon analysis of pion-proton bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, M.K.; Nutt, W.T.

    1977-01-01

    We define the soft-photon approximation consistent in its treatment of both the kinematical and dynamical aspects of bremsstrahlung. Using this consistent soft-photon approximation, we calculate π +- p cross sections and obtain excellent agreement with experiment. Our results suggest that the contributions from off-mass-shell effects and resonances are small

  17. Revisiting the soft security debate: From European progress to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the extended scope of security sectors falling within the ambit of soft security regional co-operation is indispensable – a phenomenon most visible in European security architecture and that of Northern Europe in particular. Not only European decision-makers, however, pursue the soft security option. As Africa entered ...

  18. Experimental and Computational Techniques in Soft Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Jeffrey

    2010-09-01

    1. Microscopy of soft materials Eric R. Weeks; 2. Computational methods to study jammed Systems Carl F. Schrek and Corey S. O'Hern; 3. Soft random solids: particulate gels, compressed emulsions and hybrid materials Anthony D. Dinsmore; 4. Langmuir monolayers Michael Dennin; 5. Computer modeling of granular rheology Leonardo E. Silbert; 6. Rheological and microrheological measurements of soft condensed matter John R. de Bruyn and Felix K. Oppong; 7. Particle-based measurement techniques for soft matter Nicholas T. Ouellette; 8. Cellular automata models of granular flow G. William Baxter; 9. Photoelastic materials Brian Utter; 10. Image acquisition and analysis in soft condensed matter Jeffrey S. Olafsen; 11. Structure and patterns in bacterial colonies Nicholas C. Darnton.

  19. Advances in soft computing, intelligent robotics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fullér, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Soft computing, intelligent robotics and control are in the core interest of contemporary engineering. Essential characteristics of soft computing methods are the ability to handle vague information, to apply human-like reasoning, their learning capability, and ease of application. Soft computing techniques are widely applied in the control of dynamic systems, including mobile robots. The present volume is a collection of 20 chapters written by respectable experts of the fields, addressing various theoretical and practical aspects in soft computing, intelligent robotics and control. The first part of the book concerns with issues of intelligent robotics, including robust xed point transformation design, experimental verification of the input-output feedback linearization of differentially driven mobile robot and applying kinematic synthesis to micro electro-mechanical systems design. The second part of the book is devoted to fundamental aspects of soft computing. This includes practical aspects of fuzzy rule ...

  20. Soft Computing Models in Industrial and Environmental Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Emilio; 7th International Conference, SOCO’12

    2013-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing contains accepted papers presented at SOCO 2012, held in the beautiful and historic city of Ostrava (Czech Republic), in September 2012.   Soft computing represents a collection or set of computational techniques in machine learning, computer science and some engineering disciplines, which investigate, simulate, and analyze very complex issues and phenomena.   After a through peer-review process, the SOCO 2012 International Program Committee selected 75 papers which are published in these conference proceedings, and represents an acceptance rate of 38%. In this relevant edition a special emphasis was put on the organization of special sessions. Three special sessions were organized related to relevant topics as: Soft computing models for Control Theory & Applications in Electrical Engineering, Soft computing models for biomedical signals and data processing and Advanced Soft Computing Methods in Computer Vision and Data Processing.   The selecti...

  1. An interesting review on soft skills and dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaya, Maya; Ishaquddin, Syed; Ghadage, Mahesh; Hatte, Geeta

    2015-03-01

    In today's world of education, we concentrate on teaching activities and academic knowledge. We are taught to improve our clinical skills. Soft skills refer to the cluster of personality traits, social graces, and personal habits, facility with language, friendliness and personal habits that mark people to varying degrees. Soft Skills are interpersonal, psychological, self-promoted and non-technical qualities for every practitioner and academician, whereas hard skills are new tools or equipment and professional knowledge. Hence, more and more clinicians now days consider soft skills as important job criteria. An increase in service industry and competitive practices emphasizes the need for soft skills. Soft Skills are very important and useful in personal and professional life.

  2. Light Scattering by Optically Soft Particles Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Subodh K

    2006-01-01

    The present monograph deals with a particular class of approximation methods in the context of light scattering by small particles. This class of approximations has been termed as eikonal or soft particle approximations. The eikonal approximation was studied extensively in the potential scattering and then adopted in optical scattering problems. In this context, the eikonal and other soft particle approximations pertain to scatterers whose relative refractive index compared to surrounding medium is close to unity. The study of these approximations is very important because soft particles occur abundantly in nature. For example, the particles that occur in ocean optics, biomedical optics, atmospheric optics and in many industrial applications can be classified as soft particles. This book was written in recognition of the long-standing and current interest in the field of scattering approximations for soft particles. It should prove to be a useful addition for researchers in the field of light scattering.

  3. Complex system modelling and control through intelligent soft computations

    CERN Document Server

    Azar, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The book offers a snapshot of the theories and applications of soft computing in the area of complex systems modeling and control. It presents the most important findings discussed during the 5th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control, held in Cairo, from August 31-September 2, 2013. The book consists of twenty-nine selected contributions, which have been thoroughly reviewed and extended before their inclusion in the volume. The different chapters, written by active researchers in the field, report on both current theories and important applications of soft-computing. Besides providing the readers with soft-computing fundamentals, and soft-computing based inductive methodologies/algorithms, the book also discusses key industrial soft-computing applications, as well as multidisciplinary solutions developed for a variety of purposes, like windup control, waste management, security issues, biomedical applications and many others. It is a perfect reference guide for graduate students, r...

  4. Soft Robotic Grippers for Biological Sampling on Deep Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kevin C; Becker, Kaitlyn P; Phillips, Brennan; Kirby, Jordan; Licht, Stephen; Tchernov, Dan; Wood, Robert J; Gruber, David F

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the development of an underwater gripper that utilizes soft robotics technology to delicately manipulate and sample fragile species on the deep reef. Existing solutions for deep sea robotic manipulation have historically been driven by the oil industry, resulting in destructive interactions with undersea life. Soft material robotics relies on compliant materials that are inherently impedance matched to natural environments and to soft or fragile organisms. We demonstrate design principles for soft robot end effectors, bench-top characterization of their grasping performance, and conclude by describing in situ testing at mesophotic depths. The result is the first use of soft robotics in the deep sea for the nondestructive sampling of benthic fauna.

  5. Clinical application of a soft denture liner: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R T

    1995-06-01

    Patients with thin, nonresilient mucosa, poor ridge morphology, chronic xerostomia, and acquired or congenital defects are candidates for soft denture liners. Soft denture liners may be placed during fabrication of the new denture or during relining of the existing dentures. Soft mandibular denture liners are ideal for senior patients with resorbed mandibular ridges who need replacement of existing dentures to correct excessively closed vertical dimension of occlusion and for patients who have maxillary complete dentures and mandibular natural teeth, severe loss of maxillary ridge, and clenching habits. Soft denture liners should be used only when needed because of their short service life. However, for those patients who cannot tolerate hard denture bases, soft liners are an appropriate alternative treatment.

  6. 4th International Conference on Quantitative Logic and Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shui-Li; Wang, San-Min; Li, Yong-Ming

    2017-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Quantitative Logic and Soft Computing (QLSC2016) held 14-17, October, 2016 in Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China. It includes 61 papers, of which 5 are plenary talks( 3 abstracts and 2 full length talks). QLSC2016 was the fourth in a series of conferences on Quantitative Logic and Soft Computing. This conference was a major symposium for scientists, engineers and practitioners to present their updated results, ideas, developments and applications in all areas of quantitative logic and soft computing. The book aims to strengthen relations between industry research laboratories and universities in fields such as quantitative logic and soft computing worldwide as follows: (1) Quantitative Logic and Uncertainty Logic; (2) Automata and Quantification of Software; (3) Fuzzy Connectives and Fuzzy Reasoning; (4) Fuzzy Logical Algebras; (5) Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing; (6) Fuzzy Sets Theory and Applications.

  7. Soft Power in Central Asia: Actors and Its Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article considers theoretical aspects of soft power concept and its use by various actors in Central Asia. It is noted that scholars as well as practitioners are paying insufficient attention to such key concepts position J. Nye, as an attraction. As a result the efficiency of the use of soft power is significantly reduced. It also shows that the attractiveness is not a universal characteristic. For this reason, attractiveness and hence soft power of different actors are different and aimed at different segments of the population. These differences lead to competition of actors, but they do not reduce interaction in the region to zero-sum game. Specific forms and directions of the soft power of Russia, the U.S., the EU and China in Central Asia are discussed. The article emphasizes that the Central Asian states are not just recipients of soft power of external actors, but also themselves form behavioral strategies that are attractive to others.

  8. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System Load Reduction and Prototype Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Markussen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    operates. Further it is analyzed how the soft yaw system influence the power production of the turbine. It is shown that the influence is minimal, but at larger yaw errors the effect is possitive. Due to the implemeted functions in the hydraulic soft yaw system such as even load distribution on the pinions......Introducing a hydraulic soft yaw concept for wind turbines leads to significant load reductions in the wind turbine structure. The soft yaw system operates as a shock absorption system on a car, hence absorbing the loading from turbulent wind conditions instead of leading them into the stiff wind...... turbine structure. Results presented shows fatigue reductions of up to 40% and ultimate load reduction of up to 19%. The ultimate load reduction increases even more when the over load protection system in the hydraulic soft yaw system is introduced and results show how the exact extreme load cut off...

  9. Overview of the NEES-Soft Experimental Program for Seismic Risk Reduction of Soft-Story Woodframe Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. van de Lindt; Pouria Bahmani; Steven E. Pryor; Gary Mochizuki; Mikhail Gershfeld; Weichiang Pang; Ershad Ziaei; Elaina N. Jennings; Michael D. Symans; Xiaoyun Shao; Jingjing Tian; Doug Rammer

    2014-01-01

    The existence of thousands of soft-story woodframe buildings in California has been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem resulting in mitigation efforts throughout the state. The considerable presence of these large multi-family buildings in San Francisco prompted the city to mandate their retrofitting over the next seven years. The NEES-Soft project, whose...

  10. Hesitant Fuzzy Soft Subalgebras and Ideals in BCK/BCI-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young Bae; Ahn, Sun Shin

    2014-01-01

    As a link between classical soft sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the notion of hesitant fuzzy soft sets is introduced and applied to a decision making problem in the papers by Babitha and John (2013) and Wang et al. (2014). The aim of this paper is to apply hesitant fuzzy soft set for dealing with several kinds of theories in BCK/BCI-algebras. The notions of hesitant fuzzy soft subalgebras and (closed) hesitant fuzzy soft ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Relations between a hesitant fuzzy soft subalgebra and a (closed) hesitant fuzzy soft ideal are discussed. Conditions for a hesitant fuzzy soft set to be a hesitant fuzzy soft subalgebra are given, and conditions for a hesitant fuzzy soft subalgebra to be a hesitant fuzzy soft ideal are provided. Characterizations of a (closed) hesitant fuzzy soft ideal are considered. PMID:25405234

  11. The Beauty Trap: Chinese Theories of “Soft Power”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Vladimirovna Zhuravleva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are a lot of definitions and conceptions of “soft power” in the world’s scientific literature. The English-language works mainly adopted the term “soft power”, terminology is also varied in Chinese historiography: “ruan shili”, “ruan liliang” and “ruan quanli” (软实力, 软力量and 软权力. A variety of terms is reflected in the variety of interpretations of the system or mechanismof “soft power”, that allows us to conclude that at the moment there is noformed unified vision and approach to its study. The subject of this study is the Russian and foreign theories of “soft power” in relation to China's foreign policy. The author raised a number of tasks, among which are: to determine the place a policy of “soft power” in the foreign policy of China, to analyze the existing interpretation of the concept of “soft power with Chinese characteristics”, as well as trace the development of theories of “soft power”. As a result of the research the author comes to the conclusion that despite the difference in interpretations, there are a lot of common aspects, including the idea of the majority of researchers that the concept is directly related to the influence of the subject to the object, and that the main instruments of “soft power” are humanitarian cooperation, investment, dialogue at the highest level, and others. But the combination of numerous non-military elements within the same term “soft power” doesn’t form a unified, approved concept. Different countries have their own unique system of soft power, and its instruments, key elements and basic principles are not the same. For example, talking about “attractiveness” applied to Chinese soft power, we can conclude, that it is only the tip of the iceberg. This study allows not only to form an idea of the “soft power” through the prism of various scientific researches, but also to identify the key elements of the system

  12. Neurological soft signs in adolescents with borderline personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Cai, Lin; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao; Hu, Muli; Bai, Mei; Li, Lingyan; Wang, Yuping

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and severity of neurological soft signs (NSS), and their relationships with borderline personality (BP) traits in adolescents. Eighty-nine adolescents with BP traits (BP-trait group), and 89 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group), were recruited in China. BP traits were diagnosed by the BPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+). The soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory were administered to all participants. The group differences in prevalence of soft signs and in NSS scores were analyzed, as well as the associations between the NSS scale and borderline personality traits. Five soft signs were significantly more frequent in adolescents with BP traits. A total of 59.6% of adolescents with BP traits exhibited at least 1 NSS, whereas only 34.8% of adolescents without BP traits did (p adolescents in the BP-trait group exhibited at least 2 NSS, while only 16.9% of adolescents without BP traits did (p adolescents with BP traits showed more sensory integration, disinhibition, total neurological soft signs, left-side soft signs, and right-side soft signs, than adolescents without BP traits. Sensory integration and disinhibition were positively associated with BP traits. These findings suggest that adolescents with BP traits may have a nonfocal abnormality of the central nervous system.

  13. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  14. Progress and Opportunities in Soft Photonics and Biologically Inspired Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Mathias; Lee, Seungwoo

    2018-01-01

    Optical components made fully or partially from reconfigurable, stimuli-responsive, soft solids or fluids-collectively referred to as soft photonics-are poised to form the platform for tunable optical devices with unprecedented functionality and performance characteristics. Currently, however, soft solid and fluid material systems still represent an underutilized class of materials in the optical engineers' toolbox. This is in part due to challenges in fabrication, integration, and structural control on the nano- and microscale associated with the application of soft components in optics. These challenges might be addressed with the help of a resourceful ally: nature. Organisms from many different phyla have evolved an impressive arsenal of light manipulation strategies that rely on the ability to generate and dynamically reconfigure hierarchically structured, complex optical material designs, often involving soft or fluid components. A comprehensive understanding of design concepts, structure formation principles, material integration, and control mechanisms employed in biological photonic systems will allow this study to challenge current paradigms in optical technology. This review provides an overview of recent developments in the fields of soft photonics and biologically inspired optics, emphasizes the ties between the two fields, and outlines future opportunities that result from advancements in soft and bioinspired photonics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nursing students' perceptions of soft skills training in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laari, Luke; Dube, Barbara M

    2017-09-22

    The quality of nursing care rendered today is markedly reducing and the amount of time spent with patients listening to and explaining issues concerning their conditions is gradually diminishing. The therapeutic touch and the listening ear of the nurse are no longer accessible to the patient. Understanding what non-technical skills are and their relevance for healthcare practitioners has become a new area of consideration. Although recent literature has highlighted the necessity of introducing soft skills training and assessment within medical education, nursing education is yet to fully embrace this skills training. The aim of this study was to explore nursing students' understanding of the concept of soft skills and to acquire their perception on the need for soft skills training to promote quality nursing care. A quantitative research design with descriptive and explorative strategies was used. One hundred and ten nursing students were sampled after permission to conduct the study was requested and obtained from the University of KwaZulu-Natal Ethics Committee. The results indicated that a majority (68.8%) of respondents understood the concept of soft skills and agreed with the definition of 'soft skills'. They furthermore agreed that soft skills should be part of the training that student nurses receive during their professional training. The study revealed that there is a need for nursing students to be educated in soft skills and that this will enhance their job performances in the clinical environment and improve the way in which they communicate with their clients.

  16. Soft Robotic Manipulator for Improving Dexterity in Minimally Invasive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, Alessandro; Brancadoro, Margherita; De Rossi, Giacomo; Abidi, Haider; Dall'Alba, Diego; Muradore, Riccardo; Ciuti, Gastone; Fiorini, Paolo; Menciassi, Arianna; Cianchetti, Matteo

    2018-02-01

    Combining the strengths of surgical robotics and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) holds the potential to revolutionize surgical interventions. The MIS advantages for the patients are obvious, but the use of instrumentation suitable for MIS often translates in limiting the surgeon capabilities (eg, reduction of dexterity and maneuverability and demanding navigation around organs). To overcome these shortcomings, the application of soft robotics technologies and approaches can be beneficial. The use of devices based on soft materials is already demonstrating several advantages in all the exploitation areas where dexterity and safe interaction are needed. In this article, the authors demonstrate that soft robotics can be synergistically used with traditional rigid tools to improve the robotic system capabilities and without affecting the usability of the robotic platform. A bioinspired soft manipulator equipped with a miniaturized camera has been integrated with the Endoscopic Camera Manipulator arm of the da Vinci Research Kit both from hardware and software viewpoints. Usability of the integrated system has been evaluated with nonexpert users through a standard protocol to highlight difficulties in controlling the soft manipulator. This is the first time that an endoscopic tool based on soft materials has been integrated into a surgical robot. The soft endoscopic camera can be easily operated through the da Vinci Research Kit master console, thus increasing the workspace and the dexterity, and without limiting intuitive and friendly use.

  17. Musculoskeletal Application of Ultrasound Elastography: Soft Tissue Lipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ja Young; Hong, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Su Jin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Real-time freehand elastography. Conventional ultrasonography (US) and real-time freehand US elastography were performed in nine patients (M:F = 4:5: mean age, 53 years: 29-64 years) with soft-tissue lipoma confirmed by surgical resection. The elastogram was color-coded by 256 scales according to the degree of strain induced by light compression. The relative strains for lipoma and surrounding soft tissue were measured and mean strains were examined by using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. The elastograms showed red to sky-blue color in all lipomas and predominantly black in surrounding soft tissue. The mean relative strain ({+-}standard deviation) was 67.9{+-}28.5, 77.1{+-}25.3, 63.3{+-}31.2, and 15.7{+-}18.3 for total, intramuscular, and subcutaneous lipoma, and surrounding soft tissue, respectively. The mean strain of the lipoma was significantly higher than one of surrounding soft tissue (p = .008, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Real-time elastography yields characteristic elastographic features of soft tissue lipoma distinguishing from those of adjacent soft tissues

  18. MR Histoanatomical Distribution of 290 Soft-tissue Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, In Sook; Lee, Gee Won; Kim, Jeung Il; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Won Taek [Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    This study was designed too identify the MR histoanatomical distribution of soft-tissue tumors. A total of 290 soft-tissue tumors of 281 patients were analyzed by the use of MR imaging and were pathologically confirmed after surgical resection or a biopsy. There were 120 malignant soft-tissue tumors including tumors of an intermediate malignancy and 170 benign tumors. The histoanatomical locations were divided into three types: 'type I' with superficial layer tumors that involved the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue, 'type II' with deep layer tumors that involved the muscle or tendon and 'type III' with soft tissue tumors that involved both the superficial and deep layers. Soft-tissue tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 75% included dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, glomus tumor, angiolipoma, leiomyosarcoma and lymphoma as 'type I' tumors. 'Type II' tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 75% included liposarcoma, fibromatosis, papillary endothelial hyperplasia and rhabdomyosarcoma. 'Type III' tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 50% included neurofibromatosis. The MR histoanatomical distributions of soft tissue tumors are useful in the differential pathological diagnosis when a soft-tissue tumor has a nonspecific MR appearance.

  19. Roots of Russian Soft Power: Rethinking Russian National Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Slobodchikoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War heralded a new era as Western soft power was at its zenith in Eastern Europe and regional states accepted and institutionalized a new EuroAmerican ethos. In contrast, Russian soft power was at its lowest point as the Soviet Union imploded, leaving fi fteen newly independent states. While Russia was still the most powerful nation in the region, it lacked competence to deploy soft power and was unable to culturally infl uence its neighbors. Russia had to regain its footing and sought to redefi ne its own national identity prior to being able to build and project its soft power. Thus, Russia turned inward to nineteenth century works in philosophy and literature while Western soft power and expansionism continued to draw closer to Russia’s borders. As Moscow regrouped, it created institutions to spread its message both regionally and globally and expanded its communication prowess. Russia realized that while its national identity might be grounded within its Slavic roots and Russian exceptionalism, the only way it could effectively counter Western soft power was to point out the hypocrisy of American and European governmental policies. Rather than generating a positive projection of cultural and political attractiveness, Russia fought the spread Euro-American soft power by directly challenging it and showed that the Western political ethos ultimately was selfcontradictory and also worked to destroy traditional values.

  20. Soft-Tissue Grafting Techniques Associated With Immediate Implant Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Mark; Kurtzman, Gregori M; Khan, Waji; Choukroun, Joseph; Miron, Richard J

    2018-02-01

    Immediate implant placement often presents challenges in terms of predictably obtaining soft-tissue coverage over the implant site. While delayed implant placement offers the ability for soft tissues to grow and invade the extraction socket making their attachment around implants more predictable, immediate implant placement poses a significant risk of bacterial invasion towards the implant surface as a result of insignificant soft-tissue volume. Soft-tissue grafting techniques have often been proposed for use during immediate implant placement to augment soft-tissue deficiencies, including the use of either palatal connective tissue grafts (CTGs) or collagen-derived scaffolds. However, both of these approaches have significant drawbacks in that CTGs are harvested with high patient morbidity and collagen scaffolds remain avascular and acelluar posing a risk of infection/implant contamination. More recently, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been proposed as an economical and biological means to speed soft-tissue wound healing. In combination with immediate implant placement, PRF offers an easily procurable low-cost regenerative modality that offers an efficient way to improve soft-tissue attachment around implants. Furthermore, the supra-physiological concentration of defense-fighting leukocytes in PRF, combined with a dense fibrin meshwork, is known to prevent early bacterial contamination of implant surfaces, and the biological concentrations of autologous growth factors in PRF is known to increase tissue regeneration. This article discusses soft-tissue grafting techniques associated with immediate implant placement, presents several cases demonstrating the use of PRF in routine immediate implant placement, and further discusses the biological and economic advantages of PRF for the management of soft-tissue grafting during immediate implant placement.

  1. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  2. Cobimaximal lepton mixing from soft symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2017-11-01

    Cobimaximal lepton mixing, i.e.θ23 = 45 ° and δ = ± 90 ° in the lepton mixing matrix V, arises as a consequence of SV =V* P, where S is the permutation matrix that interchanges the second and third rows of V and P is a diagonal matrix of phase factors. We prove that any such V may be written in the form V = URP, where U is any predefined unitary matrix satisfying SU =U*, R is an orthogonal, i.e. real, matrix, and P is a diagonal matrix satisfying P2 = P. Using this theorem, we demonstrate the equivalence of two ways of constructing models for cobimaximal mixing-one way that uses a standard CP symmetry and a different way that uses a CP symmetry including μ-τ interchange. We also present two simple seesaw models to illustrate this equivalence; those models have, in addition to the CP symmetry, flavour symmetries broken softly by the Majorana mass terms of the right-handed neutrino singlets. Since each of the two models needs four scalar doublets, we investigate how to accommodate the Standard Model Higgs particle in them.

  3. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  4. High spins in gamma-soft nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leander, G.A.; Frauendorf, S.; May, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclei which are soft with respect to the ..gamma.. shape degree of freedom are expected to have many different structures coexisting in the near-yrast regime. In particular, the lowest rotational quasi-particle in a high-j shell exerts a strong polarizing effect on ..gamma... The ..gamma.. to which it drives is found to vary smoothly over a 180/sup 0/ range as the position of the Fermi level varies. This simple rule is seen to have a direct connection with the energy staggering of alternate spin states in rotational bands. A diagram is presented which provides a general theoretical reference for experimental tests of the relation between ..gamma.., spin staggering, configuration, and nucleon number. In a quasicontinuum spectrum, the coexistence of different structures are expected to make several unrelated features appear within any one slice of sum energy and multiplicity. However, it is also seen that the in-band moment of inertia may be similar for many bands of different ..gamma...

  5. Direct Piezoelectricity of Soft Composite Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Michael; Morvan, Jason; Diorio, Nick; Buyuktanir, Ebru; Harden, John; West, John; Jakli, Antal

    2013-03-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and poly lactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 1nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at various BT concentrations. A testing apparatus was designed and constructed solely for these measurements involving AC stresses provided by a speaker in 10Hz-10kHz frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ~1nC/N was found to be in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric measurements. The largest signals were obtained with 6% BT/PLA composites, probably because the BT particles at higher concentrations could not be dispersed homogeneously. Importantly the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simply pressing a 0.2mm thick 2 cm2 area mat by a finger. We expect to use these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  6. Killing the cMSSM softly

    CERN Document Server

    Bechtle, Philip; Desch, Klaus; Dreiner, Herbert Karl; Hamer, Matthias; Kraemer, Michael; O'Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner; Sarrazin, Björn; Stefaniak, Tim; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Wienemann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the data collected by the major LHC experiments during the LHC Run I has put strong constraints on supersymmetric models. We study the parameter space of the constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (cMSSM) in a global fit, taking into account the non- observation of supersymmetry at the LHC, Higgs mass and rate measurements, as well as several cosmological and low energy observables. Before the start of the LHC, global fits of the cMSSM showed a favourable goodness-of-fit and indicated a strong preference for the existence of light SUSY particles. This region now has largely been excluded by the LHC. We present the final results of our study of the status of the cMSSM after the LHC Run1, where for the first time we use pseudo experiments to determine the p-value of the model. We find that the cMSSM is softly getting near its exclusion at the 90% CL.

  7. Integrated soft sensor model for flow control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijälä, G; Lumley, D

    2006-01-01

    Tighter discharge permits often require wastewater treatment plants to maximize utilization of available facilities in order to cost-effectively reach these goals. Important aspects are minimizing internal disturbances and using available information in a smart way to improve plant performance. In this study, flow control throughout a large highly automated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was implemented in order to reduce internal disturbances and to provide a firm foundation for more advanced process control. A modular flow control system was constructed based on existing instrumentation and soft sensor flow models. Modules were constructed for every unit process in water treatment and integrated into a plant-wide model. The flow control system is used to automatically control recirculation flows and bypass flows at the plant. The system was also successful in making accurate flow estimations at points in the plant where it is not possible to have conventional flow meter instrumentation. The system provides fault detection for physical flow measuring devices. The module construction allows easy adaptation for new unit processes added to the treatment plant.

  8. From red cells to soft porous lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhong; Zhu, Zenghao; Nathan, Rungun

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we report a novel experimental study to examine the lubrication theory for highly compressible porous media (Feng & Weinbaum, JFM, 422, 282, 2000), which was applied to the frictionless motion of red cells over the endothelial surface layer (ESL). The experimental setup consists of a running conveyer belt covered with a porous sheet, and an upper planar board, i.e. planing surface. The pore pressure generation was captured when the planing surface glides over the porous sheet. If the lateral leakage was eliminated, we found that the overall pore pressure's contribution to the total lift, fair 80%, and the friction coefficient η = 0.0981, when U =5 m/s, L =0.381 m, λ = h2/h0 = 1 and k =h2/h1 = 3, where U is the velocity of the conveyor belt; L is the planing surface length; h0, h1 and h2 are the undeformed, leading and trailing edge porous layer thickness, respectively. fair increases with the increase in U, λ and L, while decreases with the increase in k. η decreases with the increase in fair. If lateral pressure leakage exists, the pore pressure generation is reduced by nearly 90%. All the results agreed well with the theoretical predictions. The study here lays the foundation for applying soft porous media for new type of bearing with significantly reduced friction. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF CBET) under Award No. 1511096.

  9. Selective Oxidation of Soft Grade Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecevic, N.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-furnace carbon black is produced by pyrolysis of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons or their mixtures. The oil feedstock for the production of oil-furnace carbon black is mainly composed of high-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons, which are residues of petroleum cracking, while the gaseous raw material is commonly natural gas. Most of the oil-furnace carbon black production (> 99 % is used as a reinforcing agent in rubber compounds. Occasionally, oil-furnace carbon blacks are used in contact with other rubber compounds and fillers that have different pigments, particularly with the color white. It has been observed that frequently a migrating rubber soluble colorant would enter the white or light colored rubber composition from the adjacent carbon black filled rubber, resulting in a highly undesirable staining effect. Methods for determining non-oxidized residue on the surface of the oil-furnace carbon black include extraction of carbon black with the appropriate organic solvent, and measuring the color of the organic solvent by means of a colorimeter on 425 nm (ASTM D 1618-99. Transmittance values of 85 % or more are indicative of a practically non-staining carbon black, while transmittance values below 50 % generally lead to a carbon black with pronounced staining characteristics. Many oil-furnace carbon blacks, particularly those with a larger particle size (dp > 50 nm which are produced by pyrolysis, have strongly adsorbed non-reacted oil on their surfaces. Upon incorporation in a rubber compound, the colored materials are gradually dissolved by the rubber matrix and migrate freely into adjacent light colored rubber compounds, causing a highly objectionable staining effect. Adjusting furnace parameters in the industrial process of producing specific soft grades of carbon black cannot obtain minimal values of toluene discoloration. The minimal value of toluene discoloration is very important in special applications. Therefore, after-treatment of

  10. Nonlinear flow response of soft hair beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, José

    2017-11-01

    We are hairy inside: beds of passive fibers anchored to a surface and immersed in fluids are prevalent in many biological systems, including intestines, tongues, and blood vessels. Such hairs are soft enough to deform in response to stresses from fluid flows. Fluid stresses are in turn affected by hair deformation, leading to a coupled elastoviscous problem which is poorly understood. Here we investigate a biomimetic model system of elastomer hair beds subject to shear- driven Stokes flows. We characterize this system with a theoretical model which accounts for the large-deformation flow response of hair beds. Hair bending results in a drag-reducing nonlinearity because the hair tip lowers toward the base, widening the gap through which fluid flows. When hairs are cantilevered at an angle subnormal to the surface, flow against the grain bends hairs away from the base, narrowing the gap. The flow response of angled hair beds is axially asymmetric and amounts to a rectification nonlinearity. We identify an elastoviscous parameter which controls nonlinear behavior. Our study raises the hypothesis that biological hairy surfaces function to reduce fluid drag. Furthermore, angled hairs may be incorporated in the design of integrated microfluidic components, such as diodes and pumps. J.A. acknowledges support the U. S. Army Research Office under Grant Number W911NF-14-1-0396.

  11. Multiple Soft Fault Diagnosis of Bjt Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusiewicz Michał

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with multiple soft fault diagnosis of nonlinear analog circuits comprising bipolar transistors characterized by the Ebers-Moll model. Resistances of the circuit and beta forward factor of a transistor are considered as potentially faulty parameters. The proposed diagnostic method exploits a strongly nonlinear set of algebraic type equations, which may possess multiple solutions, and is capable of finding different sets of the parameters values which meet the diagnostic test. The equations are written on the basis of node analysis and include DC voltages measured at accessible nodes, as well as some measured currents. The unknown variables are node voltages and the parameters which are considered as potentially faulty. The number of these parameters is larger than the number of the accessible nodes. To solve the set of equations the block relaxation method is used with different assignments of the variables to the blocks. Next, the solutions are corrected using the Newton-Raphson algorithm. As a result, one or more sets of the parameters values which satisfy the diagnostic test are obtained. The proposed approach is illustrated with a numerical example.

  12. Carboxylated Polyurethanes Containing Hyperbranched Polyester Soft Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigon, M.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available hyperbranched polyester soft segments (HB PU with functional carboxylic groups in order to enable the preparation of stable HB PU dispersions. Carboxylated hyperbranched polyurethanes were synthesized using a hyperbranched polyester based on 2,2-bis(methylolpropionic acid of the fourth pseudo-generation (Boltorn H40 and hexamethylene (HDI or isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI. The reactivity of hyperbranched polyester with HDI was lower than expected, possibly due to the presence of less reactive hydroxyl groups in the linear repeat units. A gel was formed at mole ratios rNCO/OH = 1:2 or 1:4. The synthesis of HB PU was performed with partly esterified hyperbranched polyester with lowered hydroxyl functionality. The carboxyl groups were incorporated in the HB PU backbone by reaction of residual hydroxyl groups with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride. HB PU aqueous dispersions were stable at least for two months, although their films were brittle. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of blends of linear and HB PU decreased with increasing content of HB PU whereas elongation at break remained nearly constant, which was explained in terms of looser chain packing due to more open tree-like hyperbranched structures.

  13. Hysteretic behavior of soft magnetic elastomer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krautz, Maria; Werner, David [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Schrödner, Mario [Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research e.V., Breitscheidstraße 97, D-07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Funk, Alexander [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Jantz, Alexander; Popp, Jana [Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research e.V., Breitscheidstraße 97, D-07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Waske, Anja [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Composites of polymer and micron-sized particles of carbonyl-iron were investigated in terms of their magnetization behavior. Thermoplastic elastomers with varying Young's modulus (E{sub Polymer}=0.14–14.6 MPa) were used as matrix material. Field dependent magnetization curves reveal that the hysteretic behavior of the composites strongly depends on both the particle fraction (7, 10, 14, 21, 31 vol%) and on the mechanical properties of the polymer. It is shown that hysteresis only appears above a certain fraction of magnetic particles which can be accounted to the magnetic exchange between the particles. However, hysteresis is suppressed in the composite with largest Young's modulus of the polymer matrix, even at largest particle fraction. - Highlights: • Composites with soft magnetic Iron Particles show hysteretic magnetization behavior. • Origin of the hysteresis is the alignment of particles along field direction. • Hysteresis depends on both, mechanical properties of matrix and particle fraction.

  14. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P

    2017-10-04

    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  15. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs, are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics.

  16. Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbar, S G; Nukavarapu, S P; Laurencin, C T; James, R

    2008-01-01

    Electrospinning has emerged to be a simple, elegant and scalable technique to fabricate polymeric nanofibers. Pure polymers as well as blends and composites of both natural and synthetics have been successfully electrospun into nanofiber matrices. Physiochemical properties of nanofiber matrices can be controlled by manipulating electrospinning parameters to meet the requirements of a specific application. Such efforts include the fabrication of fiber matrices containing nanofibers, microfibers, combination of nano-microfibers and also different fiber orientation/alignments. Polymeric nanofiber matrices have been extensively investigated for diversified uses such as filtration, barrier fabrics, wipes, personal care, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently electrospun nanofiber matrices have gained a lot of attention, and are being explored as scaffolds in tissue engineering due to their properties that can modulate cellular behavior. Electrospun nanofiber matrices show morphological similarities to the natural extra-cellular matrix (ECM), characterized by ultrafine continuous fibers, high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity and variable pore-size distribution. Efforts have been made to modify nanofiber surfaces with several bioactive molecules to provide cells with the necessary chemical cues and a more in vivo like environment. The current paper provides an overlook on such efforts in designing nanofiber matrices as scaffolds in the regeneration of various soft tissues including skin, blood vessel, tendon/ligament, cardiac patch, nerve and skeletal muscle

  17. Viscous flow in a soft valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Keunhwan; Tixier, A.; Christensen, A.H.

    2018-01-01

    experiments and theory on viscous flow in a simple bioinspired soft valve which illustrate essential features of interactions between hydrodynamic and elastic forces at low Reynolds numbers. The set-up comprises a sphere connected to a spring located inside a tapering cylindrical channel. The spring...... is aligned with the central axis of the channel and a pressure drop is applied across the sphere, thus forcing the liquid through the narrow gap between the sphere and the channel walls. The sphere's equilibrium position is determined by a balance between spring and hydrodynamic forces. Since the gap...... thickness h0, and viscosity η as Q ∼η-1 a1/2h05/2 (1 - Δp/Δpc)5/2Δp, where the critical pressure Δpc scales with spring constant k as Δpc ∼ kh0a-2. These predictions compared favourably to the results of our experiments with no free parameters....

  18. Soft tissue management of orbitotemporal neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Dhruv; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Ray; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Tsai, Yueh-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of a single-institution, 30-year surgical experience with the soft tissue management of orbitotemporal neurofibromatosis. Lessons learned are highlighted in case presentations. From 1981 to 2011, all patients who presented to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Craniofacial Center with craniofacial neurofibromatosis and orbitotemporal involvement were retrospectively reviewed. The medical records of those patients who underwent surgical correction were reviewed for age, extent of involvement, procedures performed, histologic confirmation, and acute complications. All patients were grouped according to the Jackson Classification. The electronic photobank was queried to evaluate results. Thirty-five patients presented to our center with orbitotemporal neurofibromatosis during the study period. Thirty-one patients underwent surgical management of their disease. The average age was 25 years (range 4 to 57 years). Over half of our patients (n = 18) presented with concomitant disease of the cheek. The 2 most common procedures performed were lateral canthopexy (n = 24) and upper eyelid excision (n = 24). The only acute complication recorded was a postoperative hematoma on the fourth postoperative day following simultaneous lateral canthopexy and upper eyelid excision which required operative evacuation. In orbitotemporal neurofibromatosis, tissue hyperextensibility and tumor weight adversely affect outcomes. Treatment of concomitant disease of the cheek should be prioritized in order to provide periorbital support prior to addressing the delicate structures of the eyelids. Preservation of the lateral canthal unit and levator muscle, despite neurofibroma infiltration, is critical to maximize outcomes following debulking procedures of the eyelid and orbit.

  19. HAPTIC RENDERING OF THIN AND SOFT OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Garg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we take up the problem of modeling deformations, both local and global, along with stable translations for radially-thin virtual objects especially like that of a wire or a spaghetti noodle, during haptic manipulation. To achieve this we recommend the use of mass-spring systems rather than geometric models like vertex based and free form deformation as they do not model the physics behind the interactions. Finite Equation Methods (FEMs are also not chosen as they are computationally expensive for fast haptic interactions and force feedback. We have explored different types of distribution of masses within the volume of the object, in order to come up with a suitable distribution of masses and network of springs and dampers so that the simulations mimic the behavior of a real object. We also model the constraint forces like normal and frictional forces between the object and the plane on which it is kept. Further, we simulate the effect of a varying temperature distribution of the object and discuss how anisotropic deformation of an object may be effected. We demonstrate through experimentations that it is indeed possible to haptically interact with virtual soft objects.

  20. Impact Behaviour of Soft Body Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam, Sayyad Abdul; Rayavarapu, Vijaya Kumar; Ginka, Ranga Janardhana

    2018-02-01

    Bird strike analysis is a common type of analysis done during the design and analysis of primary structures such as engine cowlings or fuselage panels. These simulations are done in order to predict whether various designs will pass the necessary certification tests. Composite materials are increasingly being used in aerospace industry and bird strike is a major threat which may lead to serious structural damage of those materials. Such phenomenon may arise from numerous impact scenarios. The focus of current study is on the finite element modeling for composite structures and simulation of high velocity impact loads from soft body projectiles with an explicit dynamics code AUTODYN. This paper investigates the methodology which can be utilized to certify an aircraft for bird strike resistance using computational technique by first demonstrating the accuracy of the method for bird impact on rigid target modeling and then applies the developed model to a more complex problem. The model developed for bird strike threat assessment incorporates parameters of bird number (bird density), bird body mass, equation of state (EOS) and bird path during impact.

  1. Guiding thermomagnetic avalanches with soft magnetic stripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Benseman, T.; Rosenmann, D.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the potential for manipulating the ultrafast dynamics of thermomagnetic flux avalanches (TMA) in superconducting films with soft magnetic stripes deposited on the film. By tuning the in-plane magnetization of the stripes, we induce lines of strong magnetic potentials for Abrikosov vortices, resulting in guided slow motion of vortices along the stripe edges and preferential bursts of TMA along the stripes. Furthermore, we show that transversely polarized stripes can reduce the TMA size by diverting magnetic flux away from the major trunk of the TMA into interstripe gaps. Our data indicate that TMAs are launched from locations with enhanced vortex entry barrier, where flux accumulation followed by accelerated vortex discharge significantly reduces the threshold of the applied field ramping speed required for the creation of TMAs. Finally, vortex-antivortex annihilation at the moving front of an expanding TMA can account for the enhanced TMA activity in the receding branches of the sample's magnetization cycle and the preferred propagation of TMAs into maximum trapped flux regions.

  2. PREFACE: The Physics of Soft Matter Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suezaki, Yukio

    2005-08-01

    The International Workshop on the Physics of Soft Matter Complexes was held from 29 November to 2 December 2004 at Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan. The aim of the workshop was to discuss the current topics of composite systems of surfactants, polymers, colloids, liquid crystals and biological materials. Special attention was focused on the features that are realized due to the combination of those materials. Distinguished invited speakers from Japan and the rest of the world, and many other workers in the field, participated in this workshop. The topics covered were colloids, polymers, surfactants, biomaterials such as proteins and DNA, rheology, and their composite systems. We, the organizing committee of this workshop, wished not only to show the activity of Japanese workers in this field but also wanted to exchange and discuss ideas on the theme with workers from other countries. In addition, although as physicists we tend to study simple systems, as the theme of our workshop we focused on complex or composite systems. We hope that readers will see that the many excellent papers in this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter show that the aim of the workshop was achieved. Lastly, we acknowledge that the workshop was held as part of the project for the promotion of international conferences by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  3. Hard-Soft Tissue Interface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Oliver E; Oyen, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system is comprised of three distinct tissue categories: structural mineralized tissues, actuating muscular soft tissues, and connective tissues. Where connective tissues - ligament, tendon and cartilage - meet with bones, a graded interface in mechanical properties occurs that allows the transmission of load without creating stress concentrations that would cause tissue damage. This interface typically occurs over less than 1 mm and contains a three order of magnitude difference in elastic stiffness, in addition to changes in cell type and growth factor concentrations among others. Like all engineered tissues, the replication of these interfaces requires the production of scaffolds that will provide chemical and mechanical cues, resulting in biologically accurate cellular differentiation. For interface tissues however, the scaffold must provide spatially graded chemical and mechanical cues over sub millimetre length scales. Naturally, this complicates the manufacture of the scaffolds and every stage of their subsequent cell seeding and growth, as each region has different optimal conditions. Given the higher degree of difficulty associated with replicating interface tissues compared to surrounding homogeneous tissues, it is likely that the development of complex musculoskeletal tissue systems will continue to be limited by the engineering of connective tissues interfaces with bone.

  4. Biomimetic soft robots with artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabo, Yoshihiro; Mukai, Toshiharu; Asaka, Kinji

    2004-02-01

    An artificial muscle is an ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) which is made out of a high polymer gel film whose surface is plated with gold. Our goal is to realize bio-inspired soft robots, for example, a snake-like swimming robot or multi-degree-of-freedom (DOF) micro-robot manipulator. To realize a snake-like or a multi-DOF bending motion, we cut electrodes on the surface of the actuator in order to control each segment individually. We have developed a variety of motions from this patterned actuator including a snake-like motion. We have also proposed kinematic modeling of the manipulator which simply describes various multi-DOF motions of the artificial muscle. This model is applied to visual feedback control of the manipulator system using a Jacobian control method. For the feedback control, we have developed a visual sensing system using a 1ms high-speed vision system which has a fast enough response to capture the fast actuator motion. We have also made the device swim freely forward and backward by finding the optimal voltage, phase and frequency. In this report, we show some results from simulations of the proposed manipulator control method and experimental results from visual sensing of the bending motion and snake-like swimming of the actuator.

  5. MAXILLOFACIAL SOFT TISSUE INJURIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, E K; Akama, M K; Odhiambo, W A; Chindia, M L; Mua, B

    2012-09-01

    To determine the aetiological factors and pattern of occurrence of maxillofacial soft tissue injuries (MF-STIs) presenting at a Kenyan National Referral Hospital in Nairobi. A cross-sectional study. The accident and emergency department of the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between September 2009 and December 2009. Four hundred and twenty two patients treated for MF-STIs. The male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) were the leading cause of MF-STIs (44.6%) followed by interpersonal violence (IPV) (39.1%). MVA (50.0%) was the leading cause of MF-STIs in the less than 12-year-olds while falls from heights (58.3%) was the leading cause in under five-year-olds. IPV (48.1%) was the leading cause of facial fractures. There were no skeletal fractures observed in the under five-year-olds. Head injury (36%) and fractures of the long bones (52%) were the most common associated injuries. The leading causes of MF-STIs apparently differ from those of skeletal fractures.

  6. Dressed Hard States and Black Hole Soft Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Porrati, Massimo

    2016-11-18

    A recent, intriguing Letter by Hawking, Perry, and Strominger suggests that soft photons and gravitons can be regarded as black hole hair and may be relevant to the black hole information paradox. In this Letter we make use of factorization theorems for infrared divergences of the S matrix to argue that by appropriately dressing in and out hard states, the soft-quanta-dependent part of the S matrix becomes essentially trivial. The information paradox can be fully formulated in terms of dressed hard states, which do not depend on soft quanta.

  7. Field testing for cosmic ray soft errors in semiconductor memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, T.J.; Ross, J.M.; Taber, A.H.; Ziegler, J.F.; Muhlfeld, H.P.; Montrose, C.J.; Curtis, H.W.; Walsh, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a review of experiments performed by IBM to investigate the causes of soft errors in semiconductor memory chips under field test conditions. The effects of alpha-particles and cosmic rays are separated by comparing multiple measurements of the soft-error rate (SER) of samples of memory chips deep underground and at various altitudes above the earth. The results of case studies on four different memory chips show that cosmic rays are an important source of the ionizing radiation that causes soft errors. The results of field testing are used to confirm the accuracy of the modeling and the accelerated testing of chips

  8. How would it be to live in a soft space..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    that take place within and without it freezing it within an eternal time. In ‘How would it be to live in a soft space…’ our aim is to query a performative architecture, an architecture held in time through an activation of its materials. Engaging material through computation the works define soft...... on a series of parallel levels that twine in and amongst each other. Soft is a tectonic inquiry into the adaptable, the crafted and the motile as well as a cultural question into what a home could be....

  9. Case report 501: Alveolar soft parts sarcoma with pulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munk, P.L.; Connell, D.G.; Mueller, N.L.; Lentle, B.C.

    1988-01-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare, soft tissue malignancy, usually presenting in young adults. We report a patient with ASPS in the thigh, evaluated with plain films, computed tomography, and a radionuclide scan. The findings in this patient and those in which CT findings have been reported in the literature, show a similar appearance which we believe is highly suggestive of this unusual tumor. The combination of a soft tissue lesion, that on CT appears highly vascular, with features suggestive of an arteriovenous malformation, in association with multiple pulmonary nodules and a bone scan with features suggestive of infection should lead to a consideration of this rare entity. (orig./GDG)

  10. Gastrointestinal endoscopy- An emerging soft power in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available "Soft power" is a relatively new concept that describes an entity′s ability to influence and alter the behavior of other entities through attraction and co-option, in contrast to hard power which uses incentives and coercion. Assessment of the role of GI GI (Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in present day′s health care shows it to have the required attractive and influential properties of a soft power. In this article we examine the diagnostic and therapeutic roles that GI endoscopy, as a soft power, has taken over, and the further evolution of this field into a smart power.

  11. Dimensioning of multiservice links taking account of soft blocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk; Stepanov, S.N.; Kostrov, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    In CDMA systems the blocking probability depends on both the state of the system and the bandwidth of the request. Due to soft blocking caused by interference from users in same cell and neighboring cells we have to modify the classical teletraffic theory. In this paper we consider a model...... of a multiservice link taking into account the possibility of soft blocking. An approximate algorithm for estimation of main performance measures is constructed. The error of estimation is numerically studied for different types of soft blocking. The optimal procedure of dimensioning is suggested....

  12. Developing a multimodal biometric authentication system using soft computing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcangi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Robust personal authentication is becoming ever more important in computer-based applications. Among a variety of methods, biometric offers several advantages, mainly in embedded system applications. Hard and soft multi-biometric, combined with hard and soft computing methods, can be applied to improve the personal authentication process and to generalize the applicability. This chapter describes the embedded implementation of a multi-biometric (voiceprint and fingerprint) multimodal identification system based on hard computing methods (DSP) for feature extraction and matching, an artificial neural network (ANN) for soft feature pattern matching, and a fuzzy logic engine (FLE) for data fusion and decision.

  13. Novel spectroscopic techniques with using soft x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gejo, Tatsuo

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress of experimental techniques related to synchrotron radiation makes possible of detail investigation of molecular dynamics after irradiation of soft X-ray. We introduce several novel spectroscopic techniques with using soft X-ray: Symmetry-resolved zero kinetic energy electron spectroscopy, symmetry-resolved metastable photofragment spectroscopy, soft X-ray emission spectroscopy, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and time-resolved-fluorescence mass-selected-ion coincidence spectroscopy. We also show new techniques performed by other groups at BL27SU in SPring-8. (author)

  14. 6th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Jagdish; Das, Kedar; Lal, Arvind; Garg, Harish; Nagar, Atulya; Pant, Millie

    2017-01-01

    This two-volume book gathers the proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2016), offering a collection of research papers presented during the conference at Thapar University, Patiala, India. Providing a veritable treasure trove for scientists and researchers working in the field of soft computing, it highlights the latest developments in the broad area of “Computational Intelligence” and explores both theoretical and practical aspects using fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, soft computing, computational intelligence, etc.

  15. 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya

    2015-01-01

    This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2014) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and healthcare, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.

  16. The Impact of soft drug legalization on Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Donici, Andreea Nicoleta/NA; Maha, Andreea/A

    2012-01-01

    This article approaches the problem of soft drugs legalization, from a liberalist point of view, underling the impact that this will have on Romania. Each year, in Romania, the number of soft drug users is increasing. Drug consumption exists and it will continue to exist, Romania being able to take advantage not only from an economic point of view. Another important thing that we have to take into account is that soft drugs do not lead to addiction, and however, continue to be prohibited by law.

  17. Soft pion theorem, asymptotic symmetry and new memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Sugishita, Sotaro

    2017-11-01

    It is known that soft photon and graviton theorems can be regarded as the Ward-Takahashi identities of asymptotic symmetries. In this paper, we consider soft theorem for pions, i.e., Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with a spontaneously broken axial symmetry. The soft pion theorem is written as the Ward-Takahashi identities of the S-matrix under asymptotic transformations. We investigate the asymptotic dynamics, and find that the conservation of charges generating the asymptotic transformations can be interpreted as a pion memory effect.

  18. Testing subleading multiple soft graviton theorem for CHY prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Subhroneel; Kashyap, Sitender Pratap; Sahoo, Biswajit; Sen, Ashoke; Verma, Mritunjay

    2018-01-01

    In arXiv:1707.06803 we derived the subleading multiple soft graviton theorem in a generic quantum theory of gravity for arbitrary number of soft external gravitons and arbitrary number of finite energy external states carrying arbitrary mass and spin. In this paper we verify this explicitly using the CHY formula for tree level scattering amplitudes of arbitrary number of gravitons in Einstein gravity. We pay special care to fix the signs of the amplitudes and resolve an apparent discrepancy between our general results in arXiv:1707.06803 and previous results on soft graviton theorem from CHY formula.

  19. Soft China: the changing nature of china's charm strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    O presente artigo analisa outra vertente (por vezes ignorada ou subestimada) do conceito de poder, o soft power, relacionando-o com o caso concreto de uma potência em ascensão: a China. Inicia-se por definir a noção de soft power, distinguindo-a, para este efeito, dos conceitos de hard power e de smart power. Se, numa primeira fase se recorrerá, sobretudo, à teoria para destacarmos as principais características do soft power, a segunda etapa, essencialmente prática, baseia-se em um estudo de ...

  20. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ; Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D.

    1991-05-01

    At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183 angstrom has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a ''portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs