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Sample records for sodium hypochlorite electronic

  1. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  2. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  3. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochlorite (bleach is commonly used as an irrigant during dental proce-dures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI. In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of nanosilver, sodium hypochlorite and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NS), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Two tests of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zone of inhibition were carried out using NS, NaOCl and CHX. 70-fold ...

  5. Sodium hypochlorite sterilization of culture medium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the purpose of finding an alternative to thermal sterilization, this research aimed at assessing the efficiency and ideal concentration of sodium hypochlorite for sterilization of culture media and glassware used during rooting of micropropagated Gerbera hybrida cv. Essandre. Two experiments were carried out. In the first ...

  6. Mechanism of action of sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrela Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an irrigating solution for use in infected root canals requires previous knowledge of the microorganisms responsible for the infectious process as well as the properties of different irrigating solutions. Complex internal anatomy, host defenses and microorganism virulence are important factors in the treatment of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Irrigating solutions must have expressive antimicrobial action and tissue dissolution capacity. Sodium hypochlorite is the most used irrigating solution in endodontics, because its mechanism of action causes biosynthetic alterations in cellular metabolism and phospholipid destruction, formation of chloramines that interfere in cellular metabolism, oxidative action with irreversible enzymatic inactivation in bacteria, and lipid and fatty acid degradation. The aim of this work is to discuss the mechanism of action of sodium hypochlorite based on its antimicrobial and physico-chemical properties.

  7. Biocompatibility of acrylic resin after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijatini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylic resin as basic material for denture will stay on oral mucosa for a very long time. The polymerization of acrylic resin can be performed by conventional method and microwave, both produce different residual monomer at different toxicity. Acrylic resin can absorb solution, porous and possibly absorb disinfectantt as well, that may have toxic reaction with the tissue. Sodium Hypochlorite as removable denture disinfectant can be expected to be biocompatible to human body. The problem is how biocompatible acrylic resin which has been processed by conventional method and microwave method after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite solution. Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand in vitro biocompatibility of acrylic resin which has polimerated by conventional method and microwave after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite using tissue culture. Methods: Four groups of acrylic resin plate were produced, the first group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration and soaked in sodium hypochlorite, the second group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration but not soaked, the thirdwas one with conventional method and soaked and the last group was one with conventional method but not soaked, and in 1 control group. Each group consists of 7 plates. Biocompatibility test was performed in-vitro on each material using fibroblast tissue culture (BHK-21 cell-line. Result: The percentage between living cells and dead cells from materials which was given acrylic plate was wounted. The data was analyzed statistically with T test. Conclusion: The average value of living cells is higher in acrylic resin poimerization using microwave method compared to conventional method, in both soaked and non soaked (by sodium hypochlorite group. This means that sodium hypochlorite 0.5% was biocompatible to the mouth mucosa as removable denture disinfectant for 10 minutes soaking and washing afterwards.

  8. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  9. Use of Sodium Hypochlorite for the Control of Bakanae Disease in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Bum Shin; Jaeduk Goh; Bong Choon Lee; In Jeong Kang; Hang-Won Kang

    2014-01-01

    For application of sodium hypochlorite as a seed disinfectant to the control of bakanae disease caused by Gibberella fujikuroi in rice, we investigated the effects of sodium hypochlorite for antifungal activity, eliminating fungus from seeds and reducing disease occurrence in vitro and greenhouse. The viability of the pathogen was significantly reduced at 80 ml/l concentration of sodium hypochlorite, and the pathogens did not grow at over 100 ml/l concentration of sodium hypochlor...

  10. Alkaline Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigant and Its Chemical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia P. Wright

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic irrigating solutions may interact chemically with one another. This is important, because even when solutions are not admixed, they will come into contact with one another during an alternating irrigation technique, forming unwanted by-products, which may be toxic or irritant. Mixing or alternating irrigants can also reduce their ability to clean and disinfect the root canal system of teeth by changing their chemical structure with subsequent loss of the active agent, or by inducing precipitate formation in the root canal system. Precipitates occlude dental tubules, resulting in less penetration of antimicrobials and a loss of disinfection efficacy. Sodium hypochlorite is not only a very reactive oxidizing agent, but is also the most commonly used endodontic irrigant. As such, many interactions occurring between it and other irrigants, chelators and other antimicrobials, may occur. Of particular interest is the interaction between sodium hypochlorite and the chelators EDTA, citric acid and etidronate and between sodium hypochlorite and the antimicrobials chlorhexidine, alexidine, MTAD and octenisept.

  11. Factors affecting sodium hypochlorite extraction of CCA from treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, E D; Cooper, P A

    2009-12-01

    Significant amounts of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood products, such as utility poles and residential construction wood, remain in service. There is increasing public concern about environmental contamination from CCA-treated wood when it is removed from service for reuse or recycling, placed in landfills or burned in commercial incinerators. In this paper, we investigated the effects of time, temperature and sodium hypochlorite concentration on chromium oxidation and extraction of chromated copper arsenate from CCA-treated wood (Type C) removed from service. Of the conditions evaluated, reaction of milled wood with sodium hypochlorite for one hour at room temperature followed by heating at 75 degrees C for two hours gave the highest extraction efficiency. An average of 95% Cr, 99% Cu and 96% As could be removed from CCA-treated, milled wood by this process. Most of the extracted chromium was oxidized to the hexavalent state and could therefore be recycled in a CCA treating solution. Sodium hypochlorite extracting solutions could be reused several times to extract CCA components from additional treated wood samples.

  12. Evaluation tissue dissolution property of 2.5 % Sodium Hypochlorite Prepared by Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Bicarbonate: An in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful endodontic treatment requires chemical preparation in addition to mechanical preparation. The most common material for chemical preparations is sodium hypochlorite. One way to reduce the effects of pH adjustment is the use of sodium hypochlorite. The present paper was conducted to examine the effect of dilution with hydrochloric acid and sodium bicarbonate and reduce pH on ability of tissue solubility of sodium hypochlorite. The present study was conducted in vitro on bovine muscle tissue. Ability of tissue solubility was conducted in four groups respectively with active ingredient including 1 sodium hypochlorite diluted with distilled water 2 sodium hypochlorite diluted with sodium bicarbonate 3 sodium hypochlorite diluted with hydrochloric acid and finally 4 distilled water (control group. Each sample was firstly weighed and then placed in contact with 10 m/L solution for 60 minutes (five 12 -minute intervals. The sample was weighted every five minutes and solution was renewed. The results were analyzed using SPSS-21 Software based on variance analysis, Tukey and T-test (α=0.05. The findings showed that there was significant difference between first, second and third groups in terms of ability of tissue solubility. However, the tissue solubility in second and third groups was lower than first group and it was similar in second and third groups (P Value <0.001. Reduction of sodium bicarbonate PH using sodium hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid reduces ability of tissue solubility in sodium hypochlorite.

  13. Use of Sodium Hypochlorite for the Control of Bakanae Disease in Rice

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    Dong Bum Shin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For application of sodium hypochlorite as a seed disinfectant to the control of bakanae disease caused by Gibberella fujikuroi in rice, we investigated the effects of sodium hypochlorite for antifungal activity, eliminating fungus from seeds and reducing disease occurrence in vitro and greenhouse. The viability of the pathogen was significantly reduced at 80 ml/l concentration of sodium hypochlorite, and the pathogens did not grow at over 100 ml/l concentration of sodium hypochlorite. The effect of eliminating fungus was 90% at treatment of 0.3% sodium hypochlorite solution to infected rice seeds for eight hours. When the rice seeds were soaked into 0.5% and 0.3% sodium hypochlorite solutions for twelve hours, the disease incidences of rice seedling were remarkably reduced to 4.3% and 4.7%, respectively, compared to 97.3% of non-treatment control. The rates of seedling stand were 29.1% and 26.9% higher with the sodium hypochlorite treatment than that of non-treatment control. When prochloraz and sodium hypochlorite was treated to naturally severely infested rice seeds with bakanae disease, the disinfection effect was higher than that of prochloraz alone treatment. When the seeds were soaked in sodium hypochlorite before or after prochloraz, the rate of seed contamination was low as 4.0% or 6.3%, respectively, compared to prochloraz alone as 13.7%. The disease incidence was low as 3.7% or 8.3%, respectively, compared to prochloraz alone as 14.3%. The disinfection effect of treatment with prochloraz after sodium hypochlorite was higher than that of treatment with prochloraz before sodium hypochlorite.

  14. Comparative evaluation of calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite on soft-tissue dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arindam; Saunders, William P

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the tissue-dissolution properties of 5% and 10% calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)(2)) with two concentrations (1.36% and 4.65%) of proprietary sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on bovine muscle tissue. The available chlorine concentration of each solution was determined using iodometric titration. Tissue specimens from bovine muscle were weight adjusted (50 ± 5 mg). Ten tissue specimens in each group were immersed in 5 mL each test solution, removed after 5 minutes, blotted dry, and weighed. The process was repeated every 5 minutes with a fresh 5-mL aliquot of the test solution for 60 minutes or until complete tissue dissolution, whichever was quickest. The percentage weight loss of the specimens was calculated over the experimental period. Available chlorine concentrations of the irrigants ranged from 1.36% to 4.65%. All solutions dissolved tissue completely after 60 minutes except 5% Ca(OCl)(2) (99.4% dissolution). Between the 35- and 60-minute test readings, there were no significant differences between the solutions. Chlorax (4.65% NaOCl) (Cerkamed Group, Nisko, Poland) dissolved tissue quicker during the first 35 minutes (P Tesco bleach (1.36% NaOCl) (Tesco Stores Ltd, Chestnut, UK) in the first 35 minutes except at the 5-minute measurement. Within the limitations of this study, Chlorax (4.65% NaOCl) dissolved tissue faster than the Ca(OCl)(2) solutions and Tesco thin bleach (1.36% NaOCl) over the first 35 minutes, but there were no significant differences among the solutions thereafter. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sodium Hypochlorite and Sodium Bromide Individualized and Stabilized Carbon Nanotubes in Water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2017-09-20

    Aggregation is a major problem for hydrophobic carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in water because it reduces the effective particle concentration, prevents particles from entering the medium, and leads to unstable electronic device performances when a colloidal solution is used. Molecular ligands such as surfactants can help the particles to disperse, but they tend to degrade the electrical properties of CNTs. Therefore, self-dispersed particles without the need for surfactant are highly desirable. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, that CNT particles with negatively charged hydrophobic/water interfaces can easily self-disperse themselves in water via pretreating the nanotubes with a salt solution with a low concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium bromide (NaBr). The obtained aqueous CNT suspensions exhibit stable and superior colloidal performances. A series of pH titration experiments confirmed the presence and role of the electrical double layers on the surface of the salted carbon nanotubes and of functional groups and provided an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon.

  16. Sodium Hypochlorite and Sodium Bromide Individualized and Stabilized Carbon Nanotubes in Water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Colombo, Veronica; Xin, Yangyang; Tao, Ran; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Aggregation is a major problem for hydrophobic carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in water because it reduces the effective particle concentration, prevents particles from entering the medium, and leads to unstable electronic device performances when a colloidal solution is used. Molecular ligands such as surfactants can help the particles to disperse, but they tend to degrade the electrical properties of CNTs. Therefore, self-dispersed particles without the need for surfactant are highly desirable. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, that CNT particles with negatively charged hydrophobic/water interfaces can easily self-disperse themselves in water via pretreating the nanotubes with a salt solution with a low concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium bromide (NaBr). The obtained aqueous CNT suspensions exhibit stable and superior colloidal performances. A series of pH titration experiments confirmed the presence and role of the electrical double layers on the surface of the salted carbon nanotubes and of functional groups and provided an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon.

  17. Use of commercial sodium hypochlorite solutions in respect to the quality of the products

    OpenAIRE

    Gjorgjeska, Biljana; Kovacevska, Ivona; Dimova, Cena

    2012-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is the most popular solution for root canal irrigation in stomatology practice. NaOCl ionizes in water into hypochlorite ion OCl-, establishing an equilibrium with hypochlorous acid (HOCl). At acidic and neutral pH, chlorine exists predominantly as HOCl, whereas at high pH of 9 and above, OCl- predominates.

  18. An evaluation of the accuracy of labeling of percent sodium hypochlorite on various commercial and professional sources: is sodium hypochlorite from these sources equally suitable for endodontic irrigation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; van Dusseldorp, N.E.; de Soet, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The shelf life of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is limited, and a previous article showed that there can be a discrepancy between the expected concentration of free available chlorine (FAC) and the actual FAC concentration in NaOCl solutions intended for endodontic irrigation. The current

  19. Sodium hypochlorite oxidation of petroleum aliphatic contaminants in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, François; Chaouki, Jamal

    2016-02-01

    This research project investigated the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation of aliphatic petroleum contaminants (C10-C50) in a calcareous soil (average 5473 ppm C10-C50, 15 wt% Ca), which had been excavated from a contaminated industrial site. The decontamination objective was to lower the C10-C50 concentration to 700 ppm. CO2 acidity was used in the project to boost the NaClO oxidation yield and seems to have played a role in desorbing the natural organic matter. The experimental conditions were a 2- to 16-h reaction time, at room temperature, with a 1 to 12.5 wt% NaClO oxidative solution and a fixed 2:1 solution-to-soil ratio. With a 3 wt% NaClO solution and with a CO2 overhead, the NaClO dosage requirement was maintained below 60 g NaClO/g of oxidized C10-C50 over the entire decontamination range. The strong chlorine smell remaining after the reaction was completed suggests that part of the NaClO requirement can be recycled. Except traces of chloroform, there were no regulation-listed organochloride contaminants detected on either the treated soil samples or leachates and the total count of chlorinated compounds in treated soil samples was below the detection limit of 250 mg/kg. The NaClO oxidation mechanism on aliphatic substrates might be triggered by transition metals, such as manganese, but no attempt has been made to investigate the oxidation mechanism. Further investigations would include a constant-fed NaClO system and other techniques to lower the required NaClO dosage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface modification of thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane by glycerol assisted oxidation with sodium hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Hiren D.; Samnani, Mohit D.; Gauswami, Maulik V.

    2018-01-01

    Need for improvement in water flux of thin film composite (TFC) RO membrane has been appreciated by researchers world over and surface modification approach is found promising to achieve higher water flux and solute rejection. Thin film composite RO membrane was exposed to 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite solution with varying concentrations of glycerol ranging from 1 to 10%. It was found that there was a drop in concentration of sodium hypochlorite after the addition of glycerol because of a new compound resulted from the oxidation of glycerol with sodium hypochlorite. The water flux of the membrane treated with 1% glycerol with 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite for 1 h was about 22% more and salt rejection was 1.36% greater than that of only sodium hypochlorite treated membrane for the same concentration and time. There was an increase in salt rejection of membrane with increase in concentration of glycerol from 1% to 5%, however, increasing glycerol concentration further up to 10%, the salt rejection declined. The water flux was found declining from 1% glycerol solution to 10% glycerol solution. The membrane samples were characterized to understand the change in chemical structure and morphology of the membrane.

  1. Histopathological evaluation of pulp after pulpotomy of primary teeth with sodium hypochlorite and formocresol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghgoo R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Formocresol is one of the most common pulpotomy medicaments for primary teeth. Because of its systemic and local side effects, it may be essential to use another material instead of formocresol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopothalogy of pulp after pulpotomy teeth with sodium hypochlorite and formocresol. "nMaterials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 22 canine teeth that must be extracted because of orthodontic treatment were selected. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=11 and pulpotomized with formocresol or sodium hypochlorite. These teeth were extracted after 2 months and pulpal response was evaluated according to the degree of inflammation and extent of pulpal involvement. Dentinal bridge formation was also evaluated. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. "nResults: In formocresol group, mild inflammation was seen in 4 and moderate inflammation in 3 and severe inflammation in 4 cases. In sodium hypochlorite group mild inflammation was seen in 6 cases and moderate inflammation in 4 cases and severe inflammation in 1 case. Mann-Whitney test revealed that this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. In formocresol group, necrosis was seen in 5 cases, but abscess and internal resorption were not seen in any cases. In sodium hypochlorite group, internal resorption was seen in 3 cases; but necrosis and abscess were not seen in any cases.  Mann-Whitney test showed that the difference between two groups was significant in terms of necrosis (P=0.02. In sodium hypochlorite group, dentinal bridge was formed in 3 cases; however, no dentinal bridge formation was seen in formocresol group. Mann-Whitney test showed that this difference was not significant statistically (P>0.05. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, sodium hypochlorite can be used as a pulpotomy agent in primary teeth.

  2. Sodium Hypochlorite Treatment and Nitinol Performance for Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. D.; Gutierrez, E. J.; Nagaraja, S.; Stafford, P. R.; Sivan, S.; Di Prima, M.

    2017-09-01

    Processing of nitinol medical devices has evolved over the years as manufacturers have identified methods of reducing surface defects such as inclusions. One recent method proposes to soak nitinol medical devices in a 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution as a means of identifying surface inclusions. Devices with surface inclusions could in theory then be removed from production because inclusions would interact with NaClO to form a visible black material on the nitinol surface. To understand the effects of an NaClO soak on performance, we compared as-received and NaClO-soaked nitinol wires with two different surface finishes (black oxide and electropolished). Pitting corrosion susceptibility was equivalent between the as-received and NaClO-soaked groups for both surface finishes. Nickel ion release increased in the NaClO-soaked group for black oxide nitinol, but was equivalent for electropolished nitinol. Fatigue testing revealed a lower fatigue life for NaClO-soaked black oxide nitinol at all alternating strains. With the exception of 0.83% alternating strain, NaClO-soaked and as-received electropolished nitinol had similar average fatigue life, but the NaClO-soaked group showed higher variability. NaClO-soaked electropolished nitinol had specimens with the lowest number of cycles to fracture for all alternating strains tested with the exception of the highest alternating strain 1.2%. The NaClO treatment identified only one specimen with surface inclusions and caused readily identifiable surface damage to the black oxide nitinol. Damage from the NaClO soak to electropolished nitinol surface also appears to have occurred and is likely the cause of the increased variability of the fatigue results. Overall, the NaClO soak appears to not lead to an improvement in nitinol performance and seems to be damaging to the nitinol surface in ways that may not be detectable with a simple visual inspection for black material on the nitinol surface.

  3. Comparison of the dimensional stability of alginate impressions disinfected with 1% sodium hypochlorite using the spray or immersion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderinu, O H; Adegbulugbe, I C; Shaba, O P

    2007-01-01

    To determine and compare the dimensional stability of alginate impressions disinfected with Sodium hypochlorite using the spray and immersion methods. Alginate impressions of a master model of truncated metal cones were made and disinfected with 1% sodium hypochlorite constituted from 3.5% household bleach using the spray and immersion technique for 10; 20 and 30 minutes. Impressions were cast in dental stone and the linear dimensional differences between the inter-abutment distances were measured with an electronic caliper. One sample T test and percentage differences were calculated. There were no statistically significant differences in dimensions of alginate impressions of the control and those disinfected by either spraying or immersion methods when compared with the master model at 10 minutes. However, there was a statistically significant difference at 20 and 30 minutes. The spray technique showed the least percentage difference from the master model. Disinfection of alginate impressions with 1% sodium hypochlorite constituted from commercially available household bleach by the spray or immersion techniques for ten minutes will produce casts with minimal dimensional changes.

  4. The indirect detection of bleach (sodium hypochlorite) in beverages as evidence of product tampering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David S; Crockett, David F; Wolnik, Karen A

    2006-07-01

    Bleach (sodium hypochlorite) has been identified as the adulterant in a relatively large number of product tamperings that have been investigated by the Forensic Chemistry Center (FCC) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In this work, household bleach was added to 23 different beverages at each of three levels. The impact of sodium hypochlorite on these beverages over a 13-day study period was evaluated using the following techniques: diphenylamine spot test for oxidizing agents, potassium iodide-starch test paper for oxidizing agents, pH, iodometric titration for quantitating hypochlorite, ion chromatography for chloride and chlorate quantitation, automated headspace sampling with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for determination of chloroform, and visual and organoleptic observations. This study has shown that hypochlorite is fragile when added to most common beverages and typically breaks down either partially or completely over time. In cases where a beverage is suspected of being adulterated with bleach but tests for hypochlorite are negative, it is still possible to characterize the product to demonstrate that the results are consistent with the addition of bleach. An adulterated product will give a positive test for oxidizing agents using the diphenylamine spot test. It is likely that the pH of the adulterated product will be higher than a control of that product. Ion chromatographic analysis shows elevated chloride and chlorate as compared with a control. And, chloroform may also be detected by GC-FID especially if the beverage that was adulterated contains citric acid.

  5. Disinfectant Efficacy of 0.525% Sodium Hypochlorite and Epimax on Alginate Impression Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Gopal Krishna; Chitumalla, Rajkiran; Manual, Litto; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; Chauhan, Mahinder Singh; Talukdar, Pratim

    2018-01-01

    Species of Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Actinomyces, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Candida are commonly seen in the oral cavity. Impression materials are commonly contaminated with microorganisms. The present study was conducted to assess the disinfection efficacy of Epimax and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite on alginate impression over a period of 10 minutes. This study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics in the year 2015. An alginate impression material was prepared. For each bacteria species, 15 samples were used. Out of 15 samples, 3 were used by 0.525% sodium hypochlorite for disinfection for 5 minutes and 3 others for 10 minutes. Similarly, 3 samples were used by Epimax for 5 minutes and other 3 for 10 minutes. Three samples were used as controls. Each sample was polluted with Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus strains. There was no statistical difference in P. aeruginosa and C. albicans after 5 minutes, whereas S. aureus showed significant difference (p alginate impression material against C. albicans, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus strains. However, Epimax was found to be more effective against S. aureus as compared with 0.525% sodium hypochlorite. Efficacy of disinfection of sodium hypo-chlorite and Epimax on alginate impression.

  6. Comparing Peracetic Acid with Sodium Hypochlorite for Disinfection of Combined Sewer Overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effective...

  7. Antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite and castor oil solutions for denture cleaning - in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Marcela Moreira; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Souza, Raphael Freitas; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% castor oil solutions against specific microorganisms, by counting Colony Forming Units (CFU) of clinically important bacteria and Candida species. Acrylic resin specimens (n = 320; Lucitone 550) were obtained from square metal matrices (10 x 10 x 2 mm), sterilized by microwave (650W, for 6 minutes) and contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida glabrata. The specimens were immersed for 20 minutes in one of the following hygiene solutions (n = 10/each): A - 0.25% Sodium hypochlorite; B - 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite; C - 10% Castor oil solution; and D (Control) - saline. Adhered cells were suspended and inoculated into a selective solid medium (37ºC for 24 h). The Student's t-test (α = 0.05) was performed to compare log10(CFU+1)/mL between Groups C and D. The results showed that sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.5%) completely eliminated all detectable microorganisms. The castor oil solution eliminated B. subtilis and reduced counts for other strains. Differences between C and D were significant (p castor oil solution provided moderate efficacy and performed differently on the tested species, with the strongest effect on B. subtilis and with non-significant action on E. faecalis.

  8. Antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite and castor oil solutions for denture cleaning – in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Moreira SALLES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50% and 10% castor oil solutions against specific microorganisms, by counting Colony Forming Units (CFU of clinically important bacteria and Candida species. Acrylic resin specimens (n = 320; Lucitone 550 were obtained from square metal matrices (10 x 10 x 2 mm, sterilized by microwave (650W, for 6 minutes and contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalisand Candida glabrata. The specimens were immersed for 20 minutes in one of the following hygiene solutions (n = 10/each: A – 0.25% Sodium hypochlorite; B – 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite; C – 10% Castor oil solution; and D (Control – saline. Adhered cells were suspended and inoculated into a selective solid medium (37ºC for 24 h. The Student’s t-test (α = 0.05 was performed to compare log10(CFU+1/mL between Groups C and D. The results showed that sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.5% completely eliminated all detectable microorganisms. The castor oil solution eliminatedB. subtilisand reduced counts for other strains. Differences between C and D were significant (p E. faecalis. Both sodium hypochlorite solutions (0.25% and 0.5% were effective in eliminating all microorganisms evaluated, and may be useful as cleaning solutions for complete dentures. The castor oil solution provided moderate efficacy and performed differently on the tested species, with the strongest effect on B. subtilis and with non-significant action on E. faecalis.

  9. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L(-1)/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L(-1)/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L(-1)/1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L(-1) free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 μm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  10. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lígia Biazotto Bachelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L-1/10 min, peracetic acid (100 mg L-1/15 min and ozonated water (1.2 mg L-1 /1 min as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L-1 free chlorine/15 min were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 µm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  11. Studies on the kinetics of UO2 dissolution in carbonate-bicarbonate medium using sodium hypochlorite as oxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, J.N.; Bhattacharya, K.; Swami, R.G.; Tangri, S.K.; Mukherjee, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolution of UO 2 in carbonate-bicarbonate solutions containing sodium hypochlorite as an oxidant has been investigated. The effect of temperature, sodium hypochlorite concentration and stirring speed was examined. In the temperature range of 303 to 318 K, the leaching reaction displayed linear kinetics. Apparent activation energy obtained from the differential approach was found to be 57 kJ mol -1 . This relatively high activation energy value indicates a chemically controlled behavior of UO 2 dissolution. The order of reaction with respect to sodium hypochlorite concentration was found to be unity. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Strength in Die Stone Incorporated with Sodium and Calcium Hypochlorite as Disinfectants: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodh, N R; Kumar, C N Vijay; Pradeep, M R; Naik, Ravi; Mahesh, C S; Kumari, Manju R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of die stone incorporated with sodium and calcium hypochlorite as disinfectants. Two commercially available type IV die stone (Kalrock: Kalabhai Karson Pvt., Ltd and Pearlstone: Asian Chemicals) and two commercially available disinfectant solutions (sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite: Beachem Laboratory Chemical Private Limited, Chennai and Leo Chem Private Limited, Bengaluru) were used in this study, and the tensile strength was measured using Lloyd's Universal Testing Machine. The results show that incorporating the disinfecting solutions decreases the tensile strength of both products. The effect of decreasing tensile strength on type IV gypsum product is seen more in calcium hypochlorite when compared with sodium hypochlorite disinfecting solution, and the tensile strength of Kalrock specimens is higher than Pearlstone specimens after disinfecting with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite solution. The statistical results also show significant results in all the groups when compared with the control group. The incorporation of sodium and calcium hypochlorite disinfecting solutions is not an encouraging method for both die materials as it reduces the tensile strength of type IV gypsum product. Tensile strength of Kalstone® die material is superior than Pearlstone® die material after mixing with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite. According to the recommendations of Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, disinfecting the whole cast without or minimal changes in physical and mechanical properties was the motto of the study. The tensile strength in type IV gypsum product plays a most important role in retrieval of cast from impression, especially in narrow tooth preparation. This study reveals that incorporating method of disinfecting solutions is not recommended as it reduces the tensile strength.

  13. Primum non nocere - The effects of sodium hypochlorite on dentin as used in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Li-Sha; Huang, Xue-Qing; Griffin, Brandon; Bergeron, Brian R; Pashley, David H; Niu, Li-Na; Tay, Franklin R

    2017-10-01

    The medical literature is replete with the maxim 'primum non nocere', cautioning health care providers to avoid doing any harm to human subjects in their delivery of medical care. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a well-established irrigant for root canal treatment because of its antimicrobial and organic tissue remnant dissolution capability. However, little is known about the deleterious effect of this strong oxidizing agent on the integrity of human mineralized dentin. Iatrogenically-induced loss of dentin integrity may precipitate post-treatment root fracture and has potential medico-legal complications. In the present work, transmission electron microscopy provided evidence for collagen destruction in the surface/subsurface of dentin treated with high NaOCl concentrations and long contact times. Size exclusion chromatography showed that the hypochlorite anion, because of its small size, penetrated the water compartments of apatite-encapsulated collagen fibrils, degraded the collagen molecules and produced a 25-35µm thick, non-uniform "ghost mineral layer" with enlarged, coalesced dentinal tubules and their lateral branches. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy identified increases in apatite/collagen ratio in NaOCl-treated dentin. The apatite-rich, collagen-sparse dentin matrix that remained after NaOCl treatment is more brittle, as shown by the reductions in flexural strength. Understanding the deleterious effects of NaOCl on mineralized dentin enables one to balance the risks and benefits in using high NaOCl concentrations for lengthy periods in root canal debridement. Delineating the mechanism responsible for such a phenomenon enables high molecular weight, polymeric antimicrobial and tissue dissolution irrigants to be designed that abides by the maxim of 'primum non nocere' in contemporary medical practices. The antimicrobial and tissue-dissolution capacities of NaOCl render it a well-accepted agent for root canal debridement. These highly desirable

  14. Sodium Thiosulfate for Recovery of Bond Strength to Dentin Treated with Sodium Hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel Corrêa, Ana Carolina; Cecchin, Doglas; de Almeida, José Flávio Affonso; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) for restoring adhesion to pulp chamber dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and EDTA. Sixty-three crowns of bovine incisors were cut to expose the dentin pulp chamber. The specimens were polished and randomly distributed into 9 groups (n = 7) according to the following protocols used: 0.9% sodium chloride for 30 minutes (negative control), 5.25% NaOCl for 30 minutes, 17% EDTA for 3 minutes, and 5.25% NaOCl for 1 minute (positive control). The other groups, after treatments with NaOCl and EDTA, were immersed in 0.5% or 5% Na2S2O3 for 1, 5, and 10 minutes or just immersed in an inert solution for 10 minutes (0.9% sodium chloride). After drying the specimens, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) was applied to the pulp chamber dentin followed by Filtek Z250 composite (3M ESPE). Six rectangular slabs were obtained from each specimen, and the dentin/resin interface was tested by using a universal testing machine. The resulting data were submitted to 1-way analysis of variance and the Duncan test (P = .05). There was a significant decrease in bond strength regarding NaOCl and EDTA (P adhesive restorations to be immediately applied after endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite in inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Li; Jian, Xu; Baorong, Zhang; Yue, Jia; Minhua, Liu; Yilang, Luo; Jing, Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been widely used in clinical practice as one of the most efficient root canal irrigants. Its properties include broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and ability to dissolve necrotic tissues. However, when used improperly, NaClO can cause a series of adverse reactions, such as mucosal inflammation, irritation, or injury. This paper presents a case of accidental injection of NaClO in inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia.

  16. Disinfection of bore well water with chlorine dioxide/sodium hypochlorite and hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Jia, Aiyin; Wu, Yue; Wu, Chunde; Chen, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) on potable water disinfection of chemicals was investigated. The bore well water was introduced into HC set-up to examine the effect of HC alone and combination of HC and chemicals such as chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite. The effect of inlet pressure and geometrical parameters on disinfection was studied using HC alone and the results showed that increasing inlet pressure and using more and bigger holes of orifice plates can result in a higher disinfection rates. When HC was combined with chemicals, HC can reduce the doses of the chemicals and shorten the time of disinfection. It was also found that the decrease in bacteria concentration followed a first-order kinetic model. As for the experiment of combination of HC and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection, HC not only improves the disinfection rate but also degrades natural organic matter and chloroform. Compared with only sodium hypochlorite disinfection, combined processes get higher disinfection rate and lower production of chloroform, particularly the pretreatment with HC enhances the disinfection rate by 32% and there is a simultaneous reduction in production of chloroform by 39%.

  17. Comparison between sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate reducer in lightening of overexposed working length radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ezoddini Ardakani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study were to test whether lightening of the overexposed radiographs improve determination of endodontic files length and whether lightened radiographs are comparable with ideally exposed radiographs. Material and Methods: Four dried human skull coated with soft tissue-equivalent wax used for exposing radiographs of the upper molars. First, the endodontic file was placed in full length of the root and four series of radiographs obtained. The time to expose the first series was unchanged (standard group but increased for the other three series.  Two series of overexposed radiographs set as test groups (one lightened with copper sulfate reducer and the other lightened with sodium hypochlorite and one series set as control group. Then the endodontic file placed 2mm short in the root and four series of radiographs obtained like the former. A viewer evaluated radiographs. ROC curves were obtained and areas under the curves were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity and Cohen’s kappa was calculated. Results: The average area under ROC curves was 1, 0.995,1 and 0.643 for the standard, Copper sulfate, sodium hypochlorite and the control group, respectively. Sodium hypochlorite show a better performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity compared to Copper sulfate. Differences between the test radiographs and standard and control radiographs were significant (p

  18. Fracture of nickel-titanium superelastic alloy in sodium hypochlorite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ken'ichi; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Yabuta, Eiji; Asaoka, Kenzo; Sakai, Jun'ichi

    2004-01-01

    Fracture of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy for endodontic instruments such as files was investigated with a sustained tensile-loading test in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution of various concentrations. It was found that the time to fracture was reduced when the applied stress exceeded the critical stress for martensite transformation. When the applied stress was higher than the critical stress, the 0.3 mm diameter wires of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy sometimes fractured within 60 min. From the results of observations of the fracture surface using a scanning electron microscope, it was revealed that the fracture of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy is significantly influenced by corrosion when the applied stress was higher than the critical stress for martensite transformation. The results of the present study suggest that one of the causes of the fracture of Ni-Ti files during clinical use is corrosion under the applied stress above the critical stress for martensite transformation in NaOCl solution

  19. Efficacy of Disinfection of Dental Stone Casts: Virkon versus Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Moslehifard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the disinfection efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peroxygenic acid (Virkon solutions for dental stone casts contaminated with microbial strains.Materials and Methods: A total of 960 spherical stone beads with a diameter of 10 mm were prepared and used as carriers of bacterial inoculums. They were individually inoculated by soaking in broth culture media containing each of the four understudy microorganisms. Different concentrations of Virkon and hypochlorite solutions were prepared using distilled water and then were sprayed on the surfaces of dental casts contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. The pour plate technique was used to evaluate the antimicrobi- al efficacy of each solution. Microbicidal effect (ME was calculated according to the log10 of control colony counts minus the log10 of the remaining colony counts after the antimicrobial procedure. Statistical difference was assessed using the Kruskal Wallis and the Man Whitney U tests with a significance of 95%.Results: We observed different bactericidal effects of Virkon at various concentra- tions; 1% Virkon killed S. aureus, P aeruginosa, and Candida albicans, while 3% Virkon solution was required to kill B. subtilis. For S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, no significant difference was observed between1% Virkon and 0.525% so- dium hypochlorite (P >0.05. For B. subtilis, the efficacy of 3% Virkon and 0.525%sodium hypochlorite was not significantly different (P >0.999.Conclusion: According to the obtained results for Virkon and based on its low toxici- ty and good environmental compatibility, it may be recommended as an antimicrobial disinfectant for dental stone casts as non-critical items.

  20. Microbiological evaluation of dental stone casts after immersion in sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Livia Lie Sonoda; São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Dental Research Center – Campinas – SP – Brazil.; Sekiguchi, Ricardo Takiy; Dental School and University Nove de Julho – São Paulo – SP – Brazil.; Miranda, Milton Edson; São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Dental Research Center; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Dental Research Center – Campinas – SP – Brazil.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of disinfection of type III dental stone by immersion in 1% sodium hypochlorite and 0.25% peracetic acid at different periods of time (1, 5 and 10 min). MaterialandMethods: silicon dies were previously infected with strains of Bacillus subtilis for 15 min. Then, type III gypsum stone (Herodent, Vigodent COLTÈNE SA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was inserted into the cavities to obtain contaminated specimens. A sterile silicone die wa...

  1. Alkaline Peroxides Versus Sodium Hypochlorite for Removing Denture Biofilm: a Crossover Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracini, Amanda; Regis, Rômulo Rocha; Souza, Raphael Freitas de; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato da; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of cleanser solutions on denture biofilm removal by a crossover randomized clinical trial. Thirty two edentulous patients were instructed to brush their dentures (specific brush and liquid soap) three times a day (after breakfast, lunch and dinner) and to soak them (≥ 8 h) in: (C) control -water; (AP): alkaline peroxide; or (SH) 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. Each solution was used for 21 days (three cycles of 7 days). At the end of each cycle, the inner surfaces of maxillary dentures were disclosed (1% neutral red) and photographed (HX1 - Sony). Areas (total and stained biofilm) were measured (Image Tool software) and the percentage of biofilm calculated as the ratio between the area of the biofilm multiplied by 100 and total surface area of the internal base of the denture. Data were compared by means of generalized estimating equation (α=5%) and multiple comparisons (Bonferroni; α=1.67%). Immersion in SH reduced biofilm (%) (8.3 ± 13.3B) compared to C (18.2 ± 14.9A) and AP (18.2 ± 16.6A). The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most efficacious for biofilm removal. Alkaline peroxides may not lead to further biofilm removal in patients with adequate denture maintenance habits.

  2. Influence of Concentration and Agitation of Sodium Hypochlorite and Peracetic Acid Solutions on Tissue Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Silveira, Bruna Ramos Franco; Martelo, Roberta Bosso; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2015-11-01

    To evaluated the tissue dissolution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and peracetic acid (PA) solutions at different concentrations, with or without ultrasonic agitation. The following solutions were analyzed: 2.5% NaOCl, 0.5, 1 and 2% PA, 1% PA associated with 6.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and saline. Fragments of bovine pulp tissue with 25 ± 2g mg were immersed into test tubes containing 4 mL of the solutions for 10 minutes. In the groups with agitation, pulp tissues were submitted to 2 cycles of 1 minute of ultrasonic agitation. The specimens were weighed after the removal from the solutions. The percentage of mass loss was calculated according to the difference of mass before and after exposure to solutions. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p Peracetic acid solution has pulp tissue dissolution. However, this ability is lower than 2.5% NaOCl solution. The sodium hypochlorite solution shows higher ability to dissolve tissue than PA.

  3. Compatibility of electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions on long- term implanted dialysis catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, G J

    2007-01-01

    More than 20% of the world's population use a catheter for dialysis, despite guidelines limiting their use. Although the structure and design of the catheters differ by manufacturer, the material used in central venous catheters and peritoneal dialysis catheters are the same across manufacturers. Given the long-term use of these catheters in the dialysis population, the good compatibility of the antiseptics and disinfectants used on the catheters is imperative to prevent failure and cracking of the catheter material. Tensile strengths of commercially available catheters were measured after exposure to commonly used disinfectants. The tensile strength was then compared between the catheters by analyzing the displacement vs. force (N) curves produced during the evaluation. A total of 44 catheter lumens were evaluated. The electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solution, Alcavis 50/ExSept Plus, was the only solution shown to be compatible with all three catheter materials resulting in a deviation of less than 10% for each of the different catheter types. Electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions were the only solutions in this study that did not alter the physical properties of any of the catheters after long-term exposure.

  4. Sodium hypochlorite accident resulting in life-threatening airway obstruction during root canal treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sebaei MO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maisa O Al-Sebaei,1 Omar A Halabi,2 Ibrahim E El-Hakim3 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King Abdulaziz University – Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Saudi Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Aim: This case report describes a serious and life-threatening complication of the use of sodium hypochlorite as an irrigation solution in root canal therapy. Summary: This case report describes a hypochlorite accident that occurred in a healthy 42-year-old female who was undergoing routine root canal therapy for the lower right central incisor (tooth #41. After approximately 1 hour of irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite (for a total of 12 cc, the patient complained of severe pain and burning in the lip. The swelling progressed over the next 8 hours to involve the sublingual and submental fascial spaces with elevation of the tongue and resultant upper airway obstruction. The patient was intubated and remained on mechanical ventilation for 3 days. She recovered without any skin necrosis or nerve deficits. Key learning points: This case report highlights the importance of carefully performing root canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite to avoid complications. Careful injection without pressure, the use of proper rubber dam isolation, and the use of the endodontic needle are necessary to avoid this type of complication. Although it is a safe root canal irrigation solution, its use may lead to life-threatening complications. Early recognition and management of the untoward effects of sodium hypochlorite are vital for the patient's safety. Keywords: complications of root canal, facial edema, root canal irrigation, root canal therapy, sodium hypochlorite, upper airway obstruction

  5. Determination of technological parameters for activation of resistant raw materials in solution of alkali and sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sestager Aknazarov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the process, studied the factors affecting the degree of opening of hard mineral. The optimal regimes of activation of arsenopyrite in alkaline solutions, salt with the addition of pyrolusite and sodium hypochlorite. The optimum concentration of the reactants in aqueous solution, providing maximum possible transferring the sulfur to soluble compounds and the binding of arsenic in the state of difficultly.

  6. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of neem, green tea, triphala and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Bhargava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Although cleaning and shaping and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection of the canal. Considering the ineffectiveness, potential side effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Aim: To check the antimicrobial efficacy of Neem, Green Tea, Triphala and sodium hypochlorite against the endodontic microflora. Materials and Methods: Mixed cultures of bacteria were isolated from patients, with carious teeth and associated with periapical radiolucencies. A paper point was inserted into the canal to obtain a sample of a mixed culture of micro organisms. These paper points were cultured and agar diffusion test was done for the different irrigants. The irrigants were divided into Group I: Neem (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO,Group II: Green Tea Polyphenols (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO, Group III: Triphala (60 mg/ml in 10% DMSO, Group IV: 3% NaOCI, Group V: Sterile saline. Results: Sodium hypochlorite showed the maximum antimicrobial activity, followed by Neem. There was no statistical difference between the activity of sodium hypochlorite and Neem. This was followed by Triphala and Green Tea, respectively. Conclusion: Neem is as effective as Sodium Hypochlorite against endodontic microflora.

  7. Influence of the Dentinal Wall on the pH of Sodium Hypochlorite during Root Canal Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, Ricardo Gomes; Herrero, Noemi Pascual; Wesselink, Paul; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, Luc

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dentin on the pH levels of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions over time and to evaluate if preconditioning of dentin with 17% EDTA or agitation of the NaOCl solution influences these pH levels.

  8. Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottovia, André Dotto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2006-04-01

    In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p<0.05). All groups were affected by root resorption but the treatment performed in group III was the least effective for its control. The treatment accomplished in groups I and II yielded similar results to each other.

  9. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and octenidine hydrochloride in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirali, Resmiye E; Bodur, Haluk; Sipahi, Bilge; Sungurtekin, Elif

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) in different concentrations against endodontic pathogens in vitro. Agar diffusion procedure was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the tested materials. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and the mixture of these were used for this study. In the agar diffusion test, 5.25% NaOCl exhibited better antimicrobial effect than the other concentrations of NaOCl for all strains. All concentrations of OCT were effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis. Some 0.2% CHX was ineffective on all microorganisms. Antibacterial effectiveness of all experimental solutions decreased on the mixture of all strains. Decreasing concentrations of NaOCl resulted in significantly reduced antimicrobial effect. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  10. Sodium Hypochlorite-Modified Hemosorbents in the Treatment of Limb Ischemia-Reperfusion Syndrome: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Sergiyenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency of treatment for limb ischemia-reperfusion syndrome in an experiment, by using the modified hemosorbents that have oxidative properties.Materials and methods. The investigation was conducted on 94 mongrel male dogs divided into 3 groups: 1 intact animals (n=20; 2 animals treated with hemocarboperfusion on the standard sorbent CKH-1K (n=36; 3 animals received hemocarboperfusion on sodium hypochloride-modified sorbent CKH-1K (n=38. A model of acute ischemia-reperfusion syndrome was created by the method of V. D. Pasechnikov et al. Partial oxygen tension (pO2 was determined by pin polarography. The levels of vasoactive eicosanoids were measured by enzyme immunoassay.Results. In the animals with leg ischemia syndrome, there is a significant pO2 reduction in the muscles of the hip and shin, which does not completely recover after reperfusion. Standard CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion reduces pO2 as compared with the reperfusion period while the use of modified CKH-1K hemosorbent increased pO2 in the study hind limb muscles to the level observed in intact animals. The development of ischemia and reperfusion is accompanied by the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators that have vasoconstrictive properties (thromboxane B2, endothelin-1, leukotrienes C4/D4/E4 and the lower concentration of the vasodilator prostacyclin. Standard CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion results in a further increase in the concentrations of thromboxane B2 and leukotrienes C4/D4/E4, a decrease in the concentration of endothelin-1, and an elevation of the levels of prostacyclin and prostaglandin E2. When sodium hypochlorite-modified CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion is employed, the concentrations of thromboxane B2, endothelin-1, and leukotrienes C4/D4/E4 decrease, and the level of prostacyclin increases.Conclusion. Hemocarboperfusion used in the treatment of leg ischemia-reperfusion syndrome leads to restoration of tissue oxygenation and

  11. Formation of chlorinated breakdown products during degradation of sunscreen agent, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate in the presence of sodium hypochlorite

    OpenAIRE

    Gackowska , Alicja; Przybyłek , Maciej; Studziński , Waldemar; Gaca , Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this study, a new degradation path of sunscreen active ingredient, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and 4-methoxycinnamic acid (MCA) in the presence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), was discussed. The reaction products were detected using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Since HOCl treatment leads to more polar products than EHMC, application of polar extracting agents, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate/n-hexane mixture, gave better results in term...

  12. Formation of chlorinated breakdown products during degradation of sunscreen agent, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate in the presence of sodium hypochlorite

    OpenAIRE

    Gackowska, Alicja; Przybyłek, Maciej; Studziński, Waldemar; Gaca, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a new degradation path of sunscreen active ingredient, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and 4-methoxycinnamic acid (MCA) in the presence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), was discussed. The reaction products were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Since HOCl treatment leads to more polar products than EHMC, application of polar extracting agents, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate/n-hexane mixture, gave better results in terms of chlorinated breakdo...

  13. Formation of chlorinated breakdown products during degradation of sunscreen agent, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate in the presence of sodium hypochlorite

    OpenAIRE

    Gackowska, Alicja; Przyby?ek, Maciej; Studzi?ski, Waldemar; Gaca, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new degradation path of sunscreen active ingredient, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and 4-methoxycinnamic acid (MCA) in the presence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), was discussed. The reaction products were detected using gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Since HOCl treatment leads to more polar products than EHMC, application of polar extracting agents, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate/n-hexane mixture, gave better results in terms of chlorinated breakdo...

  14. Comparison of 2% chlorhexidine and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite irrigating solutions on postoperative pain: A randomized clinical trial

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    Bashetty Kusum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the levels of postoperative pain after cleaning and shaping of root canals using two different root canal irrigants for debridement. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis and non-vital teeth exhibiting acute apical periodontitis requiring root canal treatment were included. At random, canals were cleaned and shaped with the following protocols. 2% chlorhexidine solution in group I and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution in group II were used as an irrigants. Access cavities were closed with a sterile cotton pellet and cavit. The patients recorded degree of pain at various time intervals after cleaning and shaping on a visual analogue scale for 1 week. Results: The mean pain score for group I was between 0.65 and 3.35 and for group II was between 0.95 and 4.50. There was significant difference in the pain level between the two groups only at 6 th hour postoperatively (P<0.05 and the pain was more in sodium hypochlorite group. Conclusions: More pain was present in teeth irrigated using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite when compared to that in teeth irrigated using 2% chlorhexidine solution. Significant difference in pain level was present only at 6th hour postoperatively, and at all other periods (24 th hour, 4 th and 7 th days there was no significant difference in pain level between the two groups.

  15. Anatomy of Sodium Hypochlorite Accidents Involving Facial Ecchymosis – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wan-chun; Gyamfi, Jacqueline; Niu, Li-na; Schoeffel, G. John; Liu, Si-ying; Santarcangelo, Filippo; Khan, Sara; Tay, Kelvin C-Y.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Root canal treatment forms an essential part of general dental practice. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used irrigant in endodontics due to its ability to dissolve organic soft tissues in the root canal system and its action as a potent antimicrobial agent. Although NaOCl accidents created by extrusion of the irrigant through root apices are relatively rare and are seldom life-threatening, they do create substantial morbidity when they occur. Methods To date, NaOCl accidents have only been published as isolated case reports. Although previous studies have attempted to summarise the symptoms involved in these case reports, there was no endeavor to analyse the distribution of soft tissue distribution in those reports. In this review, the anatomy of a classical NaOCl accident that involves facial swelling and ecchymosis is discussed. Results By summarising the facial manifestations presented in previous case reports, a novel hypothesis that involves intravenous infusion of extruded NaOCl into the facial vein via non-collapsible venous sinusoids within the cancellous bone is presented. Conclusions Understanding the mechanism involved in precipitating a classic NaOCl accident will enable the profession to make the best decision regarding the choice of irrigant delivery techniques in root canal débridement, and for manufacturers to design and improve their irrigation systems to achieve maximum safety and efficient cleanliness of the root canal system. PMID:23994710

  16. Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigation and Its Effect on Bond Strength to Dentin

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    Tariq S. Abuhaimed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective shaping and cleaning of root canals are essential for the success of endodontic treatment. Due to the complex anatomy of root canal spaces, the use of various instrumentation techniques alone is not effective in producing bacteria-free root canal spaces. Irrigation, disinfectants, rinses, and intervisit medications are used in conjunction with the mechanical instrumentation to ensure the success of endodontic treatment. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, a halogenated compound, is routinely used to irrigate the root canal during endodontic treatments. NaOCl has been known for its antibacterial action, proteolytic and dissolution capacity, and debridement properties. NaOCl, however, can alter the composition of dentin and hence its interaction with the adhesive resins used to bond the restorative materials to treated dentin. This review therefore covers in depth the action of NaOCl on dentin-adhesive resin bond strength including both enhancement and reduction, then mechanisms proposed for such action, and finally how the adverse action of NaOCl on dentin can be reversed.

  17. Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigation and Its Effect on Bond Strength to Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhaimed, Tariq S; Abou Neel, Ensanya A

    2017-01-01

    Effective shaping and cleaning of root canals are essential for the success of endodontic treatment. Due to the complex anatomy of root canal spaces, the use of various instrumentation techniques alone is not effective in producing bacteria-free root canal spaces. Irrigation, disinfectants, rinses, and intervisit medications are used in conjunction with the mechanical instrumentation to ensure the success of endodontic treatment. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a halogenated compound, is routinely used to irrigate the root canal during endodontic treatments. NaOCl has been known for its antibacterial action, proteolytic and dissolution capacity, and debridement properties. NaOCl, however, can alter the composition of dentin and hence its interaction with the adhesive resins used to bond the restorative materials to treated dentin. This review therefore covers in depth the action of NaOCl on dentin-adhesive resin bond strength including both enhancement and reduction, then mechanisms proposed for such action, and finally how the adverse action of NaOCl on dentin can be reversed.

  18. Assessment of residual active chlorine in sodium hypochlorite solutions after dissolution of porcine incisor pulpal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, R M; Smith, T K; Kidd, B A; Evans, G E; Moule, A J

    2013-12-01

    In previous studies, surfactant-containing Hypochlor brands of sodium hypochlorite showed better tissue solubilizing abilities than Milton; differences not explained by original active chlorine content or presence of surfactant. It was postulated that exhaustion of active chlorine content could explain differences. This study aimed to assess whether Milton's poorer performance was due to exhaustion of active chlorine. Parallel experiments assessed the influence of titration methods, and the presence of chlorates, on active chlorine measurements. Time required to dissolve one or groups of 10 samples of porcine incisor pulp samples in Milton was determined. Residual active chlorine was assessed by thermometric titration. Iodometric and thermometric titration was carried out on samples of Milton. Chlorate content was also measured. Dissolution of single and 10 pulp samples caused a mean loss of 1% and 3% respectively of active chlorine, not being proportional to tissue dissolved. Thermometric ammonium ion titration resulted in 10% lower values than iodometric titration. Chlorate accounted for much of this difference. Depletion of active chlorine is not the reason for differences in tissue dissolving capabilities of Milton. Thermometric ammonium ion titration gives more accurate measurement of active chlorine content than iodometric titration. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  19. The effect of dentin on the pulp tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Hanut, Aiham; Matalon, Shlomo; Baev, Valery; Slutzky, Hagay

    2013-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) have tissue dissolution capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of dentin on their tissue dissolution capacity in a novel dentin model. Dentin models were prepared from 25 freshly extracted human molar teeth; the crowns were separated from the roots, and a rectangular inner shape was prepared. Pulp tissue samples adjusted to similar weights of 6.5 ± 0.2 mg were randomly divided into 6 groups: NaOCl groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 hour, Ca(OH)2 groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week, and control groups saline in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week. The final weights after the experimental period were checked and compared with the initial weights. The differences were statistically analyzed. The tissue dissolution capacity of Ca(OH)2 was affected by the presence of dentin. Similarly, NaOCl lost its effect on the pulp tissue after incubation in dentin. Comparison between all test groups showed highly significant differences (P interactions between local endodontic medicaments, dentin, and pulp tissue. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on typical biofilms formed in drinking water distribution systems.

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    Lin, Huirong; Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Yuxin; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Human health and biological safety problems resulting from urban drinking water pipe network biofilms pollution have attracted wide concern. Despite the inclusion of residual chlorine in drinking water distribution systems supplies, the bacterium is a recalcitrant human pathogen capable of forming biofilms on pipe walls and causing health risks. Typical drinking water bacterial biofilms and their response to different concentrations of chlorination was monitored. The results showed that the four bacteria all formed single biofilms susceptible to sodium hypochlorite. After 30 min disinfection, biomass and cultivability decreased with increasing concentration of disinfectant but then increased in high disinfectant doses. PMA-qPCR results indicated that it resulted in little cellular damage. Flow cytometry analysis showed that with increasing doses of disinfectant, the numbers of clusters increased and the sizes of clusters decreased. Under high disinfectant treatment, EPS was depleted by disinfectant and about 0.5-1 mg/L of residual chlorine seemed to be appropriate for drinking water treatment. This research provides an insight into the EPS protection to biofilms. Resistance of biofilms against high levels of chlorine has implications for the delivery of drinking water.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of a sodium hypochlorite/etidronic acid irrigant solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Moliz, Maria Teresa; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Baca, Pilar; Ruiz-Linares, Matilde; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen María

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)/9% etidronic acid (HEBP) irrigant solution on Enterococcus faecalis growing in biofilms and a dentinal tubule infection model. The antimicrobial activity of the solutions 2.5% NaOCl and 9% HEBP alone and associated was evaluated on E. faecalis biofilms grown in the Calgary biofilm model (minimum biofilm eradication concentration high-throughput device). For the dentinal tubule infection test, the percentage of dead cells in E. faecalis-infected dentinal tubules treated with the solutions for 10 minutes was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the live/dead technique. Available chlorine and pH of the solutions were also measured. Distilled water was used as the control. Nonparametric tests were used to determine statistical differences. The highest viability was found in the distilled water group and the lowest in the NaOCl-treated dentin (P antimicrobial activity inside dentinal tubules, without statistical differences between the 2 (P chlorine within 60 minutes. HEBP did not interfere with the ability of NaOCl to kill E. faecalis grown in biofilms and inside dentinal tubules. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva e Souza, P A R; das Dores, R S E; Tartari, T; Pinheiro, T P S; Tuji, F M; Silva e Souza, M H

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation. Forty-five roots of human mandibular molars with curvatures of 15-25° were embedded in acrylic resin to allow standardized angulation of the initial and final radiographs. The pre-instrumentation radiographs of the mesiobuccal canal of each root were taken using a radiograph digital sensor with a size 15 K-file in the canal. The canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), using one of the following irrigation regimens during the instrumentation (n = 15): G1 - irrigation with 20 mL of saline solution (control); G2 - alternating irrigation with 2.5% hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) (15 mL); and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5 mL). During instrumentation, the canal was filled with NaOCl and then between each exchange of instrument filled with EDTA for 1 min, and G3 - irrigation with 20 mL of 5% NaOCl and 18% etidronate solution (HEBP) mixed in equal parts. The postinstrumentation radiographs were made with a F3 instrument in the canal. The images were magnified and superposed with Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, Mountain View, CA, USA). Apical transportation was determined with AutoCAD 2012 software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) by measuring the distance in millimetres between the tips of the instruments. The results were subjected to the nonparametric statistical Kruskal-Wallis test (α < 0.05). The median transportation and interquartile range values were 0.00 ± 0.05 for G1, 0.08 ± 0.23 for G2 and 0.13 ± 0.14 for G3. Comparison between groups showed that apical transportation in G3 was significantly greater than in G1 (P < 0.05). The use of NaOCl associated with etidronate increased apical transportation in the canals of extracted teeth. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Disinfection with sodium hypochlorite in hospital environmental surfaces in the reduction of contamination and infection prevention: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Samantha Storer Pesani; Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2015-08-01

    To search for evidence of the efficiency of sodium hypochlorite on environmental surfaces in reducing contamination and prevention of healthcare-associated infection HAIs. Systematic review in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration. We analyzed 14 studies, all controlled trials, published between 1989-2013. Most studies resulted in inhibition of microorganism growth. Some decreased infection, microorganism resistance and colonization, loss of efficiency in the presence of dirty and surface-dried viruses. The hypochlorite is an effective disinfectant, however, the issue of the direct relation with the reduction of HAIs remains. The absence of control for confounding variables in the analyzed studies made the meta-analysis performance inadequate. The evaluation of internal validity using CONSORT and TREND was not possible because its contents were not appropriate to laboratory and microbiological studies. As a result, there is an urgent need for developing specific protocol for evaluating such studies.

  4. Disinfection with sodium hypochlorite in hospital environmental surfaces in the reduction of contamination and infection prevention: a systematic review

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    Samantha Storer Pesani Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo search for evidence of the efficiency of sodium hypochlorite on environmental surfaces in reducing contamination and prevention of healthcare-associated infection HAIs.METHODSystematic review in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration.RESULTSWe analyzed 14 studies, all controlled trials, published between 1989-2013. Most studies resulted in inhibition of microorganism growth. Some decreased infection, microorganism resistance and colonization, loss of efficiency in the presence of dirty and surface-dried viruses.CONCLUSIONThe hypochlorite is an effective disinfectant, however, the issue of the direct relation with the reduction of HAIs remains. The absence of control for confounding variables in the analyzed studies made the meta-analysis performance inadequate. The evaluation of internal validity using CONSORT and TREND was not possible because its contents were not appropriate to laboratory and microbiological studies. As a result, there is an urgent need for developing specific protocol for evaluating such studies.

  5. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on tomatoes using sodium docecyl sulphate, levulinic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution

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    E. Mnyandu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes poses a serious threat to public health. A study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of four sanitizers, used individually or combined, against L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644. The contact times for bacteria and sanitizer were varied to 1, 3 and 5 minutes. Levulinic acid, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, sodium hypochlorite solution (chlorine and a combination of SDS and levulinic acid (mixture were tested. Results revealed that 0.5% levulinic acid, when used individually, is capable of reducing the surviving colonies by 3.63 log CFU/mL, 4.05 log CFU/mL, 6.71 log CFU/mL after exposure for 1, 3 and 5 minutes respectively.SDS resulted in an 8 log CFU/mL reduction after 1, 3 and 5 minutes. A combination of 0.5% levulinic acid and 0.05% SDS caused a 3.69 log CFU /mL reduction, 4.4 log CFU/mL reduction, 7.97 log CFU/mL reduction for 1, 3 and 5 minutes respectively. Chlorine was the least effective with 2.93 log CFU/mL reduction, 3.16 log CFU/ mL reduction and 4.53 log CFU/ mL reduction respectively. When stored for up to 72 hours at 4°C, the surviving colonies remained viable and decreased in number significantly P < 0.05 = 0.001. The titratable acidity of samples treated with levulinic acid and samples treated with SDS/Lev mixture was lowered significantly compared to the control sample. No significant differences were noted in these same parameters for samples treated with chlorine or SDS. The application of SDS in the fresh produce industry as a sanitizing agent may be successful in eradicating or reducing the viability of L. monocytogenes on fresh produce, thereby replacing the routine chlorine washing.

  6. Effect of a Benzalkonium Chloride Surfactant-Sodium Hypochlorite Combination on Elimination of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Aleksandr; Lindsey, Kimberly; Sidow, Stephanie J; Dickinson, Douglas; Chuang, Augustine; McPherson, James C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of a sodium hypochlorite-surfactant combination on the removal of Enterococcus faecalis from infected teeth. Sixty-four extracted human single canal anterior teeth were prepared with rotary instrumentation and sterilized. Teeth were divided into 4 groups, N = 16. Three experimental groups were inoculated with E. faecalis and cultured for 21 days before use: positive control group, no irrigation; NaOCl group, irrigated with 5 mL 6% NaOCl; and NaOCl/BAK group, irrigated with 5 mL 6% NaOCl/0.008% benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The negative control group received medium only and no inoculate. Paper point sampling of the canals was obtained before irrigation (S1) for all 4 groups and for 2 groups after irrigation (S2) to determine remaining colony-forming units. After sampling, all teeth were split in half and evaluated for bacterial viability colony-forming units and penetration of dentinal tubules by using fluorescent vital dye staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Comparison of pre-irrigation and post-irrigation paper point samples from the 2 irrigated groups showed a significant reduction in bacterial canal load (P < .001, Kruskal-Wallis), with a significantly lower load in the NaOCl/BAK group than in the NaOCl group (P = .001, Mann-Whitney U test); 68.8% of the NaOCl/BAK samples gave no recoverable counts. In contrast, no significant difference between these groups was found for counts recovered from dentin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed no differences in tubule penetration. The addition of BAK to NaOCl significantly reduced the number of remaining bacteria within the canal after irrigation compared with NaOCl alone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Disinfection of herbal spa pool using combined chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Shan; Huang, Da-Ji

    2015-02-01

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in public spa pools poses a serious threat to human health. The problem is particularly acute in herbal spas, in which the herbs and microorganisms may interact and produce undesirable consequences. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effectiveness of a combined disinfectant containing chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite in improving the water quality of a public herbal spa in Taiwan. Water samples were collected from the spa pool and laboratory tests were then performed to measure the variation over time of the microorganism content (total CFU and total coliforms) and residual disinfectant content given a single disinfection mode (SDM) with disinfectant concentrations of 5.2 × 10, 6.29 × 10, 7.4 × 10, and 11.4 × 10(-5) N, respectively. Utilizing the experience gained from the laboratory tests, a further series of on-site investigations was performed using three different disinfection modes, namely SDM, 3DM (once every 3 h disinfection mode), and 2DM (once every 2 h disinfection mode). The laboratory results showed that for all four disinfectant concentrations, the CFU concentration reduced for the first 6 h following SDM treatment, but then increased. Moreover, the ANOVA results showed that the sample treated with the highest disinfectant concentration (11.4 × 10(-5) N) exhibited the lowest rate of increase in the CFU concentration. In addition, the on-site test results showed that 3DM and 2DM treatments with disinfectant concentrations in excess of 9.3 × 10 and 5.5 × 10(-5) N, respectively, provided an effective reduction in the total CFU concentration. In conclusion, the experimental results presented in this study provide a useful source of reference for spa businesses seeking to improve the water quality of their spa pools.

  8. Stabilizing sodium hypochlorite at high pH: effects on soft tissue and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Holger; Marending, Monika; De-Deus, Gustavo; Sener, Beatrice; Zehnder, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    When sodium hypochlorite solutions react with tissue, their pH drops and tissue sorption decreases. We studied whether stabilizing a NaOCl solution at a high pH would increase its soft-tissue dissolution capacity and effects on the dentin matrix compared with a standard NaOCl solution of the same concentration and similar initial pH. NaOCl solutions were prepared by mixing (1:1) a 10% stock solution with water (standard) or 2 mol/L NaOH (stabilized). Physiological saline and 1 mol/L NaOH served as the controls. Chlorine content and alkaline capacity of NaOCl solutions were determined. Standardized porcine palatal soft-tissue specimens and human root dentin bars were exposed to test and control solutions. Weight loss percentage was assessed in the soft-tissue dissolution assay. Three-point bending tests were performed on the root dentin bars to determine the modulus of elasticity and flexural strength. Values between groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α pH level of 7.5, respectively. The stabilized NaOCl dissolved significantly more soft tissue than the standard solution, and the pH remained high. It also caused a higher loss in elastic modulus and flexure strength (P < .05) than the control solutions, whereas the standard solution did not. NaOH-stabilized NaOCl solutions have a higher alkaline capacity and are thus more proteolytic than standard counterparts. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of use of socially marketed faucet fitted earthen vessel/sodium hypochlorite solution on diarrhea prevention at household level in rural India

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    AR Dongre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of socially marketed faucet fitted to earthen vessel / sodium hypochlorite solution on diarrhea prevention at rural household level as a social intervention for diarrhea prevention under ‘Community Led Initiatives for Child Survival (CLICS program. Methods: Unmatched case-control study was carried out in 10 villages of Primary Health Centre, Anji, located in rural central India. During the study period, 144 households used either faucet fitted earthen vessel to store drinking water or used sodium hypochlorite solution (SH for keeping drinking water safe. These served as case households for the present study. 213 neighborhood control households from same locality who used neither of the methods were also selected. Results: Odds ratio for households who used faucets fitted to earthen vessel was 0.49 (95% CI= 0.25 – 0.95. Odds ratio for households who used sodium hypochlorite solution was 0.55 (95% CI= 0.31 – 0.98. Use of these methods by the community, would prevent about 27 percent and 22 percent cases of the diarrhea (Population attributable risk proportion = 0.25 by faucets fitted to earthen vessels and 0.22 by use of sodium hypochlorite solution respectively. Conclusion: To ensure safe drinking water at household level, the effective and cheap methods like fitting faucet to traditionally used earthen vessel and/or use of sodium hypochlorite solution must be promoted through community participation at household level for cost and culture sensitive rural people in India.

  10. An in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of five herbal extracts and comparison of their activity with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Divya Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sodium hypochlorite is the most widely used irrigant in endodontic practice, but it has various disadvantages. Literature has shown that herbal products such as Propolis, Azadirachta indica (AI, Triphala, Curcuma longa, and Morinda citrifolia (MC possess good antimicrobial properties and thus can be used as potential endodontic irrigants. Aim: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of five herbal extracts, i.e., Propolis, AI, Triphala, C. longa, and MC with that of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: E. faecalis American Type Culture Collection 21292 was inoculated onto brain heart infusion agar plate. Discs impregnated with herbal medicaments were placed on the inoculated plates and incubated at 37°C aerobically for 24 h and growth inhibition zones were measured. Statistical Analysis: Mean zone of inhibition in descending order was found as sodium hypochlorite > Propolis > AI > Triphala > C. longa = MC > ethanol. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance which showed a significant difference in the zone of inhibition of sodium hypochlorite and Propolis (P < 0.001. Results: Propolis showed highest zone of inhibition among all the herbal extracts next to sodium hypochlorite. Conclusion: Propolis and AI have significant antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis.

  11. Comparison of the virucidal efficacy of peracetic acid, potassium monopersulphate and sodium hypochlorite on bacteriophages P001 and MS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, T; Martin, H; Soumet, C; Fresnel, R; Lamaudière, S; Le Sauvage, A L; Deleurme, K; Maris, P

    2015-09-01

    The phagicidal activity of peroxy products against the virulent bacteriophage P001 infecting lactic acid bacteria and bacteriophage MS2 used as a surrogate of enteric viruses (EVs) was evaluated and compared to sodium hypochlorite using the EN 13610 European suspension test and a surface test developed in our laboratories. Infectivity tests were adapted and/or developed to determine the activity of disinfectants against reference P001 phage of Lactoccocus lactis and F-specific RNA phage MS2 of Escherichia coli in conditions simulating practical use. Similar concentrations of sodium hypochlorite were phagicidal against both bacteriophages, either at 0·05-0·125% of active chlorine using the suspension test or at 0·12-0·5% using the surface test. For Potassium monopersulphate (MPS), phagicidal concentrations varied from 0·006 to 0·012% whatever the type of test and phages. However, for peracetic acid products (PAP) used in suspension, concentrations 55 times higher were necessary against MS2 (0·271%) than against P001 (0·005%). With the surface test, 0·089-0·178% concentrations of PAP were effective against MS2, but these concentrations were 16-32 times greater than needed against P001. Sodium hypochlorite and MPS had similar phagicidal activities against P001 and MS2, but PAP did not. This is the first comparative study to investigate through suspension and surface tests the difference in resistance to peroxy compounds between a reference bacteriophage (P001) used to evaluate phagicidal concentrations in European standards and a surrogate of EVs (MS2). Results underline the importance of validation tests on pertinent surrogates of viruses or bacteriophages to adjust the concentration of disinfectants for use in the food and water industries. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on Agave tequilana Weber bagasse fibers used to elaborate cyto and biocompatible hydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Carrillo, Karla Lizette; Nakasone, Kazuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Tagaya, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2014-09-01

    Waste bagasse of Agave tequilana-Weber fibers treated with sodium hydroxide was used to elaborate hydrogel films. The bagasse was offered in an alternative use for the preparation of hydrogel films by phase inversion method without crosslinking and further purification of cellulose. The effect on the properties of the obtained films was studied when the chemical treatment of the agave fibers was changed. It was found that the resultant hydrogels showed increment in tensile from 40 N/mm(2) to 56 N/mm(2) with the increase of sodium hypochlorite concentration from 1 to 10 vol.%, respectively. With regard to biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel films, platelet adhesion, clotting time and protein adsorption were investigated. Analysis of the morphology of adherent NIH3T3 fibroblast indicated that the projected cell area, aspect ratio and long axis gradually increased with the increment of sodium hypochlorite content in the agave treatment. It was presented that the chemical treatment affects cell adhesion and morphology and lignin content remains in the brown fibers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of sodium hypochlorite solutions on in vitro seedling growth and shoot regeneration of flax (Linum usitatissimum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Er, Celâl

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentration (40, 60, and 80%) and temperature (0, 10, 20, and 30°C) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions on seed germination, in vitro viability and growth of flax seedlings and regeneration capacity of hypocotyl explants. Results showed that seed germination, seedling growth and shoot regeneration were negatively affected by increasing concentration and temperature of disinfectant. The best results in seedling growth and shoot regeneration were obtained when 40% disinfectant concentration at 10°C was used.

  14. Plant stress activated by chlorine from disinfectants prepared on the base of sodium hypochlorite

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    Fargašová Agáta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the phytotoxicity of disinfectants prepared on the base of sodium hypochlorite was determined. For our tests two commercial products, Savo and Dom Amor, as well as 10% NaClO solution were used. While Savo contained only NaClO, Dom Amor contained NaClO and earthworm enzymes. Products on the base of NaClO are used in households for cleaning and disinfection of floors, furniture, sanitary and kitchen equipment. Savo may be used for the disinfection of drinking waters as well. Products with NaClO are also used for bacteria, algae and pathogens reduction in irrigation waters. As a subject, young seedlings of mustard Sinapis alba L. were used for the study of chronic toxicity. The observed parameters of the inhibition of roots and shoots growth, dry (DM and fresh (FM mass as well as photosynthetic pigments production (chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids and water content in the plants were determined. The results point out that Dom Amor was the most toxic for S. alba seedlings growth and the rank order of the FAC contents for both plant parts was arranged as: Dom Amor > Savo > NaClO. All disinfectants reduced the DM and FM of roots; however, they stimulated biomass production in the shoots. On the basis of the obtained results it could be concluded, that disinfectants stimulated photosynthetic pigments production and reduced water content mainly in the roots. Dom Amor did not significantly reduced the water content in the shoots and for this parameter the following rank orders of inhibition for roots and shoots could be arranged as NaClO > Dom Amor > Savo and NaClO > Savo > Dom Amor, respectively. All commercial products increased chlorophyll a (Chla and the carotenoids (Car content in the shoots. As significant increase was confirmed first for Chla whose content in the presence of NaClO at concentration 24 mL/L overextended that in the control by 3.5 times. The rank orders of stimulation for Chla and Car were NaClO > Savo > Dom Amor and Dom

  15. Inactivation of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on tomatoes using sodium dodecyl sulphate, levulinic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Ademola Ijabadeniyi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, sodium hypochlorite solution and levulinic acid in reducing the survival of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was evaluated. The results against heat adapted L. monocytognes revealed that sodium hypochlorite solution was the least effective, achieving log reduction of 2.75, 2.94 and 3.97 log colony forming unit (CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. SDS was able to achieve 8 log reduction for both heat adapted and chlorine adapted bacteria. When used against chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes sodium hypochlorite solution achieved log reduction of 2.76, 2.93 and 3.65 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.07, 2.78 and 4.97 log CFU/mL for 1, 3, 5 minutes, respectively. On chlorine adapted bacteria levulinic acid achieved log reduction of 2.77, 3.07 and 5.21 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using a mixture of 0.05% SDS and 0.5% levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.13, 3.32 and 4.79 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes while on chlorine adapted bacteria it achieved 3.20, 3.33 and 5.66 log CFU/mL, respectively. Increasing contact time also increased log reduction for both test pathogens. A storage period of up to 72 hours resulted in progressive log reduction for both test pathogens. Results also revealed that there was a significant difference (P≤0.05 among contact times, storage times and sanitizers. Findings from this study can be used to select suitable sanitizers and contact times for heat and chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes in the fresh produce industry.

  16. Omics approaches on fresh-cut lettuce reveal global molecular responses to sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddiego, Loretta; Bianco, Linda; Capodicasa, Cristina; Carbone, Fabrizio; Dalmastri, Claudia; Daroda, Lorenza; Del Fiore, Antonella; De Rossi, Patrizia; Di Carli, Mariasole; Donini, Marcello; Lopez, Loredana; Mengoni, Alessio; Paganin, Patrizia; Perrotta, Gaetano; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2018-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable that is extensively commercialized as a ready-to-eat product because of its widespread use in human nutrition as salad. It is well known that washing treatments can severely affect the quality and shelf-life of ready-to-eat vegetables. The study presented here evaluated the effect of two washing procedures on fresh-cut lettuce during storage. An omics approach was applied to reveal global changes at molecular level induced by peracetic acid washing in comparison with sodium hypochlorite treatment. Microbiological analyses were also performed to quantify total bacterial abundance and composition. The study revealed wide metabolic alterations induced by the two sanitizers. In particular, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses pointed out a number of transcripts and proteins differentially accumulated in response to peracetic acid washing, mainly occurring on the first day of storage. In parallel, different microbiota composition and significant reduction in total bacterial load following washing were also observed. The results provide useful information for the fresh-cut industry to select an appropriate washing procedure preserving fresh-like attributes as much as possible during storage of the end product. Molecular evidence indicated peracetic acid to be a valid alternative to sodium hypochlorite as sanitizer solution. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of Duration of Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite in Clinical Protocol of MTAD on Removal of Smear Layer and Creating Dentinal Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Moghaddam, Negar; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Zand, Vahid; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of the present study was to compare 1.3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in MTAD (mixture of tetracycline isomer, acid, and detergent) for the removal of the smear layer and induction of canal erosion. Materials and methods 38 maxillary incisors were divided in three experimental groups of 10 and two positive and negative control groups of each 4 teeth, and prepared using rotary files. In test groups, 1.3% NaOCl was used for 5, 10 and 20 minutes during preparation followed by MTAD as the final rinse. In negative control group, 5.25% NaOCl was used for 10 minutes followed by 17% Ethylenediamine Tetra-Acetic Acid (EDTA) as the final rinse. In positive control group, dis-tilled water was used for 10 minutes during preparation and then as the final rinse. The samples were examined under scan-ning electron microscope, and the smear layer and dentinal erosion scores were recorded. Results Five and 10 min groups had significant differences with 20 min group (p < 0.05). In apical third, 5 and 10 min groups had also significant differences with 20 min (p < 0.05). In the coronal thirds, when the time of irrigation with 1.3% NaOCl increased from 5 min to 20 min, erosion also increased significantly. However, 5 and 10 min groups had no signifi-cant differences with negative control group. Conclusion The use of 1.3% sodium hypochlorite for 5 and 10 minutes in the MTAD protocol removes the smear layer in the coronal and middle thirds but does not induce erosion. PMID:22991642

  18. Influence of refreshment/activation cycles and temperature rise on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Wesselink, P.R.; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of multiple refreshment/activation cycles and temperature on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation (UAI) under laboratory conditions. Methodology The root canal walls of 24 standardized root canals in

  19. Spectroscopic analysis of the precipitate formed in the mixture of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine: study in vitro: part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespedes Viquez, Carolina; Flores Cruz, Gema; Orozco Munoz, Juan Ignacio; Sanchez Benavides, Jesus Francisco; Villalobos Montero, Alexander Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The content of precipitate formed is determined as a product of the interaction between 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine. Three groups of samples have analyzed. Group A: Pure lyophilized chlorhexidine gluconate. Group B: mixture of 2 ml of 2% chlorhexidine with 2 ml of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Group C: a mixture of 6 ml with 2 ml of 2% chlorhexidine with 2 ml of 2.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2 ml of 100% acetic acid. The analysis obtained by thin layer chromatography were generated over a chemical substance with similar characteristics. The method has allowed to isolate the compound part needed to be analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The nuclear magnetic resonance 13 C at 100 MHz has determined that the signal appears at lower field (δ: 146.5 ppm) and indicated the presence or absence of Para-chlorophenylurea in samples from the precipitate formed by 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. The measurements have resulted in the lack of Para-chlorophenylurea, either the signal has occurred when acetic acid is included. (author) [es

  20. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite and aloe vera solutions as root canal irrigants in human extracted teeth contaminated with enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, S; Khosravifar, N; Sedighshamsi, M; Motamedifar, M

    2014-03-01

    The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties, but also some negative features. The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. The teeth recruited in this study had no cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subsequent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number of colonies of the bacteria was then counted. The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent t-test (p= 0.966). The inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (pvera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator, but future studies are suggested to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera with longer duration of exposure and as an intra canal medicament.

  1. The Potential in Water Supply and Sanitation Services of the On Site Production of Sodium Hypochlorite (OSEC Driven by PV Solar Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Micangeli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the impact of an On Site Electro Chlorination (OSEC device, a system for the sodium hypochlorite production, on the improvement of health and hygienic standards in Mesoamerica focusing on Chiapas-Mexico and Costa Rica, as well as in Africa, Western Sahara (Refugees Camp and Tanzania. The threat of infectious diseases and the importance of cleaned and treated water with the consequent high impact on the vulnerable population have been studied in each of the above countries. In this framework the production of low cost sodium hypochlorite through a stand-alone system powered by PV solar source could be a good starting point in improving sanitation conditions, assuring the disinfection of water and clothes, and improve food safety. The cost analysis shows that producing sodium hypochlorite with an OSEC solar system could lead to 10 to 15 times saving with respect to the purchasing of it at market price, above all in developing countries. Furthermore, the LCA study highlights the low environmental impact of the on-site production of sodium hypochlorite through qualitative and quantitative data that demonstrate how this system has pollutant emissions from 14 to 56 times lower than the equivalent industrial process (N factor. The paper describes as well possible practical applications of the sodium hypochlorite in the African and Latin American context. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential to create an impact on the social context and microenterprises specialised in the production of hygiene and sanitation products, managed by local people selling at affordable prices and reaching the poorest villages of developing countries.

  2. Effect of immersion disinfection of alginate impressions in sodium hypochlorite solution on the dimensional changes of stone models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraguchi, Hisako; Kaketani, Masahiro; Hirose, Hideharu; Yoneyama, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the immersion of alginate impressions in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min on the dimensional changes of stone models designed to simulate a sectional form of a residual ridge. Five brands of alginate impression materials, which underwent various dimensional changes in water, were used. A stone model made with an impression that had not been immersed was prepared as a control. The immersion of two brands of alginate impressions that underwent small dimensional changes in water did not lead to serious deformation of the stone models, and the differences in the dimensional changes between the stone models produced with disinfected impressions and those of the control were less than 15 µm. In contrast, the immersions of three brands of alginate impressions that underwent comparatively large dimensional changes in water caused deformation of the stone models.

  3. Antiseptic solutions modulate the paracrine-like activity of bone chips: differential impact of chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kosaku; Caballé-Serrano, Jordi; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J; Buser, Daniel; Gruber, Reinhard

    2015-09-01

    Chemical decontamination increases the availability of bone grafts; however, it remains unclear whether antiseptic processing changes the biological activity of bone. Bone chips were incubated with four different antiseptic solutions including (1) povidone-iodine (0.5%), (2) chlorhexidine diguluconate (0.2%), (3) hydrogen peroxide (1%) and (4) sodium hypochlorite (0.25%). After 10 min. of incubation, changes in the capacity of the bone-conditioned medium (BCM) to modulate gene expression of gingival fibroblasts was investigated. Conditioned medium obtained from freshly prepared bone chips increased the expression of TGF-β target genes interleukin 11 (IL11), proteoglycan4 (PRG4), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and decreased the expression of adrenomedullin (ADM), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in gingival fibroblasts. Incubation of bone chips with 0.2% chlorhexidine, followed by vigorously washing resulted in a BCM with even higher expression of IL11, PRG4 and NOX4. These findings were also detected with a decrease in cell viability and an activation of apoptosis signalling. Chlorhexidine alone, at low concentrations, increased IL11, PRG4 and NOX4 expression, independent of the TGF-β receptor I kinase activity. In contrast, 0.25% sodium hypochlorite almost entirely abolished the activity of BCM, whereas the other two antiseptic solutions, 1% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5% povidone-iodine, had relatively no impact respectively. These in vitro findings demonstrate that incubation of bone chips with chlorhexidine differentially affects the activity of the respective BCM compared to the other antiseptic solutions. The data further suggest that the main effects are caused by chlorhexidine remaining in the BCM after repeated washing of the bone chips. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparison of the efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide dry-mist disinfection system and sodium hypochlorite solution for eradication of Clostridium difficile spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, F; Menuet, D; Verachten, M; Girou, E

    2009-06-01

    To compare a hydrogen peroxide dry-mist system and a 0.5% hypochlorite solution with respect to their ability to disinfect Clostridium difficile-contaminated surfaces in vitro and in situ. Prospective, randomized, before-after trial. Two French hospitals affected by C. difficile. In situ efficacy of disinfectants was assessed in rooms that had housed patients with C. difficile infection. A prospective study was performed at 2 hospitals that involved randomization of disinfection processes. When a patient with C. difficile infection was discharged, environmental contamination in the patient's room was evaluated before and after disinfection. Environmental surfaces were sampled for C. difficile by use of moistened swabs; swab samples were cultured on selective plates and in broth. Both disinfectants were tested in vitro with a spore-carrier test; in this test, 2 types of material, vinyl polychloride (representative of the room's floor) and laminate (representative of the room's furniture), were experimentally contaminated with spores from 3 C. difficile strains, including the epidemic clone ribotype 027-North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1. There were 748 surface samples collected (360 from rooms treated with hydrogen peroxide and 388 from rooms treated with hypochlorite). Before disinfection, 46 (24%) of 194 samples obtained in the rooms randomized to hypochlorite treatment and 34 (19%) of 180 samples obtained in the rooms randomized to hydrogen peroxide treatment showed environmental contamination. After disinfection, 23 (12%) of 194 samples from hypochlorite-treated rooms and 4 (2%) of 180 samples from hydrogen peroxide treated rooms showed environmental contamination, a decrease in contamination of 50% after hypochlorite decontamination and 91% after hydrogen peroxide decontamination (P disinfection system is significantly more effective than 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution at eradicating C. difficile spores and might represent a new

  5. Effect of a passive sonic irrigation system on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth, using different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Afshari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This in vitro study aimed to compare the antibacterial effect of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth with or without a passive sonic irrigation system (EndoActivator. Methods. The root canals of 120 extracted single-rooted primary incisors were prepared using the crown-down technique. The teeth were autoclaved and inoculated with E. faecalis. The infected samples were then randomly divided into 6 experimental groups of 15 and positive and negative control groups as follows: group 1: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 2: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 3: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 4: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation; group 5: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation; and group 6: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation. Microbiological samples were collected before and after disinfection procedures and the colony-forming units were counted. Statistical analyses were performed using the two-way ANOVA and post hoc Duncan's tests in cases of significant difference. Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables (concentration of antiseptic or use of sonic irrigation system. Conclusion. Use of passive sonic irrigation systems in endodontic treatment of single-rooted primary teeth is of no benefit compared to regular needle irrigation. The results of this study also recommends use of lower concentrations of sodium hypochlorite solution (0.5% for irrigation of the root canal system rather than higher concentrations given approximately equal efficacy.

  6. Degradation models and ecotoxicity in marine waters of two antifouling compounds: sodium hypochlorite and an alkylamine surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Garrido, M Carmen; Casanueva, José F; Nebot, Enrique

    2010-03-15

    Industrial wastes have a substantial impact on coastal environments. Therefore, to evaluate the impact of cooling water discharges from coastal power plants, we studied the kinetics of the degradative processes and the ecotoxicity of two antifouling products: (1) a classic antifouling product; sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and (2) an alternative one; aliphatic amines (commercial under the registered trade mark Mexel432). To assess the persistence of both compounds the decay of sodium hypochlorite and the primary biodegradation rate of Mexel432 were determined in natural seawater at 20 degrees C. The results indicated a more rapid decay of NaClO than Mexel432. The degradation behavior of both chemicals was described following a logistic model, which permitted calculating kinetic parameters such as t(50) or t(90). The t(50) was 1h and 2d for NaClO and Mexel432, respectively. To evaluate the potential risks of the aforementioned treatments to marine organisms, the acute toxicity of both antifouling products was studied on the microalgae Isochrysis galbana and Dunaliella salina, and on the invertebrate Brachionus plicatilis, using growth inhibition and death tests as toxic response, respectively. For I. galbana, the 96-h EC(50) values were 2.91+/-0.15mg/L of NaClO and 4.55+/-0.11mg/L of Mexel432. D. salina showed values of 96-h EC(50) of 1.73+/-0.16mg/L of NaClO and 7.21+/-0.1mg/L of Mexel432. Brachionus plicatilis showed a 24-h LC(50) of 1.23+/-0.1mg/L of NaClO and 3.62+/-0.37mg/L of Mexel432. Acute toxicity was highly dependent on the chemical and species tested. NaClO presented more toxic effects than Mexel432, also B. plicatilis was the most sensitive species in both cases. The lowest NOECs obtained, 0.25mg/L for NaClO and 2.12mg/L for Mexel432, were similar to the theoretical residual concentrations of these biocides in cooling water discharges. Therefore, these discharges can cause undesirable negative effects upon the aquatic organisms present.

  7. Antibacterial effect of roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabadariffa), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains isolated from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alcántara, E J; Rangel-Vargas, E; Gómez-Aldapa, C A; Falfan-Cortes, R N; Rodríguez-Marín, M L; Godínez-Oviedo, A; Cortes-López, H; Castro-Rosas, J

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from saladette and red round type tomatoes, and an analysis done of the antibacterial activity of roselle calyx extracts against any of the identified strains. One hundred saladette tomato samples and 100 red round tomato samples were collected from public markets. Each sample consisted of four whole tomatoes. Salmonella was isolated from the samples by conventional culture procedure. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated Salmonella strains by standard test. The antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates was evaluated on contaminated tomatoes. Twenty-four Salmonella strains were isolated from 12% of each tomato type. Identified Salmonella serotypes were Typhimurium and Typhi. All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least three antibiotics and some to as many as 12. Over contaminated tomatoes, the roselle calyx extracts produced a greater reduction (2-2·6 log) in antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strain concentration than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in vegetables is a significant public health concern. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from raw tomatoes purchased in public markets in Mexico and challenged with roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts, sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. On tomatoes, the extracts caused a greater reduction in the concentration of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. Roselle calyx extracts are a potentially useful addition to disinfection procedures of raw tomatoes in the field, processing plants, restaurants and homes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Comparison of Lactic Acid, Peracetic Acid and Sodium Hypochlorite in Disinfection of Bovine Carcasses at a Meat Processing Plant in Bogota, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Montero, Verónica; Acero Plazas, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Disinfection systems play an important role in reducing microbiological hazards in cattle carcasses. Disinfection is used in processing plants to decrease the number of pathogenic microorganisms present in the surface of the product. This study evaluated the efficacy of three disinfectants: lactic acid (0.9 ± 2%), peroxyacetic acid (100 ± 20 ppm) and sodium hypochlorite (100 ± 20 ppm) in reducing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in the surface of bovine carcasses within the premises of a ...

  9. Effects of the peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite on the colour stability and surface roughness of the denture base acrylic resins polymerised by microwave and water bath methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Flavio H C N; Orsi, Iara A; Villabona, Camilo A

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the surface roughness (Ra) and color stability of acrylic resin colors (Lucitone 550, QC-20 and Vipi-Wave) used for fabricating bases for complete, removable dentures, overdentures and prosthetic protocol after immersion in chemical disinfectants (1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% peracetic acid) for 30 and 60 minutes. Sixty specimens were made of each commercial brand of resin composite, and divided into 2 groups according to the chemical disinfectants. Specimens had undergone the finishing and polishing procedures, the initial color and roughness measurements were taken (t=0), and after this, ten test specimens of each commercial brand of resin composite were immersed in sodium hypochlorite and ten in peracetic acid, for 30 and 60 minutes, with measurements being taken after each immersion period. These data were submitted to statistical analysis. There was evidence of an increase in Ra after 30 minutes immersion in the disinfectants in all the resins, with QC-20 presenting the highest Ra values, and Vipi-Wave the lowest. After 60 minutes immersion in the disinfectants all the resins presented statistically significant color alteration. Disinfection with 1% sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid altered the properties of roughness and color of the resins. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. In vitro studies of the antibacterial activity of Copaifera spp. oleoresins, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid against clinical and environmental isolates recovered from a hemodialysis unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimara Gonçalves Leite Vieira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients submitted to hemodialysis therapy are more susceptible to infection, especially to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. Various research works have attempted to discover new antimicrobial agents from plant extracts and other natural products. Methods The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activities of Copaifera duckei, C. reticulata, and C. oblongifolia oleoresins; sodium hypochlorite; and peracetic acid against clinical and environmental isolates recovered from a Hemodialysis Unit. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and the Fractionated Inhibitory Concentration Index were determined; the ability of the tested compounds/extracts to inhibit biofilm formation was evaluated by calculating the MICB50 and IC50. Results C. duckei was the most efficient among the assayed Copaifera species, and its oleoresin was more effective than peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. Copaifera oleoresins and disinfectants did not act synergistically at any of the tested combinations. Certain of C. duckei oleoresin, peracetic acid, and sodium hypochlorite concentrations inhibited biofilm formation and eradicated 50% of the biofilm population. Conclusion C. duckei oleoresin is a potential candidate for disinfectant formulations. Based on these results and given the high incidence of multi-resistant bacteria in hemodialysis patients, it is imperative that new potential antibacterial agents like C. duckei oleoresin, which is active against Staphylococcus, be included in disinfectant formulations.

  11. In vitro studies of the antibacterial activity of Copaifera spp. oleoresins, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid against clinical and environmental isolates recovered from a hemodialysis unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rosimara Gonçalves Leite; Moraes, Thaís da Silva; Silva, Larissa de Oliveira; Bianchi, Thamires Chiquini; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Pires, Regina Helena; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2018-01-01

    Patients submitted to hemodialysis therapy are more susceptible to infection, especially to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. Various research works have attempted to discover new antimicrobial agents from plant extracts and other natural products. The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activities of Copaifera duckei , C. reticulata , and C. oblongifolia oleoresins; sodium hypochlorite; and peracetic acid against clinical and environmental isolates recovered from a Hemodialysis Unit. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and the Fractionated Inhibitory Concentration Index were determined; the ability of the tested compounds/extracts to inhibit biofilm formation was evaluated by calculating the MICB 50 and IC 50 . C. duckei was the most efficient among the assayed Copaifera species, and its oleoresin was more effective than peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. Copaifera oleoresins and disinfectants did not act synergistically at any of the tested combinations. Certain of C. duckei oleoresin, peracetic acid, and sodium hypochlorite concentrations inhibited biofilm formation and eradicated 50% of the biofilm population. C. duckei oleoresin is a potential candidate for disinfectant formulations. Based on these results and given the high incidence of multi-resistant bacteria in hemodialysis patients, it is imperative that new potential antibacterial agents like C. duckei oleoresin, which is active against Staphylococcus , be included in disinfectant formulations.

  12. Effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of dental nickel-titanium files in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.-F.; Lin, M.-C.; Hsu, M.-L.; Li, U.-M.; Lin, C.-P.; Tsai, W.-F.; Ai, C.-F.; Chen, L.-K.; Huang, H.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of commercial dental alloy, in the form of helical nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files, when treated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. The surface of dental helical Ni-Ti files was modified using nitriding treatment at 200 deg. C, 250 deg. C and 300 deg. C in an NH 3 -containing environment. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the Ni-Ti files were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti files when treated with a clinical solution of 5.25% NaOCl was evaluated using the linear polarization method and by potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement. The nitriding treatments at different temperatures created titanium nitride (TiN) on the surface of the helical Ni-Ti files. The Ni-Ti files nitrided at 200 deg. C and 250 deg. C showed higher polarization resistance and higher passive film breakdown potential together with a lower passive current than untreated files. The presence of TiN on dental Ni-Ti files significantly increased the corrosion resistance of the files in the presence of 5.25% NaOCl solution.

  13. Effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of dental nickel-titanium files in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.-F. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, M.-C. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, M.-L. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, U.-M. [Dental Department, Cardinal Tien Hospital, Hsintien, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.-P. [Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, W.-F.; Ai, C.-F. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-K. [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-H. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw

    2009-05-05

    This study investigated the effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of commercial dental alloy, in the form of helical nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files, when treated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. The surface of dental helical Ni-Ti files was modified using nitriding treatment at 200 deg. C, 250 deg. C and 300 deg. C in an NH{sub 3}-containing environment. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the Ni-Ti files were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti files when treated with a clinical solution of 5.25% NaOCl was evaluated using the linear polarization method and by potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement. The nitriding treatments at different temperatures created titanium nitride (TiN) on the surface of the helical Ni-Ti files. The Ni-Ti files nitrided at 200 deg. C and 250 deg. C showed higher polarization resistance and higher passive film breakdown potential together with a lower passive current than untreated files. The presence of TiN on dental Ni-Ti files significantly increased the corrosion resistance of the files in the presence of 5.25% NaOCl solution.

  14. Integration of chemical scrubber with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant for removal of hydrocarbons in cooking oil fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Han; Hsieh, Chu-Chin

    2010-01-01

    There are many types of technologies to control cooking oil fumes (COFs), but current typical technologies, such as electrostatic precipitator, conventional scrubber, catalyst, or condenser, are unable to efficiently remove the odorous materials present in COFs which are the primary cause of odor-complaint cases. There is also a lack of information about using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants to remove contaminants in COFs, and previous studies lack on-site investigations in restaurants. This study presents a chemical scrubber integrated with an automatic control system (ACS) to treat hydrocarbons (HCs) in COFs, and to monitor non-methane HCs (NMHC) and odor as indicators for its efficiency evaluation. The chemical scrubber effectively treats hydrophobic substances in COFs by combining surfactant and NaOCl under optimal operational conditions with NHMC removal efficiency as high as 85%. The mass transfer coefficient (K L a) of NMHC was enhanced by 50% under the NaOCl and surfactant conditions, as compared to typical wet scrubber. Further, this study establishes the fuzzy equations of the ACS, including the relationship between the removal efficiency and K L a, liquid/gas ratio, pH and C NaOCl .

  15. Integration of chemical scrubber with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant for removal of hydrocarbons in cooking oil fume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Han [Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu, Yunlin, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chu-Chin, E-mail: hsiehcc@yuntech.edu.tw [Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu, Yunlin, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    There are many types of technologies to control cooking oil fumes (COFs), but current typical technologies, such as electrostatic precipitator, conventional scrubber, catalyst, or condenser, are unable to efficiently remove the odorous materials present in COFs which are the primary cause of odor-complaint cases. There is also a lack of information about using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants to remove contaminants in COFs, and previous studies lack on-site investigations in restaurants. This study presents a chemical scrubber integrated with an automatic control system (ACS) to treat hydrocarbons (HCs) in COFs, and to monitor non-methane HCs (NMHC) and odor as indicators for its efficiency evaluation. The chemical scrubber effectively treats hydrophobic substances in COFs by combining surfactant and NaOCl under optimal operational conditions with NHMC removal efficiency as high as 85%. The mass transfer coefficient (K{sub L}a) of NMHC was enhanced by 50% under the NaOCl and surfactant conditions, as compared to typical wet scrubber. Further, this study establishes the fuzzy equations of the ACS, including the relationship between the removal efficiency and K{sub L}a, liquid/gas ratio, pH and C{sub NaOCl}.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Chlorhexidine, Peracetic acid and Sodium hypochlorite/etidronate irrigant solutions against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Moliz, M T; Ordinola-Zapata, R; Baca, P; Ruiz-Linares, M; García García, E; Hungaro Duarte, M A; Monteiro Bramante, C; Ferrer-Luque, C M

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite alone (NaOCl) and associated with 9% HEBP (NaOCl/HEBP), 2% peracetic acid (PAA) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), on the viability of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms attached to dentine. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the surface of dentine blocks for 5 days and then exposed to the irrigating solutions for 3 min. Distilled water was used as the control. The total biovolume and the percentage of dead cells of the infected dentine were measured by means of confocal microscopy and the live/dead technique. Nonparametric tests were used to determine statistical differences (P < 0.05). NaOCl and the NaOCl/HEBP mixture were associated with a significantly greater percentage of dead cells, followed by PAA (P < 0.05). No significant antimicrobial effect of CHX was observed in comparison with the control group. Total biovolume decreased significantly in NaOCl, NaOCl/HEBP and PAA solutions in comparison with the CHX and control groups. NaOCl alone or associated with HEBP were the most effective irrigant solutions in dissolving and killing E. faecalis biofilms. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Efficacies of sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium sanitizers for reduction of norovirus and selected bacteria during ware-washing operations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanel Feliciano

    Full Text Available Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1, Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine, quaternary ammonium (QAC and tap water (control. During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua.

  18. Synergistic effects of sodium hypochlorite and ultraviolet radiation in reducing the levels of selected foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Ha, Sang-Do

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatment would produce synergistic effects to facilitate the sterilization of food products during production relative to single treatment. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated the bactericidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and a commercial chemical disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), on Bacillus cereus F4810/72, Cronobacter sakazakii KCTC 2949, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35556, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, and Salmonella Typhimurium novobiocin/nalidixic acid in vitro. Various concentrations of NaClO (20, 60, 100, and 200 ppm NaClO) were tested along with exposure to UV radiation at various doses (6, 96, 216, 360, and 504 mW s/cm(2)). The combined NaClO/UV treatments resulted in greater reductions in bacterial counts than either treatment alone. The synergy values against B. cereus, C. sakazakii, S. aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and E. coli were 0.25-1.17, 0.33-1.97, 0.42-1.72, 0.02-1.44, and 0.01-0.85 log(10) CFU/mL, respectively. The results of this study suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combined NaClO/UV processing against food-borne pathogenic bacteria in vitro.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite associated with intracanal medication for Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals

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    Marcia Carneiro Valera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl associated with an intracanal medication against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six human single-rooted teeth with single root canals were used. The canals were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days and were then instrumented with 1% NaOCl. The roots were divided into 3 groups (n=12 according to the intracanal medication applied: calcium hydroxide paste, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX gel, and 2% CHX gel associated with calcium hydroxide. The following collections were made from the root canals: a initial sample (IS: 21 days after contamination (control, b S1: after instrumentation, c S2: 14 days after intracanal medication placement; S3: 7 days after intracanal medication removal. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Both 1% NaOCl irrigation and the intracanal medications were effective in eliminating E. faecalis and C. albicans inoculated in root canals.

  20. Evaluation of dimensional stability of Iralgin and Alginoplast alginates after disinfection by sodium hypochlorite (5.2% with immersion and spraying methods

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    Vojdani M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Infection control is an integral part of dentistry and dental impressions are considered an important issue in cross contamination. The aim of this study was to investigate the dimensional stability of two irreversible hydrocolloid materials, Alginoplast and Iralgin after disinfection with 5.2% sodium hypochlorite, used with immersion and spraying methods. Material and Methods: In this experimental study, impressions were made of a master mandibular arch (Typodont containing three stainless steel inserts on the occlucal surface of both mandibular first molars and in the lingual surface of the mandibular central incisors, which served as reference marks for making measurements. Two types of irreversible hydrocolloid (Iralgin and Alginoplast were tested. 5.2% sodium hypochlorite was used in two methods of spraying and immersion to disinfect the samples. The control group was not disinfected. Casts were made of type III gypsum. Stone casts were measured with a Nikon profile projector.Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Witney test were used for statistical analysis using p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Casts prepared from Alginoplast disinfected by spraying method, were 0.38 % larger in anteroposterior and 0.06% smaller in cross arch dimensions, whereas those prepared from Alginoplast immersed in hypochlorite were 0.47% larger in anteroposterior and 0.11% smaller in cross arch dimensions. Casts made from Iralgin were smaller after both methods of disinfecting, (0.01% smaller in anteroposterior and 0.001% smaller in cross-arch dimensions after spraying and 0.04% smaller in anteroposterior and 0.03% smaller in cross-arch dimensions after immersing in sodium hypochlorite. Conclusion: Alginoplast and Iralgin impressions can be immersed or sprayed for disinfection without compromising the accuracy needed for diagnostic and opposing casts, as well as removable partial denture construction.

  1. Parameter optimization of electrolytic process of obtaining sodium hypochlorite for disinfection of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoslovskii, S. Yu; Kuznetsov, N. N.; Boldyrev, V. S.

    2017-11-01

    Electrochlorination parameters were optimized in flowing and non-flowing modes for a cell with a volume of 1 l. At a current density of 0.1 A/cm2 in the range of flow rates from 0.8 to 6.0 l/h with a temperature of the initial solution below 20°C the outlet temperature is maintained close to the optimal 40°C. The pH of the solution during electrolysis increases to 8.8 ÷ 9.4. There was studied a process in which a solution with a temperature of 7-8°C and a concentration of sodium chloride of 25 and 35 g/l in non-flowing cell was used. The dependence of the concentration of active chlorine on the electrolysis time varies with the concentration of the initial solution of sodium chloride. In case of chloride concentration of 25 g/l virtually linear relationship makes it easy to choose the time of electrolysis with the aim of obtaining the needed concentration of the product.

  2. Antibacterial efficacy of lavandula officinalis extract, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate solutions as root canal irrigations: A comparative analysis

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    pouya Mehmandoust

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This in vitro study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effect of lavandula -0fficinalis extract, with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX, as root canal irrigants, on Enterococcus faecalis (EF. Materials &Methods: Seventy five extracted single-rooted premolars were selected. Root canals were prepared using rotary ProTaper system and were infected with the culture of E. faecalis. Specimens were randomly divided into five groups (n = 15, Group 1, 2: lavandula extracts (0.26 and 0.52 mg/mL, Group 3: 2.5%NaOCL, Group 4: 2%CHX, Group 5: Normal Saline. Irrigation was performed for each group for 5, 10 and 15 min. The viable bacteria obtained by collecting the canal dentin chips. Data analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney u tests. Results: The mean number of viable bacteria was significantly reduced after 5 min exposure to lavandula solutions (p<0.05. A significant difference also existed between different times in the NaOCL group, being significant between 5 and 15 min (p<0.05, but there was no significant difference between different times in the CHX group. Comparison of the mean number of viable bacteria between different groups at different exposure times revealed that the difference between lavandula and NaOCL solutions with CHX was significant at 5 and 10 min (p<0.05, however, no statistically significant difference was observed between lavandula solutions and NaOCL. Conclusion: lavandula extract was effective in killing of EF.  Further studies are necessary to fully understand its other properties such as tissue solubility, removal of smear layer and impact on dentin structure.

  3. Formation of chlorinated breakdown products during degradation of sunscreen agent, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate in the presence of sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gackowska, Alicja; Przybyłek, Maciej; Studziński, Waldemar; Gaca, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new degradation path of sunscreen active ingredient, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and 4-methoxycinnamic acid (MCA) in the presence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), was discussed. The reaction products were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Since HOCl treatment leads to more polar products than EHMC, application of polar extracting agents, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate/n-hexane mixture, gave better results in terms of chlorinated breakdown products identification than n-hexane. Reaction of EHMC with HOCl lead to the formation of C=C bridge cleavage products such as 2-ethylhexyl chloroacetate, 1-chloro-4-methoxybenzene, 1,3-dichloro-2-methoxybenzene, and 3-chloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. High reactivity of C=C bond attached to benzene ring is also characteristic for MCA, since it can be converted in the presence of HOCl to 2,4-dichlorophenole, 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 1,3-dichloro-2-methoxybenzene, 1,2,4-trichloro-3-methoxybenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenole, and 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxyacetophenone. Surprisingly, in case of EHMC/HOCl/UV, much less breakdown products were formed compared to non-UV radiation treatment. In order to describe the nature of EHMC and MCA degradation, local reactivity analysis based on the density functional theory (DFT) was performed. Fukui function values showed that electrophilic attack of HOCl to the C=C bridge in EHMC and MCA is highly favorable (even more preferable than phenyl ring chlorination). This suggests that HOCl electrophilic addition is probably the initial step of EHMC degradation.

  4. Deproteinization of fluorosed enamel with sodium hypochlorite enhances the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: An In vitro study

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    Rekha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Improving bonding strength to fluorosed teeh. Aims: To determine the effect of deproteinization using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl prior to acid etching on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to fluorosed teeth. Settings and Design: In vitro experimental study. Methods and Material: Forty freshly extracted human mandibular first premolars with TFI 4 were selected and divided into two groups of 20 each. In Group I the teeth were acid etched with 37% phosphoric acid and bonded with composite. In Group II the teeth were deproteinized with 5.25% NaOCl prior to acid etching with 37% phosphoric acid and were bonded with composite. Samples were then subjected to shear bond test by Instron Universal Testing machine. The sample from each group were selected for the SEM study (prior to bonding to analyze the etching patterns achieved. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was checked for normality by Shapiro Wilk Test, to compare the two groups unpaired t test was used. P value was predetermined at ≤ 0.05. Results: The S BS of Group II (11.75 ± 2.83 MPa was higher than Group I (7.44 ± 2.43 MPa and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.000. On SEM the etching pattern was more of type 1 and 2 in Group II. Conclusions: Deproteinization using 5.25% NaOCl prior to acid etching significantly increases the shear bond strength of brackets bonded to fluorosed teeth and can be used as a convenient and effective option in orthodontic bonding to fluorosed teeth.

  5. A comparative evaluation of antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, Curcuma longa, and Camellia sinensis as irrigating solutions on isolated anaerobic bacteria from infected primary teeth

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    Neha Shashikant Dhariwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In endodontics, most of the commercial intra-canal medicaments have cytotoxic reactions and because of their inability to eliminate bacteria from dentinal tubules, recent medicine has turned its attention to the usage of biologic medication prepared from natural plants. The literature to testify the efficacy of natural alternatives in primary teeth is meagre and its effects as irrigating solutions need to be evaluated. Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric and Camellia sinensis (green tea as irrigating solutions against the anaerobic bacteria isolated from the root canals of infected primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients were selected based on the selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Preoperative radiographs were taken. Rubber dam isolation and working length estimation were done, following which thirty samples were taken from the root canals of infected primary teeth using sterile absorbent paper points and transferred to tubes containing thioglycolate transport medium. The bacteria were then isolated using standard microbiological protocols and were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing using the three test irrigants. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 18 software using Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The most commonly isolated bacteria included Porphyromonas sp., Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Sodium hypochlorite and C. longa (turmeric showed good antibacterial effect and were effective against most of the isolated bacteria. There was statistically significant difference in the antibacterial effect among the three tested groups (P < 0.001. The least effective was C. sinensis (green tea. Conclusion: The infected primary teeth almost always present with a polymicrobial structure with a wide variety of anaerobic bacteria. The chemo-mechanical preparation plays an important

  6. The Use of Sodium Hypochlorite Solution for (n,γ99Mo/99mTc Generator Based on Zirconium-Based Material (ZBM

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    I. Saptiama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The many problems in preparing fission product 99Mo led into this work to develop 99Mo/99mTc generator using neutron-irradiated natural MoO3 targets and, more specifically, to develop a zirconium-based material (ZBM for chromatography columns that have an adsorption capacity of more than 100 mg Mo/g ZBM. This paper reports our recent experiments in the use of sodium hypochlorite solution of various concentrations to improve the yield of 99mTc in performance of (n,γ99Mo/99mTc generators based on the ZBM. The synthesized ZBM was coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate for improving the hardness of the material. The adsorption of [99Mo]molybdate into ZBM was carried out by reacting ZBM into [99Mo]molybdate solution at 90°C to form ZBM-[99Mo] molybdate. ZBM-[99Mo]molybdate was then packed into generator column, then eluted with 10 × 1 mL of saline followed by 1 × 5 mL of NaOCl solution. The NaOCl solution concentrations used were 0.5%; 1%; 3%; and 5% for each column, respectively. This study resulted in a ZBM which has a 99Mo adsorption capacity of 167.5 ± 3.4 mgMo/g ZBM, as well as in a yield eluate of 99mTc of up to 70%, and the find that the optimum NaOCl concentration was 3%. The use of sodium hypochlorite solution affected 99Mo breakthrough. The higher sodium hypochlorite concentration used, the more 99Mo breaktrough exist on 99mTc eluate.

  7. A comparative evaluation of antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, Curcuma longa, and Camellia sinensis as irrigating solutions on isolated anaerobic bacteria from infected primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhariwal, Neha Shashikant; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Harakuni, Sheetal; Sogi, Suma; Assudani, Harsha G; Mistry, Laresh Naresh

    2016-01-01

    In endodontics, most of the commercial intra-canal medicaments have cytotoxic reactions and because of their inability to eliminate bacteria from dentinal tubules, recent medicine has turned its attention to the usage of biologic medication prepared from natural plants. The literature to testify the efficacy of natural alternatives in primary teeth is meagre and its effects as irrigating solutions need to be evaluated. To evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Camellia sinensis (green tea) as irrigating solutions against the anaerobic bacteria isolated from the root canals of infected primary teeth. Thirty patients were selected based on the selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Preoperative radiographs were taken. Rubber dam isolation and working length estimation were done, following which thirty samples were taken from the root canals of infected primary teeth using sterile absorbent paper points and transferred to tubes containing thioglycolate transport medium. The bacteria were then isolated using standard microbiological protocols and were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing using the three test irrigants. SPSS 18 software using Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. The most commonly isolated bacteria included Porphyromonas sp., Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Sodium hypochlorite and C. longa (turmeric) showed good antibacterial effect and were effective against most of the isolated bacteria. There was statistically significant difference in the antibacterial effect among the three tested groups (P < 0.001). The least effective was C. sinensis (green tea). The infected primary teeth almost always present with a polymicrobial structure with a wide variety of anaerobic bacteria. The chemo-mechanical preparation plays an important role in eradicating the population of predominant micro-organisms in treating these teeth with

  8. Interactions between the Tetrasodium Salts of EDTA and 1-Hydroxyethane 1,1-Diphosphonic Acid with Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Philippe; Mohn, Dirk; Attin, Thomas; Zehnder, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    A clinically useful all-in-one endodontic irrigant with combined proteolytic and decalcifying properties is still elusive. In this study, the chemical effects of dissolving the tetrasodium salts of 1-hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid (Na 4 HEDP) or Na 4 EDTA directly in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigants in polypropylene syringes were assessed during the course of 1 hour. The solubility of the salts in water was determined. Their compatibility with 1% and 5% NaOCl was measured by iodometric titration and in a calcium complexation experiment by using a Ca 2+ -selective electrode. The salts dissolved within 1 minute. The dissolution maximum of Na 4 HEDP in water (wt/total wt) was 44.6% ± 1.6%. The corresponding dissolution maximum of Na 4 EDTA was 38.2% ± 0.8%. Na 4 HEDP at 18% in 5% NaOCl caused a mere loss of 16% of the initially available chlorine during 1 hour. In contrast, a corresponding mixture between NaOCl and the Na 4 EDTA salt caused 95% reduction in available chlorine after 1 minute. Mixtures of 3% Na 4 EDTA with 1% NaOCl were more stable, but only for 30 minutes. Na 4 HEDP lost 24% of its calcium complexation capacity after 60 minutes. The corresponding loss for Na 4 EDTA was 34%. The compatibility and solubility of particulate Na 4 HEDP with/in NaOCl solutions are such that these components can be mixed and used for up to 1 hour. In contrast, short-term compatibility of the Na 4 EDTA salt with NaOCl solutions was considerably lower, decreasing at higher concentrations of either compound. Especially for Na 4 HEDP but also for Na 4 EDTA, the NaOCl had little effect on calcium complexation. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Disinfection efficiencies of sage and spearmint essential oils against planktonic and biofilm Staphylococcus aureus cells in comparison with sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetas, Dimitrios; Dimitropoulou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Giaouris, Efstathios

    2017-09-18

    Staphylococcus aureus causes human infections and foodborne intoxications. This study explored the potential antibacterial actions of sage and spearmint essential oils (EOs) against both its planktonic and biofilm cells, in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a commonly applied chemical sanitizer. Initially, the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MICs, MBCs) of each plant mixture were determined against planktonic cultures, following growth at 30°C for 24h. Stationary phase planktonic bacteria were then individually exposed for 6min to either each EO (applied at 1-2×MBC; 2.5-5%), or NaOCl (250-450ppm). These were also left to form biofilms on 96-well polystyrene microplates, at 30°C for 96h, with medium renewal at 48h, in the presence of 10 different concentrations of each EO, expanding from sub- to super-inhibitory for planktonic growth, and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs; >90% inhibition) of each plant mixture were calculated. Formed biofilms were finally exposed for 6min to either each EO (applied at 2-6×MBC; 5-15%), or NaOCl (7500-25,000ppm; applied either alone or in combination with each EO at 5%). Results showed that both EOs presented MIC and MBC equal to 1.25 and 2.5%, respectively. As expected, their application at their MIC and above significantly inhibited biofilm formation, while spearmint EO was still able to cause this at ½ of its MIC, with MBICs equal to 1.25 and 0.63% for sage and spearmint EOs, respectively. Alarmingly, the application of both EOs at 1/8 to 1/16 of their MIC further increased biofilm formation. Regarding biofilm disinfection experiments, the individual application of each EO against the pre-established sessile communities resulted in log decrease ranges of 0.8-3logCFU/cm 2 , while in the case of NaOCl application (either alone or combined with each EO), the observed reductions never exceeded 1.7logCFU/cm 2 . These last results highlight the great antimicrobial recalcitrance of

  10. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of MTAD, oxytetracycline, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: An ex-vivo study

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    Rakesh Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficiency of MTAD, Oxytetracycline, 5% NaOCl, and 2% chlorhexidine when used as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human single rooted anterior teeth were selected. The decoronated sterilized root samples were infected with 10μl of 24 hours pure culture suspension of E. faecalis for 48 hours except for 10 teeth in negative control group (Group V. The test samples were divided into four groups (n = 10 as: Group I- 5% Sodium Hypochlorite, Group II- MTAD, Group III- Oxytetracycline and Group IV- 2% Chlorhexidine. The root canals were instrumented while using respective root canal irrigant solution. The bacterial cultures were taken from each root canal and colony forming units were counted on agar plates. The data was statistically analyzed. Results: It was observed that Group-III (Oxytetracycline showed the maximum antibacterial efficacy against E. faecalis followed by Group II (MTAD, Group IV (2% Chlorhexidine, Group I (5% Sodium hypochlorite. Conclusion: Oxytetracycline has a great potential as a root canal irrigating agent because of its superior antimicrobial efficacy against E. faecalis, easy availability and cost effectiveness.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine and mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid and a detergent on human red blood corpuscles: An in-vitro study

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    Krishna Prasad Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of various volumes of 5.25% of sodium hypochlorite, 2% of chlorhexidine gluconate and mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid and a detergent (MTAD by checking for hemolysis of human red blood corpuscles. Materials and Methods: A total volume of 100 μl of diluted red blood corpuscles obtained through centrifugation was added to three irrigating solutions (5.25% of sodium hypochlorite, 2% of chlorhexidine and MTAD of six test tubes each. Individual irrigants per group were added in increasing volume starting from the second test tube keeping the first one as the control. After incubation for 3 min hemoglobin content was measured using an automated hemoanalyzer data was analyzed using one sample t-test. Results: Sodium hypochlorite is the most cytotoxic solution followed by MTAD and chlorhexidine. Conclusions: This study suggests that the three irrigating solutions do cause detrimental effects on the diluted red blood corpuscles. A great deal of care should therefore be exercised when using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite during endodontic irrigation.

  12. Comparison of the virucidal efficiency of peracetic acid, potassium monopersulfate and sodium hypochlorite on hepatitis A and enteric cytopathogenic bovine orphan virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H; Soumet, C; Fresnel, R; Morin, T; Lamaudière, S; Le Sauvage, A L; Deleurme, K; Maris, P

    2013-10-01

    The virucidal activity of peroxy-products was evaluated and compared with sodium hypochlorite using the EN 14675 European suspension test and a surface test developed in our laboratory. The classical approach on infectivity of viruses was complemented with a prospective approach on virus genomes. Both infectivity tests were adapted and/or developed to determine the activity of disinfectants against reference bovine enterovirus type 1 [enteric cytopathogenic bovine orphan virus (ECBO)] and resistant hepatitis A virus (HAV) in conditions simulating practical use. Similar concentrations of active chlorine were virucidal against both viruses, either at 0·062% using the suspension test or at 0·50-1% using the surface test. However, for potassium monopersulfate and peracetic acid products, concentrations of approximately three times (3%) to 72 times (9%) higher were necessary against HAV than ECBO when determined with the suspension test. With the surface test, 4-8% peroxy-products were virucidal against HAV, either 16 times more peroxy-products concentrations than against ECBO. No significant impact on the targeted area of the viral genome measured by real-time RT-PCRs was obtained for ECBO and HAV suspensions treated with disinfectants, even with doses higher than the minimal virucidal concentrations. Sodium hypochlorite, but not peroxy-products, had similar activity against ECBO and HAV. No relation could be established between infectivity tests and genome destruction. This is the first comparative study that investigates with novel suspension and surface tests the reduction of infectivity and genome destruction of two resistant viruses by peroxy-compounds. The results and conclusions collected with European standards are discussed. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of super-oxidized water (Sterilox® and sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis in a bovine root canal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Rossi-Fedele

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ideally root canal irrigants should have, amongst other properties, antimicrobial action associated with a lack of toxicity against periapical tissues. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl is a widely used root canal irrigant, however it has been shown to have a cytotoxic effect on vital tissue and therefore it is prudent to investigate alternative irrigants. Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® belongs to the group of the super-oxidized waters; it consists of a mixture of oxidizing substances, and has been suggested to be used as root canal irrigant. Super-oxidized waters have been shown to provide efficient cleaning of root canal walls, and have been proposed to be used for the disinfection of medical equipment. OBJECTIVE: To compare the antimicrobial action against Enterococcus faecalis of NaOCl, Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution® and Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® when used as irrigating solutions in a bovine root canal model. METHODOLOGY: Root sections were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis JH2-2. After 10 days of incubation the root canals were irrigated using one of three solutions (NaOCl, Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution®and Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® and subsequently sampled by grinding dentin using drills. The debris was placed in BHI broth and dilutions were plated onto fresh agar plates to quantify growth. RESULTS: Sodium hypochlorite was the only irrigant to eliminate all bacteria. When the dilutions were made, although NaOCl was still statistically superior, Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® solution was superior to Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution®. CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this study Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® appeared to have significantly more antimicrobial action compared to the Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution® alone, however NaOCl was the only solution able to consistently eradicate E. faecalis in the model.

  14. Efficacy of peracetic acid in rapid disinfection of Resilon and gutta-percha cones compared with sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, and povidone-iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, N; Prabhakar, V; Koshy, Minu; Abinaya, K; Prabu, M; Thangavelu, Lavanya

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the effectiveness of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine, 1% peracetic acid, and 10% povidone-iodine in the rapid disinfection of Resilon (Pentron Clinical Technologies, LLC, Wallingford, CT) and gutta-percha cones contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. Two hundred fifty-six samples consisting of 128 gutta-percha cones and 128 Resilon cones were used in this study. The materials were tested for disinfection according to the type of solution (3% NaOCl, 2% chlorhexidine, 1% peracetic acid, or 10% povidone-iodine), the time of exposure to each solution (1 or 5 minutes), and the type of microorganisms (E. faecalis or B. subtilis). Subsequent to the disinfection, samples were placed in test tubes containing 10 mL Mueller-Hinton broth and incubated at 37°C for 7 days. All test tubes were observed at 24-hour intervals and visually checked for turbidity, signifying microbial growth. In this study, 1% peracetic acid showed the best results for both 1 minute and 5 minutes of disinfection, 2% chlorhexidine showed the second best results although it was statistically at par with peracetic acid, and 3% hypochlorite ranked third in disinfection; this was statistically significant when compared with peracetic acid and chlorhexidine. Disinfection by povidone-iodine was the least within all the groups for both contact times although disinfection for 5 minutes showed better results than disinfection for 1 minute for gutta-percha. The outcome of this study confirmed the efficacy of 1% peracetic acid and 2% chlorhexidine in the rapid disinfection of both Resilon and gutta-percha. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid on the surface roughness of acrylic resin polymerized by heated water for short and long cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczepanski, Felipe; Sczepanski, Claudia Roberta Brunnquell; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the surface roughness of acrylic resin submitted to chemical disinfection via 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or 1% peracetic acid (C2H4O3). The disc-shaped resin specimens (30 mm diameter ×4 mm height) were polymerized by heated water using two cycles (short cycle: 1 h at 74°C and 30 min at 100°C; conventional long cycle: 9 h at 74°C). The release of substances by these specimens in water solution was also quantified. Specimens were fabricated, divided into four groups (n = 10) depending on the polymerization time and disinfectant. After polishing, the specimens were stored in distilled deionized water. Specimens were immersed in 1% NaClO or 1% C2H4O3 for 30 min, and then were immersed in distilled deionized water for 20 min. The release of C2H4O3 and NaClO was measured via visual colorimetric analysis. Roughness was measured before and after disinfection. Roughness data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. There was no interaction between polymerization time and disinfectant in influencing the average surface roughness (Ra, P = 0.957). Considering these factors independently, there were significant differences between short and conventional long cycles (P = 0.012), but no significant difference between the disinfectants hypochlorite and C2H4O3 (P = 0.366). Visual colorimetric analysis did not detect release of substances. It was concluded that there was the difference in surface roughness between short and conventional long cycles, and disinfection at acrylic resins polymerized by heated water using a short cycle modified the properties of roughness.

  16. Effect of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid on the surface roughness of acrylic resin polymerized by heated water for short and long cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczepanski, Felipe; Sczepanski, Claudia Roberta Brunnquell; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the surface roughness of acrylic resin submitted to chemical disinfection via 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or 1% peracetic acid (C2H4O3). Materials and Methods: The disc-shaped resin specimens (30 mm diameter ×4 mm height) were polymerized by heated water using two cycles (short cycle: 1 h at 74°C and 30 min at 100°C; conventional long cycle: 9 h at 74°C). The release of substances by these specimens in water solution was also quantified. Specimens were fabricated, divided into four groups (n = 10) depending on the polymerization time and disinfectant. After polishing, the specimens were stored in distilled deionized water. Specimens were immersed in 1% NaClO or 1% C2H4O3 for 30 min, and then were immersed in distilled deionized water for 20 min. The release of C2H4O3 and NaClO was measured via visual colorimetric analysis. Roughness was measured before and after disinfection. Roughness data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: There was no interaction between polymerization time and disinfectant in influencing the average surface roughness (Ra, P = 0.957). Considering these factors independently, there were significant differences between short and conventional long cycles (P = 0.012), but no significant difference between the disinfectants hypochlorite and C2H4O3 (P = 0.366). Visual colorimetric analysis did not detect release of substances. Conclusion: It was concluded that there was the difference in surface roughness between short and conventional long cycles, and disinfection at acrylic resins polymerized by heated water using a short cycle modified the properties of roughness. PMID:25512737

  17. On site sodium hypochlorite generation using electro chlorination. Disinfection of potable waste in small communities; Produccion in situ de NaClO, mediante electrocloracion. Aplicaciona la desinfeccion de agua de consumo en pequenas comunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, F.; Todra, F.; Gomez, J. L.

    2008-07-01

    This works deals with the experience of ATLL in the re chlorination of its distribution system.Besides security problems that present the disinfection using chlorine in local tanks near the houses, in some cases, the irregular consumption leads to new problems related with maintenance and management of the system. To improve the process, ATLL has installed some on site electro chlorination systems to generate sodium hypochlorite (0,8%) from salt, at request. (Author) 8 refs.

  18. Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation with natural irrigants (Morinda citrifolia juice, Aloe Vera and Propolis) in comparison with 1% sodium hypochlorite for removal of E. faecalis biofilm: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anuj; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Ballal, Suma

    2013-01-01

    Present study evaluated the efficacy of natural derivative irrigants, Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ), Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison to 1% sodium hypochlorite with passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of the intraradicular E. faecalis biofilms in extracted single rooted human permanent teeth. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the prepared root canal walls of 60 standardized root halves which were longitudinally sectioned. These root halves were re-approximated and the samples were divided into five groups of twelve each. The groups were, Group A (1% NaOCl), Group B (MCJ), Group C (Aloe vera), Group D (Propolis) and Group E (Saline). These groups were treated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) along with the respective irrigants. The root halves were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Three images (X2.5), coronal, middle and apical, were taken for the twelve root halves in each of the five groups. The images were randomized and biofilm coverage assessed independently by three calibrated examiners, using a four-point scoring system. 1% NaOCl with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm and was superior to the natural irrigants like MCJ, Aloe vera and Propolis tested in this study. 1% NaOCl used along with passive ultrasonic irrigation was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm when compared to natural irrigants (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis).

  19. Treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 by zero-valent iron/activated carbon combined with microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Xu, Zhen; Li, Qing-Shan; Chen, Song; An, Shu-Qing; Zeng, Qing-Fu; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 using zero-valent iron/activated carbon (ZVI/AC), microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite (MDEL/NaClO) and the combination of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO was conducted. The preliminary results showed the two steps method of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO had much higher degradation efficiency than both single steps. The final color removal percentage was nearly up to 100% and the chemical oxygen demand reduction percentage was up to approximately 82%. The effects of operational parameters, including initial pH value of simulated wastewater, ZVI/AC ratio and particle size of ZVI were also investigated. In addition, from the discussion of synergistic effect between ZVI/AC and MEDL/NaClO, we found that in the ZVI/AC-MEDL/NaClO process, ZVI/AC could break the azo bond firstly and then MEDL/NaClO degraded the aromatic amine products effectively. Reversing the order would reduce the degradation efficiency.

  20. Antibacterial efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree oil, Curcuma longa (Turmeric, 2% chlorhexidine, and 5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshita Joy Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil, Curcumalonga (turmeric, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX, and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Agar plates were prepared using tryptone soya agar. Cultures of E. faecalis were grown in tryptone soya broth. Agar well diffusion method was performed and the plates were incubated at 37΀C for 24 h. The zones of inhibition were recorded. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s post hoc test. P-value was considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: Maximum antibacterial efficacy was exhibited by 2% CHX, followed by 5% NaOCl and C. longa with no statistically significant difference between them. It was followed by M. alternifolia (Tea tree oil. Ethanol and saline showed the least antibacterial action. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, C. longa and M. alternifolia can be used as an alternative root canal irrigant, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine gluconate and octenidine dihydrochloride in elimination of microorganisms within dentinal tubules of primary and permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirali, Resmiye-Ebru; Bodur, Haluk; Ece, Gülden

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation solutions at different time intervals for the elimination of E. faecalis and C. albicans penetrated into the dentine tubules of primary and permanent teeth in vitro. The 4 mm primary and permanent teeth sections were sterilized and contaminated with a mixture of E. faecalis and C. albicans strains. After the application of different irrigation solutions (Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine gluconate, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, saline) to the contaminated tooth sections according to study groups, neutralizers were applied for inactivation of the solutions after 30 sec, 1 min and 5 min. Dentine shavings were placed into TSB and 10 µL from each tube was inoculated on agar plates, followed by an incubation period of 24 h at 37°C. The colonies were counted macroscopically. The results were compared by using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests, with a significance level at pteeth, the most effective one was found as 5-minute application of 0.1% Octenidine Dihydrochloride. The antibacterial effects of the tested solutions on the same time periods against C. albicans revealed no significant difference. There were no statistically significant differences between primary and permanent teeth with respect to the antimicrobial activity of the tested solutions. Moreover, Octenidine Dihydrochloride may be used as an alternative endodontic irrigant.

  2. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. under mono and dual-species conditions and their sensitivity to cetrimonium bromide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Moreno, Maricarmen; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; Guerrero-Medina, Pedro Javier; Avila-Novoa, María Guadalupe

    The aim of this study was evaluated the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. under mono and dual-species biofilms, onto stainless steel 316 (SS) and polypropylene B (PP), and their sensitivity to cetrimonium bromide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. The biofilms were developed by immersion of the surfaces in TSB by 10 d at 37°C. The results showed that in monospecies biofilms the type of surface not affected the cellular density (p>0.05). However, in dual-species biofilms on PP the adhesion of Salmonella spp. was favored, 7.61±0.13Log 10 CFU/cm 2 , compared with monospecies biofilms onto the same surface, 5.91±0.44Log 10 CFU/cm 2 (pdisinfection treatments; and the most effective disinfectant was peracetic acid (3500ppm), reducing by more than 5Log 10 CFU/cm 2 , while the least effective was cetrimonium bromide. In addition, S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. were more resistant to the disinfectants in mono than in dual-species biofilms (p<0.05). Therefore, the interspecies interactions between S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. had a negative effect on the antimicrobial resistance of each microorganism, compared with the monospecies biofilms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), BioPure MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis. The testing of the antimicrobial efficacy of selected medicaments against E. faecalis was done by the agar disk-diffusion method. Whatman paper discs of 6 mm diameter were prepared and soaked with the test solution. These discs were then placed onto the previously seeded agar Petri plates. Later, these plates were incubated for 48 h at 37 °C under the appropriate gaseous conditions in a CO2 incubator. A zone of inhibition was recorded in millimeter for each plate and the results were analyzed statistically. MTAD was found to be superior in its antibacterial abilities against E. faecalis compared with the other irrigants used. All the other tested irrigants showed significant zone of inhibition. BioPure MTAD offers better antibacterial efficacy than NaOCl. E. officinalis and P. guajava are effective antibacterial agents against E. faecalis and can be used to reduce root canal microflora and root canal failures.

  4. Evaluation of 4% Sodium Hypochlorite in eliminating Enterococcus faecalis from the Root Canal when Used with Three Irrigation Methods: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyank, Harsh; Pandey, Vinisha; Bagul, Abhishek; Majety, Kishore Kumar; Verma, Parul; Choudhury, Basanta Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Endodontic treatment removes all pathogens, such as Enterococcus faecalis from pulp and root canals. The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of sodium hypo-chlorite (NaOCl) in removing E. faecalis from the root canal used with three different irrigation methods. This study was conducted on freshly extracted maxillary incisors. After biomechanical preparation, root canals were injected with E. faecalis. Three groups were made which contained 30 teeth in each group; 2 mL of NaOCl solution was used for irrigation followed by agitation with K-files in group I; 2 mL of NaOCl solution was used for irrigation and ultrasonic agitation was done in group II. In group III, an alternate irrigation with NaOCl and 3% hydrogen peroxide was done. The fourth group (control) was irrigated with sterile saline solution. E. fae-calis bacteria were sampled to the root canals with paper points and were transferred to tubes that contained 5 mL of brain heart infusion broth. Tubes were incubated and the presence of broth turbidity was suggestive of bacteria remaining in the root canal. All three groups showed no statistically significant difference. However, difference existed between experimental groups and control groups. The author concluded that all three methods of application of NaOCl were effective in disinfecting the root canal than the saline solution. No single irrigant has 100% efficiency. Thus by this study, a best irrigating solution with maximum properties can be established.

  5. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. under mono and dual-species conditions and their sensitivity to cetrimonium bromide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricarmen Iñiguez-Moreno

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was evaluated the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. under mono and dual-species biofilms, onto stainless steel 316 (SS and polypropylene B (PP, and their sensitivity to cetrimonium bromide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. The biofilms were developed by immersion of the surfaces in TSB by 10 d at 37 °C. The results showed that in monospecies biofilms the type of surface not affected the cellular density (p > 0.05. However, in dual-species biofilms on PP the adhesion of Salmonella spp. was favored, 7.61 ± 0.13 Log10 CFU/cm2, compared with monospecies biofilms onto the same surface, 5.91 ± 0.44 Log10 CFU/cm2 (p < 0.05. The mono and dual-species biofilms were subjected to disinfection treatments; and the most effective disinfectant was peracetic acid (3500 ppm, reducing by more than 5 Log10 CFU/cm2, while the least effective was cetrimonium bromide. In addition, S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. were more resistant to the disinfectants in mono than in dual-species biofilms (p < 0.05. Therefore, the interspecies interactions between S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. had a negative effect on the antimicrobial resistance of each microorganism, compared with the monospecies biofilms.

  6. Influence of refreshment/activation cycles and temperature rise on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, R G; Verhaagen, B; Wesselink, P R; Versluis, M; van der Sluis, L W M

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of multiple refreshment/activation cycles and temperature on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation (UAI) under laboratory conditions. The root canal walls of 24 standardized root canals in bovine incisors were exposed to a standardized volume of NaOCl at different temperatures (24 °C and 38 °C) and exposure times (20, 60 and 180 s). The irrigant was refreshed and ultrasonically activated four times for 20 s followed by a 40 s rest interval, with no refreshment and no activation as the controls. The reaction rate was determined by measuring the amount of active chlorine in the NaOCl solution before and after being exposed to dentine during the specific experimental conditions. Calorimetry was used to measure the electrical-to-sonochemical conversion efficiency during ultrasonic activation. Refreshment, activation and exposure time all increased the reaction rate of NaOCl (P reaction rate of NaOCl (P > 0.125). The reaction rate of NaOCl with dentine is enhanced by refreshment, ultrasonic activation and exposure time. Temperature rise of irrigant during ultrasonic activation was not sufficient to alter the reaction rate. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cang Long; Zhou Dongmei; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Chen Haifeng

    2007-01-01

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary

  8. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions.

  9. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkare, Swati Ramesh; Ahire, Nivedita Pramod; Khedkar, Smita Uday

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1) hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  10. Shear bond strength evaluation of chemically-cured and light-cured orthodontic adhesives after enamel deproteinization with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, J. C.; Krisnawati; Purbiati, M.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of enamel deproteinization with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) before etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of Unite (UN; 3M Unitek) and Xihu-BIOM adhesive (XB). Fifty-two maxillary first premolars were divided into four groups: (1) UN and (2) XB according to manufacturer’s recommendation and (3) UN and (4) XB deproteinized with 5.25% NaOCl. Brackets were bonded, and a mechanical test was performed using a universal testing machine. The mean SBS value for groups A1, A2, B1, and B2 was 13.51 ± 2.552, 14.36 ± 2.902, 16.43 ± 2.615, and 13.05 ± 2.348 MPa, respectively. A statistically significant difference in SBSs was observed between chemically cured groups and between group B (p 0.05). NaOCl enamel deproteinization before acid etching has a significant effect on the SBS of Unite adhesive, but not on that of the Xihu-BIOM adhesive. Furthermore, a significant difference in the SBS of Unite and Xihu-BIOM adhesives within the enamel deproteinization group was observed in this study.

  11. Electron scattering from sodium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-10-01

    A comprehensive comparison is made between theoretical calculations and experimental data for intermediate energy (≥ 10 eV) electron scattering from sodium vapour. The theoretical predictions of coupled-channels calculations (including one, two or four channels) do not agree with experimental values of the differential cross sections for elastic scattering or the resonant 3s to 3p excitation. Increasingly-more-sophisticated calculations, incorporating electron correlations in the target states, and also including core-excited states in the close-coupling expansion, are done at a few selected energies in an attempt to isolate the cause of the discrepancies between theory and experiment. It is found that these more-sophisticated calculations give essentially the same results as the two- and four-channel calculations using Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Comparison of the sodium high-energy elastic differential cross sections with those of neon suggests that the sodium differential cross section experiments may suffer from systematic errors. There is also disagreement, at the higher energies, between theoretical values for the scattering parameters and those that are derived from laser-excited superelastic scattering and electron photon coincidence experiments. When allowance is made for the finite acceptance angle of the electron spectrometers used in the experiments by convoluting the theory with a function representing the distribution of electrons entering the electron spectrometer it is found that the magnitudes of the differences between theory and experiment are reduced

  12. Analysis of Economic Efficiency of Production of Low-Concentrated Sodium Hypochlorite by Direct Electrolysis of Natural Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, L. N.; Pchelnikov, I. V.; Fedotov, R. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study presents the economic efficiency of direct electrolysis of natural waters in comparison with the waters artificially prepared by electrolysis of the 3% sodium salt solution. The study used sea water (Black sea water); mineral water (underground water of the Melikhovskaya station, “Ognennaya” hole); brackish water (underground water from the Grushevskaya station of the Aksai district); 3% solution of sodium salt. As a result, the dependences characterizing the direct electrolysis of natural waters with different mineralization, economic, and energy parties are shown. The rational area of the electrolysis for each of the investigated solution is determined. The cost of a kilogram of active chlorine obtained by the direct water electrolysis: Black sea from 17.2 to 18.3 RUB/kg; the Melikhovskaya station “Ognennaya” hole - 14.3 to 15.0 Rubles/kg; 3% solution of NaCl - 30 Rubles./kg; Grushevskogo St. - 63,0-73,0 Rubles/kg.

  13. Evaluation of disinfecting effect of 5% sodium hypochlorite solution diluted to 2:100 along with the use of disposable covers on HBV contaminated dental office surfaces and equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arami S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The efficiency of disinfecting materials and procedures in removal of contamination from dental surfaces and equipments is essential. In authors' previous study, daily use of 2:100 dilution of 5% sodium hypochlorite in water and disposable covers were recommended since HBV contamination was found on semi-critical parts of the operative dentistry department. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HBV contamination following application of the recommended procedures.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. In the first cross-sectional part, samples were collected from 17 sites of dental surfaces. In the second interventional part samples were collected from 10 sites of 9 dental and 3 sites of 2 light cure units, before and after disinfection with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution diluted to 2:100. Sterile cotton swabs moistened with sterile BSAS (Bovine Serum Albumin in Sodium Chloride solution were used for sampling. Samples were tested by PCR technique in Pasteur Institute, Iran.Results: None of the samples collected in the first part of the study showed contamination. In the second part of the study, from 96 samples taken from various parts of dental and light cure units, before and after disinfection, there was only one HBV contaminated site before disinfection which showed no contamination after disinfection.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, disinfecting procedure with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution diluted to 2:100 along with using disposable covers is effective in preventing HBV contamination.

  14. The effects of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, peracetic acid, and etidronic acid on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite: in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür İlke Atasoy Ulusoy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 18% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, 2% peracetic acid (PAA, and 9% etidronic acid (HEBP on the organic tissue dissolution activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. Materials and Method: Sixty samples with similar weight and dimensions were obtained from bovine muscle tissue. The tissue samples were blotted dry on filter paper and weighed with a precision balance. The specimens were immersed in following solutions: (1 2 mL 2.5% NaOCl, (2 1 mL 5% NaOCl + 1 mL 18% EDTA, (3 1 mL 5% NaOCl + 1 mL 2% PAA, (4 1 mL 5% NaOCl + 1 mL 9% HEBP. The specimens were then dried and weighed again. The weight loss of each specimen incubated in the test solutions was measured at 30 and 60 min. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. Results: Use of NaOCl (5% together with 18% EDTA resulted in minimal tissue dissolution capacity compared to the other groups at both time points (p<0.001. The tissue dissolution capacity of NaOCl was also affected by 9% HEBP. The greatest tissue weight reduction values were obtained in the NaOCl+PAA group at 30 minutes (p<0.001. At 60 min, NaOCl and NaOCl+PAA groups exhibited the greatest tissue dissolution capacity (p<0.001; no significant difference was found between these two groups (p=0.169. Conclusion: EDTA and HEBP decreased the tissue dissolution capacity of NaOCl, whereas PAA did not have any negative effect on the ability of NaOCl to dissolve the organic tissue.

  15. A comparison of orthodontic bracket shear bond strength on enamel deproteinized by 5.25% sodium hypochlorite using total etch and self-etch primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkowidjaja, F.; Soegiharto, B. M.; Purbiati, M.

    2017-08-01

    The shear bond strength (SBS) can be increased by removing protein pellicles from the enamel surface by deproteinization using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The SBS of a self-etch primer is lower than that of a total etch primer; nonetheless, it prevents white spot lesions. This study aimed to assess the SBS of the Anyetch (AE) total etch primer and FL-Bond II Shofu (FL) self-etch primer after enamel deproteinization using 5.25% NaOCl. Forty eight human maxillary first premolars were extracted, cleaned, and divided into four groups. In group A, brackets were bonded to the enamel without deproteinization before etching (A1: 10 teeth using total etch primer (AE); A2: 10 teeth using self-etch primer (FL)). In group B, brackets were bonded to the enamel after deproteinization with 5.25% NaOCl before etching (B1: 10 teeth using total etch primer (AE); B2: 10 teeth using self-etch primer (FL)). Brackets were bonded using Transbond XT, stored in artificial saliva for 24 h at 37°C, mounted on acrylic cylinders, and debonded using a Shimadzu AG-5000 universal testing machine. There were no significant differences in SBS between the total etch (AE) groups (p > 0.05) and between the self-etch (FL) groups (p > 0.05). There were significant differences in SBS between groups A and B. The mean SBS for groups A1, A2, B1, and B2 was 12.91±3.99, 4.46±2.47, 13.06±3.66, and 3.62±2.36 MPa, respectively. Deproteinization using NaOCl did not affect the SBS of the total etch primer (AE) group; it reduced the SBS of the self-etch primer (FL) group, but not with a statistically significant difference.

  16. Comparison of the in vivo antimicrobial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine used as root canal irrigants: a molecular microbiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) when used as irrigants during treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Forty-seven single-rooted single-canal teeth with necrotic pulps and asymptomatic apical periodontitis were selected for this study according to stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria. Bacterial samples were taken at the baseline (S1) and after (S2) chemomechanical preparation using 2.5% NaOCl (n = 30) or 0.12% CHX (n = 17) as the irrigant. Bacterial, archaeal, and fungal presence was evaluated by broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 28 candidate endodontic pathogens. All S1 samples were PCR positive for bacterial presence but negative for both archaea and fungi. Both NaOCl- and CHX-based protocols were significantly effective in reducing the bacterial levels and number of taxa. No significant differences were observed between them in all tested parameters including the incidence of negative PCR results in S2 (40% for NaOCl vs 47% for CHX, p = 0.8), reduction in the number of taxa per canal (p = 0.3), and reduction in the bacterial levels (p = 0.07). The most prevalent taxa in S2 samples from the NaOCl group were Propionibacterium acnes, Streptococcus species, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Selenomonas sputigena. In the CHX group, the most prevalent taxa in S2 were Dialister invisus, Actinomyces israelii, Prevotella baroniae, Propionibacterium acidifaciens, and Streptococcus species. Treatment protocols using irrigation with either NaOCl or CHX succeeded in significantly reducing the the number of bacterial taxa and their levels in infected root canals, with no significant difference between these substances. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Generation of dissolved organic matter and byproducts from activated sludge during contact with sodium hypochlorite and its implications to on-line chemical cleaning in MBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiwei; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Ng, Wun Jern; Liu, Yu

    2016-11-01

    On-line chemical cleaning of membranes with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been commonly employed for maintaining a constant permeability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) due to its simple and efficient operation. However, activated sludge is inevitably exposed to NaClO during this cleaning process. In spite of the broad applications of on-line chemical cleaning in MBR such as chemical cleaning-in-place (CIP) and chemical enhanced backwash (CEB), little information is currently available for the release of emerging dissolved organic matter (DOM) and byproducts from this prevalent practice. Therefore, in this study, activated sludge suspended in a phosphate buffered saline solution was exposed to different doses of NaClO in order to determine the generation of potential DOM and byproducts. The results showed the occurrence of significant DOM release (up to 24.7 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon) after exposure to NaClO for 30 min. The dominant components of the released DOM were characterized to be humic acid-like as well as protein-like substances by using an excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectrophotometer. Furthermore, after the contact of activated sludge with NaClO, 19 kinds of chlorinated and brominated byproducts were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, eight of which were confirmed and characterized with standard compounds. Many byproducts were found to be halogenated aromatic compounds, including halopyrroles and halo(hydro)benzoquinones, which had been reported to be significantly more toxic than the halogenated aliphatic ones. Consequently, this study offers new insights into the practice of on-line chemical cleaning, and opens up a window to re-examine the current operation of MBR by looking into the generation of micropollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Titanium Tetrafluoride and Sodium Hypochlorite on the Shear Bond Strength of Methacrylate and Silorane Based Composite Resins: an In-Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Koohpeima, Fatemeh; Razazan, Nader

    2017-06-01

    The bond strength of composites with different adhesive systems with dentin is an important factor in long term durability of composite restorations. The effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF 4 ) as anti caries agent and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as disinfectant on the shear bond of nanofilled and silorane based composite resins have not been investigated in previous studies. This study was conducted to determine bond strength between dentin and two composite systems, by means of shear bond test using TiF 4 and NaOCl. Middle dentin of 60 intact extracted maxillary premolar teeth were exposed by sectioning the crowns at a depth of 2mm from central groove and parallel to the occlusal surface. Standardized smear layer was created using a 600-grit silicon carbide paper and then samples were embedded in acrylic resin blocks. Then the samples were randomly divided into 6 \\groups summarized as Group I: Z350, Group II: Z350+ NaOCl, Group III: Z350+ TiF 4 , Group IV: P90, Group V: P90+ NaOCl, Group VI: P90+ TiF 4 according to manufacturer's instruction. Then samples were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) test using universal testing machine and data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests ( p composite resin ( p = 0.004), and also silorane based composite resin ( p = 0.006). Application of 4% TiF 4 caused a significant increase in SBS of silorane based composite resin ( p = 0.001). The effect of TiF 4 on nanofilled composite was not statistically significant. Using TiF 4 has a positive effect on increasing the shear bond while NaOCl has negative effect on bond strength.

  19. A comparative evaluation of effect on water sorption and solubility of a temporary soft denture liner material when stored either in distilled water, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite or artificial saliva: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soft denture liners have a key role in modern removable prosthodontics since they restore health to inflamed and abused mucosa by redistribution of forces transmitted to the edentulous ridges. The most common problems encountered using soft denture liners are water sorption and solubility when in contact with saliva or storage media. These problems are associated with swelling, distortion, support of Candida albicans growth, and stresses at the liner/denture base interface that reduces the bond strength. Objective: To evaluate the water sorption and solubility of commercially available acrylic based self cure soft denture lining material (GC RELINE™ Tissue Conditioner after immersion in three different storage media (distilled water, Shellis artificial saliva, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant solution at time interval of 4, 7, 11, and 15 days. Material and Methods: The study involved preparation of artificial saliva using Shellis formula. A total 45 standardized samples of the material (GC RELINE™ were prepared in disk form (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness. The study was divided into three groups with storage in Control (distilled water, Shellis artificial saliva, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were dried in a desiccator and weighed in the analytical balance to measure the initial weight (mg/cm2 of the disks (W1. The first groups (15 samples were placed in 30 ml distilled water (Group A at 37΀C, second group 30 ml of artificial saliva (Group B and third group in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (Group C. Disks were removed from disinfectant after 5 min and placed in 30 ml distilled water. On days 4, 7, 11, and 15, all samples were removed from their containers and reweighed to measure the weight (mg/cm2 of the disks after sorption (W2. The solubility was measured by placing the disks back in the desiccator after each sorption cycle and drying them to constant weight in the desiccator. These values were weight

  20. The Fate of Sulfamethazine in Sodium-Hypochlorite-Treated Drinking Water: Monitoring by LC-MS-IT-TOF

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    Tyler C. Melton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical compounds represent a rapidly emerging class of environmental contaminants. Such compounds were recently classified by the U.S. Geological Survey, including several antibiotics. An LC-MS/MS screening method for the top five antibiotics in drinking water was developed and validated using a Shimadzu LC-MS-IT-TOF. The separation was performed using a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column with a gradient elution. Sulfamethazine was exposed to conditions intended to mimic drinking water chlorination, and samples were collected and quenched with excess sodium sulfite. Kinetics of sulfamethazine degradation was followed as well as the formation of the major chlorinated byproduct (/ 313. For the screening method, all five antibiotic peaks were baseline resolved within 5 minutes. Additionally, precision and accuracy of the screening method were less than 15%. Degradation of sulfamethazine upon exposure to drinking water chlorination occurred by first order kinetics with a half-life of 5.3×104 min (approximately 37 days with measurements starting 5 minutes after chlorination. Likewise, the formation of the major chlorinated product occurred by first order kinetics with a rate constant of 2.0×10−2. The proposed identification of the chlorinated product was 4-amino-(5-chloro-4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl-benzenesulfonamide (C12H13N4O2SCl using MS spectra and databases searches of SciFinder and ChemSpider.

  1. New Limonoids from Hortia oreadica and Unexpected Coumarin from H. superba Using Chromatography over Cleaning Sephadex with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G.P. Severino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*-acetoxy-7(R*-hydroxy-7-deoxoinchangin. All the isolated compounds from the Hortia species reinforce its position in the Rutaceae. With regard to limonoids the genus produces highly specialized compounds, whose structural variations do not occur in any other member of the Rutaceae, thus, it is evident from limonoid data that Hortia takes an isolated position within the family. In addition, H. superba afforded the unexpected coumarin 5-chloro-8-methoxy-psoralen, which may not be a genuine natural product. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle-spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, X-Ray fluorescence and Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy experiments show that the Sephadex LH-20 was modified after treatment with NaOCl, suggesting that when xanthotoxin (8-methoxy-psoralen was extracted from cleaning of the gel column, chlorination of the aromatic system occurred.

  2. The effectiveness of various chelates used alone or in combination with sodium hypochlorite in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canals

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    Emel Uzunoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of various chelates used alone or in combination with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl in the removal of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 from root canals. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 72 mandibular incisors were prepared up to the ProTaper F2 file. Among these, six randomly selected teeth were used as negative and positive controls, while the root canals of the remaining 66 were filled with Ca(OH2 paste for 1 week. Then, the experimental group specimens were divided into six groups (n = 11. The access cavities were reopened and the Ca(OH2 paste in each group was removed using the following solutions: 2.5 mL ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; Group 1, 2.5 mL peracetic acid (PAA; Group 2, 2.5 mL QMix (Group 3, 2.5 mL NaOCl/2.5 mL EDTA (Group 4, 2.5 mL NaOCl/2.5 mL PAA (Group 5, and 2.5 mL NaOCl/2.5 mL QMix (Group 6. Digital photographs of longitudinally split specimens were imported into image analyzer software, and the amount of residual Ca (OH 2 was recorded as a percentage of the overall canal surface area. The results were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Conover–Dunn tests. Results: The canal walls in the positive control group were completely covered with Ca(OH 2 compared with those in the negative control group. The lowest Ca(OH2 removal efficiency was observed for Group 4 (P < 0.001, while Group 6 showed favorable results (P < 0.05. Conclusions: QMix combined with NaOCl can remove Ca(OH2 from root canals as effectively as 17% EDTA and 1% PAA. The type and sequence of irrigants are more important than the total irrigant volume for effective Ca(OH 2 removal.

  3. Electron coincidence spectroscopy of sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.; Weigold, E.

    1982-03-01

    The Na 3s and K 4s electron momentum distributions have been obtained using the noncoplanar symmetric (e,2e) reaction at total energies of 800 eV and 1200 eV. They show excellent agreement with the results of plane wave impulse approximation calculations using Roothaan-Hartree-Fock functions, after small corrections are made for the finite angular resolution of the apparatus. The potassium valence s momentum profile is a little narrower than that for sodium, implying a correspondingly slightly larger spatial distribution of the outer valence electrons. The ratio between the (n-1)p and ns cross-sections at their respective maxima in q-space were measured to be 0.009 +- 0.003 and 0.019 +- 0.003 for Na and K respectively. These cross-section ratios are in agreement with the PWIA calculations

  4. Attachment of 13 Types of Foodborne Bacteria to Jalapeño and Serrano Peppers and Antibacterial Effect of Roselle Calyx Extracts, Sodium Hypochlorite, Colloidal Silver, and Acetic Acid against These Foodborne Bacteria on Peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Falfan-Cortes, Reyna N; Rodríguez-Marín, María L; Godínez-Oviedo, Angélica; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2017-03-01

    Chili peppers are a very important crop in Mexico. However, these peppers have been associated with Salmonella infection outbreaks in the United States, and Salmonella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes have been isolated from jalapeño and serrano peppers in Mexico. To decrease microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables, chemical agents are commonly used; however, chemical agents used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria on vegetables have a limited antimicrobial effect. Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) calyces have been reported to have an antimicrobial effect on pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid against foodborne bacteria was evaluated on contaminated jalapeño and serrano peppers. The 13 types of foodborne bacteria evaluated were Listeria monocytogenes , Shigella flexneri , Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Montevideo, Staphylococcus aureus , E. coli O157:H7, five E. coli pathotypes (Shiga toxin producing, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative), and Vibrio cholerae O1. All 13 types attached to both pepper types, with no significant differences in attachment between jalapeño and serrano peppers. Roselle calyx extract treatment resulted in a greater reduction in levels of all foodborne bacteria than did treatment with sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid on both pepper types. Roselle calyx extracts may be a useful for disinfection of chili peppers in the field, processing plants, restaurants, and homes.

  5. Intermediate energy electron scattering from sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.

    1979-06-01

    This thesis describes an experimental investigation of the interaction of fast electrons with alkali metal atoms. Several of the theoretical models which have been applied to atomic collision processes including the first Born approximation, the Glauber approximation, the optical model and the distorted wave polarized orbital approximation are discussed. The theory of electron-photon coincidence experiments is outlined and the effects of fine and hyperfine structure on the polarization state of photons emitted from an excited atom are calculated for Sodium. The results of elastic scattering measurements on Sodium and Potassium are presented and used to test several theoretical models in their description of the differential cross section at incident energies between 50 and 200eV. Absolute differential and integrated total cross sections for the Potassium resonance lines and Sodium D-lines are presented. Results of the first electron-polarized photon coincidence experiment on the Sodium D-lines are presented and compared with available theoretical calculations

  6. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Minor business creation base type. Development of sodium hypochlorite activating system; 1999 nendo venture kigyo shiengata chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jiaensosan natrium kasseika sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The aim is to develop and widely diffuse a cleaning, sterilizing, and disinfecting system (chemicals and device) which is nearer to the best. A safety-conscious diluting/mixing technology was developed by which acid and sodium hypochlorite were mixed without generating any noxious gas. Using this technology, a mixing tube was developed, capable of homogeneously diluting chemicals in raw water and mixing them homogeneously. How the dilution and mixing occurred in the mixing tube was measured by an electric conductivity meter for evaluation, data on the state of diluting of the solution were plotted in a graphic chart for study, a comprehensive deliberation was made of performance, cost, etc., and then a device was experimentally constructed. A concentration level detecting sensor section and a metering pump were developed. The pH adjustment and disinfecting effect were assessed using various acids, and then it was found that the acetic acid was the most suitable in view of safeness, disinfecting effect, stability, and ease of adjustment. Based on the result of a comprehensive technical survey, a system was designed suitable for artificial dialysis, food processing, and cleaning and disinfecting of endoscopes. A prototype was built, and the development effort progressed to reach a level where a prototype was built and subjected to a field test. (NEDO)

  7. Anomalous optical and electronic properties of dense sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dafang; Liu Hanyu; Wang Baotian; Shi Hongliang; Zhu Shaoping; Yan Jun; Zhang Ping

    2010-01-01

    Based on the density functional theory, we systematically study the optical and electronic properties of the insulating dense sodium phase (Na-hp4) reported recently (Ma et al., 2009). The structure is found optically anisotropic. Through Bader analysis, we conclude that ionicity exists in the structure and becomes stronger with increasing pressure.

  8. Evaluation of a combination of sodium hypochlorite and polyhexamethylene biguanide as an egg wash for red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) to suppress or eliminate Salmonella organisms on egg surfaces and in hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A; Adamson, Trinka W; Singleton, Charles B; Roundtree, Marlana K; Bauer, Rudy W; Acierno, Mark J

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate a combination of 2 nonantibiotic microbicide compounds, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), as a treatment to suppress or eliminate Salmonella spp from red-eared slider (RES) turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) eggs and hatchlings. 2,738 eggs from 8 turtle farms in Louisiana. Eggs were randomly sorted into 3 or, when sufficient eggs were available, 4 treatment groups as follows: control, pressure-differential egg treatment with NaOCl and gentamicin, NaOCl and PHMB bath treatment, and pressure-differential egg treatment with NaOCl and PHMB. Bacterial cultures were performed from specimens of eggs and hatchlings and evaluated for Salmonella spp. RES turtle eggs treated with NaOCl and PHMB as a bath (odds ratio [OR], 0.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1 to 0.3]) or as a pressure-differential dip (OR, 0.01 [95% CI, 0.001 to 0.07]) or with gentamicin as a pressure-differential dip (OR, 0.1 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.2]) were significantly less likely to have Salmonella-positive culture results than control-group eggs. Concern over reptile-associated salmonellosis in children in the United States is so great that federal regulations prohibit the sale of turtles that are < 10.2 cm in length. Currently, turtle farms treat eggs with gentamicin solution. Although this has reduced Salmonella shedding, it has also resulted in antimicrobial resistance. Results of our study indicate that a combination of NaOCl and PHMB may be used to suppress or eliminate Salmonella spp on RES turtle eggs and in hatchlings.

  9. Hypochlorite oxidation of morpholine-borane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, I.; Kelly, H.

    1982-01-01

    Morpholine-borane reacts with sodium hypochlorite in a 1:4 mole ratio wherein three OCl - species are utilized for hydride oxidation and a fourth is consumed in the chlorination of morpholine. The determination of kinetic parameters, based upon the stopped-flow spectrophotometric measurement of the rate of disappearance of OCl - at 290 nm (pH9-11), is complicated by these consecutive competitive reactions of hypochlorite. At a given pH, the second-order rate constant for the reaction of OCl - with morpholine is about 10 3 times greater than that for attack of hypochlorite on amine-borane; thus, a reliable determination of the latter constant was based upon ''initial rate'' studies under pseudo-first-order conditions involving a large stoichiometric excess of morpholine-borane. The rate of reaction of hypochlorite with amine-borane is also first order in hydrogen ion and is subject to a normal substrate isotope effect with O(CH 2 ) 4 NH.BH 3 reacting about 1.6 times more rapidly than O(CH 2 ) 4 NH.BD 3 . At a given lyonium ion concentration, the reaction is enhanced by a factor of about 3.5 in D 2 O. It is proposed that the rate-limiting step involves oxidative attack of hypochlorous acid at a boron-hydrogen bond in the amine-borane and that subsequent oxidation of the two remaining hydridic hydrogen atoms is rapid relative to the chlorination of morpholine. The inverse solvent isotope effect is attributed to a higher concentration of DOCl in D 2 O relative to that of HOCl in normal water at a given pD (pH), but is likely that this influence is partially offset by a normal secondary isotope effect associated with attack of HOCl (DOCl) at the B-H bond

  10. To Compare the Effects of Storage Solutions 0.05% Thymol vs. 6% Sodium Hypochlorite vs. Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution on the Flexural Strength of Dentin Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Arola, 2004). Reported values for flexural strength for dentin range from 245 to 280 Mpa (Waters, 1980). Flexural Strength is the gold standard...hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide on its flexural strength and elastic modulus. International Endodontic Journal, 113-119. Jameson MW, (1993). The effects

  11. Efeito do hipoclorito de sódio sobre a microbiota de abacaxi 'Pérola' minimamente processado Effect of sodium hypochlorite on the microflora of fresh-cut 'Pérola' pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimara Rogéria Antoniolli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se determinar a menor concentração eficiente de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl para desinfecção da casca, bem como avaliar a necessidade de utilização do mesmo agente sanitizante no banho de imersão da polpa do abacaxi 'Pérola' minimamente processado. Frutos previamente lavados foram desinfectados com NaOCl 100; 150 ou 200mg.L-1, durante 2 minutos. Após aproximadamente 24 horas de armazenamento refrigerado, os frutos foram descascados e fatiados mecanicamente. As fatias foram imersas em solução de NaOCl 20mg.L-1 ou em água (controle, durante 30 segundos. Após período de repouso, para drenagem do excesso de líquido, foram acondicionadas em embalagens de polietileno tereftalato e mantidas à temperatura de 4 ± 1°C, durante 16 dias. As análises microbiológicas, realizadas em intervalos de três dias, foram: coliformes a 35ºC, coliformes a 45ºC, bactérias aeróbias mesófilas e de bolores, e leveduras. Não foram detectados coliformes totais e fecais em nenhum dos tratamentos, durante 16 dias de armazenamento refrigerado. A desinfecção da casca com NaOCl 200mg.L-1, associada à sanitização da polpa do abacaxi com NaOCl 20mg.L-1, proporcionou menores populações de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e de bolores, e leveduras, tornando tais operações imprescindíveis na obtenção de produtos minimamente processados que ofereçam garantia de sanidade ao consumidor.The purpose of this research was to determine the smallest effective concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl for intact fruit disinfection as well as to evaluate the use of the same disinfectant product for sanitization of the fresh-cut 'Pérola' pineapple. Fruits were washed and disinfected with chlorine solutions (100, 150 or 200mg.L-1 for 2 minutes. After approximately 24 hours of cold storage, fruits were mechanically peeled and sliced. Slices were dipped in 20mg.L-1 of chlorine solution or pure water (control, for 30 seconds. After that, the

  12. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  13. The drawbacks of using intermittent doses of sodium hypochlorite as an oxidising biocides in the pre-treatment line of a reverse osmosis desalination plant; Inconvenientes de realizar dosificacion intermitente de hipoclorito de sodio (biocida oxidante), en linea de pretratamiento de una plant desaladora por osmosis inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Elguera, A.; Alday Ansola, J.; Gomez Gotor, A.; Perez Baez, S. O.

    2001-07-01

    This article reports on the adverse effects on the microbiological quality of sea water with a high degree of biological contamination captured by an open intake system when it is subjected to intermittent, or shock, treatment, doses of an oxidising biocides, such as sodium hypochlorite NaClO (Kmm O4, O3, H2, O2), even through the purpose is to control microbiological development in the process water that contaminates the conduits, the units in which the processes are carried out and/or the unit operations, especially inside the membrane modules used in potabilising plants to desalt sea water and/or brackish water by the reverse osmosis technique. The uncontrolled development of a great diversity of microorganisms on the active layer of the membranes causes serious problems in the operation of this type of potabilising plant. (Author) 13 refs.

  14. Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Dotto Sottovia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8, had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (pEm reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste trabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extra

  15. Reimplante mediato de dentes tratados ou não com solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1% - estudo histomorfométrico em ratos Effects of sodium hypochlorite on periodontal healing after tooth replantation - histomorphometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Misue KANNO

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a influência do hipoclorito de sódio a 1% no reparo do periodonto de incisivos reimplantados tardiamente em ratos. Os dentes foram mantidos em meio ambiente durante 30 minutos e a seguir imersos em hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, por 25 minutos. Os animais foram sacrificados aos 10, 30 ou 60 dias. Os cortes histológicos foram obtidos no sentido transversal dos terços cervical, médio e apical e delineados com um aumento de 52 vezes. Os eventos observados sobre a superfície radicular foram medidos quanto a sua extensão através de um sistema analisador de imagens (Mini-Mop, Carl Zeiss. Aos 10 dias, observou-se a predominância de tecido conjuntivo fibroso no grupo tratado. Aos 30 e 60 dias observou-se o aumento da anquilose e reabsorção por substituição, assim como neoformação limitada de ligamento periodontal. No grupo controle, aos 30 e 60 dias, foram observadas áreas de reabsorções mais extensas e profundas, quando comparadas ao grupo tratado. Os resultados possibilitaram as seguintes conclusões quando comparado o grupo tratado com o controle: a leva à formação de tecido conjuntivo semelhante a uma cápsula fibrosa no período inicial do reparo; b possibilita uma limitada neoformação de ligamento periodontal; c ocasiona uma superfície de anquilose mais extensa; d não impede a reabsorção por substituição.The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 1% sodium hypochlorite on periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Rats incisors were extracted, maintained in the environment during 30 minutes, then immersed in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 30 minutes. In the control group, the teeth were maintained in distilled water. The animals were sacrificed after 10, 30 and 60 days. Transversal slices of the teeth were obtained and histologically processed through the hematoxylin and eosin technique. Slices from the cervical, middle and apical thirds of each tooth were selected for the analysis. The

  16. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  17. Electron irradiation effect on bubble formation and growth in a sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.; Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the authors studied simultaneous and intermittent electron irradiation effects on bubble growth in a simple sodium borosilicate glass during Xe ion implantation at 200 C. Simultaneous electron irradiation increases the average bubble size in the glass. This enhanced diffusion is also shown by the migration of Xe from bubbles into the matrix when the sample is irradiated by an electron beam after the Xe implantation

  18. Mercury absorption in aqueous hypochlorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.L.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of elemental Hg vapor into aqueous hypochlorite was measured in a stirred tank reactor at 25 and 55C. NaOCl strongly absorbs Hg even at high pH. Low pH, high Cl - and high-temperature favor mercury absorption. Aqueous free Cl 2 was the active species that reacted with mercury. However, chlorine desorption was evident at high Cl - and pH 15 M -1 s -1 at 25C and 1.4x10 17 M -1 s -1 at 55C. Gas-phase reaction was observed between Hg and Cl 2 on apparatus surfaces. Strong mercury absorption in water was also detected with Cl 2 present. Results indicate that the chlorine concentration, moisture, and surface area contribute positively to mercury removal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Local vs. Non-local core potentials in electron scattering from sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartschat, K.; Bray, I.

    1996-02-01

    We have tested the use of a local potential instead of the non-local Hartree-Fock potential to represent exchange effects between the valence or the projectile electron and the core in electron scattering from sodium atoms For some of the most detailed observables in this collision system/ the results of the two approaches are nearly identical, even though the effect of the exchange part is shown to be particularly large. (authors). 16 refs., 4 figs

  20. Local versus non-local core potentials in electron scattering from sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartschat, K.; Bray, I.

    1996-01-01

    We have tested the use of a local potential instead of the non-local Hartree-Fock potential to represent exchange effects between the valence or the projectile electron and the core in electron scattering from sodium atoms. For some of the most detailed observables in this collision system, the results of the two approaches are nearly identical, even though the effect of the exchange part is shown to be particularly large. (Author)

  1. Water soluble and metal-containing electron beam resist poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Arwa Saud; Alqarni, Sondos; Shokouhi, Babak Baradaran; Yavuz, Mustafa; Cui, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Popular electron beam resists such as PMMA, ZEP and HSQ all use solvent or base solutions for processing, which may attack the sub-layers or substrate that are made out of organic semiconducting materials. In this study we show that water soluble poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), or sodium PSS, can be used as a negative electron beam resist developed in water. Moreover, since PSS contains metal sodium, its dry etching resistance is much higher than PMMA. It is notable that sodium PSS’s sensitivity and contrast is still far inferior to organic resists such as PMMA, thus it is not suitable for patterning dense and high-resolution structures. Nevertheless, feature size down to 40 nm was achieved for sparse patterns. Lastly, using very low energy (here 2 keV) electron beam lithography and liftoff process using water only, patterning of metal layer on an organic conductive material P3HT was achieved. The metallization of an organic conducting material may find applications in organic semiconductor devices such as OLED. (paper)

  2. Antibacterial validation of electrogenerated hypochlorite using carbon-based electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, J; Fitzgerald, P; Sharp, D

    2014-12-01

    This proof-of-concept study explores the novel use of carbon-based electrodes for the electrochemical generation of hypochlorite and compares the antimicrobial efficacy against commercial hypochlorite solution. Antimicrobial concentrations of hypochlorite were generated using pad-printed carbon and carbon fibre electrodes, yielding up to 0·027% hypochlorite in 60 min and 0·1% hypochlorite in 15 min, respectively, in a nondivided assembly. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the electrogenerated hypochlorite produced using carbon fibre electrodes was established for four medically important bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus approx. 0·025%, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis approx. 0·012%) and found to be in agreement with those determined using commercial hypochlorite solution. Therefore, carbon-based electrodes, particularly carbon fibre, have proven effective for the generation of antimicrobial concentrations of hypochlorite. The similarity of the MIC values to commercial hypochlorite solutions suggests that the antimicrobial efficacy is derived from the quantified hypochlorite generated and not due to marked cogeneration of reactive oxygen species, as identified for other assemblies. As such, the application of carbon electrodes may be suitable for the local production of hypochlorite for healthcare antisepsis. Carbon fibre electrodes can rapidly generate antimicrobial concentrations of hypochlorite; as such, these cheap and commercially available electrodes are proposed for the local production of hypochlorite for healthcare antisepsis. Importantly, the antimicrobial properties of the electrochemically generated hypochlorite mirror those of commercial hypochlorite, suggesting this is not enhanced by the cogeneration of reactive oxygen species. This illustrates the potential use of disposable carbon electrodes for localized small-volume production of hypochlorite for surface and skin cleansing, and opens a broader

  3. Impact of opal nanoconfinement on electronic properties of sodium particles: NMR studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charnaya, E.V., E-mail: charnaya@live.com [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation); Lee, M.K. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); MoST Instrument Center at NCKU, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Chang, L.J. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Kumzerov, Yu.A.; Fokin, A.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Samoylovich, M.I. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow, 141700 (Russian Federation); Bugaev, A.S. [CSR Institute of Technology “Technomash”, Moscow, 121108 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-20

    The {sup 23}Na Knight shift of NMR line which is highly correlated with the electron spin susceptibility and density of states at the Fermi level was studied for the sodium loaded opal. The measurements were carried out within a temperature range from 100 to 400 K for solid and melted confined sodium nanoparticles. The NMR line below 305 K was a singlet with the Knight shift reduced compared to that in bulk. Above this temperature the NMR line split reproducibly into two components with opposite trends in the Knight shift temperature dependences which evidenced a nanoconfinement-induced transformation and heterogeneity in the electron system. The findings were suggested to be related to changes in the topology of the Fermi surface.

  4. Wireless, intraoral hybrid electronics for real-time quantification of sodium intake toward hypertension management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Howe, Connor; Mishra, Saswat; Lee, Dong Sup; Mahmood, Musa; Piper, Matthew; Kim, Youngbin; Tieu, Katie; Byun, Hun-Soo; Coffey, James P; Shayan, Mahdis; Chun, Youngjae; Costanzo, Richard M; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2018-05-22

    Recent wearable devices offer portable monitoring of biopotentials, heart rate, or physical activity, allowing for active management of human health and wellness. Such systems can be inserted in the oral cavity for measuring food intake in regard to controlling eating behavior, directly related to diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, existing devices using plastic circuit boards and rigid sensors are not ideal for oral insertion. A user-comfortable system for the oral cavity requires an ultrathin, low-profile, and soft electronic platform along with miniaturized sensors. Here, we introduce a stretchable hybrid electronic system that has an exceptionally small form factor, enabling a long-range wireless monitoring of sodium intake. Computational study of flexible mechanics and soft materials provides fundamental aspects of key design factors for a tissue-friendly configuration, incorporating a stretchable circuit and sensor. Analytical calculation and experimental study enables reliable wireless circuitry that accommodates dynamic mechanical stress. Systematic in vitro modeling characterizes the functionality of a sodium sensor in the electronics. In vivo demonstration with human subjects captures the device feasibility for real-time quantification of sodium intake, which can be used to manage hypertension.

  5. Calculation of total cross sections for electron and positron scattering on sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Ratnavelu, K.; Zhou, Y.

    1993-02-01

    Total cross sections for electron and positron scattering on sodium and potassium are calculated at various energies and compared with experiment. The method use is the coupled-channels-optical method with the equivalent-local polarisation potential, which takes all channels into account. For electrons the calculations are checked by comparison with coupled-channels-optical calculations using a detailed polarisation potential that makes only one approximation, that of weak coupling in the ionisation space. The polarisation potential for positrons includes effects of ionisation and positronium formation. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of intermediate energy electrons from sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teubner, P.J.O.; Buckner, S.J.; Noble, C.J.

    1977-11-01

    Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of electrons from sodium have been measured with high angular resolution for incident energies of 54.4, 75, 100 and 150 eV and over an angular range of 12 0 to 140 0 . The experimental data are compared with calculations based on the First Born approximation, the Glauber approximation and a close coupling impact parameter calculation. Calculations have been carried out for an optical model using the prescription of Vanderpoorten for localizing the absorptive part of the potential. Of the theoretical calculations the optical model is found to best reproduce the general features of the cross section at all energies. (Author)

  7. Probing the Highly Efficient Electron Transfer Dynamics between Zinc Protoporphyrin IX and Sodium Titanate Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Debdyuti; De, Swati; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2016-09-15

    Sodium titanate nanosheets (NaTiO2 NS) have been prepared by a new method and completely characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, EDX, and XPS techniques. The sensitization of nanosheets is carried out with Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX). The emission intensity of ZnPPIX is quenched by NaTiO2 NS, and the dominant process for this quenching has been attributed to the process of photoinduced electron injection from excited ZnPPIX to the nanosheets. Time resolved fluorescence measurement was used to elucidate the process of electron injection from the singlet state of ZnPPIX to the conduction band of NaTiO2 NS. Electron injection from the dye to the semiconductor is very fast (ket ≈ 10(11) s(-1)), much faster than previously reported rates. The large two-dimensional surface offered by the NaTiO2 NS for interaction with the dye and the favorable driving force for electron injection from ZnPPIX to NaTiO2 NS (ΔGinj = -0.66 V) are the two important factors responsible for such efficient electron injection. Thus, NaTiO2 NS can serve as an effective alternative to the use of TiO2 nanoparticles in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  8. Electronic and Optical Properties of Sodium Niobate: A Density Functional Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fritsch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much effort has been devoted to replace the most commonly used piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate Pb[ZrxTi1−x]O3 (PZT with a suitable lead-free alternative for memory or piezoelectric applications. One possible alternative to PZT is sodium niobate as it exhibits electrical and mechanical properties that make it an interesting material for technological applications. The high-temperature simple cubic perovskite structure undergoes a series of structural phase transitions with decreasing temperature. However, particularly the phases at room temperature and below are not yet fully characterised and understood. Here, we perform density functional theory calculations for the possible phases at room temperature and below and report on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the different phases in comparison to experimental findings.

  9. Influence of disinfection with peracetic acid and hypochlorite in dimensional alterations of casts obtained from addition silicone and polyether impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Daher Antonio; Peçanha, Marcelo Massaroni; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; Frizzera, Fausto; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Silva-Concílio, Laís Regiane

    2013-11-01

    Dental impressions disinfection is important to reduce the risk of cross contamination but this process may produce dimensional distortions. Peracetic acid is a disinfectant agent with several favorable characteristics yet underutilized in Dentistry. The aim of this paper is to compare the dimensional stability of casts obtained from addition silicone and polyether impressions that were immersed for 10 minutes in a solution of 0.2% peracetic acid or 1% sodium hypochlorite. Sixty samples in type IV gypsum were produced after a master cast that simulated a full crown preparation of a maxillary premolar. Samples were divided in 6 groups (n = 10) according to the impression material and disinfection agent: Group AC--addition silicone control (without disinfectant); Group APA--addition silicone + 0.2% peracetic acid; Group AH--addition silicone + 1% sodium hypochlorite; Group PC--polyether control (without disinfectant); Group PPA--polyether + 0.2% peracetic acid; Group PH--polyether + 1% sodium hypochlorite. Cast height, base and top diameter were measured and a mean value was obtained for each sample and group all data was statistically analyzed (ANOVA, p polyether impressions regardless of the disinfectant materials. It can be concluded that disinfection with the proposed agents did not produce significant alterations of the impressions and the peracetic acid could be considered a reliable material to disinfect dental molds.

  10. Sodium bromide electron-extraction layers for polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhi; Qu, Bo; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Zhang, Lipei; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-01

    Inexpensive and non-toxic sodium bromide (NaBr) was introduced into polymer solar cells (PSCs) as the cathode buffer layer (CBL) and the electron extraction characteristics of the NaBr CBL were investigated in detail. The PSCs based on NaBr CBL with different thicknesses (i.e., 0 nm, 0.5 nm, 1 nm, and 1.5 nm) were prepared and studied. The optimal thickness of NaBr was 1 nm according to the photovoltaic data of PSCs. The open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current density (J sc ), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC with 1 nm NaBr were evaluated to be 0.58 V, 7.36 mA/cm 2 , 0.63, and 2.70%, respectively, which were comparable to those of the reference device with the commonly used LiF. The optimized photovoltaic performance of PSC with 1 nm NaBr was ascribed to the improved electron transport and extraction capability of 1 nm NaBr in PSCs. In addition, the NaBr CBL could prevent the diffusion of oxygen and water vapor into the active layer and prolong the lifetime of the devices to some extent. Therefore, NaBr layer could be considered as a promising non-toxic CBL for PSCs in future

  11. Evaluation of toxicity reduction of sodium dodecyl sulfate submitted to electron beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, M. F.; Moraes, M. C. F.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Borrely, S. I.

    2004-09-01

    Surfactants, as detergent active substances, are an important source of pollution causing biological adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Several data have been showing ecological disturbance due to the high concentration of surfactants on receiving waters and on wastewater treatment plants. Ionizing radiation has been proved as an effective technology to decompose organic substances and few papers have included ecotoxicological aspects. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity of a specific surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), when diluted in distilled water and submitted to electron beam radiation. The study included two test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. Radiation processing resulted in an important acute toxicity removal for both assays, which can be summarized between 70% and 96%, using 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.0 kGy as radiation doses. Nevertheless, lower doses demonstrated better effect than 9.0 and 12.0 kGy and the bacterium assay was more sensitive to SDS than crustacean assay.

  12. Electron beam-induced radiation damage: the bubbling response in amorphous dried sodium phosphate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massover, William H

    2010-06-01

    Irradiation of an amorphous layer of dried sodium phosphate buffer (pH = 7.0) by transmission electron microscopy (100-120 kV) causes rapid formation of numerous small spherical bubbles [10-100 A (= 1-10 nm)] containing an unknown gas. Bubbling is detected even with the first low-dose exposure. In a thin layer (ca. 100-150 A), bubbling typically goes through nucleation, growth, possible fusion, and end-state, after which further changes are not apparent; co-irradiated adjacent areas having a slightly smaller thickness never develop bubbles. In moderately thicker regions (ca. over 200 A), there is no end-state. Instead, a complex sequence of microstructural changes is elicited during continued intermittent high-dose irradiation: nucleation, growth, early simple fusions, a second round of extensive multiple fusions, general reduction of matrix thickness (producing flattening and expansion of larger bubbles, occasional bubble fission, and formation of very large irregularly-shaped bubbles by a third round of compound fusion events), and slow shrinkage of all bubbles. The ongoing lighter appearance of bubble lumens, maintenance of their rounded shape, and extensive changes in size and form indicate that gas content continues throughout their surprisingly long lifetime; the thin dense boundary layer surrounding all bubbles is proposed to be the main mechanism for their long lifetime.

  13. Hypochlorite-induced damage to proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Stimulated monocytes and neutrophils generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide. HOCl damages proteins by reaction with amino acid side-chains or backbone cleavage. Little information is available about the mechanisms and intermediates involved...... in these reactions. EPR spin trapping has been employed to identify radicals on proteins, peptides and amino acids after treatment with HOCl. Reaction with HOCl gives both high- and low-molecular-mass nitrogen-centred, protein-derived radicals; the yield of the latter increases with both higher HOCl:protein ratios...... and enzymic digestion. These radicals, which arise from lysine side-chain amino groups, react with ascorbate, glutathione and Trolox. Reaction of HOCl-treated proteins with excess methionine eliminates radical formation, which is consistent with lysine-derived chloramines (via homolysis of N-Cl bonds) being...

  14. Electrochemical Water-Splitting Based on Hypochlorite Oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minhová Macounová, Kateřina; Simic, N.; Ahlberg, E.; Krtil, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 23 (2015), s. 7262-7265 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * hypochlorite oxidation * water-splitting Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 13.038, year: 2015

  15. Conservação pós-colheita de figos verdes (Ficus carica L. cv. roxo de Valinhos tratados com hipoclorito de sódio e armazenados sob refrigeração em atmosfera modificada passiva Post-harvest conservation of unripe figs (Ficus carica L. cv. "roxo de Valinhos" treated with sodium hypochlorite and stored under refrigeration in passive modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Costa Lima

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Os principais causadores de perdas da qualidade de figos são: colheita e embalagens inadequadas, falta de padronização do produto na classificação e péssimas condições de transporte e armazenamento. Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da imersão em hipoclorito, tipo de embalagem e refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de figos verdes, cv. Roxo de Valinhos, mediante as características físicas, físico-químicas e químicas, durante o armazenamento. Após seleção, os figos foram imersos ou não em solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 40 ppm conforme os tratamentos, secos ao ar e embalados em filme de PVC de 50 m ou sacos plásticos. Após os tratamentos, os frutos foram submetidos a armazenamento refrigerado (1ºC e 70% de UR em BOD, por um período de 35 dias, sendo avaliados a cada 7 dias. O uso da embalagem reduziu drasticamente a perda de massa dos figos. Frutos não embalados apresentaram-se mais ácidos e com menores teores de açúcares. Com o uso da embalagem, os figos podem ser comercializados até os 35 dias de armazenamento desde que armazenados a 1ºC e 70% de UR em BOD. Já os figos não embalados, estes podem ser comercializados somente até os 2 dias de armazenamento sob refrigeração.The chief causesof quality loss in figs are inadequate harvest and packaging, lack of standardization of the product in the classification and very bad transportation and storage conditions. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of soaking in hypochlorite, and the type of packaging and refrigeration on the post-harvest conservation of unripe figs cv. "Roxo de Valinhos", through physico-chemical analyses, during storage. After selection, the figs were soaked, or not, in a 40ppm sodium hypochlorite solution, air-dried and wrapped in 50µ PVC film or plastic bags. After the treatments, the fruits were submitted to refrigerated storage (1ºC and 70% of RH for a 35-day period, being evaluated every 7 days. Use of the

  16. Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies on Titanium-doped Sodium Aluminum Hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culnane, Lance F.

    Hydrogen fuel cells play an important role in today's diverse and blossoming alternative energy industry. One of the greatest technological barriers for vehicular applications is the storage of hydrogen (which is required to power hydrogen fuel cells). Storing hydrogen as a gas is not volume efficient, and storing it as a liquid is not cost effective, therefore solid-state storage of hydrogen, such as in metal hydrides offers the most potential for success since many metal hydrides have attractive qualities for hydrogen storage such as: high volumetric capacity, cost efficiency, weight efficiency, low refueling times, and most importantly, high safety. Unfortunately, a compound has not been discovered which contains all of the attractive hydrogen storage qualities for vehicular applications. Sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH 4) is one of the few compounds which is close to meeting requirements for car manufacturers, and has perhaps been researched the most extensively out of all metal hydrides in the last 15 years. This arises from the remarkable discovery by Bogdanovic who found that doping NaAlH4 with Ti dopants enabled the reversible dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of NaAlH 4 at mild conditions. Various evidence and theories have been proposed to suggest explanations for the enhanced kinetic effect that Ti-doping and ball-milling provide. However, the research community has not reached a consensus as to the exact role of Ti-dopants. If the role of titanium in the NaAlH4 dehydrogenation/hydrogenation mechanism could be understood, then more attractive metal hydrides could be designed. To this end, we conducted Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies to explain the role of the Ti dopants. The first known thorough particle size analysis of the NaAlH4 system was conducted, as well as TEM-EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy), TEM-EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), and in-situ imaging studies. Preparation methods were found to be important for the

  17. Methyl salicylate: a reactive chemical warfare agent surrogate to detect reaction with hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, W Bruce; Owens, Jeffery R; Wander, Joseph D

    2011-11-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeS) has a rich history as an inert physical simulant for the chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard and soman, where it is used extensively for liquid- and vapor-permeation testing. Here we demonstrate possible utility of MeS as a reactivity simulant for chlorine-based decontaminants. In these experiments MeS was reacted with sodium hypochlorite varying stoichiometry, temperature, reaction time, and pH. No colored oxidation products were observed; however, chlorination of the aromatic ring occurred ortho (methyl 3-chlorosalicylate) and para (methyl 5-chlorosalicylate) to the position bearing the -OH group in both the mono- and disubstituted forms. The monosubstituted para product accumulated initially, and the ortho and 3,5-dichloro products formed over the next several hours. Yields from reactions conducted below pH 11 declined rapidly with decreasing pH. Reactions run at 40 °C produced predominantly para substitution, while those run at 0 °C produced lower yields of ortho- and para-substituted products. Reactions were also carried out on textile substrates of cotton, 50/50 nylon-cotton, and a meta aramid. The textile data broadly reproduced reaction times and stoichiometry observed in the liquid phase, but are complicated by physical and possibly chemical interactions with the fabric. These data indicate that, for hypochlorite-containing neutralizing agents operating at strongly alkaline pH, one can expect MeS to react stoichiometrically with the hypochlorite it encounters. This suggests utility of MeS in lieu of such highly hazardous surrogates as monochloroalkyl sulfides as a simulant for threat scenarios involving the stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustard. Specifically, the extent of coverage of the simulant on a fabric by the neutralizing agent can be directly measured. Similar reactivity toward other halogen oxidizing agents is likely but remains to be demonstrated.

  18. Economic study of replacing conventional ballast with electronic ballast for high pressure sodium lamps used in public lighting in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Arafa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High pressure sodium lamp is widely used for street and public lighting in many countries including Egypt. It is traditionally connected to the AC mains through electromagnetic ballast. Electronic ballast for high pressure sodium lamp has reached a matured technological state and it is outperforming electromagnetic ballast in almost all operational aspects. Differentiating both ballasts from a technical perspective has been presented in great detail by the authors in a previous paper. Due to the current critical shortage of electrical energy supply in Egypt; top executives seek alternatives to mitigate the crisis of electricity shortage. Among these alternatives is a national plan to replace magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts for public lighting applications. Replacing conventional electromagnetic ballast with electronic ballast is associated with high capital investment due to high cost of such devices. The objective of this study is to outlay a systematic approach to define the threshold price of electronic ballast which assures the economical feasibility of such plan. In doing this, the economical aspects of replacing electromagnetic ballasts with electronic ballast on a national scale in Egypt are analyzed and presented.

  19. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 8 (2016), s. 1454-1460 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics * neutron scattering * agueous sodium chloride Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2016

  20. Structural Stability and Electronic Properties of Na2C6O6 for a Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Fujii, Akihiro; Momida, Hiroyoshi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2014-03-01

    Sodium-ion batteries have been explored as a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries owing to a significant advantage of a natural abundance of sodium. Recently, it has been reported that disodium rhodizonate, Na2C6O6, exhibit good electrochemical properties and cycle performance as a minor-metal free organic cathode for sodium-ion batteries. However, its crystal structures during discharge/charge cycle still remain unclear. In this work, we theoretically propose feasible crystal structures of Na2+xC6O6 using first principles calculations. A structural phase transition has been found: Na4C6O6 has a different C6O6 packing arrangement from Na2C6O6. Electronic structures of Na2+xC6O6 during discharge/charge cycle are also discussed. Our predictions could be the key to understanding the discharge/charge process of Na2C6O6. Supported by MEXT program ``Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Rersearch Center'' (since 2012), MEXT; Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1054 - Calcium hypochlorite; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calcium hypochlorite; exemptions from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1054 Calcium hypochlorite; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Calcium hypochlorite is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used preharvest or...

  2. Topographic assessment of human enamel surface treated with different topical sodium fluoride agents: Scanning electron microscope consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurlal Singh Brar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuous balanced demineralization and remineralization are natural dynamic processes in enamel. If the balance is interrupted and demineralization process dominates, it may eventually lead to the development of carious lesions in enamel and dentine. Fluoride helps control decay by enhancing remineralization and altering the structure of the tooth, making the surface less soluble. Methodology: One hundred and twenty sound human permanent incisors randomly and equally distributed into six groups as follows: Group I - Control, II - Sodium fluoride solution, III - Sodium fluoride gel, IV - Sodium fluoride varnish, V - Clinpro Tooth Crème (3M ESPE, and VI-GC Tooth Mousse Plus or MI Paste Plus. The samples were kept in artificial saliva for 12 months, and the topical fluoride agents were applied to the respective sample groups as per the manufacturer instructions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM evaluation of all the samples after 6 and 12 months was made. Results: Morphological changes on the enamel surface after application of fluoride in SEM revealed the presence of globular precipitate in all treated samples. Amorphous, globular, and crystalline structures were seen on the enamel surface of the treated samples. Clear differences were observed between the treated and untreated samples. Conclusion: Globular structures consisting of amorphous CaF2precipitates, which acted as a fluoride reservoir, were observed on the enamel surface after action of different sodium fluoride agents. CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse and Tricalcium phosphate with fluoride (Clinpro tooth crème are excellent delivery vehicles available in a slow release amorphous form to localize fluoride at the tooth surface.

  3. Influence of electron acceptor on lyoluminescence of irradiated lithium and sodium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrts, D.P.; Dzelme, Yu.R.; Malin'sh, A.A.; Gasyavichus, I.G.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of nitrate ions and the dissolution rate upon the stationary and non-stationary lyoluminescence has been studied for gamma-irradiated at 45 deg C and dose 10 4 Gy/h lithium and sodium fluorides when dissolving in a concentrated sulfuric acid under variuos disslution conditions. The lyoluminescence of both types is shown to depend on the acceptor concentration in the solvent and the dependence change is determined by reactions between chemically active defects at various depths of the crystal's surface layer affected by the solvent and the dissolution rate. The former reactions depend on the radiation defects' distibution in the crystal volume

  4. Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of amino acids, peptides and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Pattison, D I; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Activated phagocytes generate the potent oxidant hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide. HOCl is known to react with a number of biological targets including proteins, DNA, lipids and cholesterol. Proteins are likely to be major targets for reactio...

  5. Effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the electronic transport properties of Ti3C2 MXene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdiyorov, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of Li and Na ion adsorption on the electronic transport in Ti 3 C 2 MXene is studied. • Fluorinated, oxidized and hydroxylated surfaces are considered. • Enhanced charge transport is obtained for fluorinated and hydroxylated samples. • Electronic transmission is reduced in the oxidized sample. • The pristine and oxidized MXene samples are found to be sensitive to the ions adsorption. - Abstract: MXenes are found to be promising electrode materials for energy storage applications. Recent theoretical and experimental studies indicate the possibility of using these novel low dimensional materials for metal-ion batteries. Herein, we use density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism to study the effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the electronic transport properties of the MXene, Ti 3 C 2 . Oxygen, hydroxyl and fluorine terminated species are considered and the obtained results are compared with the ones for the pristine MXene. We found that the ion adsorption results in reduced electronic transport in the pristine MXene: depending on the type of the ions and the bias voltage, the current in the system can be reduced by more than 30%. On the other hand, transport properties of the oxygen terminated sample can be improved by the ion adsorption: for both types of ions the current in the system can be increased by more than a factor of 4. However, the electronic transport is less affected by the ions in fluorinated and hydroxylated samples. These two samples show enhanced electronic transport as compared to the pristine MXene. The obtained results are explained in terms of electron localization in the system.

  6. Electron impact excitation and ionization of laser-excited sodium atoms Na*(7d)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhaus, J.; Dorn, A.; Mehlhorn, W.; Zatsarinny, O.I.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the ejected-electron spectrum following impact excitation and ionization of laser-excited Na * (nl) atoms by 1.5 keV electrons. By means of two-laser excitation 3s → 3p 3/2 → 7d and subsequent cascading transitions about 8% (4%) of the target atoms were in excited states with n > 3 (7d). The experimental ejected-electron spectrum due to the decay of Auger and autoionization states of laser-excited atoms Na * (nl) with n = 4-7 has been fully interpreted by comprehensive calculations of the energies, cross sections and decay probabilities of the corresponding states. The various processes contributing to the ejected-electron spectrum are with decreasing magnitude: 2s ionization leading to 2s2p 6 nl Auger states, 2p → 3s excitation leading to 2p 5 3s( 1 P)nl autoionization states and 2s → 3l' excitation leading to 2s2p 6 3l'( 1 L)nl autoionization states. (Author)

  7. a Study on SODIUM(110) and Other Nearly Free Electron Metals Using Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyo, In-Whan

    Electronic properties of the epitaxially grown Na(110) film have been studied using angle resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation as the light source. Na provides an ideal ground to study the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions in metals, because of its simple Fermi surface and small pseudopotential. The absolute band structure of Na(110) using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been mapped out using the extrema searching method. The advantage of this approach is that the usual assumption of the unoccupied state dispersion is not required. We have found that the dispersion of Na(1l0) is very close to the parabolic band with the effective mass 1.21 M_{rm e} at 90 K. Self-consistent calculations of the self-energy for the homogeneous electron gas have been performed using the Green's function technique within the framework of the GW approximation, in the hope of understanding the narrowing mechanism of the bandwidth observed for all the nearly-free-electron (NFE) metals. Good agreements between the experimental data and our calculated self-energy were obtained not only for our data on k-dependency from Na(l10), but also for the total bandwidth corrections for other NFE metals, only if dielectric functions beyond the random phase approximation were used. Our findings emphasize the importance of the screening by long wavelength plasmons. Off-normal spectra of angle resolved photoemission from Na(110) show strong asymmetry of the bulk peak intensity for the wide range of photon energies. Using a simple analysis, we show this asymmetry has an origin in the interference of the surface Umklapp electrons with the normal electrons. We have also performed the detailed experimental studies of the anomalous Fermi level structure observed in the forbidden gap region of Na. This was claimed by A. W. Overhauser as the evidence of the charge density wave in the alkali metal. The possibility of this hypothesis is

  8. Ratiometric Signaling of Hypochlorite by the Oxidative Cleavage of Sulfonhydrazide-Based Rhodamine-Dansyl Dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jin; Cho, Min Jeoung; Chang, Suk-Kyu

    2015-09-08

    A reaction-based probe 1 for hypochlorite signaling was designed by the conjugation of two fluorophores, rhodamine and dansyl moieties, by the reaction of rhodamine B base with dansylhydrazine. Probe 1 exhibited pronounced hypochlorite-selective chromogenic and fluorescent signaling behavior over other oxidants used in practical applications, such as hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and ammonium persulfate, as well as commonly encountered metal ions and anions. Signaling was attributed to the hypochlorite-induced oxidative cleavage of the sulfonhydrazide linkage of the probe. In particular, favorable ratiometric fluorescence signaling was possible by utilizing the emissions of the two fluorophores. A detection limit of 1.13 × 10(-6) M (0.058 ppm) was estimated for the determination of hypochlorite. A paper-based test strip was prepared and was used as a semiquantitative indicator for the presence of hypochlorite in aqueous solutions. The probe was also successfully applied for the determination of hypochlorite in practical tap water samples.

  9. Titrimetric and photometric methods for determination of hypochlorite in commercial bleaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B; Gengan, Prabhashini

    2010-01-01

    Two methods, simple titration and photometric methods for determination of hypochlorite are developed, based its reaction with hydrogen peroxide and titration of the residual peroxide by acidic permanganate. In the titration method, the residual hydrogen peroxide is estimated by titration with standard permanganate solution to estimate the hypochlorite concentration. The photometric method is devised to measure the concentration of remaining permanganate, after the reaction with residual hydrogen peroxide. It employs 4 ranges of calibration curves to enable the determination of hypochlorite accurately. The new photometric method measures hypochlorite in the range 1.90 x 10(-3) to 1.90 x 10(-2) M, with high accuracy and with low variance. The concentrations of hypochlorite in diverse commercial bleach samples and in seawater which is enriched with hypochlorite were estimated using the proposed method and compared with the arsenite method. The statistical analysis validates the superiority of the proposed method.

  10. Kinetic investigations of graft copolymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate onto electron beam irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed, E-mail: mahmoudeithar@fkkksa.utm.m [Institute of Hydrogen Economy, International City Campus, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Saidi, Hamdani [Institute of Hydrogen Economy, International City Campus, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Graft copolymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) onto electron beam (EB) irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films was investigated to find out a simple preparation process for sulfonic acid proton exchange membranes with respect to monomer concentration, absorbed dose, temperature, film thickness and storage time. The reaction order of the monomer concentration and absorbed dose of grafting was found to be 2.84 and 1.20, respectively. The overall activation energy for graft copolymerization reaction was calculated to be 11.36 kJ/mol. The initial rate of grafting was found to decrease with an increase in the film thickness. The trapped radicals in the irradiated PVDF films remained effective in initiating the reaction without considerable loss in grafting level up to 180 days, when stored under -60 {sup o}C. The presence and distribution of polystyrene sulfonate grafts in the obtained membranes were observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, scanning optical microscope and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive (EDX), respectively.

  11. The Use of Backscattered Electron Imaging and Transmission Electron Microscopy to Assess Bone Architecture and Mineral Loci: Effect of Intermittent Slow-Release Sodium Fluoride Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.; Bellotto, Dennis; Prostak, Kenneth S.; Hagler, Herbert K.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-04-01

    Backscattered electron imaging (BEI) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of treatment with intermittent slow-release sodium fluoride (SRNaF) and continuous calcium citrate on bone architecture and crystallinity. Examination was performed in nondecalcified biopsies obtained from patients following up to four years of therapy (placebo or SRNaF) and compared to pretreatment biopsies from each patient, as well as to bone from young, normal subjects. BEI images disclosed increased areas of recent bone formation following fluoride administration. There was no evidence of a mineralization defect in any biopsy and both cortical and trabecular architecture remained normal. TEM analysis demonstrated intrafibrillar platelike crystals and extrafibrillar needlelike crystals for both the pre- and post-treatment biopsies as well as for the bone from young normal subjects. There was no evidence of increased crystal size or of an increase in extrafibrillar mineral deposition. These observations suggest that intermittent SRNaF and continuous calcium therapy exerts an anabolic action on the skeleton not accompanied by a mineralization defect or an alteration of bone mineral deposition. The use of BEI and TEM holds promise for the study of the pathophysiology and treatment of metabolic bone diseases.

  12. Room Temperature, Hybrid Sodium-Based Flow Batteries with Multi-Electron Transfer Redox Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamie, Jack S.; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volume of the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multi-electron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. The critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored. PMID:26063629

  13. [Disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid, alone and in combination with hypochlorite, against Mycobacterium avium in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavano, G F; Sisti, M; De Santi, M; Brandi, G

    2006-01-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a disinfectant with a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity, but little is known about the feasibility of using it in the field of drinking water treatment. The aim of this study has been assess disinfectant efficacy of PAA, alone or in combination with hypochlorite, against M. avium in drinking water M. avium is a common opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised subjects that is able to survive and grow in drinking water distribution systems. In this study PAA did not show appreciable activity against the greater number of tested strains (16/21) up to 5 ppm of PAA, a weak activity was seen on 4 strains, while a significant reduction in viable cells (about 50%) was seen only on 1 strain after 48 h of treatment with 5 ppm of PAA. We also evidenced that M. avium was unaffected by chlorine concentration usually present in drinking water distribution system. Finally, the combination of PAA and sodium hypochlorite did not promote enhanced antimicrobial efficacy respect to the single disinfectants. In conclusion, our result would indicate that PAA is an unlikely candidate for the disinfection of drinking water from M. avium and further strategies are required to eliminate M. avium from drinking water system.

  14. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth. PMID:27218106

  15. Reserve, thin form-factor, hypochlorite-based cells for powering portable systems: Manufacture (including MEMS processes), performance and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas-Valencia, Andres M.; Langebrake, Larry [Center for Ocean Technology, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Biver, Carl J. [Center for Ocean Technology, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave. Tampa, FL (United States)

    2007-03-30

    This work focuses on fabrication routes and performance evaluation of thin form-factors, reserve cells, as a powering alternative for expendable and/or remotely operated systems. The catalytic decomposition of sodium hypochlorite solutions is revisited herein with two cost-effective anodes: zinc and aluminum. Aluminum, even though the most expensive of the utilized anodes, constituted cells with double the energy content (up to 55 Wh kg{sup -1}) than those fabricated with zinc. Even though the hypochlorite concentration in the solution limits the cells' operational life, attractive performances (1.0 V with a current of 10 mA) for the manufactured cells are obtained. It is shown that micro fabrication processes, allowing for close electrodes interspacing, provided high faradic and columbic efficiencies of up to 70 and 100%, respectively. Obtained specific energies (50-120 Wh kg{sup -1}) are in the same order of magnitude than batteries currently used for powering deployable systems. Experimental results show that a simple model that linearly relates over potentials and the electrical load, adequately describe all the cell designs. A mathematical model based on a kinetic-mechanistic scheme that relates the current output as a function of time agrees fairly well with results obtained activating cells with various concentrations of NaOCl solutions. (author)

  16. Near-threshold electron-impact excitation of the (2p53s2)2P3/2,1/2 autoionizing states in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovik, A; Zatsarinny, O; Bartschat, K

    2008-01-01

    The ejected-electron excitation functions of the J = 3/2, 1/2 components of the (2p 5 3s 2 ) 2 P leading autoionizing doublet in sodium atoms were measured at an incident electron energy resolution of 0.25 eV over the incident electron energy range from the lowest excitation threshold up to 36 eV. On the basis of 56-state R-matrix (close-coupling) calculations, the observed strong near-threshold structures were classified as negative-ion resonances with likely configurations 2p 5 3s 2 3p and 2p 5 3s3p 2

  17. Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron tomography of sodium-driven flagellar hook-basal bodies from Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogi, Naoki; Shigematsu, Hideki; Terashima, Hiroyuki; Homma, Michio; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus use flagella to swim. A flagellum consists of a filament, hook and basal body. The basal body is made up of a rod and several ring structures. This study investigates the structure of the T ring which is a unique component of the V. alginolyticus sodium ion-driven flagellar basal body. Using Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) cryo-electron tomography, we compared the 3D structures of purified hook-basal bodies (HBB) from a wild-type strain (KK148) and a deletion mutant lacking MotX and MotY (TH3), which are thought to form the T ring. ZPC images of HBBs had highly improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional phase contrast images. We observed the outline of the HBBs from strains KK148 and TH3, and the TH3 mutant was missing its T ring. In the wild-type strain, the T ring was beneath the LP ring and seemed to form a ring shape with diameter of 32 nm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Selective Use of Hypochlorite to Prevent Pond Crashes for Algae-Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Although algae-biofuels have many advantages including high areal productivity, algae can be preyed upon by amoebas, protozoans, ciliates, and rotifers, particularly in open pond systems. Thus, these higher organisms need to be controlled. In this study, Chlorella kessleri was used as the algal culture and Brachionus calyciflorus as the source of predation. The effect of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) was tested with the goal of totally inhibiting the rotifer while causing minor inhibition to the alga. The 24-hr LC50 for B. calyciflorus in spring water was 0.198 mg Cl/L while the 24-hr LC50 for C. kessleri was 0.321 mg Cl/L. However, chlorine dissipates rapidly as the algae serves as reductant. Results showed a chlorine dosage between 0.45 to 0.6 mg Cl/L and a dosing interval of two hours created the necessary chlorine concentrations to inhibit predation while letting the algae grow; thus giving algae farmers a tool to prevent pond crashes. Water Environ. Res., 87 (2015).

  19. Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of proteins in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Activated phagocyte cells generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of H2O2 and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Plasma proteins are major targets for HOCl, although little information is available about the mechanism(s) of oxidation. In this study the reaction of HOCl (at least 50 microM) with dil......Activated phagocyte cells generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of H2O2 and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Plasma proteins are major targets for HOCl, although little information is available about the mechanism(s) of oxidation. In this study the reaction of HOCl (at least 50 micro......M) with diluted fresh human plasma has been shown to generate material that oxidizes 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid; these oxidants are believed to be chloramines formed from the reaction of HOCl with protein amine groups. Chloramines have also been detected with isolated plasma proteins treated with HOCl. In both...... more efficient. The reaction of fresh diluted plasma with HOCl also gives rise to protein-derived nitrogen-centred radicals in a time- and HOCl-concentration-dependent manner; these have been detected by EPR spin trapping. Identical radicals have been detected with isolated HOCl-treated plasma proteins...

  20. Coupled-channel optical calculation of electron-atom scattering: elastic scattering from sodium at 20 to 150 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, Igor; Konovalov, D.A.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-04-01

    A coupled-channel optical method for electron-atom scattering is applied to elastic electron-sodium scattering at energies of 20, 22.1, 54.4, 100, and 150 eV. It is demonstrated that the effect of all the inelastic channels on elastic scattering may be well reproduced by the 'ab initio' calculated complex non-local polarization potential. Whilst the experiments generally agree at small angles and therefore agree on the total elastic cross section, there is considerable discrepancy at intermediate and backward angles. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Scanning electron microscopy of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter described methods for Scanning Electron Microscopical imaging of bone and bone cells. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging is by far the most useful in the bone field, followed by secondary electrons (SE) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analytical modes. This chapter considers preparing and imaging samples of unembedded bone having 3D detail in a 3D surface, topography-free, polished or micromilled, resin-embedded block surfaces, and resin casts of space in bone matrix. The chapter considers methods for fixation, drying, looking at undersides of bone cells, and coating. Maceration with alkaline bacterial pronase, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium or potassium hydroxide to remove cells and unmineralised matrix is described in detail. Attention is given especially to methods for 3D BSE SEM imaging of bone samples and recommendations for the types of resin embedding of bone for BSE imaging are given. Correlated confocal and SEM imaging of PMMA-embedded bone requires the use of glycerol to coverslip. Cathodoluminescence (CL) mode SEM imaging is an alternative for visualising fluorescent mineralising front labels such as calcein and tetracyclines. Making spatial casts from PMMA or other resin embedded samples is an important use of this material. Correlation with other imaging means, including microradiography and microtomography is important. Shipping wet bone samples between labs is best done in glycerol. Environmental SEM (ESEM, controlled vacuum mode) is valuable in eliminating -"charging" problems which are common with complex, cancellous bone samples.

  2. Oxidation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine by hypochlorite ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheidorov, V. P.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Chalyi, G. Yu.; Titorovich, O. V.

    2011-08-01

    The kinetics of the oxidative conversion of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine upon treatment with hypochlorite ions (OCl-) in aqueous medium at 283-298 K and pH 8.2 was studied. The reaction order with respect to each component was determined and proved to be 1. It was established that the temperature dependence of the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation. The activation parameters of the reaction were measured: E a = 33.58 kJ/mol, Δ H ≠ = 31.12 kJ/mol, Δ S ≠ = -170.02 J/(K mol), Δ G ≠ = 81.45 kJ/mol. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the chemistry of the oxidative conversion of caffeine treated with OCl- is discussed.

  3. Kinetics of isothermal annealing of hypochlorite in γ-irradiated potassium chlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnikar, H.J.; Patil, S.F.; Patil, B.T.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics of isothermal annealing of hypochlorite formed in the gamma radiolysis of potassium chlorate crystals have been studied at different temperatures in the range of 100-160 deg C. The hypochlorite is found to anneal by a combination of first and second order processes, the former being fast, virtually reaching completion within a few hours. It is then followed by a slow second order process. (authors)

  4. Disinfection of stabilization pond effluent by peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Rezania

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The study demonstrated that application of combined PAA and NaOCl in disinfecting the effluent of the stabilization pond will promote the efficiency of disinfection process in inactivating the coliform group bacteria and fecal streptococci.

  5. Inadvertent Apical Extrusion of Sodium Hypochlorite with Evaluation by Dental Volumetric Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Delve Başer Can

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the tissue injury caused by inadvertently extruded NaOCl through the apical constriction. A 56-year-old female patient with complaints of pain, swelling, and ecchymosis on the left side of her face was referred to our clinic. The symptoms had emerged following root canal treatment of the maxillary left first premolar, and a soft tissue complication due to apical extrusion of NaOCl was diagnosed. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. DVT images revealed that the buccal root apex had perforated the maxillary bone. The patient was followed up every other day and became asymptomatic on the 10th day. Endodontic therapy was completed with routine procedures. Determining working length precisely and following irrigation protocols meticulously are indispensable to prevent this type of complication. 3D visualization of the affected area may reveal the cause of the incident.

  6. Inactivation of Ichthyophonus spores using sodium hypochlorite and polyvinyl pyrrolidone iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P K; Pacheco, C A; Gregg, J L

    2008-11-01

    Chlorine and iodine solutions were effective at inactivating Ichthyophonus spores in vitro. Inactivation in sea water increased directly with halogen concentration and exposure duration, with significant differences (P < 0.05) from controls occurring at all chlorine concentrations and exposure durations tested (1.5-13.3 ppm for 1-60 min) and at most iodine concentrations and exposure durations tested (1.2 ppm for 60 min and 5.9-10.7 ppm for 1-60 min). However, 10-fold reductions in spore viability occurred only after exposure to halogen solutions at higher concentrations and/or longer durations (13 ppm total chlorine for 1-60 min, 5.9 ppm total iodine for 60 min, and 10.7 ppm total iodine for 1-60 min). Inactivation efficacy was greater when halogen solutions were prepared in fresh water, presumably because of combined effects of halogen-induced inactivation and general spore instability in fresh water. The results have practical implications for disinfection and biocontainment in research laboratories and other facilities that handle live Ichthyophonus cultures and/or infected fish.

  7. Sodium hypochlorite as an alternative to hydrogen peroxide in Fenton process for industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behin, Jamshid; Akbari, Abbas; Mahmoudi, Mohsen; Khajeh, Mehdi

    2017-09-15

    In present work, the treatment of aromatic compounds of simulated wastewater was performed by Fenton and NaOCl/Fe 2+ processes. The model solution was prepared based on the wastewater composition of Diisocyanate unit of Karoon Petrochemical Company/Iran containing Diamino-toluenes, Nitro-phenol, Mononitro-toluene, Nitro-cresol, and Dinitro-toluene. Experiments were conducted in a batch mode to examine the effects of operating variables such as pH, oxidant dosages, ferrous ion concentration and numbers of feeding on COD removal. Taguchi experimental design was used to determine the optimum conditions. The COD removal efficiency under optimum conditions (suggested by Taguchi design) in Fenton and NaOCl/Fe 2+ processes was 88.7% and 83.4%, respectively. The highest contribution factor in Fenton process belongs to pH (47.47%) and in NaOCl/Fe 2+ process belongs to NaOCl/pollutants (50.26%). High regression coefficient (R 2 : 0.98) obtained for Taguchi method, indicates that models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. The NaOCl/Fe 2+ process utilizing a conventional oxidant, in comparison to hydrogen peroxide, is an efficient cost effective process for COD removal from real wastewater, although the removal efficiency is not as high as in Fenton process; however it is a suitable process to replace Fenton process in industrial scale for wastewater involved aromatic compounds with high COD. This process was successfully applied in Karoon Petrochemical Company/Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium hypochlorite as a disinfecting additive for dental stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Jonathan O; Abdelaziz, Khalid M; Combe, Edward C; Anderson, Dwight L

    2003-09-01

    Dental casts come into direct contact with impression materials and other items that are contaminated by saliva and blood from a patient's mouth, leaving the casts susceptible to cross-contamination. Topical methods of disinfecting casts are difficult to control, while immersion methods are potentially destructive. Thus, an additional method to control cross-contamination between patients and laboratory personnel is needed. This study was undertaken in an attempt to develop a dental stone with disinfecting properties and adequate compressive and tensile strengths. Calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)(2)] in aqueous solution in concentrations from 0 to 1.5% was tested as a disinfecting additive to type V dental stone. The compressive and tensile strength properties of the modified stone were measured (MPa) using a universal testing machine at a consistency similar to unmodified stone. Strength data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey-Kramer procedure (alpha CaviCide, and 3 impressions rinsed in water served as controls. In general, the effect of adding the disinfectant to the stone was a decrease in strength. Exceptions were the dry compressive strength, for which there was a significant increase in strength (P=.048) at 0.5%, and the wet compressive and wet tensile strength, which showed no significant difference between the 1.5% and the control. When Ca(OCl)(2) was added at the concentration 0.5% (2765 ppm available chlorine), the gypsum had acceptable mechanical properties; dry compressive strength was 78.86 +/- 4.12 MPa, and dry tensile strength was 10.64 +/- 1.27 MPa, compared to control values of 67.85 +/- 6.28 and 13.41 +/- 1.24 MPa, respectively. At concentrations of 0.3% and higher (36 1650 ppm of available chlorine), calcium hypochlorite was able to completely inactivate phi29. It is possible to prepare a type V dental stone that contains a disinfectant, has adequate mechanical properties, and will reduce numbers of residual microorganisms. For example

  9. Investigation of Thermal Stability of P2-NaxCoO2 Cathode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries Using Real-Time Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sooyeon; Lee, Yongho; Jo, Eunmi; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Choi, Wonchang; Kim, Seung Min; Chang, Wonyoung

    2017-06-07

    Here, we take advantage of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the thermal stability of P2-type Na x CoO 2 cathode materials for sodium ion batteries, which are promising candidates for next-generation lithium ion batteries. A double-tilt TEM heating holder was used to directly characterize the changes in the morphology and the crystallographic and electronic structures of the materials with increase in temperature. The electron diffraction patterns and the electron energy loss spectra demonstrated the presence of cobalt oxides (Co 3 O 4 , CoO) and even metallic cobalt (Co) at higher temperatures as a result of reduction of Co ions and loss of oxygen. The bright-field TEM images revealed that the surface of Na x CoO 2 becomes porous at high temperatures. Higher cutoff voltages result in degrading thermal stability of Na x CoO 2 . The observations herein provide a valuable insight that thermal stability is one of the important factors to be considered in addition to the electrochemical properties when developing new electrode materials for novel battery systems.

  10. Sodium beta-alumina thin films as gate dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN metal—insulator—semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Ben-Lang; Chen Chao; Li Yan-Rong; Zhang Wan-Li; Liu Xing-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Sodium beta-alumina (SBA) is deposited on AlGaN/GaN by using a co-deposition process with sodium and Al 2 O 3 as the precursors. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum reveals that the deposited thin film is amorphous. The binding energy and composition of the deposited thin film, obtained from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement, are consistent with those of SBA. The dielectric constant of the SBA thin film is about 50. Each of the capacitance—voltage characteristics obtained at five different frequencies shows a high-quality interface between SBA and AlGaN. The interface trap density of metal—insulator—semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MISHEMT) is measured to be (3.5∼9.5)×10 10 cm −2 ·eV −1 by the conductance method. The fixed charge density of SBA dielectric is on the order of 2.7×10 12 cm −2 . Compared with the AlGaN/GaN metal—semiconductor heterostructure high-electron-mobility transistor (MESHEMT), the AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT usually has a threshold voltage that shifts negatively. However, the threshold voltage of the AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT using SBA as the gate dielectric shifts positively from −5.5 V to −3.5 V. From XPS results, the surface valence-band maximum (VBM-EF) of AlGaN is found to decrease from 2.56 eV to 2.25 eV after the SBA thin film deposition. The possible reasons why the threshold voltage of AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT with the SBA gate dielectric shifts positively are the influence of SBA on surface valence-band maximum (VBM-EF), the reduction of interface traps and the effects of sodium ions, and/or the fixed charges in SBA on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  11. Effect of hypochlorite on the planktonic and attached (biofilm) diatom cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Vinnitha, E.; Venugopalan, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid, sensitive, multi-species and multi-parametric techniques are desirable for determining treatment efficacy and environmentally realistic toxicity assessment of oxidizing biocides. In this work, the effect of in-use levels the antifouling biocide chlorine was studied using attached and freely suspended cultures of the diatom Cocconeis scutellum. Using confocal microscopy, in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence was collected in x, y and z dimensions for determining mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) per individual cell and related to hypochlorite treatment. The inhibition in the chlorophyll fluorescence of C. scutellum cells was almost 50% after 1 hour of treatment with 2 mg l -1 of added hypochlorite (1.2 mg l -1 total residual oxidant, TRO) and increased to 68 % during recovery period (18 h). On the contrary, attached Cocconeis cells did not show any significant reduction in their chlorophyll fluorescence after treatment with up to 3 mg l -1 hypochlorite for up to 3 h. Reduction in the chlorophyll fluorescence in the attached Cocconeis cells was observed after prolonged (18 h) incubation in seawater dosed with 2.3 or 3.8 mg I-I hypochlorite (1.5 and 3 mg l -1 TRO). The data obtained in this study clearly suggest that (i) hypochlorite treated diatom cells do not recover in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence in short-term assays and (ii) attached diatom cells exhibit enhanced resistance to chlorination-induced cellular injury. (author)

  12. Carbon dots prepared from citric acid and urea as fluorescent probes for hypochlorite and peroxynitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simões, Eliana F. C.; Leitão, João M. M.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C. G.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) were prepared from citric acid and urea, and their fluorescence was found to be quenched by hypochlorite and peroxynitrite. Microwave based synthesis gives CDs with excitation/emission wavelength-dependent quantum yields (8 % at 400/520 nm; 10 % at 360/451 nm; 12 % at 350/420 nm). Quenching of fluorescence depends on pH values, and response is most selective and sensitive to hypochlorite at pH 4, and to peroxynitrite at pH 9. The lower detection limits are 0.5 and 1.5 μM, respectively. The method was successfully applied to quantify hypochlorite and peroxynitrite in standard solutions and in spiked dilute serum samples. (author)

  13. Genotoxicity of the disinfection by-products resulting from peracetic acid- or hypochlorite-disinfected sewage wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crebelli, R; Conti, L; Monarca, S; Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Zani, C; Veschetti, E; Cutilli, D; Ottaviani, M

    2005-03-01

    Wastewater disinfection is routinely carried out to prevent the spread of human pathogens present in wastewater effluents. To this aim, chemical and physical treatments are applied to the effluents before their emission in water bodies. In this study, the influence of two widely used disinfectants, peracetic acid (PAA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), on the formation of mutagenic by-products was investigated. Wastewater samples were collected before and after disinfection, in winter and in summer, at a pilot plant installed in a municipal wastewater-treatment plant. Samples were adsorbed using silica C18 cartridges and the concentrates were tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella typhimurium reversion test with strains TA98 and TA100. Non-concentrated water samples were tested with two plant genotoxicity assays (the Allium cepa root anaphase aberration test and the Tradescantia/micronucleus test). Mutagenicity assays in bacteria and in Tradescantia showed borderline mutagenicity in some of the wastewater samples, independent of the disinfection procedure applied. Negative results were obtained in the A. cepa anaphase aberration test. These results indicate that, in the conditions applied, wastewater disinfection with PAA and NaClO does not lead to the formation of significant amounts of genotoxic by-products.

  14. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of efficacy of 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and chitosan for smear layer removal with ultrasonics: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradhana Babu Kamble

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main aim of root canal treatment is cleaning, shaping and then obturating three dimensionally to prevent reinfection. This includes chemicomechanical cleansing by instrumentation and the use of irrigating solutions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the smear layer removal from root canal dentine subjected to two root canal irrigants, 17% EDTA and 0.2% Chitosan, a new irrigant using Scanning Electron Microscope. Methodology: 40 single rooted premolars were decoronated followed by instrumentation with I Race files and intermediate irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite and activation with ultrasonics. Then the samples were longitudinally sectioned and place in the respective test solutions and their controls for 5 minutes. Scanning Electron Microscopic evaluation was further carried out. Results: The results of the present study indicates that the Chitosan which was proved effective in removing smear layer. Conclusion: A moderate concentration of 0.2% chitosan removes the smear layer with greater efficiency.

  15. Evaluation of chemical and/or mechanical treatments of the smear layer as revealed by scanning electron microscopy - a blind comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ Maria Aparecida Alves de Cerqueira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A blind comparative study of chemical and/or mechanical treatments of the smear layer, according to scanning electron microscopy images, was carried out. The effect of the treatments was analyzed on the smear layer of mesio-occlusodistal cavity walls prepared in vitro in human third molars. The agents used were air/water spray, 37% phosphoric acid, 5% tannic acid, biologic detergent, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, and enamel hatchet alone or in association with the previous agents. Electron micrographs were evaluated by three professionals according to the degree of visualization of underlying dentin or enamel. Phosphoric acid received the highest scores due to the complete removal of the smear layer. However, statistical analyses revealed diverse performances of non or slightly demineralizing agents, according to the cavity walls in dentin, while there was equivalent effect on the enamel of gingival walls.

  16. Reactivity of Hydrated Electron in Finite Size System: Sodium Pickup on Mixed N2O–Water Nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídová, Daniela; Lengyel, Jozef; Pysanenko, Andriy; Med, J.; Slavíček, P.; Fárník, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 15 (2015), s. 2865-2869 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08937S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : solvated electron * water clusters * fragmentation-free mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 8.539, year: 2015

  17. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  18. The effect of electron irradiation on the structure and iron speciation in sodium aluminum (iron) phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, S.V., E-mail: serge.stefanovsky@yandex.ru [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry RAS (Russian Federation); Presniakov, I.A.; Sobolev, A.V.; Glazkova, I.S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kadyko, M.I.; Stefanovsky, O.I. [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry RAS (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    The effect of 8 MeV electron irradiation on the structure of glasses in the series 40 Na{sub 2}O, (20-x) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, x Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 40 P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (mol.%) and on the iron speciation in these samples was studied by FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. Irradiation up to a dose of 1.0 MGy has no appreciable effects on the character of the bonds within anionic motif of the glass network. Electron irradiation increases the fraction of aluminum in octahedral coordination. Iron in both unirradiated and irradiated glasses is present mainly as Fe(III) (60–75% of the total amount) in the glasses and partly as Fe(II) and the ratio of two forms remains constant up to a dose of 1.0 MGy.

  19. Effects of air polishing and an amino acid buffered hypochlorite solution to dentin surfaces and periodontal ligament cell survival, attachment, and spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Patrick R; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Mueller, Heinz-Dieter; Sculean, Anton; Lussi, Adrian; Miron, Richard J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine morphological changes of dentin surfaces following air polishing or amino acid buffered hypochlorite solution application and to assess their influence on periodontal ligament (PDL) cell survival, attachment, and spreading to dentin discs in vitro. Bovine dentin discs were treated with either (i) Classic, (ii) Plus, or (iii) Perio powder (EMS). Furthermore, Perisolv® a hypochlorite solution buffered with various amino acids was investigated. Untreated dentin discs served as controls. Morphological changes to dentin discs were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human PDL cells were seeded onto the respectively treated discs, and samples were then investigated for PDL cell survival, attachment, and spreading using a live/dead assay, adhesion assay, and SEM imaging, respectively. Both control and Perisolv®-rinsed dentin discs demonstrated smooth surfaces at low and high magnifications. The Classic powders demonstrated the thickest coating followed by the Powder Plus. The Perio powder demonstrated marked alterations of dentin discs by revealing the potential to open dentinal tubules even before rinsing. Seeding of PDL cells demonstrated an almost 100 % survival rate on all samples demonstrating very high biocompatibility for all materials. Significantly higher PDL cell numbers were observed on samples treated with the Perio powder and the Perisolv® solution (approximately 40 % more cells; p air polishing or application with Perisolv®. Future in vitro and animal testing is necessary to further characterize the beneficial effects of either system in a clinical setting. The use of air polishing or application with Perisolv amino acid buffered hypochlorite solution was effective in treating root surfaces and allowed for near 100 % PDL cell survival, attachment, and spreading onto all root surfaces.

  20. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  1. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  2. "Electron/Ion Sponge"-Like V-Based Polyoxometalate: Toward High-Performance Cathode for Rechargeable Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jilei; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Bowei; Wang, Jin; Wang, Huanhuan; Tian, Bingbing; Chen, Minghua; Fan, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yizhong; Sum, Tze Chien; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2017-07-25

    One key challenge facing room temperature Na-ion batteries lies in identifying earth-abundant, environmentally friendly and safe materials that can provide efficient Na + storage sites in Na-ion batteries. Herein, we report such a material, polyoxometalate Na 2 H 8 [MnV 13 O 38 ] (NMV), with entirely different composition and structure from those cathode compounds reported before. Ex-situ XPS and FTIR analyses reveal that NMV cathode behaves like an "electron/Na-ion sponge", with 11 electrons/Na + acceptability per mole, which has a decisive contribution to the high capacity. The extraordinary structural features, evidenced by X-ray crystallographic analysis, of Na 2 H 8 [MnV 13 O 38 ] with a flexible 2D lamellar network and 1D open channels provide diverse Na ion migration pathways, yielding good rate capability. First-principle calculations demonstrate that a super-reduced state, [MnV 13 O 38 ] 20- , is formed with slightly expanded size (ca. 7.5%) upon Na + insertion compared to the original [MnV 13 O 38 ] 9- . This "ion sponge" feature ensures the good cycling stability. Consequently, benefiting from the combinations of "electron/ion sponge" with diverse Na + diffusion channels, when revealed as the cathode materials for Na-ion batteries, Na 2 H 8 [MnV 13 O 38 ]/G exhibits a high specific capacity (ca. 190 mA h/g at 0.1 C), associates with a good rate capability (130 mA h/g at 1 C), and a good capacity retention (81% at 0.2 C). Our results promote better understanding of the storage mechanism in polyoxometalate host, enrich the existing rechargeable SIBs cathode chemistry, and enlighten an exciting direction for exploring promising cathode materials for Na-ion batteries.

  3. Calculation of spin-dependent observables in electron-sodium scattering using the coupled-channel optical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, Igor.

    1992-04-01

    The calculations of the 3 2 S and 3 2 P spin asymmetries and the angular momentum for singlet and triplet scattering for projectile energies of 10 and 20 eV is presented. Together these observables give a most stringent test of any electron-atom scattering theory. An excellent agreement was found between the results of the coupled-channel optical method and experiment, which for the spin asymmetries can only be obtained by a good description of the couplings between the lower-lying target states and the target continuum. 10 refs., 2 figs

  4. The Effect of Hypochlorite Oxidation and Acetylation on Some of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the effect of hypochlorite oxidation and acetylation on some physicochemical properties of Icacina trichantha starch. The native and modified (oxidized and acetylated) starches were studied with respect to Infrared spectroscopy(IR), microscopy, gelatinization, swelling power, solubility index, amylose ...

  5. 78 FR 77712 - Calcium Hypochlorite From China: Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-510 and 731-TA-1245 (Preliminary)] Calcium Hypochlorite From China: Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations and... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of calcium [[Page 77713...

  6. Photocatalytic Oxidation in Drinking Water Treatment Using Hypochlorite and Titanium Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Kalliny, A.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is to study the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) of water pollutants via UV/hypochlorite (homogeneous AOPs), and UV solar light/TiO2 (heterogeneous AOPs) in which the highly oxidative hydroxyl radicals (•OH) are produced. These radicals are capable of destructing the

  7. Trapped electron spectra in hydrates of sodium, potassium and tetraalkylammonium hydroxides of varying H2O content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.; Grodkowski, J.; Bobrowski, K.

    1980-01-01

    Transient spectra of e - sub(t) in hydrates at room temperature obtained by pulse radiolysis with Cerenkov L.S.M. are presented. The decrease in number of H 2 O molecules n, in KOH.nH 2 O and NaOH.nH 2 O is accompanied by a blue shift of the absorption maximum. The same tendency is observed in concentrated solutions. The shifts in tetraalkylammonium hydroxides are not as extended as in KOH and NaOH systems, because TAAH's coordinate more H 2 O molecules and the preparation of solution of higher concentration is not possible. Freezing of hydrates does not change the e - sub(t) spectrum considerably. The concept of the trap containing one molecule of water and one electron is discussed in the general context of the phenomena. (author)

  8. The effects of prolonged oral administration of the disinfectant calcium hypochlorite in Nigerian commercial cockerels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitayo O. Iji

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of prolonged oral administration of calcium hypochlorite in the drinking water of commercial cockerels. It was carried out in order to ascertain probable toxicity associated with prolonged exposure to calcium hypochlorite. Thirty-two healthy birds were used; they were grouped into four groups of eight. Group 1, which served as the control, received 10 mL/kg body weight of physiological saline. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.0375 g, 0.375 g and 0.75 g of calcium hypochlorite per 10 litres of drinking water for six weeks respectively. Six weeks after the administration of calcium hypochlorite, blood was collected from the jugular vein to assess liver function, lipid profiles and for markers of oxidative stress. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in alanine aminotransferase activity in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. Also, there was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels compared with the control. There was a significant increase in malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generation with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05 decrease in serum glutathione level in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. In this study, calcium hypochloriteinduced hepatic damage via oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidant defense system was found. Therefore, prolonged exposure of chickens to calcium hypochlorite is potentially harmful.

  9. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  10. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on phosphoric-salt pellets. Determination of the geometric and electronic structure of metal-oxide doped sodium-phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendebach, B.

    2004-02-01

    Sodium metaphosphate glasses doped with transition metal oxides show characteristic colors. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations provide information whether the coloration stems from different electronic transitions or changes in the geometrical structure of the glasses. Even though the violet color of MnO y -doped glasses is considered as an evidence for Mn 3+ -ions, Mn K-XAS reveals that the majority of the manganese ions are in the oxidation state +II and have a mixed coordination of four and six oxygen atoms, respectively. The oxygen coordination around the nickel ions in NiO-doped glasses with different metall oxide concentrations is always six. The change of color from citreous to auburn with increasing nickel oxide content is attributed to a systematic change in the bonding characteristic from mainly ionic-like to a small but significant contribution of covalent-like bonding. Analysis of higher coordination shells provides no indication of the formation of metal oxide clusters. (orig.)

  12. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuyper, L

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging in combination with the addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms was investigated. A modified atmosphere which slowed down discolouration...

  13. Ab Initio Thermodynamic and Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Metasilicate, Na2SiO3, and Their Electron-Density and Electron-Pair-Density Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Donato; Gatti, Carlo; Ottonello, Giulio; Richet, Pascal; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino

    2016-11-10

    Thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of Na 2 SiO 3 in the Cmc2 1 structural state are computed ab initio using the hybrid B3LYP density functional method. The static properties at the athermal limit are first evaluated through a symmetry-preserving relaxation procedure. The thermodynamic properties that depend on vibrational frequencies, viz., heat capacities, thermal expansion, thermal derivative of the bulk modulus, thermal correction to internal energy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy, are then computed in the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation. Acoustic branches are computed by solving the Christoffel determinant and are assumed to follow sine wave dispersion when traveling within the Brillouin zone. The procedure generates several thermo-physical properties of interest in materials science and geophysics (transverse and longitudinal wave velocities, shear modulus, Young modulus, Poisson ratio) all consistent with experimentally determined properties. A representative cluster is then abstracted from the cell and a detailed electron localization/delocalization analysis is performed on it, in the ground state geometry, and on deformed states imposed by two peculiar mixed asymmetric stretching/bending modes affecting the silicate chain that, according to literature data, have anomalous mode Grüneisen parameters. A Bader analysis reveals an intriguing feature associated with these deformations: an increase in the covalence of the Si-O bond that strengthens the linkage opposing the weakening induced by thermal stress. Finally, on the same cluster, the Ramsey contributions to the J NM coupling are evaluated by the gauge-independent atomic orbital method. The calculated isotropic chemical shifts of both 23 Na and 29 Si are again in substantial agreement with observations.

  14. Methyl Salicylate: A Reactive Chemical Warfare Agent Surrogate to Detect Reaction with Hypochlorite (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    presumably due to saponification (Figure 2) followed by a slower decarbox- ylation step to produce detectable amounts of 2-chloro-, 4-chloro- and 2,4...reaction of MeS with hypochlorite demonstrating the effect of a cosolvent on the rate of reaction. Figure 2. Proposed mechanism for EAS, saponification , and...Quantitative analysis of the products is complicated by the competing process of saponification of the esters to chlorophe- nols, and by possible surface

  15. Reaction of hypochlorite with amino acids and peptides : EPR evidence for rapid rearrangement and fragmentation of nitrogen-centred radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, C.L.; Davies, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Various amino acid side chains have been shown to be particularly susceptible to attack and modification by hypochlorite (HOCl). It is known that tyrosine is readily chlorinated by HOCl to give 3-chlorotyrosine and this product has been employed as a marker of HOCl-mediated damage to proteins. Cysteine and methionine react rapidly with HOCl to give oxy acids and cystine (from cysteine) and sulphoxides (from methionine). Lysine and amino acids which lack the above functional groups also react with HOCl via the free amino group which results in the generation of unstable chloramine intermediates; subsequent decomposition of these species gives NH 3 , CO 2 and aldehydes. While the products of reaction of HOCl with amino acids and peptides are reasonably well characterised, the mechanism(s) by which these products arise is less well understood. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with spin trapping and UV/visible spectroscopy has been employed to examine the reaction of HOCl with amino acids and some small peptides. Reaction of HOCl with N-acetyl amino acids or small peptides gives radicals predominantly at α-carbon sites via reaction at N-terminal free amino groups or amide (peptide) bonds. It is proposed that these carbon-centred radicals are produced as a result of the rearrangement of initial nitrogen-centred radicals formed on cleavage of the N-CI bond of the chloramine/chloramide species by a 1,2-shift reaction

  16. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...

  17. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  18. Validation of the effects of a single one second hypochlorite floral dip on Bortytis cinerea incidence following long-term shipment of cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.; Mensink, M.G.J.; Harkema, H.; Macnish, A.J.; Reid, M.S.; Jiang, C.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a pre-shipment hypochlorite treatment on botrytis incidence was evaluated in a large number of rose cultivars and under different long-term storage conditions. Application parameters, stability and sources of hypochlorite were investigated. Irrespective of the type of packaging and

  19. Efficacy and safety of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) baths in patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Su-ming; Ng, Ting Guan; Baba, Roshidah

    2013-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is frequently found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and contributes to disease exacerbation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bleach baths as an adjunctive treatment in AD patients. Patients between 2 and 30 years old with moderate to severe AD were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients soaked in diluted bleach or distilled water baths for 10 min, twice a week for 2 months. Efficacy assessments included the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) scores and S. aureus density was determined using quantitative bacterial cultures. Patients in the treatment group showed significant reductions in EASI scores. A 41.9% reduction in S. aureus density from baseline was seen at 1 month further reducing to 53.3% at 2 months. Equal numbers of patients in both groups experienced mild side-effects. This study demonstrates that diluted bleach baths clinically improved AD in as little as 1 month. No patient withdrew from the treatment arm because of intolerance to the baths. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Ultrasound efficiency in relation to sodium hypochlorite and filtration adsorption in microbial elimination in a water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processes like ultrasound, chlorination and filtration-adsorption were compared to eliminate microorganisms and to adjust established parameters of public drinking water. A mini water treatment plant (WTP-CB, in pilot scale, was projected and built to evaluate each process influence as: decontamination, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. Total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and heterotrophic bacteria and physic/chemical parameters were quantified from water. Ultrasound, chlorination and filtration-adsorption were efficient to inactivate and/or eliminate bacteria. Ultrasound decontamination in addition to coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration, could be considered as an alternative treatment water solution where prechlorination, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration were used. The chlorination itself was efficient in inactivating bacteria despite of the coagulation-flocculation process; however, in the absence of the coagulation process, the resultant water did not achieve the established parameters. The filtration-adsorption was an important process to eliminate bacteria, showing that the filter retained particles, suspended solids, besides chemical substances and microorganisms.Comparou-se diferentes processos: ultra-som, cloração e filtração/adsorção para eliminação de microrganismos e adequação de outros parâmetros exigidos para água de abastecimento público. Para avaliar a influência de cada processo: desinfecção, coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração foi projetada e construída uma Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA-CB em escala piloto. Foram avaliados coliformes, bactérias heterotróficas e parâmetros físico/químicos. Ondas ultra-sônicas, cloração e filtração/adsorção mostraram-se eficientes na inativação e/ou eliminação de bactérias. O processo de desinfecção com ultra-som juntamente com a coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração, pode ser considerado como um tratamento alternativo do processo tradicional onde utiliza-se pré-cloração, coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração. A cloração mostrou-se eficiente na inativação de bactérias, independente da aplicação do processo de coagulação/floculação, porém na ausência desse processo à água resultante não atingiu a especificação de potabilidade. A filtração/adsorção mostrou-se importante na eliminação de bactérias, evidenciando que o filtro retém partículas, sólidos suspensos, substâncias químicas e microrganismos.

  1. The Effect of 8.25% Sodium Hypochlorite on Dental Pulp Dissolution and Dentin Flexural Strength and Modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    endodontic treatment is the prevention or treatment of apical periodontitis (1) of which bacteria play a critical role (2). Thorough debridement of...inactivate endotoxin, 4) prevent or remove the smear layer, and 5) be nontoxic and noncaustic to periodontal tissues with little potential for...contains active chlorine, a strong oxidizing agent. The chlorine irreversibly oxidizes essential enzymes of the bacteria , disrupting its metabolic

  2. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G; Lopez, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2009-03-11

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  3. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G; Lopez, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  4. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  5. ORAL MUCOSA DAMAGE BECAUSE OF HYPOCHLORITE ACCIDENT – A CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Deliverska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypochlorite solution is widely used in dental practice during root canal treatment. Although it is generally regarded as being very safe, potentially severe complications can occur when it comes into contact with soft tissue especially due to its cytotoxic features. Objective The aim of our paper is to present a case of damage of oral mucosa because of leakage of 3% hypochlorite through rubber dam during endodontic treatment. Material and methods We present a 31 years old female with necrosis of buccal mucosa during the endodontic treatment of 46. Results Three days after the procedure the patient was referred to our department for consultation and treatment. Antiseptic lavage was performed and oral antibiotic was administrated. After 5 days intraoral examination showed signs of almost full recovery. Conclusion The need for proper tooth isolation during restorative procedures is obvious. Anything that obscures the operative field negatively impacts operator efficiency and effectiveness. Visibility, patient/operator safety, infection control and the physical properties of dental materials are all compromised when proper isolation is lacking.

  6. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  7. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a ... method, and the particle size analysis was carried out by scanning electron ... capacity of sodium alginate was evaluated in terms of drug to polymer ratio.

  8. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  9. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of different root canal irrigation regimens Avaliação por microscopia eletrônica de varredura de diferentes regimes irrigantes no canal radicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Medici Mônika

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of endodontic irrigants in removing the smear layer from instrumented root canal walls using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The endodontic irrigants used were: 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 1% NaOCl mixed to 17% EDTAC; 2% chlorhexidine gel; and Ricinus communis gel. Photomicrographs of the middle and apical thirds were evaluated with the aid of the Fotoscore - v. 2.0 software. The results indicated that the mixture of sodium hypochlorite and EDTAC completely removed the smear layer from dentinal walls. The other endodontic irrigants were not as efficient in cleansing the root canals.A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, a efetividade dos irrigantes endodônticos na remoção da "smear layer" das paredes dos canais radiculares instrumentados. Os irrigantes endodônticos utilizados foram: solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%; solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1% misturado ao EDTAC a 17%, gel de clorexidina a 2% e gel de Ricinus communis. Fotomicrografias dos terços médio e apical foram avaliadas com o auxílio do software Fotoscore - versão 2.0. Os resultados indicaram que a mistura da solução de hipoclorito de sódio e EDTAC removeu eficientemente a "smear layer" das paredes dentinárias. Os demais irrigantes endodônticos não foram tão eficientes na limpeza dos canais.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT ON TAPIOCA WASTEWATER PRE-CHLORINATION TOWARD EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy Mulyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to study about influence of calcium hypochlorite dosage adjustment on tapioca wastewater chlorination toward efficiency of activated sludge treatment especially at MLVSS profile and percentage of COD removal. This research mainly divided into pre-chlorination and activated sludge treatment. Pre-chlorination taken place for 60 minutes at pH 8. The variation of calcium hypochlorite dosages which used are 58, 59, and 60 mg/L. Pre-chlorination effluent with no free chlorine residual then becomes activated sludge treatment influent. Sampling has done each aeration time interval 0, 2, 4, and 6 hour for analysis of COD and MLVSS content. Research result generally shows that addition of aeration time for each variation of calcium hypochlorite dosage will increase MLVSS and decrease COD content. Smallest value of COD effluent could achieved in the activated sludge treatment with calcium hipochlorite dosage 60 mg/L addition at influent during 4 hours aeration time. Addition of 58 mg/l calcium hypochlorite results highest MLVSS and percentage of COD removal.

  11. Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour curtain at 45 degrees to the ISR beam in Ring I (sodium generator is in white cylinder just left of centre). Electrons produced by ionization of the sodium vapour give an image of the beam on a fluorescent screen that is observed by a TV camera (at upper right).

  12. Effective enzymatic in situ saccharification of bamboo shoot shell pretreated by dilute alkalic salts sodium hypochlorite/sodium sulfide pretreatment under the autoclave system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gang-Gang; He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Qiu-Xiang; Kou, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Di, Jun-Hua; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, dilute alkali salts (0.6% NaClO, 0.067% Na 2 S) pretreatment at 10% sulfidity under the autoclave system at 120°C for 40min was used for pretreating bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Furthermore, FT-IR, XRD and SEM were employed to characterize the changes in the cellulose structural characteristics (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the pretreated BSS solid residue. After 72h, the reducing sugars and glucose from the enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 50g/L pretreated BSS in dilute NaClO/Na 2 S media could be obtained at 31.11 and 20.32g/L, respectively. Finally, the obtained BSS-hydrolysates containing alkalic salt NaClO/Na 2 S resulted in slightly negative effects on the ethanol production. Glucose in BSS-hydrolysates was fermented from 20.0 to 0.17g/L within 48h, and an ethanol yield of 0.41g/g glucose, which represents 80.1% of the theoretical yield, was obtained. This study provided an effective strategy for potential utilization of BSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUM HIDROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Siswo Hutomo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUMHIDROKSIDA Cellulose Extraction from Cacao Pod Husk Using Sodium Hydroxide Gatot Siswo Hutomo, Djagal Wiseso Marseno, Sri Anggrahini, Supriyanto ABSTRAK Pod husk kakao banyak mengandung komponen kimia seperti pektin, lignin, hemiselulosa dan selulosa serta beberapakomponen yang lain yaitu caffein dan theobromine. Khusus selulosa dapat dilakukan modiÞ kasi sebagai turunanselulosa yang mempunyai banyak fungsi serta dapat diaplikasikan untuk pangan. Penelitian ekstraksi selulosa dari podhusk kakao telah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh konsentrasi sodium hidroksida sebagaibahan untuk ekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao. Selulosa pada pod husk kakao terikat sangat kuat dengan lignin,sodium hidroksida akan memutus dengan baik ikatan antara selulosa dengan lignin. Bleaching pada selulosa jugadilakukan dengan menggunakan sodium hipoklorida 3% dan sodium bisulÞ t 3% untuk meningkatkan lightness. SpektraFT-IR dan X-ray juga dilakukan untuk pendeteksian pada selulosa hasil ekstraksi. Hasil ekstraksi selulosa dari pod huskkakao menggunakan sodiumhidroksida 12% menghasilkan rendemen sekitar 26,09% (db dengan kristalinitas 27,14%,kadar abu 6,56% (db, WHC 5,87 g/g dan OHC 2,74 g/g. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa sodium hidroksida 12% adalahkonsentrasi yang paling baik untuk mengekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao.Kata kunci: Selulosa, pod husk, kakao, ekstraksi ABSTRACT Cacao pod husk contains some compounds like pectin, lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, and other compounds suchas caffeine and theobromine. Especially for cellulose should be modiÞ ed as derivates which it have multi functionsin food application. Extraction cellulose from pod husk cacao was investigated. The aim of the research was to Þ ndthe concentration of sodium hydroxide for cellulose extraction from pod husk cacao. Bleaching for cellulose werecarried out twice using sodium hypochlorite 3% (oxydator and

  14. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  15. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  16. Fluorescent hydroxylamine derived from the fragmentation of PAMAM dendrimers for intracellular hypochlorite recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te-Haw; Liu, Ching-Ping; Chien, Chih-Te; Lin, Shu-Yi

    2013-08-26

    Herein, a promising sensing approach based on the structure fragmentation of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers for the selective detection of intracellular hypochlorite (OCl(-)) is reported. PAMAM dendrimers were easily disrupted by a cascade of oxidations in the tertiary amines of the dendritic core to produce an unsaturated hydroxylamine with blue fluorescence. Specially, the novel fluorophore was only sensitive to OCl(-), one of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in an irreversible fluorescence turn-off. The fluorescent hydroxylamine was selectively oxidised by OCl(-) to form a labile oxoammonium cation that underwent further degradation. Without using any troublesomely synthetic steps, the novel sensing platform based on the fragmentation of PAMAM dendrimers, can be applied to detect OCl(-) in macrophage cells. The results suggest that the sensing approach may be useful for the detection of intracellular OCl(-) with minimal interference from biological matrixes. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Self-assembled alluaudite Na(2)Fe(3-x)Mn(x)(PO4)(3) micro/nanocompounds for sodium-ion battery electrodes: a new insight into their electronic and geometric structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weifeng; Li, Biao; Saleem, Muhammad Farooq; Wu, Xiang; Li, Jianjian; Lin, Jun; Xia, Dingguo; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-01-07

    A series of alluaudite Na2 Fe3-x Mnx (PO4 )3 microcompounds, which self-assembled from primary nanorods, were prepared successfully through a solvothermal method. As a promising candidate cathode for sodium-ion batteries, it is necessary to obtain a deeper understanding of the relationship between the structure and physicochemical properties of these materials. The local electronic and geometric environments were systematically investigated, for the first time, by using a combination of soft/hard X-ray absorption, IR, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results show that the electrochemical performance is not only associated with morphology, but also with the electronic and crystalline structure. With the introduction of manganese into the lattice, the long-range order maintains the isostructural framework and the lattice parameters expand as expected. However, for short-range order, PO4 tetrahedra and MO6 octahedra (M=Fe and Mn) become more severely distorted as a function of Mn concentration. Meanwhile, larger MnO6 octahedra will compress the space of FeO6 octahedra, which will result in stronger core/electron-electron interactions for Fe, as characterized by hard/soft X-ray absorption spectra. These slight changes in the electronic and local structures lead to different electrochemical performances with changes to the manganese content. Moreover, other physicochemical properties, such as magnetic behavior, are also confirmed to be correlated with these different electron interactions and local geometric environments. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  19. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  20. First principle study of sodium decorated graphyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Utpal, E-mail: utpalchemiitkgp@yahoo.com [Assam University, Silchar (India); Bhattacharya, Barnali [Assam University, Silchar (India); Seriani, Nicola [The Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-05

    Highlights: • Presence of Na decreases the stability of the system. • Na-decorated graphyne compounds are metallic and might be used in electronics. • The sodium-adsorbed graphyne can be used as electrodes in Na-ion battery. - Abstract: We present first-principles calculations of the electronic properties of Na-decorated graphyne. This structure of the graphyne family is a direct band gap semiconductor with a band gap of 0.44 eV in absence of sodium, but Na-decorated graphyne compounds are metallic, and can then be employed as carbon-based conductors. Metallization is due to charge donation from sodium to carbon. Pristine graphyne is more stable than Na-decorated graphyne, therefore is seems probable that, if this material should be employed as electrode in Na-ion batteries, it would lead to the formation of metallic sodium rather than well dispersed sodium ions. On the other side, this property might be useful if graphyne is employed in water desalination. Finally, the abrupt change from a semiconducting to a metallic state in presence of a small amount of sodium might be exploited in electronics, e.g. for the production of smooth metal–semiconductor interfaces through spatially selective deposition of sodium.

  1. Under sodium ultrasonic imaging system for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, V.H.; Lalwani, S.K.; Agashe, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Under Sodium UltraSonic Scanner (USUSS) has been developed to detect the growth and protrusion of fuel sub-assemblies of PFBR, submerged in liquid sodium by using the ultrasonic imaging technique during reactor shut-down when liquid sodium is at 180 ℃. The imaging is carried out prior to every Fuel handling operation. Electronics Division, BARC has designed and developed an 8-Channel Ultrasonic Imaging System (UIS) which consists of 4 downward viewing and 4 side viewing ultrasonic transducers alongwith pulser-receiver, signal processing electronics hardware and software. An automated mechanical scanner developed by IGCAR houses sodium immersible transducers to image the fuel sub assemblies. The system has been successfully tested with dummy protruding and grown FSAs, submerged under liquid sodium. Such ultrasonic imaging systems are not available to India from international market. The USUSS developed indigenously has all the features available in similar systems developed by other countries. After every imaging campaign, the mechanical scanner containing ultrasonic transducers is stored in the Argon filled storage-pit. Before every campaign of USUSS, it is necessary to check the healthiness of the sodium immersible and contaminated ultrasonic transducers, as the under-sodium scanner is decontaminated once in five years. For this purpose, a novel Non Contact Ultrasonic Inspection System (NCUIS) has been designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC to check the functionality of the high-temperature and contaminated transducers of USUSS, using air-coupled ultrasonic technique. (author)

  2. Comparing peracetic acid and hypochlorite for disinfection of combined sewer overflows: Effects of suspended-solids and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, M; Loconsole, J; Schockling, A J; Nerenberg, R; Pavissich, J P

    2017-12-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an alternative disinfectant that may be effective for combined sewer overflow (CSO) disinfection, but little is known about the effect of particle size on PAA disinfection efficiency. In this work, PAA and hypochlorite were compared as disinfectants, with a focus on the effect of wastewater particles. Inactivation experiments were conducted on suspended cultures of Escherichia coli and wastewater suspended solids. Tested size fractions included particle diameters disinfection efficiency decreased with increasing solids size. However, solids size had little effect on PAA disinfection. The PAA disinfection efficiency decreased at pH values above 7.5. Live/dead staining revealed that PAA disinfection leaves most cells in a viable but non-culturable condition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses suggests that PAA and hypochlorite may inactivate E. coli bacteria by similar mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  4. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  5. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  6. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  7. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  8. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  9. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  10. Quantitation and identification of organic N-chloramines formed in stomach fluid on ingestion of aqueous hypochlorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scully, F.E. Jr.; Mazina, K.; Sonenshine, D.; Kopfler, F.

    1986-11-01

    The chemical reactions that hypochlorite undergoes in the body when chlorinated water is ingested have received very little attention. Because amino nitrogen compounds are important components of the average diet, the reactions of hypochlorite with amino compounds in the stomach were investigated. Stomach fluid was recovered from Sprague-Dawley rats that had been fasted for 48 hr and administered 4 mL deionized water. The chlorine demand of the stomach fluid was determined. At least part of the chlorine demand is associated with amino acids present in the stomach fluid. Amino acids were identified and quantified in the stomach fluid by precolumn derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When stomach fluid is chlorinated to concentrations of chlorine between 200 and 1000 mg/L, organic N-chloramines are formed. After derivatization of chlorinated stomach fluid with dansyl sulfinic acid, fluorescent derivatives of chloramines were separated by HPLC. Three chloramino acid derivatives, N-chloroalanine, N-chloroglycine, and N-chlorophenylalanine, were identified by cochromatography with known standards using two chromatographic methods. The yield of a chloramine that would form in stomach fluid on administration of hypochlorite to animals as determined using tritiated piperidine and doses of 200 and 1000 mg/L chlorine. Yields of tritiated N-chloropiperidine in recovered stomach fluid were 70% and 42%, respectively, of the theoretical amount expected.

  11. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  12. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  13. Method to characterize inorganic particulates in lung tissue biopsies using field emission scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, Heather; Breit, George N.; Strand, Matthew; Pillers, Renee M.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Todorov, Todor I.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Robinson, Maura; Parr, Jane; Miller, Robert J.; Groshong, Steve; Green, Francis; Rose, Cecile

    2018-01-01

    Humans accumulate large numbers of inorganic particles in their lungs over a lifetime. Whether this causes or contributes to debilitating disease over a normal lifespan depends on the type and concentration of the particles. We developed and tested a protocol for in situ characterization of the types and distribution of inorganic particles in biopsied lung tissue from three human groups using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Many distinct particle types were recognized among the 13 000 particles analyzed. Silica, feldspars, clays, titanium dioxides, iron oxides and phosphates were the most common constituents in all samples. Particles were classified into three general groups: endogenous, which form naturally in the body; exogenic particles, natural earth materials; and anthropogenic particles, attributed to industrial sources. These in situ results were compared with those using conventional sodium hypochlorite tissue digestion and particle filtration. With the exception of clays and phosphates, the relative abundances of most common particle types were similar in both approaches. Nonetheless, the digestion/filtration method was determined to alter the texture and relative abundances of some particle types. SEM/EDS analysis of digestion filters could be automated in contrast to the more time intensive in situ analyses.

  14. Photoionization of sodium atoms and electron scattering from ionized sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, A.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The polarized-orbital method of Temkin (1957) is applied using polarized orbitals determined from Sternheimer's equation to compute the photoionization cross sections of Na atoms from threshold to about 60 eV. The approximations involved in the analysis are explained in detail; the explicit forms of the integrals and matrix expressions are given in appendices; and the results are presented in tables and graphs. Good agreement is found with the results of Chang and Kelly (1975), and the possibility that small amounts of molecular vapor in Na-photoionization experiments are responsible for the discrepancies between calculated and measured cross sections is considered.

  15. Efficacy of calcium hypochlorite and ultraviolet irradiation against Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium marinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A Roshani Edirisinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM cause opportunistic infections with increasing frequency in immunocompromised humans. Water is one of the natural sources for transmission of NTM and plays a major role in the epidemiology of NTM infections. This study evaluated the efficacy of calcium hypochlorite and ultraviolet irradiation (UV to eliminate potentially zoonotic NTM species such as M. marinum and M. fortuitum. Materials and Methods: Bacterial suspensions containing1-4 × 105 CFU/ml were exposed to 5, 50, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 mg/L of Ca (OCl2for 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 60 minutes, and 6,000 μW/cm2 UV dose for 5, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Results: Of the two methods tested, UV irradiation was more effective than chlorine in achieving three log reduction in viable bacterial count (UV dose 6,000 μW/cm2, exposure time 60 S as well as in eliminating the organisms (UV dose 17,000 μW/cm2, exposure time: 30 S. When 10,000 mg/L of chlorine was used, 10 and 20 min contact times were required to achieve three log inactivation and complete elimination of M. fortuitum respectively. Conclusion: Our study suggest that initial disinfection of water by chlorine at the water treatment plant followed by UV irradiation at the household level would minimise the spread of NTM to the susceptible population via drinking water.

  16. Ti substrate coated with composite Cr–MoO2 coatings as highly selective cathode materials in hypochlorite production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lačnjevac, U.Č.; Jović, B.M.; Gajić-Krstajić, Lj.M.; Kovač, J.; Jović, V.D.; Krstajić, N.V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite Cr–MoO 2 coatings were prepared by electrodeposition onto mild steel and Ti substrates. ► Ti/Cr–MoO 2 electrodes were investigated as cathode materials for the hypochlorite production. ► Selectivity of electrodes increased with the increase of the content of MoO 2 in the coating. ► The current efficiency for the HER exceeded 97% at the best cathode. ► The suppression of hypochlorite reduction is caused by the presence of Cr 2 O 3 at the surface. -- Abstract: The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of preparation of the composite Cr–MoO 2 coatings onto steel and titanium substrates as cathode materials with high selective properties which imply the suppression of hypochlorite reduction as a side reaction during hypochlorite commercial production. The electrodes were prepared by simultaneous deposition of chromium and suspended MoO 2 particles on titanium substrate from acid chromium (VI) bath. The current efficiency for electrodeposition of the composite coatings did not vary significantly with the concentration of suspended MoO 2 particles. The content of molybdenum in the deposits was relatively low (0.2–1.5 at.%) and increased with increasing the concentration of suspended MoO 2 particles in the bath, in the range from 0 to 10 g dm −3 . With further increase in the concentration of MoO 2 , the content of molybdenum in the coating varied insignificantly. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy-XPS and EDS analysis were applied to analyze elemental composition and chemical bonding of elements on the surface and in the sub-surface region of obtained coatings. When the concentration of MoO 2 particles in the bath was raised above 5 g dm −3 , the appearance of the coating changed from the typical pure chromium deposit to needle-like deposit with the appearance of black inclusions on the surface. XPS analysis and corresponding Cr 2p spectra showed the presence of chromium oxide, probably Cr 2 O 3 with Cr(3

  17. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  18. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  19. Investigation the effect of porosity on corrosion of macroporous silicon in 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution using weight loss measurements, electrochemical methods and scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chuan; Xiang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dissolution of silicon wafers conforms Faraday’s laws of electrolysis. • The porosity effect on macroporous silicon corrosion was investigated. • The corrosion rate increase linearly with porosity increasing. • The porosity effect on activation parameters was obtained. - Abstract: In this study, the macroporous silicon has been fabricated by electrochemical anodization. The dissolution of n-type silicon wafers in etching solution conforms Faraday’s laws of electrolysis. The fabricated macroporous silicon with different porosity corrosion in 1.0 M NaOH was systemically investigated by weight loss measurements, electrochemical methods and scanning electron microscope. Results show that with the porosity increasing, the corrosion rate of macroporous silicon in 1.0 M NaOH increases linearly. In addition, the increase of corrosion rate of macroporous silicon with relative higher porosity was determined by the pre-exponential factor.

  20. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on phosphoric-salt pellets. Determination of the geometric and electronic structure of metal-oxide doped sodium-phosphate glasses; Roentgenabsorptionsspektroskopie an Phosphorsalzperlen. Bestimmung der geometrischen und elektronischen Struktur von metalloxid-dotierten Natriumphosphatglaesern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendebach, B.

    2004-02-01

    Sodium metaphosphate glasses doped with transition metal oxides show characteristic colors. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations provide information whether the coloration stems from different electronic transitions or changes in the geometrical structure of the glasses. Even though the violet color of MnO{sub y}-doped glasses is considered as an evidence for Mn{sup 3+}-ions, Mn K-XAS reveals that the majority of the manganese ions are in the oxidation state +II and have a mixed coordination of four and six oxygen atoms, respectively. The oxygen coordination around the nickel ions in NiO-doped glasses with different metall oxide concentrations is always six. The change of color from citreous to auburn with increasing nickel oxide content is attributed to a systematic change in the bonding characteristic from mainly ionic-like to a small but significant contribution of covalent-like bonding. Analysis of higher coordination shells provides no indication of the formation of metal oxide clusters. (orig.)

  2. Spectroscopic features of the low-lying electronic states of some sodium-helium and potassium-helium van der Waals systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Anjan

    2011-08-01

    Configuration interaction studies on MHe and MHe2 (where M = Na, K) systems have revealed several interesting characteristics in the properties of their low-lying electronic states. Binding energy values of the 12Π1/2, 3/2 states in MHe systems are found to be lower than the values of 12Πu (1/2, 3/2) states in the He-M-He systems by a margin of more than 200 cm-1, indicating better exciplex stabilities of the latter systems. Excited states of the other variety of the linear MHe2 (M-He-He) systems are almost repulsive. The characteristic energy barrier of the first excited spin-orbit state of alkali metal-helium systems is found to be only 15 cm-1 in KHe and 19 cm-1 in He-K-He. For the Na*He and K*He exciplexes, predicted radiative lifetime values of 18.5 ns and 29.8 ns, respectively, are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The red-tail portions of their emission bands are contributed by M*He2 exciplexes with relatively high radiative lifetimes. The repulsive excited state of 2Σ+1/2 (or 2Σ+g,1/2) symmetry in these van der Waals systems is likely to play an important role in the pumping of the blue side of the ns2S1/2 → np2P3/2 transition, which eventually may give rise to the np2P1/2 → ns2S1/2 lasing transition.

  3. Spectroscopic features of the low-lying electronic states of some sodium-helium and potassium-helium van der Waals systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Anjan, E-mail: anjan@bits-goa.ac.in, E-mail: anjan_chattopadhyay@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani -K.K. Birla Goa Campus, Goa, 403 726 (India)

    2011-08-28

    Configuration interaction studies on MHe and MHe{sub 2} (where M = Na, K) systems have revealed several interesting characteristics in the properties of their low-lying electronic states. Binding energy values of the 1{sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2,3/2} states in MHe systems are found to be lower than the values of 1{sup 2}{Pi}{sub u(1/2,3/2)} states in the He-M-He systems by a margin of more than 200 cm{sup -1}, indicating better exciplex stabilities of the latter systems. Excited states of the other variety of the linear MHe{sub 2} (M-He-He) systems are almost repulsive. The characteristic energy barrier of the first excited spin-orbit state of alkali metal-helium systems is found to be only 15 cm{sup -1} in KHe and 19 cm{sup -1} in He-K-He. For the Na*He and K*He exciplexes, predicted radiative lifetime values of 18.5 ns and 29.8 ns, respectively, are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The red-tail portions of their emission bands are contributed by M*He{sub 2} exciplexes with relatively high radiative lifetimes. The repulsive excited state of {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub 1/2} (or {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g,1/2}) symmetry in these van der Waals systems is likely to play an important role in the pumping of the blue side of the ns{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} {yields} np{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transition, which eventually may give rise to the np{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} ns{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} lasing transition.

  4. Spectroscopic features of the low-lying electronic states of some sodium-helium and potassium-helium van der Waals systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Anjan

    2011-01-01

    Configuration interaction studies on MHe and MHe 2 (where M = Na, K) systems have revealed several interesting characteristics in the properties of their low-lying electronic states. Binding energy values of the 1 2 Π 1/2,3/2 states in MHe systems are found to be lower than the values of 1 2 Π u(1/2,3/2) states in the He-M-He systems by a margin of more than 200 cm -1 , indicating better exciplex stabilities of the latter systems. Excited states of the other variety of the linear MHe 2 (M-He-He) systems are almost repulsive. The characteristic energy barrier of the first excited spin-orbit state of alkali metal-helium systems is found to be only 15 cm -1 in KHe and 19 cm -1 in He-K-He. For the Na*He and K*He exciplexes, predicted radiative lifetime values of 18.5 ns and 29.8 ns, respectively, are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The red-tail portions of their emission bands are contributed by M*He 2 exciplexes with relatively high radiative lifetimes. The repulsive excited state of 2 Σ + 1/2 (or 2 Σ + g,1/2 ) symmetry in these van der Waals systems is likely to play an important role in the pumping of the blue side of the ns 2 S 1/2 → np 2 P 3/2 transition, which eventually may give rise to the np 2 P 1/2 → ns 2 S 1/2 lasing transition.

  5. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  6. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  7. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  8. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  9. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  10. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  11. Optimization for zeolite regeneration and nitrogen removal performance of a hypochlorite-chloride regenerant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Zhen; An, Ying; Du, Silu; Ruan, Danian; Zhao, Chengyue; Ren, Ning; Tian, Xiaoce

    2017-07-01

    Simultaneous zeolites regeneration and nitrogen removal were investigated by using a mixed solution of NaClO and NaCl (NaClO-NaCl solution), and effects of the regenerant on ammonium removal performance and textural properties of zeolites were analyzed by long-term adsorption and regeneration operations. Mixed NaClO-NaCl solution removed more NH 4 + exchanged on zeolites and converted more of them to nitrogen than using NaClO or NaCl solution alone. Response surface methodological analysis indicated that molar ratio of hypochlorite and nitrogen (ClO - /N), NaCl concentration and pH value all had significant effects on zeolites regeneration and NH 4 + conversion to nitrogen, and the optimum condition was obtained at ClO - /N of 1.75, NaCl concentration of 20 g/L and pH of 10.0. Zeolites regenerated by mixed NaClO-NaCl solution showed higher ammonium adsorption rate and lower capacity than unused zeolites. Zeolites and the regeneration solution were both effective even after 20 cycles of use. Composition and morphological analysis revealed that the main mineral species and surface morphology of zeolites before and after NaClO-NaCl regeneration were unchanged. Textural analysis indicated that NaClO-NaCl regeneration leads to an increased surface area of zeolites, especially the microporosity. The results indicated that NaClO-NaCl regeneration is an attractive method to achieve sustainable removal of nitrogen from wastewater through zeolite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  13. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  14. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.; Anderson, N.R.

    1971-01-01

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  15. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  16. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.C.; Brewer, J.; Forster, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  17. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  18. Effect of water soluble carrier on dissolution profiles of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiertnia, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical aviailability of diclofenac sodium from solid dispersions of PEG 6000 have been studied in comparison to those of the corresponding physical mixtures and pure diclofenac sodium. The diclofenac sodium is poorly water soluble drug. The properties of diclofenac sodium-PEG 6000 solid dispersions have been determined by the methods of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of PEG 6000 on the solubility of selected diclofenac sodium dispersions has been studied. The solubility of diclofenac sodium from its solid dispersion has been found to increase in the presence of PEG 6000.

  19. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  20. Cross-Course Collaboration in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum: Primary Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Hypochlorite Oxidation of 1-Phenylethanol in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert J.; Fitch, Richard W.; Kjonaas, Richard A.; Wyatt, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    A kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiment is described for the physical chemistry laboratory. Students conduct a hypochlorite (household bleach) oxidation of an equimolar mixture of 1-phenylethanol and 1-deuterio-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone. The reaction occurs in a biphasic reaction mixture and follows first-order kinetics with respect to…

  1. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  2. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  3. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  4. Subcutaneous emphysema during root canal therapy: endodontic accident by sodium hypoclorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gianluca; Palaia, Gaspare; Ciolfi, Chiara; Mohsen, Mohamed; Battisti, Andrea; Romeo, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema is defined as the abnormal introduction of air in the subcutaneous tissues of the head and neck. It is mainly caused by trauma, head and neck surgery, general anesthesia, and coughing or habitual performance of Valsalva manoeuvre. The occurrence of subcutaneous emphysema after dental treatment is rare, and diffusion of gas into the mediastinum is much rarer, especially when the procedure is a nonsurgical treatment. Presented here is a case of subcutaneous emphysema that occurred after sodium hypochlorite irrigation during endodontic treatment, and the description of its etiologies and prevention during nonsurgical endodontic treatment. Endodontic success can be essentially achieved via good debridement of a root canal, and an ideal endodontic irrigant is effective in removing the smear layer, opening the dentinal tubules, and producing a clean surface for closer obturation. A 60-years-old woman had an abnormal swelling and pain during an endodontic treatment accompanied by her dentist to the emergency room and was referred to our observation for complaining of severe pain, ecchymosis and severe swelling on the left side of her face. The aforementioned symptoms appeared after sodium hypochlorite irrigation and aggressive use of air spray for drying the root canal during the endodontic treatment of the upper left lateral incisor. An extrusion during an inappropriate endodontic treatment may occasionally be reported and can cause tissue damage. NaOCl is one of the best and most commonly used irrigating solutions because of its efficacy, but it can also negatively affect the periapical tissues. Determining the correct working length, even when performing an intraoperative periapical radiograph and confirming the root canal integrity, could help avoid these kinds of accidents.

  5. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Fresl, M.; Svoboda, V.

    1979-02-01

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  6. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  7. Sodium fires and its extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhedov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The fire safety problems of NPP with sodium coolants in USSR are presented. The design of sodium reactors is made with premises with sodium coolants being hermetic and filled with nitrogen. Some engineering solutions of fire safety including design, elaboration and choice of construction and protection materials are presented. Some theoretical aspects of sodium burning are presented as well as methods of sodium fire extinguishing methods including the use of powder

  8. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τ c = δ·g -0.83 ·10 (3570/T Na -3.34) , in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and

  9. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H Y; Choi, Y D [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  10. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  11. LC/MS study of the UV filter hexyl 2-[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoyl]-benzoate (DHHB) aquatic chlorination with sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbović, G; Trebše, P; Dolenc, D; Lebedev, A T; Sarakha, M

    2013-11-01

    The fate of modern personal care products in the environment is becoming a matter of increasing concern because of the growing production and assortment of these compounds. More and more chemicals of this class are treated as emerging contaminants. Transformation of commercially available products in the environment may result in the formation of a wide array of their metabolites. Personal care products in swimming pools and in drinking water reservoirs may undergo oxidation or chlorination. There is much data on the formation of more toxic metabolites from original low toxicity commercial products. Therefore, reliable identification of all possible transformation products and a thorough study of their physicochemical and biological properties are of high priority. The present study deals with the identification of the products of the aquatic chlorination of the hexyl 2-[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoyl]-benzoate ultraviolet filter. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and HPLC/MS/MS with accurate mass measurements were used for this purpose. As a result, three chlorinated transformation products were identified. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Sanosil 2% and 6% and Sodium Hypochlorite 0.5% on Impressions of Irreversible Hydrocolloid (Alginate) and Condensational Silicone (Speedex)

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi; Farnaz; Soufiabadi; Vafaee; Kasraei

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental impressions often carry microorganisms that may cause cross-infection from patients to dental staff. Impressions should be disinfected to eliminate the risk of cross-contamination. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three different disinfectant solutions on two commonly used impression materials. Materials and Methods Seventy-tw...

  13. Comparison of sodium hypochlorite-based foam and peroxyacetic acid-based fog sanitizing procedures in a salmon smokehouse: Survival of the general microflora and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Gardshodn, K.; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    The effects of fog sanitization with peroxyacetic acid (hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid in combination) on general hygiene (aerobic plate count) and on Listeria monocytogenes were assessed in a slicing area at a salmon smokehouse and compared with the effects of foam sanitization...... sample, and a total of 288 bacterial strains were randomly isolated and tentatively identified to genus level by physiological and biochemical tests. The microflora was dominated by Neisseriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria during production. Foam sanitization caused a change...

  14. The effect of different temperature and concentration of sodium hypochlorite on the elimination of E.Faecalis using rotary instrumentation and intermittent passive ultrasonic irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMadi, Ebtissam M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the intracanal bacterial reduction using rotary instrumentation and intermittent passive ultrasonic irrigation (IPUI) with different concentrations and temperatures of NaOCl in different canal tapers. The root canals of seventy-two extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented up to size 20k file and inoculated with E. faecalis. The teeth were divided into 5 experimental groups and one control. The root canals in the control group were shaped to a 0.04 taper using ProFile rotary files, with 1.5 minute of IPUI by NaOCl at a concentration of 2.5% and room temperature of 25degreeC for 30 seconds at a time at three intervals. In Group 1, the canals were shaped to a 0.06 taper, and in Groups 2 and 3 - the temperature of NaOCl used was 37degreeC and 45degreeC respectively, and in Groups 4 and 5 - the concentrations of NaOCl were 1% and 5% respectively. The canals were incubated at 37 degree C for 48 hours and bacterial samples were obtained using paper points and plated on agar plates. The zones of bacterial growth were measured and statistical analysis was performed. There was significantly more bacterial growth in the control group than in Groups 1, 2, 3 and 5. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in bacterial growth in Group V compared to Group 4. The result of this study showed that significant bacterial reduction in contaminated root canals could be obtained using intermittent passive ultrasonic irrigation combined with 2.5% NaOCl at 37degreeC in canals prepared to a taper of 0.06. In addition, complete bacterial eradication could be obtained using IPUI with 2.5% NaOCl at 45degreeC or 5% NaOCl at room temperature (37degreeC). (author)

  15. Experimental evaluation of cyclic fatigue resistance of four different nickel-titanium instruments after immersion in sodium hypochlorite and/or sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ureyen Kaya BULEM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available NiTi instruments have a high risk of separation due to torsional or flexural fatigue (cyclic fatigue. Chemomechanical preparation, cleaning procedures, chemical disinfection and sterilization cause the corrosion of endodontic instruments that may weaken the fracture resistance of the instruments. Objective To assess the effects of NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProFile, FlexMaster, Mtwo and TwistedFiles NiTi instruments (tip size 25, 0.06 taper, n=160. Material and Methods The instruments (n=10 for each subgroup were dynamically immersed in NaOCl; immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in one autoclave cycle; 5 cycles immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in autoclave and not immersed in NaOCl and not sterilized (control group. Dynamic cyclic fatigue resistance was tested. The number of cycles to failure (NCF were statistically analyzed (P.05. Conclusions Cyclic fatigue resistance of the tested NiTi instruments cannot be adversely affected by NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization. Production process (TwistedFiles or design (Twisted Files, FlexMaster, Mtwo and ProFile of the instruments can influence their cyclic fatigue resistance.

  16. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  17. The combustion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The burning rates of sodium in the form of vapour jets, droplets, sprays and unconfined and confined pools have been reviewed. Attention has been paid to assessing the value of models in the various combustion modes. Additional models have been constructed for the descriptions of laminar and turbulent vapour jets, stationary droplets, forced convection over ambient pool fires together with correlations for peak pressures in confined pool environments. Where appropriate experiments with sodium have not been conducted, the likely behaviour is predicted by comparison with the burning of other fuels, particularly in the field of large free ambient fires. Some areas where further knowledge is required are highlighted. (author)

  18. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  19. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  20. Rapid analysis of cyclamate in foods and beverages by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengbing; Zhu, Binghui; Lv, Fen; Li, Shaoxiao; Huang, Weixiong

    2012-10-15

    A rapid method for determination of sodium cyclamate in foods and beverages was developed. Sodium cyclamate was converted to N,N-dichloridecyclohexylamine by reaction with sodium hypochlorite under acid condition. N,N-dichloridecyclohexylamine was subsequently extracted by n-hexane and determined by gas chromatography. Conditions such as derivatization time, the concentration of sodium hypochlorite and sulphuric acid were optimised. Amino acids, aliphatic amines, and food additives such as preservatives, dyes and sweeteners showed no interference for quantification of cyclamate. The correlation coefficient of calibration curve was 0.9993 in the range of 5.0-250mg/L. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were calculated as three or ten times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), respectively. The LOD and LOQ for yellow wine and fruit juice were 0.05 and 0.2mg/L, respectively. The LOD and LOQ for cake and preserved fruit were 0.25 and 0.8mg/kg, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day RSD were 0.28% and 1.1% (n=5), respectively. The method was successfully applied for determination of cyclamate in yellow wine, cake, fruit juice and preserved fruit. This method was simple, fast, and sensitive. It was suitable for the determination of cyclamate in foods and beverages for safety and quality control inspections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  2. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  3. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  4. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harant, M.

    1978-01-01

    Substitution, inverse and substitution inverse relations in form of regression polynomials were used in calculating saturation pressure and density for thermodynamic and transport properties determination of sodium. Program UNISOAUT/A3 was used in calculating regression polynomials coefficients. (J.P.)

  5. Extinction of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Spagna, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents how, starting from a knowledge of sodium ignition and burning, principles for extinction (smothering catch trays, leak recuperation systems, powders) can be developed. These techniques applied in Superphenix 1 and PEC reactors have been tested in the ESMERALDA experimental program which is a joint French/Italian project. (author)

  6. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability

  7. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  8. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  9. Creep in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnock, W.; Cordwell, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Available information on the creep of austenitic, ferritic and Alloy-800 type steels in liquid sodium is critically reviewed. Creep properties of stainless steels can be affected by element transfer and corrosion. At reactor structural component temperatures environmental effects are likely to be less important than changes due to thermal ageing. At high clad temperatures (700 0 C) decarburisation may cause the loss of strength and ductility in unstabilised steels while cavity formation may cause embrittlement in stabilised steels. The properties of Alloy 800 are, in some experiments, found to deteriorate while in others they are enhanced. This may be a consequence of the metallurgical complexity of the material or arise from the nature of the various techniques employed. Low alloy ferritic steels tend to decarburise in sodium at temperatures greater than 500 0 C and this leads to loss of strength and an increase in ductility. High alloy ferritics are immune to this effect and appear to be able to tolerate a degree of carburisation. Although intergranular cracking may be enhanced in liquid sodium the mechanical consequences are not significant and evidence for the existence of an embrittlement effect not associated with element transfer or corrosion is weak. Stress and strain may enhance element transfer at crack tips. However in real cracks the gettering or supply action of the crack faces conditions the chemistry of the cracks in sodium and protects the crack tip from element transfer. Thus creep crack extension rates should be independent of changes in bulk coolant chemistry. (author)

  10. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  11. Direct extraction of a Na- beam from a sodium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Namiko; Fujita, Junji; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Wada, Motoi.

    1990-07-01

    Negative sodium ions (Na - ) were extracted from a small multi-cusp ion source. A steady state sodium plasma was produced by primary electrons in a sodium gas evaporating from a metal sample placed in the discharge chamber. The Na - current density of 1.5 μA/cm 2 was obtained from a single aperture of 1.5 mm diameter at relatively low discharge power of about 0.4 W and filament power of 50 W. Extraction characteristics were studied by changing the plasma electrode bias. The extracted Na - current showed dependence on the bias voltage similar to that of H - or Li - volume production. (author)

  12. A rapid, naked-eye detection of hypochlorite and bisulfite using a robust and highly-photostable indicator dye Quinaldine Red in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tanoy; Chandra, Falguni; Koner, Apurba L.

    2018-02-01

    A ;naked-eye; detection of health hazardous bisulfite (HSO3-) and hypochlorite (ClO-) using an indicator dye (Quinaldine Red, QR) in a wide range of pH is demonstrated. The molecule contains a quinoline moiety linked to an N,N-dimethylaniline moiety with a conjugated double bond. Treatment of QR with HSO3- and ClO-, in aqueous solution at near-neutral pH, resulted in a colorless product with high selectivity and sensitivity. The detection limit was 47.8 μM and 0.2 μM for HSO3- and ClO- respectively. However, ClO- was 50 times more sensitive and with 2 times faster response compared to HSO3-. The detail characterization and related analysis demonstrate the potential of QR for a rapid, robust and highly efficient colorimetric sensor for the practical applications to detect hypochlorite in water samples.

  13. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  14. Safety measuring for sodium handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, T J; Kim, B H; Choi, J H

    2001-09-01

    This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented.

  15. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  16. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  17. Development of Sodium Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Jeong, K. C.; Park, J. H.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, B. S.

    2003-02-01

    The basic P and ID and fabrication method for IHTS simplification experiment were prepared for the experimental apparatus. In order to investigate the later phase of a SWR event, an experimental apparatus was designed and manufactured. The 620 data set have been obtained in the experiment of free surface fluctuation and an experimental correlation for the critical gas entertainment condition is additionally developed. For development of water into sodium leak detection technology, the properties from leak noises were extracted, and the tools for analyzing acoustic noises were constructed. The state-of-the-art on the flow and differential pressure measuring techniques in the piping system is investigated to develop new techniques which are applicable to high temperature sodium flow environment. The plan for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement was drawn up by analysing the error factors in temperature measurement. And the countermeasures for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement due to complex heat transfer were prepared

  18. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  19. The Oxidative Stress Agent Hypochlorite Stimulates c-di-GMP Synthesis and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Strempel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to survive under a variety of often harmful environmental conditions due to a multitude of intrinsic and adaptive resistance mechanisms, including biofilm formation as one important survival strategy. Here, we investigated the adaptation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to hypochlorite (HClO, a phagocyte-derived host defense compound and frequently used disinfectant. In static biofilm assays, we observed a significant enhancement in initial cell attachment in the presence of sublethal HClO concentrations. Subsequent LC-MS analyses revealed a strong increase in cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP levels suggesting a key role of this second messenger in HClO-induced biofilm development. Using DNA microarrays, we identified a 26-fold upregulation of ORF PA3177 coding for a putative diguanylate cyclase (DGC, which catalyzes the synthesis of the second messenger c-di-GMP – an important regulator of bacterial motility, sessility and persistence. This DGC PA3177 was further characterized in more detail demonstrating its impact on P. aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation. In addition, cell culture assays attested a role for PA3177 in the response of P. aeruginosa to human phagocytes. Using a subset of different mutants, we were able to show that both Pel and Psl exopolysaccharides are effectors in the PA3177-dependent c-di-GMP network.

  20. Evaluation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution and gel for smear layer removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, Sidney Ricardo; Travassos, Rosana Maria Coelho; de Oliveira, Elias Pandonor Motcy; Machado, Manoel Eduardo de Lima; Martins, José Luiz

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) gel and 17% EDTA solution in cleaning dentine walls after root canal instrumentation. Thirty human canine teeth were divided into three groups of 10 teeth each. In Group 1, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used as the irrigating solution; in Group 2, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used with 17% EDTA solution; and in Group 3, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used with 24% EDTA gel. The presence of a smear layer was analysed after instrumentation using scanning electron microscopy. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed a statistical difference (P 0.05). The results indicate that 1% sodium hypochlorite alone does not remove the smear layer and that there was no statistical difference between EDTA gel and EDTA solution in smear layer removal.

  1. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  2. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1-3.5) × 1017 cm-3. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a NaZn level at ˜(220-270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4-5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  3. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1–3.5) × 10 17  cm −3 . Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a Na Zn level at ∼(220–270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4–5) orders of magnitude at room temperature

  4. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, N. S., E-mail: nparmar@wsu.edu; Lynn, K. G. [Center for Materials Research, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2711 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1–3.5) × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a Na{sub Zn} level at ∼(220–270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4–5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  5. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  6. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel' man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    The efficiency of corrosion protection of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in chloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylanthranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys.

  7. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel'man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of corrosion protoction of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in clloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylantiranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys

  8. Sodium characterization during the starting period of a sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Parmentier, C.; Soenen, M.

    1976-01-01

    A sodium loop for analytical chemistry studies has been built by S.C.K./C.E.N. at Mol Belgium. Its first working period was used to test analytical methods, to characterize the sodium and to define the operating parameters of the loop. This report covers the working parameters of the loop, the characterization of the filling sodium and its purity evolution during the first working period of the loop

  9. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  10. Double sodium rubidium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhoseev, M.V.; Khal'baeva, K.M.; Khajkina, E.G.; Ogurtsov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    According to ceramic technique double sodium-rubidium molybdates of the compositions Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 (0.5≤x≤0.67) and Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 have been prepared. It is ascertained that Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 is crystallized in glaserite structural type (trigonal crystal system, sp.gr. P3m1, Z=2) and melts incongruently at 640 deg C. Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 at room temperature is unstable and gradually decomposes into Na 2 MoO 4 and Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4

  11. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  12. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  13. Carbon transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Espigares, M.; Lapena, J.; La Torre, M. de

    1983-01-01

    Carbon activities in dynamic non isothermal sodium system are determined using an equilibratium method. Foils of Fe-18 w% Cr-8 W% Ni alloy with low carbon content (in the as received condition) are exposed to dynamic liquid sodium in the temperature range between 450 0 C and 700 0 C. The analysis was used to evaluate the carburization-decarburization behaviour of type 304 stainless steel exposed to sodium. (author)

  14. Sodium waste technology: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds

  15. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  16. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  17. The determination of hydrogen in sodium by vacuum extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Linkun; Wan Gang; Wen Ximeng; Sun Shiping; Jia Yunteng

    1993-05-01

    A method to determine the hydrogen in sodium is introduced. The sodium sample, which is less than 7 g, is put into a thin iron capsule in argon atmosphere, the capsule is sealed by electron beam welding and heated to 700 degree C in a vacuum system with pressure less than 10 -5 Pa, then the hydrogen released from the vacuum system can be determined. The determining limit by this method is 20 ∼ 150 μg and the standard deviation is 20%. This method uses electron beam welding to replace the argon are welding and combines the off-line sampling with on-line measuring. It is an easier off-line measurement to determine hydrogen in sodium

  18. Cavitation erosion in sodium flow, sodium cavitation tunnel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, Pierre.

    1981-04-01

    The high-volume sodium flows present in fast neutron reactors are liable to induce cavitation phenomena in various portion of the sodium lines and pumps. The absence of sufficient data in this area led the C.E.A. to undertake an erosion research program in cavitating sodium flow. This paper discusses the considerations leading to the definition and execution of sodium cavitation erosion tests, and reviews the tests run with 400 0 C sodium on various steel grades: 316, 316 L, 316 Ti (Z8CNDT17-12), Poral (Z3CND18-12), 304 L and LN2 - clad 316 L (Ni coating-clad 316 L). Acoustic detection and signal processing methods were used with an instrument package designed and implemented at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

  19. Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, Marian; Micoud, Fabrice; Roche, Ivan; Chainet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The direct oxidation of sodium borohydride in concentrated sodium hydroxide medium has been studied by cyclic and linear voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry for silver and gold electrocatalysts, either bulk and polycrystalline or nanodispersed over high area carbon blacks. Gold and silver yield rather complete utilisation of the reducer: around 7.5 electrons are delivered on these materials, versus 4 at the most for platinum as a result of the BH 4 - non-negligible hydrolysis taking place on this latter material. The kinetic parameters for the direct borohydride oxidation are better for gold than for silver. A strong influence of the ratio of sodium hydroxide versus sodium borohydride is found: whereas the theoretical stoichiometry does forecast that eight hydroxide ions are needed for each borohydride ion, our experimental results prove that a larger excess hydroxide ion is necessary in quasi-steady state conditions. When the above-mentioned ratio is unity (1 M NaOH and 1 M NaBH 4 ), the tetrahydroborate ions direct oxidation is limited by the hydroxide concentration, and their hydrolysis is no longer negligible. The hydrolysis products are probably BH 3 OH - ions, for which gold displays a rather good oxidation activity. Additionally, silver, which is a weak BH 4 - oxidation electrocatalyst, exhibits the best activity of all the studied materials towards the BH 3 OH - direct oxidation. Finally, carbon-supported gold nanoparticles seem promising as anode material to be used in direct borohydride fuel cells

  20. Pengaruh Konsentrasi dan Lama Aplikasi Sodium Hipoklorit (NaOCL sebagai Bahan Irigasi Saluran Akar terhadap Kekuatan Geser Perlekatan Siler Berbahan Dasar Resin Pada Dentin Saluran Akar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjung Nugraheni

    2012-07-01

    menit dengan kelompok yang diirigasi NaOCI 5% selama 10 menit. Kesimpulan. Kekuatan geser perlekatan siler berbahan dasar resin pada dentin saluran akar berbeda setelah diirigasi NaOCI dengan konsentrasi dan waktu irigasi yang berbeda.   Background. Biomechanichal preparationin of root canal treatment used 0,5-5,25% sodium Hypochlorite as root canal irrigation, that may effect to physical properties of dentin. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of concentration and duration application of sodium hypochlorite to shear bond strength of sealer resin based to root canal dentin. Methods. Thirthy premolar were splitted buccolingual then pulp tissue were cleaned out, smoothed and fixed into acrylic resin cast. They were devided into 2 group, group I were soaking into NaOCI 2,5% group II were soaking into NaOCI 5%. Group I and II were devided into 3 subgroup, group a were soaking 5 minutes, group b were soaking 10 minutes. Group c were soaking 15 minutes. Then sealer cast were fixed and filled with sealer resin-based, and incubated for 74 hours. They were tested for shear bond strength with Universal Testing Machine. The data were analyzed with two way Anava and LSD. Result. Two way Avana show that shear bond strength of sealer resin-based to root canal after irrigation with different concentration and duration application of sodium hypochlorite are significant. Conclusion. Shear bond strength of sealer resin-based to root canal dentin after irrigation with different concentration and duration application of sodium hypochlorite are different.

  1. The chemistry of Pu in concentrated aqueous NaCl solution: Effects of alpha self-radiolysis and the interaction between hypochlorite and dioxoplutonium(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashalidis, I. (Inst. fuer Radiochemie, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)); Kim, J.I. (Inst. fuer Radiochemie, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany) Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)); Lierse, C. (Inst. fuer Radiochemie, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)); Sullivan, J.C. (Chemistry Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The reactions between dioxoplutonium(VI) and hypochlorite in aqueous solution produce the species PuO[sub 2](OH)(ClO) and PuO[sub 2](ClO)[sub 2]. The results of spectrophotometric observations are presented and the data used to calculate values of log K=14.0 at pH=6.7 and 14.5 at pH=8.4 for the former complex and a value of 10.3 for the latter. The possible participation of 6d orbitals in these reactions is noted. (orig.)

  2. The experimental sodium facility NAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, H.; Grunwald, G.; May, R.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of preparations for the introduction of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors an experimental sodium facility was installed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research at Rossendorf. Design, engineering aspects and operation of this facility are described; operating experience is briefly discussed. (author)

  3. Sodium as a reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, S.B.G.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the use of sodium as a reactor coolant, to the advantages and problems related to its use, its mechanical, thermophysics, eletronical, magnetic and nuclear properties. It is mainly a bibliographic review, with the aim of gathering the necessary information to persons initiating in the study of sodium and also as reference source. (author) [pt

  4. Recent progress in sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, W. J.

    1963-10-15

    Progress over the past year in U. S. laboratories studying some of the materials and engineering problems that must be resolved in bringing the technology of sodium to an economically and technically attractive point is reviewed. The status of sodium cooled power reactors in the U. S. is described. (P.C.H.)

  5. Method of processing waste sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety store of waste sodium in the form of intermetallic compounds. Method: Waste sodium used in a reactor is mixed with molten metal under an inert gas atmosphere and resulted intermetallic compounds are stored in a closely sealed container to enable quasi-permanent safety store as inert compound. Used waste sodium particularly, waste sodium in the primary system containing radioactive substances is charged in a waste sodium melting tank having a heater on the side, the tank is evacuated by a vacuum pump and then sealed with gaseous argon supplied from a gaseous argon tank, and waste sodium is melted under heating. The temperature and the amount of the liquid are measured by a thermometer and a level meter respectively. While on the other hand, molten metal such as Sn, Pb and Zn having melting point above 300 0 C are charged in a metal melting tank and heated by a heater. The molten sodium and the molten metals are charged into a mixing tank and agitated to mix by an induction type agitator. Sodium vapors in the tank are collected by traps. The air in the tank is replaced with gaseous argon. The molten mixture is closely sealed in a drum can and cooled to solidify for safety storage. (Seki, T.)

  6. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  7. Friction and wear in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Droher, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the design of a safe and reliable sodium-cooled reactor one of the more important problem areas is that of friction and wear of components immersed in liquid sodium or exposed to sodium vapor. Sodium coolant at elevated temperatures may severely affect most oxide-bearing surface layers which provide corrosion resistance and, to some extent, lubrication and surface hardness. Consequently, accelerated deterioration may be experienced on engaged-motion contact surfaces, which could result in unexpected reactor shutdown from component malfunction or failure due to galling and seizure. An overall view of the friction and wear phenomena encountered during oscillatory rubbing of surfaces in high-temperature, liquid-sodium environments is presented. Specific data generated at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) on this subject is also presented. (U.S.)

  8. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  9. Toxicology of plutonium-sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Scenarios for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) accidents predict the loss of sodium coolant, with subsequent core melt-down and release of mixed sodium-fuel aerosols [Na-(PuU)O 2 ] into the environment. Studies in other laboratories demonstrated that mixed aerosols of Na 2 O-PuO 2 were more readily transported from the lung than PuO 2 aerosols. We therefore devised a continuous aerosol-generating system for animal exposures in which laser-generated fuel aerosols were swept through sodium vapor to form sodium-fuel aerosols. These fuel and sodium-fuel aerosols were compared with regard to their physicochemical properties and their biological behavior following inhalation studies in rats and dogs

  10. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Sodium ionization detector and sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrizo, J.; Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Work conducted on a basic technology development effort with the Westinghouse Sodium Ionization Detector (SID) sensor is reported. Included are results obtained for three task areas: (1) On-line operational response testing - in-situ calibration techniques; (2) Performance-reliability characteristics of aged filaments; and (3) Evaluation of chemical interference effects. The results showed that a calibrator filament coated with a sodium compound, when activated, does supply the necessary sodium atoms to provide a valid operational in-situ test. The life time of new Cr 2 0 3 -protected SID sensor filaments can be extended by operating at a reduced temperature. However, there also is a reduction in the sensitivity. Non-sodium species, such as products from a smoldering fire and organic aerosols, produce an interference response from the sensor comparable to a typical sodium response

  12. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  13. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental ... for maintenance or disposal, need to be cleaned free of sodium for the ... scenario on sodium removal using different alcohols are ... ethoxide and sodium n-propoxide by KBr pellet method.

  14. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  15. Formation and Transformation Behavior of Sodium Dehydroacetate Hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various controlling factors on the polymorphic outcome of sodium dehydroacetate crystallization was investigated in this study. Cooling crystallization experiments of sodium dehydroacetate in water were conducted at different concentrations. The results revealed that the rate of supersaturation generation played a key role in the formation of the hydrates. At a high supersaturation generation rate, a new sodium dehydroacetate dihydrate needle form was obtained; on the contrary, a sodium dehydroacetate plate monohydrate was formed at a low supersaturation generation rate. Furthermore, the characterization and transformation behavior of these two hydrated forms were investigated with the combined use of microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS. It was found that the new needle crystals were dihydrated and hollow, and they eventually transformed into sodium dehydroacetate monohydrate. In addition, the mechanism of formation of sodium dehydroacetate hydrates was discussed, and a process growth model of hollow crystals in cooling crystallization was proposed.

  16. Physicochemical characterization of tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Joon; Ryu, Dong-Sung; Li, Dong Xun; Quan, Qi Zhe; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jong Oh; Seo, Youn Gee; Lee, Young-Im; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2009-06-01

    To develop a novel tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with improved solubility, various solid dispersions were prepared with various ratios of water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and carboxylmethylcellulose-Na using spray drying technique. The physicochemical properties of solid dispersions were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetery and powder X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, their solubility and dissolution were evaluated compared to drug powder. The solid dispersion at the tacrolimus/CMC-Na/sodium lauryl sulfate/citric acid ratio of 3/24/3/0.2 significantly improved the drug solubility and dissolution compared to powder. The scanning electron microscopy result suggested that carriers might be attached to the surface of drug in this solid dispersion. Unlike traditional solid dispersion systems, the crystal form of drug in this solid dispersion could not be converted to amorphous form, which was confirmed by the analysis of DSC and powder X-ray diffraction. Thus, the solid dispersion system with water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and CMC-Na should be a potential candidate for delivering a poorly water-soluble tacrolimus with enhanced solubility and no convertible crystalline.

  17. Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

  18. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units

  19. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tran, Jennifer L; Clarkson, Michael R

    2003-11-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium. Primary literature was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-June 2003). Abstracts were obtained from the manufacturer and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium in solid organ transplantation were considered for inclusion. English-language studies and abstracts were selected for inclusion, but were limited to those consisting of human subjects. Mycophenolate sodium, a mycophenolic acid prodrug, is an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolic acid reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. Mycophenolate sodium is enteric coated and has been suggested as a potential method to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse events seen with mycophenolate mofetil. Both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium have been shown to be therapeutically equivalent at decreasing the incidence of allograft rejection and loss. The frequency of adverse events is similar between both compounds, with the most common events being diarrhea and leukopenia. Mycophenolate sodium is effective in preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. At doses of 720 mg twice daily, the efficacy and safety profiles are similar to those of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg twice daily. Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in Switzerland; approval in the US is pending.

  20. Nitrite and hypochlorite treatments in determination of the contributions of IQ-type and non-IQ-type heterocyclic amines to the mutagenicities in crude pyrolyzed materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, M.; Negishi, C.; Makino, R.; Sato, S.; Yamaizumi, Z.; Hirayama, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1985-12-01

    The mutagenic heterocyclic amines Glu-P-2, MeA alpha C and Phe-P-1, which possess a 2-aminopyridine structure in their molecule (non-IQ-type mutagens), were found to be inactivated by nitrite treatment under acidic conditions, as observed previously with Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, Glu-P-1 and A alpha C. In contrast, MeIQx, 4,8- and 7,8-DiMeIQx, which were originally isolated from fried beef or heated model mixtures of creatinine, amino acids and glucose, and which have a 2-aminoimidazole moiety in their molecules (IQ-type mutagens), were very resistant to nitrite treatment like IQ and MeIQ. Both types of mutagenic heterocyclic amines were completely inactivated by treatment with hypochlorite. This differential inactivation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines by nitrite and hypochlorite was used in determination of the contributions of IQ-type and non-IQ-type mutagens to the total mutagenicities of various pyrolyzed materials. The percentage contributions of IQ-type mutagens to the mutagenicities of broiled sardine, fried beef, broiled horse mackerel, cigarette smoke condensate and albumin tar were 88, 75, 48, 6 and 4, respectively.

  1. The preparation, physicochemical properties, and the cohesive energy of liquid sodium containing titanium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Itami, Toshio; Ara, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    Liquid sodium containing titanium nanoparticles (LSnanop) of 10-nm diameter was prepared by dispersing titanium nanoparticles (2 at.% Ti) into liquid sodium with the addition of stirring and ultrasonic sound wave. The titanium nanoparticles themselves were prepared by the vapor deposition method. This new liquid metal, LSnanop, shows a remarkable stability due to the Brownian motion of nanoparticles in liquid sodium medium. In addition, the difference of measured heat of reaction to water between this LSnanop and liquid sodium indicates the existence of cohesive energy between the liquid sodium medium and dispersed titanium nanoparticles. The origin of the cohesive energy, which serves to stabilize this new liquid metal, was explained by the model of screened nanoparticles in liquid sodium. In this model, negatively charged nanoparticles with transferred electrons from liquid sodium are surrounded by the positively charged screening shell, which may inhibit the gathering of nanoparticles by the “Coulombic repulsion coating.” The atomic volume of LSnanop shows the shrinkage from the linear law, which also suggests the existence of cohesive energy. The viscosity of LSnanop is almost the same as that of liquid sodium. This behavior was explained by the Einstein equation. The surface tension of LSnanop is 17 % larger than that of liquid sodium. The cohesive energy and the negative adsorption may be responsible to this increase. Titanium nanoparticles in liquid sodium seem to be free from the Coulomb fission. This new liquid metal containing nanoparticles suggests the possibility to prepare various stable suspensions with new properties.

  2. Water simulation of sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, S.S.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic simulation of a large sodium reactor by a scaled water model is examined. The Richardson Number, friction coefficient and the Peclet Number can be closely matched with the water system at full power and the similarity is retained for buoyancy driven flows. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a reactor vessel provided by a scaled water experiment is better than that by a scaled sodium test. Results from a correctly scaled water test can be tentatively extrapolated to a full size sodium system

  3. Analytical study of sodium combustion phenomena under sodium leak accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, J. Y.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2001-12-01

    The rise of temperature and pressure, the release of aerosol in the buildings as a result of sodium fire must be considered for the safety measures of LMR. Therefore for the safety of the LMR, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of sodium fire, resulting from the various type of leakage. ASSCOPS(Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustion in Pool and Spray) is the computer code for the analysis of the thermal consequence of sodium leak and fire in LMR that has been developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) in Japan. In this study, a preliminary analysis of sodium leak and fire accidents in S/G building of KALIMER is made by using ASSCOPS code. Various phenomena of interest are spray and pool burning, peak pressure, temperature change, local structure temperature, aerosol behavior, drain system into smothering tank, ventilation characteristics at each cell with the safety venting system and nitrogen injection system. In this calculation, the dimension of the S/G building was chosen in accordance with the selected options of LMR name KALIMER(Korea). As a result of this study, it was shown that subsequent effect of sodium fire depended upon whether the sodium continued to leak from the pipe or not, whether the ventilation system was running, whether the inert gas injection system was provided, whether the sodium on floor was drained into the smothering tank or not, whether the building was sealed or not, etc. Specially the excessive rise of pressure into each cell was prevented by installing the pressure release plates on wall of the building

  4. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhki Yui; Masahiko Hayashi; Jiro Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called ?dead sodium? broke a...

  5. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    OpenAIRE

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  6. Sodium concrete reaction - Structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferskakis, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structuralchemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  7. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-01-01

    ISU's Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents

  8. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  9. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  10. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  11. Electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-07-01

    The coupled-channels-optical method has been implemented using two different approximations to the optical potential. The half-on-shell optical potential involves drastic approximations for numerical feasibility but still gives a good semiquantitative description of the effect of uncoupled channels on electron scattering from hydrogen, helium and sodium. The distorted-wave optical potential makes no approximations other than the weak coupling approximation for uncoupled channels. In applications to hydrogen and sodium it shows promise of describing scattering phenomena excellently at all energies. 27 refs., 5 figs

  12. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  13. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  14. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid...

  15. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  16. The dismantling of fast reactors: sodium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Berte, M.; Serpante, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fast reactors require a coolant that does not slow down neutrons so water can not be used. Metallic sodium has been chosen because of its outstanding neutronic and thermal properties but sodium reacts easily with air and water and this implies that sodium-smeary components can not be considered as usual nuclear wastes. A stage of sodium neutralizing is necessary in the processing of wastes from fast reactors. Metallic sodium is turned into a chemically stable compound: soda, carbonates or sodium salts. This article presents several methods used by Framatome in an industrial way when dismantling sodium-cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  17. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    K?se, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; U?ar, Sema Kalkan; ?oker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  18. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  19. Some techniques for sodium removal in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Waimai; Ding Dejun; Guo Huanfang; Hong Shuzhang; Zhou Shuxia; Shen Fenyang; Yang Zhongmin; Xu Yongxing

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the experiment and application on sodium removal and sodium disposal are presented. Steam-nitrogen process was used in CIAE for cleaning cold traps, sodium vapor traps, a sodium tank. Atomized water-nitrogen process was used for cleaning dummy fuel assembly for CEFR and a sintered stainless steel filter. Sprinkle process was used for cleaning some tubes. Bultylcellosolve was used for cleaning sintered stainless steel filter and sodium flow measurement device. Ethanol alcohol was used for cleaning electromagnetic pump. Paraffin, transformer-oil or their mixture was used for cleaning sodium valves, a sodium vapor trap and sodium-potassium alloy absorber. A small sintered stainless steel filter was distillated in vacuum. A simple sodium disposal device has been served for several years in CIA.E. It can dispose about 10 Kg sodium each time and the disposal process is no-aerosol. It operates in open air for non-radioactive sodium. In recent years a small sodium cleaning plant has been built. It can use atomized water, steam or organic alcohol to removal of sodium. The LAVEL cleaning plant and SLAPSO cleaning plant were introduced from Italy. And CEFR preliminary design on sodium cleaning for spent fuel assembly and on sodium removal-decontamination for large reactor components is introduced. Vapour-nitrogen process is planned to use in them. (author)

  20. Crystal structures of superconducting sodium intercalates of hafnium nitride chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oro-Sole, J.; Frontera, C.; Beltran-Porter, D.; Lebedev, O.I.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Fuertes, A.

    2006-01-01

    Sodium intercalation compounds of HfNCl have been prepared at room temperature in naphtyl sodium solutions in tetrahydrofuran and their crystal structure has been investigated by Rietveld refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data and high-resolution electron microscopy. The structure of two intercalates with space group R3-bar m and lattice parameters a=3.58131(6)A, c=57.752(6)A, and a=3.58791(8)A, c=29.6785(17)A is reported, corresponding to the stages 2 and 1, respectively, of Na x HfNCl. For the stage 2 phase an ordered model is presented, showing two crystallographically independent [HfNCl] units with an alternation of the Hf-Hf interlayer distance along the c-axis, according with the occupation by sodium atoms of one out of two van der Waals gaps. Both stages 1 and 2 phases are superconducting with critical temperatures between 20 and 24K, they coexist in different samples with proportions depending on the synthesis conditions, and show a variation in c spacing that can be correlated with the sodium stoichiometry. High-resolution electron microscopy images of the host and intercalated samples show bending of the HfNCl bilayers as well as stacking faults in some regions, which coexist in the same crystal with ordered domains

  1. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  2. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  3. Sodium aerosol formation in an argon flow over hot sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.; Dolias, M.J.; UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Thermal Hydraulics Div.)

    1987-01-01

    Vapour evaporation, which partly forms aerosol, occurs when a cold gas flows over a hot liquid. A previous well-mixed model is extended to predict the final vapour plus aerosol content of such a flow in terms of its initial and final temperatures. The predictions are compared to results of the Copacabana II experiment in which argon passed over a sodium pool. Agreement is obtained for the final sodium density at moderate flow rates, and physical reasons are given as to why deviations occur at low and high flow rates. (author)

  4. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Brown, R C; Spurlock, G; Southgate, K; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  5. Effect of Hypochlorite-Based Disinfectants on Inactivation of Murine Norovirus and Attempt to Eliminate or Prevent Infection in Mice by Additionto Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Kazuhiro; Taharaguchi, Motoko; Sakai, Koji; Takagi, Hirotaka; Tohya, Yukinobu; Yamada, Yasuko K

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro efficacy of weak acid hypochlorous solution (WAHS) against murine norovirus (MNV) by plaque assay and compared the efficacy with diluted NaOCl (Purelox) and 70% ethanol. WAHS was as effective as 70% ethanol and diluted Purelox for 0.5-min reactions. For 0.5-min reactions in the presence of mouse feces emulsion, the efficacy of WHAS and 1:600 diluted Purelox was decreased, reducing the virus titers by 2.3 and 2.6 log10, respectively, while 70% ethanol reduced the titer by more than 5 log10. However, WAHS showed more than 5 log10 reductions for the 5-min reaction even in the presence of feces emulsion. Since WAHS showed enough efficacy in inactivating MNV in vitro, we tried to eliminate MNV from MNV-infected mice by substituting WAHS for their drinking water. However, MNV was found to be positive in feces of mice drinking WAHS by an RT-nested PCR and plaque assay. To investigate whether hypochlorite-based disinfectants could prevent infection of a mouse with MNV, WAHS or 1:6,000 diluted Purelox was substituted for the drinking water of mice for 2 or 4 weeks, and then the mice were placed in a cage with an MNV-infected mouse. The supply of disinfectants was continued after cohabitation, but MNV was detected in the feces of all the mice at 1 week after cohabitation. In this study, we tried to eliminate and prevent MNV infection from mice by supplying hypochlorite-based disinfectants as an easy and low-cost method. Unfortunately, drinking disinfectants was ineffective, so it is important to keep the facility environment clean by use of effective disinfectants. Also, animals introduced into facilities should be tested as MNV free by quarantine and periodically confirmed as MNV free by microbiological monitoring. PMID:23903059

  6. The structure of leached sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, B.C.; Tallant, D.R.; Headley, T.J.; Turner, G.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy, solid state 29 Si, 11 B, 17 O, and 23 Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have been used to investigate how the structures of sodium borosilicate glasses change during leaching in water at pH 1, 9, and 12. Results show that the random network structure present prior to leaching is transformed into a network of small condensed ring structures and/or colloidal silica particles. The restructuring of leached glass can be rationalised on the basis of simple hydrolysis (depolymerisation) and condensation (repolymerisation) reactions involving Si-O-Si and Si-O-B bonds. The structural changes that occur during leaching influence the properties of the leached layer, including leaching kinetics, crazing and spalling, and slow crack growth. (author)

  7. LMFBR safety and sodium boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, W.D.; Tschamper, P.M.; Fontana, M.H.; Henry, R.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Within the U.S. Fast Breeder Reactor Safety R and D Work Breakdown Structure for Line of Assurance 2, Limit Core Damage, the influence of sodium boiling upon the progression and termination of accidents is being studied in loss of flow, transient overpower, loss of piping integrity, loss of shutdown heat removal system and local fault situations. The pertinent analytical and experimental results of this research to date are surveyed and compared with the requirements for demonstrating the effectiveness of this line of assurance. A discussion of specific technical issues concerned with sodium boiling and the need for future development work is also presented.

  8. Neutronic spectrometry measurements in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlini, G.; Acerbis, S.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of neutronic penetration in sodium, which could serve as a reference and as a benchmark for computer codes. The model employed consisted of an assembly of 7 containers full of sodium for a total of 10 tons and a useful length of almost 4 metres. Measurements were performed at various depths along the central axis of the structure with proton recoil proportional counters. The energy band explored was between 100 and 650 keV. Here we report not only the original spectra of the impulses but also the neutronic spectra found by unfolding with the SPEC-4 code

  9. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  10. Sodium-Induced Reordering of Atomic Stacks in Black Phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2017-01-12

    While theoretical simulations predict contradictory results about how the intercalation of foreign metal atoms affects the order of atomic layers in black phosphorus (BP), no direct experimental visualization work has yet clarified this ambiguity. By in situ electrochemical sodiation of BP inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and first-principles calculations, we found that sodium intercalation induces a relative glide of/ ⟨010⟩ {001}, resulting in reordering of atomic stacks from AB to AC in BP. The observed local amorphization in our experiments is triggered by lattice constraints. We predict that intercalation of sodium or other metal atoms introduces n-type carriers in BP. This potentially opens a new field for two-dimensional electronics based on BP.

  11. Sodium-Induced Reordering of Atomic Stacks in Black Phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Liu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Bingchao; Nie, Anmin; Huang, Wei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Mashayek, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    While theoretical simulations predict contradictory results about how the intercalation of foreign metal atoms affects the order of atomic layers in black phosphorus (BP), no direct experimental visualization work has yet clarified this ambiguity. By in situ electrochemical sodiation of BP inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and first-principles calculations, we found that sodium intercalation induces a relative glide of/ ⟨010⟩ {001}, resulting in reordering of atomic stacks from AB to AC in BP. The observed local amorphization in our experiments is triggered by lattice constraints. We predict that intercalation of sodium or other metal atoms introduces n-type carriers in BP. This potentially opens a new field for two-dimensional electronics based on BP.

  12. Sporadic sodium and E layers observed during the summer 2002 MaCWAVE/MIDAS rocket campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Williams

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available On 5 July 2002, a MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically payload launched from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, observed narrow enhanced layers of electron density that were nearly coincident with sporadic sodium layers measured by the Weber sodium lidar at the nearby ALOMAR Observatory. We investigate the formation mechanism of these layers using the neutral wind and temperature profiles measured directly by the lidar and the vertical motion deduced from the sodium mixing ratio. Through comparisons of the lidar data to the sporadic E in situ data, we find support for the concentration and downward motion of ions to an altitude where chemical models predict the rapid conversion of sodium ions to neutral sodium.

  13. Effects of Na4EDTA and EDTA on seeded precipitation of sodium aluminate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕保林; 陈启元; 尹周澜; 胡慧萍

    2010-01-01

    Na4EDTA and EDTA were adopted as new additives to intensify the seeded precipitation process of sodium aluminate solution. The effects of the two additives at certain concentrations on the seeded precipitation rate of sodium aluminate solution, particle size distribution (PSD) and morphology of precipitated gibbsite were investigated using titration method, particle size analyzer and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that the two additives can accelerate the seeded precipitation rate of sodium aluminate solution. At relatively high concentration, the facilitative effect of EDTA on sodium aluminate solution is more obvious than that of Na4EDTA. EDTA makes gibbsite particles thinner than Na4EDTA. The Na+ and H+ result in the different effects on the seeded precipitation rate of sodium aluminate solution in spite of the same EDTA anion in the two additives.

  14. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  15. High-pressure sodium lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  16. Cavitation problems in sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, X.

    1976-01-01

    Cavitation poses few problems for sodium valves, in spite of the fact that the loops are not pressurized. This is no doubt due to the low flow velocities in the pipes. For auxiliary loop valves we are attempting to standardize performances with respect to cavitation. For economic reasons cavitation thresholds are approached with large diameter valves. (author)

  17. Structure of sodium perbromate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, A.C.; Gallucci, J.C.; Gerkin, R.E.; Reppart, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    NaBrO 4 .H 2 O, M r =184.90, monoclinic, C2/c, a=15.7575(19), b=5.7373(15), c=11.3390(19) A, β=111.193(10)deg. In this structure, there are two inequivalent Na ions, each coordinated by six O atoms. In each of the two types of distorted octahedra, there are three inequivalent Na-O distances; the average Na(1)-O and Na(2)-O distances are 2.379(10) and 2.405(23) A, respectively. The perbromate ion in this structure displays very nearly regular tetrahedral geometry, although it is subject to no symmetry constraints; the average observed Br-O distance is 1.601(4) A, while the average observed O-Br-O angle is 109.5(9)deg. These values agree well with previously reported values. The perbromate ion, but neither of the sodium coordination polyhedra, shows rigid-body behavior. The average rigid-body corrected Br-O distance in the perbromate ion is 1.624(3) A. Refinement of the two inequivalent H atoms permitted detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonding, which is slightly different from that reported for the isomorphic sodium perchlorate monohydrate. Dynamic disordering of the H atoms as detailed by magnetic resonance methods for sodium perchlorate monohydrate is not clearly indicated in our X-ray study of sodium perbromate monohydrate. (orig./GSCH)

  18. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; L'homme, A.; Lhiaubet, G.; Himeno, Y.; Kirby, C.R.; Mitsutsuka, N.

    1984-01-01

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in medical costs. Problem Not all foods are created equal Understanding sodium in foods can be confusing ... for lower sodium choices. About 25% comes from restaurants and it can be hard for a person ...

  20. ELTA: Cita{sup trademark}: Sodium measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauvais, O. [Water Analysis Line Mgr, ELTA (France)

    2002-07-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  1. Electron: Cluster interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidemann, A.A.; Knight, W.D.

    1994-02-01

    Beam depletion spectroscopy has been used to measure absolute total inelastic electron-sodium cluster collision cross sections in the energy range from E ∼ 0.1 to E ∼ 6 eV. The investigation focused on the closed shell clusters Na 8 , Na 20 , Na 40 . The measured cross sections show an increase for the lowest collision energies where electron attachment is the primary scattering channel. The electron attachment cross section can be understood in terms of Langevin scattering, connecting this measurement with the polarizability of the cluster. For energies above the dissociation energy the measured electron-cluster cross section is energy independent, thus defining an electron-cluster interaction range. This interaction range increases with the cluster size

  2. Effective extractants for the extraction of lithium from aqueous solutions containing sodium and potassium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkina, G.A.; Zanina, A.S.; Shergina, S.I.; Sokolov, I.E.; Kotlyarevskii, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction power of newly obtained pure methoxy-1,3-diketones in diluents and in their mixtures with electron-donating additives during the extraction of lithium from aqueous solutions containing sodium and potassium was investigated. High separation factors were obtained; no appreciable amounts of sodium and potassium were found in the extract after total extraction of the lithium. 9 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Effect of liquid sodium on long-term properties of austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, V.; Merta, J.; Slach, J.

    The effect is discussed of liquid sodium on the long-term properties of austenitic steels corresponding to the ASI 304 and ASI 316 types, mainly of steel CSN 17348. The choice is described of test specimens and of the experimental sodium test equipment. Testing was carried out using the so-called indirect method, i.e., the liquid sodium effect was assessed using the results of creep tests of two groups of specimens, one exposed to sodium and the other to the inert argon atmosphere. Otherwise the tests proceeded under identical conditions. The sodium stand had been manufactured for exposure of test specimens to liquid sodium. The morphology of specimen surfaces was studied by the JSN-50A electron microscope. The results of testing steel CSN 17348-AKV EXTRA S exposed to liquid sodium containing 10 ppm of oxygen at a temperature of 550 degC showed a significant sodium effect on the basic mechanical properties, on long-term creep strength and on the metallurgical properties. (Oy)

  4. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  5. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a...

  6. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at 0.1...

  7. Clinical impact of nonosmotic sodium storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, R.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the

  8. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations provided...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i) Amount...

  10. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  11. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  12. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg. No... ore calcined to impure soda ash and then purified; or (3) synthesized from limestone by the Solvay...

  15. Sodium fires and nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.N.; Zubin, A.; Drobyshev, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The danger of sodium aerosol release at a design basis accident (DBA) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor that involves coolant leakage and burning, is being analyzed. It has been shown that radioactive and toxic releases at DBA do not exceed permissible values. Some means of sodium fire fighting are described. (author)

  16. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  18. Sodium purification in Rapsodie; La purification du sodium a Rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [French] Ce rapport fait partie d'une serie de publications presentant l'essentiel des resultats des essais effectues a l'occasion du demarrage du premier reacteur francais a neutrons rapides: RAPSODIE. Cet article expose les techniques de la purification du sodium utilise dans les circuits de refroidissement du reacteur tant au point de vue de leur realisation technologique, que des resultats obtenus pendant la premiere annee de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  19. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  20. Transformation of sodium from the Rapsodie fast breeder reactor into sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, J.; Latge, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major problems raised by decommissioning a fast breeder reactor (FBR) concerns the disposal of the sodium coolant. The Desora operation was undertaken to eliminate the Rapsodie primary sodium as part of the partial decommissioning program, and to develop an operational sodium treatment unit for other needs. The process involves reacting small quantities of sodium in water inside a closed vessel, producing aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is described in this work. (O.L.). 4 figs

  1. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400°C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 lm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  2. Sodium-concrete reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1982-07-01

    Major observations have been formulated after reviewing test results for over 100 sodium-concrete reaction tests. The observations form the basis for developing a mechanistic model to predict the transient behavior of sodium-concrete reactions. The major observations are listed. Mechanisms associated with sodium and water transport to the reaction zone are identified, and represented by appropriate mathematical expressions. The model attempts to explain large-scale, long-term (100 h) test results were sodium-concrete reactions terminated even in the presence of unreacted sodium and concrete

  3. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  4. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  5. Effects of sodium salt types on the intermolecular interaction of sodium alginate/antarctic krill protein composite fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Jing; Liu, Yuanfa; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Sen; Yu, Yue

    2018-06-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) and antarctic krill protein (AKP) were blended to fabricate the SA/AKP composite fibers by the conventional wet spinning method using 5% CaCl 2 as coagulation solution. The sodium salt was added to the SA/AKP solution to adjust the ionization degree and intermolecular interaction of composite system. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of sodium salt types (NaCl, CH 3 COONa, Na 2 SO 4 ) on the intermolecular interaction of SA/AKP composite fibers. The intermolecular interaction, morphology, crystallinity, thermal stability and mechanical properties of SA/AKP composite fibers were analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results show that the types of sodium salt have obvious influences on the content of both β-sheet, intermolecular hydrogen bond, breaking strength and surface morphology in SA/AKP composite fibers, but have a negligible effect on the crystallinity and thermal stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig, E-mail: cgerardi@anl.gov; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Distributed temperature sensors measured high-resolution liquid-sodium temperatures. • DTSs worked well up to 400 °C. • A single DTS simultaneously detected sodium level and temperature. - Abstract: Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400 °C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 μm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  8. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Development of the immersed sodium flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1994-09-01

    An immersed sodium flowmeter of the range 3 m 3 /h is developed. It is a flowmeter of entire-sealed construction, it can be operated in sodium. Its construction, the theoretical calculation of the calibration characteristic and the pressure loss, the test facility and the calibration test are presented in detail. It analytical expression of the calibration characteristic in the temperature limit 200∼600 degree C and the error analysis are given. The basic error of this immersed sodium flowmeter is below +-2.3% of the measuring range. The immersed sodium flowmeter can be used to resolve the sodium flowrate measuring problems of the in-reactor component of LMFBR, for example, the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor sodium purification loop, the flowrate measuring of the immersed sodium pump and the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor test component

  10. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  11. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  12. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  13. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  14. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daolong Chen

    1996-01-01

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  15. Intercalation and Exfoliation of Kaolinite with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochao Zuo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaolinite (Kaol was intercalated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and subsequently methanol (MeOH to prepare intercalation compounds Kaol-DMSO and Kaol-MeOH. Kaol-MeOH was used as an intermediate to synthesize Kaol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS intercalation compound (Kaol-SDS via displacement reaction. The ultrasonic exfoliation of Kaol-SDS produced a resultant Kaol-SDS-U. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and particle size analysis. The results revealed that the intercalation of sodium dodecyl sulfate into kaolinite layers caused an obvious increase of the basal spacing from 0.72–4.21 nm. The dehydroxylation temperature of Kaol-SDS was obviously lower than that of original kaolinite. During the intercalation process of sodium dodecyl sulfate, a few kaolinite layers were exfoliated and curled up from the edges of the kaolinite sheets. After sonication treatment, the kaolinite layers were further transformed into nanoscrolls, and the exfoliated resultant Kaol-SDS-U possessed a smaller particle size close to nanoscale.

  16. Instrumentation for Sodium Circuits; Instrumentation des Circuits de Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambillard, E. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lions, N. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache (France)

    1967-06-15

    Electromagnetic flow meters, level gauges and differential pressure gauges are among the main measurement instruments designed and tested at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for sodium reactors. The main characteristics of the flow meters used with RAPSODIE are indicated. The instruments used in this connection are of the permanent -magnet or electromagnet type (in the primary circuits). A description is given of the calibration methods employed - use is made of diaphragms or Venturi tubes as standard flow meters - and information is given on the results measured for maximum sodium flows of 400 m{sup 3}/h. Three types of continuous level gauge have been studied. Resistance gauge. Two varieties used for the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of RAPSODIE are described. In one there is a compensation resistance along the whole height of the measuring element (the continuous gauges used with the RAPSODIE reactor are at present of this type). In the other type of gauge a device is incorporated to heat the measurement element and prevent the formation of conducting deposits (prototype sodium tests have been completed). Induction gauge. This type has two coupled coils and is fitted with a device to compensate for temperature effects. A description is given of a prototype which has been built and the results obtained in the course of sodium tests are described. Ultrasonic gauge. With this type, a transmitter is fitted on top of the outside of the sodium container; there is also a vertical wave guide, the bottom of which is immersed in the liquid metal and possesses a reflector system which returns the ultrasonic beam towards the surface. Fixed reference marks provide a permanent means of calibration and the whole apparatus is welded. This type of gauge is now being constructed. The differential pressure gauges that have been built, and used in particular with Venturi tube flow meters, are modified versions of the devices employed with the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of

  17. Electronic band structure of lithium, sodium and potassium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouanin, C.; Albert, J.P.; Gout, C.

    1975-01-01

    A mixed tight-binding, pseudopotential method is proposed to calculate the energy band structure of large-gap crystals and is tested here on LiF, NaF and KF. Three-centre terms are included in the determination of the valence bands by the tight-binding method and for the conduction bands we use a pseudopotential model proposed by Bassani and Giuliano, modified for the positive ions. By taking into account the polarization corrections, transitions calculated from the energy band structures are compared with experimental data and the agreement is generally good

  18. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Köse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  19. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  20. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium vapour and sodium mist in the cover gas of a sodium system of a fast breeder reactor cause various problems. In this report, with the results of measurements of sodium mist concentration, the distribution of sodium mist diameter in cover gas was analytically obtained. The analysis was made by using the different nucleus model B. The measurement of the concentration of sodium mist was carried out with a sodium mist pot designed by the author. The experiment was done at the sodium temperature of 400 and 500 degree centigrade. The relations among sodium temperature, upper wall temperature, and the sodium mist concentration in cover gas were obtained. Evaluation of effective condensed nuclear radius in the cover gas was made by the comparison of analysis and experimental results. The results of this evaluation shows the following conclusions. It is impossible to express the distribution of sodium mist diameter by normal distribution or logarithmic normal distribution. Drop of sodium temperature results in the decrease of weight mean radius of generated sodium mist. Drop of upper wall temperature causes the decrease of weight mean radius, and increases sodium mist concentration. (Kato, T.)

  1. Sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchangers design problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the calculation methods adapted, in working-out the stresses due to fluid pressures (normal as well as transient), weights, piping-reactions, vibration in the tube-bundle and also the thermal stresses during normal and transient conditions, for the mechanical design of intermediate heat-exchanger. The thermal stress evaluation of the tube-sheet is given particular emphasis. A brief outline of the design problems connected with the Na-Na exchangers of large size sodium cooled fast reactor plants is also given. (author)

  2. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  3. Wireless sensor network for sodium leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Raj, Baldev; Sivalingam, Krishna M.; Ebenezer, Jemimah; Chandran, T.; Shanmugavel, M.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Early detection of sodium leak is mandatory in any reactor handling liquid sodium. ► Wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced for detecting sodium leak. ► We designed and developed a wireless sensor node in-house. ► We deployed a pilot wireless sensor network for handling nine sodium leak signals. - Abstract: To study the mechanical properties of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor component materials under the influence of sodium, the IN Sodium Test (INSOT) facility has been erected and commissioned at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Sodium reacts violently with air/moisture leading to fire. Hence early detection of sodium leak if any is mandatory for such plants and almost 140 sodium leak detectors are placed throughout the loop. All these detectors are wired to the control room for data collection and monitoring. To reduce the cost, space and maintenance that are involved in cabling, the wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced in the sodium leak detection system of INSOT. This paper describes about the deployment details of the pilot wireless sensor network and the measures taken for the successful deployment.

  4. Containment Sodium Chemistry Models in MELCOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    To meet regulatory needs for sodium fast reactors’ future development, including licensing requirements, Sandia National Laboratories is modernizing MELCOR, a severe accident analysis computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Specifically, Sandia is modernizing MELCOR to include the capability to model sodium reactors. However, Sandia’s modernization effort primarily focuses on the containment response aspects of the sodium reactor accidents. Sandia began modernizing MELCOR in 2013 to allow a sodium coolant, rather than water, for conventional light water reactors. In the past three years, Sandia has been implementing the sodium chemistry containment models in CONTAIN-LMR, a legacy NRC code, into MELCOR. These chemistry models include spray fire, pool fire and atmosphere chemistry models. Only the first two chemistry models have been implemented though it is intended to implement all these models into MELCOR. A new package called “NAC” has been created to manage the sodium chemistry model more efficiently. In 2017 Sandia began validating the implemented models in MELCOR by simulating available experiments. The CONTAIN-LMR sodium models include sodium atmosphere chemistry and sodium-concrete interaction models. This paper presents sodium property models, the implemented models, implementation issues, and a path towards validation against existing experimental data.

  5. A mitochondrial targeted two-photon iridium(III) phosphorescent probe for selective detection of hypochlorite in live cells and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanying; Lin, Qian; Sun, Lingli; Feng, Changsheng; Zhang, Pingyu; Yu, Bole; Chen, Yu; Wen, Ya; Wang, Hui; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous hypochlorite ion (ClO(-)) is a highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is produced from hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions catalyzed by myeloperoxidase (MPO). And mitochondrion is one of the major sources of ROS including ClO(-). In the present work, a two-photon phosphorescent probe for ClO(-) in mitochondria was developed. An iridium(III) complex bearing a diaminomaleonitrile group as ClO(-) reactive moiety specifically responded to ClO(-) over other ions and ROSs. When the probe was reacted with ClO(-) to form an oxidized carboxylate product, a significant enhancement in phosphorescence intensity was observed under one-photon (402 nm) and two-photon (750 nm) excitation, with a two-photon absorption cross-section of 78.1 GM at 750 nm. More importantly, ICP-MS results and cellular images co-stained with Mito-tracker Green demonstrated that this probe possessed high specificity for mitochondria. This probe was applied in the one- and two-photon imaging of ClO(-) in vitro and in vivo. The results suggested endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ClO(-) mostly generated in the liver of zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatigue-crack propagation response of two nickel-base alloys in a liquid sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The elevated temperature fatigue-crack propagation response of Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 was characterized within a linear-elastic fracture mechanics framework in air and low-oxygen liquid sodium environments. The crack growth rates of both nickel-base alloys tested in liquid sodium were found to be considerably lower than those obtained in air. This enhanced fatigue resistance in sodium was attributed to the very low oxygen content in the inert sodium environment. Electron fractographic examination of the Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that operative crack growth mechanisms were dependent on the prevailing stress intensity level. Under low growth rate conditions, Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 fracture surfaces exhibited a faceted, crystallographic morphology in both air and sodium environments. In the higher growth rate regime, fatigue striations were observed; however, striations formed in sodium were rather ill-defined. These indistinct striations were attributed to the absence of oxygen in the liquid sodium environment. Striation spacing measurements were found to be in excellent agreement with macroscopic growth rates in both environments

  7. Comparative solubilisation of potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in hot dimethylformamide: application of cylindrical particle surface-controlled dissolution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forryan, Claire L; Compton, Richard G; Klymenko, Oleksiy V; Brennan, Colin M; Taylor, Catherine L; Lennon, Martin

    2006-02-07

    A surface-controlled dissolution of cylindrical solid particles model is applied to potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in dimethylformamide at elevated temperatures. Previously published data for the dissolution of potassium carbonate is interpreted assuming a cylindrical rather than a spherical shape of the particles, the former representing a closer approximation to the true shape of the particles as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The dissolution kinetics of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate in dimethylformamide at 100 degrees C were investigated via monitoring of the deprotonation of 2-cyanophenol with dissolved solid to form the 2-cyanophenolate anion that was detected with UV-visible spectroscopy. From fitting of experimental results to theory, the dissolution rate constant, k, for the dissolutions of potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in dimethylformamide at 100 degrees C were found to have the values of (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(-7) mol cm(-2) s(-1), (5.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(-9) mol cm(-2) s(-1) and (9.7 +/- 0.8) x 10(-9) mol cm(-2) s(-1), respectively.

  8. Selective hydrogenation of 4-isobutylacetophenone over a sodium-promoted Pd/C catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hong-Baek; Lee, Bae Uk; Nakayama, Tadachika; Park, Yeung-Ho; Ryu, Chung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sodium promotion on the selective hydrogenation of 4-isobutylacetophenone, 4-IBAP, was investigated over a Pd/C catalyst. A precipitation and deposition method was used to prepare the catalyst, and sodium was promoted on the Pd/C catalyst via post-impregnation while varying the sodium content. The sodium-promoted Pd/C catalyst resulted in a significantly improved yield greater than 96% of the desired product, 1-(4-isobutylphenyl) ethanol (4-IBPE), compared with the non-patented literature results under a mild hydrogenation condition. A detailed hydrogenation network over the Pd/C catalyst was suggested. The reaction mechanism for the yield and selectivity enhancement of 4-IBPE induced-by the promoted Pd/C was elucidated in relation to the geometric and electronic effects of reactant molecules in the microporous support depending on the reaction steps

  9. The effect of variations in carbon activity on the carburization of austenitic steels in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwyther, J.R.; Hobdell, M.R.; Hooper, A.J.

    1978-07-01

    Experience has shown that the liquid sodium coolant of fast breeder reactors is an effective carbon-transport medium; the resulting carburization of thin austenitic stainless steel components (eg IHX and fuel cladding) could adversely affect their mechanical integrity. The degree and nature of steel carburization depend, inter alia, on the carbon activity of the sodium environment. Exploratory tests are described in which specimens of austenitic stainless steel were carburized in sodium, the carbon activity of which was continuously monitored by a BNL electrochemical carbon meter. The sodium carbon activity was initially high, but decreased with time, simulating conditions equivalent to plant start-up or coolant clean-up following accidental oil ingress. The extent and nature of steel carburization was identified by metallography, electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography and chemical analysis. (author)

  10. Factors Affecting Dissolution Resistance of AC Anodizing Al in Sodium Carbonate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Krisha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of different factors on the properties and so the dissolution resistance of the anodic film of Al. Conductance and thermometric measurements were applied to evaluate the dissolution rate. The effect of applied AC voltage concentration of sodium carbonate solution, the anodization time and the temperature of sodium carbonate solutions show a parallel increase in the dissolution resistance of studied Al in hydrochloride acid. The results show that films formed by sodium carbonate solution were of porous type and have pronounced high resistance. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction further examined the films. The anodic and cathodic behavior and the effect of the scanning rate on the polarization of Al in sodium carbonate solution were studied. The regression analysis was applied to all results. (Author)

  11. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  12. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  13. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  14. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  15. Interaction of oil and paraffin with sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Lamykin, E V; Alekseev, V V; Sergeev, G P [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the investigation results on the kinetics of a gaseous oil pyrolysis product composition change in the presence of sodium under static conditions at 350 deg. C, 550 deg. C and 700 deg. C as well as the behaviour of oil and paraffin within the sodium circulating loops. The calculated estimations of the critical oil physical state parameters in sodium flows are given. (author)

  16. Interaction of oil and paraffin with sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kovalev, Yu.P.; Lamykin, E.V.; Alekseev, V.V.; Sergeev, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the investigation results on the kinetics of a gaseous oil pyrolysis product composition change in the presence of sodium under static conditions at 350 deg. C, 550 deg. C and 700 deg. C as well as the behaviour of oil and paraffin within the sodium circulating loops. The calculated estimations of the critical oil physical state parameters in sodium flows are given. (author)

  17. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, R K [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1979-03-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  18. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  19. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillard, R.K.

    1978-10-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking

  20. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Casteels, F.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  1. Cosmic ray produced sodium and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Barbosa, A.

    1981-07-01

    The following topics were presented: calculations of the theoretical production rate of sodium-22 in the atmosphere in order to estimate its activity in rain water; description of the method of chemical separation of sodium and of counting of various radionuclide samples; results obtained for 22 Na, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 7 Be and 210 Pb and seasonal variations of these radionuclides in rain and river waters; seasonal variations of natural elements, sodium, potassium and uranium in rain and river waters [fr

  2. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lievens, F; Casteels, F [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1980-05-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  3. Sodium cleaning from sodium contaminated components and operation for experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, T. J.; Nam, H. Y.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.; Choi, J. H

    2007-11-15

    An objective of washing technology development for sodium contaminated equipment is to clean and reuse safely and effectively the used equipment through a washing and maintenance, and recovery of the sodium wastes generated during washing.

  4. Sodium pool fire analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor by calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Xu Mi; Jin Degui

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical models were established according to the characteristic of sodium pool fire, and the SPOOL code was created independently. Some transient processes in sodium pool fire were modeled, including chemical reaction of sodium and oxygen; sodium combustion heat transfer modes in several kids of media; production, deposition and discharge of sodium aerosol; mass and energy exchange between different media in different ventilating conditions. The important characteristic parameters were calculated, such as pressure and temperature of gas, temperature of building materials, mass concentration of sodium aerosol, and so on. The SPOOL code, which provided available safety analysis tool for sodium pool fire accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactor, was well demonstrated with experimental data

  5. Measurement of carbon thermodynamic activity in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Alekseev, V V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    The report presents the brief outline on system of carbon activity detecting system in sodium (SCD), operating on the carbon-permeable membrane, of the methods and the results of testing it under the experimental circulating loop conditions. The results of carbon activity sensor calibration with the use of equilibrium samples of XI8H9, Fe -8Ni, Fe -12Mn materials are listed. The behaviour of carbon activity sensor signals in sodium under various transitional conditions and hydrodynamic perturbation in the circulating loop, containing carbon bearing impurities in the sodium flow and their deposits on the surfaces flushed by sodium, are described. (author)

  6. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  7. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, M; Kanbe, M; Yagisawa, H; Sasaki, S; Kataoka, H; Fukada, T; Ishii, Y; Saito, R; Mimoto, Y [O-arai Engineering Centre, PNC, Ibaraki-ken, Tokio (Japan)

    1978-08-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  8. Dissolution of LMFBR fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Moss, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide, normally insoluble in biological fluids, becomes much more soluble when mixed with sodium as the aerosol is formed. Sodium-fuel aerosols are approximately 20 times less soluble in simulated lung fluid than in distilled water. Solubility of sodium-fuel aerosols increases when Na 2 CO 3 are added to the distilled-water dissolution fluid. Mixed-oxide fuel aerosols without sodium present are relatively insoluble in distilled water, simulated lung fluid, and distilled water with Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 added

  9. Sodium-blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M

    1999-03-01

    In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.

  10. Methods and means of sodium fire fighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemskij, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Methods and means for coaling sodium fire fighting are analyzed. Their advantages and drawbacks are considered. Comparative data on sodium fire fighting using some of considered compositions are presented. High efficiency of self-expanding compositions (Grafeks SK-23 and RS) is noted. Properties of MGS new composition for sodium fire fighting are considered. High fighting ability of the composition independent of burning metal layer width is shown. It is noted that fire fighting MGS efficiency decreases with growth of time of free fire burning which affects fire fighting methods. Technical means of powder delivery to burning sodium are reported

  11. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1996-07-01

    The constructions and performances of lots of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of good linearity. The accurate measurement data of sodium process parameters (flowrate, pressure and level) can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, mutual isolative the 0∼10 V direct-current analogue output and the CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. Theses intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFBR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic errors of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge are +-2%, +-2.3%, +-0.3% and +-1.9% of measuring ranges respectively. (9 figs.)

  12. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.; Fukada, T.; Ishii, Y.; Saito, R.; Mimoto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  13. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.

    1978-02-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of ''JOYO'' and Dummy fuel assembly of ''JOYO'', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of ''JOYO'', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of ''JOYO'' and a proto-type Isolation valve of ''JOYO'' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental subassemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of ''MONJU'' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of Sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a ''JOYO'' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  14. Method for processing radioactive wastes containing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Takeshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To bake, solidify and process even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium. Structure: H and or NH 4 zeolites of more than 90g per chemical equivalent of sodium present in the waste is added to and left in radioactive wastes containing sodium, after which they are fed to a baker such as rotary cylindrical baker, spray baker and the like to bake and solidify the wastes at 350 to 800 0 C. Thereby, it is possible to bake and solidify even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium, which has been impossible to do so previously. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Sodium-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammers, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a sodium-cooled nuclear reactor, whose reactor tank contains the primary circuit, shielding surrounding the reactor core and a primary/secondary heat exchanger, particularly a fast breeder reactor on the module principle. In order to achieve this module principle it is proposed to have electromagnetic circulating pumps outside the reactor tank, where the heat exchanger is accomodated in an annular case above the pumps. This case has several openings at the top end to the space above the reactor core, some smaller openings in the middle to the same space and is connected at the bottom to an annular space between the tank wall and the reactor core. As a favoured variant, it is proposed that the annular electromagnetic pumps should be arranged concentrically to the reactor tank, where there is an annual duct on the inside of the reactor tank. In this way the sodium-cooled nuclear reactor is made suitable as a module with a large number of such elements. (orig.) [de

  16. Operating experience with sodium valves in the TNO-sodium test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasselt, M.L.G. van

    1974-01-01

    The development of sodium components for the SNR-300 in Holland has reached the stage where full scale testing in sodium has almost been finished and construction is at its height. It is against this background that a review is given of the weaknesses in one area or the other of the commercially available types of sodium valves used in TNO's smaller test facilities at Apeldoorn and TNO's 50 MW sodium components test facility at Hengelo. (U.S.)

  17. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA; Olusegun Olusoji SOREMEKUN; Olakunle Wasiu SUBAIR; Atinuke OLADOYE

    2008-01-01

    The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel i...

  18. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (<115 mmol), usual sodium (low usual so...

  20. Control of sodium fires and sodium-water reactions in breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, K.; Ruloff, G.; Voss, J.

    1985-01-01

    The excellent neutronic and thermodynamic properties of sodium as a fast-reactor coolant are somewhat counterbalanced by its high oxygen affinity. Because incidents like sodium fires and sodium-water reactions cannot be absolutely excluded, their effects and preventive measures have to be investigated. Characteristics and counter-measures are discussed. (orig.) [de