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Sample records for sodium sulphate glasses

  1. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in the one-pot synthesis of intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides. Fengzhu Lv Zilin Meng Penggang Li Yihe Zhang Guocheng Lv Qian Zhang Zhilei Zhang. Volume 38 Issue 4 August 2015 pp 1079-1085. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF.

  2. Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conić Vesna T; Pešovski Branka D; Cvetkovski Vladimir B; Stanojević-Šimšić Zdenka S; Dragulović Suzana S; Simonović Danijela B; Dimitrijević Silvana B

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II) sulfate (PbSO4) sludge...

  3. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...... of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O...

  4. Stability of Ceftiofur Sodium and Cefquinome Sulphate in Intravenous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dołhań

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride minibags were filled with a solution containing 5 mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2 mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for the study were protected from light and stored at room temperature (22°C, refrigerated (6°C, frozen (−20°C for 30 days, and then thawed at room temperature. A comparison of results obtained at 22°C and 6°C for the same intravenous solutions showed that temperature as well as components of solutions and their concentration had an influence on the stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate. It was found that ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate dissolved in intravenous solutions used in this study may be stored at room temperature and at 6°C for up to 48 h.

  5. Sodium-dodecyl-sulphate-assisted synthesis of Ni nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stabilized nickel nanoparticles (SNNPs) were prepared using Ni(acac) 2 (acac = acetylacetonate) via a simplesolvothermal method. The synthesis of the nickel nanoparticles was performed in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate(SDS) of different concentrations (mole ratios of SDS:Ni(acac) 2 = 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1), as the ...

  6. Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode in Sodium Sulphate Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Cofan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and chronoamperometry (CA were used to detect and determine acetylsalicylic acid (ASA at a mildly oxidized boron-doped diamond (BDD electrode in a neutral sodium sulphate solution as supporting electrolyte. ASA determination in unbuffered medium was achieved using neutralized standard and real samples. Over the concentration range of 0.01 mM–0.1 mM, linear calibration plots of anodic current peaks in DPV and anodic currents in CA experiments versus concentration were obtained with very high correlation coefficients and good sensitivity values. The limits of detection were situated around 1 μM. The association of DPV and CA techniques with standard addition method represented a suitable option for the determination of ASA in real samples such as pharmaceutical formulations.

  7. Effect of Marble Dust Addition on the Sulphate Resistance of Glass Fiber Reinforced Cement Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Alişer, Birsu; YILDIZ, Servet; Oğuzhan KELEŞTEMUR

    2016-01-01

    In this study, effect of marble dust addition on the sulphate resistance of glass fiber reinforced cement mortar exposed to sulphate attack was investigated. For this purpose, marble dust was added by replacing with filler material 10%, 20% , 30%, 40%, and 50% ratios by volume to mortars samples containing 0 kg/m3, 0.25 kg/m3, 0.50 kg/m3, 0.75 kg/m3 and 1 kg/m3 glass fiber. Length changes and capillary water absorption of the mortar samples under sulphate attack were determined. As a result o...

  8. Clearance of sodium lauryl sulphate from the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry-Smith, S; Din, C; Nathoo, S A; Gaffar, A

    1997-05-01

    Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) is used in toothpaste and mouth rinses as an emulsifying and surface cleaning agent. SLS has been implicated in an increased incidence of oral irritation in subjects predisposed to recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAU). Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the levels of SLS found in the oral cavity following rinsing with an SLS containing mouth rinse and brushing with a SLS containing dentifrice. An analytical method to separate SLS from saliva and other complex systems was developed. The method used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detection performed using conductivity measurements. Standard curves with known concentrations showed a detection limit of less than 0.4 ug SLS/ml of fluid. 2 clinical studies were conducted to determine the amount of SLS retained in the mouth by a healthy population after rinsing or brushing with commercially available products. The results showed, after rinsing, that 96% of the available SLS from the rinse was recovered in the collected samples within 2 min. Similarly, after brushing, 86% of the SLS contained within the toothpaste was recovered from the collected samples within the first 10 min. These results showed that the amount of SLS retained in the oral cavity was minimal and the contact time between SLS and the oral cavity was very short. A 2nd study was conducted to measure the amount of SLS retained in the mouth by a population susceptible to RAU. After rinsing, 97% of the available SLS was recovered within the first 2 min. Following brushing, 89% of the SLS in the dentifrice was recovered within the first 10 min. These results were comparable to those determined by the study involving the healthy population.

  9. Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gonçalves, T.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic" paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectiveness. The silicate-based paint showed a resistance to soluble salts crystallization greater than the one of the plastic paint. However, the degradation pattern of the silicate-based paint (blistering of a filmic layer was similar to the one of organic paints and distinct from the one of pure mineral paints. The amount of damage that a saline solution can cause to wall paints cannot be inferred from the amount of damage it can cause to stone. Sodium chloride seems to be able to cause more severe degradation to wall paints than sodium sulphate. To the unpainted stone, sodium sulphate seems to be more damaging than sodium chloride. The test method seems adequate to observe and compare the behaviour of wall paints under soluble salts action. However, lower (around 0.5% concentrations for both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride should be tested in the future.

    RESUMEN En el LNEC se desarrolló una metodología de ensayo para evaluar la respuesta de pinturas aplicadas sobre paredes, frente a la cristalización de sales solubles. En este trabajo, se describen y discuten un conjunto de ensayos recientes. Los principales objetivos fueron: el análisis y la comparación del comportamiento de una pintura de emulsión común {''pintura plástica" y la de una pintura de silicato; la observación y la comparación de los efectos del sulfato de sodio, del cloruro de sodio y del agua destilada sobre las pinturas y sobre piedra no pintada; la evaluación de la adecuaci

  10. A kinetic approach of sulphur behaviour in borosilicate glasses and melts: implications for sulphate incorporation in nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, Marion [Service de Confinement des Dechets et Vitrification - Laboratoire d' Etudes de Base sur les Verres, CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Physique des Mineraux et des Magmas, UMR 7047 - CNRS, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Grandjean, Agnes [Service de Confinement des Dechets et Vitrification - Laboratoire d' Etudes de Base sur les Verres, CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Neuville, Daniel R. [Physique des Mineraux et des Magmas, UMR 7047 - CNRS, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of sulphate decomposition in a borosilicate melt were studied using in situ Raman spectroscopy. This technique permits the quantification of the amount of sulphate dissolved in a borosilicate glass as a function of heating time by comparison with measurements obtained by microprobe WDS (Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry). In order to quantify the content of sulphate obtained by Raman spectroscopy, the integrated intensity of the sulphate band at 985 cm{sup -1} was scaled to the sum of the integrated bands between 800 and 1200 cm{sup -1}, bands that are assigned to Q{sup n} silica units on the basis of previous literature. Viscosities of some borosilicate glasses are also presented here in order to study the kinetics of sulphate decomposition as a function of the viscosity of the melt. This underlines the importance of variations in viscosity depending on the composition of the melt and thus shows that viscosity is an important parameter governing the kinetics of decomposition of sulphate in borosilicate glasses. (authors)

  11. Antioxidative responses of Ocimum basilicum to sodium chloride or sodium sulphate salinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarchoune, I; Sgherri, C; Izzo, R; Lachaal, M; Ouerghi, Z; Navari-Izzo, F

    2010-09-01

    Soils and ground water in nature are dominated by chloride and sulphate salts. There have been several studies concerning NaCl salinity, however, little is known about the Na(2)SO(4) one. The effects on antioxidative activities of chloride or sodium sulphate in terms of the same Na(+) equivalents (25 mM Na(2)SO(4) and 50 mM NaCl) were studied on 30 day-old plants of Ocimum basilicum L., variety Genovese subjected to 15 and 30 days of treatment. Growth, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative ion leakage ratio (RLR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ascorbate and glutathione contents as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11); glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were determined. In leaves, growth was more depressed by 25 mM Na(2)SO(4) than 50 mM NaCl. The higher sensitivity of basil to Na(2)SO(4) was associated with an enhanced accumulation of H(2)O(2), an inhibition of APX, GR and POD activities (with the exception of POD under the 30-day-treatment) and a lower regeneration of reduced ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the changes in the antioxidant metabolism were enough to limit oxidative damage, explaining the fact that RLR and TBARS levels were unchanged under both Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatment. Moreover, for both salts the 30-day-treatment reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation, unchanged RLR and TBARS levels, and enhanced the levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, thus achieving an adaptation mechanism against reactive oxygen species. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and characterisation of a low-concentration sodium dodecyl sulphate decellularised porcine dermis

    OpenAIRE

    Helliwell, Jack A; Thomas, Daniel S; Papathanasiou, Vaia; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Desai, Amisha; Jennings, Louise M; Rooney, Paul; Kearney, John N; Ingham, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt a proprietary decellularisation process for human dermis for use with porcine skin. Porcine skin was subject to: sodium chloride (1?M) to detach the epidermis, trypsin paste to remove hair follicles, peracetic acid (0.1% v/v) disinfection, washed in hypotonic buffer and 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence of proteinase inhibitors followed by nuclease treatment. Cellular porcine skin, decellularised porcine and human dermis were compared using ...

  13. Mixed cation effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    While the composition dependence of Vickers hardness of network glasses has received significant attention in the glass literature, the underlying deformation mechanisms and their respective resistances are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigate the relationship among Vickers hardness......, network structure, and the resistances associated with the deformation processes in mixed cation glasses by partially substituting magnesium for calcium and calcium for lithium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and 27Al NMR spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural...... and topological features of these glasses and we use AFM to quantify the resistances associated with each deformation process under Vickers indentation. We demonstrate that the mixed cation effect manifests itself as a maximum in the amount of bonded tetrahedral units and as a minimum in liquid fragility index...

  14. Increased permeability for polyethylene glycols through skin compromised by sodium lauryl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Verberk, Maarten M.; Bunge, Annette L.; Kruse, Jacob; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-01-01

    In this in vivo human study we assessed the influence of skin damage by sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) on percutaneous penetration of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of different molecular weights (MW). Percutaneous penetration of PEGs was determined using tape stripping of the stratum corneum (SC). The

  15. Chlorhexidine mouthwash and sodium lauryl sulphate dentifrice: do they mix effectively or interfere?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkerbout, T. A.; Slot, D. E.; Bakker, E. W. P.; van der Weijden, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    What is the effectiveness of a chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash used in combination with a sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) dentifrice on the parameters of plaque and gingivitis? MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE and other electronic databases were searched up to July 2014. The inclusion criteria

  16. Chlorhexidine mouthwash and sodium lauryl sulphate dentifrice: do they mix effectively or interfere?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkerbout, T.A.; Slot, D.E.; Bakker, E.W.P.; Van der Weijden, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Focused question: What is the effectiveness of a chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash used in combination with a sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) dentifrice on the parameters of plaque and gingivitis? Material and methods: MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE and other electronic databases were searched up

  17. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P. O.

    2009-01-01

    (III)(3)(SO4)(2)(OH)(18)center dot 12H(2)O, space group P-3, a = 9.528(6) angstrom, c = 10.968(8) angstrom and Z = 1. Green rust sodium sulphate, GR(Na,SO4) crystallizes in thin, hexagonal plates. Particles range from less than 50 nm to 2 mu m in diameter and are 40 nm thick or less. The material is redox......Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid...... was characterised using Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established by mass and absorption spectroscopy. The sulphate form of green rust is composed of brucite-like layers...

  18. Processing of sodium sulphate solutions using the EED method: from a batch toward a continuous process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarska Bożenna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a batch electro-electrodialysis (EED, sodium sulphate solution with an initial concentration of 80.90 g/dm3 was converted to obtain solutions of sodium hydroxide (13.96% and sulphuric acid (10.15% and a dialysate (3.23 g/dm3 of sulphate ions. Changes in the EED process′ performance (temperature, cell voltage, concentrations, energy consumption with an increasing conversion degree of salt are presented. Based on the presented results of the batch experiment, conditions necessary to run the process continuously are discussed. A single pass method is inapplicable due to excessive heating of the electro-electrodialyser. A cascade method enables interstage cooling of the solutions, providing temperatures suitable for ion-exchange membranes to work. Increasing the number of stages in the cascade reduces both the number of electro-electrodialysers and specific electric energy consumption, providing the same production capacity. However, this increases the investment cost.

  19. Physiochemical properties and reproducibility of air-based sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam using the Tessari method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Mike R; Oliver, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    Objectives The objectives were to examine the density, bubble size distribution and durability of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam and the consistency of production of foam by a number of different operators using the Tessari method. Methods 1% and 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate sclerosant foam was produced by an experienced operator and a group of inexperienced operators using either a 1:3 or 1:4 liquid:air ratio and the Tessari method. The foam density, bubble size distribution and foam durability were measured on freshly prepared foam from each operator. Results The foam density measurements were similar for each of the 1:3 preparations and for each of the 1:4 preparations but not affected by the sclerosant concentration. The bubble size for all preparations were very small immediately after preparation but progressively coalesced to become a micro-foam (foams developed liquid more rapidly when made in a 1:3 ratio (37 s) than in a 1:4 ratio (45 s) but all combinations took similar times to reach 0.4 ml liquid formation. For all the experiments, there was no statistical significant difference between operators. Conclusions The Tessari method of foam production for sodium tetradecyl sulphate sclerosant is consistent and reproducible even when made by inexperienced operators. The best quality foam with micro bubbles should be used within the first minute after production.

  20. Preparation of sodium dodecyl sulphate-functionalized activated carbon from Gnetum gnemon shell for dye adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is; Yahya, Amri; Sasti, Rilis Akista Tria

    2017-03-01

    Preparation of functionalized activated carbon from Gnetum gnemon shell was investigated. This work aimed to prepare highly active adsorbent for dye adsorption process by carbonization of Gnetum gnemon shell followed by functionalization using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to form SDS-modified activated carbon (SDS-AC). The study of physicochemical character change was performed by SEM and FTIR analysis while the adsorptivity of the materials was tested in methylene blue adsorption. According to the results, it is found that SDS-AC exhibits the greater adsorptivity compared to AC.

  1. Total clinical regression of an orbital macrocystic lymphatic malformation following intralesional sodium tetradecyl sulphate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratli, Hayyam; Tarlan, Berçin

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic malformations are usually managed by observation, although significant cosmetic abnormalities, compressive optic neuropathy, risk of amblyopia, exposure keratopathy, or elevated intraocular pressure mandate treatment. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with a deep orbital macrocystic lymphatic malformation that was successfully treated with intralesional injection of sodium tetradecyl sulphate, a sclerozing agent mainly used in the treatment of small varicose veins in the lower extremity. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ∼320 mAh/g at 0–1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

  3. Characterization and reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Rivera, Lymaris, E-mail: luo105@psu.edu [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bakaev, Victor A.; Banerjee, Joy [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pantano, Carlo G. [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • XPS revealed that these fiber surfaces contain sodium carbonate weathering products. • IGC–MS data confirms the products of acetic acid reaction with sodium carbonate. • NMR data shows two closely spaced, but distinct sodium carboxylate peaks. • Acetic acid reacts with both sodium in the glass and sodium in the sodium carbonate. - Abstract: Multicomponent complex oxides, such as sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fibers, are important materials used for thermal insulation in buildings and homes. Although the surface properties of single oxides, such as silica, have been extensively studied, less is known about the distribution of reactive sites at the surface of multicomponent oxides. Here, we investigated the reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces for better understanding of their interface chemistry and bonding with acrylic polymers. Acetic acid (with and without a {sup 13}C enrichment) was used as a probe representative of the carboxylic functional groups in many acrylic polymers and adhesives. Inverse gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (IGC–MS), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), were used to characterize the fiber surface reactions and surface chemical structure. In this way, we discovered that both sodium ions in the glass surface, as well as sodium carbonate salts that formed on the surface due to the intrinsic reactivity of this glass in humid air, are primary sites of interaction with the carboxylic acid. Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of sodium carbonates on these surfaces. Computer simulations of the interactions between the reactive sites on the glass fiber surface with acetic acid were performed to evaluate energetically favorable reactions. The adsorption reactions with sodium in the glass structure provide adhesive bonding sites, whereas the reaction with the sodium carbonate consumes the acid to form sodium-carboxylate, H

  4. Effect of Anionic Surfactant on the Thermo Acoustical Properties of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate in Polyvinyl Alcohol Solution by Ultrasonic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravichandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS / poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA solution was studied by ultrasonic velocity measurements. Ultrasonic velocity, density, viscosity in mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulphate in polyvinyl alcohol was measured over the entire range of composition. From the experimental data, other related thermodynamic parameters, viz., adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, surface tension, relative association, relaxation time, absorption coefficient and internal pressure were calculated. Formations of rods interfere with velocity of ultrasonic waves. Hence the ultrasonic velocity decreases with concentration. These results were interpreted in terms of polymer-surfactant complex reactions.

  5. Combined effect of sodium sulphate and superplasticizer on the hydration of fly ash blended Portland® cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined effect of polycarboxylate type superplasticizer and sodium sulphate on the hydration of fly ash blended Portland® cement has been studied by using different techniques. Water consistency, setting times, non-evaporable water contents, water percolation, air contents, compressive strengths and expansion in corrosive atmosphere were determined. Hydration products were examined with the help of DTA and X-ray diffraction techniques. It is found that the superplasticizer reduces the pore size and its adsorption on cement surfaces is decreased in the presence of sodium sulphate. Mechanism of hydration is discussed.

  6. The application of the acoustic emission technique to stone decay by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, C. M.

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission was monitored during salt crystallisation cycles in order to study the mechanisms of rock deterioration by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests. Some porous carbonate stones used in Spanish monuments (Cathedral of Oviedo, Murcia and Seo Vella of Lérida were selected for this study. The acoustic emission detected during the different stages of the cycles (immersion, drying and cooling was interpreted to be the result of the salt behaviour inside the stone. The use of this technique has confirmed that this behaviour depends on salt characteristics (solubility, hydration state and polymorphism of anhydrous sodium sulphate and stone porosity and pore network.

    Para determinar los mecanismos de deterioro de las rocas debidos a la acción del sulfato de sodio, se ha registrado la emisión acústica durante ensayos de cristalización de sales en el laboratorio. Para ello, se han seleccionado tres piedras porosas carbonatadas utilizadas como materiales de construcción en monumentos españoles (Catedrales de Oviedo, Murcia y Seo Vella de Lérida. La emisión acústica detectada durante las diferentes etapas de los ciclos (inmersión, secado y enfriamiento se ha interpretado como debida al comportamiento de la sal en el interior de la piedra. Mediante esta técnica se ha confirmado que este comportamiento depende de las características de la sal (solubilidad, diferentes estados de hidratación y el polimorfismo del sulfato de sodio anhidro y de la porosidad y configuración del sistema poroso de las rocas.

  7. Mixed alkaline earth effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    2013-01-01

    While the mixed alkali effect has received significant attention in the glass literature, the mixed alkaline earth effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we investigate the latter effect by partial substitution of magnesium for calcium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and NM...

  8. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on tomatoes using sodium docecyl sulphate, levulinic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mnyandu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes poses a serious threat to public health. A study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of four sanitizers, used individually or combined, against L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644. The contact times for bacteria and sanitizer were varied to 1, 3 and 5 minutes. Levulinic acid, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, sodium hypochlorite solution (chlorine and a combination of SDS and levulinic acid (mixture were tested. Results revealed that 0.5% levulinic acid, when used individually, is capable of reducing the surviving colonies by 3.63 log CFU/mL, 4.05 log CFU/mL, 6.71 log CFU/mL after exposure for 1, 3 and 5 minutes respectively.SDS resulted in an 8 log CFU/mL reduction after 1, 3 and 5 minutes. A combination of 0.5% levulinic acid and 0.05% SDS caused a 3.69 log CFU /mL reduction, 4.4 log CFU/mL reduction, 7.97 log CFU/mL reduction for 1, 3 and 5 minutes respectively. Chlorine was the least effective with 2.93 log CFU/mL reduction, 3.16 log CFU/ mL reduction and 4.53 log CFU/ mL reduction respectively. When stored for up to 72 hours at 4°C, the surviving colonies remained viable and decreased in number significantly P < 0.05 = 0.001. The titratable acidity of samples treated with levulinic acid and samples treated with SDS/Lev mixture was lowered significantly compared to the control sample. No significant differences were noted in these same parameters for samples treated with chlorine or SDS. The application of SDS in the fresh produce industry as a sanitizing agent may be successful in eradicating or reducing the viability of L. monocytogenes on fresh produce, thereby replacing the routine chlorine washing.

  9. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) induced changes in propensity and kinetics of α-lactalbumin fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, E Kiran; Qumar, Shamsul; Prabhu, N Prakash

    2015-11-01

    Understanding surfactants induced changes on protein folding, aggregation, and fibrillation has a lot of implications in their laboratory and industrial applications. The effect of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), on fibrillation of an acidic protein α-lactalbumin (α-LA) at neutral pH condition was investigated. SDS at lower concentrations increased the lag time by nearly two-fold whereas the fibril elongation rate was not significantly altered. At the concentrations above 0.2mM, SDS lengthened the lag time by many-fold (∼60), but fibril elongation was accelerated by 3-6 fold. At the concentrations above 2mM, SDS inhibited α-LA fibrillation and led it to the formation of amorphous aggregates. These results were compared with the effect of SDS on the fibrillation of lysozyme, a basic protein. Though fibril inhibition was observed on both the proteins at the micellar concentrations of SDS, there were differences in the effect on lag time and elongation rate at the lower concentrations of SDS. This suggests that the inhibition of protein fibrillation by SDS-micelles might be a common mechanism irrespective of the surface charges on protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective Effect of Calculus Bovis Sativus on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which has been reported to exhibit antispasmodic, fever-reducing, anti-inflammatory, and gallbladder-repairing effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of CBS on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS- induced ulcerative colitis (UC in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 5% DSS in drinking water. CBS was given orally at 50 and 150 mg/kg once per day for 7 days. Body weight, disease activity index (DAI, colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured. Administration of CBS significantly reserved these changes, decreased the MPO activity and MDA and NO level, and increased the SOD activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation suggested that CBS alleviated edema, mucosal damage, and inflammatory cells infiltration induced by DSS in the colon. Moreover, CBS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 1β and IL-6 in the colon tissue. Our data suggested that CBS exerted protective effect on DSS-induced UC partially through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  11. Effects of Guchang Capsule on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Guchang capsule (GC is a Chinese materia medica standardized product extracted from 15 Chinese traditional medical herbs and it has been clinically used in the treatment of intestinal disease. In this study, in order to extend the research of GC in intestinal disease, we were aiming to evaluate potential effects of GC on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS- induced murine experimental colitis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. GC treatment attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss and reduced the mortality. Moreover, GC treatment prevented DSS-induced colonic pathological damage; meanwhile it inhibited proinflammatory cytokines production in colon tissues. In vitro, GC significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB in macrophage cells, and the expressions of several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs which were reported in regulating NF-κB signaling pathway were obviously affected by adding GC into culture medium. In conclusion, our data suggested that administration of GC exhibits therapeutic effects on DSS-induced colitis partially through regulating the expression of NF-κB related lncRNAs in infiltrating immune cells.

  12. Enhanced spectrophotometric determination of nicotinic acid in a sodium dodecyl sulphate micellar medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Romero, J S; Monferrer-Pons, L; Ramis-Ramos, G; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    1995-05-01

    The spectrophotometric determination of pyridine and pyridine derivatives by means of the König reaction was studied in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), N-cetylpyridinium chloride and Triton X-100. The sensitivity was largely increased in SDS micellar medium. The attack of the pyridine ring with cyanogen bromide to produce a glutaconic aldehyde was not affected by the presence of SDS, but the yield of the coupling reaction with an arylamine to produce a polymethine dye was largely increased. In the SDS micellar medium, aniline was superior to other coupling reagents. The limits of detection (LODs) were 6 x 10(-7), 1 x 10(-6) and 5 x 10(-7)M for pyridine, pyrrol-ylmethylpyridine and nicotinic acid, respectively, and the reproducibility for 2 x 10(-5)M solutions was ca. 2%. In the absence of SDS, the LODs were 3 x 10(-6), 3 x 10(-6) and 9 x 10(-6)M, respectively, and the reproducibility was ca. 3.5%. Application was made to the determination of nicotinic acid in pharmaceuticals.

  13. Unique sodium phosphosilicate glasses designed through extended topological constraint theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huidan; Jiang, Qi; Liu, Zhao; Li, Xiang; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Liu, Fude; Peng, Shou

    2014-05-15

    Sodium phosphosilicate glasses exhibit unique properties with mixed network formers, and have various potential applications. However, proper understanding on the network structures and property-oriented methodology based on compositional changes are lacking. In this study, we have developed an extended topological constraint theory and applied it successfully to analyze the composition dependence of glass transition temperature (Tg) and hardness of sodium phosphosilicate glasses. It was found that the hardness and Tg of glasses do not always increase with the content of SiO2, and there exist maximum hardness and Tg at a certain content of SiO2. In particular, a unique glass (20Na2O-17SiO2-63P2O5) exhibits a low glass transition temperature (589 K) but still has relatively high hardness (4.42 GPa) mainly due to the high fraction of highly coordinated network former Si((6)). Because of its convenient forming and manufacturing, such kind of phosphosilicate glasses has a lot of valuable applications in optical fibers, optical amplifiers, biomaterials, and fuel cells. Also, such methodology can be applied to other types of phosphosilicate glasses with similar structures.

  14. Advances in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Alumimum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW Streams - 13000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-01-16

    The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contract terms. The WTP?s overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulphur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings and higher throughput efficiencies. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. In view of the importance of aluminum limited waste streams at Hanford (and also Savannah River), the ability to achieve high waste loadings without adversely impacting melt rates has the potential for enormous cost savings from reductions in canister count and the potential for schedule acceleration. Consequently, the potential return on the investment made in the development of these enhancements is extremely favorable. Glass composition development for one of the latest Hanford HLW projected compositions with sulphate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading have been successfully tested and show tolerance for previously unreported tolerance for sulphate. Though a significant increase in waste loading for high-iron wastes has been achieved, the magnitude of the increase is not as substantial as those achieved for high-aluminum, high-chromium, high-bismuth or sulphur

  15. Photolumincence study of Sm3+ containing sodium borosilicate glasses and glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munishwar, S. R.; Roy, Kumar; Gedam, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    Glasses doped with Sm2O3 were prepared by conventional melt-quench technique. The glasses were characterized by XRD, density and glass transition temperature. These glasses were converted into glass-ceramic by two stage heat treatment schedule. Photoluminescence measurement was carried out for glasses and glass-ceramics. The glass samples when excited with 402 nm as an excitation wavelength, the luminescence spectra gives three bands at 562 nm, 601 nm and 647 nm due to 4G5/2  →  6H5/2, 4G5/2  →  6H7/2 and 4G5/2  →  6H9/2 transitions, respectively. The current study indicates that these sodium borosilicate glasses show apparent change in emission intensity when they are converted into glass ceramics. The overall study suggests that these glasses can be used for LED application.

  16. Fractoemission from fused silica and sodium silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, J.T.; Langford, S.C.; Jensen, L.C.; McVay, G.L.; Kelso, J.F.; Pantano, C.G.

    1988-05-01

    Fractoemission is the emission of photons and particles due to the fracture of materials. In this paper we present characteristic intensity versus time measurements of photon emission (phE), electron emission (EE), positive ion emission (PIE), and neutral emission (NE) due to the fracture of fused silica and sodium trisilicate glass. We show, for example, that the trisilicate is a copious emitter of atomic Na and both atomic and molecular oxygen. The phE, EE, and PIE from the two glasses share a number of properties.

  17. Viscosity and Structure of Lithium Sodium Borosilicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng; Ping, Caiming; Zheng, yuanyuan

    Viscosity and structure of sodium borosilicate glass doped with Li2O were investigated by the rotating crucible viscometer and Fourier infrared spectrum. The melting temperature and activation energy for viscous flow of the studied melt were derived on the basis of Arrhenius equation, in order to reveal the effects of Li2O substitution on the behavior of sodium borosilicate glass. As expected, introduction of Li2O decreases the viscosity of elevated temperature melt, however, the results develop in the opposite direction when the concentration of Li2O is over 1.00 mol. This abnormal phenomenon can be explained in terms of the high ionic field of Li2O and the proportions of [BO3] and [BO4]. As the increase of Li2O, the boosting of the peak which is located about 1400 cm-1 due to the asymmetric stretching relaxation of B-O bond of [BO3] proves the decrease of free oxygen.

  18. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Vienna; M.J. Schweiger; D.E. Smith; H.D. Smith; J.V. Crum; D.K. Peeler; I.A. Reamer; C.A. Musick; R.D. Tillotson

    1999-08-03

    For about four decades, radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive wastes have also been collected and stored as liquid from decontamination, laboratory activities, and fuel-storage activities. These liquid wastes are collectively called sodium-bearing wastes (SBW). About 5.7 million liters of these wastes are temporarily stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Vitrification is being considered as an immobilization step for SBW with a number of treatment and disposal options. A systematic study was undertaken to develop a glass composition to demonstrate direct vitrification of INEEL's SBW. The objectives of this study were to show the feasibility of SBW vitrification, not a development of an optimum formulation. The waste composition is relatively high in sodium, aluminum, and sulfur. A specific composition and glass property restrictions, discussed in Section 2, were used as a basis for the development. Calculations based on first-order expansions of selected glass properties in composition and some general tenets of glass chemistry led to an additive (fit) composition (68.69 mass % SiO{sub 2}, 14.26 mass% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.31 mass% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 3.08 mass% TiO{sub 2}, and 2.67 mass % Li{sub 2}O) that meets all property restrictions when melted with 35 mass % of SBW on an oxide basis, The glass was prepared using oxides, carbonates, and boric acid and tested to confirm the acceptability of its properties. Glass was then made using waste simulant at three facilities, and limited testing was performed to test and optimize processing-related properties and confirm results of glass property testing. The measured glass properties are given in Section 4. The viscosity at 1150 C, 5 Pa{center_dot}s, is

  19. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Buchmiller, William C.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Graham, Dennis D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Macisaac, Brett D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Reamer, Irene A.; Workman, R. J.

    2002-08-01

    Studies were performed to develop and test a glass formulation for immobilization of sodium-bearing waste (SBW). SBW is a high soda, acid high activity waste stored at the INEEL in 10 underground tanks. It was determined in previous studies that SBW?s sulfur content dictates the its loading in borosilicate glasses to be melted by currently assumed processes. If the sulfur content (which is ~4.5 mass% SO3 on a non-volatile oxide basis in SBW) of the melter feed is too high then a molten alkali sulfate containing salt phase accumulates on the melt surface. The avoidance of salt accumulation during the melter process and the maximization of sulfur incorporation into the glass melt were the main focus of this development work. A glass was developed for 20 mass% SBW (on a non-volatile oxide basis), which contained 0.91 mass% SO3, that met all the processing and product quality constraint determined for SBW vitrification at a planned INEEL treatment plant?SBW-22-20. This report summarizes the formulation efforts and presents the data developed on a series of glasses with simulated SBW. Summary

  20. Behavior of sodium borosilicate glasses under compression using molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilymis, D. A.; Ispas, S., E-mail: simona.ispas@univ-montp2.fr [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR 5221 CNRS-Université de Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Delaye, J.-M. [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2015-09-07

    We have performed classical molecular dynamics simulations in order to study the changes under compression in the local and medium range structural properties of three sodium borosilicate glasses with varying sodium content. These glasses have been isostatically compressed up to 20 GPa and then decompressed in order to analyze the different mechanisms that affect densification, alongside with the permanent modifications of the structure after a full compression/decompression cycle. The results show that the atomic packing is the prominent characteristic that governs the amount of densification in the glass, as well as the setup of the permanent densification. During compression, the bulk modulus increases linearly up to approximately 15 GPa and more rapidly for higher pressures, a behavior which is reflected on the rate of increase of the average coordination for B and Na. Radial distribution functions at different pressures during the cycle help to quantify the amount of distortions in the elementary structural units, with a pronounced shortening of the Na–Na and Na–O bond lengths during compression. A subsequent decomposition of the glassy matrix into elementary Voronoi volumes verifies the high compressibility of Na-rich regions.

  1. Sodium dodecyl sulphate, a strong inducer of thermostable glucanhydrolase secretion from a derepressed mutant strain of Bacillus alcalophilus GCBNA-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Nadia; Ali, Sikander; Ul-Haq, Ikram

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we report the optimisation of batch conditions for improved α-1,4-glucan-glucanohydrolase (GGH) secretion by a nitrous acid (NA)-treated Bacillus alcalophilus. The wild (isolate GCB-18) and NA-derivative (mutant GCBNA-4) were grown in a medium containing 10 g/L nutrient broth, 10 g/L starch, 5 g/L lactose, 2 g/L ammonium sulphate, 2 g/L CaCl2 and phosphate buffer (pH 7.6). Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as an enzyme inducer while batch fermentations were carried out at 40 °C. The mutant produced GGH in 40 h which was 15-fold higher than the wild in presence of SDS. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the mutant culture exhibited the capability for improved enzyme activity over a broad range of temperature (35-70 °C). The enzyme was purified by cation-exchange column chromatography with ~80 % recovery. The performance of fuzzy-logic system control was found to be highly promising for the improved substrate conversion rate. The correlation (1.045E + 0025) among variables demonstrated the model terms as highly significant indicating commercial utility of the culture used (P < 0.05).

  2. Effects of topical corticosteroid and tacrolimus on ceramides and irritancy to sodium lauryl sulphate in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellegren, Lars I

    2011-01-01

    treatments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of topically applied corticosteroid, tacrolimus and emollient on stratum corneum lipids and barrier parameters. Nineteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Both forearms of the subjects were divided into four areas, which were treated...... twice daily for one week with betamethasone, tacrolimus, emollient, or left untreated, respectively. After one week each area was challenged with a 24 h sodium lauryl sulphate patch test. The lipids were collected using the cyanoacrylate method and evaluated by high performance thin layer chromatography....... For evaluation of the skin barrier, transepidermal water loss, erythema and electrical capacitance were measured. The ceramide/cholesterol ratio was increased in betamethasone- (p¿=¿0.008) and tacrolimus-treated (p¿=¿0.025) skin compared with emollient-treated skin. No differences in ceramide subgroups were...

  3. Solute rejection by porous glass membranes. I - Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea was studied with porous glass membranes in closed-end capillary form, to determine the effect of pressure, temperature, and concentration variations, and lifetime rejection and flux characteristics. Rejection data for sodium chloride were consistent with the functioning of the porous glass as a low-capacity ion-exchange membrane.

  4. Inactivation of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on tomatoes using sodium dodecyl sulphate, levulinic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Ademola Ijabadeniyi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, sodium hypochlorite solution and levulinic acid in reducing the survival of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was evaluated. The results against heat adapted L. monocytognes revealed that sodium hypochlorite solution was the least effective, achieving log reduction of 2.75, 2.94 and 3.97 log colony forming unit (CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. SDS was able to achieve 8 log reduction for both heat adapted and chlorine adapted bacteria. When used against chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes sodium hypochlorite solution achieved log reduction of 2.76, 2.93 and 3.65 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.07, 2.78 and 4.97 log CFU/mL for 1, 3, 5 minutes, respectively. On chlorine adapted bacteria levulinic acid achieved log reduction of 2.77, 3.07 and 5.21 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using a mixture of 0.05% SDS and 0.5% levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.13, 3.32 and 4.79 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes while on chlorine adapted bacteria it achieved 3.20, 3.33 and 5.66 log CFU/mL, respectively. Increasing contact time also increased log reduction for both test pathogens. A storage period of up to 72 hours resulted in progressive log reduction for both test pathogens. Results also revealed that there was a significant difference (P≤0.05 among contact times, storage times and sanitizers. Findings from this study can be used to select suitable sanitizers and contact times for heat and chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes in the fresh produce industry.

  5. Effect of colchicine and vinblastine over the odontoblasts secretion from mice lower incisor as revealed by autoradiography after injection of /sup 35/S-sodium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, L.F.; Blumen, G. (Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia)

    1983-07-01

    For the biosynthesis study of sulphated compounds in the odontoblasts under the effect of colchicine and vinblastine, male mice, (M. musculus, albinus) weighing 22 to 25 g. were used. They were divided in 3 groups of 3 animals each. One group was used as control, the other received 0.1 mg of colchicine and the last one received 0.2 mg of vinblastine. Two hours after the administration of colchicine and 3 hours after the vinblastine, all the treated animals and the control group received one single dose of 10..mu..Ci/g of /sup 35/S-sodium sulphate and were sacrificed after 10, 30 and 120 minutes. The lower incisors were prepared for radioautography. This study showed that the secretory odontoblasts in the presence of colchicine and vinblastine, incorporated the radioactive material, but there was a delay in the biosynthesis process of sulphated compounds accumulating the secretory material, which could be due to: 1. the colchicine in the odontoblasts would act in the final phase of the sulphatation process; 2. the vinblastine would act primarily in the local were the proteic substract of the sulphated compounds (glycosaminoglicans) is synthesized, resulting in a lack of material to bind the radiactive sulphur.

  6. Pharmacological activity of 6-gingerol in dextran sulphate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-04-01

    Gingerols are phenolic compounds in ginger (Zingiber officinale), which have been reported to exhibit antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the possible pharmacologic activity of 6-gingerol in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis. Adult male mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water alone or co-treated with 6-gingerol orally at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg for 7 days. Disease activity index, inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress indices, and histopathological examination of the colons were evaluated to monitor treatment-related effects of 6-gingerol in DSS-treated mice. Administration of 6-gingerol significantly reversed the DSS-mediated reduction in body weight, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and colon shrinkage to near normal. Moreover, 6-gingerol significantly suppressed the circulating concentrations of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha and restored the colonic nitric oxide concentration and myeloperoxidase activity to normal in DSS-treated mice. 6-Gingerol efficiently prevented colonic oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels, and ameliorated the colonic atrophy in DSS-treated mice. 6-Gingerol suppressed the induction of ulcerative colitis in mice via antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, and may thus represent a potential anticolitis drug candidate. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Removal of copper, nickel and zinc by sodium dodecyl sulphate coated magnetite nanoparticles from water and wastewater samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Adeli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, sodium dodecyl sulphate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SDS–Fe3O4 NPs were applied to remove Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II ions from water and wastewater samples. The effects of pH of solution, SDS, Fe3O4 NPs and salt addition on removal efficiency of the metal ions were investigated and optimized. Salt addition has a negative effect on the removal efficiency of the metal ions, thus extraction follows the ion exchange mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption process onto the adsorbent is very fast under optimum conditions and nearly 1 min of contact time was found to be sufficient for completion of the metal ions' adsorption. Adsorption equilibrium of the metal ions reveals that data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm. Also, the maximum monolayer capacity, qmax, obtained from the Langmuir isotherm was 24.3, 41.2 and 59.2 mg g−1 for Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II, respectively. Desorption experiments by elution of the adsorbent with methanol show that the SDS-Fe3O4 NPs could be reconditioned without significant loss of its initial properties even after three adsorption–desorption cycles. Finally, application of the SDS-Fe3O4 NPs as efficient adsorbent material for removal of the metal ions from Iran Khodro's wastewater samples was investigated and satisfactory results were obtained.

  8. The influence of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulphate solution in the photoresponsivity of nitrogen doped graphene oxide photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Thandavan, T. M. K.

    2017-11-01

    The homogeneity and agglomeration in graphene based photodetector plays an important role in the photoconduction. The influence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solution in nitrogen doped graphene oxide (N-GO) is studied based on the photoresponsivity behaviour. One step hydrothermal method and drop casting technique are utilized to obtain N-GO photodetectors. High photoresponsivity about 1000 folds is achieved in N-GO prepared with SDS solution (N-GO/SDS) compared to the N-GO prepared without SDS solution. Raman spectrum also revealed a high intense D and G band as well as a slightly broaden 2D band due to sp2 hybridization. The fabricated device has exhibited wide range of responsivity to infrared (IR) laser 974 nm pulse and illumination. Real time current measurement in N-GO and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in N-GO/SDS showed a significant photoconduction due to laser 974 nm illumination. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) in the N-GO/SDS solution is about 394830% compared to N-GO prepared without SDS, which is only 272%. The evaluated fall time at frequency modulation of 0.1 and 1 Hz for direct current (dc) bias voltage of 5.0 V found to be shorter compared to that of 2.5 V, whereas the fall time at high frequency modulation at 5000 Hz exhibited similar time around 77 μs.

  9. Partial Characterization of Biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and Comparison with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate for the Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Moldes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-. The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage, as well as CH2–CH3 and C–O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg−1 of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment.

  10. Cytochrome P450 102A2 Catalyzes Efficient Oxidation of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate: A Molecular Tool for Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Axarli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cytochrome P450s (CYPs constitute an important family of monooxygenase enzymes that carry out essential roles in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and foreign chemicals. In the present work we report the characterization of CYP102A2 from B. subtilis with a focus on its substrate specificity. CYP102A2 is more active in oxidation of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS than any other characterized CYP. The effect of SDS and NADPH concentration on reaction rate showed nonhyperbolic and hyperbolic dependence, respectively. The enzyme was found to exhibit a bell-shaped curve for plots of activity versus pH, over pH values 5.9–8.5. The rate of SDS oxidation reached the maximum value approximately at pH 7.2 and the pH transition observed controlled by two pas in the acidic (pa=6.7±0.08 and basic (pa=7.3±0.06 pH range. The results are discussed in relation to the future biotechnology applications of CYPs.

  11. Partial Characterization of Biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and Comparison with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate for the Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, A. B.; Paradelo, R.; Vecino, X.; Cruz, J. M.; Gudiña, E.; Rodrigues, L.; Teixeira, J. A.; Domínguez, J. M.; Barral, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-). The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage), as well as CH2–CH3 and C–O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg−1 of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment. PMID:23691515

  12. ISOLATION OF EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS AND ITS MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rasool, S. U. Rahman and M. K. Mansoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS virus were recovered from five different outbreaks of EDS in commercial laying hens in and around Faisalabad. The aberrant eggs were fed to the susceptible laying hens for experimental induction of infection. The samples from infected birds (egg washing, cloacal swabs, oviducts and spleens were collected, processed and inoculated into 11-day old duck embryos. The presence of virus in harvested allanto-amniotic fluid was monitored by spot and microhaemagglutination tests and confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition and agar gel precipitation tests. The EDS virus grew well in duck embryos and agglutinated only avian but not mammalian red blood cells. These isolates were purified through velocity density gradient centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined through Lowry method and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was conducted by loading 300 µg protein concentration on 12.5% gel using discontinuous buffer system. All the six isolates showed 13 polypeptides, which were identical to those described in the referral EDS-76 virus (strain-127. The molecular weights of the polypeptides ranged from 6.5 KDa to 126 KDa.

  13. An orally administered butyrate-releasing derivative reduces neutrophil recruitment and inflammation in dextran sulphate sodium-induced murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeoli, Raffaele; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Pirozzi, Claudio; Lama, Adriano; Santoro, Anna; Russo, Roberto; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Berni Canani, Roberto; Calignano, Antonio; Perretti, Mauro; Meli, Rosaria

    2017-06-01

    Butyrate has shown benefits in inflammatory bowel diseases. However, it is not often administered orally because of its rancid smell and unpleasant taste. The efficacy of a more palatable butyrate-releasing derivative, N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenylethyl) butyramide (FBA), was evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). Male 10 week-old BALB/c mice received DSS (2.5%) in drinking water (for 5 days) followed by DSS-free water for 7 days (DSS group). Oral FBA administration (42.5 mg·kg-1 ) was started 7 days before DSS as preventive (P-FBA), or 2 days after DSS as therapeutic (T-FBA); both treatments lasted 19 days. One DSS-untreated group received only tap water (CON). FBA treatments reduced colitis symptoms and colon damage. P-FBA and T-FBA significantly decreased polymorphonuclear cell infiltration score compared with the DSS group. FBA reversed the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (reducing inducible NOS protein expression, CCL2 and IL-6 transcripts in colon and increasing TGFβ and IL-10). Morever, P-FBA and T-FBA limited neutrophil recruitment (by expression and localization of the neutrophil granule protease Ly-6G), restored deficiency of the butyrate transporter and improved intestinal epithelial integrity, preventing tight-junction impairment (zonulin-1 and occludin). FBA, similar to its parental compound sodium butyrate, inhibited histone deacetylase-9 and restored H3 histone acetylation, exerting an anti-inflammatory effect through NF-κB inhibition and the up-regulation of PPARγ. FBA reduces inflammatory intestinal damage in mice indicating its potential as a postbiotic derivative without the problems associated with the oral administration of sodium butyrate. This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc. © 2016 The British

  14. Channel waveguides in glass via silver-sodium field-assisted ion exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, K.; Pagano, S. J.; Viehmann, W.

    1986-01-01

    Multimode channel waveguides have been formed in sodium aluminosilicate glass by field-assisted diffusion of Ag(+) ions from vacuum-evaporated Ag films. The two-dimensional refractive index profiles of the waveguides were controlled by varying the diffusion time, the diffusion temperature, and the electric field strength. Estimates of the diffusion rate through a strip aperture were obtained, assuming the electric field was strong 120-240 V/mm. The maximum change in refractive index in the sodium aluminosilicate glasses was estimated near 65 percent of the change in soda-lime silicate glass. The physical properties of the glasses are given in a table.

  15. Study of Polymorphism of Borovanadate Glass of Sodium by Raman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cm-1 in the undoped glass and four bands at 241, 381, 776 and 938 cm-1 for the vanadium oxyde doped glasses. The volume devitrification of these glasses occurs at 750° C and the β-NaVO3 crystalline phase is identified by Raman scattering. Keywords: Oxide glasses, Non-linear optics, Raman scattering, XRD, DSC.

  16. Optical analysis of samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V; Sofin, R G S; Allen, M; Thomas, H; Biju, P R; Jose, G; Unnikrishnan, N V

    2017-01-15

    Samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass was synthesized using the melt quenching method. Detailed optical spectroscopic studies of the glassy material were carried out in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral range. Using the optical absorption spectra Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters are derived. The calculated values of the JO parameters are utilized in evaluating the various radiative parameters such as electric dipole line strengths (Sed), radiative transition probabilities (Arad), radiative lifetimes (τrad), fluorescence branching ratios (β) and the integrated absorption cross- sections (σa) for stimulated emission from various excited states of Sm3+‡ ion. The principal fluorescence transitions are identified by recording the fluorescence spectrum. Our analysis revealed that the novel glassy system has the optimum values for the key parameters viz. spectroscopic quality factor, optical gain, stimulated emission cross section and quantum efficiency, which are required for a high performance optical amplifier. Calculated chromaticity co-ordinates (0.61, 0.38) also confirm its application potential in display devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Iguratimod ameliorates inflammatory responses by modulating the Th17/Treg paradigm in dextran sulphate sodium-induced murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue-Pei; Huang, Xie-Lin; Yang, Zao-Peng; Wang, Shun-Cai; Xie, Wei; Miao, Lei; Tang, Li; Huang, Zhi-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease with an abnormal and persistent immune response. Iguratimod, a novel anti-rheumatic drug, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects and regulates immune response. The role of iguratimod in intestinal mucosal inflammation and immunity has not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether iguratimod ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis and its potential regulatory mechanism. Murine colitis was induced by administering 2.5% DSS for 5days. Some mice were administered iguratimod (5, 30mg/kg) by oral gavage once daily for 7days, beginning on the day 3 after colitis induction. Our study showed that iguratimod alleviates the symptoms of colitis and suppresses intestinal tissue damage, including macroscopic and histopathological manifestations. Moreover, iguratimod reduced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and tumour necrosis factor-α levels, and increased the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. In addition, iguratimod downregulated the proportion of Th17 cells, the level of transcription factor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt), and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), and upregulated the proportion of Treg cells, the level of transcription factor forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and the phosphorylation of STAT5 in the colonic tissues. In conclusion, iguratimod plays a protective role in mice with DSS-induced colitis via anti-inflammatory effects and regulation of Th17/Treg cells. Therefore, use of iguratimod may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of IBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of sodium sulphate and potassium chloride fertilizers on the nutritive value of timothy grown on different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Third harvest samples from a pot experiment were analysed to study the effects of sodium (Na (0, 200 and 400 mg dm-3 of soil in a single application as Na2SO4 . 10H2O and potassium (K application (0, 100 and 200 mg dm-3 applied at each harvest as KCl on the nutritive value of timothy grown on three different soil types (clay, loam and organogenic soil. The effects of fertilization on concentrations of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and non-structural carbohydrates, although statistically significant, were relatively minor in absolute terms. Na applications increased and K applications decreased sulphur and phosphorus concentrations, the magnitude of which was dependent on soil type. The increase in sulphur concentration can be attributed to sulphate in Na-fertilizer. The effects of fertilizers on in vitro organic matter digestibility and the potential extent of dry matter (DM and NDF digestibility were small. Digestion kinetic parameters estimated from fermentative gas production measured using a fully automated system were used in a rumen simulation model to estimate digestibility. Total gas volume and the rate of gas production from the rapidly digestible fraction were negatively correlated with timothy S and N concentrations. Na application had no effect, but K application increased true rumen DM digestibility, the effect being most profound on organogenic soil. The results suggest that Na application does not elicit substantial positive effects on the nutritive value of timothy which has often been reported for perennial ryegrass, but K application can improve the nutritive value of timothy grown on K deficient soil.;

  19. Aplikasi Metode SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis untuk Mengidentifikasi Sumber Asal Gelatin pada Kapsul Keras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hermanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin as the main ingredient of capsules is still a problem for a moslem. Most of gelatin production remains largely derived from non-halal materials. One of gelatin source is came from collagen of the skin and bones of bovine or pork. The main of study is determine the source of gelatin used in hard capsules by using SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Gel electrophoresis Poly Acrylamide method. In the early stages, optimization of standards bovine and pork gelatin were hydrolyzed by pepsin at pH 4.5 and 60°C for 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours. Gelatin hydrolyzateswere analyzed by SDS-PAGE to determine the optimal hydrolysis time. Identification of gelatin hydrolyzate fragments were carried by molecular weight. Hydrolysis time optimization throught applied to identify the source of hard gelatin capsules in the samples obtained from market and compared with the simulation of hard gelatin capsules. The results showed there were of specific bands of bovine gelatin with a molecular weight of 11,4 kDa; 34 kDa; 47kDa and specific bands of pork gelatin with a molecular weight of 24.7 kDa; 28 kDa; and 60 kDa. Similar results were obtained on a sample of hard capsules with bands of protein fragments that were identical to bovine gelatinstandard. Based on the results,each of the samples were tested contain of bovine gelatin respectively. DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3150

  20. Endogenous and exogenous ghrelin enhance the colonic and gastric manifestations of dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, B; Thijs, T; Moechars, D; Colsoul, B; Polders, L; Ver Donck, L; Coulie, B; Peeters, T L; Depoortere, I

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin is an important orexigenic peptide that not only exerts gastroprokinetic but also immunoregulatory effects. This study aimed to assess the role of endogenous and exogenous ghrelin in the pathogenesis of colitis and in the disturbances of gastric emptying and colonic contractility during this process. Dextran sodium sulphate colitis was induced for 5 days in (i) ghrelin(+/+) and ghrelin(-/-) mice and clinical and histological parameters were monitored at days 5, 10 and 26 and (ii) in Naval Medical Research Institute non-inbred Swiss (NMRI) mice treated with ghrelin (100 nmol kg(-1)) twice daily for 5 or 10 days. Neural contractility changes were measured in colonic smooth muscle strips, whereas gastric emptying was measured with the (14)C octanoic acid breath test. Inflammation increased ghrelin plasma levels. Body weight loss, histological damage, myeloperoxidase activity and IL-1beta levels were attenuated in ghrelin(-/-) mice. Whereas absence of ghrelin did not affect changes in colonic contractility, gastric emptying in the acute phase was accelerated in ghrelin(+/+) but not in ghrelin(-/-) mice. In agreement with the studies in ghrelin knockout mice, 10 days treatment of NMRI mice with exogenous ghrelin enhanced the clinical disease activity and promoted infiltration of neutrophils and colonic IL-1beta levels. Unexpectedly, ghrelin treatment decreased excitatory and inhibitory neural responses in the colon of healthy but not of inflamed NMRI mice. Endogenous ghrelin enhances the course of the inflammatory process and is involved in the disturbances of gastric emptying associated with colitis. Treatment with exogenous ghrelin aggravates colitis, thereby limiting the potential therapeutic properties of ghrelin during intestinal inflammation.

  1. Removal of lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by generating the sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Zhao, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Shuhao

    2015-01-01

    In the disposal of electronic waste, cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass is an environmental problem of old television sets. Removal of the lead from CRT funnel glass can prevent its release into the environment and allow its reuse. In this research, we reference the dry progress productive technology of sodium silicate, the waste CRT glass was dealt with sodium silicate frit melted and sodium silicate frit dissolved. Adding a certain amount of Na ₂CO₃to the waste CRT glass bases on the material composition and content of it, then the specific modulus of sodium silicate frit is obtained by melting progress. The silicon, potassium and sodium compounds of the sodium silicate frit are dissolved under the conditions of high temperature and pressure by using water as solvent, which shows the tendency that different temperature, pressure, liquid-solid ratio and dissolving time have effect on the result of dissolving. At 175°C(0.75MPa), liquid-solid ratio is 1.5:1, the dissolving time is 1h, the dissolution rate of sodium silicate frit is 44.725%. By using sodium sulfide to separate hydrolysis solution and to collect lead compounds in the solution, the recovery rate of lead in dissolving reached 100% and we can get clean sodium silicate and high purity of lead compounds. The method presented in this research can recycle not only the lead but also the sodium, potassium and other inorganic minerals in CRT glass and can obtain the comprehensive utilization of leaded glass.

  2. sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    from a Barnstead nanopure water purification system, and freshly prepared solutions were used for each experiment. Absorption experiments were recorded on a Hitachi spectrophotometer, model 330. 2.3 Time-resolved studies. Kinetics of dye (cresyl violet)–surfactant (SDS) interactions were studied using stopped-.

  3. Structure and properties of sodium aluminosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, Ye; Du, Jincheng; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    2013-01-01

    the recent Corning® Gorilla® Glass. In this paper, the structures of sodium aluminosilicate glasses with a wide range of Al/Na ratios (from 1.5 to 0.6) have been studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations in a system containing around 3000 atoms, with the aim to understand the structural role......Addition of alumina to sodium silicate glasses considerably improves the mechanical properties and chemical durability and changes other properties such as ionic conductivity and melt viscosity. As a result, aluminosilicate glasses find wide industrial and technological applications including...... of aluminum as a function of chemical composition in these glasses. The short- and medium-range structures such as aluminum coordination, bond angle distribution around cations, Qn distribution (n bridging oxygen per network forming tetrahedron), and ring size distribution have been systematically studied...

  4. Structural Dependence of Physical Properties in Sodium Boroaluminosilicate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Potuzak, Marcel; Mauro, John C.

    Boroaluminosilicate glasses have found applications in many fields. The extent and nature of the mixing of network formers like SiO2, B2O3, and Al2O3 play an important role in controlling the macroscopic properties. To understand the structure-property correlations in these glasses, we study a se...

  5. Effect of silicate module of water glass on rheological parameters of poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalska-Popiawska, J.; Izak, P.

    2017-01-01

    The poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels were synthesized in the presence of sodium thiosulphate and potassium persulphate as the redox initiators and N,N’-methylene-bisacrylamide as the cross-linking monomer. 20 wt% aqueous solution of sodium acrylate was polymerized together with water glass with different silicate modules (M) from 1.74 to 2.29, in three mass ratio of the monomer solution to the water glass 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. Such obtained hybrid composites were rheologically tested using the oscillation method. It allowed to designate the crossover point during polymerization, as well as to define the viscoelastic properties of the casted hydrogel samples one week after the reaction. The obtained results of the oscillation measurements showed that cross-linking reaction proceeds very quickly and the lower the silicate module is, the process starts faster. After the completion of the reaction the silicate-polymer hydrogels are strongly elastic materials and the highest elasticity characterizes systems with the mass ratio 1:2, i.e. with the highest water glass content.

  6. Interactions of gamma rays with undoped and Mn-doped sodium phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBatal, Fatma H.; Ouis, Mona A.; Morsi, Reham M.; Marzouk, Samir Y.

    2010-07-01

    Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic measurements were used to investigate prepared undoped and Mn-doped sodium phosphate glasses before and after successive gamma irradiation. The effects of both glass composition and MnO2 content on the generation of radiation-induced defects were investigated. Undoped sodium phosphate glass shows strong UV absorption, which is attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities present in the raw materials. Mn-doped glasses reveal an additional visible broad band centered at about 500 nm due to Mn3+, which has recently been related to the 5Eg →5T2g transition. The radiation-induced bands are correlated with the generation of liberated electron-hole pairs during the process of gamma irradiation and the possibility of photochemical reactions especially with trace iron impurities and manganese ions. The intensity and the position of the induced bands are observed to depend on the type and composition of glass, concentration of the dopant and also on the irradiation dose. Manganese ions when present in relatively higher content have been found to show a shielding behavior towards the effects of progressive gamma irradiation causing a retardation of the growth of the induced defects. Infrared and Raman spectra of the undoped and Mn-doped glasses were measured to investigate the structural phosphate groups present and the effect of MnO2 on the network structure. An ESR investigation was carried out to confirm the state of manganese ions in the prepared sodium phosphate glasses.

  7. Surface degradation behaviour of sodium borophosphate glass in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The degradation behaviour of phosphate glass with nominal composition, 40Na2O–10BaO–xB2O3–. (50–x)P2O5, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 20 mol%, was studied in water, HCl and NaOH solutions at room temperature to. 60°C for different periods extending up to 300 h. These glasses were synthesized by conventional ...

  8. Structural and thermochemical properties of sodium magnesium phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oueslati Omrani, Refka [Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Chemistry Department, LR01SE10 Applied Thermodynamics Laboratory, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kaoutar, Abdeltif; El Jazouli, Abdelaziz [LCMS, URAC 17, Faculté des Sciences Ben M’Sik, UH2MC, Casablanca (Morocco); Krimi, Saida [LPCMI, Faculté des Sciences Aïn Chok, UH2C, Casablanca (Morocco); Khattech, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.khattech@fst.rnu.tn [Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Chemistry Department, LR01SE10 Applied Thermodynamics Laboratory, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Jemal, Mohamed [Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Chemistry Department, LR01SE10 Applied Thermodynamics Laboratory, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Videau, Jean-Jacques [ICMCB, Institut de Chimie de la matière condensée, Université de Bordeaux 1 (France); Couzi, Michel [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, CNRS-Université de Bordeaux 1 (France)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Phosphate glasses were prepared by met quenching technique. • Structural study is investigated using FTIR, Raman and {sup 31}PNMR spectroscopy. • A 4.5% weight of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution has use for glass dissolution. • Dissolution is endothermic for lower MgO content and becomes exothermic when x rises. - Abstract: Ternary phosphate based glasses with the general formula (50−x/2)Na{sub 2}O–xMgO–(50−x/2)P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 42.8 mol%), where the O/P ratio was varied from 3 to 3.75, have been prepared using a conventional melt quenching technique. Samples were investigated by means of density measurements, Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR), Raman and {sup 31}P solid state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) analysis and calorimetric dissolution. The depolymerization of metaphosphate chains are described by the decrease of Q{sup 2} tetrahedral sites allowing the formation of pyrophosphate groups (Q{sup 1}) revealed by spectroscopic investigations. As a result, the increase of density and glass transition temperature when x rises. Calorimetric study shows that the dissolution phenomenon is endothermic for a lower MgO content and becomes exothermic when magnesium oxide is gradually incorporated, suggesting the disruption of phosphate chains with increasing O/P ratio.

  9. Surface degradation behaviour of sodium borophosphate glass in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... samples with = 15 and 20 mol% B2O3 were dissolved in 5% HCl solution after 5 h immersion. The degradation behaviour has been correlated with the structural features present in the glass. The optical microscopy of the corroded surface revealed that the corrosion mechanism were different in acid and alkali media.

  10. Effects of Thermal and Pressure Histories on the Chemical Strengthening of Sodium Aluminosilicate Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouritz N. Svenson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Glasses can be chemically strengthened through the ion exchange process, wherein smaller ions in the glass (e.g., Na+ are replaced by larger ions from a salt bath (e.g., K+. This develops a compressive stress (CS on the glass surface, which, in turn, improves the damage resistance of the glass. The magnitude and depth of the generated CS depends on the thermal and pressure histories of the glass prior to ion exchange. In this study, we investigate the ion exchange-related properties (mutual diffusivity, CS, and hardness of a sodium aluminosilicate glass, which has been densified through annealing below the initial fictive temperature of the glass or through pressure-quenching from the glass transition temperature at 1 GPa prior to ion exchange. We show that the rate of alkali interdiffusivity depends only on the density of the glass, rather than on the applied densification method. However, we also demonstrate that for a given density, the increase in CS and increase in hardness induced by ion exchange strongly depends on the densification method. Specifically, at constant density, the CS and hardness values achieved through thermal annealing are larger than those achieved through pressure-quenching. These results are discussed in relation to the structural changes in the environment of the network-modifier and the overall network densification.

  11. INFLUENCE OF FINING AGENTS ON GLASS MELTING: A REVIEW, PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Hujova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The fining agents are substances with numerous effects on glass melting. The second part of our review summarizes both the benefits and disadvantages of fining agents used in the glass industry for the purpose of degassing glass melts and removing bubbles from molten glasses. Particular attention is paid to the usage of sodium sulphate and also to the chemical and physical factors connected with such phenomena as bubble nucleation and the foaming of glass melts.

  12. Structural investigation of Zn doped sodium bismuth borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, V.; Kumar, D.; Singh, D.; Singh, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    A series of Bismuth Borate Oxide Glass samples with composition x(ZnO):(15-x)Na2O:15Bi2O3:70B2O3 (variation in x is from 6 to 12 mole %) have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. All the chemicals used were of Analytical Grade. In order to verify the amorphous nature of the prepared samples the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was done. The physical and structural properties have been explored by using the techniques such as density, molar volume and FTIR in order to understand the effect of alkali and transition metal ions on the structure of these glasses. The results obtained by these techniques are in good agreement to one another and with literature as well. With the increase in the content of ZnO, the increase in density and some variations in structural coordination (ratio of BO3 & BO4 structural units) have been observed.

  13. Determination of albumins by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of Tb{sup 3+}-oxolinic acid complex in presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zheng Jinhua [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Guo Changying [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Ding Honghong [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hu Zhiyong [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li Chao [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2007-09-15

    It is found that the fluorescence intensity of Tb{sup 3+}-oxolinic acid (OA) complex can be greatly quenched by albumins in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SLS). Under optimum conditions, the quenched fluorescence intensity is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10{sup -8}-1.0x10{sup -5} g ml{sup -1} for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 1.0x10{sup -7}-1.0x10{sup -5} g ml{sup -1} for human serum albumin (HSA) and 4.0x10{sup -7}-1.0x10{sup -5} g ml{sup -1} for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 2.1x10{sup -8}, 2.5x10{sup -8} and 5.0x10{sup -8} g ml{sup -1}, respectively. In addition, the interaction mechanism is also investigated.

  14. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  15. Structure and properties of sodium aluminosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ye; Du, Jincheng; Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Mauro, John C.

    2013-07-01

    Addition of alumina to sodium silicate glasses considerably improves the mechanical properties and chemical durability and changes other properties such as ionic conductivity and melt viscosity. As a result, aluminosilicate glasses find wide industrial and technological applications including the recent Corning® Gorilla® Glass. In this paper, the structures of sodium aluminosilicate glasses with a wide range of Al/Na ratios (from 1.5 to 0.6) have been studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations in a system containing around 3000 atoms, with the aim to understand the structural role of aluminum as a function of chemical composition in these glasses. The short- and medium-range structures such as aluminum coordination, bond angle distribution around cations, Qn distribution (n bridging oxygen per network forming tetrahedron), and ring size distribution have been systematically studied. In addition, the mechanical properties including bulk, shear, and Young's moduli have been calculated and compared with experimental data. It is found that aluminum ions are mainly four-fold coordinated in peralkaline compositions (Al/Na glass network. In peraluminous compositions (Al/Na > 1), small amounts of five-fold coordinated aluminum ions are present while the concentration of six-fold coordinated aluminum is negligible. Oxygen triclusters are also found to be present in peraluminous compositions, and their concentration increases with increasing Al/Na ratio. The calculated bulk, shear, and Young's moduli were found to increase with increasing Al/Na ratio, in good agreement with experimental data.

  16. Red light emission from europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vinod; Viswanath, C. S. Dwaraka; Upadhyaya, Vyasa; Mahato, K. K.; Kamath, Sudha D.

    2017-12-01

    Zinc sodium bismuth borate (ZNBB) glasses doped with different concentrations of europium were prepared by conventional melt quenching method and characterized through the measurements of density, refractive index, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, optical absorption, luminescence and radiative lifetimes. FTIR spectra showed seven characteristic peaks of bismuth and borate functional groups in the range of 400-1600 cm-1. The optical band gap and bonding parameters have been calculated from absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra recorded in the visible region with 394 nm excitation are used to calculate the Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4). The JO intensity parameters have been used to calculate the radiative parameters such as branching ratio (β), stimulated emission cross-section (σse), transition probability (A) for the fluorescent level of 5D0→7F2. Decay rates through single exponential are used to calculate the lifetime (τm) of the meta-stable state 5D0 of (Eu3+ ion) these glasses. The radiative parameters measured for all these glasses show 0.7 mol% europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glass 5D0→7F2 transition has the potential for red laser applications. The quality of the colour emitted by the present glasses are estimated quantitatively by CIE chromaticity coordinates, which confirms the suitability of these glasses as a red emitting material for field emission technologies and LEDs.

  17. Protective effect of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis: differential regulation of tumour necrosis factor-a and interleukin-18 in BALB/c and severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudcovic, T.; Kolinska, J.; Klepetar, J.; Stepankova, R.; Rezanka, T.; Srutkova, D.; Schwarzer, M.; Erban, V.; Du, Z.; Wells, J.; Hrncir, T.; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H.; Kozakova, H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the promising approaches in the therapy of ulcerative colitis is administration of butyrate, an energy source for colonocytes, into the lumen of the colon. This study investigates the effect of butyrate producing bacterium Clostridium tyrobutyricum on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced

  18. Preparation and optical properties of sodium borosilicate glasses containing Sb nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Jiasong, E-mail: jiasongzhong@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Ma, Xin [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Lu, Hongwei; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Suling [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Xiang, Weidong, E-mail: xiangweidong001@126.com [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • The Sb nanoparticles doped in Na{sub 2}O–B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} glass were prepared by sol–gel methods. • Obtained glass was investigated by structural and optical measurements. • The glass was crystalline with a rhombohedral structure of Sb. • An absorption peak centered on 566 nm has been observed in doping glass. • The third-order optical nonlinearity was investigated by femtosecond Z-scan technique. - Abstract: Sb nanoparticles have been successfully prepared from SbCl{sub 3} in sodium borosilicate (Na{sub 2}O–B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2}) glass matrix by sol–gel method, involving metallic sodium as sodium source, boric acid as boron source and SiO{sub 2} come from hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. The feasibility of process conditions were analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric (TG), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). X-ray diffraction (XRD) study revealed that the rhombohedral structure of metal Sb have formed in the glass. The particle was found to be spherical shaped and highly monodispersed with an average size of about 32.63 nm as analyzed from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Sb nanoparticle was studied from the UV–Vis absorption. The nonlinear optical properties were studied by using the Z-scan technique with a Ti:sapphire laser at 800 nm. Results showed that the third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility χ{sup (3)} of the glass was determined to be 4.85 × 10{sup −11} esu.

  19. Optical and spectroscopic properties of neodymium doped cadmium-sodium borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shaweta; Thind, Kulwant Singh

    2017-10-01

    Neodymium doped cadmium sodium borate glasses having composition xCdO-(40-x) Na2CO3-59.5H3BO3-0.5Nd2O3; x = 10, 20 and 30 mol% were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. Conventional methods were used to determine the physical properties such as density, molar volume, refractive index, and rare earth ion concentration. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied on the optical absorption spectra of the glasses to evaluate the three phenomenological intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6. The calculated intensity parameters were further used to predict the radiative transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR) and branching ratio (βR) for the various fluorescent levels of Nd3+ ion in the prepared glass series. The effect of the compositional changes on the spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+ ions have been studied and reported. The value of Ω2 is found to decrease with the decrease in the sodium content and the corresponding increase in the cadmium content. This can be ascribed to the changes in the asymmetry of the ligand field at the rare earth ion site and the change in rare earth oxygen (RE-O) covalency. Florescence spectra has been used to determine the peak wavelength (λp), effective line widths (Δλeff) and stimulated emission cross-section (σp) for the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2,4I11/2,4I13/2 transitions of the Nd3+ ion. The reasonably higher values of branching ratios and stimulated emission cross-section for the prepared glasses points towards the efficacy of these glasses as laser host materials. However, the glass with more sodium content is found to show better lasing properties.

  20. Structural investigation of Zn doped sodium bismuth borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, V., E-mail: vijetabhatia0712@gmail.com; Kumar, D. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala (India); Singh, D.; Singh, S. P. [Department of Physics, SGGSW University, Fatehgarh Sahib (India)

    2016-05-06

    A series of Bismuth Borate Oxide Glass samples with composition x(ZnO):(15-x)Na{sub 2}O:15Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}:70B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (variation in x is from 6 to 12 mole %) have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. All the chemicals used were of Analytical Grade. In order to verify the amorphous nature of the prepared samples the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was done. The physical and structural properties have been explored by using the techniques such as density, molar volume and FTIR in order to understand the effect of alkali and transition metal ions on the structure of these glasses. The results obtained by these techniques are in good agreement to one another and with literature as well. With the increase in the content of ZnO, the increase in density and some variations in structural coordination (ratio of BO{sub 3} & BO{sub 4} structural units) have been observed.

  1. Optical properties of thermally reduced bismuth-doped sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.H.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Heat-treatment of multivalent ion containing glasses in a hydrogen atmosphere may cause both reduction of the multivalent ions and ionic inward diffusion, resulting in improved glass properties. Bismuth-doped glasses are also interesting objects not only concerning the reduction induced diffusion......, but also concerning the metal particle formation, and the broadband near infrared luminescence. Both the inward diffusion and the infrared luminescence depend on the bismuth oxidation state. The latter can be varied by adjusting the parameters of the heat-treatment, e.g., time, temperature, and partial...... pressure of hydrogen. Here, we present results on the effect of the heat-treatment on the optical properties of bismuth-doped sodium aluminosilicate glasses....

  2. STUDY OF POLYMORPHISM OF BOROVANADATE GLASS OF SODIUM BY RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY LOW FREQUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Rabia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sodium tetraborate (100 – x(Na2B4O7.10H2O­­ ­­­­­– xV2O5, (x = 0 to 20 mole % has been elaborated by splat cooling technique. Raman Measurements on the doped and non polish samples reveal the presence of the of α-NaVO3 crystal on the superficial layer. After polishing, Raman spectra characteristic of glasses are obtained with two main bands located at 555 and 1097 cm-1 in the undoped glass and four bands at 241, 381, 776 and 938 cm-1 for the vanadium oxyde doped glasses. The volume devitrification of these glasses occurs at 750° C and the β-NaVO3 crystalline phase is identified by Raman scattering.

  3. Structure and properties of sodium aluminosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ye; Du, Jincheng; Smedskjaer, Morten M; Mauro, John C

    2013-07-28

    Addition of alumina to sodium silicate glasses considerably improves the mechanical properties and chemical durability and changes other properties such as ionic conductivity and melt viscosity. As a result, aluminosilicate glasses find wide industrial and technological applications including the recent Corning(®) Gorilla(®) Glass. In this paper, the structures of sodium aluminosilicate glasses with a wide range of Al∕Na ratios (from 1.5 to 0.6) have been studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations in a system containing around 3000 atoms, with the aim to understand the structural role of aluminum as a function of chemical composition in these glasses. The short- and medium-range structures such as aluminum coordination, bond angle distribution around cations, Q(n) distribution (n bridging oxygen per network forming tetrahedron), and ring size distribution have been systematically studied. In addition, the mechanical properties including bulk, shear, and Young's moduli have been calculated and compared with experimental data. It is found that aluminum ions are mainly four-fold coordinated in peralkaline compositions (Al∕Na 1), small amounts of five-fold coordinated aluminum ions are present while the concentration of six-fold coordinated aluminum is negligible. Oxygen triclusters are also found to be present in peraluminous compositions, and their concentration increases with increasing Al∕Na ratio. The calculated bulk, shear, and Young's moduli were found to increase with increasing Al∕Na ratio, in good agreement with experimental data.

  4. Improvement of the surface hydrophilic properties of naproxen particles with addition of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and sodium dodecyl sulphate: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrero, Víctor; Torrado, Carlos; García-Rodríguez, Juan José; López-Sánchez, Alicia; Torrado, Susana; Torrado-Santiago, Santiago

    2017-08-30

    In this study, a new surface-modified naproxen was developed to enhance brain concentration in acute migraine treatment. Fast-dissolving naproxen granules were made by mixing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium croscarmellose with micronized naproxen particles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding proportions of SDS to the HPMC film caused changes in the polymer chains of the HPMC, producing a new hydrophilic HPMC-SDS structure. These formulations with different HPMC/SDS ratios were characterised using electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). SDS 10% (w/w) produced a highly hydrophilic HPMC-SDS structure on the surface of the naproxen microparticles. The fast dissolution granules (SF-10%) showed a significant improvement in the dissolution rate of naproxen. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted with mice, showing an improvement of Cmax (1.38 and 1.41-fold) and AUC0-2h (30% and 10% higher) for plasma and brain samples compared to the reference naproxen suspension. The faster Tmax ratio for SF-10% may be related to increased hydration in the gastrointestinal environment, enabling the drug to permeate the gastrointestinal hydration layer more easily due to the presence of the hydrophilic HPMC-SDS structure in the formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidermal cell proliferation and terminal differentiation in skin organ culture after topical exposure to sodium dodecyl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Bos, T.A.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated in vitro after exposure to the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Human skin organ cultures were exposed topically to various concentrations of SDS for 22 h, after which the irritant was removed. Cell proliferation was

  6. A Novel Method for Detection of Glycoproteins on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Using Radio-Iodinated Tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Draz, Hossam M.; Dole, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for detection of glycoproteins on polyacrylamide gel. In this method, radio-iodinated-tyrosine (125I-tyrosine) was conjugated to glycoprotein by schiff's base mechanism on the sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel. Ovalbumin and Concanavalin...

  7. Laser- and gamma-induced transformations of optical spectra of indium-doped sodium borate glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kopyshinsky, O V; Zelensky, S E; Danilchenko, B A; Shakhov, O P

    2003-01-01

    The optical absorption and luminescence properties of indium-doped sodium borate glass irradiated by gamma-rays and by powerful UV lasers within the impurity-related absorption band are investigated experimentally. It is demonstrated that both the laser- and gamma-irradiation cause similar transformations of optical spectra in the UV and visible regions. The changes of the spectra observed are described with the use of a model which includes three types of impurity centres formed by differently charged indium ions.

  8. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium -Bearing Waste (FY2001 WM-180)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.K.

    2001-09-21

    A systematic study was undertaken to develop a glass composition to demonstrate the vitrification flowsheet of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's sodium bearing waste (SBW) using the latest WM-180 tank composition. Although the previous study did not restrict waste loadings (WLs) based on the potential to form a segregated salt layer, avoiding its development in a melter is beneficial and was the primary focus from the glass-formulation perspective. The testing results described in this report were aimed at providing a candidate glass composition for use in a scaled melter demonstration of direct vitrification of WM-180 in the Research Scale Melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the EV-16 melter at the Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory.

  9. Influence of fining agents on glass melting: A review, Part 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hujová, Miroslava; Vernerová, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2017), s. 202-208 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melting * sodium sulphate * chemical reactions * gas evolution * dissolution * fining * bubble nucleation * foaming Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2016

  10. Influence of fining agents on glass melting: A review, Part 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hujová, Miroslava; Vernerová, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2017), s. 119-126 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melting * sodium sulphate * chemical reactions * gas evolution * dissolution * fining * bubble nucleation * foaming Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2016

  11. Dextran sulphate crowding and sodium deoxycholate lysis of primary breast fibroblast cells achieve extracellular matrix deposition and decellularization for breast cancer stem cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroem Naruni

    2016-01-01

    .Extracellular matrix provides tissue integrity, acts as a native scaffold for cell attachment and interaction and alsoserves as reservoir for growth factors. The aim of this experiment w asto achieve the deposition and decellularizationof ECM.Methods: Cells crowder have been developed to increase ECM deposit in the primary breast fibroblast cells layerobtained from isolation of single cell from breast mammoplasty specimen. Five hundred kDa dextran was addedinto DMEM medium containing 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS and 100 μm of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Afterseven days, cells were lysed by sodium deoxycholate (DOC. Results were observed in a fluorescence microscope.Results: Extracellular matrix deposition and decellularization of primary breast fibroblast cells were detected byusing extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin via rabbit anti human fibronectin and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated withAlexa Fluor 488.Conclusion: Dextran sulphate increased extracellular matrix deposit in primary breast fibroblast cell layer and thetreatment with sodium deoxycolate lysed cells resulted in extracellular matrix decellularization. (Health ScienceJournal of Indonesia 2015;6:43-7Keywords: extracellular matrix, breast cancer stem cell, breast fibroblast cell

  12. Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ doped sodium-tellurite glasses: Judd-Ofelt analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawlud, Saman Q.; Ameen, Mudhafar M.; Sahar, Md. Rahim; Mahraz, Zahra Ashur Said; Ahmed, Kasim F.

    2017-07-01

    Modifying the optical response of rare earth doped inorganic glasses for diverse optical applications is the current challenge in materials science and technology. We report the enhancement of the visible emissions of the Sm3+ ions doped sodium-tellurite (TNS) glasses. The impacts of varying Sm3+ ions concentration on the spectroscopic properties of such glass samples are evaluated. Synthesized glass samples are characterized via emission and absorption measurements. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra revealed nine absorption peaks which are assigned to the transitions from the ground level (6H5/2) to 6P3/2, 4I11/2, 6F11/2, 6F9/2, 6F7/2, 6F5/2, 6F3/2, 6H15/2 and 6F1/2 excited energy levels of Sm3+ ions. Emission spectra of the prepared glass under 404 nm excitation wavelength consisted of four bands centered at 561 nm, 598 nm, 643 nm and 704 nm which are originated from 4G5/2→6HJ (J = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2) transitions. The experimental oscillator strengths, fexp are calculated from the area under absorption bands. Using Judd-Ofelt theory and fit process of least square, the phenomenological intensity parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4, 6) are obtained. In order to evaluate potential applications of Sm3+ ions in telluride glasses, the spectroscopic parameters: radiative transition probability AR, branching ratio BR, radiative life time τr and stimulated emission cross section σλ for each band are calculated. These glass compositions could be a potential candidate for lasers.

  13. Rosmarinic acid suppresses colonic inflammation in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced mice via dual inhibition of NF-κB and STAT3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bo-Ram; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Cheon, Se-Yun; Lee, Minho; Hwang, Soonjae; Noh Hwang, Sam; Rhee, Ki-Jong; An, Hyo-Jin

    2017-04-06

    Ulcerative colitis (UC), a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon. Although UC is generally treated with anti-inflammatory drugs or immunosuppressants, most of these treatments often prove to be inadequate. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic ester included in various medicinal herbs such as Salvia miltiorrhiz and Perilla frutescens. Although RA has many biological and pharmacological activities, the anti-inflammatory effect of RA in colonic tissue remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying molecular mechanism of RA in mice with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In the DSS-induced colitis model, RA significantly reduced the severity of colitis, as assessed by disease activity index (DAI) scores, colonic damage, and colon length. In addition, RA resulted in the reduction of the inflammatory-related cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-22, and protein levels of COX-2 and iNOS in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Furthermore, RA effectively and pleiotropically inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation, and subsequently reduced the activity of pro-survival genes that depend on these transcription factors. These results demonstrate that RA has an ameliorative effect on colonic inflammation and thus a potential therapeutic role in colitis.

  14. Pharmacological Inhibition of Gal-3 in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhances Their Capacity to Promote Alternative Activation of Macrophages in Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Simovic Markovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs reduces the severity of dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS- induced colitis. MSCs are able to secrete Galectin-3 (Gal-3, a protein known to affect proliferation, adhesion, and migration of immune cells. We investigate whether newly synthetized inhibitor of Gal-3 (Davanat will affect production of Gal-3 in MSCs and enhance their potential to attenuate DSS-induced colitis. Pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3 in MSCs enhances their capacity to promote alternative activation of peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Injection of MSCs cultured in the presence of Davanat increased concentration of IL-10 in sera of DSS-treated animals and markedly enhanced presence of alternatively activated and IL-10 producing macrophages in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3 in MSCs significantly attenuates concentration of Gal-3 in sera of DSS-treated animals, indicating that MSCs produce Gal-3 in this disease. In conclusion, our findings indicate that Davanat could be used for improvement of MSC-mediated polarization towards immunosuppressive M2 phenotype of macrophages.

  15. Pharmacological Inhibition of Gal-3 in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhances Their Capacity to Promote Alternative Activation of Macrophages in Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovic Markovic, Bojana; Nikolic, Aleksandar; Gazdic, Marina; Nurkovic, Jasmin; Djordjevic, Irena; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Lukic, Miodrag L.; Volarevic, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduces the severity of dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. MSCs are able to secrete Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a protein known to affect proliferation, adhesion, and migration of immune cells. We investigate whether newly synthetized inhibitor of Gal-3 (Davanat) will affect production of Gal-3 in MSCs and enhance their potential to attenuate DSS-induced colitis. Pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3 in MSCs enhances their capacity to promote alternative activation of peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Injection of MSCs cultured in the presence of Davanat increased concentration of IL-10 in sera of DSS-treated animals and markedly enhanced presence of alternatively activated and IL-10 producing macrophages in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3 in MSCs significantly attenuates concentration of Gal-3 in sera of DSS-treated animals, indicating that MSCs produce Gal-3 in this disease. In conclusion, our findings indicate that Davanat could be used for improvement of MSC-mediated polarization towards immunosuppressive M2 phenotype of macrophages. PMID:27057168

  16. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 by a barbiturate-nitrate hybrid ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis: effect on inflammation-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Shane; Wang, Jun; Pigott, Maria T; Docherty, Neil; Boyle, Noreen; Lis, Samuel Kana; Gilmer, John F; Medina, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is up-regulated in ulcerative colitis and implicated in the pathology of the disease. In this study, we have examined the effects of a barbiturate-based MMP inhibitor incorporating a nitric oxide donor/mimetic group (dinitrate-barbiturate) on the intestinal injury induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). In vivo experiments were carried out using male Wistar rats given 5% DSS ad libitum in drinking water. The dinitrate-barbiturate, non-nitrate equivalent, nitrate side chains alone or vehicle were administered rectally, twice daily. MMP-9 release was measured by gelatin zymography, and analysis of gene expression was carried out using RT-qPCR. TaqMan low density arrays were used to evaluate the expression of 91 inflammatory genes in the rat colon. The dinitrate-barbiturate inhibited the induction and activity of MMP-9 during DSS colitis in the rat. This occurred in association with significant reductions in the colitic response to DSS as assessed by an established clinical disease activity index and a pathological colitis grade score. The compound modified expression rates of numerous inflammation-related genes in the colon. This study demonstrated the efficacy of the dinitrate-barbiturate in DSS-induced colitis. Therefore, barbiturate-nitrate hybrids may be developed as a promising anti-inflammatory approach to the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Effect of sodium chloride on the glass transition of condensed starch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the structural properties of condensed potato starch-sodium chloride systems undergoing a thermally induced glass transition. Sample preparation included hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min to produce extensive starch gelatinisation. Materials covered a range of moisture contents from 3.6% to 18.8%, which corresponded to relative humidity values of 11% and 75%. Salt addition was up to 6.0% in formulations. Instrumental work was carried out with dynamic mechanical analysis in tension, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Experimental conditions ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of sodium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Sodium ions interact with chemical moieties of the polysaccharide chain to alter considerably structural properties, as compared to the starch-water matrix. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Comparison of the Remineralizing Effects of Sodium Fluoride and Bioactive Glass Using Bioerodible Gel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiguppe Ramashetty Prabhakar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. A carious lesion is the accumulation of numerous episodes of de- and remineralization, rather than a unidirectional demineralization process. Tooth destruction can be arrested or reversed by the frequent delivery of fluoride or calcium/phosphorous ions to the tooth surface. The present study compared and evaluated the remineralization potential of sodium fluoride and bioactive glass delivered through a bioerodible gel system. Materials and methods. Longitudinal sections of artificial carious lesions, created at the gingivofacial surface of 64 primary maxillary incisors were photographed under a polarized light microscope and quantified for demineralization. The sections were repositioned into the tooth form and randomly mounted in sets of four that simulated an arch form. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: 1 sodium fluoride films, 2 bioactive glass films, 3 control films placed interproximally and 4 nontreatment group. Following exposure to artificial saliva for 30 days, the lesions were again photographed and quantified as above. The recorded values were statistically analyzed using Student’s paired t-test for intragroup comparison, one-way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey’s test for pairwise comparison. Results. The sodium fluoride and bioactive gel groups showed significant remineralization compared with the control groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion. Bioerodible gel films can be used to deliver remineralizing agents to enhance remineralization.

  19. A high energy x-ray diffraction investigation of sodium phosphate glasses doped with less than 5 mol% praseodymium oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kailing

    Rare earth phosphate glasses (REPGs) are excellent materials for high energy (103 - 106 J) / high peak power ( 1012 - 1015 W) lasers. Previous work of the rare earth doped sodium phosphate glasses with compositions (R 2O3)x(Na2O)y(P2O 5)1-x-y where R= Nd, Eu and Dy, 0.04 doped sodium phosphate glasses with even lower praseodymium oxide concentrations, (Pr2O 3)x(Na2O)yP2O5) 1-x-y , where 0.005 atomic-scale structure of the rare-earth doped sodium phosphate glass samples. Structural features such as inter-atomic distances, coordination numbers and their dependence on the concentration of the rare earth oxides were gained from analyzing pair distribution functions extracted from diffraction data.

  20. Prevention of Chronic Experimental Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulphate Sodium (DSS in Mice Treated with FR91

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter R. M. Lombardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main treatments currently used in humans to fight cancer is chemotherapy. A huge number of compounds with antitumor activity are present in nature, and many of their derivatives are produced by microorganisms. However, the search for new drugs still represents a main objective for cancer therapy, due to drug toxicity and resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. In animal models, a short-time oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS induces colitis, which exhibits several clinical and histological features similar to ulcerative colitis (UC. However, the pathogenic factors responsible for DSS-induced colitis and the subsequent colon cancer also remain unclear. We investigated the effect of FR91, a standardized lysate of microbial cells belonging to the Bacillus genus which has been previously shown to have significant immunomodulatory effects, against intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice during 5 weeks by oral administration 2% (DSS. Morphological changes in the colonic mucosa were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry methods. Adenocarcinoma and cryptal cells of the dysplastic epithelium showed cathenin-β, MLH1, APC, and p53 expression, together with increased production of IFN-γ. In our model, the optimal dose response was the 20% FR91 concentration, where no histological alterations or mild DSS-induced lesions were observed. These results indicate that FR91 may act as a chemopreventive agent against inflammation in mice DSS-induced colitis.

  1. Evolutions of Molecular Oxygen Formation and Sodium Migration in Xe Ion Irradiated Borosilicate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Duofei F.; Lv, Peng; Zhang, Jiandong; Du, Xing; Yuan, Wei; Nan, Shuai; Zhu, Zihua; Wang, Tieshan

    2016-07-23

    The modifications of a commercial borosilicate glass induced by Xe ion irradiation have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and ToF-SIMS depth profiling. A decrease in the average Si–O–Si angle, an increase in the population of three-membered rings and an increase of the glass polymerization are evidenced. The molecular oxygen appears in the irradiated glasses after the irradiation fluence reaches approximately 1015 ions/cm2. The O2 concentration decreaseswith the depth of irradiated glass at the ion fluence of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2. A sodiumdepleted layer at the surface and a depleted zone at around the penetration depth of 5 MeV Xe ions are observed. The thickness of the sodium depleted layer increases with the irradiation fluence. Moreover, comparing with previous results after electron and Ar ion irradiation, it can be concluded that the nuclear energy deposition can partially inhibit the formation of molecular oxygen and increase the threshold value of electron energy deposition for the molecular oxygen formation.

  2. Structural and luminescence studies of Ho3+-doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachary, K.; Rajesh, D.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2015-06-01

    Trivalent holmium doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and characterized for their structural and luminescence properties. The amorphous nature, elemental analysis and thermal stability of the glasses were studied by using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, respectively. The absorption and fluorescence spectra have been recorded at room temperature. Based on the absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative parameters such as spontaneous transition probabilities (AR), branching ratios (βR), radiative lifetimes (τR) were calculated and discussed. From the emission spectra emission peak positions (λP), effective bandwidths (Δλeff) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σP) were calculated for the observed emission transitions,5S2 (5F4→5I8) and 5F5→5I8 in all the glass samples. The stimulated emission cross-section is higher for ZANPHo10 glass matrix and so it may be useful for laser excitation.

  3. Stress analyses for the glass joints of contemporary sodium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Keeyoung; Lee, Solki; Kim, Goun; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2014-12-01

    During the manufacturing and thermal cycles of advanced contemporary large sized sodium sulfur (NaS) batteries, thermally driven stresses can be applied to the glass sealing joints, which may result in catastrophic cell failure. To minimize the thermal stresses at the joints, there is a need to develop a method to properly estimate the maximum thermal stresses by varying the materials properties and shapes of the sealing area, and thereby determine the properties and shapes of sealing material at the joints. In the present study, the optimum coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the glass sealant and end shape of the glass sealing area (i.e., concave, flat, and convex shapes) have been determined using the finite-element analysis (FEA) computation technique. The results showed that the CTE value of 7.8 × 10-6 K-1 with a convex end shape would have the lowest stress concentration in the vicinity of glass sealing joints for the prototype tubular NaS cell design adopted in this work.

  4. STRUCTURE FEATURES OF THE SODIUM-GERMANATE GLASSES DOPED WITH YTTERBIUM ERBIUM RETRIEVED FROM RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Sevastianova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with study of Raman spectra and luminescence spectra in the visible region of the sodium-germanate glass: 49 GeO2 – 13 Na2O – 27 Yb2O3 – 11 La2O3 - 0,25 Er2O3 and presents research results. In addition, this glass is doped with 5 mol% of the following components MgO, BaO, Al2O3, PbO, Nb2O5, TiO2, SiO2, P2O5 in order to study the effect of these additives on the structure of the glassy matrix and the anti-Stokes luminescence spectra of erbium ions. Method. Raman scatteringspectra were recorded by Renishaw inVia Raman Microscope. Excitation source is a helium neon laser (λ= 633 nm with power equal to 50Wt. Anti-Stokes luminescence of erbium ions was registered in spectral region of 450–750 nm at room temperature (excitation laser wavelength is 975 nm, power is 1Wt. Main Results. It was shown that the structure of the initial glass does not change with the introduction of niobium as Nb2O5 in any coordination plays a role of network forming, building a single mixed grid with tetrahedrons [GeO4]. Introduction of the second glass former P2O5 leads to loosening germanate structure due to the appearance of the phosphate sublattice. This leads to a redistribution of the relative intensity of up-conversion luminescence bands with maxima at 540 and 670 nm compared with the initial glass. Introduction of additives PbO, MgO, Al2O3, TiO2 results in a multicenter structure. In case of titanium oxide addition it leads to a change in the relative intensities of the erbium luminescence.

  5. Electrogastrography in experimental pigs: the influence of gastrointestinal injury induced by dextran sodium sulphate on porcine gastric erythromycin-stimulated myoelectric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachecí, Ilja; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Kunes, Martin; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Pavlik, Michal; Kopacova, Marcela; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Bures, Jan; Pleskot, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive investigation of gastric myoelectrical activity. The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of erythromycin on EGG in gastrointestinal toxic injury induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in experimental pigs. The experiments were carried out on 12 adult pigs (weighing 30-35 kg). EGG was recorded using Digitrapper equipment (Synectics Medical AB, Stockholm). Running spectrum activity was used for EGG evaluation. There were two groups of animals: Group I: 6 controls with erythromycin administration (1,600 mg intragastrically); Group II: 6 animals treated with DSS (for 5 days, 0.25 g/kg per day in a dietary bolus) followed by erythromycin administration. Baseline and subsequent six separate 30-minute EGG-recordings (from time 0 to 360 min) were accomplished in each animal. A total of 84 records were analysed. Baseline dominant frequency of slow waves was fully comparable in both groups. In Group I, there was a significant increase in dominant frequency after erythromycin administration (maximum between 240-360 min). There was a flat non-significant and delayed increase in dominant frequency after erythromycin administration in Group II. The difference between Group I and II at particular time intervals was not significant but a diverse trend was evident. EGG recording enables us to register a gastric myoelectrical effect of prokinetic drugs. Erythromycin induced a significant increase in the dominant frequency of slow waves. DSS caused toxic injury to the porcine gastrointestinal tract responsible for the delayed and weaker myoelectrical effect of erythromycin in experimental animals.

  6. Characteristics and environmental fate of the anionic surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulphate (SLES) used as the main component in foaming agents for mechanized tunnelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra Caracciolo, Anna; Cardoni, Martina; Pescatore, Tanita; Patrolecco, Luisa

    2017-07-01

    The anionic surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulphate (SLES) is the main component of most commercial products used for soil conditioning in the excavation industry, in particular as lubricants for mechanized tunnelling. Its use during the excavation processes can result in either the subsequent possible re-use of the huge amount of soil debris as by-products (e.g. land covering) or its discharge as waste. Currently, there are neither SLES soil threshold limits in European legislation, nor comprehensive studies on the environmental risk for soil ecosystems in these exposure scenarios. In this context, the present paper reviews the available data on the intrinsic characteristics of persistence and the ecotoxicological effects of the anionic surfactant SLES. Although SLES is generally reported to be biodegradable in standard tests, with degradation rates between 7 h and 30 days, depending on the initial conditions, data on its biodegradation in environmental studies are quite scarce. Consequently, assessing SLES biodegradation rates in field conditions is crucial for evaluating if in residual concentrations (typically in the range 40-500 mg/kg in excavated soils) it can or not be a potential hazard for terrestrial and water organisms. Laboratory ecotoxicological tests pointed out detrimental effects of SLES for aquatic organisms, while data on the terrestrial species are rather poor so far and further studies at the expected environmental concentrations are necessary. Finally, the review reports the main analytical methods available for detecting anionic surfactants in solid matrices and the future research needed to improve knowledge on the possible environmental risks posed by the use of SLES in foaming agents for mechanized tunnelling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unique gene expression and MR T2 relaxometry patterns define chronic murine dextran sodium sulphate colitis as a model for connective tissue changes in human Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Breynaert

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronically relapsing inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in connective tissue in a chronic murine model resulting from repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS ingestion, to mimic the relapsing nature of the human disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water for 1 week, followed by a recovery phase of 2 weeks. This cycle of exposure was repeated for up to 3 times (9 weeks in total. Colonic inflammation, fibrosis, extracellular matrix proteins and colonic gene expression were studied. In vivo MRI T 2 relaxometry was studied as a potential non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate bowel wall inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS: Repeated cycles of DSS resulted in a relapsing and remitting disease course, which induced a chronic segmental, transmural colitis after 2 and 3 cycles of DSS with clear induction of fibrosis and remodeling of the muscular layer. Tenascin expression mirrored its expression in Crohn's colitis. Microarray data identified a gene expression profile different in chronic colitis from that in acute colitis. Additional recovery was associated with upregulation of unique genes, in particular keratins, pointing to activation of molecular pathways for healing and repair. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry of the colon showed a clear shift towards higher T2 values in the acute stage and a gradual regression of T2 values with increasing cycles of DSS. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated cycles of DSS exposure induce fibrosis and connective tissue changes with typical features, as occurring in Crohn's disease. Colonic gene expression analysis revealed unique expression profiles in chronic colitis compared to acute colitis and after additional recovery, pointing to potential new targets to intervene with the induction of fibrosis. In vivo T2 relaxometry is a promising non-invasive assessment of

  8. Thermo-physical and structural studies of sodium zinc borovanadate glasses in the region of high concentration of modifier oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chethana, B.K. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Reddy, C. Narayana [Maharani' s Science College for Women, Bangalore 560 001 (India); Rao, K.J., E-mail: kalyajrao@yahoo.co.in [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Highly modified sodium zinc borovanadate glasses. ► Structural model for borovanadate glasses. ► Network forming tendency of ZnO in borovanadate glasses. ► Fragility can be limited to NBO concentration in borovanadate glasses. -- Abstract: This paper reports investigation of Na{sub 2}O and ZnO modified borovanadate glasses in the highly modified regime of compositions. These glasses have been prepared by microwave route. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible, infrared (IR), Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopies have been used to characterize the speciation in the glasses. Together with the variation of properties such as molar volume and glass transition temperatures, spectroscopic data indicate that at high levels of modification, ZnO tends to behave like network former. It is proposed that the observed variation of all the properties can be reasonably well understood with a structural model. The model considers that the modification and speciation in glasses are strongly determined by the hierarchy of group electronegativities. Further, it is proposed that the width of the transitions of glasses obtained under same condition reflects the fragility of the glasses. An empirical expression has been suggested to quantify fragility on the basis of width of the transition regions.

  9. Stability of Pantoprazole Sodium in Glass Vials, Polyvinyl Chloride Minibags, and Polypropylene Syringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pantoprazole sodium, a proton-pump inhibitor, is approved for the short-term treatment of several types of ulcer, Zollinger–Ellison syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Objective: To determine the physical compatibility and chemical stability of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA)–free pantoprazole in glass vials, polypropylene syringes, and polyvinylchloride (PVC) minibags, after storage at 2°C to 8°C with protection from light or at 20°C to 25°C with exposure to light. Methods: Solutions of pantoprazole 4 mg/mL reconstituted in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) were stored in glass vials at 20°C to 25°C. Similar solutions were transferred to polypropylene syringes and stored at 2°C to 8°C. Stock solution was further diluted, in 5% dextrose in water (D5W) or NS, to 0.4 or 0.8 mg/mL, and samples were then packaged in PVC minibags for storage at 2°C to 8°C or at 20°C to 25°C. Samples collected on days 0, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 were analyzed in duplicate with a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Results: Pantoprazole 4 mg/mL was stable (i.e., retained at least 90% of initial concentration) for 3 days when stored in glass vials at 20°C to 25°C or for 28 days when stored in polypropylene syringes at 2°C to 8°C. Pantoprazole 0.4 mg/mL diluted in D5W and stored in PVC minibags was stable for 2 days at 20°C to 25°C or for 14 days at 2°C to 8°C. At 0.8 mg/mL, pantoprazole in D5W was stable for 3 days at 20°C to 25°C or 28 days at 2°C to 8°C. Pantoprazole diluted to either 0.4 or 0.8 mg/mL in NS and stored in PVC minibags was stable for 3 days at 20°C to 25°C or 28 days at 2°C to 8°C. Conclusions: The present study confirmed or extended previously reported expiry dates for pantoprazole sodium packaged in glass vials, polypropylene syringes, and PVC minibags. PMID:22479054

  10. Synthesis and different optical properties of Gd2O3 doped sodium zinc tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Buddhadev; Dutta, Dibakar; Ghosh, Subhankar

    2017-06-01

    A series of Gd2O3 doped sodium zinc tellurite [xGd2O3-(0.8-x) TeO2-0.1Na2O-0.1ZnO] glasses are prepared by the conventional melt quenching method and their optical properties have been studied. UV-vis spectrophotometric studies within the wavelength range from 230 nm-800 nm are carried out in the integrating sphere mode to study the effect of Gd2O3 doping on the optical band gap (Eg), refractive index (n), dielectric constant (εr) and susceptibility (χ). Other physical properties like molar volume, molar refraction, polarizability, metallization criterion, number density of rare-earth ions (N), polaron radius (rp), inter ionic distance (ri), molar cation polarizability (∑αi), number of oxide ions in chemical composition (NO2-), optical band gap based electronic oxide ion polarizability (αO2-) and optical basicity (Λ) of glass samples have been studied on the basis of UV-vis spectra and density profile of the different glasses.

  11. K+-Na+ ion-exchanged sodium magnesium aluminum germanate glass waveguide amplifier operating in the first telecommunications window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dianlai; Zhang, Jie; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Lin, Hai

    2010-12-01

    Potassium-sodium (K+-Na+) ion-exchanged multimode channel waveguide amplifiers have been fabricated based on Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped sodium magnesium aluminum germanate (NMAG) glass substrates. The normalized optical and relative gain coefficients of a 2.20 cm long device were identified to be 3.65 dB/cm and 1.58 dB/cm, respectively, at a signal wavelength of 810 nm under 457 mW 980 nm laser diode excitation. These are the highest values reported, and the results indicate that Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped NMAG glasses are an attractive material for optical amplification in the first telecommunications window.

  12. Absorption and fluorescence studies of Sm{sup 3+} ions in lead containing sodium fluoroborate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhukar Reddy, C.; Dillip, G.R.; Mallikarjuna, K.; Zulifiqar Ali Ahamed, Sd. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Sudhakar Reddy, B. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara Degree College, Kadapa 516003 (India); Deva Prasad Raju, B., E-mail: drdevaprasadraju@gmail.co [Department of Future Studies, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Lead containing calcium zinc sodium fluoroborate glasses (LCZSFB) with molar composition of 20PbO+5CaO+5ZnO+10NaF+(60-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+x Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (x=0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%) were prepared and investigated by the XRD, FTIR, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay curve analysis. Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to the experimental oscillator strengths to evaluate the phenomenological J-O intensity parameters {Omega}{sub {lambda}} ({lambda}=2, 4 and 6). Using the J-O intensity parameters as well as from the emission and decay measurements, various radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (A{sub R}), radiative lifetimes ({tau}{sub R}), measured lifetimes ({tau}{sub m}), calculated branching ratios ({beta}{sub R}), measured branching ratios ({beta}{sub m}), effective bandwidth ({Delta}{lambda}{sub eff}) and stimulated emission cross sections {sigma}({lambda}{sub p}) have been calculated for the excited {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} luminescent level. The nature of decay curves of {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} level for different Sm{sup 3+} ion concentrations in all LCZSFB glasses has been analyzed and the lifetimes are noticed to decrease with increase of concentration. The concentration quenching has been attributed to the energy transfer through the cross-relaxation between Sm{sup 3+} ions. Based on these results, the utility of Sm{sup 3+} ions doped lead containing fluoroborate glasses as laser active materials in the visible region is discussed. - Highlights: {yields} In this study, we prepared LCZSFB glasses for different concentrations of Sm{sup 3+} ions. {yields} We characterize the prepared glasses with XRD, FTIR, absorption, emission and decay curve analysis. {yields} We used Judd-Ofelt theory to calculate oscillator strengths, J-O intensity parameters and different radiative properties. {yields} In this study, we conclude that Sm{sup 3+}-doped LCZSFB glasses are useful for the development of lasers and photonic devices in the visible region.

  13. In vitro bioactivity of soda lime borate glasses with substituted SrO in sodium phosphate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Marzouk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Borate glasses with the basic composition 0.6B2O3·0.2Na2O·0.2CaO and SrO progressively substituting CaO were prepared and characterized for their bone-bonding ability. The obtained glasses were thermally treated and converted to their glass-ceramic derivatives. In this study, FTIR spectral analyses were done for the prepared glasses and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in a sodium phosphate solution for extended times. The appearance of two IR bands within the spectral range 550–680 cm-1 after immersion confirms the formation of hydroxyapatite. X-ray diffraction studies and scanning electron microscope analysis supported the obtained infrared spectroscopy results. The solubility test (measurements of the weight loss in aqueous sodium phosphate solution was conducted for measuring the dissolution of both glassy and crystalline derivatives to find out the role of SrO. The corrosion behaviour of the glasses and glass-ceramics indicate the increase of weight loss with the increase of SrO content. Different suggested proposals were introduced to explain this abnormal behaviour.

  14. A comparison of extracted proteins of isolates of Dermatophilus congolensis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, A A; Gyles, C L

    1999-07-01

    Antigenic diversity within a collection of 18 isolates of Dermatophilus congolensis from different Continents was examined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and by Western blotting with sera from cattle with clinical dermatophilosis using whole cell extracts obtained by three methods and one extract of extracellular products of D. congolensis. One of the methods involving the release of a lysostaphin-solubilized protein (LSP) of whole cells of D. congolensis revealed a number of discrete and easily-identifiable bands in SDS-PAGE which were found suitable for characterizing protein patterns and was, therefore, subsequently used for a comparative analysis of the proteins of all the D. congolensis isolates. Six electropherotypes (ET) of D. congolensis were identified among the 18 isolates using the protein profiles based on the presence of four protein bands at Molecular weights (MW) 62, 28, 17.4 and 16.4 kDa. The ETs were found among isolates from different animal species and from different sources with ET1 consisting of three bovine and two equine isolates; ET2, two bovine and three ovine isolates; ET3, two bovine isolates; ET4, two bovine isolates; ET5, one bovine and one ovine isolates and ET6, two bovine isolates. Immunoblotting of the extracts of D. congolensis isolates with sera from cattle with clinical dermatophilosis infection demonstrated protein bands of MW ranging from 9 kDa to 188 kDa. Sera from chronic dermatophilosis infection demonstrated a 28 kDa protein which was immunodominant in the LSP extracts of all the 18 isolates of D. congolensis tested while sera from mild infections demonstrated mainly the 62 kDa protein in the same extracts. However, many protein bands were demonstrated in surface membrane (TSMP) and extracellular protein extracts with sera from only mildly infected animals. The protein patterns observed in all isolates of D. congolensis revealed global antigenic similarities and distinct differences

  15. A novel Bi-doped borosilicate glass as sealant for sodium sulfur battery. Part 1: Thermophysical characteristics and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shufeng; Wen, Zhaoyin; Zhang, Qunxi; Liu, Yu

    A novel Bi-doped borosilicate glass has been developed as sealant for sodium sulfur battery. The thermophysical characteristics like thermal expansion coefficient, glass transition and softening temperatures, viscosities and densities of the Bi-doped and undoped glasses are systematically studied. It is found that the thermal expansion match between the Bi-doped glasses and alpha-alumina/beta-alumina is satisfactory. The Bi-doped glass has a viscosity around 10 5 Pa s in 800-850 °C range, which is suitable to allow a good bonding with the sealed parts. The FTIR analysis indicates that the substitution of Bi 2O 3 for SiO 2 makes the glass network less rigid. Bi 2O 3 builds the glass network as [BiO 6] unit. [BO 4] unit enters the glass network and induces the overlapped vibrations of [BO 4] unit and [SiO 4] tetrahedron. The Bi-doped glass sealant exhibits superior chemical compatibility with alpha-alumina and beta-alumina.

  16. Study on sodium water glass-based anti-reflective film and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Q.Z. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shi, J.F., E-mail: shijf@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wang, L.L.; Li, Y.J.; Zhong, L.W. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Xu, G., E-mail: xugang@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, anti-reflective (AR) films are prepared from sodium water glass with a simple dip-coating method. The effects of SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration of water glass, and withdrawal speed on the anti-reflection performance of the AR films are systematically studied. The optimized AR film is further applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical properties and surface morphology of AR films are analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. Transmittance of the glass coated with sodium water glass-based AR film is increased by 3.2% when the SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration, and withdrawal speed equal to 3.8, 5 wt%, and 80 mm/min, respectively. Under this condition, the thickness of the AR film is 127 nm and the AR film has obvious porous structure. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of DSC coated by AR film is increased from 7.92% to 8.24%, compared with the DSC without AR film. - Highlights: • Anti-reflective films are prepared from sodium water glass. • Transmittance of anti-reflective film is increased by 3.2%. • Efficiency of dye-sensitized cell is improved by anti-reflective film.

  17. Crystal Field Parameters and Optical Parameters of Nd3+ in Sodium Bismuth Silicate Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoy Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neodymium doped sodium bismuth silicate glasses were prepared by the melt quench technique. Optical absorption spectra of the Nd3+ion in the present glassy systems were recorded in the UV-Vis-NIR region. Taylor series expansion method was adopted for theoretical evaluation of various crystal field parameters such as the Slater-Condon (F2,F4,F6, spin orbit and Racah parameters (E1,E2,E3. Oscillator strength and electric dipole line strength of the observed transitions were evaluated with the help of Judd-Ofelt (JO theory. Radiative transition probability (A, total radiative transition probability (At, radiative life time (trad, branching ratios (b and integrated absorption (sa cross section for stimulated emission between the meta stable state 4F3/2 and 4IJ ( J= 15/2,13/2,11/2 and 9/2 levels were calculated using JO parameters. Optical basicity of the glass was found to increase with the addition of  bismuth.

  18. Investigating the effect of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition on sodium barium borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Rumu, E-mail: rumuhalder24feb@gmail.com; Sengupta, Pranesh; Dey, G. K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-700 085 (India); Sudarsan, V. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-700 085 (India); Kaushik, C. P. [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-700 085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    V{sub 2}O{sub 5} doped sodium barium borosilicate glasses were characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The glass remains homogeneous for lower concentration of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} but a phase separation is observed when V{sub 2}O{sub 5} doping is increased beyond 5 mol%. Detailed microanalysis reveals that the phase separated glass consists of a phase containing V, Ba and Si and a separate Si rich phase within the glass matrix. The luminescence study demonstrated that at low concentration the vanadium mainly interacts with the structural units of B/Si while at higher concentrations, V-O-V/ V-O{sup −} Na{sup +}/Ba{sup 2+} linkages are formed.

  19. Valence state control and third-order nonlinear optical properties of copper embedded in sodium borosilicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Weidong; Gao, Haihong; Ma, Li; Ma, Xin; Huang, Yunyun; Pei, Lang; Liang, Xiaojuan

    2015-05-20

    The integrated and transparent sodium borosilicate glasses that contain copper exhibiting different colors, that is, red, green, and blue were synthesized by combining the sol-gel process and heat treatment in H2 gas. To reveal substantially the cause of different colors in the glass, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) were systematically applied to investigate and determine the microstructure of the doped matter. The results showed three different crystals had formed in the red, green and blue glass, and the sizes of these crystals were range from 9 to 34, 1 to 6, and 1 to 5 nm, respectively. The valence state of copper was further analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The third-order nonlinear optical properties of the glasses were investigated by using Z-scan technique at the wavelength of 800 nm. Interestingly, the third-order nonlinear absorption of the red, green, and blue glass can be successfully controlled from reverse saturable absorption, no absorption to saturable absorption and the optical nonlinear susceptibility χ((3)) of the red, green and blue glass were estimated to be 6.4 × 10(-14), 1.6 × 10(-14), and 2.6 × 10(-14) esu in the single-pulse energy of 0.36 μJ, respectively.

  20. Effect of SrO content on the structure and properties of sodium-strontium metaphosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atef Cherbib, Mohamed; Khattech, Ismail; Montagne, Lionel; Revel, Bertrand; Jemal, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand the influence of SrO content on the structure, physical properties and thermochemistry of sodium-strontium metaphosphate glasses, a series of glasses having the formula (50-x) Na2O-x SrO-50 P2O5, with x ranging from 0% to 50% molar, have been prepared by melt quenching technique. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 31P Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance show the dominance of the metaphosphate species along the studied composition range, while increasing SrO led to the increase of the density, glass transition and crystallization temperatures and also the chemical durability, suggesting an increase of the reticulation of the phosphate network. The microcalorimetric dissolution in acid solution shows the decrease of the heat of dissolution as the SrO amount rises. Thermodynamic interpretations point out the occurrence of two composition domains, each one corresponding probably to the predominance of particular interactions.

  1. NIR fluorescence studies of Neodymium ions doped sodium fluoroborate glasses for 1.06μm laser applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhukar Reddy, C; Vijaya, N; Deva Prasad Raju, B

    2013-11-01

    The concentration dependent luminescence properties of Nd(3+) ions doped lead calcium zinc sodium fluoroborate (LCZSFB) glasses were prepared via a melt quenching technique and reported through optical absorption, NIR luminescence and lifetime measurements. The optical transition properties of Nd(3+) ions have been analyzed using Judd-Ofelt theory. The present glasses have high stimulated emission cross - sections, entail that they have high potential laser applications. The decay curves of all the glasses show single exponential behavior. The discrepancy between the experimental and calculated lifetimes of emitting level was ascribed to energy transfer through cross-relaxation. The estimated values of radiative and saturation intensity of (4)F3/2→(4)I11/2 transition indicates the favorable lasing action at 1.06μm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  3. Structure and crystallization kinetics of Li2O modified sodium-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Paramjyot Kumar; Pandey, O. P.; Singh, K.

    2015-08-01

    Glasses of 55P2O5sbnd (45 - x)Na2Osbnd xLi2O; (5 ⩽ x ⩽ 25) are synthesized by melt-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the as-quenched sample is confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The glass transition (Tg) and crystallization temperatures (Tc) are evaluated under non-isothermal conditions using the differential thermal analyzer (DTA). Crystallization kinetic of present glasses is studied using Kissinger's and Augis-Benett models. The activation energies for glass transition (Eg) and crystallization (Ec) increases up to 15 mol% of Li2O and after that decreases. 15 mol% Li2O contained glass exhibits minimum crystallization frequency, which indicates its higher thermodynamic and kinetic stability than other glasses. FTIR and Raman analysis confirmed the higher polymerization of phosphate groups in 15 mol% Li2O glass as compared to other glasses.

  4. Study of protein-probe interaction and protective action of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate in urea-denatured HSA using charge transfer fluorescence probe methyl ester of N,N-dimethylamino naphthyl acrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Subrata; Singh, Rupashree Balia; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2009-03-01

    We have demonstrated that the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) probe Methyl ester of N,N-dimethylamino naphthyl acrylic acid (MDMANA) serves as an efficient reporter of the proteinous microenvironment of Human Serum Albumin (HSA). This work reports the binding phenomenon of MDMANA with HSA and spectral modulation thereupon. The extent of binding and free energy change for complexation reaction along with efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer from Trp-214 of HSA to MDMANA indicates strong binding between probe and protein. Fluorescence anisotropy, red edge excitation shift, acrylamide quenching and time resolved measurements corroborate the binding nature of the probe with protein and predicts that the probe molecule is located at the hydrophobic site of the protein HSA. Due to the strong binding ability of MDMANA with HSA, it is successfully utilized for the study of stabilizing action of anionic surfactant Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate to the unfolding and folding of protein with denaturant urea in concentration range 1M to 9M.

  5. Synthesis, electrical and magnetic properties of sodium borosilicate glasses containing Co-ferrites nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, H.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shibin El-Kom 32511, Menoufia (Egypt); Eltabey, M.M. [Department of Basic Engineering Science, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University, Shibin El-Kom, Menoufia (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University (Saudi Arabia); Ibrahim, Samia E.; El-Deen, L.M. Sharaf; Elkholy, M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shibin El-Kom 32511, Menoufia (Egypt)

    2017-02-01

    Co-ferrites nanoparticles that have been prepared by the co-precipitation method were added to sodium borosilicate (Na{sub 2}O–B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2}) glass matrix by the solid solution method and they were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and magnetization measurements. (XRD) revealed the formation of the Co-ferrite magnetic crystalline phase embedded in an amorphous matrix in all the samples. The investigated samples by (TEM) showed the formation of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with a spherical shape and highly monodispersed with an average size about 13 nm. IR data revealed that the BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} are the main structural units of these samples network. IR spectra of the investigated samples showed the characteristic vibration bands of Co-ferrite. Composition and frequency dependent dielectric properties of the prepared samples were measured at room temperature in the frequency range 100–100 kHz. The conductivity was found to increase with increasing cobalt ferrite content. The variations of conductivity and dielectric properties with frequency and composition were discussed. Magnetic hysteresis loops were traced at room temperature using VSM and values of saturation magnetization M{sub S} and coercive field H{sub C} were determined. The obtained results revealed that a ferrimagnetic behavior were observed and as Co-ferrite concentration increases the values of M{sub S} and H{sub C} increase from 2.84 to 8.79 (emu/g) and from 88.4 to 736.3 Oe, respectively.

  6. Effect of Bi3+ ions on physical, thermal, spectroscopic and optical properties of Nd3+ doped sodium diborate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranna Gowda, V. C.

    2013-10-01

    Neodymium doped sodium diborate glasses containing bismuth oxide were prepared by melt quenching method. An effort has been made to understand whether the stiffness of tightly bound diborate groups affect upon the addition of heavy metal oxide. The increase in density and decrease in molar volume with increase of Bi2O3 content indicates the opening of diborate glass structure to achieve better packing and bonding. The mixed bonding such as Bi-O-B may occur during glass formation leads to decrease in its glass transition temperature. The increase in oxygen packing density values also indicates the existence of tight packing of the oxide network. The optical properties are measured using UV-visible spectroscopy. The increase in refractive index is attributed to the increasing number of highly polarizing Bi3+ ions with higher atomic weight and coordination number. The decrease in the optical band gap energy with increase in Bi2O3 content is ascribed to shifting of absorption edge to a longer wavelength region. The IR spectra reveal that the glass network consists of tightly bound diborate and BiO6 octahedral units.

  7. Structural and optical characteristics of Eu3+ ions in sodium-lead-zinc-lithium-borate glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagukguk, J.; Kaewkhao, J.; Djamal, M.; Hidayat, R.; Suprijadi; Ruangtaweep, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Structural and optical properties of Eu3+-doped sodium-lead-zinc-lithium-borate glasses (65-x)B2O3sbnd 15Na2Osbnd 10PbOsbnd 5ZnOsbnd 5Li2Osbnd xEu2O3 (where x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0) have been measured and analyzed by varying the Eu3+ ion concentrations. The physical parameters such as polaron radius, field strength and inter nuclear distance have been determined from measurements of densities and refractive indices. The structural properties of the prepared borate glasses were analyzed based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR instruments. The diffraction spectra show no characteristic peaks in these glasses, which indicates the amorphous nature of the glasses. The infrared spectrum of the Eu3+-doped sodium-lead-zinc-lithium-borate glass systems show three disparate regions for active absorption band around 830-860 cm-1, 1020-1040 cm-1 and 1170-1180 cm-1. The electronic transitions in the UV-vis and NIR regions are assigned to the 7F0 → 5D4, 7F0 → 5G2, 7F0 → 5L6, 7F0 → 5D3, 7F0 → 5D2, 7F0 → 5D1, 7F0 → 5D07F1 → 5D07F0 → 7F6 and 7F1 → 7F6 levels centered at 362 nm, 380 nm, 395 nm, 414 nm, 465 nm, 533 nm, 583 nm, 590 nm 2092 nm and 2202 nm respectively. Five transition bands of luminescence spectra have been observed by using an excited wavelength of 395 nm. The luminescence intensity ratio (R) of 5D0 → 7F2 (electric dipole) transition to 5D0 → 7F1 (magnetic dipole) transition has been determined to obtain the strength of the covalent/ionic bond between the Eu3+ ions and the surrounding ligands. Radiative life time and emission color of the glasses were estimated and compared with other literature data by varying Eu3+ concentrations. The experimental lifetime of the 5D0 level was found to increase with increasing Eu3+ ion content, suggesting higher non-radiative energy transfer among Eu3+ ions in the glasses.

  8. Unique crystallization behavior of sodium manganese pyrophosphate Na2MnP2O7 glass and its electrochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morito Tanabe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization behavior of Na2MnP2O7 precursor glass was examined. Layered type Na2MnP2O7 was formed at 461 °C for 3 h in N2 filled electric furnace. Irreversible phase change was confirmed from layered Na2MnP2O7 to β-Na2MnP2O7 over 600 °C. At 650 °C crystallized phase was completely changed to β-phase. By means of charge and discharge testing it is found that layered Na2MnP2O7 is also active as cathode in sodium ion batteries. We found glass-ceramics technology is one of the suitable process for the synthesis of layered Na2MnP2O7 cathode without any complicate process.

  9. Structural and luminescence studies of Ho{sup 3+}-doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahmachary, K.; Rajesh, D.; Ratnakaram, Y. C., E-mail: ratnakaramsvu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517502 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Trivalent holmium doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and characterized for their structural and luminescence properties. The amorphous nature, elemental analysis and thermal stability of the glasses were studied by using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, respectively. The absorption and fluorescence spectra have been recorded at room temperature. Based on the absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative parameters such as spontaneous transition probabilities (A{sub R}), branching ratios (β{sub R}), radiative lifetimes (τ{sub R}) were calculated and discussed. From the emission spectra emission peak positions (λ{sub P}), effective bandwidths (Δλ{sub eff}) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ{sub P}) were calculated for the observed emission transitions,{sup 5}S{sub 2} ({sup 5}F{sub 4}→{sup 5}I{sub 8}) and {sup 5}F{sub 5}→{sup 5}I{sub 8} in all the glass samples. The stimulated emission cross-section is higher for ZANPHo10 glass matrix and so it may be useful for laser excitation.

  10. Optical, structural and thermal properties of sodium metaphosphate glasses containing Bi2O3 with interactions of gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, M. A.; ElBatal, F. H.; ElBadry, K. M.; ElBatal, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Sodium metaphosphate glasses with successive increasing added Bi2O3 contents (5-40%) were prepared to improve their chemical stability and increase their optical and thermal properties through the additional building BiO6 and BiO3 units. The optical spectrum of the base metaphosphate glass reveals strong UV absorption due to the presence of trace iron (Fe3 +) ions present as impurities. Glasses containing additional 5, 7.5 and 10% Bi2O3 show further band around 406 nm which can be related to absorption of Bi3 + ions. With increasing the Bi2O3 content, this near visible band is observed to disappear indicating peculiar behavior needing further work. Gamma irradiation causes only minor changes in the position of the strong UV peaks but an obvious induced visible broad band centered at 452-460 nm in the base and Bi2O3 containing glasses. This induced band is related to the generation of phosphorus oxygen hole center or non bridging oxygen hole center as revealed by various authors. FTIR results reveal characteristic vibrational bands due to phosphate groups and with the addition of Bi2O3, some interference of Bisbnd O vibrational units are expected. Gamma irradiation causes limited changes in the IR spectra due to suggested shielding effect of the heavy metal oxide Bi2O3.

  11. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997.

  12. REACTION PRODUCTS AND CORROSION OF MOLYBDENUM ELECTRODE IN GLASS MELT CONTAINING ANTIMONY OXIDES AND SODIUM SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIŘÍ MATĚJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The products on the interface of a molybdenum electrode and glass melt were investigated primarily at 1400°C in three model glass melts without ingredients, with 1 % Sb2O3 and with 1 % Sb2O3 and 0.5 % SO3 (wt. %, both under and without load by alternating current. Corrosion of the molybdenum electrode in glass melt without AC load is higher by one order of magnitude if antimony oxides are present. The corrosion continues to increase if sulfate is present in addition to antimony oxides. Isolated antimony droplets largely occur on the electrode-glass melt interface, and numerous droplets are also dissipated in the surrounding glass if only antimony oxides are present in the glass melt. A comparatively continuous layer of antimony occurs on the interface if SO3 is also present, antimony being always in contact with molybdenum sulfide. Almost no antimony droplets are dissipated in the glass melt. The total amount of precipitated antimony also increases. The presence of sulfide on the interface likely facilitates antimony precipitation. The reaction of molybdenum with antimony oxides is inhibited in sites covered by an antimony layer. The composition of sulfide layers formed at 1400°C approximates that of Mo2S3. At 1100°C, the sulfide composition approximates that of MoS4. Corrosion multiplies in the glass melt without additions through the effect of AC current, most molybdenum being separated in the form of metallic particles. Corrosion also increases in the glass melt containing antimony oxides. This is due to increased corrosion in the neighborhood of the separated antimony droplets. This mechanism also results in the loosening of molybdenum particles. The amount of precipitated antimony also increases through the effect of the AC current. AC exerts no appreciable effect on either corrosion, the character of the electrode-glass interface, or antimony precipitation in the glass melt containing SO3.

  13. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dawson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology.

  14. Effect of composition and pressure on the shear strength of sodium silicate glasses: An atomic scale simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Gergely; Ganster, Patrick; Tanguy, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The elastoplastic behavior of sodium silicate glasses is studied at different scales as a function of composition and pressure, with the help of quasistatic atomistic simulations. The samples are first compressed and then sheared at constant pressure to calculate yield strength and permanent plastic deformations. Changes occurring in the global response are then compared to the analysis of local plastic rearrangements and strain heterogeneities. It is shown that the plastic response results from the succession of well-identified localized irreversible deformations occurring in a nanometer-size area. The size and the number of these local rearrangements, as well as the amount of internal deviatoric and volumetric plastic deformation, are sensitive to the composition and to the pressure. In the early stages of the deformation, plastic rearrangements are driven by sodium mobility. Consequently, the elastic yield strength decreases when the sodium content increases, and the same when pressure increases. Finally, good correlation was found between global and local stress-strain relationships, reinforcing again the role of sodium ions as local initiators of the plastic behavior observed at larger scales.

  15. Synthesis and optical properties of CsC1-doped gallium-sodium-sulfide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlen, Markus P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bennett, Bryan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Darrick J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muenchausen, Ross E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Castro, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}S (GNS) glasses doped with CsCl were synthesized in open crucibles under inert atmosphere. The evaporative loss of CsCl during glass melting was measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and corrected for by biasing the CsCl concentration in the mixture of starting materials to obtain glasses with accurately controlled stoichiometry. Glass transition temperatures, refractive index dispersions, and band edge energies were measured for four GNS:CsCl glasses, and the respective values were found to significantly improve over earlier studies that did not mitigate CsCl evaporative losses. The refractive index dispersion measurements indicate that the Cs{sup +} and Cl{sup -} radii are 16% larger in GNS:CsCl glass than in bulk crystalline CsCl. The band edge energy increases from 2.97 eV in GNS glass to 3.32 eV in GNS glass doped with 20 mol% CsCl as a result of introducing Cl{sup -} ions having a large optical electronegativity. The large bandgap of 3.32 eV and the low (450 cm{sup -1}) phonon energy make GNS:20%CsCl an attractive host material for rare-earth ions with radiative transitions in the near ultra-violet, visible, and near-infrared spectral regions.

  16. LINEAR SOLVATION ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MLC SYSTEMS WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE MOBILE PHASES MODIFIED BY ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS OR CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markov, Vadym V.; Boichenko, Alexander P.; Loginova, Lidia P.

    2012-01-01

    The Linear Solvation Energy Relationships (LSER) have been successfully used for the modeling of partition and retention of the set of test compounds in different systems. The properties of micellar chromatographic systems with the mobile phases on the basis of sodium dodecylsulphate modified (ODS)

  17. Sol–gel synthesis and optical properties of CuGaS{sub 2} quantum dots embedded in sodium borosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Jiasong [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhao, Haijun; Zhang, Chenglong; Ma, Xin; Pei, Lang; Liang, Xiaojuan [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Xiang, Weidong, E-mail: xiangweidong001@126.com [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The CuGaS{sub 2} quantum dots doped sodium borosilicate glass was prepared by sol–gel methods. • The obtained glass was investigated by XRD, (S)TEM and XPS. • Tetragonal crystalline phase of CuGaS{sub 2} quantum dots with spherical shape were formed uniformly in the glass matrix. • The third-order optical nonlinearity was investigated by Z-scan technique. - Abstract: I–III–VI{sub 2} ternary semiconductor CuGaS{sub 2} quantum dots embedded in sodium borosilicate glass matrix were synthesized by combining the sol–gel process and heat treatment in H{sub 2}S gas. The structure and morphology of the obtained glass were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that tetragonal crystalline phase of CuGaS{sub 2} quantum dots with spherical shape were formed uniformly in the sodium borosilicate glass matrix, and the sizes ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average particle size of 12.75 nm. The optical nonlinearity was studied using Z-scan technique employing 200 fs at the wavelength of 800 nm. The glass doped with CuGaS{sub 2} quantum dots exhibited large third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility χ{sup (3)} of 1.60 × 10{sup −9} esu.

  18. Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  19. Sulphate in Liquid Nuclear Waste: from Production to Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M.; Grandjean, A.; Ledieu, A.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Barre, Y.; Tronche, E. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LDMC, Batiment 208 BP17171, Bagnols sur Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Nuclear industry produces a wide range of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes which can include different radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr. In La Hague reprocessing plant and in the nuclear research centers of CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), the coprecipitation of strontium with barium sulphate is the technique used to treat selectively these contaminated streams with the best efficiency. After the decontamination process, low and intermediate level activity wastes incorporating significant quantities of sulphate are obtained. The challenge is to find a matrix easy to form and with a good chemical durability which is able to confine this kind of nuclear waste. The current process used to contain sulphate-rich nuclear wastes is bituminization. However, in order to improve properties of containment matrices and simplify the process, CEA has chosen to supervise researches on other materials such as cements or glasses. Indeed, cements are widely used for the immobilization of a variety of wastes (low and intermediate level wastes) and they may be an alternative matrix to bitumen. Even if Portland cement, which is extensively used in the nuclear industry, presents some disadvantages for the containment of sulphate-rich nuclear wastes (risk of swelling and cracking due to delayed ettringite formation), other cement systems, such as calcium sulfo-aluminate binders, may be valuable candidates. Another matrix to confine sulphate-rich waste could be the glass. One of the advantages of this material is that it could also immobilize sulphate containing high level nuclear waste which is present in some countries. This waste comes from the use of ferrous sulfamate as a reducing agent for the conversion of Pu{sup 4+} to Pu{sup 3+} in the partitioning stage of the actinides during reprocessing. Sulphate solubility in borosilicate glasses has already been studied in CEA at laboratory and pilot scales. At a pilot scale, low level liquid waste has been

  20. Optical study of gamma irradiated sodium metaphosphate glasses containing divalent metal oxide MO (ZnO or CdO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nabhan

    Full Text Available Sodium metaphosphate glasses containing divalent metal oxide, ZnO or CdO with composition 50 P2O5 – (50 − x Na2O – x MO (ZnO, or CdO where x = 0, 10, 20 (mol% were prepared by conventional melt method. UV/visible spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy are measured before and after exposing to successive gamma irradiation doses (5–80 kGy. The optical absorption spectra results of the samples before irradiation reveal a strong UV absorption band at (∼230 nm which is related to unavoided iron impurities. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. From the optical absorption spectral data, the optical band gap is evaluated. The main structural groups and the influence of both divalent metal oxide and gamma irradiation effect on the structural vibrational groups are realized through IR spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of γ-irradiated samples are characterized by the stability of the number and position for the main characteristic band of phosphate groups. To better understood the structural changes during γ-irradiation, a deconvolution of FTIR spectra in the range 650–1450 cm−1 is made. The FTIR deconvolution results found evidence that, the changes occurring after gamma irradiation have been related to irradiation induced structural defects and compositional changes. Keywords: Sodium metaphosphate glass, UV–visible spectra, IR spectra, Deconvolution, Optical band gap, Gamma ray

  1. Sol–gel synthesis of silver nanocrystals embedded in sodium borosilicate monolithic transparent glass with giant third-order optical nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Lang [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China); Xiang, Weidong, E-mail: xiangweidong001@126.com [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China); Zhao, Xiuli; Liang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xinyu; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Zhaoping [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China); Xie, Cuiping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Ma, Xin; Zhang, Chenglong; Ma, Li [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China); Zhao, Jialong [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou,Zhejiang 325035 (China); State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We prepared Ag-doped sodium borosilicate monolithic glass. • The influence of temperature on the SPR absorption peak intensity was studied. • Nonlinear optical properties of the glass were investigated. • A mechanism for the formation of Ag quantum dots glass was proposed. - Abstract: We report the preparation of uniform spherical shape silver nanocrystals doped sodium borosilicate monolithic transparent glass by sol–gel method. The characterization of the resulting Ag nanocrystals was accomplished by using X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. Surface plasma resonance absorption peaks of the silver nanocrystals glass at about 406 nm have been obtained from ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometer and their intensity is changed with different heat treatment temperatures. We have investigated the nonlinear optical properties of silver quantum dots doped glass using Z-scan technique. Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)} of the glass was estimated to be 1.01 × 10{sup −11} esu. In particular, a mechanism for the formation of Ag quantum dots glass is proposed. This work will significantly promote the obtained material applications in optical devices.

  2. Molecular dynamics study of structural changes versus deposited energy dose in a sodium borosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, G.; Delaye, J.M.; Peuget, S. [DEN/DTCD/SECM, CEA Marcoule, BP 17171, Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex, 30207 (France); Calas, G. [IMPMC, 140 rue de Lourmel, Paris, 75015 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Assessing the long-term behavior of nuclear glass implies evaluating the impact of cumulative alpha decay induced by the minor actinides it contains. When subjected to alpha decay ({sup 244}Cm-doped glass specimens) or to external ion irradiation, some macroscopic properties vary appreciably with the dose. Above a given dose level, the properties do not evolve any more. To improve our understanding of these modifications, studies are carried out on simplified glass compositions (three oxides SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O), modeled by molecular dynamics in which irradiation effects are simulated by accelerating uranium projectiles. Accumulation of displacements cascades have been performed up to 4.5*10{sup 20} keV/cm{sup 3} nuclear energy deposited in the glass. The density variations observed in actinide-doped materials is qualitatively reproduced. At high doses, the swelling tends to stabilize. Marples model is used to fit the glass swelling versus the deposited energy dose, giving the volume damaged per projectile. This volume approximates the cascade core volume, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of volume expansion are contained in the cascade core and are thus related to the highest energy events: atom ejection and thermal quenching. On the contrary, the volumetric parameter of the Marples model applied to the other structural properties is related to a volume corresponding to the core + periphery of the cascades. (authors)

  3. Magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles crystallized in sodium-aluminoborosilicate glass matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, M.; Tzankov, D.; Harizanova, R.; Avdeev, G.; Rüssel, C.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were crystallized from soda alumina borosilicate glasses with the composition (24- y)Na2O· yAl2O3·14B2O3·37SiO2·25Fe2O3, where y = 8, 12, 14, 16 mol%. All samples are phase separated into magnetite core, enriched in iron oxide, and a glass shell. The magnetic core phase consists of nanocrystallites with sizes ranging between 25 and 40 nm, depending on the respective glass composition. All samples show characteristic well-defined hysteresis loops at room temperature, indicating that the magnetite particles are ferrimagnetic. No evidence for the existence of superparamagnetic particles is found by measuring the ZFC and FC thermomagnetic curves.

  4. Free energy of formation for green rust sodium sulphate (NaFe II6Fe III3(OH) 18(SO 4) 2(s))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, E.; Dideriksen, K.; Christiansen, B. C.; Sonne, M.; Ayala-Luis, K. B.; Koch, C. Bender; Hansen, H. C. B.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2010-11-01

    In a recent study, sulphate-bearing green rust (GR) was shown to incorporate Na + in its structure (NaFe II6Fe III3(OH) 18(SO 4) 2(s); GR). The compound was synthesised by aerial oxidation of Fe(OH) 2(s) in the presence of NaOH. This paper reports on its free energy of formation (ΔGf0). Freshly synthesised GR was titrated with 0.5 M H 2SO 4 in an inert atmosphere at 25 °C, producing dissolved Fe 2+ and magnetite or goethite. Solution concentrations, PHREEQC and the MINTEQ database were used to calculate reaction constants for the reactions: 2NaFeII6 FeIII3 (OH)18(SO)+12H+(aq) ⇆9Fe2+(aq) +2Na+(aq) +4SO42-(aq) +3FeFeIII2 O+24HO,K=10 and NaFeII6 FeIII3 (OH)18(SO)+9H(aq)+⇆6Fe2+(aq) +Na+(aq) +2SO42-(aq) +3α-FeOOH+12HO,K=10. From the determined equilibrium constants and published ΔGf0 values for the other compounds, we derived ΔGf0 = -6366 ± 18 kJ/mol for anhydrous GR. The solubility product at 25 °C and atmospheric pressure is K = 10 -210.5±3.2. It is not yet known if the extent of Na + incorporation in GR depends on formation pathway; it cannot be excluded that both Na-free GR and GR exist. If so, uncertainty in ΔGf0 determined from acid titration is such that the EH-pH stability fields of the two phases are statistically indistinguishable for Na + concentrations as low as ˜30 μM (2 SD level; 0.036 M SO 42- concentration). In sea water, where Na + and SO 42- concentrations are high, but soluble Fe 2+ is low, GR is expected to form where local conditions increase concentration gradients, such as for corrosion of metallic iron and steel. Another example of an environment that would provide GR-favourable conditions is a degrading concrete and steel radioactive waste storage facility, where groundwater is saline. Green rust is a well-known sink for redox-active trace components, making it a compound that should be considered in risk assessment modelling of groundwater quality. Phase stability is critical in such simulations.

  5. Gold nanoparticles assisted surface enhanced Raman scattering and luminescence of Er{sup 3+} doped zinc–sodium tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshal, S.K.; Awang, Asmahani, E-mail: asmahani_awang@yahoo.com; Sahar, M.R.; Arifin, R.

    2015-03-15

    Significant enhancements in Er{sup 3+} luminescence and Raman intensity mediated via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded zinc–sodium tellurite glass are reported. The observed modifications in the physical and spectroscopic properties are ascribed to the alterations in the glass network. XRD pattern confirms the amorphous nature of prepared glass sample. UV–vis-NIR spectra reveal seven absorption bands. Surface plasmon band is evidenced around 626–630 nm. TEM images manifest the growth of non-spherical Au NPs with average diameter between ∼7.2 nm and 8.6 nm. The visible up-conversion (UC) emission for all samples under 779 nm excitation exhibits three bands centered at 503 nm (green), 546 (green) and 637 nm (red) ascribed to {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transitions. Glass sample with 0.4 mol% Au displaying the highest luminescence intensity with enhancement factor of 3.85 and 3.56 for green bands, and 7.61 for the red band is ascribed to the NPs local field enhancement and energy transfer between rare earth (RE) ions and NPs. FTIR spectra show the vibration of ZnO{sub 4} bonds, Te-O bond in TeO{sub 3} (tp) and TeO{sub 4} (tbp) units and the hydroxyl groups. Raman spectra demonstrate the presence of Er-O and Zn-O bond, anti-symmetric vibrations of Te-O-Te bonds and stretching modes of non-bonded oxygen exists in TeO{sub 3} and TeO{sub 3+1} unit. The amplifications in Raman signals by a factor of 1.62, 1.58, 1.64, 1.68 and 1.69 corresponding to the peak centered at 262 cm{sup −1}, 382 cm{sup −1}, 521 cm{sup −1}, 670 cm{sup −1} and 725 cm{sup −1} are attributed to the contribution of a surface plasmon generating a strong, localized and secondary field. We assert that our glass compositions offer favorable potential to develop solid state lasers and other versatile nanophotonic devices. - Highlights: • Gold

  6. Photoluminescence study of Er-doped zinc-sodium-antimonite glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zavadil, Jiří; Ivanova, Z. G.; Kostka, Petr; Hamzaoui, M.; Soltani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 611, 25 October (2014), s. 111-116 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/2384; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK009 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : Erbium * Photoluminescence * Antimonite glasses Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (USMH-B) Impact factor: 2.999, year: 2014

  7. Optical and luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped sodium silicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisittipokakun, N.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the optical and luminescence properties of Dy2O3 doped Na2O-BaO-Bi2O3-SiO2 glasses. The Dy3+ ion is chosen as dopant because it emits three visible bands, blue (470-485 nm; 4F9/2→6H15/2), yellow (570-580 nm; 4F9/2→6H13/2) and red (640-655 nm; 4F9/2→6H11/2) luminescence and finds its applications in the fields of laser, white LEDs, telecommunication technology and display devices. NaBaBiSiDy glasses with the compositions of (30-x)SiO2: 10Bi2O3: 30Na2O: 30BaO: xDy2O3 where x=0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mol% were prepared by melt-quenching technique and characterized by using density, optical absorption photoluminescence (PL) and decay rate measurements as function of different concentrations. The density (ρ), molar volume (VM) and refractive index obtained were found to increase with increase in the concentration of Dy2O3 in the glass matrix. The chromaticity coordinates were calculated from emission spectra and analyzed with CIE color diagram and appear in the white light region under ultraviolet excitation.

  8. glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    several applications. Some of the possible applications are optical amplifiers in telecommunication,7 phosphorescence materials and electrochemical batteries.8 Rare earth metal ions when added to borate act as network modifiers and change the properties of glasses .... where R is the universal gas constant. 3.3 Electrical ...

  9. Application of a liquid chromatographic procedure for the analysis of penicillin antibiotics in biological fluids and pharmaceutical formulations using sodium dodecyl sulphate/propanol mobile phases and direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Martí-Centelles, Rosa; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Carda-Broch, Samuel

    2011-07-29

    A direct injection liquid chromatography procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of four penicillin antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin) in pharmaceutical formulations and physiological fluids (urine) using hybrid micellar mobile phases. These antimicrobials are used to treat gastrointestinal and systemic infections. The four penicillins were analysed using a Zorbax C18 reversed-phase column and detected at 210 nm. These antibiotics were separated by an interpretive optimisation procedure based on the accurate description of the retention and shape of the chromatographic peaks. Antibiotics were eluted in less than 16 min with no interference by the urine protein band or endogenous compounds using the mobile phase 0.11 M sodium dodecyl sulphate-6% propanol-0.01 M NaH(2)PO(4) buffered at pH 3. The method was validated according to the Food and Drug Administration guideline, including analytical parameters such as linearity (R(2)>0.993), intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD, %: 0.1-4.4 and 1.2-5.9, respectively), and robustness for the four compounds. This method is sensitive enough for the routine analysis of penicillins at therapeutic urine levels, with limits of detection in the 1.5-15 ng mL(-1) range and limits of quantification of 50 ng mL(-1). Recoveries in a micellar medium and a spiked urine matrix were in the 92.4-108.2% and 96-110% ranges, respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determine these antibiotics in urine samples and pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Action of arginine for protection of ulcerative colitis by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS); Acao da arginina na protecao da colite ulcerativa induzida por sulfato de sodio dextrano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Maria Emilia Rabelo

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of immunomodulators, such as arginine, in the regulation of inflammatory responses and trophism of the intestinal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible mechanisms action of arginine (pretreatment or treatment) in experimental model of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). C57BL/6 mice were randomized into 5 groups: Control group (C): standard diet and water; Arginine group (ARG): diet supplementation with arginine and water; Colitis group (COL): standard diet and DSS solution; Pretreated group (PT): diet supplementation with arginine before and during colitis induction; Treated group (T): diet supplementation with arginine during colitis induction. Colitis was induced by administration of 1.5% DSS for 5 days. After this, all the mice were euthanized and blood, organs and intestinal fluid were collected for carrying out analyzes. Parameters such as intestinal permeability (IP), bacterial translocation (BT), histological analysis (histological score, morphometric analysis, collagen and mucins stain), nitrate and nitrite, cytokines and chemokines, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), inflammatory infiltrate and oxidative stress were performed. The ARG group did not show difference compared to group C in the investigated parameters (C vs ARG: p> 0.05). The COL group showed increased IP (C vs COL: p < 0.05) and BT (C vs COL: p <0.05). In the histological analysis, the COL group showed severe inflammation and reduction the crypts length. In addition, in the group COL observed increase infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages in the colon, increase cytokine IL-17 and chemokine KC in serum and oxidative stress in the colon (COL vs C: p <0.05). In the arginine-supplemented groups (PT and T) was observed decrease IP and BT to blood, liver and lung (PT and T vs Col: p <0.05). Histological analysis showed that the arginine (PT and T) preserved the intestinal mucosa and crypts

  11. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanocrystals doped in sodium borosilicate glass studied with Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xinyu [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Xiang, Weidong, E-mail: weidongxiang@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhao, Haijun [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhang, Xiyan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Liang, Xiaojuan [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Dai, Shixun; Chen, Feifei [College of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Sol-gel method to realize the synthesis of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanocrystals doped in the glass. {yields} High dispersion and narrow distribution of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanocrystals in the glass. {yields}Z-scan technique employed for nonlinear optical properties of the glass. {yields} Observation that an obvious third-order optical nonlinear properties in the glass. -- Abstract: The third-order nonlinear optical properties of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanocrystals doped in sodium borosilicate glass are measured by Z-scan technique. The microstructures of the glass are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray spectra, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanocrystals ranging from 10 to 30 nm are determined to be of the orthorhombic crystalline phase, and the third-order optical nonlinear refractive index {gamma}, absorption coefficient {beta}, and susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} of the glass are determined to be 2.56 x 10{sup -16} m{sup 2} W{sup -1}, 4.13 x 10{sup -10} mW{sup -1}, and 1.43 x 10{sup -10} esu, respectively.

  12. stability of nucleopolyhedrovirus against sodium dodecyl sulphate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alieys

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... at certain concentrations. In this study, the impact of different concentrations of SDS on OBs of ... The homogenate was centrifuged at 1,000 xg for 15 min. The pellet ..... protease in maize using monoclonal antibody. Plant Cell ...

  13. stability of nucleopolyhedrovirus against sodium dodecyl sulphate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alieys

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... matrix, leaving empty spaces that were previously occupied by the occluded virions (Linda et al., 2003). The. PE is vital to the biological activity of a polyhedron, ... aluminum foil in a lamina air flow. Third instars S. litura that have been starved for 24 h prior to the experiment were individually fed with a piece ...

  14. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... Department of Plant Pathology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209,. Pietermaritzburg, Republic of South Africa. .... have also been subjected to tests in bioassays to determine toxicity. The four isolates tested were ..... insect control: the role of transgenic plants. Taylor and Francis, ...

  15. Iron bioavailability in 8-24-month-old Thai children from a micronutrient-fortified quick-cooking rice containing ferric ammonium citrate or a mixture of ferrous sulphate and ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasit, Visith; Porasuphatana, Suparat; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Zeder, Christroph; Hurrell, Richard

    2015-12-01

    A quick-cooking rice, produced from broken rice, is a convenient ingredient for complementary foods in Thailand. The rice is fortified with micronutrients including iron during the processing procedure, which can cause unacceptable sensory changes. A quick-cooking rice fortified with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) or a mixture of ferrous sulphate (FeSO4 ) and ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA), with a 2:1 molar ratio of iron from FeSO4  : iron from NaFeEDTA (FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA), gave a product that was organoleptically acceptable. The study compared iron absorption by infants and young children fed with micronutrient-fortified quick-cooking rice containing the test iron compounds or FeSO4 . Micronutrient-fortified quick-cooking rice prepared as a traditional Thai dessert was fed to two groups of 15 8-24-month healthy Thai children. The iron fortificants were isotopically labelled with (57) Fe for the reference FeSO4 or (58) Fe for the tested fortificants, and iron absorption was quantified based on erythrocyte incorporation of the iron isotopes 14 days after feeding. The relative bioavailability of FAC and of the FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA was obtained by comparing their iron absorption with that of FeSO4 . Mean fractional iron absorption was 5.8% [±standard error (SE) 1.9] from FAC and 10.3% (±SE 1.9) from FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA. The relative bioavailability of FAC was 83% (P = 0.02). The relative bioavailability of FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA was 145% (P = 0.001). Iron absorption from the rice containing FAC or FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA was sufficiently high to be used in its formulation, although iron absorption from FeSO4  + NaFeEDTA was significantly higher (P < 0.00001). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  17. Glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of the fluorinel-sodium, alumina, and zirconia calcines stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinjamuri, K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Glass-ceramics appear to be very good candidate waste forms for immobilization of the calcined high level solid wastes, fluorinel-sodium (Fl/Na), alumina and zirconia that are stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Candidate experimental glass-ceramics were synthesized at ICPP by hot isostatically pressing (HIPing) a mixture of precompacted pilot plant calcine and additives. The glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of the Fl/Na, alumina, and zirconia calcines consist of 70 wt% Fl/Na calcine, 23.9 wt% SiO{sub 2}, 5 wt% Ti, 1.1 wt% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}; 70 wt% alumina calcine, 30 wt% SiO{sub 2}; and 70 wt% zirconia calcine, 20.25 wt% SiO{sub 2}, 5 wt% Ti, 2.25 wt% Na{sub 2}O, 1.75 wt% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.75 wt% Li{sub 2}O, respectively. The characteristics of the waste forms including density, chemical durability, glass and crystalline phases, and the microstructure are investigated. The 14-day MCC-1 total mass loss rates and the normalized elemental leach rates for aluminum, boron, calcium, cadmium, chromium, cesium, potassium, silicon, sodium, strontium, titanium, and zirconium are all less than 1 g/m{sup 2}-day. The crystalline phases for the Fl/Na and zirconia waste forms include zirconia, zircon, calcium fluoride, and titanates. In addition, cadmium sulphide in Fl/Na, and cadmium metal in zirconia waste form were also identified. The crystalline phases for the alumina waste form are alpha, gamma, and delta alumina, cristobalite, albite, and mullite. Glass phase separation was not observed in alumina and zirconia waste forms. The observed glass phase separation in Fl/Na waste form appears to be chemically durable.

  18. The influence of polymeric component of bioactive glass-based nanocomposite paste on its rheological behaviors and in vitro responses: hyaluronic acid versus sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehri; Hesaraki, Saeed; Kazemzadeh, Asghar

    2014-04-01

    Different biocomposite pastes were prepared from a solid phase that was nanoparticles of sol-gel-derived bioactive glass and different liquid phases including 3% hyaluronic acid solution, sodium alginate solutions (3% and 10 %) or mixtures of hyaluronic acid and sodium alginate (3% or 10 %) solutions in 50:50 volume ratio. Rheological properties of the pastes were measured in both rotatory and oscillatory modes. The washout behavior and in vitro apatite formation of the pastes were determined by soaking them in simulated body fluid under dynamic situation for 14 days. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MG-63 osteoblastic cells were also determined using extracts of the pastes. All pastes could be easily injected from the standard syringes with different tip diameters. All pastes exhibited visco-elastic character, but a nonthixotropic paste was obtained using hyaluronic acid in which the loss modulus was higher than the storage modulus. The thixotropy and storage modulus were increasingly improved by adding/using sodium alginate as mixing liquid. Moreover, the pastes in which the liquid phase was sodium alginate or mixture of hyaluronic acid and 10% sodium alginate solution revealed better apatite formation ability and washout resistance than that made of hyaluronic acid alone. No cytotoxicity effects were observed by extracts of the pastes on osteoblasts but better alkaline phosphatase activity was found for the pastes containing hyaluronic acid. Overall, injectable biocomposites can be produced by mixing bioactive glass nanoparticles and sodium alginate/hyaluronic acid polymers. They are potentially useful for hard and even soft tissues treatments. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of system size and cooling rate on the structure and properties of sodium borosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lu; Du, Jincheng

    2018-01-14

    Borosilicate glasses form an important glass forming system in both glass science and technologies. The structure and property changes of borosilicate glasses as a function of thermal history in terms of cooling rate during glass formation and simulation system sizes used in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were investigated with recently developed composition dependent partial charge potentials. Short and medium range structural features such as boron coordination, Si and B Qn distributions, and ring size distributions were analyzed to elucidate the effects of cooling rate and simulation system size on these structure features and selected glass properties such as glass transition temperature, vibration density of states, and mechanical properties. Neutron structure factors, neutron broadened pair distribution functions, and vibrational density of states were calculated and compared with results from experiments as well as ab initio calculations to validate the structure models. The results clearly indicate that both cooling rate and system size play an important role on the structures of these glasses, mainly by affecting the 3B and 4B distributions and consequently properties of the glasses. It was also found that different structure features and properties converge at different sizes or cooling rates; thus convergence tests are needed in simulations of the borosilicate glasses depending on the targeted properties. The results also shed light on the complex thermal history dependence on structure and properties in borosilicate glasses and the protocols in MD simulations of these and other glass materials.

  20. Effects of system size and cooling rate on the structure and properties of sodium borosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lu; Du, Jincheng

    2018-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses form an important glass forming system in both glass science and technologies. The structure and property changes of borosilicate glasses as a function of thermal history in terms of cooling rate during glass formation and simulation system sizes used in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were investigated with recently developed composition dependent partial charge potentials. Short and medium range structural features such as boron coordination, Si and B Qn distributions, and ring size distributions were analyzed to elucidate the effects of cooling rate and simulation system size on these structure features and selected glass properties such as glass transition temperature, vibration density of states, and mechanical properties. Neutron structure factors, neutron broadened pair distribution functions, and vibrational density of states were calculated and compared with results from experiments as well as ab initio calculations to validate the structure models. The results clearly indicate that both cooling rate and system size play an important role on the structures of these glasses, mainly by affecting the 3B and 4B distributions and consequently properties of the glasses. It was also found that different structure features and properties converge at different sizes or cooling rates; thus convergence tests are needed in simulations of the borosilicate glasses depending on the targeted properties. The results also shed light on the complex thermal history dependence on structure and properties in borosilicate glasses and the protocols in MD simulations of these and other glass materials.

  1. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods.

  2. New reddish-orange and greenish-yellow light emitting phosphors: Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} in sodium germanate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez, E. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora (Mexico); Zayas, Ma. E. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora (Mexico); Alvarado-Rivera, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora (Mexico); Félix-Domínguez, F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora (Mexico); Centro de investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Duarte-Zamorano, R.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora (Mexico); Caldiño, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, México City 09340, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    A spectroscopic analysis of sodium germanate glasses activated with Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} is performed from their photoluminescence spectra and decay times. In the Eu{sup 3+}-singly doped glass reddish-orange light emission, with x=0.64 and y=0.35 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Eu{sup 3+} excitation at 393 nm. Such chromaticity coordinates are close to those (0.67, 0.33) proposed by the National Television Standard Committee for the red phosphor. When the sodium germanate glass is co-doped with Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} greenish-yellow light emission, with (0.41, 0.46) CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Tb{sup 3+} excitation at 344 nm. Such greenish-yellow luminescence is due mainly to the terbium {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 6,5} and europium {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1,2} emissions, Eu{sup 3+} being sensitized by Tb{sup 3+} through a non-radiative energy transfer. The non-radiative nature of this energy transfer is inferred from the increase in the decay rate of the Tb{sup 3+} emission when the glass is co-doped with Eu{sup 3+}. From an analysis of the Tb{sup 3+} emission decay time curves it is inferred that such energy transfer might take place between Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism. - Highlights: • Sodium germanate glasses are optically activated with Eu{sup 3+} (GNE) and Tb{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} (GNTE). • Reddish-orange light (0.64, 0.35) is generated by GNE pumped with 393 nm light. • Greenish-yellow light (0.41, 0.46) is generated by GNTE pumped with 344 nm light. • Non-radiative energy transfer Tb{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} takes place in GNTE.

  3. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The positive charges of ZnAl–. LDH sheets come from the replacement of Zn2+ by Al3+ in the LDH lattice in which the charge formed by each of the substitution requires one anion surfactant to balance. There- fore, the proposed formulae are based on the chemical compositions and the relationship of Al3+ with surfactants.

  4. NIR luminescence studies on Er{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+} co-doped sodium telluroborate glasses for lasers and optical amplifer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annapoorani, K.; Marimuthu, K., E-mail: mari-ram2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute - Deemed University, Gandhigram – 624 302 (India); Murthy, N. Suriya [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam–603 102 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Er{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Sodium telluroborate glasses were prepared with the chemical composition (49.5–x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+25TeO{sub 2}+5Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}+10ZnO+10NaF+0.5Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}+xYb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x= 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 in mol %) following the melt quenching technique. With the addition of Yb{sup 3+} ions into Er{sup 3+} ions in the prepared glasses, the absorption cross-section values were found to increase due to the effective energy transfer from {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} level of Yb{sup 3+} ions to the {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} level of Er{sup 3+} ions. The fluorescence around 1550 nm correspond to the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition was observed under 980 nm pumping. Among the present glasses, integrated intensity was found to be higher for 1.0 mol% Yb{sup 3+} ion glass. The parameters such as stimulated emission cross- section, Gain bandwidth and quantum efficiency of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition was found to be higher for the NTBE1.0Y glass and the same is suggested for potential NIR lasers and optical amplifier applications.

  5. The effect of electron irradiation on the structure and iron speciation in sodium aluminum (iron) phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Presniakov, I. A.; Sobolev, A. V.; Glazkova, I. S.; Kadyko, M. I.; Stefanovsky, O. I.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of 8 MeV electron irradiation on the structure of glasses in the series 40 Na2O, (20-x) Al2O3, x Fe2O3, 40 P2O5 (mol.%) and on the iron speciation in these samples was studied by FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. Irradiation up to a dose of 1.0 MGy has no appreciable effects on the character of the bonds within anionic motif of the glass network. Electron irradiation increases the fraction of aluminum in octahedral coordination. Iron in both unirradiated and irradiated glasses is present mainly as Fe(III) (60-75% of the total amount) in the glasses and partly as Fe(II) and the ratio of two forms remains constant up to a dose of 1.0 MGy.

  6. Separate effects of urinary chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate on the crystallization of urinary calcium oxalate: differences between stone formers and normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, D K; Gohel, M D

    1993-07-01

    1. Urinary glycosaminoglycans were recovered from the papain digest of polyanions precipitated sequentially by cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium acetate-saturated ethanol. Those from the early morning urine of 48 stone formers and 43 normal control subjects measured 11 and 16 micrograms of uronic acid/ml of urine, respectively. 2. Preparative agarose gel electrophoresis of the recovered glycosaminoglycans in barium acetate buffer (pH 5.8) yielded fractions containing purely chondroitin sulphate, co-polymeric chondroitin/dermatan sulphates and heparan sulphate. Identification was based on the susceptibility of the fractions to chondroitinase or nitrous acid treatment. Similar compositions of glycosaminoglycan classes were observed in samples from stone formers and normal control subjects. 3. The fractionated glycosaminoglycans were dissolved in urine ultrafiltrate to assay for nucleation-promoting and growth-inhibiting activities towards crystallization of urinary calcium oxalate. When compared at the same uronic acid concentration, both the urinary chondroitin sulphate isomers and heparan sulphates of stone formers demonstrated the capacity to enhance crystal nucleation from calcium oxalate endogenous in urine ultrafiltrates, whereas only urinary heparan sulphates of normal control subjects demonstrated this capacity. 4. Tissue-derived reference chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and heparin, when similarly tested, showed negligible crystal nucleation-promoting activity. The tissue-derived heparan sulphate was similar to the urinary heparan sulphates in showing marked crystal nucleation-promoting activity. 5. Crystal-growth inhibitory activity was evident in all urinary glycosaminoglycan fractions studied. In particular, urinary heparan sulphate of normal control subjects showed higher activity than that of stone formers or the chondroitin sulphate isomers of both stone formers and normal control subjects (P < 0.005).

  7. INFLUENCE OF FINING AGENTS ON GLASS MELTING: A REVIEW, PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Hujova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass melting is significantly influenced by two processes: the dissolution of particles and the fining of glass. Because these processes are time- and energy-consuming in industry, fining agents are used. Although much literature has been reported about the use of fining agents, no extensive overview of such literature has yet been published. In this paper, we provide such a review, targeting articles that describe the influence of fining agents on (i the dissolution of particles, (ii the bubble nucleation and removal, (iii colour of glass at reduced melting conditions, and (iv the foaming of glass. We cover the history of fining agent usage from the earliest research in the field to the most recent cutting-edge discoveries. The advantages and disadvantages of all the traditional fining agents are described, with attention paid to the most widely used agent, sodium sulphate. In addition, sodium sulphate is considered as a surface-active compound and colouring substance. Furthermore, we include the influence of redox conditions on the process of fining. We believe that our review provides an ideal introduction to the use of fining agents, both for researchers and industry professionals.

  8. Influence of the bulk diffusion of rubidium and sodium atoms in glass on their surface dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atutov, S. N.; Benimetskii, F. A.; Makarov, A. O.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of measurement of the surface potential and the dwell time of Rb and Na atoms on the surface of S-52 molybdenum glass. It is found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature, the temperature dependence of the dwell time of Rb atoms is well described by the Arrhenius formula. The surface potentials for Rb and Na are measured to be 0.67 and 1.37 eV, respectively. At temperatures above the glass transition temperature, the dwell time of these atoms increases abnormally. The reason for this is that during impact of an atom on the surface of molten glass, it can penetrate into the volume of the window and then return by diffusion and desorb from the surface. In this case, the dwell time of the atom on the glass is determined by the diffusion time and can be very significant, despite the relatively low potential barrier at the surface and high temperature.

  9. Treatment of a highly-concentrated sulphate-rich synthetic wastewater using calcium hydroxide in a fluidised bed crystallizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Chiara; Chivavava, Jemitias; Lewis, Alison

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors that affect the conversion of sulphates and magnesium, and the recovery of gypsum and magnesium hydroxide in the neutralization of a sulphate rich stream using calcium hydroxide, in a laboratory scale seeded fluidised bed crystallizer. Particular focus was on reducing the precipitated fines that escaped with the treated water, through the use of seeds, while removing as much sulphate-compounds from the waste stream as possible. The composition of the total sulphate salts was as follows: 80% magnesium sulphate, calcium sulphate remaining at its saturation concentration (1.5 g/L), with the remainder being sodium sulphate based on typical reverse osmosis retentate concentrations ranging from 1.5 - 120 g/L of total sulphate salts. The fluidised bed crystallizer, using silica seeds, was found to be effective at reducing the formation of gypsum and magnesium hydroxide fines by almost half. Feed concentrations of 35 g/L of total salts yielded better sulphate conversions (±75%), compared to a feed concentration of 8 g/L (±30%). It was possible to remove 99% of the magnesium in the saline wastewater stream using a calcium to sulphate ratio of 1:1 for feed concentrations of 15 g/L and higher. Excess calcium hydroxide suspension improved sulphate conversions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of Fly ash Based Geopolymer Mortars in Sulphate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of fly ash based geopolymer mortar specimens inMagnesium Sulphate solution. Specimens were manufactured from low calcium fly ash by activation with a mixture of SodiumHydroxide and Sodium Silicate solution and cured thermally. 10% by weight Magnesium Sulphate solution was usedto soak the specimen up to 24 weeks. Performance of the specimens was evaluated in terms of visual appearance, variationof pH of solution, change in weight, and change in compressive strength over the exposure period. White deposits occurredon the surface of specimen which was initially soft but later converted to hard crystals. pH of solution increased noticeablyduring the initial weeks which indicate migration of alkalis from mortar specimens. At the end of 24 weeks samples experiencedvery little weight gain and recorded a loss of compressive strength by up to 56%.

  11. The effect of sulphates on partitioning of pectinases in aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various sulphate salts on the partitioning of endo-pectinase and exo-pectinase in aqueous two-phase systems, composed of polyethylene glycol and dextran, was studied. Presence of ammonium sulphate and sodium sulphate at concentration 15 mmol/l in the system polyethylene glycol 4000/crude dextran, at tie-line length 7.44%, increased partition coefficient of endo-pectinase 1.25 and 1.2 fold, respectively. Ammonium sulphate at 15 mmol/l and sodium sulphate at 5 mmol/l enhanced partition coefficient for exo-pectinase for about 60% in comparison to the system without salts. Addition of magnesium and sodium sulphate to a final concentration of 0.3 mmol/l in the system containing polyethylene glycol 6000/dextran 500 000, at tie-line length 6.26%, increased the partition coefficient of endo activity for 95% and 32%, respectively. Both salts at the same concentration increased partition coefficient of exo activity 1.5 and 3 times, respectively, in comparison to the system without salts.

  12. In vitro characterisation of zirconia coated by bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, M; Vernè, E; Ferraris, M; Ravaglioli, A; Cannas, M

    2001-05-01

    An in vitro evaluation of a biomedical device, which combines the mechanical properties of zirconia substrates with the bioactivity of two different glass layers (AP40 and RKKP), was performed. In this work, data on different kinds of analysis were reported both on as-sintered zirconia samples and on RKKP- and AP40-coated zirconia substrates. Structure, composition and morphology of the apatite layer growth on the coated samples after 30 days of soaking in an acellular simulated body fluid, serum protein adsorption, fibroblasts and human osteoblast-like cells adhesion, growth, morphology and biochemical aspects were studied. Results of soaking test in SBF, revealed the growth of an apatite layer on the surface of the glass-coated samples. Proteins adsorbed to the materials were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and results evidenced that the two glass-coated materials bound a higher amount of total protein than did the zirconia substrate. Fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells cultured on RKKP- and AP40-coated zirconia showed a higher proliferation rate, leading to confluent cultures with higher cell density and a generally better expression of osteoblast alkaline phosphatase activity in comparison with zirconia substrate. In conclusion, our results indicate that the surface chemical characteristics of the two glass coatings AP40 and RKKP, with no great differences between them, substantially enhance zirconia integration with bone cells at least in vitro. This effect may be of significance in the stability of glass-coated zirconia orthopaedic and dental implants.

  13. Impact of ammonia and sulphate concentration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, J A; Brekelmans, J; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Martín, A

    2010-12-01

    The effect of increasing concentrations of ammonia and sulphate on thermophilic anaerobic digestion (52 degrees C) was studied at laboratory-scale. The substrate consisted of a synthetic solution supplemented with ammonia and sodium sulphate. In terms of biogas production, the results showed that the C/N and C/SO(4)(2-) thresholds were 4.40 and 1.60, respectively, corresponding to 620 mg FA (free ammonia)/L and 1400 mg SO(4)(2-)/L. No reduction in biogas production was observed until reaching the above concentration of sulphate in the sulphate toxicity test. However, when the concentration of ammonia was increased to 620 mg FA/L in the ammonia toxicity test, a gradual decrease of 21% was observed for the biogas. In order to characterise each set of experiments kinetically, a biogas production first-order kinetic model was used to fit the experimental data. The proposed model accurately predicted the behaviour of the microorganisms affecting the thermophilic anaerobic digestion, allowing its evolution to be predicted. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sulphate removal from industrial effluents through barium sulphate precipitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available into physical (membrane filtration, adsorption/ion exchange), chemical (chemical precipitation) and biological sulphate reduction processes. A literature study was conducted in order to compare these different methods. The ABC (Alkali - Barium - Calcium... ................................................ 6 2.2.1. Membrane filtration.......................................................................................... 6 2.2.2. Adsorption/ion-exchange ............................................................................... 10 2...

  15. Proteinograma sérico de veados-catingueiro (Mazama gouazoubira criados em cativeiro obtido por eletroforese em gel de agarose e de poliacrilamida (SDS PAGE Serum protein concentrations of captive brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira determined by means of agarosis and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Santana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The serum protein concentrations of brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira obtained by agarosis gel and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE gel were determined from blood samples of ten adult healthy animals (six females and four males, monthly collected in the morning, during 12 months. The animals, maintained in individual stable and protected from noise, received ad libitum a diet of comercial ration and green roughage. Serum protein concentrations in agarosis gel revealed the presence of four protein fractions: albumin, alphaglobulin, betaglobulin, and gammaglobulin. Only serum concentrations of albumin were influenced by season, being values in spring higher than values in summer (4.15 x 3.64g/dl. Serum concentrations of albumin (4.05 x 3.75g/dl were higher for female and alphaglobulin (0.39 x 0.53g/dl werehigher for males. Results showed 34 proteins with molecular weights ranging from 18kD to 165kD. Significant differences between at least two seasons were found on values of 11 proteins. In conclusion, on account of the 10 animals been maintained in the same physical space and submitted to the same handling system, physiological variations, which are characteristic of this species, can be apointed as the reason of these differences.

  16. Proteinograma sérico de bezerros recém-nascidos da raça Holandesa obtido por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida Serum protein concentration in newborn Holstein calves determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fagliari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The serum protein concentration of newborn Holstein calves determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE was studied. Blood samples from 40 healthy newborn calves were obtained 48 hours after birth. Calves had been given 3 liters of colostrum within 2 hours after birth, following by dose corresponding by 15% of animal weight each 24 hours. The results showed three different proteinograms: 19 calves had 14 proteins with molecular weights (MW ranging from 28,000 D to 170,000D (proteinogram 1; 11 calves had 14 proteins with MW ranging from 18,000 to 170,000 D (proteinogram 1; and 10 calves had 12 proteins with MW ranging from 28,000 D to 170,000 D (proteinogram 3. The three groups presented similar IgG levels. The highest serum concentration of ceruloplasmin were verified in proteinogram 3, which had the lowest serum level of protein with MW 58,000D. It was verified a1-antitrypsin only in proteinogram 2, which had no proteins with MW of 42,000 D and 37,000D. The highest serum concentrations of IgA and protein with MW 58,000 D, and the lowest serum levels of transferrin, haptoglobin, and acid glycoprotein were verified in proteinogram 3. Measurement of serum protein concentrations by SDS-PAGE may be useful in monitoring the occurrence of hypogammaglobulinemia and the neonatal disease in calves.

  17. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate is found in: Automatic dishwashing soaps Clinitest (diabetes testing) tablets Glass products Pulp and paper products Some bleaches Some bubble bath solutions Some steam iron cleaners Note: This list is not all-inclusive.

  18. Sodium Dedecyl Suphate Polyacrilamide Gel Electrophosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium Dedecyl Suphate Polyacrilamide Gel Electrophosis of Campylobacter coli. S.I. Smith, M.M. Ibrahim, V.N. Ezeobi, K.S. Oyedeji, K.A. Akinsinde, A.O Coker. Abstract. Campylobacter coli were characterized using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The isolates were obtained ...

  19. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bickford, Celeste D; Magee, Laura A; Mitton, Craig

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of administering magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth at ... sensitivity analyses were used to compare the administration of magnesium sulphate with the alternative of no treatment. Two separate cost perspectives were utilized in this series of analyses: a health system and a societal perspective. In addition, two separate measures of effectiveness were utilized: cases...... of cerebral palsy (CP) averted and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). RESULTS: From a health system and a societal perspective, respectively, a savings of $2,242 and $112,602 is obtained for each QALY gained and a savings of $30,942 and $1,554,198 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium...

  20. Controlled hypotension in adults undergoing choroidal melanoma resection: comparison between the efficacy of nitroprusside and magnesium sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosry, M; Othman, I S

    2008-11-01

    To determine whether magnesium sulphate could induce controlled hypotension, reduce choroidal blood flow, provide a 'dry' operative field and could be compared with sodium nitroprusside in the recently raised issue of the use of hypotensive anaesthesia in eye surgery, i.e. for choroidal tumour surgery as the choroid is the most fragile and vascular structure in the eye. Forty adult patients undergoing choroidal melanoma resection and anaesthetized with 2.5 mg kg(-1) propofol, followed by a constant infusion of 120 microg kg(-1) min(-1), and remifentanil 1 microg kg(-1), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25 microg kg(-1) min(-1), were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either magnesium sulphate or sodium nitroprusside. Controlled hypotension was achieved at the target systolic pressure of 80 mmHg within 107 +/- 16 and 69 +/- 4.4 s for magnesium sulphate and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Choroidal blood flow decreased by 24 +/- 0.3% and 22 +/- 3.3% for magnesium sulphate and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Controlled hypotension was sustained in both groups throughout surgery, and the surgical field rating decreased in a range of 80% in both groups. Sodium nitroprusside decreased pH and increased PaCO2. There were no postoperative complications in any of the groups. Magnesium sulphate controlled hypotension, reduced intraoperative pressure and provided good surgical conditions for choroidal melanoma resection with no need for additional use of a potent hypotensive agent in adults.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of dust sulphation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A.

    1997-12-31

    Sulphation reactions of metal oxides with SO{sub 2} and O. or SO{sub 3} play significant roles in sulphation roasting of sulphide and oxide minerals as well as in desulphurisation process of combustion gases. In metallurgical waste-heat boilers for sulphide smelting, the sulphation of the oxidic flue dust in the atmosphere containing sulphur oxides is an unavoidable process, and the sulphation reactions have to be guided in a controlled way in the proper parts of the gas handling equipment. In this report, some thermodynamic analyses were conducted for the oxide sulphation reactions in relation to sulphide smelting processes. The phase stability of Me-S-O systems especially for oxides - sulphates equilibrium was studied under different thermodynamic conditions of gas compositions and temperatures. The sulphate stability was analysed for an example of gas compositions in the copper flash smelter of Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy, in relation to temperature. In the report, most of the information was from literature. Moreover, a number of thermodynamic computations were carried out with the HSC program, and the constructed phase stability diagrams were compared with those from the literature whenever possible. The maximum temperatures for stable sulphates under normal operating conditions of the waste-heat boilers in sulphide smelting processes were obtained. This report will serve as the basis for the kinetic studies of the sulphation reactions and the sulphation reaction modelling in pyrometallurgical processes. (orig.) SULA 2 Programme. 36 refs.

  2. Stability of docetaxel diluted to 0.3 or 0.9 mg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in polyolefin or glass containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroles, Ana Aragones; Bafalluy, Irene Mangues; Arnaiz, Joan Antoni Schoenenberger

    2009-09-01

    The stability of docetaxel diluted to 0.3 or 0.9 mg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in polyolefin or glass containers was studied. Vials of docetaxel injection concentrate were reconstituted with the entire contents of the solvent vial and carefully homogenized to avoid the formation of foam. Solutions were aseptically prepared with nominal docetaxel concentrations of 0.3 and 0.9 mg/mL by adding the appropriate quantities to polyolefin containers or glass bottles, to which had been added the appropriate volume of 0.9% sodium chloride injection, yielding a final volume of 50 mL. Three identical polyolefin containers and one control glass bottle for each concentration were prepared. All test solutions were stored at 19-21 degrees C and protected from light. Chemical stability was measured by using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay with ultraviolet-light detection. Physical stability was determined by visual inspection. No evidence of precipitation was observed during the first 24 hours of the study. However, after a day of storage, the HPLC assay revealed large relative standard deviation values for diluted docetaxel solutions in some containers. These values were predictive for the formation of precipitates and compatible with the existence of microprecipitates at 24 hours. These results suggest that the diluted docetaxel infusions were not stable when stored at 19-21 degrees C. Docetaxel 0.3 and 0.9 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was not physically stable for more than one day when stored at 19-21 degrees C. Docetaxel stability in diluted solutions appears sensitive to slight changes in temperature and degree of agitation.

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on phosphoric-salt pellets. Determination of the geometric and electronic structure of metal-oxide doped sodium-phosphate glasses; Roentgenabsorptionsspektroskopie an Phosphorsalzperlen. Bestimmung der geometrischen und elektronischen Struktur von metalloxid-dotierten Natriumphosphatglaesern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendebach, B.

    2004-02-01

    Sodium metaphosphate glasses doped with transition metal oxides show characteristic colors. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations provide information whether the coloration stems from different electronic transitions or changes in the geometrical structure of the glasses. Even though the violet color of MnO{sub y}-doped glasses is considered as an evidence for Mn{sup 3+}-ions, Mn K-XAS reveals that the majority of the manganese ions are in the oxidation state +II and have a mixed coordination of four and six oxygen atoms, respectively. The oxygen coordination around the nickel ions in NiO-doped glasses with different metall oxide concentrations is always six. The change of color from citreous to auburn with increasing nickel oxide content is attributed to a systematic change in the bonding characteristic from mainly ionic-like to a small but significant contribution of covalent-like bonding. Analysis of higher coordination shells provides no indication of the formation of metal oxide clusters. (orig.)

  4. Removal of sulphates from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available are present in almost all types of water, usually as a simple anion SO42-. The sulphates together with hydrogencarbonates and chlorides are principal anions in natural waters. In typical underground and surface waters, the concentration of sulphates is in the range from ten to hundreds milligrams per litre.Nowadays, the importance of the control of sulphate concentration in waste waters increases. According to the Slovak legislation the limit concentration of sulphates in surface and drinking waters is 250 mg.l-1 . In rivers the contents of sulphates increases mainly by the discharge of waste waters, which are coming mainly from chemical, textile, metallurgical, pharmaceutical, paper and mining industry. The concentration of sulphates in these waters is in the order of grams per litre.Many technologies for the sulphates removal from waste waters exist, including biologico-chemical processes. The principle of one of these methods is the reduction of sulphates by sulphate-reducing bacteria to hydrogen-sulphide.The objective of this work was to study the effect of initial sulphates concentration on the activity of anaerobic sulphate reducers as well as the kinetics of the anaerobic sulphate reduction. The batch reactor was used at temperature of 30°C and pH 7,5. Lactate was used as the carbon source.

  5. Effect of various additives on microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vitro bioactivity of sodium oxide-calcium oxide-silica-phosphorus pentoxide glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Hu, J H; Chen, C Z

    2013-09-01

    The partial substitution of MgO, TiO2, or CaF2 for CaO in the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 (45S5) system was conducted by the sol-gel method and a comparative study on structural, mechanical properties, and bioactivity of the glasses was reported. Based on thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, the gels were sintered with a suitable heat treatment procedure. The glass-ceramic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and so on, and the bioactivity of the glass-ceramic was evaluated by in vitro assays in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results indicate that with the partial substitution of MgO, TiO2, CaF2 for CaO in glass composition, the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramics have been significantly improved. Furthermore, CaF2 promotes glass crystallization and the crystallization does not inhibit the glass-ceramic bioactivity. All samples possess bioactivity; however, the bioactivity of these glass-ceramics is quite different. Compared with 45S5, the introduction of MgO decreases the ability of apatite induction. The addition of TiO2 does not significantly improve the bioactivity, and the replacement of CaO by CaF2 shows a higher bioactivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anisotropy in elastic properties of lithium sodium sulphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explained elsewhere (McSkimin 1964; Papadakis 1976). A. MATEC model 7700 Pulse modulator and .... of a crystal. The Young's moduli surface plots are also very important in this regard. The Young's modulus. (Nye 1957; Alex and Philip 2000), E, in the direction of the unit vector, ni , for a trigonal crystal is given by. E.

  7. Stabilization of solutions of feather keratins by sodium dodecyl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooyen, P.M.M.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Oberthür, Radulf C.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, Adriaan; Feijen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Feather keratins were extracted from chicken feathers with aqueous solutions of urea and 2-mercaptoethanol. After filtration of the insoluble residue, a feather keratin solution was obtained. Removal of 2-mercaptoethanol and urea by dialysis resulted in aggregation of the keratin polypeptide chains

  8. Sodium-dodecyl-sulphate-assisted synthesis of Ni nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-11-20

    Nov 20, 2017 ... Keywords. Nickel; SNNPs; stabilizer; SDS; electrochemical; nanoparticles. 1. Introduction. Over the last decades, synthesis of magnetic metallic nanomaterials with different sizes and shapes has received considerable attention due to their technological interest. [1–5]. Nickel nanoparticles have become one ...

  9. Anisotropy in elastic properties of lithium sodium sulphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    velocities in these crystals in the specified directions are tabulated in table 1. The values of the elastic constants, compliance constants and Poisson's ratios of LSSW grown at 323K are tabulated in table 2. The elastic con- stants C12, C13, C14 and C66 are evaluated from the combi- nation of other elastic constants, with the ...

  10. Anisotropy in elastic properties of lithium sodium sulphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    13 = 23, are reported for the first time. The anisotropy in the elastic properties of the crystal are well explained by the pictorial representation of the surface plots of phase velocity, slowness, Young's modulus and linear compressibility in – ...

  11. Anticoagulant property of sulphated polysaccharides extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The marine brown algae: Sargassum tenerrimum, Sargassum wightii, Turbinaria conoides, Turbinaria ornata and Padina tetrastromatica were collected from Mandapam Island, India. The crude sulphated polysaccharides (SPS) were extracted using hot water and examined for anticoagulation activity. The sugar, sulphate ...

  12. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor. ... The results of three investigations operating a continuous reactor, a column reactor and batch-test reactors have shown that increased sulphide concentrations have resulted in improved biological sulphate reduction.

  13. Recent progress to understand stress corrosion cracking in sodium borosilicate glasses: linking the chemical composition to structural, physical and fracture properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Cindy L.

    2017-08-01

    This topical review is dedicated to understanding stress corrosion cracking in oxide glasses and specifically the SiO_2{\\text-B_2O_3{\\text-}Na_2O} (SBN) ternary glass systems. Many review papers already exist on the topic of stress corrosion cracking in complex oxide glasses or overly simplified glasses (pure silica). These papers look at how systematically controlling environmental factors (pH, temperature...) alter stress corrosion cracking, while maintaining the same type of glass sample. Many questions still exist, including: What sets the environmental limit? What sets the velocity versus stress intensity factor in the slow stress corrosion regime (Region I)? Can researchers optimize these two effects to enhance a glass’ resistance to failure? To help answer these questions, this review takes a different approach. It looks at how systemically controlling the glass’ chemical composition alters the structure and physical properties. These changes are then compared and contrasted to the fracture toughness and the stress corrosion cracking properties. By taking this holistic approach, researchers can begin to understand the controlling factors in stress corrosion cracking and how to optimize glasses via the initial chemical composition.

  14. On the suitability of cerium oxide glass for terminal radiation sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janimak, J. J.; Marteleur, M.

    2004-09-01

    The affect of ammonium sulphate treatment on cerium oxide (CeO) glass vials have been assessed following exposure to ionizing radiation at 25 kGy. The bulk chemical composition of irradiated cerium oxide glass remains unchanged despite a temporary browning effect. Stability against alkali leachables of the internal silica matrix is enhanced with ammonium sulphate treatment. With exception to Alumina and Na 2O, radiation sterilization has a limited effect on altering the surface chemistry of ammonium sulphate treated cerium oxide glass.

  15. A study of physical and optical absorption spectra of VO{sup 2+} ions in potassium and sodium oxide borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, G., E-mail: srinu123g@gmail.com; Ramesh, B.; Kumar, J. Siva; Shareefuddin, Md.; Chary, M. N.; Sayanna, R. [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India)

    2016-05-23

    Spectroscopic and physical properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} doped mixed alkali borate glasses are investigated. Borate glasses containing fixed concentrations of alkaline earth oxides (MgO and BaO) and alkali oxides (K{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O) were changes and are prepared by melt quenching technique. The values of r{sub i}, r{sub p}, R{sub m}, α{sub m} molar volume and Λ{sub th} increase and oxygen packing density, density and dopant ion concentration decrease with increasing of K{sub 2}O content. As a result there shall be an increase in the disorder of the glass network. The optical band gap energies, Urbach energy, boron-boron separation,refractive index, dielectric constant, electronic polarizability and reflection loss values are varies nonlinearly with the K{sub 2}O content which manifests the mixed alkali effect.

  16. INCONEL 690 CORROSION IN WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT) HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS MELTS RICH IN ALUMINUM & BISMUTH & CHROMIUM OR ALUMINUM/SODIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; FENG Z; GAN H; PEGG IL

    2009-11-05

    Metal corrosion tests were conducted with four high waste loading non-Fe-limited HLW glass compositions. The results at 1150 C (the WTP nominal melter operating temperature) show corrosion performance for all four glasses that is comparable to that of other typical borosilicate waste glasses, including HLW glass compositions that have been developed for iron-limited WTP streams. Of the four glasses tested, the Bi-limited composition shows the greatest extent of corrosion, which may be related to its higher phosphorus content. Tests at higher suggest that a moderate elevation of the melter operating temperature (up to 1200 C) should not result in any significant increase in Inconel corrosion. However, corrosion rates did increase significantly at yet higher temperatures (1230 C). Very little difference was observed with and without the presence of an electric current density of 6 A/inch{sup 2}, which is the typical upper design limit for Inconel electrodes. The data show a roughly linear relationship between the thickness of the oxide scale on the coupon and the Cr-depletion depth, which is consistent with the chromium depletion providing the material source for scale growth. Analysis of the time dependence of the Cr depletion profiles measured at 1200 C suggests that diffusion of Cr in the Ni-based Inconel alloy controls the depletion depth of Cr inside the alloy. The diffusion coefficient derived from the experimental data agrees within one order of magnitude with the published diffusion coefficient data for Cr in Ni matrices; the difference is likely due to the contribution from faster grain boundary diffusion in the tested Inconel alloy. A simple diffusion model based on these data predicts that Inconel 690 alloy will suffer Cr depletion damage to a depth of about 1 cm over a five year service life at 1200 C in these glasses.

  17. A Transmission Electron Microscope Characterization of Sodium Sulfate Hot Corrosion of Silicon Carbide Fiber-Reinforced Lithium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    P- spodumene (Li20-Al20 3 -4SiO2 ) and mullite (3A1203- 2SIO2 ) in a high silica glass (88 wt% SiC2 and 12 wt% A1203). The fiber/matrix interface...hot corrosion. The matrix was a very fine mixture of glass and P- spodumene polycrystallites (20 nm in diameter) . The fiber/matrix interface was...binary phase diagram . . . 5 Figure 3. Longitudinal thermal expansion of solid solutions of P- spodumene (Li20-Al203-nSiO2). 6 Figure 4. Volume

  18. Intravenous and intramuscular magnesium sulphate regimens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eclampsia. Sarah Chissell, Julia H. Botha, Jack Moodley, Lynn McFadyen. Abstract. Patients with severe pre-eclampsia were randomised to receive magnesium sulphate according to an intramuscular (IM) (N =9) or an intravenous (IV) (N =8) ...

  19. Atomic-Level Structure Studies of Rare-Earth Doped Sodium Phosphate Glasses Using High Energy X-Ray Diffraction and Complementary Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Faisal

    The atomic-scale structure of a series of (RE2 O3)x ( Na2O)y ( P2O5)1- x-y glasses (RE = Pr, Nd, Er) where has been characterized by high-energy X-ray diffraction technique (HEXRD). In addition, differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and absorption and emission spectroscopy in visible and near IR ranges have been used as supplementary tools to validate structural features obtained from HEXRD techniques.Structural features such as inter-atomic distances and coordination numbers and their dependence on the concentration of RE 2 O3 have been obtained by analyzing pair distribution functions (PDF) extracted from diffraction data. Coordination numbers for P-O, Na-O, O-O, and P-P were found to be independent of the RE 2 O3 concentration. In contrast, the RE-O coordination number varies between ≈ 8 and 7.2 as the RE2 O3 concentration increases from 0.005 to 0.05. The variation of the bond distance between large rare-earth ions (Pr, Nd) and small rare-earth ion (Er) is approximately 0.2 A, which is attributed to lanthanide contraction. The Na-O coordination number in these glasses was observed to ≈ 5.0 as the RE2 O 3 content increases. The overlapping correlation of RE-O, Na-O, and O-O in the same vicinity makes it difficult to calculate these coordination numbers. DTA measurements were used for the investigation of thermal characteristics of glasses. From these measurements, it is evident that the glass transition temperature increases with increasing the RE2 O3 (RE=Pr, Er) content. FTIR was used to inspect the structural changes of the glasses. The doping of RE 2 O3 (RE=Pr, Er) induces depolymerization of the glasses at the Q3 tetrahedral sites. The forming of the ionic linkages between phosphate chains is attributed to the increase in non-bridging oxygen (NBO). The cross-linkages density (CLD) increases with the RE2 O3 (RE=Pr, Er) concentrations. Absorption spectra for x = 0.01 of Er 3+ and 0.005-0.05 for Nd3+ doped

  20. Small angle neutron scattering studies of mixed micelles of sodium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... The aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulphonate (NaCS) and its mixtures with each of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). NaCS when added to CTAB solution leads to the formation of long ...

  1. Effect of co-doping of sodium on the thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate glass system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidu, A; Wagiran, H; Saeed, M A; Alajerami, Y S M; Kadir, A B A

    2016-12-01

    The effect of sodium as a co-dopant on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate (ZLB: Cu) subjected to Co-60 gamma radiation is reported in this study. TL intensity is enhanced with the introduction of sodium in ZLB: Cu. The obtained glow curve is simple with a single peak. The annealing procedure and the best heating rate for the proposed thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) are established, and the phosphor is reusable. The TL response within the dose range of 0.5-1000Gy is investigated. The results show that the thermal fading behaviour is improved significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of puerperium on the serum proteins of Saanen goats, obtained by the analysis of electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel / Influência do puerpério sobre o proteinograma sérico de caprinos da raça Saanen obtido por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Harry Birgel Junior

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the puerperal influence on the proteinogram of Saanen goats, 108 samples of blood serum from 12 goats were collected, and the results were presented at nine times: just after parturition, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 21 and 30 days after parturition. Total amount of serum proteins were determined by the biuret technique, and the sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was used to the protein fractionation. In this last method, 17 protein bands were observed, from which molecular weights varied between 25 KDa and 275 KDa. In addition, it was possible to identify the following protein fractions: immunoglobulin A (180 KDa, ceruloplasmin (115 KDa, transferrin (79 KDa, albumin (65 KDa, heavy-chain immunoglobulin G (58 KDa, haptoglobin (45 KDa, acid glycoprotein (37 KDa and light-chain immunoglobulin G (28 KDa. Another 9 nonidentified protein fractions presented, each molecular weights equal to 275 KDa, 140 KDa, 125 KDa, 103 KDa, 95 KDa, 41 KDa, 35 KDa, 30 Kda and 25 KDa. The results allow us to conclude that by the first week of puerperium, an improvement of acid glycoprotein occurs, whereas those others protein fractions do not suffer any puerperal influence.Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do puerpério no proteinograma de caprinos da raça Saanen foram colhidas 108 amostras de soro sangüíneo de 12 cabras, sendo os resultados apresentados em nove momentos: imediatamente após a parição, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 21 e 30 dias após o parto. Os teores séricos de proteína total foram determinados pela técnica do biureto, e para o fracionamento das proteínas foi realizada a eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida contendo dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE. No método utilizado foram observadas 17 bandas protéicas, cujos pesos moleculares (PM variaram de 25 KDa a 275 KDa, sendo possível a identificação das seguintes frações protéicas: imunoglobulina A (180 KDa, ceruloplasmina (115 KDa, transferrina

  3. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with

  4. The Reclamation of Industrial Wastes Inclusive Sulphates by Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Kušnierová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of using coal mine drainage and gypsum from the „stabilizate“ (the final product from the combustion desulphurisation as the source of sulphate for the cultivation of SRB with the prospect of: purging of mine waste waters inclusive sulphates, recycling of desulphurisation agent (limestone and production of elemental sulphur from hydrogen sulphide. The results confirmed the theoretical assumptions on the use of gypsum, which forms the substantial component of „stabilizate“, as the source of sulphate for sulphate-reducing bacteria, which produce hydrogen sulphide in the process of bacterial reduction of sulphates. They also showed the possibility of recycling the desulphurisation agent – limestone, as well as the realistic alternative of using „stabilizate“ in the production of elemental sulphur which still represents an important raw material needed in chemical, paper or other industries.

  5. Magnesium sulphate versus phenytoin for eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Henderson-Smart, David J; Chou, Doris

    2010-10-06

    Eclampsia, the occurrence of a seizure in association with pre-eclampsia, remains a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. A number of different anticonvulsants have been used to control eclamptic fits and to prevent further seizures. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of magnesium sulphate compared with phenytoin when used for the care of women with eclampsia. Magnesium sulphate is compared with diazepam and with lytic cocktail in other Cochrane reviews. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2010). Randomised trials comparing magnesium sulphate (intravenous or intramuscular administration) with phenytoin for women with a clinical diagnosis of eclampsia. Two review authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. We have included data from seven trials, involving 972 women. One large trial (775 women) was of good quality. Magnesium sulphate was associated with a substantial reduction in the recurrence of seizures, when compared to phenytoin (six trials, 972 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 0.49). The trend in maternal mortality favours magnesium sulphate, but the difference does not reach statistical significance (three trials, 847 women; RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.05). There were reductions in the risk of pneumonia (one trial, RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.79), ventilation (one trial, RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.91) and admission to an intensive care unit (one trial, RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.89) associated with the use of magnesium sulphate rather than phenytoin.For the baby, magnesium sulphate was associated with fewer admissions to a special care baby unit (SCBU) (one trial, 518 babies; RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.91) and fewer babies who died or were in SCBU for more than seven days (one trial, 643 babies; RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.95) than phenytoin. There was no clear difference in perinatal deaths (two trials, 665 babies; (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.67 to 1

  6. Obtaining of yttrium concentrate by precipitation of sodium-lanthanon sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubicki, W.; Ozga, W. (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland))

    1976-01-01

    A new method of separating light lanthanons from yttrium was found as the result of the precipitation of sodium-lanthanon sulphates. The method consists of the introduction of a sodium sulphate solution of a calculated concentration. In one process non-neodymium yttrium preparation was obtained from 2 kg of initial material. The preparation contained 96% of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and its efficiency to yttrium was 83.3%.

  7. Crystallization of iron-containing sodium aluminosilicate glasses in the NaAlSiO4-NaFeSiO4 join

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Mostafa; Marcial, José; McCloy, John

    2017-04-01

    Although natural materials are the subject of most Earth science articles, fundamental studies on analogous synthetic materials, produced under laboratory-controlled conditions, can provide significant insight into expected behavior of natural systems. Iron, a common element in natural aluminosilicates as well as high-level nuclear wastes, plays a crucial role in crystallization behavior. In the present study, effects of Fe-Al substitution in nepheline-based aluminosilicate glasses (NaAl(1 - x)FexSiO4, x = 0.0-1.0) were investigated to assess the role of iron in crystallization, employing semiquantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Fe promotes nepheline crystallization when substituted for Al in low additions (x 0.5). Since effect of Fe is the subject of the present work and is the most common magnetic element, magnetic techniques were used to further analyze the phase assemblage. VSM measurements revealed that Fe oxides, i.e., hematite and magnetite, are present in cases even when their fractions are below the XRD detection limit, and backscattered electron micrographs confirm their presence. EPMA also shows that Fe incorporation in nepheline increases with increasing Fe-Al substitution, up to a maximum of x = 0.37 for the nepheline crystals in the sample with starting glass of Na(Al0.3Fe0.7)SiO4. The residual glass, on the other hand, contains approximately constant Fe concentration x 0.54-0.59 for all samples with starting Fe addition 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.8, and excess iron is expelled into Fe oxide phases. The significance of these results for geological processes and immobilization of high-level nuclear waste is discussed.

  8. Magnesium sulphate at 30 to 34 weeks' gestational age: neuroprotection trial (MAGENTA)--study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa F; Wilkinson, Dominic; Ashwood, Pat; Haslam, Ross

    2013-04-09

    Magnesium sulphate is currently recommended for neuroprotection of preterm infants for women at risk of preterm birth at less than 30 weeks' gestation, based on high quality evidence of benefit. However there remains uncertainty as to whether these benefits apply at higher gestational ages.The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess whether giving magnesium sulphate compared with placebo to women immediately prior to preterm birth between 30 and 34 weeks' gestation reduces the risk of death or cerebral palsy in their children at two years' corrected age. Randomised, multicentre, placebo controlled trial. Women, giving informed consent, at risk of preterm birth between 30 to 34 weeks' gestation, where birth is planned or definitely expected within 24 hours, with a singleton or twin pregnancy and no contraindications to the use of magnesium sulphate.Trial entry & randomisation: Eligible women will be randomly allocated to receive either magnesium sulphate or placebo.Treatment groups: Women in the magnesium sulphate group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing 8 g magnesium sulphate heptahydrate [16 mmol magnesium ions]. Women in the placebo group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing isotonic sodium chloride solution (0.9%). Both treatments will be administered through a dedicated IV infusion line over 30 minutes.Primary study outcome: Death or cerebral palsy measured in children at two years' corrected age. 1676 children are required to detect a decrease in the combined outcome of death or cerebral palsy, from 9.6% with placebo to 5.4% with magnesium sulphate (two-sided alpha 0.05, 80% power, 5% loss to follow up, design effect 1.2). Given the magnitude of the protective effect in the systematic review, the ongoing uncertainty about benefits at later gestational ages, the serious health and cost consequences of cerebral palsy for the child, family and society, a trial of magnesium sulphate for women at

  9. Magnesium sulphate at 30 to 34 weeks’ gestational age: neuroprotection trial (MAGENTA) - study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnesium sulphate is currently recommended for neuroprotection of preterm infants for women at risk of preterm birth at less than 30 weeks’ gestation, based on high quality evidence of benefit. However there remains uncertainty as to whether these benefits apply at higher gestational ages. The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess whether giving magnesium sulphate compared with placebo to women immediately prior to preterm birth between 30 and 34 weeks’ gestation reduces the risk of death or cerebral palsy in their children at two years’ corrected age. Methods/design Design: Randomised, multicentre, placebo controlled trial. Inclusion criteria: Women, giving informed consent, at risk of preterm birth between 30 to 34 weeks’ gestation, where birth is planned or definitely expected within 24 hours, with a singleton or twin pregnancy and no contraindications to the use of magnesium sulphate. Trial entry & randomisation: Eligible women will be randomly allocated to receive either magnesium sulphate or placebo. Treatment groups: Women in the magnesium sulphate group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing 8 g magnesium sulphate heptahydrate [16 mmol magnesium ions]. Women in the placebo group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing isotonic sodium chloride solution (0.9%). Both treatments will be administered through a dedicated IV infusion line over 30 minutes. Primary study outcome: Death or cerebral palsy measured in children at two years’ corrected age. Sample size: 1676 children are required to detect a decrease in the combined outcome of death or cerebral palsy, from 9.6% with placebo to 5.4% with magnesium sulphate (two-sided alpha 0.05, 80% power, 5% loss to follow up, design effect 1.2). Discussion Given the magnitude of the protective effect in the systematic review, the ongoing uncertainty about benefits at later gestational ages, the serious health and cost

  10. Computerised analysis of sulphate action on model concrete piles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.M.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venugopal, C.

    the influence of magnesium sulphate on model reinforced concrete piles. The sulphate action on the corrosion rate of rebar in concrete has been distinctly studied through sophisticated computerised potentiodynamic technique. The corrosion of rebar has been...

  11. Magnetite (Fe3O4) microcapsules prepared using a glass membrane and solvent removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, S; Kanetaka, A; Shimamori, Y; Supsakulchai, A; Nagai, M; Ma, G H

    2001-01-01

    Fine magnetite powders dispersed in polymer solution were encapsulated from an oil-in-water emulsion prepared by an emulsification process employing a porous glass membrane and subsequent evaporation of the solvent. Styrene-based copolymers were dissolved in a magnetic fluid, and then continuously pushed through the pores of glass membrane into the aqueous phase, which had dissolved polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as a mixed stabilizer. P(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PS-AA), P(stryrene-co-butyl acrylate) (PS-BA) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) were dissolved in the specially ordered magnetite fluid (25 wt% magnetite dispersed in toluene) separately or as a mixture, and uniform droplets suspending the magnetic particles were obtained. After the evaporation of toluene, PS-AA capsules retained a spherical shape and uniformity, whereas PS-AA/PS-BA capsules revealed a creased surface and broader size distribution. The microcapsules entrapped 30-40 wt% of magnetite, and the encapsulation yield of magnetite was 20-40%. Glass membranes with 9.5, 5.25 and 1.42 microm pore size were employed and 5-40 microm microcapsules were obtained depending on the pore size. When magnetite suspended in chloroform was used, magnetite capsules with broader size distributions were obtained because of the sticking of the droplets to the membrane wall. The advantage of the membrane emulsification which provides uniform sized droplets was lost.

  12. The sulphate-reduction alkalinity pump tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Patrick; Petrishcheva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate precipitation has been suggested to be induced by alkalinity increase during sulphate reduction under anoxic conditions. This mechanism may explain the formation of carbonate deposits in shallow marine environments, either within a redox stratified sediment inhabited by phototrophic microbial mats or in shallow water within the photic zone where sulphidic water is upwelling onto the shelf. The alkalinity pump may work as long as the sulphide is not reoxidized to sulphate, a process that would acidify the surrounding. The alkalinity effect of sulphate reduction was recently tested by Aloisi (2008) for microbial mats using a model approach. He found that sulphate reduction does not significantly increase or even decrease carbonate saturation and is unlikely to have played a significant role through Earth history. The model considers many environmental factors, including the effect of carbonate precipitation itself on the carbonate equilbrium and on the alkalinity. We used a modified version of Aloisi's (2008) model to simulate the saturation states of aragonite, calcite and dolomite without the effects of carbonate precipitation. This is necessary to evaluate the effect of microbial metabolisms exclusively on carbonate saturation, since carbonate precipitation is only the consequence, but not the cause of oversaturation. First results show that the saturation state is increased in the zone of phototrophic CO2 uptake. In contrast, the saturation state is strongly decreased in the zone where dissolved oxygen overlaps with dissolved sulphide. Aerobic sulphide oxidation consumes most of the HS- and dissipates most of the alkalinity produced in the sulphate reduction zone below. Hence, our results are consistent with the findings of Aloisi (2008), and they even more clearly show that sulphate reduction does not induce carbonate precipitation nor contributes to carbonate precipitation in combination with phototrophic CO2 uptake. The alkalinity effect of sulphate

  13. Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Henderson-Smart, David J; Walker, Godfrey Ja; Chou, Doris

    2010-12-08

    Eclampsia, the occurrence of a seizure in association with pre-eclampsia, remains a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. A number of different anticonvulsants are used to control eclamptic fits and to prevent further fits. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of magnesium sulphate compared with diazepam when used for the care of women with eclampsia. Magnesium sulphate is compared with phenytoin and with lytic cocktail in other Cochrane reviews. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2010) and CENTRAL (2010, Issue 3). Randomised trials comparing magnesium sulphate (intravenous or intramuscular administration) with diazepam for women with a clinical diagnosis of eclampsia. Two authors assessed and extracted data independently. We have included seven trials, involving 1396 women. Three trials (1030 women) were good quality. Magnesium sulphate was associated with a reduction in maternal death (seven trials;1396 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.92) and recurrence of seizures (seven trials;1390 women; RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.55) compared to diazepam. There were no clear differences in other measures of maternal morbidity.There was no clear difference in perinatal mortality (four trials; 788 infants; RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.34) or neonatal mortality (four trials; 759 infants; RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.84). In the magnesium sulphate group, fewer liveborn babies had an Apgar score less than seven at one minute (two trials; 597 babies; RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.87) or at five minutes (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.90), and fewer appeared to need intubation at the place of birth (two trials; 591 infants; RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.00). There was no difference in admission to a special care nursery (four trials; 834 infants; RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.05), but fewer babies in the magnesium sulphate group had a length of stay more than seven days (three trials 631 babies

  14. Magnesium sulphate versus lytic cocktail for eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Chou, Doris

    2010-09-08

    Eclampsia, the occurrence of a seizure in association with pre-eclampsia, is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. A number of different anticonvulsants have been used to control eclamptic fits and to prevent further seizures. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of magnesium sulphate compared with lytic cocktail (usually chlorpromazine, promethazine and pethidine) when used for the care of women with eclampsia. Magnesium sulphate is compared with diazepam and with phenytoin in other Cochrane reviews. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (July 2010) and the Cochrane Central Register of Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2). Randomised trials comparing magnesium sulphate (intravenous or intramuscular administration) with lytic cocktail for women with a clinical diagnosis of eclampsia. Two review authors (L Duley and D Chou) assessed trial quality and extracted data. We included three small trials (total 397 women) of average quality in the review. Magnesium sulphate was associated with fewer maternal deaths (risk ratio (RR) 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.59; 3 trials, 397 women) and was better at preventing further seizures (RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.12; 3 trials, 397 women) than lytic cocktail. Magnesium sulphate was also associated with less respiratory depression (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.91; 2 trials, 198 women), less coma (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.74; 1 trial, 108 women), and less pneumonia (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.67; 2 trials, 307 women). There was no clear difference in the RR for any death of the baby (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.05 to 2.38, random effects; 2 trials, 177 babies). Magnesium sulphate, rather than lytic cocktail, for women with eclampsia reduces the RR of maternal death, of further seizures and of serious maternal morbidity (respiratory depression, coma, pneumonia). Magnesium sulphate is the anticonvulsant of choice for women with eclampsia; the use of lytic cocktail

  15. Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullerton, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; Avnstorp, C

    1993-01-01

    The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulphate were used....... The cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48 h or applied repeatedly every 24 h for 96 h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulphate...... and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e., pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulphate (20%) on the skin surface for 96 h...

  16. Short communication Sulphate measurement in organic-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulphate measurement using a barium sulphate turbidimetric method in solutions with high concentrations of organic material is shown to be problematic. The organics give background colour, which introduces a positive error to the measured absorption, and inhibit the barium sulphate precipitate, which results in a ...

  17. Weeping Glass: The Identification of Ionic Species on the Surface of Vessel Glass Using Ion Chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, G.; van Bommel, M.R.; Tennent, N.H.; Roemich, H.; Fair, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous films on the surface of unstable vessel glass were analysed. Five cation and eight anion species from eleven glass items in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, the Hamburg Museum and the Corning Museum of Glass have been quantified by ion chromatography. Sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium

  18. Identification of the sulphate ion as one of the key components of yeast spoilage of a sports drink through genome-wide expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Tsuge, Keisuke; Suzuki, Akihiro; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Because of the growing market for sports drinks, prevention of yeast contamination of these beverages is of significant concern. This research was performed to achieve insight into the physiology of yeast growing in sports drinks through a genome-wide approach to prevent microbial spoilage of sports drinks. The genome-wide gene expression profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing in the representative sports drink was investigated. Genes that were relevant to sulphate ion starvation response were upregulated in the yeast cells growing in the drink. These results suggest that yeast cells are suffering from deficiency of extracellular sulphate ions during growth in the sports drink. Indeed, the concentration of sulphate ions was far lower in the sports drink than in a medium that allows the optimal growth of yeast. To prove the starvation of sulphate ions of yeast, several ions were added to the beverage and its effects were investigated. The addition of sulphate ions, but not chloride ions or sodium ions, to the beverage stimulated yeast growth in the beverage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the addition of sulphate ions to the sports drink increased the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing amino acids in yeast cells and hydrogen sulphide in the beverage. These results indicate that sulphate ion concentration should be regulated to prevent microbial spoilage of sports drinks.

  19. Citric Acid Addition to Controlling Crystallization of Barium Sulphate (BaSO4) in Pipes through Ba2+ Concentration Variation in the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanto, G.; Fatra, F.; Dera, N. S.; Muryanto, S.; Bayuseno, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    The scale of barium sulphate (BaSO4) is common scale for mineral deposit that found in the offshore oil and gas exploitation. This scale is related with precipitation and grown of mineral deposit on the pipelines surface. Therefore, it results in blockage at the pipe. This paper presents the experimental scaling of barium sulphate in the laminar flow. The barium sulphate solution was prepared by mixing an equimolar solution of barium chloride (BaCl2) and sodium sulphate (Na2SO4). The flow rate is 40 ml/min at temperature of 50 °C. The solutions added by citric acid (C6H8O7) with variation concentration of 0 ppm, 5 ppm, and 10 ppm. The crystallization of barium sulphate was measured by using the conductivity meters. The barite crytals were dried and characterized by using SEM/EDX and XRD. The SEM Results show that the morphology of Barite scale was change in the presence of citric acid. The mineral of barium sulphate was pure barite based on the XRD phase analysis. The presence of citric acid clearly inhibit the crystallization of barium sulphate.

  20. Evidence of glycoproteins and sulphated proteoglycan-like presence in extracellular polymeric substance from anaerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourven, Isabelle; Bachellerie, Guillaume; Costa, Guy; Guibaud, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The protein fraction of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) from two anaerobic granular sludge samples was characterized with sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a far western blotting method. SDS-PAGE was used with various staining applications to obtain a protein (silver), glycoprotein [periodic acid-Shiff's (PAS)] or proteoglycan-like (Alcian blue at pH 2.5 (carboxylic group) or 1 (sulphated group)) fingerprint. The fingerprints of the EPS denatured protein from the two sludge samples differed. Some proteins are specific to Soluble (S) or Bound (B)-EPS (20-100 kDa). Denatured proteins with a polysaccharide moieties characterization are more present in B-EPS. Glycoproteins with α-d-mannosyl and/or α-d-glucosyl (90, 50, 40 kDa) were detected. Proteoglycan-like and sulphated proteoglycan-like substances are also detected, mainly in B-EPS. A 68 kDa sulphated proteoglycan-like substance contains two glucidic residue types: α-d-mannosyl and/or α-d-glucosyl and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamine. Such heteroproteins are present around the membrane as well as the surface-layer from Archaea and from some bacteria. The glycoprotein and sulphated proteoglycan-like substance are assumed to contribute to anaerobic granule strength, thanks to their ability to perform interactions of various nature (ionic, hydrophobic, Ca(2+) as divalent cation bridging, etc.).

  1. SILICATE GLASSES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AH -- ICp(glass).dt (1) with Cp(glass) being calculated as a linear combination of the C,-functions of the different oxides composing the glass. For validity of this relation, ideal behaviour of the glass components is assumed and the partial heat capacities of the oxides are considered independent of composition in the studied ...

  2. Ferroic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuanchao; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Yumei; Xue, Dezhen; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Wang, Yunzhi; Ren, Xiaobing

    2017-10-01

    Ferroic glasses (strain glass, relaxor and cluster spin glass) refer to frozen disordered states in ferroic systems; they are conjugate states to the long-range ordered ferroic states—the ferroic crystals. Ferroic glasses exhibit unusual properties that are absent in ferroic crystals, such as slim hysteresis and gradual property changes over a wide temperature range. In addition to ferroic glasses and ferroic crystals, a third ferroic state, a glass-ferroic (i.e., a composite of ferroic glass and ferroic crystal), can be produced by the crystallization transition of ferroic glasses. It can have a superior property not possessed by its two components. These three classes of ferroic materials (ferroic crystal, ferroic glass and glass-ferroic) correspond to three transitions (ferroic phase transition, ferroic glass transition and crystallization transition of ferroic glass, respectively), as demonstrated in a generic temperature vs. defect-concentration phase diagram. Moreover, through constructing a phase field model, the microstructure evolution of three transitions and the phase diagram can be reproduced, which reveals the important role of point defects in the formation of ferroic glass and glass-ferroic. The phase diagram can be used to design various ferroic glasses and glass-ferroics that may exhibit unusual properties.

  3. Glass sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  4. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low levels of cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones ( Addison disease ) Drinking too much water as might occur during ... urinary sodium levels may indicate diuretic use or Addison disease. Sodium levels are often evaluated in relation to ...

  5. Citrate increases glass transition temperature of vitrified sucrose preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Lipelaar, P.J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Vromans, H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium citrate on the properties of dried amorphous sucrose glasses. Addition of sodium citrate to a sucrose solution followed by freeze-drying or convective drying resulted in a glass transition temperature (T-g) that was higher than the

  6. Making Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, K.; Moore, S.

    2012-01-01

    Journal article comproses: critical reflection, 'Making Glass', HD film with monologue, followed by 'Glass', HD film, stop-motion microscopic and macro photographs In this practice-led exploration of modalities of écriture féminine, I map the shifting subjectivities generated by Glass, a stop-motion animation that performs femininity through close examination and play with glass fragments found among the briny debris of an urban beach. University of Winchester

  7. Effectivness of dexametasone vs. Magnesium sulphate in postoperative analgesia: Dexametasone vs. Magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautaj Brikena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preoperative use of additive substances may be very helpful in perioperative acute pain management. Intravenous administration of dexametasone in preoperative period prevents postoperative nausea and vomiting but also provides better pain relief. It is also well known that magnesium sulphate (the NMDA receptor's antagonist by its central mechanism of action may be effective in postoperative pain control. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexametasone and magnesium sulphate on postoperative pain management in patients undergoing abdominal surgery (open cholecystectomy. Methods: Seventy eight patients scheduled for elective surgery (open cholecystectomy were included in this study. This was the prospective cohort randomized placebo- controlled study. A total of 78 patients were randomized into three groups. Each group had twenty six patients. The group D, received dexametasone 0.1 mg/ kg iv 30 minutes before surgery. The group M received magnesium sulphate 3 mg/kg iv 30 minutes before surgery. The third group S was placebo group and patients in this group received saline in the same volume for each patient. For pain control after surgery all patients received tramadol 0.9-1.2 mg/kg and diklophenac 1.76 mg/kg. When necessary (VAS ≥ 7, morphine sulphate in dose 0.15 mg/kg was administred subcutaneously For treatment of emetic episodes metoclopramid 10 mg iv. was used. The patients were observed for intensity of pain measured VAS 0-10, pain relief and satisfaction with therapy, sedation, adverse events, emetic episodes and hemodynamic parameters. Results: There was no difference between groups regarding demographic data (age, gender, body weight, ASA score, comorbidity, duration of surgery and anesthesia and amount of fentanyl received during surgery. In group D 11.54% of patients received additional analgesia (morphine sulphate 0.15 mg/kg sc in the first 4 hours and 27% of patients in the first 24 hours

  8. Effect of temperature on the durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated radioactive liquid waste: synergy of chloride and sulphate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-06-15

    The durability of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) rich in a mixed sodium chloride and sulphate solution is presented here. The effect of the temperature and potential synergic effect of chloride and sulfate ions are discussed. This study has been carried out according to the Koch-Steinegger test, at the temperature of 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C during a period of 180 days. The durability has been evaluated by the changes of the flexural strength of mortar, fabricated with this cement, immersed in a simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulfate (0.5M), chloride (0.5M) and sodium (1.5M) ions--catalogued like severely aggressive for the traditional Portland cement--and demineralised water, which was used as reference. The reaction mechanism of sulphate, chloride and sodium ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the chloride binding and formation of Friedel's salt was inhibited by the presence of sulphate. Sulphate ion reacts preferentially with the calcium aluminate hydrates forming non-expansive ettringite which precipitated inside the pores; the microstructure was refined and the mechanical properties enhanced. This process was faster and more marked at 40 degrees C.

  9. Analysis of proteoglycans derived sulphated disaccharides by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barroso, B.; Didraga, Mihaela Alina; Bischoff, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    A method has been developed for the identification and quantitative determination of sulphated disaccharides derived from chondroitin sulphate (CS) and dermatan sulphate (DS) chains attached to proteoglycans (PGs). After digestion with Chondroitinase ABC, the pool of disaccharides can be directly

  10. The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muyzer, G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a

  11. Anodically generated manganese (III) sulphate for the oxidation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anodically generated manganese(III) sulphate for the oxidation of dipeptides in aqueous sulphuric acid medium: A kinetic study. M N Kumara D Channe ... The effects of varying the dielectric constant of the medium and addition of anions such as sulphate, chloride and perchlorate were studied. The activation parameters ...

  12. New Sulphated Flavonoids from Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Yanna C F; Horta, Carolina Campolina Rebello; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Siheri, Weam; Boyd, Marie; Igoli, John O; Gray, Alexander I; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei

    2015-11-09

    Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae) is commonly used in Brazil to treat bee stings and as an antiseptic. The antioxidant properties of its extracts have been previously demonstrated, thus justifying a phytochemical investigation for its bioactive phenolic constituents. This has yielded five new sulphated flavonoids: 8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (yannin) (1a); 4'-O-methyl-7-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (beltraonin) (1b); 7-O-sulphate acacetin (wissadulin) (2a); 4'-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (caicoine) (2b) and 3'-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate hypolaetin (pedroin) (3b) along with the known flavonoids 7,4'-di-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (4), acacetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein, 4'-O-methyl isoscutellarein, 7,4'-di-O-methylisoscutellarein, astragalin and tiliroside. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography and identified by NMR (¹H, (13)C, HMQC, HMBC and COSY) and LC-HRMS. A cell based assay was carried out to evaluate the preliminary cytotoxic properties of the flavonoids against UVW glioma and PC-3M prostate cancer cells as well as non-tumour cell lines. The obtained results showed that acacetin, tiliroside, a mixture of acacetin + apigenin and the sulphated flavonoids 2a + 2b exhibited inhibitory activity against at least one of the cell lines tested. Among the tested flavonoids acacetin and tiliroside showed lower IC50 values, presenting promising antitumor effects.

  13. Development of a kinetic model for biological sulphate reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rhodes BioSUREÆÊ Process is a low-cost active treatment system for acid mine drainage (AMD) waters. Central to this process is biological sulphate reduction (BSR) using primary sewage sludge (PSS) as the electron donor and organic carbon source, with the concomitant reduction of sulphate to sulphide and ...

  14. New Sulphated Flavonoids from Wissadula periplocifolia (L. C. Presl (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna C. F. Teles

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wissadula periplocifolia (L. C. Presl (Malvaceae is commonly used in Brazil to treat bee stings and as an antiseptic. The antioxidant properties of its extracts have been previously demonstrated, thus justifying a phytochemical investigation for its bioactive phenolic constituents. This has yielded five new sulphated flavonoids: 8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (yannin (1a; 4′-O-methyl-7-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (beltraonin (1b; 7-O-sulphate acacetin (wissadulin (2a; 4′-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (caicoine (2b and 3′-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate hypolaetin (pedroin (3b along with the known flavonoids 7,4′-di-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (4, acacetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein, 4´-O-methyl isoscutellarein, 7,4′-di-O-methylisoscutellarein, astragalin and tiliroside. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography and identified by NMR (1H, 13C, HMQC, HMBC and COSY and LC-HRMS. A cell based assay was carried out to evaluate the preliminary cytotoxic properties of the flavonoids against UVW glioma and PC-3M prostate cancer cells as well as non-tumour cell lines. The obtained results showed that acacetin, tiliroside, a mixture of acacetin + apigenin and the sulphated flavonoids 2a + 2b exhibited inhibitory activity against at least one of the cell lines tested. Among the tested flavonoids acacetin and tiliroside showed lower IC50 values, presenting promising antitumor effects.

  15. Differential responses of freshwater wetland soils to sulphate pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, L.P.M.; Dolle, ten G.E.; Berg, van den S.T.G.; Delft, van S.P.J.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sulphate (SO42-) reduction rates are generally low in freshwater wetlands and are regulated by the scarce availability of the ion. Increased concentrations of this electron acceptor due to sulphur (S) pollution of groundwater and surface water may, however, lead to high sulphate reduction rates now

  16. Effects of dietary ammonium sulphate (AS) on the performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were designed to investigate the response of broilers to dietary inclusion of ammonium sulphate. In experiment 1, day old chicks were fed diets with 0,1,2 or 3 % ammonium sulphate (AS) during the starter phase (0 –4 weeks). In experiment 2, broilers chicks were raised on a standard diet from 0 – 4 weeks ...

  17. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources Top 10 Sources of Sodium How to Reduce Sodium Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyone Sodium Reduction Fact ... in processed food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: ...

  18. Modification of chromate toxicity by sulphate in duckweeds (Lemnaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenroth, Klaus-J; Luther, Alexandra; Jetschke, Gottfried; Gabrys, Halina

    2008-09-17

    Two duckweed species, Spirodela polyrhiza and Lemna minor, were used to measure the toxicity of chromate (100 microM) at three levels of sulphate (13 microM, low sulphate=LS; 410 microM, normal sulphate=NS; 10,000 microM, high sulphate=HS). Growth rates calculated on the basis of dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid content were all reduced by chromate. This inhibition was the strongest under LS conditions and the weakest under HS conditions. Thus, sulphate decreases chromate toxicity-which conforms with its influence on chromate uptake reported previously (Kaszycki, P., Gabrys, H., Appenroth, K.-J., Jaglarz, A., Sedziwy, S., Walczak, T., Koloczek, H., 2005. Exogenously applied sulphate as a tool to investigate transport and reduction of chromate in the duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza. Plant Cell Environ. 28, 260-269). The three levels of sulphate were also applied during pre-cultivation of both species for 2 weeks and the consequences for chromate toxicity were tested thereafter. When S. polyrhiza was pre-cultivated in NS medium, the growth inhibition by chromate was approximately 80% of the control (no chromate) in the subsequently applied LS medium, and approximately 50% in HS. L. minor showed similar relationships but a lower overall chromate sensitivity. In comparison to the plants pre-treated in NS medium, those pre-treated in LS were more sensitive whereas those pre-treated in HS were less sensitive toward chromate. The present data demonstrate that chromate is taken up into cells of the two duckweed species by sulphate transporter(s). The rather weak influence of sulphate on chromate toxicity indicates that chromate binds to the transporters much stronger than sulphate. Moreover, the relative effects of sulphate on the chromate toxicity remain very similar regardless of pre-treatment. This confirms the conclusion from uptake experiments that pre-treatment with different levels of sulphate changes the number of sulphate transporters but their affinity remains

  19. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Hannesson, Kirsten O.; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; B?verfjord, Grete; Mona E Pedersen

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400?d? was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were add...

  20. Sulphate rocks as an arena for karst development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejchuk V.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The rocks in which karst systems develop are most commonly composed of carbonate sulphate and chloride minerals. The sulphate minerals are quite numerous, but only gypsum and anhydrite form extensive masses in sedimentary sequences. Other minerals, which represent sulphates of K, Mg and Na, normally occur as minor beds (0.1-5.0 m, or as inclusions associated with chloride rocks. However some minerals precipitated in salt-generating basins, such as mirabilite and glauberite (typically formed in the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Gulf, salt lakes of Siberia and in China, form sequences up to 5-10 m thick where karst may develop. Due to the very high solubility of Na -sulphates, karst processes and features occurring in these rocks resemble salt karst. Thus, the term sulphate karst, although not strictly correct, is used mainly to indicate karst developed in gypsum and anhydrite.

  1. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  2. Removal heavy metals and sulphate from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnierová Mária

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the process of bacterial sulphate reduction, which is used to removal of heavy metals and sulphate ions from waste waters.The life of animals and plants depends on the existence of microscopic organisms – microorganisms (MO, which play an important role in cycle changes of biogenic elements on the earth. The sulphur cycle in the nature is considered as one of the oldest and most significant biological systems (Fig. 1. The sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB miss the assimilatory part of the cycle and produce sulphides. The microbial population of this dissimilatory part is called “sulfuretum”. The SRB can be found in anaerobic mud and sediments of freshwater, thermal or non-thermal sulphur springs, mining waters from sulphide deposits, oil deposits, sea and ocean beds, and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals. The SRB represent a group of chemoorganotrophic, strictly anaerobic and gramnegative bacteria, which exhibit a great morphological and physiological diversity. Despite of their considerable morphological variety, they have one property in common, which is the ability to utilise preferentially sulphates (occasionally sulphites, thiosulphates, tetrathionates as electron acceptors, which are reduced to sulphides, during anaerobic respiration. The electron donors in these processes are simple organic compounds as lactate, malate, etc.,(heterotrophically reduction or gaseous hydrogen (autotrophically reduction. SRB can produce a considerable amount of hydrogen sulphide, which reacts easily in aqueous solution with the cations of heavy metals, forming metal sulphides that have low solubility. The bacterial sulphate reduction can be used for the treatment of acid mine drainage waters, which is considered to be the major problem associated with mining activities.In order to remove heavy metals from waste waters, e.g., from galvanizing plants, mine waters (Smolnik, Šobov locality and metallurgic plants (works

  3. Studies on growth and nucleation kinetics of cadmium thiourea sulphate and magnesium cadmium thiourea sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mekala [Quaid-e-Milleth College, Chennai 600002 (India)], E-mail: mekaladaniel@rediffmail.com; Malliga, M. Jeyarani [Bharathi Women College, Chennai 600108 (India); Sankar, R. [Kings Engineering College, Irungatukottai, Sriperumbudhur, Chennai 602105 (India); Jayaraman, D. [Presidency College, Chennai 600 004 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Semiorganic materials, in general possess high non-linear coefficient and mechanical strength which will be more applicable for device fabrication. Cadmium thiourea sulphate (CTS) and magnesium cadmium thiourea sulphate (MCTS) are better semiorganic materials which find applications in the field of optoelectronics. Single crystals of CTS and MCTS have been successfully grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique using predetermined solubility data. The basic growth parameters of the crystal nuclei of the grown crystals of CTS and MCTS were evaluated based on the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation. The classical nucleation theory makes use of capillarity approximation which has certain limitations. A correction has to be applied for it and the classical nucleation theory has been suitably modified in order to calculate the critical nucleus parameters.

  4. Degradable borate glass polyalkenoate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L; Coughlan, A; Towler, M; Hall, M

    2014-04-01

    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) containing aluminum-free borate glasses having the general composition Ag2O-Na2O-CaO-SrO-ZnO-TiO2-B2O3 were evaluated in this work. An initial screening study of sixteen compositions was used to identify regions of glass formation and cement compositions with promising rheological properties. The results of the screening study were used to develop four model borate glass compositions for further study. A second round of rheological experiments was used to identify a preferred GPC formulation for each model glass composition. The model borate glasses containing higher levels of TiO2 (7.5 mol %) tended to have longer working times and shorter setting times. Dissolution behavior of the four model GPC formulations was evaluated by measuring ion release profiles as a function of time. All four GPC formulations showed evidence of incongruent dissolution behavior when considering the relative release profiles of sodium and boron, although the exact dissolution profile of the glass was presumably obscured by the polymeric cement matrix. Compression testing was undertaken to evaluate cement strength over time during immersion in water. The cements containing the borate glass with 7.5 mol % TiO2 had the highest initial compressive strength, ranging between 20 and 30 MPa. No beneficial aging effect was observed-instead, the strength of all four model GPC formulations was found to degrade with time.

  5. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  6. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  7. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass.

  8. Cosmos & Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1996-01-01

    The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne.......The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne....

  9. Glass Glimpsed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology.......Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology....

  10. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  11. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Caroline A; Brown, Julie; McKinlay, Christopher J D; Middleton, Philippa

    2014-08-15

    Magnesium sulphate has been used in some settings as a tocolytic agent to inhibit uterine activity in women in preterm labour with the aim of preventing preterm birth. To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate therapy given to women in threatened preterm labour with the aim of preventing preterm birth and its sequelae. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (last searched 31 January 2014). Randomised controlled trials of magnesium sulphate as the only tocolytic, administered by any route, compared with either placebo, no treatment or alternative tocolytic therapy (not magnesium sulphate) to women considered to be in preterm labour. At least two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and undertook data extraction independently. The 37 included trials (total of 3571 women and over 3600 babies) were generally of moderate to high risk of bias. Antenatal magnesium sulphate was compared with either placebo, no treatment, or a range of alternative tocolytic agents.For the primary outcome of giving birth within 48 hours after trial entry, no significant differences were seen between women who received magnesium sulphate and women who did not (whether placebo/no alternative tocolytic drug, betamimetics, calcium channel blockers, cox inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitors, or human chorionic gonadotropin) (19 trials, 1913 women). Similarly for the primary outcome of serious infant outcome, there were no significant differences between the infants exposed to magnesium sulphate and those not (whether placebo/no alternative tocolytic drug, betamimetics, calcium channel blockers, cox inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitors, human chorionic gonadotropin or various tocolytic drugs) (18 trials; 2187 babies). No trials reported the outcome of extremely preterm birth. In the seven trials that reported serious maternal outcomes, no events were recorded.In the group treated with magnesium sulphate compared with women receiving

  12. Simple and rapid method on High Performance Liquid Chromatography for simultaneous determination of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances in Ascomicin – a veterinary use ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neagu Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise High – Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for determination of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate in Ascomicin ointment was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradation products in this pharmaceutical product during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and quantification limits according to ICH Guidelines. The estimation of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate was done by Waters HPLC 2695. The chromatographic conditions comprised a reverse-phased C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 mm×4.6 mm i.d. with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of solution in water containing 0.025 M of sodium phosphate dibasic and 0.02 of sodium hexansulfonate adjusted to pH 6.0 with 22.5 g/lsolution of phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 5.00 µg/ml to 5.00 mg/ml for streptomycin sulphate and 3.26 µg/ml to 3.26 mg/ml for benzylpenicillin potassium. Statistical analyses proved the method was precise, reproducible, selective, specific and accurate for analysis of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS MATRICES FOR HLW RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.

    2010-03-18

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either borosilicate glass or phosphate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt waste plus glass forming frit additives and cast. A second reason that glass has become widely used for HLW is that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and governs the melt properties such as viscosity, resistivity, sulphate solubility. The molecular structure of glass controls contaminant/radionuclide release by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150 C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as Tc{sup 99}, Cs{sup 137}, and I{sup 129}. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models based on the molecular structure of glass have been mechanistically derived and have been demonstrated to be accurate enough to control the world's largest HLW Joule heated ceramic melter in the US since 1996 at 95% confidence.

  14. Short communication: Use of calcium sulphate dihydrate as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flocculant alternative to the conventional use of aluminium sulphate in the primary treatment of wastewater was evaluated using a jar test apparatus. Samples from the State Water Commission (CEA) in Queretaro, Mexico, were collected for the ...

  15. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Adsorption of Sulphate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL USER

    Magnetite nanoparticles, activated Carbon and their composites were ... Keywords: Sulphate, Adsorption, Magnetite, Composites, Isotherm, Thermodynamic ...... doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2014.08.040. (2014). 42. ... Journal of Colloid and Interface.

  16. INDUSTRIAL WASTED WATER TREATMENT WITH ALUMINIUM SULPHATE COAGULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khromysheva О.О.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical regularities of coagulant treatment of sewage of Open Joint-Stock Company «GidrosylaMZTG» from heavy metals, chlorides and sulfates by with aluminum sulphate are studied.

  17. Effects of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmelioglu, O; Sencar, L; Ozdemir, S; Tarkan, O; Dagkiran, M; Surmelioglu, N; Tuncer, U; Polat, S

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve regeneration after facial nerve injury using electron and light microscopy. The study was performed on 30 male Wistar albino rats split into: a control group, a sham-treated group, a study control group, an anastomosis group, and an anastomosis plus agmatine sulphate treatment group. The mandibular branch of the facial nerve was dissected, and a piece was removed for histological and electron microscopic examination. Regeneration was better in the anastomosis group than in the study control group. However, the best regeneration findings were seen in the agmatine sulphate treatment group. There was a significant difference between the agmatine group and the others in terms of median axon numbers (p < 0.004) and diameters (p < 0.004). Agmatine sulphate treatment with anastomosis in traumatic facial paralysis may enhance nerve regeneration.

  18. EFFECT OF SODIUM SILICATE TO SODIUM HYDROXIDE RATIOS ON DURABILITY OF GEOPOLYMER MORTARS CONTAINING NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL POZZOLANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nurhayat Degirmenci

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide the experimental data on the sulphate and acid performance of geopolymer mortar containing pozzolanic materials such as fly ash (FA, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS and natural zeolite (NZ. The alkaline solution was the combination of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution with the ratio (Na ₂SiO₃/NaOH of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0. The molarity of sodium hydroxide was fixed as 10. The performances of geopolymer mortar were measured in terms of sodium and magnesium sulphate resistance and sulphuric and hydrochlorich acid resistance with 5% and 10 % concentration after 24 weeks. The evaluations were measured as visual observation, measurement of weight change and residual compressive strength. It has been observed that Na ₂SiO₃/NaOH ratio is effective on residual compressive strength of geopolymer mortar in both sulphate and acid exposure. The higher ratio of Na ₂SiO₃/NaOH results in a higher residual compressive strength. The GGBS based geopolymer mortar has a very good resistance in acid media in terms of weight loss and residual compressive strength. The inclusion of FA in the GGBS based geopolymer mixture was found to be a suitable base of geopolymer mortar under ambient curing conditions.

  19. Low marine sulphate and protracted oxygenation of the Proterozoic biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Linda C; Lyons, Timothy W; Frank, Tracy D

    2004-10-14

    Progressive oxygenation of the Earth's early biosphere is thought to have resulted in increased sulphide oxidation during continental weathering, leading to a corresponding increase in marine sulphate concentration. Accurate reconstruction of marine sulphate reservoir size is therefore important for interpreting the oxygenation history of early Earth environments. Few data, however, specifically constrain how sulphate concentrations may have changed during the Proterozoic era (2.5-0.54 Gyr ago). Prior to 2.2 Gyr ago, when oxygen began to accumulate in the Earth's atmosphere, sulphate concentrations are inferred to have been Proterozoic. Our calculations indicate sulphate levels between 1.5 and 4.5 mM, or 5-15 per cent of modern values, for more than 1 Gyr after initial oxygenation of the Earth's biosphere. Persistence of low oceanic sulphate demonstrates the protracted nature of Earth's oxygenation. It links biospheric evolution to temporal patterns in the depositional behaviour of marine iron- and sulphur-bearing minerals, biological cycling of redox-sensitive elements and availability of trace metals essential to eukaryotic development.

  20. Folic acid improve developmental toxicity induced by aluminum sulphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Heba A; George, Safaa M; Mohamed, Heba K

    2017-03-01

    Aluminum sulphate has a significant toxic effects for humans. Aluminum is one of the most abundant metal on the Earth crust. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of short term exposure to aluminum sulphate on the bone development of the fetuses in rats, and if folic acid has a protective role upon that effects or not. Forty female rats were used, ten per group, GI served as negative control (receive nothing except normal feeding and water), GII served as positive control (receive water by gastric gavage), GIII treated with aluminum sulphate orally by gastric gavage and GIV treated with aluminum sulphate with folic acid. Mating occurred and known by presence of vaginal plug in the female rats. Rats were killed on day 18 of gestation. The female rats weight were significantly reduced in the treated group if compared with the control group (p>0.001), all parameters of the fetuses, fetal weight, malformation and the crown rump length reduced significantly p value were Folic acid gave a protective role for all the hazardous effects of aluminum sulphate and prove the diameters measured and also the histopathological effects. Aluminum sulphate can produce hazardous effects on bone of the fetuses, which may affect the life style of these fetuses later on. Folic acid might give a protective role and so should be given to females who tried to conceive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakić, Milorad; Glišić, Slobodan; Nikolić, Goran; Nikolić, Goran M.; Cakić, Katarina; Cvetinov, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs - DS) were synthesized from aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and dextran sulphate sodium salt (DS). The characterization of AgNPs - DS was performed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and antimicrobial activity. The formation of AgNPs - DS was monitored by colour changes of the reaction mixture from yellowish to brown and by measuring the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak in UV-VIS spectra at 420 nm. The SEM analysis was used for size and shape determination of AgNPs - DS. The presence of elemental silver and its crystalline structure in AgNPs - DS were confirmed by EDX and XRD analyses. The possible functional groups of DS responsible for the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs were determinated by FTIR spectroscopy. The AgNPs - DS showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Bacillus luteus in haus strain, Bacillus subtilis ATTC 6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Escherichia coli ATTC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATTC 700603, Proteus vulgaris ATTC 8427, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATTC 2091.

  2. Demonstration of immunogenic keratan sulphate in commercial chondroitin 6-sulphate from shark cartilage. Implications for ELISA assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Møller-Pedersen, T; Damsgaard, T E

    1995-01-01

    The prototype monoclonal keratan sulphate (KS) antibody 5D4 that is widely used for detection of KS in tissues and biological fluids reacts strongly with commercial low grade shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate. Characterization of the immunogenic material by chondroitinase ABC digestion, ELISA...... inhibition studies, immunoblotting and HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of substantial amounts of KS, probably as a large proteoglycan (> 120 kDa). Commercial and heterogenic glycosaminoglycan preparations therefore must be used with great caution in immunological analyses. On the other hand the shark...... cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate is an easy accessible source of immunogenic KS that can be used as a reference standard and as coating antigen in KS-ELISAs. The concentration of immunogenic KS in synovial fluid measured with an ELISA based solely on reagents of shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate...

  3. Successful Management of Phaeochromocytoma using Preoperative Oral Labetalol and Intraoperative Magnesium Sulphate; Report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanath Kumar B. S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Phaeochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine catecholamine-secreting tumour. This type of tumour poses multidimensional anaesthetic challenges as it has an unpredictable clinical course during surgical resection. The alpha-blocking agent phenoxybenzamine remained the mainstay in preoperative preparation before the introduction of beta-blocking agents. We report four cases operated between 2009–2012 at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. The cases were prepared with oral labetalol, as the alpha-blocking drug phenoxybenzamine was not immediately available. Responses to simulated stress were tested in the theatre before surgery. Anaesthesia was induced under invasive arterial pressure monitoring and magnesium sulphate infusion. Rare intraoperative surges in blood pressure during tumour manipulation were treated with sodium nitroprusside infusions and phentolamine boluses. All of the patients had an uneventful postoperative recovery. Preoperative treatment with labetalol has rarely been reported and can be considered as a potential therapeutic option with optimal patient monitoring if phenoxybenzamine is unavailable.

  4. Sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeka, W.J.; Oliva, R.M.; Horton, P.

    1973-12-01

    The objective of this program is to conduct friction screening tests in an environment of high-temperature, high-purity liquid sodium or sodium vapor to: (1) develop backup materials, processes, and vendors for core component wear pads, (2) investigate material treatments and coatings for improvement of wear behavior of common LMFBR structural materials, (3) evaluate weld-deposited hardfacings and/or prefabricated bearing materials for use in long-term, high-temperature, high-fluence regions, (4) evaluate bearing materials with a low potential for change in surface composition due to corrosion or mass transfer effects, and (5) develop statistical confidence in friction values for selected material combinations.

  5. Optimization study for Pb(II) and COD sequestration by consortium of sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anamika; Bishnoi, Narsi R.; Gupta, Asha

    2017-09-01

    In this study, initial minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Pb(II) ions was analysed to check optimum concentration of Pb(II) ions at which the growth of sulphate-reducing consortium (SRC) was found to be maximum. 80 ppm of Pb(II) ions was investigated as minimum inhibitory concentration for SRC. Influence of electron donors such as lactose, sucrose, glucose and sodium lactate was examined to investigate best carbon source for growth and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Sodium lactate was found to be the prime carbon source for SRC. Later optimization of various parameters was executed using Box-Behnken design model of response surface methodology to explore the effectiveness of three independent operating variables, namely, pH (5.0-9.0), temperature (32-42 °C) and time (5.0-9.0 days), on dependent variables, i.e. protein content, precipitation of Pb(II) ions, and removal of COD by SRC biomass. Maximum removal of COD and Pb(II) was observed to be 91 and 98 %, respectively, at pH 7.0 and temperature 37 °C and incubation time 7 days. According to response surface analysis and analysis of variance, the experimental data were perfectly fitted to the quadratic model, and the interactive influence of pH, temperature and time on Pb(II) and COD removal was highly significant. A high regression coefficient between the variables and response ( r 2 = 0.9974) corroborate eminent evaluation of experimental data by second-order polynomial regression model. SEM and Fourier transform infrared analysis was performed to investigate morphology of PbS precipitates, sorption mechanism and involved functional groups in metal-free and metal-loaded biomass of SRC for Pb(II) binding.

  6. Hydration of portland cement, natural zeolite mortar in water and sulphate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janotka, I.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to characterise sulphate resistance of mortars made from ordinary Portland cement ( PC and Portland-pozzolan cement with 35 wt.% of zeolite addition (zeolite-blended cement-ZBC . Mortars with two different cement types were tested in water and 5% sodium sulphate solution for 720 days. A favourable effect of zeolite on increased sulphate resistance of the cement is caused by decrease in free Ca(OH2 content of the mortar There is not sufficient of Ca(OH2 available for reacting with the sulphate solution to form voluminous reaction products. A decreased C3A, content due to 35 wt.% replacement of PC by zeolite is the next pronounced factor improving resistance of the mortar with such blended cement.

    El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar la resistencia a los sulfatos de morteros preparados con cemento portland ordinario (PC y cemento portland puzolánico, con un 35% en peso de zeolita (zeolite-blended cement (ZBC. Ambos tipos de morteros fueron conservados en agua y en una disolución de sulfato sódico al 5% durante 720 días. Se observó una mayor resistencia a los sulfatos en el mortero preparado con el cemento que contenía zeolita debido a su menor contenido en Ca(OH2. No hay cantidad suficiente de Ca(OH2 para que se produzca la reacción de los constituyentes de la pasta con la disolución de sulfato sódico y formar así productos de naturaleza expansiva. La disminución en el contenido de C,3A, debida a la sustitución de un 35% en peso de PC por zeolita, es el factor más determinante en el aumento de la resistencia del mortero en los cementos con adición.

  7. 6-Sulphated chondroitins have a positive influence on axonal regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lin

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs upregulated in the glial scar inhibit axon regeneration via their sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase-1 (C6ST-1 is upregulated after injury leading to an increase in 6-sulphated GAG. In this study, we ask if this increase in 6-sulphated GAG is responsible for the increased inhibition within the glial scar, or whether it represents a partial reversion to the permissive embryonic state dominated by 6-sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Using C6ST-1 knockout mice (KO, we studied post-injury changes in chondroitin sulphotransferase (CSST expression and the effect of chondroitin 6-sulphates on both central and peripheral axon regeneration. After CNS injury, wild-type animals (WT showed an increase in mRNA for C6ST-1, C6ST-2 and C4ST-1, but KO did not upregulate any CSSTs. After PNS injury, while WT upregulated C6ST-1, KO showed an upregulation of C6ST-2. We examined regeneration of nigrostriatal axons, which demonstrate mild spontaneous axon regeneration in the WT. KO showed many fewer regenerating axons and more axonal retraction than WT. However, in the PNS, repair of the median and ulnar nerves led to similar and normal levels of axon regeneration in both WT and KO. Functional tests on plasticity after the repair also showed no evidence of enhanced plasticity in the KO. Our results suggest that the upregulation of 6-sulphated GAG after injury makes the extracellular matrix more permissive for axon regeneration, and that the balance of different CSs in the microenvironment around the lesion site is an important factor in determining the outcome of nervous system injury.

  8. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the measuring device from its wrapper. Open the bottle by pushing down on the cap and turning the cap counterclockwise (to the left) ... Rinse the measuring device with water Replace the cap on the bottle of sodium oxybate and return the bottle and ...

  9. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... potassium in your blood; a high level of sodium or phosphate in your blood; colitis (inflammation of the large intestine) or other conditions that irritate your intestine; slow moving bowels; heart failure (condition in which the heart cannot pump blood through the body as well as it ...

  10. Effect of particle size of starting materials on the structure and properties of biogenic hydroxyapatite/glass composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oleksandr Parkhomey; Nataliia Pinchuk; Olena Sych; Tamara Tomila; Oleksiy Kuda; Hanna Tovstonoh; Viktor Gorban; Valeriy Kolesnichenko; Yan Evych

    2016-01-01

    The work is devoted to investigation of porous glass-ceramic composite materials on the basis of biogenic hydroxyapatite and sodium borosilicate glass prepared from starting powders with different particle sizes (<50 µm and <160 µm...

  11. Effect of particle size of starting materials on the structure and properties of biogenic hydroxyapatite/glass composites

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr Parkhomey; Nataliia Pinchuk; Olena Sych; Tamara Tomila; Oleksiy Kuda; Hanna Tovstonoh; Viktor Gorban’; Valeriy Kolesnichenko; Yan Evych

    2016-01-01

    The work is devoted to investigation of porous glass-ceramic composite materials on the basis of biogenic hydroxyapatite and sodium borosilicate glass prepared from starting powders with different particle sizes (

  12. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  13. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate as accelerator of the rate of copper cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. El-Saharty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Cu2+ ion concentration and temperature on the cementation rate of copper from copper sulphate on zinc and the effect of additives of the organic compound “sodium diethyldithiocarbamate” (NaDDC were studied. It was noticed that the cementation increases significantly by increasing the concentrations of NaDDC. The rate of cementation increased by 58.58−100.31%. Our data showed that sodium diethyldithiocarbamate reacts with the Cu2+ solution giving a complex of copper diethyldithiocarbamate, which enhances the rate of cementation.

  14. Foaming of CRT panel glass powder with Na2CO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    Recycling of cathode ray tube (CRT) glass remains a challenging task. The CRT glass consists of four glass types fused together: Funnel-, neck-, frit- and panel glass. The three former glasses contain toxic lead oxide, and therefore have a low recycling potential. The latter on the other hand...... is lead-free, but since barium and strontium oxide are present, panel glass is incompatible with most common recycling methods. However, foam glass production is a promising approach for the recycling of panel glass waste, since the process parameters can be changed according to the glass waste...... composition in question. In this work, we foam panel glass cullet using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as a foaming agent, and study the foaming mechanism. When heat treating Na2CO3 powder with cullet powder, Na2CO3 reacts with the glass melt and is decomposed into Na2O and CO2. The released CO2 foams the glass...

  15. The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyzer, Gerard; Stams, Alfons J M

    2008-06-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a serious problem for industries, such as the offshore oil industry, because of the production of sulphide, which is highly reactive, corrosive and toxic. However, these organisms can also be beneficial by removing sulphate and heavy metals from waste streams. Although SRB have been studied for more than a century, it is only with the recent emergence of new molecular biological and genomic techniques that we have begun to obtain detailed information on their way of life.

  16. Geochemistry of fly ash from desulphurisation process performed by sodium bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raclavska, Helena; Matysek, Dalibor; Raclavsky, Konstantin; Juchelkova, Dagmar [VSB - Technical University Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2010-02-15

    The application of NEUTREC {sup registered} technology - desulphurisation by means of sodium bicarbonate - has been tested at the Trebovice coal-fired power plant (Ostrava, Czech Republic). This technology significantly influences the chemical composition of fly ash and the leachability of total dissolved substances (TDS), e.g., sulphates, fluorides and oxyanions (Se, Sb, Cr, As), which are monitored according to the Council of the European Union Decision 2003/33/EC. An increase of TDS in the water leachate from the fly ash obtained at 60% desulphurisation was influenced by sodium content, which is present in the form of Na{sup +} ions (85-90%). The percentages of sodium sulphate and sodium carbonate were between 5 and 10% of the total sodium content. In order to decrease the leachability of TDS, sodium, sulphates and oxyanion mixtures were prepared containing a sorbent (60% bentonite) and mixed with desulphurised and non-desulphurised fly ash in various ratios. The addition of CaO resulted in the formation of a new mineral phase, burkeite. None of the applied technologies tested for the processed fly ash resulted in the preparation of a water leachate which complied in all monitored parameters to the requirements of Council Decision 2003/33 EC for nonhazardous wastes. (author)

  17. Glass, gold, and gold-glasses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitehouse, David

    1996-01-01

      Gold-glasses, objects with gold foil ornament sandwiched between two fused layers of glass, were the first category of Roman glass to attract the attention of collectors and antiquarians in the 17th century...

  18. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  19. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor DarulTa’zim (Malaysia)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) into hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x}(OH){sub 2−x}) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O), ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure.

  20. Collescipoli - An unusual fusion crust glass. [chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozette, S.

    1979-01-01

    An electron microprobe study was conducted on glass fragments taken from the fusion crust and an internal glass-lined vein in the H-5 chondrite Collescipoli. Microprobe analyses of the glasses revealed an unusual fusion crust composition, and analyses of glass from inside the meteorite showed compositions expected for a melt of an H-group chondrite. Studies of fusion crusts by previous workers, e.g., Krinov and Ramdohr, showed that fusion crusts contain large amounts of magnetite and other oxidized minerals. The Collescipoli fusion crusts do contain these minerals, but they also contain relatively large amounts of reduced metal, sulphide, and a sodium-rich glass. This study seems to indicate that Collescipoli preserved an early type of fusion crust. Oxidation was incomplete in the fusion crust melt that drained into a crack. From this study it is concluded that fusion crust formation does not invariably result in complete oxidation of metal and sulphide phases.

  1. Metallic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Arjen Sybren

    1981-01-01

    It is shown in section 7.1. that the influence of topological disorder on the range of magnetic interactions in ferromagnetic transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) glasses, is much less than often assumed. This is demonstrated via a study of the temperature dependence of the average iron hyperfine field

  2. Colloidal glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... state is reached by rapidly lowering the temperature. In colloidal glasses, glassy state is reached by increasing the concentration of the jamming entity above random loose packing threshold leading to a disordered state. Common examples: toothpaste, hair gel, shaving foam, concentrated suspensions, emulsions, etc.

  3. Pinhole Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole…

  4. Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hans; Hegaard, H K; Greisen, G

    2012-01-01

    Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies. A comprehe......Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies...

  5. Sodium Taste During Sodium Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    Sodium appetite appears to be an excellent model to study the neural mechanisms of motivation. In this issue of Chemical Senses, experiments by St John (2016) challenge 2 hypotheses for how a systemic sodium deficit guides an animal to find and ingest more Na ions in the environment. Both hypotheses deal with modifications of the sensory neural code produced by Na(+) ions on the tongue. One envisions a change in the Na(+) signal amplitude. A reduction could make the strong Na(+) signals less aversive; an increase, weak signals more noticeable. The other hypothesis requires no changes in the identity or amplitude of the Na(+) signal, but a shift in its hedonic tone toward sweetness or reward. The results of the 3 behavioral experiments render both explanations unlikely but fail to suggest alternatives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  7. Polyvinylamine-based capsules: a mechanistic study of the formation using alginate and cellulose sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, A; Hunkeler, D

    2007-06-01

    Capsules based on sodium alginate (SA) and sodium cellulose sulphate (SCS), have been prepared using polyvinylamines (PVAm) of varying intrinsic viscosities. The resulting capsules are relatively dense in nature, revealing a bursting force which is four times that observed for the classical SA/SCS/polymethylene-co-guanidine chemistry. Molar mass cutoffs were typically in the 10-70 kDa range. A mechanistic study was carried out where the reaction time, ionic strength and pH of the reaction mixture, as well as the stoichiometry of the polyanion blend and the PVAm molar mass were varied. It is postulated that both the SA-PVAm and the SCS-PVAm binary interactions contribute to the mechanical properties and the permeability of the resulting capsules. The polyvinylamine-based chemistry offers interesting alternatives to the PMCG system in that it provides a means to produce capsules at low, or zero, ionic strengths. Subtle changes in the pH, or the SA:SCS ratio, can also be used to tune the bursting force quite sensitively. The most appropriate capsules, for transplantation, would likely be formed at polyanion levels of 1.2 wt% with a PVAm molar mass below 17 kDa.

  8. Grass-cellulose as energy source for biological sulphate removal from acid mine effluents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass, e.g. grass, is a sustainable source of energy when cellulose is utilised during anaerobic degradation, producing volatile...

  9. Thermodynamic study of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol

    OpenAIRE

    R. C. Thakur; Ravi Sharma; Meenakshi; Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Partial molar volumes of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate have been determined in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol (2,4,6 and 8% by weight of propylene glycol) at 303.15 K with the help of density measurements. Effect of temperature on the partial molar volumes was also analysed for these salts in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol. Results obtained have been analysed by Masson’s equation and the experimental values of slopes and partial molar volumes ...

  10. Structure-Property Relationships and the Mixed Network Former Effect in Boroaluminosilicate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Potuzak, Marcel; Mauro, John C.

    Boroaluminosilicate glasses are important materials for various applications, e.g., liquid crystal display substrates, glass fibers for reinforcement, and thermal shock-resistant glass containers. The complicated structural speciation in these glasses leads to a mixed network former effect yielding...... compositions by substituting Al2O3 for SiO2. We also investigate the various roles of sodium in the glasses including charge compensation of tetrahedral aluminum and boron atoms and formation of non-bridging oxygen. We find that mechanical properties (density, elastic moduli, and hardness), glass transition...... the effect of iron on the measured properties by doping these glasses with ~1 mol% of iron oxide....

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of copper sulphate test in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The accuracy of the copper sulphate method for the rapid screening of prospective blood donors has been questioned because this rapid screening method may lead to false deferral of truly eligible prospective blood donors. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the sensitivity and specificity of copper ...

  12. Investigation of sulphate origins in the Jeffara aquifer, southeastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gypsum, anhydrite, mirabilite and thenardite have been examined as potential sources of sulphate dissolved in groundwater. Since Jeffara groundwater is recharged by the Continental Intercalaire (CI) geothermal water, water temperature decreases from the CI to the Jeffara aquifer. Solubility of the majority of minerals is ...

  13. Anodically generated manganese(III) sulphate for the oxidation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2Mn(III) Mn(II) + Mn(IV). (1). Though the solution appeared to be stable for more than a month at [H+] > 5⋅0 M, solution of manga- nese(III) sulphate prepared afresh daily was used in the experiments. All other reagents were prepared from AR grade chemicals. Triply distilled water was used for preparing aqueous solutions.

  14. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Adsorption of Sulphate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL USER

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorbents were employed for the batch adsorption of sulphate ion from aqueous solution. Some variable effects such as pH, initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage and temperature on adsorption were also ...

  15. Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental results indicate that high treatment efficiency was achieved at more than 90% sulphate reduction at a liquid hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13.5 h. In this ... From these results, it can be concluded that the UASB configuration using PSS as energy source would be a viable method for the BSR of AMD.

  16. Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    -8362. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. August 2017. Vol. 21 (5) 833-838. Full-text Available Online at www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing bacteria and Iron oxidizing bacteria ...

  17. Inhibition of bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SRB) and Iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB) using Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) extract was tested. The water sample revealed a heterotrophic bacterial count of 1.7x103 cfu/ml for the sulphate reducing bacteria and 4.1x103 cfu/ml for the Iron oxidizing ...

  18. Development of a kinetic model for biological sulphate reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    base chemistry for water, carbonate, acetate, propionate, ammonium and phosphate species have been included, as well as the ... These bioprocesses produce and consume inter alia sulphate and sulphide acid/base species which are not present in the .... and did not consider the kinetics for the reactions subsequent.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of protection of thymine from sulphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The rates and the quantum yields (φ) of oxidation of thymine by sulphate radical anion ... quantum yields (φexptl) and the quantum yields calculated (φcl) assuming caffeic acid acting only as a scavenger of ... Even though sugar radicals are actually responsible for strand break formation in DNA, experimental results clearly ...

  20. The effect of water on the sulphation of limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan; E.J. Anthony [North China Electric Power University, Baoding City (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2010-09-15

    A series of tests was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to study the sulphation behaviour of limestone in the presence of water over the temperature range of 800-850{sup o}C. Four different Canadian limestones, all with a particle size range of 75-425 {mu}m, were sulphated using a synthetic flue gas with a composition of 15% CO{sub 2}, 3% O{sub 2}, 0% or 10% H{sub 2}O, 1750 ppm SO{sub 2} and the balance N{sub 2}. Water was shown to have a significant promotional effect on sulphation, especially in the diffusion-controlled stage. However, the effect of water during the kinetic-controlled stage appeared to be much less pronounced. Based on these results, it is proposed that the presence of water leads to the transient formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} as an intermediate, which in turn reacts with SO{sub 2} at a faster rate than CaO does. Alternatively stated, it appears that H{sub 2}O acts as catalyst for the sulphation reaction of CaO. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Growth morphology of zinc tris (thiourea) sulphate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The growth morphology of crystals of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate (ZTS) is investigated experimentally, and computed using the Hartman–Perdok approach. Attachment energies of the observed habit faces are calculated for determining their relative morphological importance. A computer code is developed for carrying out ...

  2. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the ...

  3. Density and viscosity of magnesium sulphate in formamide + ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Densities (ρ) and viscosities (η) of different strengths of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in varying proportions of formamide (FA) + ethylene glycol as mixed solvents were measured at room temperature. The experimental values of ρ and η were used to calculate the values of the apparent molar volume, (φv), partial ...

  4. Mechanism of protection of adenosine from sulphate radical anion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photooxidation of adenosine in presence of peroxydisulphate (PDS) has been studied by spectrophotometrically measuring the absorbance of adenosine at 260 nm. The rates of oxidation of adenosine by sulphate radical anion have been determined in the presence of different concentrations of caffeic acid. Increase in ...

  5. Decolourisation and degradation of reactive blue 2 by sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was performed to determine the influence of heat treatment on sewage sludge and addition of zero valent iron (ZVI) on the degradation and decolourisation of an anthraquinone dye, reactive blue 2 (RB 2). A consortium of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor with biodigester ...

  6. Decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes using a sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Successful decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes was achieved in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor using biodigester sludge from a local municipality waste treatment plant as a source of carbon and microflora that augmented a sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. Orange II (O II) was decolourised by ...

  7. Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride UPD phases on Au(111). 755. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by Research Center Jülich and the University of Bern. I V P also acknowledges support of Deutscher Akademischer Austausch. Dienst (DAAD) for a Ph D Fellowship. References.

  8. Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing bacteria and Iron oxidizing bacteria using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) extracts. *. 1. AGWA, OK; IYALLA, D; ABU, GO. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt,. P.M.B. 5323, Rivers State, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: ...

  9. Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer and cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer on Panicum maximum yield and chemical composition of the resultant herbage harvested at 3, 4 and 5 weeks of age was investigated. The treatments were labeled T1 to T6. T1 was fertilized and harvested at 3 weeks cutting interval, T2 was fertilized and harvested at 4 ...

  10. Antenatal magnesium sulphate neuroprotection in the preterm infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marret, Stephane; Doyle, Lex W.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Middleton, Philippa

    Very preterm infants have high rates of neurological impairments and disabilities. These rates have not diminished as the survival rates have improved. Basic science research suggests that magnesium sulphate before birth can be neuroprotective for the preterm fetus. Some, but not all, observational

  11. Mechanism of interaction of vincristine sulphate and rifampicin with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mechanism of interaction of vincristine sulphate (VS) and rifampicin (RF) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by quenching of BSA fluorescence by RF/VS. The Stern-Volmer plot indicates the presence of a static component in the quenching mechanism. Results also show that both the tryptophan ...

  12. Safety and efficacy of Bolus administration of magnesium sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: We evaluated a modified method of magnesium sulphate administration with respect to safety, efficacy and maternofetal outcome. Design, Setting And Subjects: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at the UBTH, Benin City with patients managed for severe preeclampsia between June and December, ...

  13. Effects of electron acceptors on sulphate reduction activity in activated sludge processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio-Rincón, Francisco; Lopez-Vazquez, Carlos; Welles, L.; van den Brand, Tessa; Abbas, B.A.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Brdanovic, Damir

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of sulphate present in wastewater can vary from 10 to 500 mg SO4 2−/L. During anaerobic conditions, sulphate is reduced to sulphide by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulphide generation is undesired in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Previous

  14. Heparanase induces a differential loss of heparan sulphate domains in overt diabetic nephropathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.J.; Hoven, M.J.W. van den; Ding, H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Vlag, J. van der; Berden, J.H.M.; Prinz, R.A.; Lewis, E.J.; Schwartz, M.; Xu, X.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent studies suggest that loss of heparan sulphate in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) of the kidney with diabetic nephropathy is due to the increased production of heparanase, a heparan sulphate-degrading endoglycosidase. Our present study addresses whether heparan sulphate

  15. Treatment of acid and sulphate-rich effluents in an integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel chemical/biological process is described in which sulphate and sulphide are removed simultaneously during biological treatment. Partial sulphate removal is achieved during chemical pre-treatment. In the biological stage sulphate is reduced to sulphide in a complete-mixed reactor through addition of sucrose or ...

  16. Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canales, Mario; Jimenez-Rivas, Ruben; Canales-Martinez, Maria Margarita; Garcia-Lopez, Ana Judith; Rivera-Yañez, Nelly; Nieto-Yañez, Oscar; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as “cuachalalate.” Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index), antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis. PMID:27635116

  17. Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodriguez-Canales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as “cuachalalate.” Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis.

  18. Sources and impact of sulphate on groundwaters of Triassic carbonate aquifers, Upper Silesia, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska, Katarzyna; Halas, Stanislaw; Bottrell, Simon H.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryGroundwater within the unconfined or semi-confined parts of Triassic carbonate aquifers in Upper Silesia (Poland) contains high concentrations of sulphate (up to 290 mg/L), sometimes in excess of drinking water limits (>250 mg/L). To assess the influence of different possible sulphate sources, isotopic analyses of S and O were performed on groundwater sulphate and potential sulphate sources and combined with literature data. Three dominant sources of sulphate were delineated, based on the geological and literature study and supported by the mixing relations between inverse concentration of sulphate and its isotopic compositions. These sources are: (i) sulphate from rainfall; (ii) weathering of sulphide minerals in ore deposits in the aquifer-forming carbonate rocks; (iii) dissolution of sulphate evaporites in the Triassic sequence. Fortunately these three sources have distinctive S and O isotope compositions and thus their contributions to the total dissolved sulphate could be estimated. The application of linear mixing models for three sources in the dual isotope system allowed the impact of the three different sulphate sources on particular parts of the aquifers to be calculated. The average isotopic composition of sulphate in abstracted groundwater indicates that the most important source of sulphate is sulphide weathering, contributing about 50% of total sulphate. The second most significant source of sulphate input is rainfall and it is characterised by a mean contribution of 30%. Application of Monte Carlo analysis that incorporates the full variability in distributions of isotopic compositions for the three sources and all mixing fractions between them gave the most probable ranges of the dissolved in groundwater sulphate. This analysis indicated that the proportion of sulphate derived by sulphide oxidation is comparable with the estimations based on linear models. This study has shown that the water quality of these important groundwater resources is

  19. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  20. PHILIP GLASS

    OpenAIRE

    Doerschuk, Bob

    2004-01-01

    Constantemente, sin cesar, hay movimiento en la música de Philip Glass. Inclusive cuando se construye a lo largo de armonías y resoluciones simples, refleja el bullicio de una comunidad de abejas, cuyas inquietas danzas circulares se intersectan y unifican creando un solo movimiento, el movimiento de la colmena. Sin embargo, desde la lejanía, la colmena parece estar quieta, gran cantidad de sonido emanando de ella se fusiona en un solo murmullo. Este mismo principio, movimiento y quietud, muc...

  1. Conversion of radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes into borosilicate glass using the glass material oxidation and dissolution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Elam, K.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A new vitrification process has been invented. The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) allows direct conversion of radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes to borosilicate glass. GMODS directly converts metals, ceramics and amorphous solids to glass, oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass, and converts halides (such as chlorides) to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium halide stream. The glass is designed to meet EPA criteria for chemically non-hazardous waste forms. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of stainless steel, aluminum, cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium, Zircaloy, multiple oxides and other materials to glass. Equipment options have been identified for processing rates between 1 and 100,000 t/y. Significant work, including a pilot plant, is required to develop GMODS for applications at an industrial scale.

  2. The effect of magnesium on partial sulphate removal from mine water as gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of magnesium on the removal efficiency of sulphate as gypsum from mine water. The precipitation conditions were simulated with MINEQL + software and the simulation results were compared with the results from laboratory jar test experiments. Both the simulation and the laboratory results showed that magnesium in the mine water was maintaining sulphate in a soluble form as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at pH 9.6. Thus magnesium was preventing the removal of sulphate as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, change in the lime precipitation pH from 9.6 to 12.5 resulted in magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) precipitation and improved sulphate removal. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide could act as seed crystals for gypsum precipitation or co-precipitate sulphate further enhancing the removal of sulphate from mine water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and DM10 Melter Testing with ORP LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-2, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work by development of acceptable glass compositions for four LAW compositions specified by ORP that cover the range of sulfate to sodium and potassium to sodium ratios expected in Hanford LAW. The glass formulations were designed to exclude titanium and iron as glass former additives, while tin and vanadium as glass former additives were evaluated for beneficial effects in increasing waste loading in the glasses. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests and tests on the DM10 melter system. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The current tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning.

  4. Coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulisz Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of knowledge on coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland. The properties of these soils are closely related to the influence of brackish water from the Baltic Sea, high accumulation of organic matter and human activity. The obtained results demonstrate that the sulphide accumulation in soils refers to a relatively small areas of the Polish coastal zone with the unique and very valuable habitats. They require an adequate regulation of the water relations to avoid the risk of strong soil acidification and environmental pollution by heavy metals. Currently, there are no relevant criteria for classification of acid sulphate soil materials in the Polish Soil Classification (2011. Therefore, based on the presented data, the authors proposed to identify these features at the lower classification level (for different soil types. The criteria for the Thionic and Sulfidic qualifiers used in the WRB classification (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015 could be accepted for this purpose.

  5. Chitosan Hydrogels for Chondroitin Sulphate Controlled Release: An Analytical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Bianchera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analytical characterization of chitosan scaffolds obtained by freeze-gelation toward the uptake and the controlled release of chondroitin sulphate (CS, as cartilage repair agent, under different pH conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, and liquid chromatography-UV spectrophotometry (LC-UV techniques were exploited to obtain qualitative and quantitative descriptions of polymer and drug behaviour in the biomaterial. As for morphology, SEM analysis allowed the evaluation of scaffold porosity in terms of pore size and distribution both at the surface (Feret diameter 58±19 μm and on the cross section (Feret diameter 106±51 μm. LC and ATR-FTIR evidenced a pH-dependent CS loading and release behaviour, strongly highlighting the role of electrostatic forces on chitosan/chondroitin sulphate interactions.

  6. Magnesium sulphate salts and the history of water on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, David T; Bish, David L; Chipera, Steve J; Fialips, Claire I; Carey, J William; Feldman, William C

    2004-10-07

    Recent reports of approximately 30 wt% of sulphate within saline sediments on Mars--probably occurring in hydrated form--suggest a role for sulphates in accounting for equatorial H2O observed in a global survey by the Odyssey spacecraft. Among salt hydrates likely to be present, those of the MgSO4*nH2O series have many hydration states. Here we report the exposure of several of these phases to varied temperature, pressure and humidity to constrain their possible H2O contents under martian surface conditions. We found that crystalline structure and H2O content are dependent on temperature-pressure history, that an amorphous hydrated phase with slow dehydration kinetics forms at water on Mars. However, their ease of transformation implies that salt hydrates collected on Mars will not be returned to Earth unmodified, and that accurate in situ analysis is imperative.

  7. Experimental study on performance of imitative RPC for sulphate leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-guang Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a manufacturing process to make an imitative RPC material. The blend was regularly composed of cement, silica fume, and certain content of rubber powder. The granular size distribution of dry blend was optimized to reduce the porosity of set material and the imitative RPC material was characterized by high silica fume content and with very low water to binder ratio. Furthermore, fine crushed aggregate and local natural medium crude sand were used to form mineral skeleton. Properties of various reference concrete series were investigated by conducting multiple tests, including permeability and mechanical strength test, the salt solution absorption test, the accelerated sulphate attack test, etc. The results show that the imitative RPC is an environmental-friendly civil engineering material which owns favorable mechanical strength, high impermeability and qualified excellent durability in sulphate contained environment.

  8. EFFECT OF SULPHATE ON LOW-TEMPERATURE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhraig eMadden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulphate addition on the stability of, and microbial community behaviour in, low-temperature anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed-based bioreactors was investigated at 15°C. Efficient bioreactor performance was observed, with chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies of >90%, and a mean SO42- removal rate of 98.3%. In situ methanogensis appeared unaffected at a COD:SO42- influent ratio of 8:1, and subsequently of 3:1, and was impacted marginally only when the COD: SO42- ratio was 1:2. . Specific methanogenic activity assays indicated a complex set of interactions between sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB, methanogens and homoacetogenic bacteria. SO42- addition resulted in predominantly acetoclastic, rather than hydrogenotrophic, methanogenesis until >600 days of SO42--influenced bioreactor operation. Temporal microbial community development was monitored by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of 16S rRNA genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridisations (FISH, qPCR and microsensor analysis were combined to investigate the distribution of microbial groups, and particularly SRB and methanogens, along the structure of granular biofilms. qPCR data indicated that sulphidogenic genes were present in methanogenic and sulfidogenic biofilms, indicating the potential for sulphate reduction even in bioreactors not exposed to SO42-. Although the architecture of methanogenic and sulphidogenic granules was similar, indicating the presence of SRB even in methanogenic systems, FISH with rRNA targets found that the SRB were more abundant in the sulphidogenic biofilms. Methanosaeta species were the predominant, keystone members of the archaeal community, with the complete absence of the Methanosarcina species in the experimental bioreactor by trial conclusion. Microsensor data suggested the ordered distribution of sulphate reduction and sulphide accumulation, even in methanogenic granules.

  9. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B. [Children' s Hospital, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M. [Department for Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  10. Total sulphate vs. sulphuric acid monomer in nucleation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Neitola, K.; Brus, D.; Makkonen, U.; Sipilä, M; R. L. Mauldin III; N. Sarnela; Jokinen, T; H. Lihavainen; M. Kulmala

    2014-01-01

    Sulphuric acid is known to be a key component for atmospheric nucleation. Precise determination of sulphuric acid concentration is crucial factor for prediction of nucleation rates and subsequent growth. In our study, we have noticed a substantial discrepancy between sulphuric acid monomer and total sulphate concentrations measured from the same source of sulphuric acid vapour. The discrepancy of about one to two orders of magnitude was found with similar formation rates. To...

  11. Electrical conduction and glass relaxation in alkali- silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul William

    Electrical response measurements from 1 Hz to 1 MHz between 50o and 540oC were made on potassium, sodium and lithium-silicate glasses with low alkali oxide contents. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and air quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Quenching was found to lower the dc conductivity, σdc, and activation energy as well as increase the pre-exponential term when compared to the corresponding annealed glass of the same composition. All of the glasses exhibited Arrhenius behavior in the log σdc against 1/T plots. A sharp decrease in σdc was observed for glasses containing alkali concentrations of 7 mol% or less. The σdc activation energy exhibited similar behavior when plotted as a function of alkali composition and was explained in terms of a mixture of the weak and strong electrolyte models. The depression angle for fits to the complex impedance data were also measured as a function of thermal history, alkali concentration and alkali species. These results were interpreted in terms of changes in the distribution of relaxation times. Annealed samples from a single melt of a 10 mol% K2O-90SiO2 glass were reheated to temperatures ranging from 450o to 800oC, held isothermally for 20 min, and then quenched in either air or silicon oil. The complex impedance of both an annealed and the quenched samples were then measured as a function of temperature from 120o to 250oC. The σdc was found to be remain unaffected by heat treatments below 450oC, to increase rapidly over an approximate 200oC range of temperatures that was dependent on cooling rate and to be constant for heat treatments above this range. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the mean structural relaxation time as a function of temperature and cooling rate near the glass transition temperature and glass transformation ranges. A more detailed definition for the transition and transformation temperatures and ranges was also provided.

  12. [Environmental hygiene and comprehensive processing of copper sulphate ore].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, B A

    2004-01-01

    The modern comprehensive processing of copper-sulphate ores is based on using the fire, chemical and combined fire-and-hydrometallurgy processes. The existing schemes of comprehensive ore processing do not provide for a total utilization of the metallurgical cycles wastes due to the inherent technological and design shortcomings; besides, they are a source of environmental pollution. Contamination of the atmospheric air with discharge elements has unfavorable effects on the health condition of population; it worsens the natural body resistance and contributes (through the induction of chromosome aberrations) to a higher general morbidity and mortality due to malignant neoplasms. Health-improve measures are supported by modern achievements in the sphere of copper-sulphate ore processing technologies--they ensure the hygienic and ecological rational management and usage at all stages of the processing of raw materials and secondary products. Institutions of the territorial medical-and-ecological monitoring are the corner stones for ecological safety of persons residing in areas of comprehensive copper-and-sulphate ore processing.

  13. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brønsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9–1,000 μg/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brønsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications. PMID:25632233

  14. Preoperative medication with oral morphine sulphate and postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borracci, T; Cappellini, I; Campiglia, L; Picciafuochi, F; Berti, J; Consales, G; De Gaudio, A R

    2013-05-01

    The administration of an analgesic drug prior to nociceptive surgical stimulus could result in a better postoperative pain management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative oral morphine sulphate on postoperative pain relief. Sixty patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to premedication with 0.5 mg/kg oral morphine sulphate (oral morphine group) or 0.05 mg/kg oral midazolam (active placebo group). Primary outcome was efficacy of morphine premedication on opioid administration of IntraVenous Patient Controlled Analgesia (IVPCA) doses, at 4, 24, and 48 hours after completion of surgery and reducing static and dynamic visual analogue scale (sVAS and dVAS) scores. Secondary outcome was the time needed for the recovery of canalization of the gastro-intestinal tract. It was also evaluated fentanyl intraoperative consumption. Statistical analysis was performed by linear regression and student t test. Values of Poral morphine group compared to the active placebo group (Poral morphine group compared to the active placebo group at all assessment times (Poral morphine sulphate produces better postoperative pain control and has an opioid-sparing effect without delaying gastrointestinal canalization time.

  15. Simultaneous measurements of glutathione and activated sulphate (PAPS) synthesis rates and the effects of selective inhibition of glutathione conjugation or sulphation of acetaminophen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, K; Poulsen, H E

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the hepatotoxic drug acetaminophen (AA) on the synthesis rates of glutathione (GSH), activated sulphate (PAPS; adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulphate) and the AA metabolites AA-GSH and AA-sulphate after selective inhibition of GSH...

  16. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  17. Hardness and incipient plasticity in silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The scaling of Vickers hardness (Hv) in oxide glasses with varying network modifier/modifier ratio is manifested as either a positive or negative deviation from linearity with a maximum deviation at the ratio of about 1:1. In an earlier study [J. Kjeldsen et al., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 369,61(2013)......The scaling of Vickers hardness (Hv) in oxide glasses with varying network modifier/modifier ratio is manifested as either a positive or negative deviation from linearity with a maximum deviation at the ratio of about 1:1. In an earlier study [J. Kjeldsen et al., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 369......,61(2013)], we observed a minimum ofHv in CaO/MgO sodium aluminosilicate glasses at CaO/MgO = 1:1 and postulated that this minimum is linked to a maximum in plastic flow. However, the origin of this link has not been experimentally verified. In this work, we attempt to do so by exploring the links among Hv......, volume recovery ratio (VR), and plastic deformation volume (VP) under indentation, glass transition temperature (Tg), Young’s modulus (E), and liquid fragility index (m) in CaO/MgO and CaO/Li2O sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We confirm the negative deviations from linearity and find that the maximum...

  18. A comparison of glycosaminoglycan distributions, keratan sulphate sulphation patterns and collagen fibril architecture from central to peripheral regions of the bovine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Leona T Y; Harris, Anthony M; Tanioka, Hidetoshi; Yagi, Naoto; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Caterson, Bruce; Quantock, Andrew J; Young, Robert D; Meek, Keith M

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated changes in collagen fibril architecture and the sulphation status of keratan sulphate (KS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) epitopes from central to peripheral corneal regions. Freshly excised adult bovine corneal tissue was examined as a function of radial position from the centre of the cornea outwards. Corneal thickness, tissue hydration, hydroxyproline content, and the total amount of sulphated GAG were all measured. High and low-sulphated epitopes of keratan sulphate were studied by immunohistochemistry and quantified by ELISA. Chondroitin sulphate (CS) and dermatan sulphate (DS) distributions were observed by immunohistochemistry following specific enzyme digestions. Electron microscopy and X-ray fibre diffraction were used to ascertain collagen fibril architecture. The bovine cornea was 1021±5.42 μm thick at its outer periphery, defined as 9-12 mm from the corneal centre, compared to 844±8.10 μm at the centre. The outer periphery of the cornea was marginally, but not significantly, more hydrated than the centre (H=4.3 vs. H=3.7), and was more abundant in hydroxyproline (0.12 vs. 0.06 mg/mg dry weight of cornea). DMMB assays indicated no change in the total amount of sulphated GAG across the cornea. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of both high- and low-sulphated epitopes of KS, as well as DS, throughout the cornea, and CS only in the peripheral cornea before the limbus. Quantification by ELISA, disclosed that although both high- and low-sulphated KS remained constant throughout stromal depth at different radial positions, high-sulphated epitopes remained constant from the corneal centre to outer-periphery, whereas low-sulphated epitopes increased significantly. Both small angle X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis revealed that collagen fibril diameter remained relatively constant until the outer periphery was reached, after which fibrils became more widely spaced (from small angle x-ray diffraction analysis) and of larger diameter

  19. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Miloslav; Virtanen, S.; Simojoki, A.; Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Yli-Halla, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 466, January (2014), s. 663-672 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/1570; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant - others:GAJU(CZ) GAJU 138/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : acid sulphate soil * carbon * CARD-FISH * microorganisms * nitrogen * PLFA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.099, year: 2014

  20. Chemical sulphate removal for treatment of construction and demolition debris leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) is a product of construction, renovation or demolition activities. It has a high gypsum content (52.4% of total gypsum), concentrated in the CDD sand (CDDS) fraction. To comply with the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulphate present in building sand, excess sulphate needs to be removed. In order to enable reuse of CDDS, a novel treatment process is developed based on washing of the CDDS to remove most of the gypsum, and subsequent sulphate removal from the sulphate-rich CDDS leachate. This study aims to assess chemical techniques, i.e. precipitation and adsorption, for sulphate removal from the CDDS leachate. Good sulphate removal efficiencies (up to 99.9%) from the CDDS leachate can be achieved by precipitation with barium chloride (BaCl2) and lead(II) nitrate (Pb(NO3)2). Precipitation with calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium oxide (CaO) gave less efficient sulphate removal. Adsorption of sulphate to aluminium oxide (Al2O3) yielded a 50% sulphate removal efficiency, whereas iron oxide-coated sand as adsorbent gave only poor (10%) sulphate removal efficiencies.

  1. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization...... between 18% and 25% to the prokaryotic rRNA pool. The dominant SRB were related to complete oxidizing genera (Desulphococcus, Desulphosarcina and Desulphobacterium), while Desulpho-bacter could not be detected. The vertical profile and quantity of rRNA from SRB was compared with sulphate reduction rates......, directly above the sulphate reduction maximum. Cell numbers calculated by converting the relative contribution of SRB rRNA to the percentage of DAPI-stained cells indicated a population size for SRB of 2.4-6.1 x 10(8) cells cm(-3) wet sediment. Cellular sulphate reduction rates calculated on the basis...

  2. Sulphate aerosol size distributions at Mumbai, India, during the INDOEX-FFP (1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Chandra; Sinha, Prashant; Bammi, Sachin

    Sulphate size distributions were measured at the coastal station of Mumbai (formerly Bombay) through 1998, during the Indian ocean experiment (INDOEX) first field phase (FFP), to fill current gaps in size-resolved aerosol chemical composition data. The paper examines meteorological, seasonal and source-contribution effects on sulphate aerosol and discusses potential effects of sulphate on regional climate. Sulphate size-distributions were largely trimodal with a condensation mode (mass median aerodynamic diameter or MMAD 0.6 μm), a droplet mode (MMAD 1.9-2.4 μm) and a coarse mode (MMAD 5 μm). Condensation mode sulphate mass-fractions were highest in winter, consistent with the high meteorological potential for gas-to-particle conversion along with low relative humidity (RH). The droplet mode concentrations and MMADs were larger in the pre-monsoon and winter than in monsoon, implying sulphate predominance in larger sized particles within this mode. In these seasons the high RH, and consequently greater aerosol water in the droplet mode, would favour aerosol-phase partitioning and reactions of SO 2. Coarse mode sulphate concentrations were lowest in the monsoon, when continental contribution to sulphate was low and washout was efficient. In winter and pre-monsoon, coarse mode sulphate concentrations were somewhat higher, likely from SO 2 gas-to-particle conversion. Low daytime sulphate concentrations with a large coarse fraction, along with largely onshore winds, indicated marine aerosol predominance. High nighttime sulphate concentrations and a coincident large fine fraction indicated contributions from anthropogenic/industrial sources or from gas-to-particle conversion. Monthly mean sulphate concentrations increased with increasing SO 2 concentrations, RH and easterly wind direction, indicating the importance of gas-to-particle conversion and industrial sources located to the east. Atmospheric chemistry effects on sulphate size distributions in Mumbai, indicated

  3. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  4. Design of Diclofenac Sodium Indicator Strips Using Polystyrene (PS and Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA for Detection of Diclofenac Sodium in Traditional Pain Relief Herbal Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Dalli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diclofenac sodium is one of analgesic which is often added to traditional pain relief herbal medicines to enhance the effects. One of qualititative method that is easy, efficient and simple testing is an indicator strip. Indicator strip based Polystyrene (PS and Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA was made for the examination of diclofenac sodium that were misused as a drug chemical compound in traditional pain relief herbal medicine. Strip indikator was made by reagent blending method with specific reagents used, namely, copper sulphate (CuSO4, ferric chloride (FeCl3 and vanillin sulphate. The working principle of the indicator strip in detecting the presence of diclofenac sodium in herbal medicine is with the occurrence of a color reaction. The concentration of PS and PMMA was made in a variation of 5%, 7.5% and 10%, and the mixture of PS: PMMA 1: 5 and 1: 6 concecutively with a ratio of solvent: reactant 6: 4; 7: 3 and 8:2. The test results showed that the best indicator strip is PMMA-CuSO4 5% (7: 3, PMMA-FeCl3 5% (7: 3 and PMMA-Vanillin sulphate 7.5% (7: 3. The detection limit and stability of the strip indicators PMMA-CuSO4 5% (7: 3 are at 50 ppm and is stable up to 29 weeks, PMMA-FeCl3 5% (7: 3 has a detection limit 12,500 ppm and is stable up to 29 weeks, and PMMA-vanillin sulphate 7,5% (7: 3 has a detection limit 500 ppm and is stable up to 29 weeks. The results showed that the indicator strip can be used as an alternative method to detect diclofenac sodium in herbal medicine and finally controlling addition of chemicals in to herbal medicine.

  5. Nanostructured 3D constructs based on chitosan and chondroitin sulphate multilayers for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana M Silva

    Full Text Available Nanostructured three-dimensional constructs combining layer-by-layer technology (LbL and template leaching were processed and evaluated as possible support structures for cartilage tissue engineering. Multilayered constructs were formed by depositing the polyelectrolytes chitosan (CHT and chondroitin sulphate (CS on either bidimensional glass surfaces or 3D packet of paraffin spheres. 2D CHT/CS multi-layered constructs proved to support the attachment and proliferation of bovine chondrocytes (BCH. The technology was transposed to 3D level and CHT/CS multi-layered hierarchical scaffolds were retrieved after paraffin leaching. The obtained nanostructured 3D constructs had a high porosity and water uptake capacity of about 300%. Dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA showed the viscoelastic nature of the scaffolds. Cellular tests were performed with the culture of BCH and multipotent bone marrow derived stromal cells (hMSCs up to 21 days in chondrogenic differentiation media. Together with scanning electronic microscopy analysis, viability tests and DNA quantification, our results clearly showed that cells attached, proliferated and were metabolically active over the entire scaffold. Cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM formation was further assessed and results showed that GAG secretion occurred indicating the maintenance of the chondrogenic phenotype and the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs.

  6. Removal of nitrate and sulphate from biologically treated municipal wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun Kumar; Chopra, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation observed the effect of current density ( j), electrocoagulation (EC) time, inter electrode distance, electrode area, initial pH and settling time on the removal of nitrate (NO3 -) and sulphate (SO4 2-) from biologically treated municipal wastewater (BTMW), and optimization of the operating conditions of the EC process. A glass chamber of two-liter volume was used for the experiments with DC power supply using two electrode plates of aluminum (Al-Al). The maximum removal of NO3 - (63.21 %) and SO4 2- (79.98 %) of BTMW was found with the optimum operating conditions: current density: 2.65 A/m2, EC time: 40 min, inter electrode distance: 0.5 cm, electrode area: 160 cm2, initial pH: 7.5 and settling time: 60 min. The EC brought down the concentration of NO3 - within desirable limit of the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS)/WHO for drinking water. Under optimal operating conditions, the operating cost was found to be 1.01/m3 of water in terms of the electrode consumption (23.71 × 10-5 kg Al/m3) and energy consumption (101.76 kWh/m3).

  7. Prediction models of mechanical properties for pet-mortar composite in sodium sulphateaggressive mediums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tani Nabil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an investigation was carried out on the effect of sodium sulphate attack on the durability of composites produced with waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Experiments were accomplished on limestone sand and cement mortars where the blended Portland cement was partially replaced by various volume fractions of waste PET particles (6%, 12% and 17%. The test solutions used to supply the sulphate ions and cations were 5%sodium sulphate solution. Compressive strengths measured on specimens were used to assess the changes in the mechanical properties of PET-mortars exposed to sulphate attack at different ages, mainly the Young modulus of elasticity. Based on experimental compressive tests on PETMortar composite specimens and there densities, the evolution of Young modulus of elasticity has been analyzed in accordance with normative models given by (ACI-318 and (BS-8110 codes of practice. In addition, a comparative study has been carried out for corrosion resistance coefficients K of unmodified mortar to those modified with waste PET particles. It can be noticed that, for the composite immersed in a corrosive Na2SO4 solution, the corrosion resistance coefficients decrease with the increase of the immersion period. The corrosion sulphate resistance K based on Young modulus before and after immersion of PET-mortar composites is better than that of the control mortar. Therefore, for safety considerations of PET-mortar composites use, ACI 318 is recommended code for design and investigation works. Also, it can be concluded that adding waste PET by volume fractions (6%, 12% and 17% to blend Portland cement renders this cement more resistant to the sodium sulphate aggressive medium. Therefore, composites materials based waste PET aare often presented as the materials of the future because of their potential for innovation and the advantages they offer. In fact, using waste PET as cement substitutes reduces the energy consumption. These

  8. Comparative evaluation of bioglass with calcium sulphate β-hemihydrate for the treatment of intraosseous defects—a clinico-radiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlik, VB; Roy, Subrato; Jha, AK

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present clinical and radiological study was to compare bioglass and calcium sulphate β-hemihydrate in the treatment of intraosseous defect in chronic periodontitis. Method A total of 50 subjects with bilaterally symmetrical periodontal osseous defects with probing pocket depth = 5 mm and intraosseous defects ≥ 3 mm as seen on the radiographs were undertaken for the study. In one site (group A) bioactive glass was placed in defect and in contralateral site (group B) calcium sulphate β-hemihydrate was used in the defect site. Results Clinical improvement was noted in all patients at the end of study. Both the groups showed reduction in probing pocket depth, increase in clinical attachment level, and reduction in osseous defect. Both materials were effective in achieving osseous gain. Conclusion The osseous gain in group A subjects was 58.93%, whereas in group B subjects it was 48.56%. Calcium sulphate β-hemihydrates showed promising results and were cost effective. PMID:24669038

  9. Reduction-induced inward diffusion and crystal growth on the surfaces of iron-bearing silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.J.; Tao, H.Z.; Zhang, Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    first and then the growth of silica crystals on the glass surface. The type of alkaline earth cations has a strong impact on both the glass transition and the surface crystallization. In the Mg-containing glass, a quartz layer forms on the glass surface. This could be attributed to the fact that Mg2......We investigate the sodium inward diffusion (i.e., sodium diffusion from surface toward interior) in iron containing alkaline earth silicate glasses under reducing conditions around Tg and the induced surface crystallization. The surface crystallization is caused by formation of a silicate-gel layer...

  10. Sulphate aerosol size distributions at Mumbai, India, during the INDOEX-FFP (1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, C.; Sinha, P.; Bammi, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India). Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering

    2001-05-01

    Sulphate size distributions were measured at the coastal station of Mumbai (formerly Bombay) through 1998, during the Indian ocean experiment (INDOEX) first field phase (FFP), to fill current gaps in size-resolved aerosol chemical composition data. The paper examines meteorological, seasonal and source-contribution effects on sulphate aerosol and discusses potential effects of sulphate on regional climate. Sulphate size-distributions were largely trimodal with a condensation mode (mass median aerodynamic diameter or MMAD 0.6{mu}m), a droplet mode (MMAD 1.9-2.4{mu}m) and a coarse mode (MMAD 5{mu}m). Condensation mode sulphate mass-fractions were highest in winter, consistent with the high meteorological potential for gas-to-particle conversion along with low relative humidity (RH). The droplet mode concentrations and MMADs were larger in the pre-monsoon and winter than in monsoon, implying predominance in larger sized particles within this mode. In these seasons the high RH, and consequently aerosol water in the droplet mode, would favour aerosol-phase partitioning and reactions of SO{sub 2}. Coarse mode sulphate concentrations were lowest in the monsoon, when continental contribution to sulphate was low and washout was efficient. In winter and pre-monsoon, coarse mode sulphate concentrations were somewhat higher, likely from SO{sub 2} gas-to-particle conversion. Low daytime sulphate concentrations with a large coarse fraction, along with largely onshore winds, indicated marine aerosol predominance. High nighttime sulphate concentrations and a coincident large fine fraction indicated contributions from anthropogenic/industrial sources or from gas-to-particle conversion. Monthly mean sulphate concentrations increased with increasing SO{sub 2} concentrations, RH and easterly wind direction, indicating the importance of gas-to-particle conversion and industrial sources located to the east. Atmospheric chemistry effects on sulphate size distributions in Mumbai

  11. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  12. Transformations of calcium sulphates in solidified carbonated volatile fluidized ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Jacek Łączny

    2017-01-01

    During the investigation it was assumed that calcium carbonate, being poorly water-soluble, would not react with the remaining components of the porous water of the volatile fluidized ash. Crystalline phases of calcium sulphates, anhydrite, gypsum and bassanite occurring in bound volatile fluidized ashes after carbonation demonstrate the possibility of crystallization in the presence of calcium carbonate. In particular, a change in the concentration of bassanite indicates that this phase, as a precursor to the crystallization of gypsum, may play a significant role in the process of binding carbonated volatile ashes.

  13. Sodium dithionite as a selective demasking agent for the complexometric determination of thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAKASH SHETTY

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium dithionite is proposed as a new demasking agent for the rapid and selective complexometric determination of thallium(III. In the presence of diverse metal ions, thallium (III was first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTAwas then titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5–6 (hexamine buffer using Xylenol Orange as the indicator. The EDTAequivalent to thallium was then released selectively with sodium dithionite and back titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results were obtained in the range 4–100 mg of thallium with a relative error of ±27 % and a coefficient of variation (n = 6 of not more than 0.30 %. The effects of various diverse ions were studied. The method was applied to the determination of thallium in its complexes and in alloys.

  14. Innovative Microwave Hardening of Water-Glass Containing Sandmixes in Technical-Economic Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Małachowska; M. Stachowicz; K. Granat

    2012-01-01

    .... Therefore, numerous researches aimed at eliminating the disadvantages of water-glass binders are directed, among others, to modifying the structure of hydrated sodium silicate or to applying new hardening techniques...

  15. Innovative microwave hardening of water-glass containing sandmixes in technical-economic approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Małachowska; M. Stachowicz; K. Granat

    2012-01-01

    .... Therefore, numerous researches aimed at eliminating disadvantages of water-glass binder are directed, among others, to modifying structure of hydrated sodium silicate or to applying new hardening techniques...

  16. Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Jiménez, A.

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution, Ca(OH2 (3,5∙10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solution cation on slag activation process was verified. Sodium solutions decrease the induction period while calcium solutions increase it. Slag reaction degree was also determined, likewise the nature of the different reaction products formed as a function of the activator solution nature.

    Se han estudiado los procesos de activación alcalinosulfáticos de una escoria granulada de alto horno española (Avilés, Ensidesa. Las disoluciones activantes utilizadas fueron: H2O desionizada (como disolución de referencia, Ca(OH2 (3,5∙10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N a 25ºC. Se ha comprobado la influencia de la naturaleza del catión de la disolución alcalina o sulfática sobre el proceso de activación de la escoria. Las disoluciones sódicas disminuyen el período de inducción, mientras que las disoluciones cálcicas lo incrementan. También se determinó el grado de reacción de la escoria, así como la naturaleza de los distintos productos de reacción formados, en función de la naturaleza de la disolución activante.

  17. The Sulphate Effect on Lijiaxia Concrete Dam (China Gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufen Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concrete degradation is one of the most serious problems for a dam construct during the normal operation, which determines the dam service life. Hence, it is very important to reduce the extent of the dam concrete degradation for the safety of the dam normal operation. Here, Lijiaxia hydroelectric station is taken as an example, and a comprehensive method to assess the sulphate effect on dam gallery is proposed. Eleven samples in total were taken from three difference locations by the drill bore. The microstructural investigations including X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were conducted to assess the sulphate attack and the degradation degree. Meanwhile, the water chemical analysis was applied to reveal the mechanism of concrete degradation. The experimental and analysis results indicate that the concrete degradation degree varies with the location of the samples. The components of the concrete change and the content of SO3 increase dramatically during degradation. Moreover, the mineral facies of the concrete change correspondingly, with the cement paste substituted by the calcite, calcium vitriol, and gypsum. The reinforcement and precaution measures are suggested based on the results of the degradation assessment.

  18. Investigation of lithium sulphate for high temperature thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Alicia; Liu, Ming; Bruno, Frank; Hinkley, Jim

    2017-06-01

    Lithium sulphate (Li2SO4) was evaluated as a solid-solid PCM material to be coupled with concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies. The energy is stored in a cubic crystalline phase that is formed at temperatures above 576°C and can potentially be discharged at temperatures as low as 150°C, providing both sensible and latent thermal energy storage in a hybrid sensible-latent system. These operational conditions are appropriate for current CSP technologies based on subcritical steam Rankine power cycles. Results from thermal cycling experiments in air showed no change in energy storage capacity after 15 cycles. There was up to a 5% reduction in latent thermal capacity and 0.95% in total thermal capacity after 150 cycles in air. In our paper, we evaluate a hybrid sensible-latent thermal energy storage system based on lithium sulphate from an economic and technical performance point of view, demonstrating its potential as a high temperature thermal energy storage material.

  19. Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, R D

    1993-01-01

    Bioactive materials are designed to induce a specific biological activity; in most cases the desired biological activity is one that will give strong bonding to bone. A range of materials has been assessed as being capable of bonding to bone, but this paper is solely concerned with bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. Firstly, the structure and processing of glasses and glass-ceramics are described, as a basic knowledge is essential for the understanding of the development and properties of the bioactive materials. The effect of composition and structure on the bioactivity is then discussed, and it will be shown that bioactivity is associated with the formation of an apatite layer on the surface of the implant. A survey of mechanical performance demonstrates that the structure and mechanical properties of glass-ceramics depend upon whether the processing involves casting or sintering and that the strength and toughness of glass-ceramics are superior to those of glasses. Attempts to further improve the mechanical performance by the use of non-monolithic components, i.e. bioactive coatings on metal substrates and glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites, are also reviewed and are shown to have varying degrees of success. Finally, some miscellaneous applications, namely bioactive bone cements and bone fillers, are briefly covered.

  20. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  1. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  2. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  3. Demonstration of sulfur solubility determinations in high waste loading, low-activity waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-25

    A method recommended by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for sulfate solubility determinations in simulated low-activity waste glasses was demonstrated using three compositions from a recent Hanford high waste loading glass study. Sodium and sulfate concentrations in the glasses increased after each re-melting step. Visual observations of the glasses during the re-melting process reflected the changes in composition. The measured compositions showed that the glasses met the targeted values. The amount of SO3 retained in the glasses after washing was relatively high, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 weight percent (wt %). Measured SnO2 concentrations were notably low in all of the study glasses. The composition of the wash solutions should be measured in future work to determine whether SnO2 is present with the excess sulfate washed from the glass. Increases in batch size and the amount of sodium sulfate added did not have a measureable impact on the amount of sulfate retained in the glass, although this was tested for only a single glass composition. A batch size of 250 g and a sodium sulfate addition targeting 7 wt %, as recommended by PNNL, will be used in future experiments.

  4. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  5. Sodium sieving in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, E.; Krediet, R.T.; Willems, H.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Schroder, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  6. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  7. Composition-Structure-Property Relationships in Boroaluminosilicate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Potuzak, M.; Mauro, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The complicated structural speciation in boroaluminosilicate glasses leads to a mixed network former effect yielding nonlinear variation in many macroscopic properties as a function of chemical composition. Here we study the composition–structure–property relationships in a series of sodium...... boroaluminosilicate glasses from peralkaline to peraluminous compositions by substituting Al2O3 for SiO2. Our results reveal a pronounced change in all the measured physical properties (density, elastic moduli, hardness, glass transition temperature, and liquid fragility) around [Al2O3]–[Na2O]=0. The structural...

  8. Carbon monoxide as an electron donor for the biological reduction of sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parshina, S.N.; Sipma, J.; Henstra, A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are able to use carbon monoxide (CO) as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an

  9. The effect of sulphate on methanol conversion in mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Chi, T.M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Mesophilic (30 °C) upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors were fed with an influent containing sulphate (2 g l-1) and methanol (1.33 g l-1). More than 90% of the methanol was mineralised to methane, while only ˜5–10% of the methanol was used for sulphate reduction. This pattern was independent of

  10. The influence of chloride and sulphate ions on the slaking rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes an investigation into the influence of chloride and sulphate ions on the slaking of lime prepared from limestones of different geological origin in South Africa. It was endeavoured to assess the effects of the presence of chloride and sulphate ions on the hydration rate of lime, compared to its slaking in ...

  11. Complete sulphate removal from neutralised acidic mine drainage with barium carbonate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available sulphate removal is achieved. However, further treatment is required in order to reduce the sulphate concentration to below 500 mg/l, which is the required concentration for discharge into waterways. The CSIR developed and patented the ABC (alkali...

  12. Effect of high levels of dietary molybdenum and sulphate on SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-10-29

    Oct 29, 1988 ... Effect of high levels of dietary molybdenum and sulphate on SA Mutton Merino sheep. I. Minerai status and ... reliable diagnostic index of copper deficiency in sheep in the presence of high concentrations of molybdenum and sulphate in ..... dates are poorly excreted by both the urinary and faecal routes in ...

  13. Method and use of recycled ( sup 35 S)sulphate in metabolic labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R.F.; Mallick, N.P. (Royal Infirmary, Manchester (UK)); Brenchley, P.E.C. (Saint Mary' s Hospital, Manchester (UK))

    1989-12-01

    Efficiency of ({sup 35}S)sulphate incorporation into macromolecules in metabolic labelling experiments has been uniformly poor, 0.0005-0.35%. A procedure is described for recovering approximately 90% of the unused ({sup 35}S)sulphate from such a labelling experiment in a form in which it can be used again, thus improving (asymptotic) incorporation efficiency up to tenfold. (author).

  14. Volcanic lake systems as terrestrial analogue for sulphate-rich terrains on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, A.

    2016-01-01

    Remote-sensing observations and rover missions have documented the abundant presence of sulphate-rich mineral associations on the surface of Mars. Together with widespread occurrences of silica and frequent enrichments of chlorine and bromine in soils and rocks, the sulphate associations are

  15. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: High sulphide Concentrations tolerated by sulphate reducing bacteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common result of mining activities caused by bacterial oxidation of sulphide minerals (pyrite) that results in sulphate rich waste water. AMD can be treated biologically in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria...

  16. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, Lex W.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Middleton, Philippa; Marret, Stephane; Rouse, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and basic science evidence suggests that magnesium sulphate before birth may be neuroprotective for the fetus. Objectives To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate as a neuroprotective agent when given to women considered at risk of preterm birth. Search strategy We

  17. Modelling the competition between sulphate reducers and methanogens in a thermophilic methanol-fed bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.; Weijma, J.; Abusam, A.

    2002-01-01

    Sulphate can be removed from wastewater by means of biological anaerobic reduction to sulphide. The reduction requires the presence of a substrate that can serve as an electron donor. Methanol a suitable electron donor for sulphate reduction under thermophilic conditions. In an anaerobic system

  18. Correlation analysis between sulphate content and leaching of sulphates in recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbudo, Auxi; Galvín, Adela P; Agrela, Francisco; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, Jose Ramón

    2012-06-01

    In some recycled aggregates applications, such as component of new concrete or roads, the total content of soluble sulphates should be measured and controlled. Restrictions are usually motivated by the resistance or stability of the new structure, and in most cases, structural concerns can be remedied by the use of techniques such as sulphur-resistant cements. However, environmental risk assessment from recycling and reuse construction products is often forgotten. The purpose of this study is to analyse the content of soluble sulphate on eleven recycled aggregates and six samples prepared in laboratory by the addition of different gypsum percentages. As points of reference, two natural aggregates were tested. An analysis of the content of the leachable amount of heavy metals regulated by European regulation was included. As a result, the correlation between solubility and leachability data allow suggest a limiting gypsum amount of 4.4% on recycled aggregates. This limit satisfies EU Landfill Directive criteria, which is currently used as reference by public Spanish Government for recycled aggregates in construction works. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of Pb (II from Aqueous Solutions Using Mixtures of Bamboo Biochar and Calcium Sulphate, and Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption characteristics of Pb(II from aqueous solutions through a low-cost adsorbent mixture comprising of Bamboo biochar (BB and Calcium Sulphate (CS, and a more expensive mixture of Hydroxyapatite (HAP and Calcium Sulphate (CS, were investigated. The effects of equilibrium contact time, and adsorbate concentration conducted in batch experiments were studied. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 40 (min. The adsorption mechanism of Pb(II from these two adsorbent mixtures was carried out through a kinetic rate order. A pseudo second-order kinetic model was applied for the adsorption processes. The model yielded good correlation (R2 >0.999 of the experimental data. Adsorption of Pb(II using (BB&CS and (HAP&CS correlated well (R2 >0.99 with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations under the concentration range studied. Hence, the effectiveness of an inexpensive natural material (BB&CS mixture in Pb(II removal is established, and is promising for use in other heavy metal adsorptions.

  20. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  1. Silicate release from glass for pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Denise; Bortoluzzi, Fabiana; Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Ramirez, Adrian Gustavo

    2008-05-01

    Glass is made of polymeric silica and other minor components, which are necessary for turning the silica into a material more easily moldable and resistant to temperature changes. Glass containers for pharmaceutical usage are classified according to their resistance to a chemical attack, a test carried out in the presence of water and heat. The test is designed to show the released alkalinity, a variable dependent on the amount of sodium oxide, one of the minor components added to the glass mass. In this work, the release of silica from glass by action of constituents from pharmaceutical formulations was investigated. The study included products used in large volumes and usually stored in glass containers. Solutions of amino acids, electrolytes, glucose, oligoelements and others such as heparin and sodium bicarbonate were individually stored in glass containers and heated at 121 degrees C for 30min, as in the water attack test. The test was also carried out only with water, where the pH varied from 2 to 12. The released silicate was measured either by photometry or atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the nature of the sample. The results showed that silicate is released during the heating cycle even if the contact is with pure water only. The pH exerts a considerable influence on the release, being that the higher the pH, the higher the silica dissolved. An elevated pH, however, is not the only factor responsible for silica dissolution. While in the solutions of NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2 and ZnSO4 and in most of the amino acids, the concentration of silicate was as high as in pure water (0.1-1.0mg Si/L). In the solutions of sodium acetate, bicarbonate and gluconate, its concentration was much higher, over 30mg Si/L. These results were confirmed by the analysis of commercial products, where in solutions of amino acids the level of silicate ranged from 0.14 to 0.19mg Si/L. On the other hand, calcium gluconate, sodium bicarbonate and potassium phosphate presented

  2. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique, E-mail: torres@udc.es; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulphate effect on cadmium toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii Gerloff. • Cadmium increases the sulphur requirements in Chlamydomonas moewusii. • Kinetic coefficients for sulphate utilization and cadmium effect on them. • Sulphate and cadmium influence on the biosynthesis of low-molecular mass thiols. • Cadmium toxicity reduction by sulphate due to higher biosynthesis of thiols. - Abstract: Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu–Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1 mM sulphate. The maximum EC{sub 50} value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1 m

  3. Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of Er in sodium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in sodium borate glass have been studied. The indirect and direct optical band gaps (Eopt) and energy level parameters (Racah (E1, E2 and E3), spin-orbit (ξ4f) and con- figurational interaction (α)) are evaluated. Spectral intensities for various absorption bands of Er3+ doped.

  4. Development-dependent modification of the extracellular matrix by a sulphated glycoprotein in Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, S; Thym, D; Sumper, M

    1984-04-01

    We report the chemical characterization of the highly sulphated glycoprotein SSG 185 from Volvox carteri. SSG 185 is a hydroxyproline-containing, extracellular glycoprotein. The sulphate residues are clustered within the parent saccharide structure of SSG 185, since on mercaptolysis all the sulphate residues are recovered in a small saccharide fragment containing mannose, arabinose and sulphate (in a molar ratio of 112). SSG 185 is a short-lived molecule, serving as a precursor for a high mol. wt. component of the extracellular matrix. Synthesis of SSG 185 is developmentally controlled. Different SSG 185 variants, with unknown modifications in the sulphated saccharide fragment, are synthesized at different developmental stages or under the influence of the sexual inducer. These modifications remain conserved in the aggregated state of SSG 185, indicating the development-dependent modification of the extracellular matrix.

  5. Sulphation reactions of oxidic dust particles in waste heat boiler environment. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranki, T.

    1999-09-01

    Sulphation of metal oxides has an important role in many industrial processes. In different applications sulphation reactions have different aims and characteristics. In the flash smelting process sulphation of oxidic flue dust is a spontaneous and inevitable phenomena, which takes place in the waste heat boiler (WHB) when cooling down hot dust laden off-gases from sulphide smelters. Oxidic dust particles (size 0 - 50 {mu}m) react with O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} in a certain temperature range (500 - 800 deg C). Sulphation reactions are highly exothermic releasing large amount of heat, which affects the gas cooling and thermal performance of the boiler. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the system have to be known to improve the process and WHB operation. The rate of sulphation is affected by the prevailing conditions (temperature, gas composition) and particle size and microstructure (porosity, surface area). Some metal oxides (CuO) can react readily with SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and act as self-catalysts, but others (NiO) require the presence of an external catalyst to enhance the SO{sub 3} formation and sulphation to proceed. Some oxides (NiO) sulphate directly, some (CuO) may form first intermediate phases (basic sulphates) depending on the reaction conditions. Thus, the reaction mechanisms are very complex. The aim of this report was to search information about the factors affecting the dust sulphation reactions and suggested reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Many investigators have studied sulphation thermodynamics and reaction kinetics and mechanisms of macroscopical metal oxide pieces, but only few articles have been published about sulphation of microscopical particles, like dust. All the found microscale studies dealt with sulphation reactions of calcium oxide, which is not present in the flash smelting process, but used as an SO{sub 2} absorbent in the combustion processes. However, also these investigations may give some hints about the sulphation

  6. Automated biological sulphate reduction: a review on mathematical models, monitoring and bioprocess control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Joana; Lubberding, Henk J; Esposito, Giovanni; Keesman, Karel J; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-11-01

    In the sulphate-reducing process, bioprocess control can be used to regulate the competition between microbial groups, to optimize the input of the electron donor and/or to maximize or minimize the production of sulphide. As shown in this review, modelling and monitoring are important tools in the development and application of a bioprocess control strategy. Pre-eminent literature on modelling, monitoring and control of sulphate-reducing processes is reviewed. This paper firstly reviews existing mathematical models for sulphate reduction, focusing on models for biofilms, microbial competition, inhibition and bioreactor dynamics. Secondly, a summary of process monitoring strategies is presented. Special attention is given to in situ sensors for sulphate, sulphide and electron donor concentrations as well as for biomass activity and composition. Finally, the state of the art of the bioprocess control strategies in biological sulphate reduction processes is overviewed. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Microstructuring of glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Hülsenberg, Dagmar; Bismarck, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    As microstructured glass becomes increasingly important for microsystems technology, the main application fields include micro-fluidic systems, micro-analysis systems, sensors, micro-actuators and implants. And, because glass has quite distinct properties from silicon, PMMA and metals, applications exist where only glass devices meet the requirements. The main advantages of glass derive from its amorphous nature, the precondition for its - theoretically - direction-independent geometric structurability. Microstructuring of Glasses deals with the amorphous state, various glass compositions and their properties, the interactions between glasses and the electromagnetic waves used to modify it. Also treated in detail are methods for influencing the geometrical microstructure of glasses by mechanical, chemical, thermal, optical, and electrical treatment, and the methods and equipment required to produce actual microdevices.

  8. Ammonium sulphate on maize crops under no tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the management of N and S (as ammonium sulphate fertilization under no-tillage system on the components of maize productivity and on N and S accumulation in the crop, as well as to evaluate the minimum value of the Nitrogen Sufficiency Index (NSI 0.95 as an indicator for side dressing requirements. The experiment had a completely randomized block design with six treatments and four replications carried out in Red Latosol dystrophic soil (Hapludox, in Campo Mourão, Paraná State, where the following treatments in summer growth maize were applied: T1- 120 kg ha-1 N in seeding; T2- 120 kg ha-1 N in side dressing; T3- 40 kg ha-1 N in seeding and 80 kg ha-1 N in side dressing; T4- 30 kg ha-1 N in seeding and 90 kg ha-1 N in side dressing, monitored by a chlorophyll meter using the Nitrogen Sufficiency Index (NSI; T5- 120 kg ha-1 N anticipated in wheat seeding; T6- without nitrogen fertilization. NSI was determined by the relationship between the leaf chlorophyll index (ICF average of T4 plants and that one in the plot fertilized with 120 kg ha-1 N at the maize seed sowing (T1. During two years, ammonium sulphate was applied to the maize crop after wheat under no tillage system. In the first year, with adequate rainfall, the maize yield was similar to the one in which the complete ammonium sulphate dose application was done in maize seeding and side dressing. The anticipated fertilization to wheat seed sowing resulted in maize yield without difference from the parceled form. In the second year, with irregular rainfall, all treatments with N were similar and they increased maize yield compared to that without N fertilization. NSI of 0.95 was not efficient to evaluate maize N requirements in side dressing, and resulted in lower maize yield. N was accumulated mainly in the grains unlike S that accumulated in the plant shoots; both were highly correlated to maize productivity.

  9. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu-Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1mM sulphate. The maximum EC50 value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1mM. An increase in the sulphate concentration, in deficient environments, could alleviate the toxic effect of this metal; however, a relative excess is also negative. The results obtained showed a substrate inhibition for this nutrient. An uncompetitive model for sulphate was chosen to establish the mathematical model that links both factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent Insights into Cell Surface Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R; Multhaupt, Hinke; Sanderson, Ralph D

    2016-01-01

    A small group of cell surface receptors are proteoglycans, possessing a core protein with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains. They are virtually ubiquitous and their chains are major sites at which protein ligands of many types interact. These proteoglycans can signal...... and regulate important cell processes, such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Since many protein ligands, such as growth factors, morphogens, and cytokines, are also implicated in tumour progression, it is increasingly apparent that cell surface proteoglycans impact tumour cell...... behaviour. Here, we review some recent advances, emphasising that many tumour-related functions of proteoglycans are revealed only after their modification in processes subsequent to synthesis and export to the cell surface. These include enzymes that modify heparan sulphate structure, recycling of whole...

  11. Spectrophotometric flow-injection determination of sulphate in soil solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Silvia R P; Maniasso, Nelson; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2005-03-15

    A flow-injection procedure for spectrophotometric determination of sulphate in soil solutions is proposed. Samples are directly soaked from the soils under field conditions, in-line filtered through ceramic plates, and preserved with thymol. The method involves reaction with barium dimethylsulphonazo(III) (DMSA) in the presence of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) with further measuring the decrease in absorbance at 668nm. A linear response is observed up to about 5mgl(-1) SO(4), and detection limit (3sigma criterion) is 0.1mgl(-1) SO(4). Only 4.5mug DMSA is consumed per determination. The system is rugged and baseline drift is not observed during extended operation periods. About 60 samples are injected per hour, and the results are precise (r.s.d. <2%) and in agreement with ion chromatography.

  12. [Study on the lung targeting gelatin microspheres of streptomycin sulphate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Lu, B; Shu, G; Xie, H; Yi, Q; He, Y; Wang, J

    1995-06-01

    This paper is reported the technology of lung targeting gelatin microspheres of streptomycin sulphate (SMS). The microspheres were prepared with natural biodegradable gelatin as the load material and castor oil as the oil phase. The experimental conditions were optimized, the mean volume diameter obtained being 9.7 microns and the mean rate of encapsulation 15.69%. The content, shape and size of the microspheres showed no remarkable change after storage at 37 degrees C RH 75% for 3 months. Activation energy of heat decomposition E = 75.86kJ/mol. In vitro, the SMS release rate was found to accord with Higuchi equation with t1/2 = 8.6h. In vivo (rabbits) the gelatin microspheres were proved to be concentrated in the lung.

  13. Chalcopyrite concentrate leaching with biologically produced ferric sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, P H-M; Heimala, S; Riekkola-Vanhanen, M-L; Puhakka, J A

    2006-09-01

    Biological ferric iron production was combined with ferric sulphate leaching of chalcopyrite concentrate and the effects of pH, Fe3+, temperature and solids concentration on the leaching were studied. The copper leaching rates were similar at pH of 1.0-1.8 and in the presence of 7-90 g L-1 Fe3+ despite massive iron precipitation with 90 g L-1 Fe3+. Increase of the leaching temperature from 50 degrees C to 86 degrees C and solids concentration from 1% to 10% increased the copper leaching rate. Increase in solids concentration from 1% to 10% decreased the copper yields from 80% to 40%. Stepwise addition of ferric iron did not improve the copper yields. CuFeS2, Ag and Cu1.96S potentials indicated the formation of a passivating layer, which consisted of jarosite and sulphur precipitates and which was responsible for the decreased leaching rates.

  14. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Santos Costa de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina, and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS. It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review.

  15. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review. PMID:23344113

  16. Calculation and optimization of the copper (II sulphate monohydrate from copper (II sulphate pentahydrate production process in a fluidized bed dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluđerović-Radoičić Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the process of the copper (II sulphate monohydrate from copper (II sulphate pentahydrate (also known as a Blue vitriol or Bluestone production was analyzed. Copper (II sulphate pentahydrate is one of the most important copper salts which has been known since the ancient Egyptians. In the nineteenth century its application as a fungicide was discovered which provoked wide industrial production. Molecule of the copper (II sulphate pentahydrate is a crystalohydrate with five water molecules linked by chemical bonds to a molecule of the copper (II sulphate. Copper (II sulphate exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydratation. The anhydrous form is a pale green or gray-white powder, whereas the pentahydrate (CuSO4•5H2O, the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. In order to obtain copper (II sulphate monohydrate from copper (II sulphate pentahydrate four water molecules need to be removed. To determine the optimum temperature and time required for the removal of four water molecules from a molecule of pentahydrate in this work thermogravimetric (TGA analysis was performed. Thermogravimetric (TGA analysis - dehydration of copper (II sulphate pentahydrate is done using simultaneous TG-DSC thermal analyzer DTG-Q600 SDT from TA Instruments. Analyzes was carried out for two type of samples, the sample containing particles of the average diameter equal to 0.17 mm and the particles of the average diameter 0.5 mm. In addition, fluidization and drying curve was determined using a semi-industrial fluidization column. On top, the industrial fluidization column aimed to produce 300 tones per month of copper (II sulphate monohydrate was designed. Material and energy calculations were performed using software packages Simprosys 3.0 and SuperPro Designer 5.1. Simprosys 3.0 is a software package designed for the modeling and simulation of a drying process as well as for 20 different unit operations. Super

  17. Can mesenchymal stem cell survive in hydroxyapatite sulphate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Kholinne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have reported the role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC in treating fractures. In case with bone defect, fracture healing needs not only osteogenic but also osteoconductive component (scaffold. Hydroxyapatite calcium sulphate (HA-CaSO4 being widely used as bone void filler, may serve as scaffold for MSC. However, the effect of this scaffold to the viability of MSC has not been evaluated before.Methods: MSC were isolated from the iliac marrow of a Giant Flamish rabbit, and expanded in DMEM using histogradient density. After one week, they were sub-cultured in a 25cc TC flask (passage 1 and have the medium replaced every 3 days. During the subculture, we embedded a HA-CaSO4 pellet into the flask. The cells were evaluated under inverted microscope at a weekly interval.Results: At the first week, MSC are difficult to be identified in microscope due to the large number of HA-CaSO4 crystals. By the third week however MSC have grown and the HA-CaSO4 crystals can readily be washed off by medium replacement. By the fourth weeks, MSC can be still seen on microscope.Conclusion: HA-CaSO4 could serve as a good scaffold due to its pellet shape and easily absorbed, thus providing revascularization which is essential for bone healing.In addition, HA-CaSO4 does not interfere with MSC survival. (Med J Indones 2012;21:8-12Keywords: Fracture healing, Hydroxyapatite Calcium Sulphate (HA-CaSO4, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC

  18. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  19. Hydrochemistry of rivers in an acid sulphate soil hotspot area in western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ROOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During heavy rains and snow melting, acid sulphate (AS soils on the coastal plains of Finland are flushed resulting in discharge of acidic and metal-rich waters that strongly affect small streams. In this study, the impact of AS soils occurrence and hydrological changes on water quality were determined for 21 rivers (catchment sizes between 96–4122 km2 running through an AS soil hotspot area in western central Finland. Water samples, collected at the outlet, during eight selected events, were analysed for pH, dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity (EC and 32 chemical elements. Based on the correlation with percentage arable land in the catchments (a rough estimate of AS soil occurrences, as up to 50% of the arable land is underlain with these soils, it was possible to categorize variables into those that are enriched in runoff from such land, depleted in runoff from such land (only one element, and not affected by land-use type in the catchments. Of the variables enriched in runoff from arable land, some were leached from AS soils during high-water flows, in particular (aluminium, boron, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, nickel, sulphur, silicon, thorium, thallium, uranium, and zinc and others occurred in highest concentrations during lower flows (calcium, EC, potassium, magnesium, sodium, rubidium and strontium. Molybdenum and phosphorus were not leached from AS soils in larger amounts than from other soils and thus related to other factors connected to the arable land. Based on the concentrations of potentially toxic metals derived from AS soils, the 21 rivers were ranked from the least (Lestijoki River, Lapväärtinjoki River and Perhonjoki River to the most (Sulvanjoki River, Vöyrinjoki River and Maalahdenjoki River heavily AS soil impacted. It has been decided that Vöyrinjoki is to be dredged along a ca. 20 km distance. This is quite alarming considering the high metal concentrations in the river.;

  20. Role of SrO on the bioactivity behavior of some ternary borate glasses and their glass ceramic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghany, A M; Ouis, M A; Azooz, M A; ElBatal, H A; El-Bassyouni, G T

    2016-01-05

    Borate glasses containing SrO substituting both CaO and NaO were prepared and characterized for their bioactivity or bone bonding ability. Glass ceramic derivatives were prepared by thermal heat treatment process. FTIR, XRD and SEM measurements for the prepared glass and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in sodium phosphate solution for one and two weeks were carried out. The appearance of two IR peaks within the range 550-680cm(-1) after immersion in phosphate solution indicates the formation of hydroxyapatite or equivalent Sr phosphate layer. X-ray diffraction data agree with the FTIR spectral analysis. The solubility test was carried out for both glasses and glass ceramics derivatives in the same phosphate solution. The introduction of SrO increases the solubility for both glasses and glass ceramics and this is assumed to be due to the formation of Sr phosphate which is more soluble than calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). SEM images reveal varying changes in the surfaces of glass ceramics after immersion according to the SrO content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  3. Bioactive and Antibacterial Glass Powders Doped with Copper by Ion-Exchange in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Miola

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two bioactive glass powders (SBA2 and SBA3 were doped with Cu by means of the ion-exchange technique in aqueous solution. SBA2 glass was subjected to the ion-exchange process by using different Cu salts (copper(II nitrate, chloride, acetate, and sulphate and concentrations. Structural (X-ray diffraction-XRD, morphological (Scanning Electron Microscopy-SEM, and compositional (Energy Dispersion Spectrometry-EDS analyses evidenced the formation of crystalline phases for glasses ion-exchanged in copper(II nitrate and chloride solutions; while the ion-exchange in copper(II acetate solutions lead to the incorporation of higher Cu amount than the ion-exchange in copper(II sulphate solutions. For this reason, the antibacterial test (inhibition halo towards S. aureus was performed on SBA2 powders ion-exchanged in copper(II acetate solutions and evidenced a limited antibacterial effect. A second glass composition (SBA3 was developed to allow a greater incorporation of Cu in the glass surface; SBA3 powders were ion-exchanged in copper(II acetate solutions (0.01 M and 0.05 M. Cu-doped SBA3 powders showed an amorphous structure; morphological analysis evidenced a rougher surface for Cu-doped powders in comparison to the undoped glass. EDS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirmed the Cu introduction as Cu(II ions. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF showed that Cu introduction did not alter the bioactive behaviour of the glass. Finally, inhibition halo test towards S. aureus evidenced a good antimicrobial effect for glass powders ion-exchanged in copper(II acetate solutions 0.05 M.

  4. Comparison of strength and durability characteristics of a geopolymer produced from fly ash, ground glass fiber and glass powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rashidian-Dezfouli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Strength and durability characteristics of geopolymers produced using three precursors, consisting of fly ash, Ground Glass Fiber (GGF, and glass-powder were studied. Combinations of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as the activator solutions, and the effect of different sodium and silica content of the activators on the workability and compressive strength of geopolymers was investigated. The parameters used in this study were the mass ratio of Na2O-to-binder (for sodium content, and SiO2-to-Na2O of the activator (for silica content. Geopolymer mixtures that achieved the highest compressive strength from each precursor were assessed for their resistance to alkali-silica reaction and compared against the performance of portland cement mixtures. Test results revealed that GGF and fly ash-based geopolymers performed better than glass-powder-based geopolymer mixtures. The resistance of GGF-based and fly ash-based geopolymers to alkali-silica reaction was superior to that of portland cement mixtures, while glass-powder-based geopolymer showed inferior performance.

  5. Sulphation of acetaminophen by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akihiro; Liu, Ming-Yih; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Saeki, Yuichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2015-12-01

    Sulphation is known to be critically involved in the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo. This study aimed to systematically identify the major human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzyme(s) responsible for the sulphation of acetaminophen. A systematic analysis showed that three of the twelve human SULTs, SULT1A1, SULT1A3 and SULT1C4, displayed the strongest sulphating activity towards acetaminophen. The pH dependence of the sulphation of acetaminophen by each of these three SULTs was examined. Kinetic parameters of these three SULTs in catalysing acetaminophen sulphation were determined. Moreover, sulphation of acetaminophen was shown to occur in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells under the metabolic setting. Of the four human organ samples tested, liver and intestine cytosols displayed considerably higher acetaminophen-sulphating activity than those of lung and kidney. Collectively, these results provided useful information concerning the biochemical basis underlying the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo previously reported. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Migration and attenuation of agrochemical pollutants: insights from isotopic analysis of groundwater sulphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncaster, S. J.; Bottrell, S. H.; Tellam, J. H.; Lloyd, J. W.; Konhauser, K. O.

    2000-04-01

    Existing hydrochemical and hydrogeological models of pollution migration and attenuation in the Lincolnshire Limestone aquifer of eastern England have been examined in the light of the results of a groundwater sulphate sulphur isotope investigation. This has allowed the distinction of different sources of sulphate and their relative importance in different parts of the aquifer. The principal sources are 34S-depleted inputs, derived from the oxidation of pyrite within both the aquifer matrix material and the overlying mudstone deposits, and 34S-enriched anthropogenic inputs which are derived from acid rain fallout augmented by agrochemicals. Groundwaters sampled over the outcrop zone of the aquifer have sulphate δ 34S dominated by contemporary acid rain inputs in the recharge waters. A down-dip decrease in the 34S content of groundwater sulphate over the unconfined and shallow confined areas of the aquifer is indicative of a progressive increase in the significance of pyrite-derived sulphate in the system. The contribution of sulphate from this source is large and indicates that pollution front penetration (previously based on total sulphate concentrations) is more restricted than previously thought. Moreover, the extent of pyrite oxidation is greater than can be accounted for by dissolved O 2 and the additional component corresponds to that which would be expected from reduction of nitrate using pyrite as the electron donor. We suggest that this mechanism is responsible for denitrification in the aquifer, but that it will be ultimately limited by pyrite availability near fissure surfaces where the reaction takes place.

  7. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  8. Dense proton injection into phosphate glasses using corona discharge treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takuya; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Keiga; Sakai, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Omata, Takahisa; Ishiyama, Tomohiro; Fujioka, Masaya; Kaiju, Hideo; Nishii, Junji

    2018-01-01

    Sodium ions in 25NaO1/2-6LaO3/2-6GeO2-63PO5/2 (mol%) glasses were substituted with protons using corona discharge treatment (CDT) under a H2 atmosphere. The substitution of sodium ion to proton proceeded from the anode side to the cathode side with constant current flow during the CDT. A crystalline free and transparent glass plate of 0.3 mm thickness was obtained after CDT for 96 h. The maximum decrease rate from sodium ion to proton was 78 ± 10%. The proton conductivity of 8.5 × 10-4 S/cm was attained at 400 °C.

  9. Sulphate reduction and the removal of carbon and ammonia in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessner, A; Kappelmeyer, U; Kuschk, P; Kästner, M

    2005-11-01

    Sulphate is a normal constituent of domestic wastewater and reduced sulphur compounds are known to be potent inhibitors of plant growth and certain microbial activities. However, the knowledge about sulphate reduction and the effect on the removal of C and N in constructed wetlands is still limited. Investigations in laboratory-scale constructed wetland reactors were performed to evaluate the interrelation of carbon and nitrogen removal with the sulphate reduction by use of artificial domestic wastewater. Carbon removal was found to be only slightly affected and remained at high levels of efficiency (75-90%). Only at sulphate reduction intensities above 75 mgl(-1) (50% removal), a decrease of carbon removal of up to 20% was observed. A highly contrary behaviour of ammonia removal was found in general, which decreased exponentially from 75% to 35% related to a linear increase of sulphate reduction up to 75 mgl(-1) (50% removal). Since sulphate removal is considered to be dependant on the load of electron donors, the carbon load of the system was varied. Variation of the load changed the intensities of sulphate reduction immediately, but did not influence the carbon removal effectiveness. Doubling of the carbon concentration of 200 mgl(-1) BOD(5) for domestic wastewater usually led to sulphate reduction of up to 150 mgl(-1) (100% removal). The findings show that, particularly in constructed wetland systems, the sulphur cycle in the rhizosphere is of high importance for performance of the waste water treatment and may initiate a reconsideration of the amount of sulphate present in the tap water systems.

  10. Preparation and Physiological activities of sulphated derivative extracted from corn bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qing; Dai, Linghao; Ma, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhu, Linghui

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the sulphated derivative (S-CBP) with the degree of substitution (0.46) was successfully prepared from the polysaccharide extracted from corn bran. Compared with native polysaccharide, the structures of the sulphated derivative were confirmed by FT-IR and SEC-LLS and the molecular weight were changed by chemical modification. Sulfation enhanced the antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent way, which seemed to be dependent on the character of the substituted group. The results suggest that the sulphated derivative, extracted from corn bran, are potential natural antioxidant and blood fat reduce agent.

  11. Conductometric and volumetric study of copper sulphate in aqueous ethanol solutions at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Esam A Gomaa; Negm, Amr; Tahoon, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    An Anton Par Model 55 densimeter was used to measure the densities of copper sulphate solutions in H2O and EtOH–H2O at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, and 313.15 K. The acquired information was used to ascertain the apparent molar volumes, limiting partial molar volumes, and transfer partial molar volumes of copper sulphate. These computed parameters were utilized to decipher the solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions of copper sulphate in an aqueous ethanol solution. The ion solvation b...

  12. Green chemical incorporation of sulphate into polyoxoanions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of sulphomolybdate (SMO) nanospheres was carried out by using sodium molybdate and a structure directing cationic surfactant, dodecyl pyridinium chloride (DPC) at room temperature by applying green chemistry principles. The composition and morphology of the nanospheres were established by Fourier ...

  13. Discrimination of flat glass by instrumental neutron activation analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    The focal point of this research was to discriminate among flat glasses having similar refractive indices on the basis of elemental composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), cyclic and epithermal INAA studies were performed on 19 glass samples provided by an RCMP forensic laboratory. Flat glass panes produced by two major Canadian manufacturers were studied using INAA and cyclic INAA. Several advanced statistical methods were employed for analysis of the data. Using INAA, 90% of all pairwise comparisons of the nineteen glass samples were found to be distinguishable based on sodium, aluminum or calcium values at the 1-mg increment level (1% experimentwise error rate). This value dropped to 73% when 100-{mu}g subsamples were considered. Aluminum was found to be the best element for discriminating between the various glasses, followed by sodium and then calcium. The formulations employed by the two flat glass manufacturers were readily discernible while the panes produced by a given manufacturer were homogeneous with respect to Na, Al and Ca for subsamples as small as 100 micrograms. During optimization of the hafnium signal-to-noise ratio using cyclic INAA, it was discovered that an overall correction factor that was simpler and more convenient could be employed instead of the usual live time - dead time correction procedure. Some heterogeneity was noted in the hafnium content of the glasses found within two of the four refractive index groups. Thirty three percent of all pairwise comparisons between glasses possessing the same refractive index were distinguishable on the basis of their hafnium values at the 1-mg increment level (1% experimentwise error rate). This rose to 52% at the 5-mg increment level, but no additional discrimination of the fifteen glasses was provided by hafnium at either increment level when comparison of the results with those for Na, Al and Ca was performed.

  14. Microwaves energy in curing process of water glass molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granat K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of investigation of microwave heating on hardening process of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this heating process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and abrasion resistance has been found. It has been proved, that all investigated sorts of sodium water glass with a module between 2.0 and 3.3 can be used as a binder of molding sands in microwave curing process. It has been found during analysis of research results of sands with 2.5 % water glass addition that they are practically the same as in case of identical molding sands dried for 120 minutes at the temperature of 110°C, used for comparative purposes. Application of microwave curing of molding sands with water glass, however, guarantees reduction of hardening time (from 120 to 4 minutes as well as significant reduction of energy consumption. Attempts of two stage hardening of the investigated water glass molding sands have also been carried out, that is after an initial hardening during a classical CO2 process (identical sands have also been tested for comparison after CO2 blowing process and additional microwave heating. It has been found that application of this kind of treatment for curing sands with 2.5 % sodium water glass content and module from 2.0 up to 3.3 results in the improvement of properties in comparison to classical CO2 process.

  15. Sulphate-reducing bacteria associated with biocorrosion: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania C. de Araujo-Jorge

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion means any process of corrosion in wich microorganisms are somehow involved. As far as the petroleum industry is concerned, the anaerobic type is the more important, with Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB accouting for half of the described processes. SRB are obligate anaerobs that use sulphur, sulphate or other oxidized sulphur compounds as oxidizing agents when decomposing organic material. A typical product of SRB metabolism, hydrogen sulphide -H2S-, is extremely toxic. In the present work we review the literature on mechanisms underlying biocorrosive process in wich SRB are involved and summarize some of the ultrastructural and eletrochemical work developed using SRB obtained from water injection flow in wells located on PETROBRAS offshore marine plataforms, sampled directly in the field over metallic probes, or cultured under laboratory conditions. Biofilms develop when SRB adhere to inert surfaces. A high diversity of morphological types is found inside these biofilms. Their extracellular matrix is highly hydrated and mainly anionic, as shown by its avid reaction with cationic compounds like ruthenium red. We have noted that variations in iron contet lead to interesting changes in the ultrastructure of the bacterial cell coat and also in the rate of corrosion induced in metallic test cupons. Since routine methods to prevent and treat SRB contamination and biodeterioration involve the use of biocides that are toxic and always have some environmental impact, an accurate diagnosis of biocorrosion is always required prior to a treatment decision. We developed a method that detects and semi-quantifies the presence of living or dead SRB by using free silver potentials as an indicator of corrosive action by SRB-associated sulphides. We found a correlation between sulphide levels (determined either by spectrophotometry, or using a silver electrode -E(Ag- that measured changes in free potentials induced by the presence of exogeneously

  16. Structure, biodegradation behavior and cytotoxicity of alkali-containing alkaline-earth phosphosilicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Ishu; Reddy, AlluAmarnath; Muñoz, Francisco; Choi, Seong-Jun; Kim, Hae-Won; Tulyaganov, Dilshat U; Ferreira, José M F

    2014-11-01

    We report on the effect of sodium on the structure, chemical degradation and bioactivity of glasses in the CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 system. The (29)Si and (31)P magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of melt-quenched glasses with varying Na2O/MgO ratios exhibit a silicate glass network with the dominance of Q(2)(Si) units and phosphorus mainly forming orthophosphate species. Sodium incorporation in the glasses did not induce a significant structural change in the silicate network, while it did influence the phosphate environment due to its lower ionic field strength in comparison with that of magnesium. The apatite forming ability of glasses has been investigated by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1h and 7 days while their chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Increasing Na(+)/Mg(2+) ratio caused a decrease in the chemical durability of glasses and in the apatite forming ability especially during initial steps of interaction between glass and SBF solution. The cellular responses were observed in vitro on bulk glass samples using mouse-derived pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line. The preliminary study suggested that the increasing alkali-concentration in glasses led to cytotoxicity in the cell culture medium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    The use of glass as a load carrying material in structural elements is rarely seen even though glass is a popular material for many architects. This is owed to the unreliable and low tensile strength, which is due to surface flaws and high brittleness of the material. These properties lead...... to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  18. Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...... the dimension and the intensity is used to quantify and rank the homogeneity of glass products. Compared with the refractive index method, the image processing method has a wider detection range and a lower statistical uncertainty....

  19. Lévi glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, D. S.

    2015-06-01

    Lévy glass is a new material which is obtained by assembly of scattering elements. The result is a bulk material which has different degrees of elasticity (from rigid as window glass to flexible as certain plastics) and which can be shaped into any desired form. In particular, Lévy glasses have special optical properties not present in other materials. The name Lévy glass is based on the fact that under certain conditions light waves perform a Lévy walk inside these materials and the resulting optical transport is superdiffusive. From a structural point of view a Lévy glass is a random fractal. We will review the optical and structural properties of Lévy glasses, their design criteria, as well as their experimental realization. Also we will go into various fundamental aspects of Lévy-type light transport, discussing both superdiffusion as well as interference effects like weak and strong localization.

  20. Topological Origin of the Network Dilation Anomaly in Ion-Exchanged Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengyi; Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Mauro, John C.; Sant, Gaurav; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2017-11-01

    Ion exchange is commonly used to strengthen oxide glasses. However, the resulting stuffed glasses usually do not reach the molar volume of as-melted glasses of similar composition—a phenomenon known as the network dilation anomaly. This behavior seriously limits the potential for the chemical strengthening of glasses and its origin remains one of the mysteries of glass science. Here, based on molecular dynamics simulations of sodium silicate glasses coupled with topological constraint theory, we show that the topology of the atomic network controls the extent of ion-exchange-induced dilation. We demonstrate that isostatic glasses do not show any network dilation anomaly. This is found to arise from the combined absence of floppy modes of deformation and internal eigenstress in isostatic atomic networks.

  1. Diamond turning of glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  2. Fractography of glass

    CERN Document Server

    Tressler, Richard

    1994-01-01

    As the first major reference on glass fractography, contributors to this volume offer a comprehensive account of the fracture of glass as well as various fracture surface topography Contributors discuss optical fibers, glass containers, and flatglass fractography In addition, papers explore fracture origins; the growth of the original flaws of defects; and macroscopic fracture patterns from which fracture patterns evolve This volume is complete with photographs and schematics

  3. Heparan sulphate epitope-expression is associated with the inflammatory response in metastatic malignant melanoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernsen, M.R.; Smetsers, T.F.; Westerlo, E.M.A. van de; Ruiter, D.J.; Hakansson, L.; Gustafsson, B.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Krysander, L.; Rettrup, B.; Hakansson, A.

    2003-01-01

    Heparan sulphate (HS) represents a heterogeneous class of molecules on cell membranes and extracellular matrices. These molecules are involved in a variety of biological processes, including immune responses, through their binding and functional modulation of proteins. Recently a panel of

  4. The use of micro-algal biomass as a carbon source for biological sulphate reducing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshoff, G; Duncan, J; Rose, P D

    2004-06-01

    An upflow anaerobic digestor was fed dried algal biomass as a carbon source to establish the feasibility of using micro-algal biomass as the sole carbon source for biological sulphate reduction. The effect of the COD:SO4 ratio on substrate consumption and sulphate removal efficiencies were assessed by varying the organic carbon content of the media. Similar COD removal efficiencies were obtained irrespective of the influent COD:SO4 ratios, which were 8.1, 11.2 and 15.0. However, the rates of COD removal did differ with influent COD:SO4 ratios. The percentage sulphate removed decreased as the ratio of COD:SO4 increased. Not all of the COD was used for sulphate reduction, with only 31% being accounted for.

  5. Bio-corrosion of water pipeline by sulphate-reducing bacteria in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esiri

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... This study investigates the presence of SRB in water, in a water pipeline and in ... Key words: Sulphate-reducing bacteria, corrosion, water pipeline, biocide. INTRODUCTION ...... tubercles in distribution pipelines. J. Am. Water ...

  6. Deterioration of hardened cement paste under combined sulphate-chloride attack investigated by synchrotron XRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, J.; Meng, B.; Emmerling, F.

    2016-06-01

    The exact mechanisms of the phase transitions caused by a combined sulphate-chloride attack are discussed controversially. The main points concern the mutual influences of sulphate and chloride ions during the secondary binding processes of these anions within cement hydrate phases. We simulated combined sulphate-chloride attack under laboratory conditions using solutions containing NaCl and Na2SO4 in different concentrations. Three sample compositions were used for the preparation of the specimens. In two of them, 30% of Portland cement was replaced by supplementary cementitious materials (fly ash, slag). The phase distribution in the samples was determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The analysis with high spatial resolution allows the localisation of the secondary phase formation in the microstructural profile of the sample. A mechanism of the phase developments under combined sulphate-chloride attack is derived.

  7. Studies on calcium, magnesium and sulphate in the Mandovi and Zuari river system (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Naik, S.

    Distribution of calcium, magnesium and sulphate have been examined in the tide-dominated Mandovi and Zuari river systems. Calcium and magnesium appear to take some part in the bio-geochemical cycles of the rivers and behave as semi...

  8. Chondroitin sulphate-guided construction of polypyrrole nanoarchitectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhengnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Wenjun [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Liao, Jingwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Huang, Shishu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University (China); Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong (China); Chen, Junqi; He, Tianrui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Tan, Guoxin, E-mail: tanguoxin@126.com [Faculty of Light and Chemical, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Nanospheres, nanocones, and nanowires are three typical polypyrrole (PPy) nanoarchitectures and electrochemically polymerized with the dope of chondroitin sulphate (CS) in this study. CS, a functional biomacromolecule, guides the formation of PPy nanoarchitectures as the dopant and morphology-directing agent. Combined with our previous reported other PPy nanoarchitectures (such as nanotube arrays and nanowires), this work further proposed the novel mechanism of the construction of PPy/CS nanoarchitectures with the synergistic effect of CS molecular chains structure and the steric hindrance. Compared to the undoped PPy, MC3T3-E1 cells with PPy/CS nanoarchitectures possessed stronger proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capability. This suggests that PPy/CS nanoarchitectures have appropriate biocompatibility. Altogether, the nanoarchitectured PPy/CS may find application in the regeneration of bone defect. - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of PPy nanoarchitectures was proposed. • CS acted as biofunctional dopant and morphology-directing agent in PPy forming. • PPy-CS nanoarchitectures were dependent on the Py/CS ratio.

  9. Detection of sulphate-reducing bacteria in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggendorn, Fabiano Luiz; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Silva Junior, Arley; Galvão, Mariana Machado; Lutterbach, Márcia T S

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in human saliva and correlate with oral and systemic conditions. Saliva samples were collected from 118 patients and inoculated in 2 ml of modified Postgate's E medium culture. After 28 days of incubation at 30°C the presence of SRB was identified by the production of sulphide. Of 118 saliva samples collected, 35 were positive for the presence of SRB. Three positive samples were randomly chosen to identify the species of SRB by PCR and sequenced. The three selected samples were identified as Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Raoultella ornithinolytica. Gastritis (14.4%) was the most prevalent systemic disease, followed by diabetes (3.4%), while periodontitis (11%) and traumatic fibroma (4.2%) were the oral manifestations most frequently found. A bivariate analysis was performed to examine for the presence of SRB and the most prevalent systemic and oral manifestations. Only periodontitis showed a statistically significant association (p = 0.0003). The results showed SRB can be found in oral microbiota of healthy patients. Regarding the several conditions studied, there was a higher prevalence of SRB in patients with gastritis and patients with periodontal disease, with a possible correlation between the presence of SRB in the oral microbiota and periodontal disease.

  10. A-thermal elastic behavior of silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Mohammed Kamel; Degioanni, Simon; Martinet, Christine; Le Brusq, Jacques; Champagnon, Bernard; Vouagner, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Depending on the composition of silicate glasses, their elastic moduli can increase or decrease as function of the temperature. Studying the Brillouin frequency shift of these glasses versus temperature allows the a-thermal composition corresponding to an intermediate glass to be determined. In an intermediate glass, the elastic moduli are independent of the temperature over a large temperature range. For sodium alumino-silicate glasses, the a-thermal composition is close to the albite glass (NaAlSi3O8). The structural origin of this property is studied by in situ high temperature Raman scattering. The structure of the intermediate albite glass and of silica are compared at different temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C. When the temperature increases, it is shown that the high frequency shift of the main band at 440 cm-1 in silica is a consequence of the cristobalite-like alpha-beta transformation of 6-membered rings. This effect is stronger in silica than bond elongation (anharmonic effects). As a consequence, the elastic moduli of silica increase as the temperature increases. In the albite glass, the substitution of 25% of Si4+ ions by Al3+ and Na+ ions decreases the proportion of SiO2 6-membered rings responsible for the silica anomaly. The effects of the silica anomaly balance the anharmonicity in albite glass and give rise to an intermediate a-thermal glass. Different networks, formers or modifiers, can be added to produce different a-thermal glasses with useful mechanical or chemical properties.

  11. Determination of Oversulphated Chondroitin Sulphate and Dermatan Sulphate in unfractionated heparin by (1)H-NMR - Collaborative study for quantification and analytical determination of LoD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, I; Mulloy, B; Hellwig, E; Kozerski, L; Beyer, T; Holzgrabe, U; Wanko, R; Spieser, J-M; Rodomonte, A

    2008-12-01

    Oversulphated Chondroitin Sulphate (OSCS) and Dermatan Sulphate (DS) in unfractionated heparins can be identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). The limit of detection (LoD) of OSCS is 0.1% relative to the heparin content. This LoD is obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 2000:1 of the heparin methyl signal. Quantification is best obtained by comparing peak heights of the OSCS and heparin methyl signals. Reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD) has been obtained. The accuracy of quantification was good.

  12. Biological sulphate removal from acid mine effluent using ethanol as carbon and energy source

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available was 2.5 and 8.4g SO4/(2.d) at HRT of 18 to 4.3 h. The experimental COD/sulphate ratio was between 0.55 and 0.84, which is in accordance with the theoretical value of 0.87. The experimental sulphide/sulphate ratio was less than the theoretical value of 0...

  13. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, C.A.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  14. Magnesium sulphate at 30 to 34?weeks? gestational age: neuroprotection trial (MAGENTA) - study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa F; Wilkinson, Dominic; Ashwood, Pat; Haslam, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnesium sulphate is currently recommended for neuroprotection of preterm infants for women at risk of preterm birth at less than 30?weeks? gestation, based on high quality evidence of benefit. However there remains uncertainty as to whether these benefits apply at higher gestational ages. The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess whether giving magnesium sulphate compared with placebo to women immediately prior to preterm birth between 30 and 34?weeks? gestation re...

  15. Changes of Soil Chemical Properties during Rice Straw Decomposition in Different Types of Acid Sulphate Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Hairani; Ani Susilawati

    2013-01-01

    Organic residues often exhibit different physico-chemical properties and affect the soil ecosystem in different ways. Hence, the study of their impact on soil is essential to benefit from their potential as amendments and to avoid adverse environmental effects. It is required to study the role of rice straw in the changes of soil properties during decomposition processes in the rice field. The research was conducted on potential acid sulphate soil (PASS) and actual acid sulphate soil (AASS) i...

  16. Influence of the COD to sulphate ratio on the anaerobic organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First-order apparent kinetic parameters (K1 a pp ) decreased from 1.96 x 10-4 to 1.55 x 10-4l·mg VSS-1·h-1 as the COD to sulphate ratio decreased from 22.6 to 0.8. The progressive but moderate inhibition of the organic matter conversion observed indicates that high sulphate concentrations can be accommodated in HAIB ...

  17. Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium chloride precursors, in order to select the best electrolyte. Some of these results have been published elsewhere, and this manuscript presents the summary of the results obtained on CdTe layers grown from cadmium sulphate precursor. In addition, this research program has been exploring the ways of eliminating the reference electrode, since this is a possible source of detrimental impurities, such as K+ and Ag+ for CdS/CdTe solar cells. This paper compares the results obtained from CdTe layers grown by three-electrode (3E and two-electrode (2E systems for their material properties and performance in CdS/CdTe devices. Thin films were characterized using a wide range of analytical techniques for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. These layers have also been used in device structures; glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au and CdTe from both methods have produced solar cells to date with efficiencies in the region of 5%–13%. Comprehensive work carried out to date produced comparable and superior devices fabricated from materials grown using 2E system.

  18. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannesson, Kirsten O; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; Bæverfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.

  19. Differential inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in vivo by dextran sulphate and fucoidan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Van Osselaer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial cells is a prerequisite step followed by firm adhesion and extravasation into the inflamed tissue. This initial contact can be suppressed by sulphated polysaccharides. We have studied the effect of sulphated polysaccharides on the ultimate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN recruitment and plasma leakage in rabbit skin in response to intradermal injection of various inflammatory mediators. PMN infiltration evoked by various PMN chemoattractants (FMLP, C5a desArg, LTB4 and IL-8 was significantly inhibited after intravenous injection of dextran sulphate (25 mg/kg, heparin (2 × 90 mg/kg or fucoidan (1 mg/kg. PMN-dependent plasma leakage was equally well reduced by the different sulphated polymers. Vascular permeability induced by histamine or thrombin acting via a PMN-independent mechanism was not reduced. Fucoidan was the only polysaccharide able to suppress IL-1-induced PMN infiltration for 60–70%. Local administration of dextran sulphate had no effect on PMN-dependent plasma leakage. Differential inhibition of PMN recruitment was determined after injection of dextran sulphate or fucoidan depending on the type of insult. Therefore, these results suggest that different adhesion pathways are utilized during PMN recruitment in vivo in response to chemoattractants and IL-1.

  20. Lipid peroxidation in rats treated with vincristine sulphate and nandrolone decanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B Martins

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain and serum lipid peroxidation was studied in rats treated with vincristine sulphate and different doses of nandrolone decanoate. Thirty rats were distributed into six groups (n=5. The treatments were applied once a week for two weeks. Sample collection was performed in the third week. Treatments during the first week were: G1 (control - physiologic solution, G2 - vincristine sulphate (4mg/m², G3 - physiologic solution, G4 - physiologic solution, G5- vincristine sulphate (4mg/m², and G6 - vincristine sulphate (4mg/m². In the second week, they were: G1 (control - physiologic solution, G2- physiologic solution, G3 - nandrolone decanoate (1.8mg/kg-1, G4 - nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg-1, G5 - nandrolone decanoate (1.8mg/kg-1, and G6 - nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg-1. Lipid peroxidation increased with the isolated use of vincristine and nandrolone decanoate, and with vincristine associated to the highest dose of the ester as well. These results suggest that vincristine sulphate and nandrolone decanoate increase free radical production. Therapeutic dose of nandrolone decanoate when associated with vincristine sulphate proved to be beneficial, as it was able to protect the organism from damaging processes involved in free radical production

  1. Electric glass capturing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, K.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Electric glass has found its place on the construction market. In public buildings, electrically heatable windows are becoming the leading option for large glass walls. Studies on detached houses, both new and renovated, show that floor heating combined with electrically heatable windowpanes is the best choice with respect to resident`s comfort. (orig.)

  2. Dramatic Stained Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that is appropriate for students in fifth through twelfth grade in which they create Gothic-style stained-glass windows. Discusses how college students majoring in elementary education created stained-glass windows. Addresses how to adapt this lesson for younger students. (CMK)

  3. Comparative evaluation of topical Sodium fusidate cream in common pyodermas with topical gentamicin ointment and systemic antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy AK

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One hundred cases of common pyodermas consisting of four groups, namely impetigo, furunculosis and chronic folliculitis were taken. Each group containing twenty five cases were divided again into three subgroups. From each group, 15 were treated with 2 percent Sodium fusidate cream, 5 were with 0.1 percent Gentamycin sulphate cream and the rest 5 with systemic Erythromycin stearate. In the group of Impetigo, Bockhart′s Impetigo and Furunculosis, topical Sodium fusidate cream showed excellent result, better than Gentamycin topical and equal to that of systemic Erythromycin stearate.

  4. Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in glass-exposed aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, J.A.; Moffett, J.R.; Arun, P.; Lam, D.; Todorov, T.I.; Brothers, A.B.; Anick, D.J.; Centeno, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.A.; Jonas, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the solutes leaching from glass containers into aqueous solutions, and to show that these solutes have enzyme activity stabilizing effects in very dilute solutions. Methods: Enzyme assays with acetylcholine esterase were used to analyze serially succussed and diluted (SSD) solutions prepared in glass and plastic containers. Aqueous SSD preparations starting with various solutes, or water alone, were prepared under several conditions, and tested for their solute content and their ability to affect enzyme stability in dilute solution. Results: We confirm that water acts to dissolve constituents from glass vials, and show that the solutes derived from the glass have effects on enzymes in the resultant solutions. Enzyme assays demonstrated that enzyme stability in purified and deionized water was enhanced in SSD solutions that were prepared in glass containers, but not those prepared in plastic. The increased enzyme stability could be mimicked in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of silicates to the purified, deionized water that enzymes were dissolved in. Elemental analyses of SSD water preparations made in glass vials showed that boron, silicon, and sodium were present at micromolar concentrations. Conclusions: These results show that silicates and other solutes are present at micromolar levels in all glass-exposed solutions, whether pharmaceutical or homeopathic in nature. Even though silicates are known to have biological activity at higher concentrations, the silicate concentrations we measured in homeopathic preparations were too low to account for any purported in vivo efficacy, but could potentially influence in vitro biological assays reporting homeopathic effects. ?? 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  5. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  6. Preservasi Semen Kambing Peranakan Etawa dalam Pengencer Tris dan Sitrat Kuning Telur dengan Penambahan Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (THE PRESERVATION OF ETTAWA GRADE BUCK SEMEN IN TRIS AND CITRATE EGG YOLK DILUENTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determineSDS concentration also to compare Tris egg yolk and citrateegg yolk on the quality of ettawa grade chilled semen. The study consist of two experiments. The firstexperiment was to determine the best SDS concentration in Tris egg yolk diluents and the second experimentwas to compare the SDS suplementation in tris and citrate egg yolk in the quality of ettawa grade chilledsemen. The semen were collected from three bucks, immediately after collection the semen evalutedmacro and microscopycally. Semen demonstrate more than 70% motility and less than 10% spermatozoaabnormality, individually divided into four tube, each tube was diluted in egg yolk supplemented with 0;0,025; 0,05; and 0.075% SDS then stored at 5°C for 72 hours. The quality of chilled semen was observefor motility and viability every 12 hours. Result demonstrated that 0.05% SDS was the best concentrationcompared to others. In the second experiment,the semen were diluted in four different diluents, it wereTris egg yolk (TEY, Tris egg yolk with 0.05% SDS (TEYS, citrate egg yolk (CEY and citrate egg yolk with0.05% SDS (CEYS. Result demonstrated that the mean value of motility and viability of spermatozoa inTEYSdiluents (67.08 ± 6.43% and77.07 ± 6.78% was higher (p<0.05 than CEYS (60.42 ± 9.05% and72.31± 7.45%, TEY (59.23 ± 9.41% and71.21 ± 8.56% and CEY (53.45 ± 11.33% and67.74 ± 8.90%. In conclusion,supplementation of 0.05% SDS in TEY was maintained best sperm quality compared to other diluentsduring preservation.

  7. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans support an assortment of planarian rhabdite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew J

    2017-05-15

    Planaria are soft-bodied, bilateral flatworms of the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are covered in cilia and use ciliary-gliding to traverse the substratum while hunting. Their body surface is covered in a layer of viscous slime primarily derived from specialised secretory granules known as rhabdites. The slime must somehow stay associated with the surface of the animal in aqueous environments whilst also lubricating the interface of the animal and the surfaces over which the animal moves. The slime prevents damage to the animal's soft body and also contributes to adhesion to the substratum. In order to gain insight into how it might achieve these diverse functions, we performed electron microscopic examination of the slime's structure. Analysis of two freshwater flatworms from the UK Schmidtea polychroa (Schmidt, 1861) and Polycelis tenuis (Ijima, 1884) revealed a high level of organisation of the slime layer and a variety of ejected slime structures. We show that these structures are rich in sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs). Most of these (269 of 285 examined) appear to be topologically closed spheroids that we name ball-GAGs. Another class appears to burst to release flower- and star-like clusters which adhere to motile cilia. We also observe fibrous nets that are associated with entrapped bacteria. Examination of the structure of rhabdites ejected onto a porous surface suggests a mechanism by which their structure allows them to both bind to the porous surface and provide a smooth layer over which the animal could glide. Such sGAG-based structures might provide models for the design of artificial biomimetic replacements for tears, saliva, bio-compatible lubricants or drug-delivery vehicles. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Thermochemical sulphate reduction can improve carbonate petroleum reservoir quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Worden, Richard H.; Yang, Changbing

    2018-02-01

    Interest in the creation of secondary pore spaces in petroleum reservoirs has increased because of a need to understand deeper and more complex reservoirs. The creation of new secondary porosity that enhances overall reservoir quality in deeply buried carbonate reservoirs is controversial and some recent studies have concluded it is not an important phenomenon. Here we present petrography, geochemistry, fluid inclusion data, and fluid-rock interaction reaction modeling results from Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Sichuan Basin, China, core samples and explore the relative importance of secondary porosity due to thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) during deep burial diagenesis. We find that new secondary pores result from the dissolution of anhydrite and possibly from dissolution of the matrix dolomite. Assuming porosity before TSR was 16% and the percentage of anhydrite was 6%, modelling shows that, due to TSR, 1.6% additional porosity was created that led to permeability increasing from 110 mD (range 72-168 mD within a 95% confidence interval) to 264 mD (range 162-432 mD within a 95% confidence interval). Secondary porosity results from the density differences between reactant anhydrite and product calcite, the addition of new water during TSR, and the generation of acidity during the reaction of new H2S with the siderite component in pre-existing dolomite in the reservoir. Fluid pressure was high during TSR, and approached lithostatic pressure in some samples; this transient overpressure may have led to the maintenance of porosity due to the inhibition of compactional processes. An additional 1.6% porosity is significant for reserve calculations, especially considering that it occurs in conjunction with elevated permeability that results in faster flow rates to the production wells.

  9. [Neuroprotection for preterm infants with antenatal magnesium sulphate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marret, S; Ancel, P-Y

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate in preterm born children the neuroprotective benefits and the risks, at short- and long-term outcome, of the antenatal administration of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in women at imminent risk of preterm delivery. Computer databases Medline, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations of various international scientific societies. Given the demonstrated benefit of antenatal MgSO4 intravenous administration on the reduction of cerebral palsy rates and the improvement of motor development in children born preterm, it is recommended for all women whose imminent delivery is expected or programmed before 32 weeks of gestation (WG) (grade A). The analysis of the literature finds no argument for greater benefit of antenatal MgSO4 administration in sub-groups of gestational age, or depending on the type of pregnancy (single or multiple pregnancy) or with the cause of preterm birth (NP2). Its administration is recommended before 32 WG, if single or multiple pregnancy, whatever the cause of prematurity (grade B). It is recommended 4g loading dose (professional consensus). With a loading dose of 4g intravenous (IV) in 20min, the serum magnesium is lower than with intramuscular suggesting a preference for the IV route (professional consensus). It is proposed to use a maintenance dose of 1g/h until delivery with a maximum recommended duration of 12hours without exceeding a cumulative dose of 50g (professional consensus). These doses are without severe adverse maternal side effects or adverse effects in newborns at short- and medium-term outcome (NP1). It is recommended to administer magnesium sulfate to the women at high risk of imminent preterm birth before 32 WG, whether expected or planned (grade A), with a 4g IV loading dose followed by a maintenance dose of 1g/h for 12hours (professional consensus), the pregnancy is single or multiple, whatever the cause of prematurity (professional consensus). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Heparan sulphate as a regulator of leukocyte recruitment in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Archana V; Katakam, Sampath K; Urbanowitz, Ann-Kathrin; Gotte, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A key event in inflammatory disease is the transendothelial recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation to the site of inflammation. Intense research in the past decades indicates that the polyanionic carbohydrate heparan sulphate (HS) modulates multiple steps in the leukocyte recruitment cascade. Leukocyte recruitment is initiated by endothelial cell activation and presentation of chemokines to rolling leukocytes, which, via integrin activation, results in adhesion and diapedesis through the vessel wall. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) immobilize the chemokines on the luminal endothelial cells, rendering them more robust against mechanical or hydrodynamic perturbations. During inflammation, endothelial HSPGs serve as ligands to L-selectin on leukocytes, transport chemokines in a basolateral to apical direction across the endothelium, and present chemokines at the luminal surface of the endothelium to circulating cells. HSPGs also promote chemokine oligomerization, which influences chemokine receptor signaling. Furthermore, proteoglycans of the syndecan family are involved in modulating integrin-mediated tight adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium. Creation of a chemokine gradient by a localized chemokine release influences the speed of leukocyte recruitment from the blood to the tissue by attracting crawling neutrophils to optimal sites for transmigration. The directionality of intraluminal crawling is thought to be influenced by both mechanotactic and haptotactic signals, which are modulated by HS-dependent signaling processes. Finally, diapedesis is influenced by HS regarding transendothelial chemokine gradient formation and integrin- CAM interactions, and further enhanced by heparanase-mediated degradation of the endothelial basement membrane. Overall, the multifunctional role of HS in inflammation marks it as a potential target of glycan-centered therapeutic approaches.

  11. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans support an assortment of planarian rhabdite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hayes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Planaria are soft-bodied, bilateral flatworms of the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are covered in cilia and use ciliary-gliding to traverse the substratum while hunting. Their body surface is covered in a layer of viscous slime primarily derived from specialised secretory granules known as rhabdites. The slime must somehow stay associated with the surface of the animal in aqueous environments whilst also lubricating the interface of the animal and the surfaces over which the animal moves. The slime prevents damage to the animal's soft body and also contributes to adhesion to the substratum. In order to gain insight into how it might achieve these diverse functions, we performed electron microscopic examination of the slime's structure. Analysis of two freshwater flatworms from the UK Schmidtea polychroa (Schmidt, 1861 and Polycelis tenuis (Ijima, 1884 revealed a high level of organisation of the slime layer and a variety of ejected slime structures. We show that these structures are rich in sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs. Most of these (269 of 285 examined appear to be topologically closed spheroids that we name ball-GAGs. Another class appears to burst to release flower- and star-like clusters which adhere to motile cilia. We also observe fibrous nets that are associated with entrapped bacteria. Examination of the structure of rhabdites ejected onto a porous surface suggests a mechanism by which their structure allows them to both bind to the porous surface and provide a smooth layer over which the animal could glide. Such sGAG-based structures might provide models for the design of artificial biomimetic replacements for tears, saliva, bio-compatible lubricants or drug-delivery vehicles.

  12. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature...

  13. “On-The-Spot” Arresting of Chondroitin Sulphate Proteoglycans: Implications for Ovarian Adenocarcinoma Recognition and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyamvada Pradeep

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian Cancer (OC is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated death among women. The underlying biochemical cause of OC proliferation is usually attributed to the over-expression of Chondroitin Sulphate Proteoglycans (CSPGs wherein the CS-E subgroup plays a major role in tumor cell proliferation by over-expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. We hereby hypothesize that by targeting the OC extracellular matrix using a CS-E-specific antibody, GD3G7, we could provide spatial delivery of crosslinkers and anti-VEGF agents to firstly induce in vivo crosslinking and complexation (arresting of CS-E into a “biogel mass” for efficient and effective detection, detachment and reduction of tumorous tissue, and secondly inhibit angiogenesis in OC. It is further proposed that the antibody-assisted targeted delivery of CS-E crosslinkers can bind to highly anionic CS-E to form a polyelectrolyte complex to inhibit the formation of ovarian tumor spheroids that are responsible for spheroid-induced mesothelial clearance and progression of OC. The hypothesis also describes the potential in vivo “On-The-Spot” CSPG crosslinkers such as sodium trimetaphosphate (physical crosslinker, 1,12-diaminododecane (chemical crosslinker, poly(ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (synthetic polymer, and chitosan (natural polyelectrolyte-forming agent. In conclusion, this hypothesis proposes in vivo spatial crosslinking of CSPGs as a potential theranostic intervention strategy for OC—a first in the field of cancer research.

  14. Structure, biodegradation behavior and cytotoxicity of alkali-containing alkaline-earth phosphosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansal, Ishu; Reddy, AlluAmarnath [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Muñoz, Francisco [Ceramics and Glass Institute (CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Choi, Seong-Jun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae-Won [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Tulyaganov, Dilshat U. [Turin Polytechnic University in Tashkent, 100095 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Ferreira, José M.F., E-mail: jmf@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-11-01

    We report on the effect of sodium on the structure, chemical degradation and bioactivity of glasses in the CaO–MgO–SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–CaF{sub 2} system. The {sup 29}Si and {sup 31}P magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of melt-quenched glasses with varying Na{sub 2}O/MgO ratios exhibit a silicate glass network with the dominance of Q{sup 2}(Si) units and phosphorus mainly forming orthophosphate species. Sodium incorporation in the glasses did not induce a significant structural change in the silicate network, while it did influence the phosphate environment due to its lower ionic field strength in comparison with that of magnesium. The apatite forming ability of glasses has been investigated by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1 h and 7 days while their chemical degradation has been studied in Tris–HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Increasing Na{sup +}/Mg{sup 2+} ratio caused a decrease in the chemical durability of glasses and in the apatite forming ability especially during initial steps of interaction between glass and SBF solution. The cellular responses were observed in vitro on bulk glass samples using mouse-derived pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line. The preliminary study suggested that the increasing alkali-concentration in glasses led to cytotoxicity in the cell culture medium. - Highlights: • Na{sup +} did not induce significant structural changes in chemical Si environment. • Sodium is more prone to affect the chemical environment around P. • Increasing Na{sup +}/Mg{sup 2+} ratios hinder bio-mineralization and chemical durability. • Alkali-containing glasses confer cyto-toxicity to the cell culture medium.

  15. Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Strachan

    2004-10-20

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

  16. Glass packages in interim storage; Les verres dans les stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO{sub 2}. The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ``source term`` models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs.

  17. Redox reaction and foaming in nuclear waste glass melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and is an attempt to analyze and estimate the effects of feed composition variables and reducing agent variables on the expected chemistry of reactions occurring in the cold cap and in the glass melt in the nuclear waste glass Slurry-fed, joule-heated melters as they might affect foaming during the glass-making process. Numerous redox reactions of waste glass components and potential feed additives, and the effects of other feed variables on these reactions are reviewed with regard to their potential effect on glass foaming. A major emphasis of this report is to examine the potential positive or negative aspects of adjusting feed with formic acid as opposed to other feed modification techniques including but not limited to use of other reducing agents. Feed modification techniques other than the use of reductants that should influence foaming behavior include control of glass melter feed pH through use of nitric acid. They also include partial replacement of sodium salts by lithium salts. This latter action (b) apparently lowers glass viscosity and raises surface tension. This replacement should decrease foaming by decreasing foam stability.

  18. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consider the benefits of treating constipation symptoms during pregnancy. Your health care provider may also want to confirm diagnosis of constipation and see how dietary and other lifestyle therapies may help. Can use of docusate sodium ...

  19. Low sodium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do other vigorous activity, drink fluids such as sports drinks that contain electrolytes to keep your body's sodium level in a healthy range. Alternative Names Hyponatremia; Dilutional hyponatremia; Euvolemic hyponatremia; Hypervolemic hyponatremia; ...

  20. Magnesium sulphate can prolong pregnancy in patients with severe early-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Akihiko; Kondoh, Eiji; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Mogami, Haruta; Chigusa, Yoshitsugu; Konishi, Ikuo

    2016-10-01

    To assess whether long-term use of magnesium sulphate prolongs pregnancy in patients with severe early-onset preeclampsia. Retrospective cohort study included all singleton pregnancies with severe early-onset preeclampsia, expectantly managed in our institution between 2005 and 2013. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared between patients managed using a current protocol that tolerates long-term (over 48 h) use of magnesium sulphate (long-term group, n = 26) and a historical control group (control group, n = 15) that underwent conventional treatment (up to 48 h use of magnesium sulphate). Long-term group showed significant prolongation of pregnancy compared with the control group (9.2 ± 7.9 versus 16.6 ± 9.3 d, log-rank test, p = 0.021), which was also observed in patients with severe preeclampsia occurring before 28 weeks' gestation (n = 11, 4.5 ± 5.2 versus 13.2 ± 6.8 d, log-rank test, p = 0.035). In contrast to a progressive decrease of platelet count in patients managed without magnesium sulphate, administration of magnesium sulphate for 7 d prevented the decrease of platelet count (p = 0.001). Thirty two percent of patients (13/41) experienced a major complication irrespective of duration of magnesium sulphate use. Long-term use of magnesium sulphate prolonged pregnancy in patients with severe early-onset preeclampsia and can help alleviate progression of preeclampsia.

  1. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Due to the increased focus on energy savings and waste recycling foam glass materials have gained increased attention. The production process of foam glass is a potential low-cost recycle option for challenging waste, e.g. CRT glass and industrial waste (fly ash and slags). Foam glass is used...... as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...

  2. Impact of sodium dodecyl sulphate on the dissolution of poorly soluble drug into biorelevant medium from drug-surfactant discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung, Peter; Ostergaard, Jesper; Bertelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    in the discs is not caused by an increased surface area as SDS dissolves, micelles in the bulk medium or changes in the solid state properties of the drugs. The proposed mechanism involves a high local concentration of SDS at the solid-liquid interface as SDS dissolves and this solubilizes the drug....... The improved solubility at the solid-liquid interface provided a much steeper concentration gradient resulted in a faster dissolution. The total amount of SDS in the discs only gave a minor increase in total surfactant concentration in the dissolution medium and did therefore not to any large extent affect...

  3. Percutaneous penetration of sodium lauryl sulphate is increased in uninvolved skin of patients with atopic dermatitis compared with control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, I.; de Jongh, C. M.; Verberk, M. M.; Bos, J. D.; Kezić, S.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Involved regions of the skin in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have been shown to have higher transepidermal water loss (TEWL), indicating a compromised skin barrier. Whether uninvolved skin also has diminished barrier characteristics is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To study the

  4. Effects of Topical Corticosteroid and Tacrolimus on Ceramides and Irritancy to Sodium Lauryl Sulphate in Healthy Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, is influenced mainly by the lipid and protein composition of this layer. In eczematous diseases impairment of the skin barrier is thought to be of prime importance. Topical anti-inflammatory drugs and emollients are the most widely used eczema tre...

  5. Study of the electrochemical oxidation and reduction of C.I. Reactive Orange 4 in sodium sulphate alkaline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, A I; Molina, J; Bonastre, J; Cases, F

    2009-12-15

    Synthetic solutions of hydrolysed C.I. Reactive Orange 4, a monoazo textile dye commercially named Procion Orange MX-2R (PMX2R) and colour index number C.I. 18260, was exposed to electrochemical treatment under galvanostatic conditions and Na2SO4 as electrolyte. The influence of the electrochemical process as well as the applied current density was evaluated. Ti/SnO2-Sb-Pt and stainless steel electrodes were used as anode and cathode, respectively, and the intermediates generated on the cathode during electrochemical reduction were investigated. Aliquots of the solutions treated were analysed by UV-visible and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy confirming the presence of aromatic structures in solution when an electro-reduction was carried out. Electro-oxidation degraded both the azo group and aromatic structures. HPLC measures revealed that all processes followed pseudo-first order kinetics and decolourisation rates showed a considerable dependency on the applied current density. CV experiments and XPS analyses were carried out to study the behaviour of both PMX2R and intermediates and to analyse the state of the cathode after the electrochemical reduction, respectively. It was observed the presence of a main intermediate in solution after an electrochemical reduction whose chemical structure is similar to 2-amino-1,5-naphthalenedisulphonic acid. Moreover, the analysis of the cathode surface after electrochemical reduction reveals the presence of a coating layer with organic nature.

  6. Test of Anderson-Stuart model in sodium silicate glasses and the general Arrhenian conductivity rule in wide composition range Teste do modelo de Anderson-Stuart em vidros silicatos de sódio e a regra geral da condutividade de Arrhenius numa ampla faixa de composições

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. F. Nascimento

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed literature data on ionic conductivity sigma and activation energy E A in the binary sodium silicate system in a wide composition range. The Anderson and Stuart model has been considered to describe the decreasing tendency of activation energy E A with alkali concentration in this system. In this analysis were considered experimental parameters, such as shear modulus G and relative dielectric permittivity epsilon. A general conductivity rule is found in 194 of 205 glasses, when one plots log sigma vs. E A/kB T, where kB is the Boltzmann constant and T is the absolute temperature. This fact means that the arrhenian relation has universal uniqueness of form sigma = sigma (E A,T in wide Na2O composition range. The results also show that there is strong correlation by more than 19 orders of magnitude on conductivity with E A/kBT. An explanation for this behavior links ionic conductivity and microscopic structure. The problem of phase separation in this system is also considered.Foram colecionados e analisados dados da literatura sobre condutividade iônica sigma e energia de ativação de condução E A, considerando o sistema binário silicato de sódio numa ampla faixa de composições. O modelo de Anderson e Stuart foi utilizado para descrever a tendência de decréscimo da energia de ativação EA com a concentração de álcalis neste sistema. Nesta análise foram considerados parâmetros experimentais tais como módulo de cisalhamento G e permissividade dielétrica relativa épsilon. Uma regra geral de condutividade foi observada em 194 de 205 vidros analisados quando se plota log sigma vs. E A/kB T, onde kB é a constante de Boltzmann e T é a temperatura absoluta. Isto significa que a relação de Arrhenius apresenta uma unicidade característica universal da forma sigma = sigma (E A,T numa ampla faixa de composições (Na2O. Os resultados também mostraram que há uma forte correlação, por mais de 19 ordens de

  7. Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aza, P. N.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1960´s, a great interest in the use of bioceramic materials for biomedical applications has been developed. In a previous paper, the authors reviewed crystalline bioceramic materials “sensus stricto”, it is to say, those ceramic materials, constituted for non-metallic inorganic compounds, crystallines and consolidates by thermal treatment of powders at high temperature. In the present review, the authors deal with those called bioactive glasses and glassceramics. Although all of them are also obtained by thermal treatment at high temperature, the first are amorphous and the second are obtained by devitrification of a glass, although the vitreous phase normally prevails on the crystalline phases. After an introduction to the concept of bioactive materials, a short historical review of the bioactive glasses development is made. Its preparation, reactivity in physiological media, mechanism of bonding to living tissues and mechanical strength of the bone-implant interface is also reported. Next, the concept of glass-ceramic and the way of its preparation are exposed. The composition, physicochemical properties and biological behaviour of the principal types of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramic materials: Bioglass®, Ceravital®, Cerabone®, Ilmaplant® and Bioverit® are also reviewed. Finally, a short review on the bioactive-glass coatings and bioactive-composites and most common uses of bioactive-glasses and glass-ceramics are carried out too.

    Desde finales de los años sesenta, se ha despertado un gran interés por el uso de los materiales biocerámicos para aplicaciones biomédicas. En un trabajo previo, los autores hicieron una revisión de los denominados materiales biocerámicos cristalinos en sentido estricto, es decir, de aquellos materiales, constituidos por compuestos inorgánicos no metálicos, cristalinos y consolidados mediante tratamientos térmicos a altas temperaturas. En el presente trabajo, los autores

  8. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    Anisotropic glasses are obtained from uniaxial compressing and pulling of glass forming liquids above the transition temperature range. To freeze-in, at least partly the structural state of the flowing melt, cylindrical samples were subjected to a controlled cooling process under constant load...... differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dilatometry. The energy release and expansion-shrinkage behaviour of the glasses are investigated as a function of the applied deformation stress. Structural origins of the frozen-in birefringence induced by viscous flow are discussed and correlation between...

  9. Oxynitride glasses: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngel R. Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxynitride glasses are special types of silicates or silicoaluminates which have been the object of many studies over the last forty years. They can be prepared by means of various complex methods, leading to variable levels of nitrogen incorporation, though in all cases giving limited transparency in the visible range. More recently, a new family of oxynitride glasses incorporating fluorine has been investigated. This paper outlines the effect of composition, in particular nitrogen and fluorine content, on properties such as glass transition temperature, hardness, Young's modulus, compactness and molar volume.

  10. Oxynitride glasses: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.R.; Clausell, C.; Barba, A.

    2016-07-01

    Oxynitride glasses are special types of silicates or silicoaluminates which have been the object of many studies over the last forty years. They can be prepared by means of various complex methods, leading to variable levels of nitrogen incorporation, though in all cases giving limited transparency in the visible range. More recently, a new family of oxynitride glasses incorporating fluorine has been investigated. This paper outlines the effect of composition, in particular nitrogen and fluorine content, on properties such as glass transition temperature, hardness, Young's modulus, compactness and molar volume. (Author)

  11. A Picture behind Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poprzęcka, Maria

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the singular situation of reception occasioned by a painting shielded with a reflective pane of glass. The reflections in the glass dramatically break the cohesion of the painting and bring about distracting – although sometimes intriguing – surprises. The glass is an iconoclastic intrusion, an infection of the artistic order by an invading disorder and transient immediacy, which however can be very attractive visually. The accidental obliterates the significant. "The truth of art" is confronted here with a delusive phantom. Not only two entirely different visual effects are mixed here, but also different ontological and axiological spheres.

  12. Batch Cooling Crystallization of Potassium Sulphate from Water Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalšan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch cooling crystallization, at the rotation speed of 700 min–1, of an aqueous solution of a potassium sulphate has been investigated on a laboratory scale. The effect of hydrodynamics conditions on the crystallization process were investigated by using different type of impellers. Two types of impellers were investigated; the four-pitched blade impeller which generates axi-al flow and the six-blades Rusthon turbine which generates radial flow. The experiments were performed at four different linear cooling rates in the range from 8-20 °C h–1 for both types of impeller.The influence of the cooling rates on the metastable zone width, the crystallization kinetics and the granulometric properties of the obtained crystals were investigated. The experimental data show that higher cooling rate expands the metastable zone for all the types of impeller (Fig. 2 and influences the crystal size distribution (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.At low cooling rates, supersaturation was kept at a constant value for a longer period. It resulted in improved conditions for mass transfer and the crystals grew. Bigger crystals were obtained at lower cooling rates (Fig. 7.It is stated that radial flow (Rusthon turbine is particularly inappropriate for the nucleation process, and for crystallization. Nucleation started at a lower temperature and higher supersaturation (Fig. 3. These conditions resulted in a high nucleation’s rate and large number of nucleation centres.Also, the obtained crystals settled on the wall of the reactor, baffles and stirrer. A great part of the obtained crystals was agglomerated. The nucleation order, n and coefficient of nucleation, kn were determined for different cooling rates (Fig. 5a. The nucleation order is higher at radial flow (nucleation started at higher supersaturation. The relation between the rate of concentration drop in a solution and supersaturation has beenapproximated with a power low equation (Fig. 5b. For the used impellers

  13. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnanelli, F., E-mail: francesca.pagnanelli@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cruz Viggi, C., E-mail: carolina.cruzviggi@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cibati, A., E-mail: alessio.cibati@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Uccelletti, D., E-mail: daniela.uccelletti@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Toro, L., E-mail: luigi.toro@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Palleschi, C., E-mail: claudio.palleschi@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of ethanol as electron donor for sulphate-reducing bacteria for the treatment of Cr(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of contribution in Cr removal (adsorption vs. bioprecipitation). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioassessment of the process effectiveness by ecotoxicological in vivo tests using C. elegans. - Abstract: Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L{sup -1}), ethanol (1.5 g L{sup -1}) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L{sup -1}). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 {+-} 5% of sulphate and 95 {+-} 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent.

  14. Sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the treatment of biliary and digestive tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraioli, A; Menunni, G; Petraccia, L; Fontana, M; Nocchi, S; Grassi, M

    2010-01-01

    The authors point out the therapeutic properties of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters. After summarizing the general mechanism of action of mineral waters, the main indications of such waters in thermal treatment are examined including: biliary sand, biliary dyskinesia, functional dyspepsia, irritable colon, chronic primitive constipation. The dysfunctions of biliary and digestive tracts are growing, mainly in the affluent world, because of the increase for stress, dietary habits, modern life style. Now they affect from 2,4% of general population to 7% of men and 20% of women, according to different studies. Mineral waters can improve symptoms and care some physiopathological underlying mechanisms. Authors stress the efficacy of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the therapy of biliary dyskinesias, namely gallbladder hypokinesia and Oddi's sphincter spasm, caused by their content in SO4 = anion and Mg++ cation and related effects on paracrine-endocrine gastrointestinal system. In addition, they report the effects of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the lithogenic bile (sand bile), because of their diluting and washing activity. Among the sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters, the Authors outline the well-documented therapeutic activity of Acqua Santa and Fucoli of Chianciano Terme. Acqua Santa has stimulating effect on cholecystis's motility, as proved by controlled clinical trials. Finally, the therapeutic use of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral water is discussed in functional dyspepsia, chronic primitive constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.

  15. Evaluating portland cement concrete degradation by sulphate exposure through artificial neural networks modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Douglas Nunes de; Bourguignon, Lucas Gabriel Garcia; Tolentino, Evandro, E-mail: tolentino@timoteo.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Timoteo, MG (Brazil); Costa, Rodrigo Moyses, E-mail: rodrigo@moyses.com.br [Universidade de Itauna, Itauna, MG (Brazil); Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    A concrete is durable if it has accomplished the desired service life in the environment in which it is exposed. The durability of concrete materials can be limited as a result of adverse performance of its cement-paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either chemical or physical attack. Among other aggressive chemical exposures, the sulphate attack is an important concern. Water, soils and gases, which contain sulphate, represent a potential threat to the durability of concrete structures. Sulphate attack in concrete leads to the conversion of the hydration products of cement to ettringite, gypsum, and other phases, and also it leads to the destabilization of the primary strength generating calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. The formation of ettringite and gypsum is common in cementitious systems exposed to most types of sulphate solutions. The present work presents the application of the neural networks for estimating deterioration of various concrete mixtures due to exposure to sulphate solutions. A neural networks model was constructed, trained and tested using the available database. In general, artificial neural networks could be successfully used in function approximation problems in order to approach the data generation function. Once data generation function is known, artificial neural network structure is tested using data not presented to the network during training. This paper is intent to provide the technical requirements related to the production of a durable concrete to be used in the structures of the Brazilian near-surface repository of radioactive wastes. (author)

  16. Risk minimisation of FGD gypsum leachates by incorporation of aluminium sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X; Ballesteros, J C; Giménez, A

    2008-11-15

    The incorporation of aluminium sulphate to (flue gas desulphurisation) FGD gypsum before its disposal was investigated as a way to minimise the risk supposed by the high fluoride content of its leachates. Using a bath method the kinetic and equilibrium processes of fluoride removal by aluminium sulphate were studied at fluoride/aluminium molar concentration (F/Al) ratios in the range 1.75 10(-2)-1.75 under the pH conditions (about 6.5) of FGD gypsum leachates. It was found that fluoride removal was a very fast process at any of the (F/Al) ratios subject of study, with equilibrium attained within the first 15 min of interaction. High decreases in solution fluoride concentrations (50-80%) were found at the equilibrium state. The use of aluminium sulphate in the stabilization of FGD gypsum proved to greatly decrease its fluoride leachable content (in the range 20-90% for aluminium sulphate doses of 0.1-5%, as determined by the European standard EN 12457-4). Such fluoride leaching minimisation assures the characterization of this by-product as a waste acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous wastes according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. Furthermore, as derived from column leaching studies, the proposed stabilization system showed to be highly effective in simulated conditions of disposal, displaying fluoride leaching reduction values about 55 and 80% for aluminium sulphate added amounts of 1 and 2%, respectively.

  17. Sulphate reducing activity detected in soil samples from Antarctica, Ecology Glacier Forefield, King George Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolicka, Dorota; Zdanowski, Marek K; Żmuda-Baranowska, Magdalena J; Poszytek, Anna; Grzesiak, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    We determined sulphate-reducing activities in media inoculated with soils and with kettle lake sediments in order to investigate their potential in geomicrobiological processes in low-temperature, terrestrial maritime Antarctic habitats. Soil and sediment samples were collected in a glacier valley abandoned by Ecology Glacier during the last 30 years: from a new formed kettle lake sediment and forefield soil derived from ground moraine. Inoculated with these samples, liquid Postgate C and minimal media supplemented with various carbon sources as electron donors were incubated for 8 weeks at 4°C. High rates of sulphate reduction were observed only in media inoculated with soil. No sulphate reduction was detected in media inoculated with kettle lake sediments. In soil samples culture media calcite and elemental sulphur deposits were observed, demonstrating that sulphate-reducing activity is associated with a potential to mineral formation in cold environments. Cells observed on scanning microscopy (SEM) micrographs of post-culture-soil deposits could be responsible for sulphate-reducing activity.

  18. EFFECTS OF INCORPORATING NATURAL MINERALS ON PRODUCTION AND BIOACTIVITY OF BIOACTIVE GLASS CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Matias Stabile

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two glass-ceramics composition were produced from natural minerals. Quartzes and feldspars were pre-selected on the basis of their purities studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and chemical analysis. Prepared compositions of glasses precursors were two different theoretical leucite (KAlSi₂O₆ /Bioglass 45S5 (L/Bg ratios. Transformations of raw materials mixtures and glass precursors were studied by differential thermal analyses. On the basis of thermal analysis results, glass ceramics were produced and characterized by XRD. Glass-ceramics were composed of two major crystalline phases, leucite and sodium calcium silicate. Bioactivity tests were performed submerging the glass-ceramics into simulated body fluid (SBF for different periods (1, 5 and 10 days. Bioactive behavior was monitored by XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Studied samples were found to be bioactive, in which hydroxyapatite layer was developed within 5 days of contact with SBF.

  19. Fluorinated silicate glass for conventional and holographic optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid

    2007-04-01

    This presentation is a survey of results of a long-term research at the laboratory of photoinduced processes at CREOL/UCF. A highly homogeneous and transparent sodium-zinc-aluminum-silicate glass doped with fluorine and bromine was developed. Glass is transparent from 220 to 2700 nm. It is a crown-type optical glass having refractive index at 587.5 nm nd=1.4959 and Abbe number νd=59.2. This glass shows low dependence of refractive index on temperature dn/dtGlass can withstand multi-kilowatt laser beams. Nonlinear refractive index is the same as for fused silica. Laser damage threshold for 8 ns is about 40 /cm2. This glass becomes a photosensitive one by doping with silver and cerium. It demonstrates refractive index decrement after exposure to UV radiation followed by thermal development and therefore is used for phase volume hologram recording. Spatial modulation of refractive index resulted from precipitation of nano-crystalline phase of sodium fluoride. The main mechanism of refractive index decrement is a photoelastic effect resulted from strong tensions generated in both crystalline and vitreous phases because of difference in their coefficients of thermal expansion. Volume Bragg gratings recorded in this glass, show extremely narrow spectral and angular selectivity and have low losses combined with high tolerance to laser radiation. These gratings possess a unique ability to produce laser beam transformations directly in angular space. This feature paves a way to creation of high power lasers with stable narrow emission spectra and diffraction limited divergence.

  20. Glass Stronger than Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  1. Super ionic conductive glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  2. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  3. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  4. Thermal Kinetics of Glass Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrales, Louis R.; Du, Jincheng

    2005-08-01

    Different glass quenching algorithms are used to create simulated silica glass and their effect on the final glass structure is determined. The most distinct changes are seen to occur in the medium-range structure, specifically in the population of the different ring sizes. Some differences in the number of defects formed are also observed. The implications are that modified glass forming algorithms create glasses that are at least as good as traditional simulated glass forming methods. The objective of using modified glass forming algorithms are to understand quenching rates of simulations in comparison to quenching rates of macroscopic real systems.

  5. Inherited sodium avid states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achard, Jean-Michel; Hadchouel, Juliette; Faure, Sébastien; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2006-04-01

    Several familial forms of hypertension have been identified, in which the mendelian pattern of inheritance indicated that hypertension results from the alteration of a single gene. This short review focuses on those rare monogenic disorders characterized by a low-renin profile. This common feature reflects that the causative mutations responsible for these disorders all result in an excessive sodium reabsorption in the aldosterone-dependent nephron. Low-renin familial hypertensions with hypokalemia encompass familial hyperaldosteronisms, in which aldosterone levels are elevated, and familial pseudohyperaldosteronisms, mimicking aldosteronism despite appropriately suppressed aldosterone levels. In these disorders, the avidity of the kidney for sodium is because of dysregulated sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel ENaC and results in potassium wasting and metabolic alcalosis. Familial hypertension with hyperkalemia is a specific syndrome resulting from mutations in at least 3 different genes, among which 2 have been recently identified. These genes encode members of a new family of kinase, the WNK kinases, involved in the regulation of sodium and potassium excretion by the kidney.

  6. Effect of Substrate Sodium Content on Crystallization and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Tomaszewski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sodium content of the glass support on the crystallinity of sputtered TiO2 films and photocatalytic breakdown of ethanol has been studied. It was found that the activity of the as-deposited (amorphous films does not depend on the type of support used. The chemical composition of the glass support does influence the activity of annealed films. When using soda-lime glass support sodium diffuses into the film upon annealing, suppressing anatase crystallization and decreasing its photocatalytic activity. To decrease the influence of sodium, soda-lime glass coated with an e-beam evaporated SiO2 barrier layer was used with good result. A reduced sodium concentration in the film leads to well crystallized anatase after annealing. An increased photocatalytic activity was observed for these films.

  7. The potential impacts of sodium management on Frit Development for Coupled Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peeler, D. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-10

    In this report, Section 2.0 provides a description of sodium management and its impact on the glass waste form, Section 3.0 provides background information on phase separation, Section 4.0 provides the impact of sodium management on SB9 frit development efforts and the results of a limited scoping study investigating phase separation in potential DWPF frits, and Section 5.0 discusses potential technical issues associated with using a phase separated frit for DWPF operations.

  8. Pressure-Induced Changes in Inter-Diffusivity and Compressive Stress in Chemically Strengthened Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Mouritz Nolsøe; Thirion, Lynn M.; Youngman, Randall E.

    and more damage resistant glasses. However, the interplay among isostatic compression, pressure-induced changes in alkali diffusivity, compressive stress generated through ion exchange, and the resulting mechanical properties are poorly understood. In this work, we employ a specially designed gas pressure...... chamber to compress bulk glass samples isostatically up to 1 GPa at elevated temperature before or after the ion exchange treatment of an industrial sodium-magnesium aluminosilicate glass. Compression of the samples prior to ion exchange leads to a decreased Na+-K+ inter-diffusivity, increased compressive...... stress, and slightly increased hardness. Compression after the ion exchange treatment changes the shape of the potassium-sodium diffusion profiles and significantly increases glass hardness. We discuss these results in terms of the underlying structural changes in network-modifier environments...

  9. Development of nano-macroporous soda-lime phosphofluorosilicate bioactive glass and glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, H M M; Jain, H

    2009-07-01

    We have extended the usefulness of bioactive glass-ceramics for the repair and reconstruction of hard tissues by introducing F ions that are known to be beneficial, especially in dentistry. Nano-macro multimodal porosity in soda-lime phosphofluorosilicate bulk samples was introduced by the recently developed melt-quench-heat-etch method. The choice of starting glass composition is based on 48SiO2-2.7P2O5-xCaF2-yCaO-zNa2O where x = 0, 1, 4, 8, 10, 12, and (y + z) = 49.3-x (mol%). The effect of thermal and chemical treatment on the microstructure of samples is characterized by SEM, XRD and EDX. We find the formation of many crystalline phases, but mainly sodium calcium silicate, calcium phosphate, fluorapatite and calcium silicate. The bioactivity of soda-lime phosphofluorosilicate glass-ceramics is assessed by monitoring the formation of hydroxyl apatite (HA) layer: fluorapatite phase accelerates the rate of HA layer formation; the initial composition and multi-modal porosity are other key parameters that impact the formation of HA. The present porous glass-ceramics should be superior candidates for use in dental bone regeneration.

  10. Role of oral zinc sulphate in warts-a placebo controlled,single-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Verrucae (synonym: warts are one of the most common viral infections of humans in which the most frequently used modalities of treatment involve destruction of the affected area, which does not prevent recurrences and often results in scarring. In the present study oral zinc sulphate, an immunomodulator was evaluated as a treatment modality for warts. A placebo-controlled, single-blinded study was conducted on one hundred OPD patients with various types of verrucae. Fifty patients were put on oral zinc sulphate at dose of 5mg/kg for six weeks, while an equal number of patients received placebo for the same duration. In the patients who received oral zinc sulphate, 60.97% showed complete response at the end of six weeks in comparison to 6.45% partial response in the placebo group. The resolution of the lesions occurred with restoration of normal epidermal texture with transient alteration in pigmentation.

  11. [Concordance between the zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inês, Elizabete De Jesus; Pacheco, Flavia Thamiris Figueiredo; Pinto, Milena Carneiro; Mendes, Patrícia Silva de Almeida; Da Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Soares, Neci Matos; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections depends on the parasite load, the specific gravity density of the parasite eggs, oocysts or cysts, and the density and viscosity of flotation or sedimentation medium where faeces are processed. To evaluate the concordance between zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation in the recovery of parasites in faecal samples of children. Faecal samples of 330 children from day care centers were evaluated by zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation techniques. The frequencies of detection of parasites by each method were determined and the agreement between the diagnostic techniques was evaluated using the kappa index, with 95% confidence intervals. The faecal flotation in zinc sulphate diagnosed significantly more cases of Trichuris trichiura infection when compared to centrifugal sedimentation (39/330; 11.8% vs. 13/330; 3.9%, psedimentation process.

  12. Uptake of /sup 35/S sulphate by Xenopus cartilage. The influence of growth hormone and prolactin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Takehisa; Kikuyama, Sakae (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    Hypohysectomized juvenile Xenopus were injected with growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) of either ovine or bullfrog origin. The growth promoting activity of these hormones was measured by monitoring the uptake of /sup 35/S sulphate by the xiphisternal cartilage in vitro. Analysis of the labelled cartilage revealed that the acid mucopolysaccharide fraction contained about 60-80 % of the label most of which was incorporated into chondroitin sulphates. All of the hormones tested enhaced the /sup 35/S sulphate uptake dose-dependently. Among them bullfrog GH was most effective, then followed ovine GH and ovine PRL. Bullfrog PRL was far less effective than other three. The sensitive assay for frog GH developed in the present experiment may be applicable to the assay for somatomedin-like activity and contribute to the analysis of the mode of action of GH in amphibians.

  13. Heparan sulphate inhibition of cell proliferation induced by TGFβ and PDGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lan E. Silber

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs on the proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC and fibroblasts was assessed by culturing cells with or without GAGs. Porcine heparan sulphate (HS inhibited proliferation in a dose dependent manner. At 167 μg/ml of HS this reached 88% and 72% inhibition of SMC and fibroblast growth, respectively. Pig and beef mucosal heparins also blocked proliferation, but to a lesser extent. In contrast, beef lung heparin, chondroitin sulphate, and dermatan sulphate failed to block growth factor induced proliferation. Continuous presence of HS was not required, suggesting that the inhibitory effects resulted from a direct effect on the cell rather than an interaction of the GAG with growth factors. The mechanism by which GAGs inhibit proliferation will be addressed in future studies.

  14. In vitro toxicity of formocresol, ferric sulphate, and grey MTA on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj Ali, S N; Al-Jundi, S H; Ditto, D J

    2015-02-01

    This was to assess and compare the in vitro toxicity of formocresol, ferric sulphate and MTA on cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. PDL cells were obtained from sound first permanent molars and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. PDL cells were subjected to different concentrations of formocresol, ferric sulphate, and grey MTA for 24, 48, and 72 h at 37 °C. Cells that were not exposed to the tested materials served as the negative control. In vitro toxicity was assessed using MTT assay. Statistical analysis of data was accomplished using ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests (pferric sulphate>grey MTA. Only grey MTA had comparable cell viability to the negative control, the other tested materials were significantly inferior at the three exposure periods (ppulpotomy of primary teeth.

  15. Performance of Periwinkle Shell Ash Blended Cement Concrete Exposed to Magnesium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umoh A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the compressive strength of periwinkle shell ash (PSA blended cement concrete in magnesium sulphate medium. Specimens were prepared from designed characteristics strength of 25 MPa. The cement replacement with PSA ranged between 0 and 40% by volume. A total of 180 cube specimens were cast and cured in water. At 28 days curing, 45 specimens each were transferred into magnesium sulphate of 1%, 3%, and 5% solution, while others were continuously cured in water and tested at 62, 92, and 152 days. The results revealed a higher loss in compressive strength with the control mix, and that it increases with increased in MgSO4 concentration and exposure period, whereas, the attack on the PSA blended cement concrete was less and the least value recorded by 10% PSA content. Therefore, the study concluded that the optimum percentage replacement of cement with 10% PSA could mitigate magnesium sulphate attack.

  16. Wastes based glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Actually, the inertization, recovery and valorisation of the wastes coming from municipal and industrial processes are the most important goals from the environmental and economical point of view. An alternative technology capable to overcome the problem of the dishomogeneity of the raw material chemical composition is the vitrification process that is able to increase the homogeneity and the constancy of the chemical composition of the system and to modulate the properties in order to address the reutilization of the waste. Moreover, the glasses obtained subjected to different controlled thermal treatments, can be transformed in semy-cristalline material (named glass-ceramics with improved properties with respect to the parent amorphous materials. In this review the tailoring, preparation and characterization of glasses and glass-ceramics obtained starting from municipal incinerator grate ash, coal and steel fly ashes and glass cullet are described.

    Realmente la inertización, recuperación y valorización de residuos que proceden de los procesos de incineración de residuos municipales y de residuos industriales son metas importantes desde el punto de vista ambiental y económico. Una tecnología alternativa capaz de superar el problema de la heterogeneidad de la composición química de los materiales de partida es el proceso de la vitrificación que es capaz de aumentar la homogeneidad y la constancia de la composición química del sistema y modular las propiedades a fin de la reutilización del residuo. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de vitrificación en que los vidrios fueron sometidos a tratamientos térmicos controlados diferentes, de manera que se transforman en materiales semicristalinos (también denominados vitrocerámicos con mejores propiedades respecto a los materiales amorfos originales. En esta revisión se muestra el diseño, preparación y caracterización de vidrios y vitrocerámicos partiendo de

  17. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  18. Effects of electron acceptors on sulphate reduction activity in activated sludge processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Rincón, Francisco; Lopez-Vazquez, Carlos; Welles, Laurens; van den Brand, Tessa; Abbas, Ben; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2017-08-01

    The concentration of sulphate present in wastewater can vary from 10 to 500 mg SO42-/L. During anaerobic conditions, sulphate is reduced to sulphide by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulphide generation is undesired in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Previous research indicated that SRB are inhibited by the presence of electron acceptors (such as O2, NO3 and NO2). However, the contact times and concentrations used in those studies are by far higher than occur in WWTPs. Since sulphide can influence the biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes, this research aimed to understand how the different electron acceptors commonly present in biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems can affect the proliferation of SRB. For this purpose, a culture of SRB was enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (approx. 88% of the total bacteria population). Once enriched, the SRB were exposed for 2 h to typical concentrations of electron acceptors like those observed in BNR systems. Their activity was assessed using three different types of electron donors (acetate, propionate and lactate). Oxygen was the most inhibiting electron acceptor regardless the carbon source used. After exposure to oxygen and when feeding acetate, an inactivation time in the sulphate reduction activity was observed for 1.75 h. Once the sulphate reduction activity resumed, only 60% of the original activity was recovered. It is suggested that the proliferation of SRB is most likely to occur in BNR plants with an anaerobic fraction higher than 15% and operating at sludge retention times higher than 20 days (at a temperature of 20 °C). These results can be used to implement strategies to control the growth of sulphate reducers that might compete for organic carbon with phosphate-accumulating organisms.

  19. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  20. Optimized Synthesis of Foam Glass from Recycled CRT Panel Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Most of the panel glass from cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is landfilled today. Instead of landfilling, the panel glass can be turned into new environment-friendly foam glass. Low density foam glass is an effective heat insulating material and can be produced just by using recycle glass and foaming...... additives. In this work we recycle the CRT panel glass to synthesize the foam glass as a crucial component of building and insulating materials. The synthesis conditions such as foaming temperature, duration, glass particle size, type and concentrations of foaming agents, and so on are optimized...... by performing systematic experiments. In particular, the concentration of foaming agents is an important parameter that influences the size of bubbles and the distribution of bubbles throughout the sample. The foam glasses are characterised regarding density and open/closed porosity. Differential scanning...