WorldWideScience

Sample records for sodium dichromate dihydrate

  1. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993

  2. Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill expedited response action proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill. The Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Site was used in 1945 for disposal of crushed barrels. The site location is the sole waste site within the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. The Waste Information Data System (WIDS 1992) assumes that the crushed barrels contained 1% residual sodium dichromate at burial time and that only buried crushed barrels are at the site. Burial depth is shallow since visual inspection finds numerous barrel debris on the surface. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the ERA will present a final remediation of the 100-IU-4 operable unit

  3. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  4. Analgesic efficacy with rapidly absorbed ibuprofen sodium dihydrate in postsurgical dental pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholt, Sven Erik; Hallmer, F; Hartlev, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid).......To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid)....

  5. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Deswal, Balbir Singh; Singh, Bachu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers. (1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust, and fumes. A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating from several industries situated near the Delhi-Haryana border in the districts of Faridabad and Sonepat of Haryana, India from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014. All the workers available from the concerned industries for the study were interviewed and medically examined after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 130 workers comprising 66 workers from the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and 64 workers from the chrome plating industry were examined on a pretested schedule. Descriptive statistical methods (proportions, relative risk, and Chi-square test of significance with P value analyzed using Epi Info version 7). All the workers were found to be males and of the adult age group. Out of the total examined, 69.69% and 56.22% of the workers had disorders of the nasal mucous membrane in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and the chrome plating industry, respectively. 42.42% and 28.22% of the workers had perforation of the nasal septum in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. 6.06% and 3.12% workers had skin ulcers in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. Nasal irritation and rhinorrhea were the most commonly found symptoms in both the processes. 48.48% and 90.52% of the workers were using hand gloves in the sodium dichromate manufacturing

  6. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wagner; O. Möhler; H. Saathoff; M. Schnaiter; T. Leisner

    2010-01-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to ...

  7. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  8. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-08-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers

  9. Structure of Radicals from X-irradiated Guanine Derivatives: An Experimental and Computational Study of Sodium Guanosine Dihydrate Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilaka, Nayana; Nelson, William H.

    2008-01-01

    In sodium guanosine dihydrate single crystals, the guanine moiety is deprotonated at N1 due to growth from high-pH (>12) solutions. EPR and ENDOR study of crystals x-irradiated at 10 K detected evidence for three radical forms. Radical R1,characterized by two proton and two nitrogen hyperfine interactions, was identified as the product of net hydrogenation at N7 of the N1-deprotonated guanine unit. R1 exhibited an unusually distorted structure leading to net positive isotropic components of the hydrogen couplings. Radical R2, characterized by one proton and one nitrogen hyperfine coupling was identified as the primary electron loss product. This product is equivalent to that of deprotonation at N1 by the guanine cation and represents the first ENDOR characterization of that product. Radical R3, characterized by a single hydrogen hyperfine coupling, was identified as the product of net dehydrogenation at C1 of the ribose moiety. The identification of radicals R1-R3 was supported by DFT calculations on several possible structures using the B3LYP/6-311G(2df,p)//6-31G(d,p) approach. Radical R4, detected after warming the crystals to room temperature, was identified as the well-known product of net hydrogenation of C8 of the (N1-deprotonated) guanine component. Radical R1, evidently formed by protonation of the primary electron addition product, was present as roughly 60% of the total radicals detected at 10 K. Radical R2 was present as roughly 27% of the total yield, and the concentration of R3 contributed the remaining 13%. R3 is evidently the product of oneelectron oxidation followed by deprotonation; thus, the balance of oxidation and reduction products is approximately equal within experimental uncertainty. PMID:17249824

  10. Enrofloxacin hydrochloride dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Miranda-Calderón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3+·Cl−·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carboxy-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinolin-7-yl-1-ethylpiperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water molecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclopropyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2 and 51.11 (2°. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H...Cl, N—H...Cl and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, and a π–π interaction between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726 (13 Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array.

  11. Preparation of Potassium Dichromate Crystals from the Chromite Concentrate by Microwave Assisted Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the oxidizing roasting process of chromite with sodium carbonate to prepare potassium dichromate crystals was studied in the microwave field with air, by heating the chromite and sodium carbonate. The chromite and sodium carbonate heated separately at 1000 °C in the microwave oven (frequency: 2.45 GHz; power 1.5 kW in order to study the microwave absorption properties. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor of the chromite and sodium carbonate examined. Then, chromite with sodium carbonate taken in (1:2 ratio and heated at 750 °C. Thus obtained samples were characterized using various techniques includes Powder-XRD (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. The XRD pattern reveals the existence of Fe3O4, Fe2O3, NaAlO2, and Na2CrO4. The iron and aluminum were leached out as Fe2O3 and Al(OH3 respectively. The resulting sample treated with the KCl to prepare potassium dichromate crystals. Finally, potassium dichromate crystals formed.

  12. Lyoluminescence characteristics of trehalose dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Anand E-mail: anandr@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Oommen, Issac K.; Sharma, D.N

    2001-03-01

    Lyoluminescence (LL) of trehalose dihydrate showed a linear gamma ray sensitivity in the dose range 0.1-5x10{sup 2} Gy. At increased sample weight dissolved, the LL/mg showed a reduction when the microcontroller based integrated measurement system was used. The LL/mg was found to be independent of the sample weight when the instantaneous peak output observed by the electrometer amplifier on dissolution of the phosphor was taken as a measure of LL yield. The LL spectral measurement of trehalose dihydrate in luminol solution (LL sensitizer) confirms an energy transfer from the radiation induced free radicals to luminol molecule to produce light.

  13. Lyoluminescence characteristics of trehalose dihydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Anand; Oommen, Issac K.; Sharma, D.N.

    2001-01-01

    Lyoluminescence (LL) of trehalose dihydrate showed a linear gamma ray sensitivity in the dose range 0.1-5x10 2 Gy. At increased sample weight dissolved, the LL/mg showed a reduction when the microcontroller based integrated measurement system was used. The LL/mg was found to be independent of the sample weight when the instantaneous peak output observed by the electrometer amplifier on dissolution of the phosphor was taken as a measure of LL yield. The LL spectral measurement of trehalose dihydrate in luminol solution (LL sensitizer) confirms an energy transfer from the radiation induced free radicals to luminol molecule to produce light

  14. Performance of dichromate dosimetry systems in calibration and dose intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bof, E.S.; Smolko, E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the High Dose Dosimetry Laboratory of Argentina during ten years of international intercomparisons for high dose with the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of the IAEA, using the standard high dose dichromate dosimetry system, and the results of a high dose intercomparison regional exercise in which our Laboratory acted as a reference laboratory, using the standard high dose and low dose dichromate dosimetry system. (author)

  15. Pathology Report for Intraperitoneal Sodium Dichromate Exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    injury resulting from exposure to specific metal intoxication . The investigators aim was to validate hypothesized adverse outcome pathways in rats...vessels causing them to become leaky. Injured or inflamed vessels lead to extravasated fibrinogen which rapidly clots into a cross-linked fibrin gel...Sprague-Dawley rats appear to include direct injury to the exposed, capsular surface of the liver, leading to fibrinogen leakage, fibrin formation

  16. Structures of cefradine dihydrate and cefaclor dihydrate from DFT-D calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Streek, Jacco; Rantanen, Jukka; Bond, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    in the zwitterionic form in the two dihydrate structures. A potential ambiguity concerning the orientation of the cyclohexadienyl ring in cefradine dihydrate is also clarified, and on the basis of the calculated energies it is shown that disorder should not be expected at room temperature. The DFT-D methods can...

  17. Dichromated gelatin and its importance for optical hologram recording

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Petr; Hiklová, H.; Keprt, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 12 (2004), s. 1461-1472 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A015 Keywords : dichromated gelatin * holography * volume program Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  18. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  19. Silver dichromate - a suitable dosimeter for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Hoa Mai; Nguyen Dinh Duong

    1995-01-01

    An aqueous dosimeter system based on solution of silver dichromate in perchloric acid and spectrophotometry analysis was investigated. The optical absorption characteristics of solutions have been studied. The molar extinction coefficients and radiation-yield of the dosimeter solutions were determined. The mechanism of radiation-induced reactions in the solutions is also considered. A formula for calculating the dose based on absorbance measurements is presented. The G-value of dichromate reduction caused by gamma radiation was determined. The value found, 0.397 is close to the values of the other authors. Two solutions with different concentrations of dichromate have been chosen to match two applicable dose ranges. The solution containing 0.5 mM Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 in 0.1 M HClO 4 is applied to dose range of 1 -12 kGy and the solution with 0.5 mM Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 and 2.00 mM K 2 Cr 2 O 7 in 0.1 M HClO 4 is applied to dose range of 3 to 50 kGy. It was found that the relationship between net absorbance ΔA and radiation dose, D is essentially linear over expected dose ranges. The calibration curves have been drawn up by using least square method. In routine use for gamma radiation the dosimeter show good accuracy, reproducibility and stability of the response. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Practice for use of a dichromate dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This practice covers the preparation, testing, and procedure for using the acidic aqueous silver dichromate dosimetry system to measure absorbed dose in water when exposed to ionizing radiation. The system consists of a dosimeter and appropriate analytical instrumentation. For simplicity, the system will be referred to as the dichromate system. It is classified as a reference standard dosimetry system (see ISO/ASTM Guide 51261). This practice describes the spectrophotometric analysis procedures for the dichromate system. This practice applies only to γ-rays, x-rays/ bremsstrahlung, and high energy electrons. This practice applies provided the following conditions are satisfied: the absorbed dose range is from 2x10 3 to 5x10 4 Gy; the absorbed dose rate does not exceed 600 Gy/pulse (12.5 pulses per second), or does not exceed an equivalent dose rate of 7.5 kGy/s from continuous sources; for radionuclide gamma-ray sources, the initial photon energy shall be greater than 0.6 MeV. For bremsstrahlung photons, the initial energy of the electrons used to produce the bremsstrahlung photons shall be equal to or greater than 2 MeV. For electron beams, the initial electron energy shall be greater than 8 MeV; the irradiation temperature of the dosimeter shall be above 0 deg C and should be below 80 deg C

  1. Stability and thermophysical properties of azithromycin dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Timoumi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the temperature effect on the stability and the thermophysical properties of azithromycin (AZ. First, the density, the heat capacity and the solubility of original (commercial AZ were determined. Second, the original samples were heated at 50 °C and 80 °C and their PLM, DSC, TGA and XRD data were compared to those of the original AZ. According to our results, the original AZ was a dihydrate which converted to anhydrate when heated up to 80 °C. The dehydration induced a change of crystal habit while the crystalline lattice remained unchanged.

  2. Selectivity of the adsorption process of modified zeolite rock with hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide in front to chromates and dichromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado G, N.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) from the Chihuahua state, which was conditioned with sodium chloride solution and subsequently modified with a hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide solution was used to evaluate the removal of Cr (Vi) from chromate or dichromate solutions. The zeolite materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface area was also determined. The experiments were performed in a batch system, the influence of ph, contact time between phases were investigated and during the adsorption process was calculated the concentration of chromium ion present in aqueous solution (CrO 4 2- , Cr 2 O 7 2- ). The quantification of chromium removed from the aqueous solution by atomic absorption spectrometry technique was done. In order to understand the behaviour of the adsorption kinetics the pseudo first and pseudo second order models were applied, and to determine the adsorption capacity of the zeolite materials for Cr the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models were chosen. It was found that the removal efficiency of chromium ion is influenced by ph and the chemical species present: chromate or dichromate. The chromate and dichromate sorption kinetic data were best fitted to the pseudo-second and pseudo-first order models, respectively; and the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models described adequately the isotherms data considering a mono component system. In a mixture of Cr (Vi) ad CrO 4 2- and Cr 2 O 7 2- , the surfactant modified zeolite has a greater selectivity for Cr 2 O 7 2- ion than CrO 4 2- . In this case the Langmuir-Freundlich model described the adsorption isotherm behavior. (Author)

  3. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  4. 4′,5-Dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H14O5·2H2O [systematic name: 5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-7-methoxychroman-4-one dihydrate], is a natural phytoalexin flavone isolated from the native chilean species Heliotropium taltalense and crystallizes with an organic molecule and two water molecules in the asymmetric unit. The 5-hydroxy group forms a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl group, resulting in a six-membered ring. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The 4-hydroxyphenyl benzene ring is bonded equatorially to the pyrone ring, which adopts a slightly distorted sofa conformation. The title compound is the hydrated form of a previously reported structure [Shoja (1990. Acta Cryst. C46, 1969–1971]. There are only slight variations in the molecular geometry between the two compounds.

  5. Interaction of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation, Potassium Dichromate and Cadmium Chloride in Artemia franciscana Biotest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beňová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cadmium chloride (at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg l-1 and potassium dichromate (at a concentration of 50 mg l-1 along with the effect of gamma radiation 60Co (at a dose of 10 and 50 Gy on lethality to Artemia franciscana was investigated. Four different interactions were studied, namely, those of potassium dichromate and gamma radiation, cadmium chloride and gamma radiation, and combinations of potassium dichromate and cadmium chloride in interaction with gamma radiation. A significant (α = 0.05 decrease was observed in lethality due to exposure to radiation (10 Gy in comparison with action of only potassium dichromate and cadmium chloride or their combination without exposure to gamma rays. These results support the theory of hormesis.

  6. Combined effects of gamma radiation and potassium dichromate on morphological changes in guppy kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.; Almasiova, V.; Dvorak, P.; Halan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Our experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation and potassium dichromate on morphological changes in the kidneys of Poecilia reticulata. Fish were irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 20 Gy and exposed to potassium dichromate in concentration of 50 mg · dm -3 . The combined effects resulted in marked morphological changes in urinary tubules. The brush border on the apical part of the cells was discontinuous, cytoplasm showed vacuolisation and the integrity of vessels was disturbed. (authors)

  7. Kinetics and enthalpy of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sádovská, Galina; Honcová, Pavla; Sádovský, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The kinetic constant and growth order of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate was calculated. • The equation describing first-order crystal growth was derived. • The enthalpy of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate was determined. - Abstract: The kinetics of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate in aqueous solution with a constant ionic strength 0.3 mol dm −3 NaCl and at thermodynamic and physiological temperature (25 and 37 °C) was studied using isoperibolic reaction twin calorimeter. The enthalpy of crystallization Δ cr H = −47.3 ± 0.9 and −46.2 ± 1.4 kJ mol −1 and kinetic constant k g = 2.0 × 10 −8 and 9.6 × 10 −8 m 4 s −1 mol −1 were determined at 25 and 37 °C, respectively

  8. Designing Robust Process Analytical Technology (PAT) Systems for Crystallization Processes: A Potassium Dichromate Crystallization Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to test and validate a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system design on a potassium dichromate crystallization process in the presence of input uncertainties using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. To this end a systematic framework for managing uncertaintie...

  9. Unveiling the Sources of Chromium in Pictorialist Photographs: Gum-Dichromate Process or Paper Sizing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Centeno, Silvia A; Kennedy, Nora W

    2015-01-01

    For this issue of Hand Papermaking devoted to paper sizing, we offer a review and extension of pertinent results obtained in our investigations of the gum-dichromate photographic process, commonly known as the gum-bichromate process.1 We have published three articles to date on our findings; this...

  10. Structural characterization and catalytic properties of bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium) dichromate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Ståhl, Kenny; Boghosian, Soghomon

    2011-01-01

    The structure of bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium) dichromate was determined from powder X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21/n) with a = 10.79714 (15) Å, b = 11.75844 (16) Å, c = 8.15097 (11) Å, β = 109.5248 (6)º. The structure consists of...

  11. Kinetics and enthalpy of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sádovská, Galina, E-mail: galina.sadovska@upce.cz; Honcová, Pavla; Sádovský, Zdeněk

    2013-08-20

    Highlights: • The kinetic constant and growth order of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate was calculated. • The equation describing first-order crystal growth was derived. • The enthalpy of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate was determined. - Abstract: The kinetics of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate in aqueous solution with a constant ionic strength 0.3 mol dm{sup −3} NaCl and at thermodynamic and physiological temperature (25 and 37 °C) was studied using isoperibolic reaction twin calorimeter. The enthalpy of crystallization Δ{sub cr}H = −47.3 ± 0.9 and −46.2 ± 1.4 kJ mol{sup −1}and kinetic constant k{sub g} = 2.0 × 10{sup −8} and 9.6 × 10{sup −8} m{sup 4} s{sup −1} mol{sup −1} were determined at 25 and 37 °C, respectively.

  12. Direct uranium extraction from dihydrate and hemi-dihydrate wet process phosphoric acids by liquid emulsion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hazek, N.T.; El Sayed, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    A new liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) process for uranium extraction from either dihydrate 28-30% P 2 O 5 (DH) or hemi-dihydrate 42-45% P 2 O 5 (HDH) wet process phosphoric acid is proposed. In this process, the organic component of the LEM is composed of a synergistic mixture of 0.1M di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and 0.025M trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) with 4% Span 80. The internal or the strip acid phase is composed of 0.5M citric acid. The prepared LEM was proved to be stable in 42-45% P 2 O 5 acid concentration range and can, therefore, be applied to the phosphoric acid produced by the hemi-dihydrate process. After breakdown of the loaded emulsion, the uranyl citrate in the internal strip phase is separated by adding methanol followed by its calcination to the orange oxide. Most of the reagents used are recycled. The proposed process is characterized by simplicity, practically closed operation cycle in addition to lower capital and operating costs. (author)

  13. Defect modes in silver-doped photonic crystals made by holography using dichromated gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui; Chen, Shujing; Ren, Zhi; Wang, Zhaona; Liu, Dahe

    2012-10-01

    The defect mode in silver-doped photonic crystals is investigated. 1D and 3D photonic crystals were made by holography using dichromated gelatin mixed with silver nitrate. By controlling the concentration of the silver nitrate, the defect mode was observed in the bandgaps of the holographic photonic crystals. The numerical simulations were made, and the results showed the consistency with the experimental observations.

  14. Potassium Dichromate as a Reference Substance for Embryonic Tests of Toxicity in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krejčí

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 has already been used as a reference substance in tests of toxicity with aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to determine and compare values of LC50 for potassium dichromate during the whole period of embryonic development (i.e., 120 h and 48 h after hatching of embryos in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Fish eggs and embryos were exposed to 5 different concentrations of potassium dichromate (i.e., 372, 409, 450, 495, 545 mg l-1 during two experiments. Such characteristics as the cumulative mortality, the start and the end of hatching, the number of deformities, body length, and body mass of surviving individuals were studied during the tests. The highest mortality was found in the hatched embryos. Mortality and frequency of deformities increased with the growing concentration of potassium dichromate. The value of 120 LC50 for potassium dichromate was 464.91 ± 23.83 mg l-1 and the value of 48 LC50 was 458.94 ± 4.14 mg l-1 (mean ± SD. No statistically significant difference between values 120 LC50 a 48 LC50 was found. This is why reduction of the exposure period to only 48 h after hatching seems a reasonable method to study the control of susceptibility using potassium dichromate in embryonic tests of toxicity.

  15. Growth and characterization of calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals from single diffusion gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, K.; Dale Keefe, C. [Department of Chemistry, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O, CHPD) a dissolved mineral in urine is known to cause renal or bladder stones in both human and animals. Growth of CHPD or brushite using sodium metasilicate gel techniques followed by light and polarizing microscopic studies revealed its structural and morphological details. Crystal identity by powder x-ray diffraction confirmed the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques as alternate methods for fast analysis of brushite crystals which could form as one type of renal stones. P-O-P asymmetric stretchings in both FT-IR (987.2, 874.1 and 792 cm{sup -1}) and FT-Raman (986.3 cm{sup -1}, 1057.6 cm{sup -1} and 875.2 cm{sup -1}) were found as characteristics of brushite crystals. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed brushite crystallization purity using gel method by studying their endothermic peaks. This study incorporated a multidisciplinary approach in characterizing CHPD crystals grown in vitro to help formulate prevention or dissolution strategy in controlling urinary stone growth. Initial studies with 0.2 M citric acid ions as controlling agent in the nucleation of brushite crystals further support the presented approach. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. 21 CFR 184.1697 - Riboflavin-5′-phosphate (sodium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Riboflavin-5â²-phosphate (sodium). 184.1697 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1697 Riboflavin-5′-phosphate (sodium). (a) Riboflavin-5′-phosphate (sodium) (C17H20N4O9PNa·2H2O, CAS Reg. No 130-40-5) occurs as the dihydrate in yellow...

  17. Lyoluminescence and ESR correlation studies of trehalose dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Anand E-mail: anandr@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Oommen, Issac K.; Gundu Rao, T.K.; Sharma, D.N

    2002-07-01

    ESR studies of irradiated lyoluminescence (LL) phosphor, trehalose dihydrate showed a linear free radical growth up to a dose of 11 kGy. The LL output measured under oxygen equilibrated conditions showed an extension of the dosimetric response from 0.6 to 6 kGy. ESR spectral analysis indicates the formation of two radical species viz., 'a' and 'b' and their involvement in the LL process. The estimated free radical concentrations of radicals 'a' and 'b' were found to be 6.81x10{sup 15} and 1.35x10{sup 16} g{sup -1}, respectively, for a gamma dose of 10.8 kGy.

  18. Solid-vapor interactions: Influence of environmental conditions on the dehydration of carbamazepine dihydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Surana, Rahul; Pyne, Abira; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was a phenomenological study of the effect of environmental factors on the dehydration behavior of carbamazepine dihydrate. Dehydration experiments were performed in an automated vapor sorption apparatus under a variety of conditions, and weight loss was monitored as a function of time. In addition to lattice water, carbamazepine dihydrate contained a significant amount of physically bound water. Based on the kinetics of water loss, it was possible to differentiate b...

  19. Selectivity of the adsorption process of modified zeolite rock with hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide in front to chromates and dichromates; Selectividad del proceso de adsorcion de roca zeolitica modificada con bromuro de hexadeciltrimetilamonio frente a cromatos y dicromatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado G, N.

    2011-07-01

    In the present investigation natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) from the Chihuahua state, which was conditioned with sodium chloride solution and subsequently modified with a hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide solution was used to evaluate the removal of Cr (Vi) from chromate or dichromate solutions. The zeolite materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface area was also determined. The experiments were performed in a batch system, the influence of ph, contact time between phases were investigated and during the adsorption process was calculated the concentration of chromium ion present in aqueous solution (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2-}). The quantification of chromium removed from the aqueous solution by atomic absorption spectrometry technique was done. In order to understand the behaviour of the adsorption kinetics the pseudo first and pseudo second order models were applied, and to determine the adsorption capacity of the zeolite materials for Cr the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models were chosen. It was found that the removal efficiency of chromium ion is influenced by ph and the chemical species present: chromate or dichromate. The chromate and dichromate sorption kinetic data were best fitted to the pseudo-second and pseudo-first order models, respectively; and the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models described adequately the isotherms data considering a mono component system. In a mixture of Cr (Vi) ad CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2-}, the surfactant modified zeolite has a greater selectivity for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2-} ion than CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In this case the Langmuir-Freundlich model described the adsorption isotherm behavior. (Author)

  20. The use of potassium dichromate for ultra high dose up to 120 kGy measurements in industrial irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Cirilo C.S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the study of radiation-induced reduction of the Potassium Dichromate dosimeter in perchloric acid using modification in the composition of Dichromate dosimeter proposed by Sharpe (NPL, October 1982) to extend dose limit up to 120 kGy. This modification can allow measuring dose in process of irradiation of gem and cork directly, in these processes that the absorbed doses are very high. The dosimeter study reached linear response between 10 to 120 kGy. This dosimeter was traceable to the international metrology system, using Gammacell calibrated by Fricke reference dosimeter. The evaluation of the doses was done by spectrophotometric method. Compared to the costs using PMMA (perpex dosimeters), the use of dichromate dosimeters can reduce up to 70% of the dosimetry costs in Brazil. (author)

  1. Occurrence of Metastudtite (Uranium Peroxide Dihydrate) at a FUSRAP Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, C.M.; Nelson, K.A.; Stevens, G.T.; Grassi, V.J.

    2006-01-01

    Uranium concentrations in groundwater in a localized area of a site exceed the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) by a factor of one thousand. Although the groundwater seepage velocity ranges up to 0.7 meters per day (m/day), data indicate that the uranium is not migrating in groundwater. We believe that the uranium is not mobile because of local geochemical conditions and the unstable nature of the uranium compound present at the site; uranium peroxide dihydrate (metastudtite). Metastudtite [UO 4 .2(H 2 O) or (U(O 2 )|O|(OH) 2 ).3H 2 O] has been identified at other sites as an alteration product in casks of spent nuclear fuel, but neither enriched nor depleted uranium were present at this site. Metastudtite was first identified as a natural mineral in 1983, although documented occurrences in the environment are uncommon. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a remedial investigation at the DuPont Chambers Works in Deep water New Jersey under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) to evaluate radioactive contamination resulting from historical activities conducted in support of Manhattan Engineering District operations. From 1942 to 1947, Chambers Works converted uranium oxides to uranium tetrafluoride and uranium metal. More than half of the production at this facility resulted from the recovery process, where uranium-bearing dross and scrap were reacted with hydrogen peroxide to produce uranium peroxide dihydrate. The 280-hectare Chambers Works has produced some 600 products, including petrochemicals, aromatics, fluoro-chemicals, polymers, and elastomers. Contaminants resulting from these processes, including separate-phase petrochemicals, have also been detected within the boundaries of the FUSRAP investigation. USACE initiated remedial investigation field activities in 2002. The radionuclides of concern are natural uranium (U nat ) and its short-lived progeny. Areas of impacted soil generally correspond to the

  2. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, USP material compatibility with gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt Quiles, Maritza

    Gamma radiation is a commonly used method to reduce the microbial bioburden in compatible materials when it is applied at appropriate dose levels. Gamma irradiation kills bacteria and mold by breaking down the organism’s DNA and inhibiting cell division. The purpose of this study is to determine the radiation dosage to be used to treat Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Dihydrate, USP (DCPD) and to evaluate its physicochemical effects if any, on this material. This material will be submitted to various doses of gamma radiation that were selected based on literature review and existing regulations that demonstrate that this method is effective to reduce or eliminate microbial bioburden in natural source and synthetic materials. Analytical testing was conducted to the DCPD exposed material in order to demonstrate that gamma radiation does not alter the physicochemical properties and material still acceptable for use in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. The results obtained through this study were satisfactory and demonstrated that the gamma irradiation dosages from 5 to 30 kGy can be applied to DCPD without altering its physicochemical properties. These are supported by the Assay test data evaluation of lots tested before and after gamma irradiation implementation that show no significant statistical difference between irradiated and non irradiated assay results. The results of this study represent an achievement for the industry since they provide as an alternative the use of Gamma irradiation technology to control the microbial growth in DCPD.

  3. Study of monosubstituted phosphate dihydrates of magnesium, manganese and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyuba, E.D.; Pechkovskij, V.V.; Salonets, G.I.; Kovalishina, V.I.; Ivkovich, N.A.; Chubarov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal stability and structural transformations while heating dihydrates of monosubstituted phosphates of the composition M(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O (where M=Mg, Mn, Cd) have been studied. It is shown that on the whole the character of dehydration of the above crystallohydrates is very much alike, but the chemism and composition of the products at intermediate stages of dehydration is somewhat different. Complication of dehydration chemism of Mn(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O and Cd(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O (separation of free phosphoric acid, formation of polyphosphates with polymerization degree n=4-6) can be conditioned by a higher degree of interaction of 3d-orbitals of manganese and cadmium with H 2 -PO 4 -anion. Evaluation of activation energies of the first dehydration stage of Mn(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O and Cd(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O is carried out. Values of activation energies constituted approximately 71 and 77.5 kJ/mol respectively

  4. Growth and characterization of Melaminium bis (trichloroacetate) dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N.; Renganathan, N. G.; Marchewka, M. K.; Sivakumar, N.; Gayathri, K.; Krishnan, P.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Single crystals of melaminium bis (trichloroacetate) dihydrate have been grown successfully by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the compound crystallizes in monoclinic system with non -centrosymmetric space group C2 with lattice parameters a = 17.70 Å, b = 8.44 Å, c = 6.09 Å, α = 90°, β = 100.24°, γ = 90° and V = 900 (Å)3. The UV-Vis transmittance spectrum shows that the crystal has a good optical transmittance in the entire visible region with lower cutoff wavelength of 351 nm. The vibrational frequencies of various functional groups present in the crystal have been derived from FI-IR, FT-Raman and Confocal Raman analyses. The chemical structure of the compound was established by 1H and 13C NMR spectrum. TGA-DTA analysis reveals that the materials have good thermal stability and the melting point of the crystal is found to be 195 °C. The dielectric response of the crystals was studied in the frequency range 50 Hz to 5 MHz at different temperatures and the results are discussed. Etching studies show the growth pattern of the crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured in comparison with KDP by employing powder Kurtz method.

  5. Toxic effects of chlorinated organic compounds and potassium dichromate on growth rate and photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Nyholm, Niels

    1992-01-01

    The toxic effects of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) on the photosynthesis of natural marine phytoplankton and five species of marine microalgae were investigated. Effect concentrations corresponding to a 50 % depression of photosynthesis (6h...

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM DICHROMATE Cr (VI ADMINISTRATION DURATION ON GLOBULAR RESISTANCE IN FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIŢIA STANA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The „in vivo” experiment has had as aim the study of different Cr(VI doses administration on globular resistance in female rats related to administration duration. Study was carried out on 56 female rats divided in 8 groups, 6 experimental and 2 control that received potassium dichromate in drinking water in doses of 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75ppm Cr(VI, for 3 months, respectively, 6 months. Decrease of globular resistance (in terms of haemolysis degree in hypotonic solutions at increasing dose (up to 0.8% NaCl at 75 ppm dose in all experimental groups, in direct relation with the duration of administration was registered. Control groups were in physiological limits. The results of the present study revealed the affecting of erythrocyte membrane in function of administration duration and chromium intake level, because of oxidative lesions produced by it.

  7. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes by Imidazolium Dichromate in Aqueous Acetic Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sheik Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of benzaldehyde (BA and para-substituted benzaldehydes by imidazolium dichromate (IDC has been studied in aqueous acetic acid medium in the presence of perchloric acid. The reaction is first order each in [IDC], [Substrate] and [H+]. The reaction rates have been determined at different temperatures and the activation parameters calculated. Electron withdrawing substituents are found to increase the reaction and electron releasing substituents are found to retard the rate of the reaction and the rate data obey the Hammett relationship. The products of the oxidation are the corresponding acids. The rate decreases with the increase in the water content of the medium. A suitable mechanism is proposed.

  8. Continuous tests of Phosphoric Acid - dihydrate process - from phosphatic concentrate of Itataia-CE ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Benedetto, J. dos.

    1984-01-01

    A consolidation of principal studies and continuous tests done with phosphatic concentrated of Itataia ore intending phosphoric acid production by humid-route dihydrate way process is presented. The production of phosphoric acid is applied in uranium extraction process by solvents. (author) [pt

  9. Formation and Transformation Behavior of Sodium Dehydroacetate Hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various controlling factors on the polymorphic outcome of sodium dehydroacetate crystallization was investigated in this study. Cooling crystallization experiments of sodium dehydroacetate in water were conducted at different concentrations. The results revealed that the rate of supersaturation generation played a key role in the formation of the hydrates. At a high supersaturation generation rate, a new sodium dehydroacetate dihydrate needle form was obtained; on the contrary, a sodium dehydroacetate plate monohydrate was formed at a low supersaturation generation rate. Furthermore, the characterization and transformation behavior of these two hydrated forms were investigated with the combined use of microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS. It was found that the new needle crystals were dihydrated and hollow, and they eventually transformed into sodium dehydroacetate monohydrate. In addition, the mechanism of formation of sodium dehydroacetate hydrates was discussed, and a process growth model of hollow crystals in cooling crystallization was proposed.

  10. Burning characteristics of ammonium nitrate-based composite propellants supplemented with ammonium dichromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohga, Makoto; Nishino, Saeko [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)-based composite propellants have attracted much attention, primarily because of the clean burning nature of AN as an oxidizer. However, such propellants have some disadvantages such as poor ignition and low burning rate. Ammonium dichromate (ADC) is used as a burning catalyst for AN-based propellants; however, the effect of ADC on the burning characteristics has yet to be sufficiently delineated. The burning characteristics of AN/ADC propellants prepared with various contents of AN and ADC have been investigated in this study. The theoretical performance of an AN-based propellant is improved by the addition of ADC. The increase in the burning rate is enhanced and the pressure deflagration limit (PDL) becomes lower with increasing amount of ADC added. The increasing ratio of the burning rate with respect to the amount of ADC is independent of the AN content and the combustion pressure. The optimal amount of ADC for improving the burning characteristics has been determined. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Further development of the ceric oxidation ferrous reduction dichromate titration method of plutonium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, A.; Savage, D.J.

    1986-02-01

    The chemical reactions involved in the amperometric titration method for plutonium have been further examined, to identify remaining potential sources of bias. As these effects were not expected to be more than 0.1% at the 30 mg plutonium level, a procedure for analysing small (3 mg) aliquots of plutonium has been developed, to help identify any marginal effects. At this reduced level both plutonium and 'blank' determinations indicated that reduction of potassium permanganate by oxalic acid is slower than previously suspected and that a variable small bias can result. Decreasing the concentration of the potassium permanganate eliminated the latter effect. A low bias, proportional to the amount of excess oxalic acid added, was observed. Experiments suggest the bias is due to the reaction of oxalate with an intermediary in the iron II/ dichromate titration. The effect can be adequately reduced by complexing oxalate with cerium III. The reduction of plutonium VI by iron II has been shown to be faster than previously assumed, permitting a decreased waiting time before titration. Minor changes to the original procedure are recommended for analysis of 3 mg aliquots of plutonium. (author)

  12. Bioavailability of ibuprofen following oral administration of standard ibuprofen, sodium ibuprofen or ibuprofen acid incorporating poloxamer in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Dewland, Peter M; Reader, Sandie; Berry, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of sodium ibuprofen and ibuprofen acid incorporating poloxamer with standard ibuprofen acid tablets. Methods Twenty-two healthy volunteers were enrolled into this randomised, single-dose, 3-way crossover, open-label, single-centre, pharmacokinetic study. After 14 hours' fasting, participants received a single dose of 2 × 200 mg ibuprofen acid tablets (standard ibuprofen), 2 × 256 mg ibuprofen sodium dihydrate table...

  13. Experimental designs applied to desorption of dichromate ions after separation and preconcentration from natural and industrial water by modified Nano-Alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayar, Omid [Department of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abadi, Iman Jabbari Zahir [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tehran Medical Unit, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Omid; Zhad, Hamid Reza Lotfi Zadeh; Tavassoli, Najmeh [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Rey Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Nano-alumina modified by 9-aminoacridine was used as a sorbent for separation and determination of dichromate ions from water. Statistical method, based on surface response design, has been used for the optimization of dichromate ions elution from 9-aminoacridine nano-alumina. The adsorbed dichromate ions were found to be eluted quantitatively with 0.8 mol L{sup -1} KCl in 1.6 mol L{sup -1} NaOH which optimized by response surface design. Under optimum conditions, the accuracy, precision (relative standard deviation, RSD%) and R-square of the method were calculated as >98, <3, and >94%, respectively. Remarkable agreement between experimental and theoretical data was confirmed the predicted assumption. The method was applied to the simultaneous determination of dichromate in natural and industrial water samples. We also examined the retention of dichromate anions in the presence of Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions at pH 3. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. ADSORPSI POLUTAN ION DIKROMAT MENGGUNAKAN ZEOLIT ALAM TERMODIFIKASI AMINA (Adsorption of Dichromate Ions Pollutant Using Ammine Modified-Natural Zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Sri Kunarti

    2015-11-01

    24,66 kJ/mol. ABSTRACT Chromium (VI is a heavy metal pollutant that is harmful to health and the environment, therefore Cr(VI ions in aqueous solution removal is important to overcome the environmental pollution. Adsorption process is one of simple techniques that can be used to take metal ions. Adsorption study of dichromate ions as a wastewater model of Cr(VI has been conducted in this research by using ammine modified natural zeolite as adsorbents. The research was initiated by preparation of adsorbent of ammine-modified natural zeolites. The preparation was started by washing the natural zeolite (Z using distilled water and refluxing by 3M hydrochloric acid. Refluxed zeolites (ZA were modified by a quaternary ammonium salt, N-cethyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and a primary amine, propylamine (PA. The natural zeolite (Z, acid activated zeolite (ZA and amine-modified zeolites were then applied for adsorption of dichromate ions. Characterization of zeolite samples was performed by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods to confirm the crystal structure, and atomic absorption spectroscopy method to analyze the adsorbed dichromate ions. Results showed that all zeolite samples contain clinoptilolite, mordernite and quartz minerals. The zeolite structure was not changed by heat and chemical treatments. Modification of zeolites enhanced the adsorption efficiency of natural zeolites. The dichromate ions were better adsorbed on ammine modified-zeolites compared to that of unmodified-zeolite with adsorption ability of CTAB modified zeolite (CTAB-Z was greater than that of propylammine modified zeolite (PA-Z. The adsorption of dichromate on zeolite samples was achieved in the order of CTAB-Z > PA-Z > ZA > Z, with the adsorption efficiency was about 1.96; 1.74; 0.90 and 0.48 mg/g, respectively. The dichromate ions adsorption by CTAB modified zeolite is chemical adsorption (chemisorption with the adsorption energy of 24.66 kJ/mol.

  15. Synthesis of calix[4]arene-grafted magnetite nanoparticles and Evaluation of their arsenate as well as dichromate removal efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayin, Serkan; Ozcan, Fatih; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Cengeloglu, Yunus [Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Tor, Ali [Department of Environmental Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Memon, Shahabuddin [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan)

    2010-07-15

    In this study, 5,17-bis-[(4-benzylpiperidine)methyl]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy-calix[4]arene (3) has been prepared by the treatment of calix[4]arene with a secondary amine (4-benzylpiperidine) and formaldehyde by means of Mannich reaction. The prepared Mannich base (3) has been grafted onto [3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-propyl]-trimethoxysilane-modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles (EPPTMS-MN) in order to obtain 5,17-bis-[(4-benzylpiperidine)methyl]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene-grafted EPPTMS-MN (BP-calix[4]arene-grafted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). All new compounds were characterized by a combination of FTIR and {sup 1}H-NMR analyses. The morphology of the magnetic nanoparticles was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the studies regarding the removal of arsenate and dichromate ions from the aqueous solutions were also carried out by using 5,17-bis-[(4-benzylpiperidine)methyl]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy-calix[4]arene in liquid-liquid extraction and BP-calix[4]arene-grafted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (4) in solid-liquid extraction experiments. The extraction results indicated that 3 is protonated at proton-switchable binding sites in acidic conditions. Hence, facilitating binding of arsenate and dichromate is resulted from both electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. To understand the selectivity of 3, the retention of dichromate anions in the presence of Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions at pH 1.5 was also examined. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Molecular structure and vibrational spectra of Bis(melaminium) terephthalate dihydrate: A DFT computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanak, Hasan; Marchewka, Mariusz K.; Drozd, Marek

    2013-03-01

    The experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of Bis(melaminium) terephthalate dihydrate were studied. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the Bis(melaminium) terephthalate dihydrate and its deuterated analogue were recorded in the solid phase. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of Bis(melaminium) terephthalate dihydrate in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The results of the optimized molecular structure are presented and compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction. The molecule contains the weak hydrogen bonds of Nsbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯N and Osbnd H⋯O types, and those bonds are calculated with DFT method. In addition, molecular electrostatic potential, frontier molecular orbitals and natural bond orbital analysis of the title compound were investigated by theoretical calculations. The lack of the second harmonic generation (SHG) confirms the presence of macroscopic center of inversion.

  17. A new oxidimetric reagent: potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium-VI Potentiometric titration of vanadium(III) alone and in mixture with vanadium(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G G; Rao, P K

    1966-09-01

    Vanadium(III) can be titrated at room temperature with potassium dichromate in an 8-12M phosphoric acid medium. Two potential breaks are observed in 12M phosphoric add with 0.2N potassium dichromate, the first corresponding to the oxidation of vanadium(III) to vanadium(IV) and the second to the oxidation of vanadium(IV) to vanadium(V). In titrations with 0.05N dichromate only the first break in potential is clearly observed. The method has been extended to the titration of mixtures of vanadium(III) and vanadium(IV). Conditions have also been found for the visual titration of vanadium(III) using ferroln or barium diphenylamine sulphonate as indicator.

  18. A new oxidimetric reagent-potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium-VIII Potentiometric titration of molybdenum(VI) and vanadium(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishna, U; Rao, G G

    1968-01-01

    A new titrimetric method is described for the determination of molybdenum(VI) involving prior reduction to Mo(V) with an excess of Fe(II) in a concentrated phosphoric acid solution, followed by titration with dichromate. The titration can be done at room temperature and without protective atmosphere. Uranium interferes, but vanadium may be determined simultaneously.

  19. Recording of interference fringe structure by femtosecond laser pulses in samples of silver-containing porous glass and thick slabs of dichromated gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Olga V.; Dement'ev, Dmitry A.; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Kompanets, V. O.; Matveets, Yu. A.; Serov, Oleg B.; Smolovich, Anatoly M.

    2002-05-01

    The recording geometry and recording media for the method of achromatic wavefront reconstruction are discussed. The femtosecond recording on the thick slabs of dichromated gelatin and the samples of silver-containing porous glass was obtained. The applications of the method to ultrafast laser spectroscopy and to phase conjugation were suggested.

  20. Structural elucidation and physicochemical properties of an organic NLO crystal: 4-Nitrotoluene-2-sulphonic acid dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, K.; Guru Prasad, L.; Mathammal, R.

    2018-03-01

    4-nitrotoluene-2-sulphonic acid dihydrate single crystals have been developed using slow evaporation technique in methanol. Lattice parameters of the NTSAD crystal have been calculated and it confirms the grown material. The intermolecular interactions are studied from the 3D Hirshfeld surface analysis and 2D fingerprint plots. The NMR spectral analysis has been carried out to confirm the molecular structure of the grown material. Optical properties have been obtained from UV-VIS spectral analysis and photoluminescence studies. Frequency conversion property of the NTSAD crystal was investigated with the aid of Kurtz and Perry method.

  1. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease presenting as a pseudotumor of the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, A.; Teruel, J.; Pont, J.; Velayos, A.; Trull, J.; Lopez, E.

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old white woman with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. The patient related a 2-month history of swelling with tenderness over the left pre-auricular region. A CT scan suggested a synovial chondromatosis. Surgical removal was done and histologic study showed CPPD crystals. This disease rarely involves the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, only 14 cases have been reported in the literature. (orig.)

  2. Low-temperature structural phase transition in deuterated and protonated lithium acetate dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, F., E-mail: schroeder@kristall.uni-frankfurt.d [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Abt. Kristallographie, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Winkler, B.; Haussuehl, E. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Abt. Kristallographie, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Cong, P.T.; Wolf, B. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Physikalisches Institut, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Avalos-Borja, M. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, A.C. Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4 seccion CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Quilichini, M.; Hennion, B. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-08-15

    Heat capacity measurements of protonated lithium acetate dihydrate show a structural phase transition at T = 12 K. This finding is in contrast to earlier work, where it was thought that only the deuterated compound undergoes a low temperature structural phase transition. This finding is confirmed by low temperature ultrasound spectroscopy, where the structural phase transition is associated with a velocity decrease of the ultrasonic waves, i.e. with an elastic softening. We compare the thermodynamic properties of the protonated and deuterated compounds and discuss two alternatives for the mechanism of the phase transition based on the thermal expansion measurements.

  3. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis(3-ammoniopropylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis[dichromate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vetrivel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the organic–inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis(3-ammoniopropylpiperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetrahedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001. N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C—H...O interactions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure.

  4. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions - Method by oxidation by cerium(IV), reduction by iron(II) ammonium sulfate and amperometric back-titration with potassium dichromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate analytical method for determining plutonium in nitric acid solutions. Plutonium is oxidized to plutonium(VI) in a 1 mol/l nitric acid solution with cerium(IV). Addition of sulfamic acid prevents nitrite-induced side reactions. The excess of cerium(IV) is reduced by adding a sodium arsenite solution, catalysed by osmium tetroxide. A slight excess of arsenite is oxidized by adding a 0.2 mol/l potassium permanganate solution. The excess of permanganate is reduced by adding a 0.1 mol/l oxalic acid solution. Iron(III) is used to catalyse the reduction. A small excess of oxalic acid does not interfere in the subsequent plutonium determination. These reduction and oxidation stages can be followed amperometrically and the plutonium is left in the hexavalent state. The sulfuric acid followed by a measured amount of standardized iron(II) ammonium sulfate solution in excess of that required to reduce the plutonium(VI) to plutonium(IV) is added. The excess iron(II) and any plutonium(III) formed to produce iron(III) and plutonium(IV) is amperometrically back-titrated using a standard potassium dichromate solution. The method is almost specifically for plutonium. It is suitable for the direct determination of plutonium in materials ranging from pure product solutions, to fast reactor fuel solutions with a uranium/plutonium ratio of up to 10:1, either before or after irradiation

  5. A Raman spectroscopic study of thermally treated glushinskite--the natural magnesium oxalate dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Adebajo, Moses; Weier, Matt L

    2004-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the thermal transformations of natural magnesium oxalate dihydrate known in mineralogy as glushinskite. The data obtained by Raman spectroscopy was supplemented with that of infrared emission spectroscopy. The vibrational spectroscopic data was complimented with high resolution thermogravimetric analysis combined with evolved gas mass spectrometry. TG-MS identified two mass loss steps at 146 and 397 degrees C. In the first mass loss step water is evolved only, in the second step carbon dioxide is evolved. The combination of Raman microscopy and a thermal stage clearly identifies the changes in the molecular structure with thermal treatment. Glushinskite is the dihydrate phase in the temperature range up to the pre-dehydration temperature of 146 degrees C. Above 397 degrees C, magnesium oxide is formed. Infrared emission spectroscopy shows that this mineral decomposes at around 400 degrees C. Changes in the position and intensity of the CO and CC stretching vibrations in the Raman spectra indicate the temperature range at which these phase changes occur.

  6. A Neat Trick Using Oxalic Acid Dihydrate and Potassium Permanganate and Other Experiments with Small Organic Amine or Oxygenated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelland, Malcolm A.

    2011-01-01

    Solid potassium permanganate (KMnO[subscript 4]) is shown to react in a variety of ways with small organic amines or oxygenated compounds depending on whether they are liquids or solids and whether water is present. In particular, its reaction with solid oxalic acid dihydrate can be initiated by the moisture in one's breath, making an intriguing…

  7. Tumoral calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease with bone destruction in the shoulder. CT an MR findings in two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, H.; Ohba, S.; Sasaki, S.; Ando, K.; Mizutani, M.; Matsushita, Y.; Ohtsuka, T.; Terazawa, T.; Ijima, S.

    1998-01-01

    We report on specific CT and MR features in two cases of tumoral calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease in the shoulder with unusually large tumors. CT revealed features that were specific to the disease. MR was useful for detecting the extent of the mass and for obtaining information on adjacent soft-tissue and bone-marrow changes. (orig.)

  8. Study of betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD) by neutrons inelastic scattering; Etude du chlorure de betaine et de calcium dihydrate (BCCD) par diffusion inelastique de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlinka, J

    1995-06-27

    The aim of this work is to study the betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD) lattice dynamics by neutrons inelastic and coherent scattering. In the first part are summarized the main properties of the BCCD as they are determined in some previous experimental works. It has been more particularly emphasized on the structural and dynamical properties of this compound. The theoretical concepts used in incommensurate dielectric materials physics are given in the second part. They are at first introduced generally and then applied to BCCD. In the third part is described the experimental method used in this work : the neutrons inelastic scattering. The experimental results on the BCCD normal phase dynamics are then presented. These results and their interpretation allow to build up a semi-microscopic model introduced in the fifth part. The incommensurate lattice dynamics (at 20 K under the transition temperature towards the modulated phase) is studied in the last part. It has been shown that new aspects in relation to the previous works appear in BCCD. (O.L.). 121 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of cellulosic fabric waste and its application in the removal of cyanide and dichromate from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kelesh, N.A.; Hashem, A.; Sokker, H.H.; Abd Elaal, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Graft polymerization and crosslinking in radiation processing are attractive techniques for modification of the chemical and physical properties of the conventional polymers. The graft polymerization and subsequent chemical treatment can introduce a chelate agent function into a conventional polymer such as cellulosic fabric. Cellulosic graft copolymers were prepared by the reaction of the fiber with acrylonitrile (AN) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) in DMF initiated by gamma-radiation 60 Co. The grafted fabric was chemically treated with hydroxyl amine to obtain amidoxime form. Factors affecting on the grafting such as radiation dose, monomer concentration and solvent concentration as well as monomer composition was investigated. The chemically modified graft fabric was applied for recovery of cyanide and dichromate from aqueous solution. The CN show removal percent 89%, whereas dichromate has 65% removal percent

  10. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids - Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of ISO 7097-1 together with ISO 7097-2:2004 cancels and replaces ISO 7097:1983, which has been technically revised, and ISO 9989:1996. ISO 7097 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids: Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method; Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method. This part 1. of ISO 7097 describes procedures for the determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids. The procedures described in the two independent parts of this International Standard are similar: this part uses a titration with potassium dichromate and ISO 7097-2 uses a titration with cerium(IV)

  11. Coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens: long-term storage in aqueous potassium dichromate solution preserves DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B; Thebo, P; Marshall, R N; Marshall, J A

    2010-05-01

    Preservation of the exogenous oöcyst stage of coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa N.D. Levine, 1970) as type-specimens of newly described species has long been problematical. Conventional fixatives have proved unsatisfactory, and compromises such as embedding oöcysts in resin or photographing them are not entirely appropriate for various reasons. As an alternative, chilled potassium dichromate solution (normally used in the laboratory to prevent putrefaction of temporary preparations of live oöcysts) has been tested as a long-term preservative of sporulated oöcysts of Eimeria brunetti P.P. Levine, 1942, E. maxima Tyzzer, 1929, E. mitis Tyzzer, 1929, E. necatrix Johnson, 1930, E. praecox Johnson, 1930 and E. tenella (Railliet & Lucet, 1891) (suborder Eimeriorina Léger, 1911; family Eimeriidae Minchin, 1903). Oöcysts from faeces of chickens Gallus gallus (Linnaeus) were placed in 2.5% w/v aqueous potassium dichromate solution (PDS) and stored in the dark at 4 +/- 2 degrees C. After 23 years in storage, oöcysts of each species were administered orally to chickens and failed to initiate infections, indicating that the oöcysts were dead. Nevertheless, after about 24 years, DNA was still recoverable from the oöcysts, and the original species identifications made by classic parasitological methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assays. Furthermore, after almost 25 years, microscopical examination revealed that the walls and internal structures remained well preserved in 83-98% of the oöcysts of the six species investigated. Hence, PDS is potentially suitable for the long-term preservation of sporulated coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens for taxonomic purposes. The samples used in this study are now in the care of the Natural History Museum, London, UK. It is recommended that they be monitored in like manner, by suitably qualified scientists, at intervals of about 5 years to assess their state of preservation and the recoverability of DNA

  12. Probing into the effects of a magnetic field on the electrode processes of iron in sulphuric acid solutions with dichromate based on the fundamental electrochemistry kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhanpeng; Huang Delun; Yang Wu

    2005-01-01

    The effects of an applied magnetic field on the electrode processes of iron in sulphuric acid solutions with dichromate have been investigated by electrochemical measurements. Open circuit potentials, cathodic and anodic polarisation curves, values of polarisation resistance were measured in the presence or absence of a 0.4 T horizontal magnetic field (HMF). A potentiostatic polarisation plus magnetic field perturbation technique was used to study the effect of the magnetic field on open circuit corrosion. Cathodic reaction rates at open circuit potentials for iron in sulphuric acid solutions containing dichromate ions are controlled by both the electron-transfer process and the diffusion process. A magnetic field made the open circuit potential move in the positive direction, and changes of the open circuit potentials due to the magnetic field increase with increasing dichromate concentration. When iron was potentiostatically polarised at open circuit potentials in the absence of a magnetic field, a cathodic current was observed after a magnetic field was imposed. Such cathodic currents induced by the magnetic field increases with increasing dichromate concentration. The positive shifts of open circuit potential, the decrease of polarisation resistance, and the occurrence of cathodic currents induced by the magnetic field are caused by the accelerating effect of magnetic field on the cathodic diffusion process. Measured current densities showed lower, equal, or higher values in the presence of the magnetic field than those in the absence of a magnetic field at certain anodic potentials. This effect of the magnetic field is related to the contribution of the cathodic and anodic reactions to the measured current and the types of rate-determining steps for each reaction at certain potentials. The applied magnetic field significantly decreased the polarisation resistance. The experimental results in this paper are formulated based on the fundamental electrochemistry

  13. Dual roles of borax in kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenge; Pan, Haihua; Tao, Jinhui; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2007-04-24

    An additive is not exclusively retardant or promoter for a crystallization system. The kinetic studies of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD) crystal growth demonstrated that borax played dual roles in the reaction, which accelerated CSD formations at the low concentration levels but inhibited the crystal growth at the high ones. In situ atomic force microscopy studies revealed that borax modulated the CSD crystallization via two different pathways: promoted the secondary nucleation to increase the step density on the growing crystal faces but simultaneously retarded the spread of these growth steps by the Langmuir adsorption. These two contradictory factors were incorporated in the crystallization, and their balance was regulated by the borax concentration. Both the macroscopic and microscopic experimental data nicely displayed the crystallization model of birth and spread that was able to account for the behaviors of borax in CSD formations.

  14. Identification of monoclinic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite in human sclera using Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ko-Hua; Li, Mei-Jane; Cheng, Wen-Ting; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2009-02-01

    Raman microspectroscopy was first used to determine the composition of a calcified plaque located at the pterygium-excision site of a 51-year-old female patient's left nasal sclera after surgery. It was unexpectedly found that the Raman spectrum of the calcified sample at 1149, 1108, 1049, 756, 517, 376 and 352/cm was similar to the Raman spectrum of monoclinic form of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal, but differed from the Raman spectrum of triclinic form of CPPD. An additional peak at 958/cm was also observed in the Raman spectrum of the calcified plaque, which was identical to the characteristic peak at 958/cm of hydroxyapatite (HA). This is the first study to report the spectral biodiagnosis of both monoclinic CPPD and HA co-deposited in the calcified plaque of a patient with sclera dystrophic calcification using Raman microspectroscopy.

  15. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  16. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  17. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  18. Crystal structures of two 1:2 dihydrate compounds of chloranilic acid with 2-carboxypyridine and 2-carboxyquinoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Gotoh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the 1:2 dihydrate compound of chloranilic acid (systematic name: 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone with 2-carboxypyridine (another common name: picolinic acid; systematic name: pyridine-2-carboxylic acid, namely, 2C6H5.5NO20.5+·C6HCl2O4−·2H2O, (I, has been determined at 180 K, and the structure of the 1:2 dihydrate compound of chloranilic acid with 2-carboxyquinoline (another common name: quinaldic acid; systematic name: quinoline-2-carboxylic acid, namely, 2C10H7NO2·C6H2Cl2O4·2H2O, (II, has been redetermined at 200 K. This determination presents a higher precision crystal structure than the previously published structure [Marfo-Owusu & Thompson (2014. X-ray Struct. Anal. Online, 30, 55–56]. Compound (I was analysed as a disordered structure over two states, viz. salt and co-crystal. The salt is bis(2-carboxypyridinium chloranilate dihydrate, 2C6H6NO2+·C6Cl2O42−·2H2O, and the co-crystal is bis(pyridinium-2-carboxylate chloranilic acid dihydrate, 2C6H5NO2·C6H2Cl2O4·2H2O, including zwitterionic 2-carboxypyridine. In both salt and co-crystal, the water molecule links the chloranilic acid and 2-carboxypyridine molecules through O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The 2-carboxypyridine molecules are connected into a head-to-head inversion dimer by a short O—H...O hydrogen bond, in which the H atom is disordered over two positions. Compound (II is a 1:2 dihydrate co-crystal of chloranilic acid and zwitterionic 2-carboxyquinoline. The water molecule links the chloranilic acid and 2-carboxyquinoline molecules through O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The 2-carboxyquinoline molecules are connected into a head-to-tail inversion dimer by a pair of N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  19. Study of betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD) by neutrons inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlinka, J.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD) lattice dynamics by neutrons inelastic and coherent scattering. In the first part are summarized the main properties of the BCCD as they are determined in some previous experimental works. It has been more particularly emphasized on the structural and dynamical properties of this compound. The theoretical concepts used in incommensurate dielectric materials physics are given in the second part. They are at first introduced generally and then applied to BCCD. In the third part is described the experimental method used in this work : the neutrons inelastic scattering. The experimental results on the BCCD normal phase dynamics are then presented. These results and their interpretation allow to build up a semi-microscopic model introduced in the fifth part. The incommensurate lattice dynamics (at 20 K under the transition temperature towards the modulated phase) is studied in the last part. It has been shown that new aspects in relation to the previous works appear in BCCD. (O.L.). 121 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Characterization of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate cements prepared using a novel hydroxyapatite-based formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, Daniel L; Cruz, Grace Santa; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel; Goebel, W Scott

    2009-01-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cements are typically prepared using β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as the base component. However, hydroxyapatite (HA) is an interesting alternative because of its potential for reducing cement acidity, as well as modulating cement properties via ionic substitutions. In the present study, we have characterized DCPD cements prepared with a novel formulation based on monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and HA. Cements were prepared using a 4:1 MCPM:HA molar ratio. The reactivity of HA in this system was verified by showing DCPD formation using poorly crystalline HA, as well as highly crystalline HA. Evaluation of cements prepared with poorly crystalline HA revealed that setting occurs rapidly in the MCPM/HA system, and that the use of a setting regulator is necessary to maintain workability of the cement paste. Compressive testing showed that MCPM/HA cements have strengths comparable to what has previously been published for DCPD cements. However, preliminary in vitro analysis of cement degradation revealed that conversion of DCPD to HA may occur much more rapidly in the MCPM/HA system compared to cements prepared with β-TCP. Future studies should investigate this property further, as it could have important implications for the use of HA-based DCPD cement formulations.

  1. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite crystals in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis: Acase report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen R Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD crystal deposits can now be easily identified by MSUS, which is a noninvasive technique that can be applied to patients with painful joints and enthesis that are unexplained by rheumatoid activity. In this paper, we report an Egyptian case of a 51-year-old man who had rheumatoid arthritis since 7 years and developed bilateral knee and heel pain of 1.5 months’ duration with gradual onset and progressive course. Radiography revealed features of RA in both hands, as well as features of severe osteoarthritis in both knees with no signs of chondrocalcinosis. Ultrasonography of the joints, Achilles tendon, and plantar fascia detected knee, Achilles tendon, and plantar fascia calcifications, which are characteristic of CPPD, and supraspinatus calcification, which is characteristic of hydroxyapatite (HA deposition. Further investigations revealed no evidence of metabolic disorders. CPPD and HA crystals were identified in his synovial fluid. Subclinical affection with CPPD and HA crystals in RA can be easily detected by ultrasonography, which allows early management to prevent future attacks in RA patients that could lead to exacerbation of joint symptoms that may be missed as rheumatoid disease activity. Diet control and colchicine treatment may be more effective if started early before exacerbation.

  2. 4′,5-Dihy­droxy-7-meth­oxy­flavanone dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Iván; Bórquez, Jorge; Simirgiotis, Mario; Cárdenas, Alejandro; López-Rodríguez, Matías

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C16H14O5·2H2O [systematic name: 5-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­phen­yl)-7-meth­oxy­chroman-4-one dihydrate], is a natural phytoalexin flavone isolated from the native chilean species Heliotropium taltalense and crystallizes with an organic mol­ecule and two water mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The 5-hy­droxy group forms a strong intra­molecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl group, resulting in a six-membered ring. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The 4-hy­droxy­phenyl benzene ring is bonded equatorially to the pyrone ring, which adopts a slightly distorted sofa conformation. The title compound is the hydrated form of a previously reported structure [Shoja (1990 ▶). Acta Cryst. C46, 1969–1971]. There are only slight variations in the mol­ecular geometry between the two compounds. PMID:22259537

  3. Homogeneous nucleation rates of nitric acid dihydrate (NAD at simulated stratospheric conditions – Part II: Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Möhler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation energies ΔGact for the nucleation of nitric acid dihydrate (NAD in supercooled binary HNO3/H2O solution droplets were calculated from volume-based nucleation rate measurements using the AIDA (Aerosol, Interactions, and Dynamics in the Atmosphere aerosol chamber of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The experimental conditions covered temperatures T between 192 and 197 K, NAD saturation ratios SNAD between 7 and 10, and nitric acid molar fractions of the nucleating sub-micron sized droplets between 0.26 and 0.28. Based on classical nucleation theory, a new parameterisation for ΔGact=A×(T ln SNAD−2+B is fitted to the experimental data with A=2.5×106 kcal K2 mol−1 and B=11.2−0.1(T−192 kcal mol−1. A and B were chosen to also achieve good agreement with literature data of ΔGact. The parameter A implies, for the temperature and composition range of our analysis, a mean interface tension σsl=51 cal mol−1 cm−2 between the growing NAD germ and the supercooled solution. A slight temperature dependence of the diffusion activation energy is represented by the parameter B. Investigations with a detailed microphysical process model showed that literature formulations of volume-based (Salcedo et al., 2001 and surface-based (Tabazadeh et al., 2002 nucleation rates significantly overestimate NAD formation rates when applied to the conditions of our experiments.

  4. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra and DFT computational studies of melaminium N-acetylglycinate dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanak, H.; Pawlus, K.; Marchewka, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    Melaminium N-acetylglycinate dihydrate, an organic material has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, and FT-Raman spectroscopies for the protiated and deuteriated crystals. The title complex crystallizes in the triclinic system, and the space group is P-1 with a = 5.642(1) Å, b = 7.773(2) Å, c = 15.775(3) Å, α = 77.28(1)°, β = 84.00(1)°, γ = 73.43(1)° and Z = 2. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and intensity of the vibrational bands have been interpreted with the aid of structure optimization based on density functional method (B3LYP) with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The obtained vibrational wavenumbers and optimized geometric parameters were seen to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions of the title compound have been investigated using the natural bonding orbital analysis. It reveals that the O-H···O, N-H···N and N-H···O intermolecular interactions significantly influence crystal packing of this molecule. The non-linear optical properties are also addressed theoretically. The predicted NLO properties of the title compound are much greater than ones of urea. In addition, DFT calculations of the title compound, molecular electrostatic potential, thermodynamic properties, frontier orbitals and chemical reactivity descriptors were also performed at 6-311++G(d,p) level of theory.

  5. Influence of addition of calcium sulfate dihydrate on drying of autoclaved aerated concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Chojnowski, Jacek

    2017-11-01

    The quality of the autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) strongly depends on the chemical composition of the raw materials, as well as on the process of the hydrothermal reaction during autoclaving. Performance parameters depend on material structure: fine micron-scale matrix porosity generated by the packing of thin tobermorite plates and coarse aeration pores arising from the foaming of wet mix. In this study the binder varied in calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4ṡ2H2O) content. Five series of AAC specimens were produced, with gypsum content 0; 0.55; 1.15; 2.3 and 3.5% of dry mass respectively. AAC units were produced in UNIPOL technology. The study presents experimental results of AAC moisture stabilization. The initial moisture content was determined directly after autoclaving. Slower drying process was observed for samples containing over 2% of gypsum. Whereas other performance parameters, compressive and tensile strength, as well as water absorption and capillary rise, were significantly better comparing to the reference AAC samples.

  6. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  7. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  8. Exposure to Sodium Dichromate at Qarmat Ali Iraq in 2003: Part 2 -- Evaluation of Army and Contractor Actions Related to Hazardous Industrial Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    hexavalent chromium (chromium VI), a known carcinogen. USACE and the Army command in Iraq were made aware of the exposure in 2003 and took a series of...occupational and environmental health risks to U.S. personnel from potential exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and other hazards prior to...chromium, or stigmata such as chrome ulcers. It was assumed by the 12 USACHPPM identified members of the West Virginia Army National Guard as part of the

  9. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Barium Chloride Dihydrate (CAS No. 10326-27-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Drinking Water Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    received 692 ppm were significantly greater than those of the controls. No histopathologic evidence of toxicity was observed in mice. 13-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 males and 10 females received barium chloride dihydrate in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 125, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 ppm for 13 weeks, corresponding to average daily doses of 10, 30, 65, 110, or 200 mg barium/kg body weight to males and 10, 35, 65, 115, or 180 mg barium/kg body weight to females. Three males and one female in the 4,000 ppm groups died during the last week of the study. The final mean body weights of male and female rats receiving 4,000 ppm were significantly lower (13% and 8%) than those of the controls. Water consumption by male and female rats in the 4,000 ppm groups was approximately 30% lower than that by the controls. No clearly chemical-related clinical findings of toxicity or neurobehavioral or cardiovascular effects were noted. Serum phosphorus levels in 2,000 and 4,000 ppm male and female rats were significantly higher than those in controls, but there were no biologically significant differences in hematology parameters or in serum sodium, potassium, or calcium levels. Renal tubule dilatation in the outer stripe of the outer medulla and cortex occurred in male and female rats receiving 4,000 ppm. 13-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 males and 10 females received barium chloride dihydrate in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 125, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 ppm for 13 weeks, corresponding to average daily doses of 15, 55, 100, 205, or 450 mg barium/kg body weight to males and 15, 60, 110, 200, or 495 mg barium/kg body weight to females. Six males and seven females that received 4,000 ppm and one male that received 125 ppm died during the study. Final mean body weights of male and female mice receiving 4,000 ppm were significantly lower (>30%) than those of controls. Water consumption by male mice in the 4,000 ppm group was 18% lower than that by the

  10. Thermal dehydration of cobalt and zinc formate dihydrates by controlled-rate thermogravimetry (CRTG) and simultaneous X-ray diffractometry-differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arii, T.; Kishi, A.

    1999-01-01

    The thermal dehydration study of the similar hydrated salts, cobalt and zinc formate dihydrates, have been carried out successfully by means of X-ray diffractometry-differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC) and controlled-rate thermogravimetry (CRTG). X-ray diffraction analysis recorded simultaneously indicates that the resulting anhydrous product, Zn(HCO 2 ) 2 , was crystalline, while Co(HCO 2 ) 2 was amorphous.The XRD-DSC data are proven to be invaluable in verifying the interpretation of overlapping processes in thermal events. In addition, these differences in the resulting anhydrous products can be explained from kinetic analysis results based on the CRTG data. The kinetic mechanism governing the dehydration of zinc formate dihydrate is a nucleation and growth process, while in the case of cobalt formate dihydrate a phase boundary controlled reaction is the governing mechanism. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. White mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with calcium chloride dihydrate: chemical analysis and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and biological properties of fast-set white mineral trioxide aggregate (FS WMTA, which was WMTA combined with calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2·2H2O, compared to that of WMTA. Materials and Methods Surface morphology, elemental, and phase analysis were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. The cytotoxicity and cell attachment properties were evaluated on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs using methyl-thiazol-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay and under SEM after 24 and 72 hours, respectively. Results Results showed that the addition of CaCl2·2H2O to WMTA affected the surface morphology and chemical composition. Although FS WMTA exhibited a non-cytotoxic profile, the cell viability values of this combination were lesser than WMTA, and the difference was significant in 7 out of 10 concentrations at the 2 time intervals (p < 0.05. HPLFs adhered over the surface of WMTA and at the interface, after 24 hours of incubation. After 72 hours, there were increased numbers of HPLFs with prominent cytoplasmic processes. Similar findings were observed with FS WMTA, but the cells were not as confluent as with WMTA. Conclusions The addition of CaCl2·2H2O to WMTA affected its chemical properties. The favorable biological profile of FS WMTA towards HPLFs may have a potential impact on its clinical application for repair of perforation defects.

  12. Sensitivity of the marine benthic copepod Tisbe biminiensis (copepoda, harpacticoida to potassium dichromate and sediment particle size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. V. Araújo-Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For the future use of the marine benthic copepod Tisbe biminiensis in solid-phase sediment toxicological bioassays, the present study investigated the effect of muddy sediment from the Maracaípe estuary (northeastern Brazil, sediment particle size and the reference toxicant potassium dichromate on the species. Muddy sediment from Maracaípe can be used as control sediment, since it does not interfere in the copepod life-cycle and has metal contamination levels that are unlikely to produce any detrimental biological effects on benthic invertebrates. Neither survival nor fecundity was affected by grain size, suggesting that this species can be used with any kind of sediment from muddy to sandy. The sensitivity of T. biminiensis to K2Cr2O7 in acute tests was similar to that of other organisms. The LC50 (lethal concentration to 50% of the test organisms medium values for T. biminiensis were 7.51, 4.68 and 3.19 mg L-1 for Cr in 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. These results suggest that T. biminiensis is a promising organism for use in solid-phase sediment toxicity assessments.Visando o uso futuro do copépodo marinho bentônico Tisbe biminiensis em bioensaios toxicológicos de sedimentos na fase sólida, o presente estudo investigou o efeito do sedimento lamoso do estuário de Maracaípe (Nordeste do Brasil. Foram considerados a granolometria e o tóxico de referência dicromato de potássio sobre a espécie. O sedimento lamoso de Maracaípe pode ser usado como controle, uma vez que não interfere no ciclo de vida do copépodo e possui níveis de contaminação de metais que não causariam efeitos biológicos em invertebrados bentônicos. Nem a sobrevivência ou fecundidade foi afetada pelo tamanho do grão, sugerindo que esta espécie pode ser usada com qualquer tipo de sedimento, de lama a areia. A sensibilidade de T. biminiensis ao K2Cr2O7 em testes agudos foi similar a de outros organismos. Os valores de CL50 (concentração letal a 50% dos

  13. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  14. Efficacy of a New Recrystallized Enrofloxacin Hydrochloride-Dihydrate against Leptospirosis in a Hamster Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Alma; Gutierrez, Lilia; De la Peña, Alejandro; Candanosa, Irma E; Tapia, Graciela; Sumano, Hector

    2017-11-01

    A trial on Syrian hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus ) infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola was established to compare treatment efficacies of daily intramuscular (i.m.) injections of either 10 mg/kg of 5% enrofloxacin (Baytril [BE]; Bayer Animal Health, Mexico) or the same dose of enrofloxacin hydrochloride-dihydrate (enro-C). Hamsters were experimentally infected via the oral submucosa with 400 microorganisms/animal, in a sequential time schedule aligned to the initial treatment day, and were treated in groups as follows: a group treated with 5% enrofloxacin daily for 7 days after 24 h of infection (group BE 24 ); a group treated as described for group BE 24 but with enro-C (enro-C 24 ); a group also treated with 5% enrofloxacin but starting at 72 h after infection (BE 74 ); a group treated as described for group BE 74 but with injection of enro-C (enro-C 74 ). An untreated-uninfected control group (group CG - ) and an infected-untreated control group (group CG + ) were assembled ( n = 18 in all groups). Weights and temperatures of the hamsters were monitored daily for 28 days. After hamsters were euthanatized or following death, necropsy, histopathology, macroscopic agglutination tests (MAT), bacterial culture, and PCR were performed. The mortality rates were 38.8% in group BE 24 and 100% in group BE 74 No mortality was observed in group enro-C 24 , and 11.1% mortality was recorded in group enro-C 74 The mortality rates in groups CG + and CG - were 100% and zero, respectively. Combined necropsy and histopathologic findings revealed signs of septicemia and organ damage in groups BE 24 , BE 72 , and CG + Groups enro-C 24 and CG - showed no lesions. Moderated lesions were registered in 3 hamsters in group enro-C 72 MAT results were positive in 83.3% of BE 24 hamsters (83.3%) and 100% of BE 72 and CG + hamsters; MAT results were positive in 16.7% in group Enro-C 24 and 38.9% in group enro-C 72 Only 4/18 were PCR positive in group enro-C 72 and only 1

  15. Differential patterns of injury to the proximal tubule of renal cortical slices following in vitro exposure to mercuric chloride, potassium dichromate, or hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, C E; Gandolfi, A J; Nagle, R B; Brendel, K

    1987-09-15

    The innate susceptibility of renal cell types to these agents was investigated using precision-cut rabbit renal cortical slices made perpendicular to the cortical-papillary axis. Slices were incubated in DME/F12 medium containing 10 microM, 100 microM, or 1 mM concentrations of either metal for 12 hr or in Krebs-Hepes buffer gassed with nitrogen (100%) for 0.75 to 5 hr of hypoxic exposure. To simulate postischemic reperfusion, some slices were transferred to vessels gassed with oxygen after an initial hypoxic period. Mercuric chloride (100 microM) exposure resulted in damage to the straight regions of proximal tubules by 12 hr leaving convoluted regions unaffected. Hypoxia (2.25 hr) and potassium dichromate (100 microM for 12 hr) both caused injury to the convoluted proximal tubules without affecting straight proximal tubular regions. Mercury concentrations of 10 microM and 1 mM had no effect or injured all cell types within the slice, respectively. Similar results were observed for hypoxic periods less than 1.5 hr or greater than 3 hr of exposure. Potassium dichromate had no measurable affect at 10 microM, but at 1 mM focal lesions were observed after 4 hr of exposure, and by 12 hr all cell types within the slice were affected. Intracellular potassium content normalized to DNA correlated well, but always preceded the pathological lesions observed. These results demonstrate that injury to specific regions of the proximal tubule by these agents relates to an innate susceptibility of the intoxicated cell type independent of physiologic feedback or blood delivery patterns proposed as mechanisms of selective injury from in vivo studies.

  16. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  17. Non linear optical studies on semiorganic single crystal: L-arginine 4-nitrophenalate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, M.; Sankar, P. K.; Vinitha, G.; Arivanandhan, M.; Ramachandran, K.; Anandan, P.

    2017-07-01

    L-arginine 4-nitrophenalate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) has been synthesized and grown by solution growth at room temperature using deionized water as a solvent. The various functional groups of the sample were identified by Fourier transform infra-red and Fourier transforms - Raman spectroscopic analyses. The Laser damage threshold of LAPP has been studied. Refractive index of LAPP single crystal was measured using Metricon prism coupler Instrument. The etching studies were carried out to study the quality of the grown crystals. The third order nonlinear optical properties of LAPP sample was analyzed by the Z-scan technique using 532 nm diode pumped CW Nd: YAG laser. The LAPP material exhibits negative optical nonlinearity. The results show that LAPP sample has potential applications in nonlinear optics and it can be exploited for optical limiting or switching.

  18. Crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose: A calorimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Susana S. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: susanapinto@ist.utl.pt; Diogo, Herminio P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: hdiogo@ist.utl.pt; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. [Centro de Quimica-Fisica Molecular, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: mouraramos@ist.utl.pt

    2006-09-15

    The mean values of the standard massic energy of combustion of crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}, polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13}) measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry in oxygen, at the temperature T=298.15K, are {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(16434.05+/-4.50)J.g{sup -1} and {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(14816.05+/-3.52)J.g{sup -1}, respectively. The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of these compounds were derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of combustion, respectively, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11},cr)=-(2240.9+/-3.9)kJ.mol{sup -1}, and {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13},cr)=-(2832.6+/-3.6)kJ.mol{sup -1}. The values of the standard enthalpies of formation obtained in this work, together with data on enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution ({delta}{sub sol}H{sup {approx}}) for crystalline dihydrate and amorphous anhydrous trehalose, allow a better insight on the thermodynamic description of the trehalose system which can provide, together with the future research on the subject, a contribution for understanding the metabolism in several organisms, as well as the phase transition between the different polymorphs.

  19. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  20. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  1. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  2. Study of a hydraulic dicalcium phosphate dihydrate/calcium oxide-based cement for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Briak, Hasna; Durand, Denis; Nurit, Josiane; Munier, Sylvie; Pauvert, Bernard; Boudeville, Phillipe

    2002-01-01

    By mixing CaHPO(4) x 2H(2)O (DCPD) and CaO with water or sodium phosphate buffers as liquid phase, a calcium phosphate cement was obtained. Its physical and mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, initial and final setting times, cohesion time, dough time, swelling time, dimensional and thermal behavior, and injectability were investigated by varying different parameters such as liquid to powder (L/P) ratio (0.35-0.7 ml g(-1)), molar calcium to phosphate (Ca/P) ratio (1.67-2.5) and the pH (4, 7, and 9) and the concentration (0-1 M) of the sodium phosphate buffer. The best results were obtained with the pH 7 sodium phosphate buffer at the concentration of 0.75 M. With this liquid phase, physical and mechanical properties depended on the Ca/P and L/P ratios, varying from 3 to 11 MPa (compressive strength), 6 to 10 min (initial setting time), 11 to 15 min (final setting time), 15 to 30 min (swelling time), 7 to 20 min (time of 100% injectability). The dough or working time was over 16 min. This cement expanded during its setting (1.2-5 % according to Ca/P and L/P ratios); this would allow a tight filling. Given the mechanical and rheological properties of this new DCPD/CaO-based cement, its use as root canal sealing material can be considered as classical calcium hydroxide or ZnO/eugenol-based pastes, without or with a gutta-percha point. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater) 63: 447-453, 2002

  3. Synthesis and production of potassium dichromate as a secondary standard dosimeter; Investigation of its comparative properties with Fricke and clear perspex dosimeters in comprehensive dose mapping of IR-136 Gamma Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taimoori Seechani; Behzad.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of the absorbed dose is the principle mode or means of quality control in various application of radiation processing. Specially, the cumulative absorbed dose and its variation in different density product boxes (dose mapping) are often required. Proper discharge of these task would require the use of dosimeters having sufficient degree of accuracy and precision. The secondary standard potassium dichromate dosimeter is synthesized for the first time in Iran. The properties of this dosimeter such as dose response, dose rate dependency, reproducibility, molar extinction coefficient, reduction yield and effect of silver ions on reduction yield of dosimetry solution, irradiation temperature effect as well as pre- and post-irradiation stability of the dosimetry solution have been studied. The comparison of the results of this work with that of the ASTM standard of potassium dichromate has shown very good agreement. The produced dichromate dosimeters were used for comprehensive dose mapping or commissioning of the IR-136 irradiator. The non-uniformity ratio and the isodose lines in various product densities in the IR-136 have been measured. Cumulative dose values were obtained for different rows and levels of the IR-136 irradiator system. The results of dichromate dosimetry, wherever possible, were compared with the response of Fricke and clear perspex dosimeters. At low dose values, the precision of this dosimeter was found to be better than the precision of clear perspex, but about the same as that of Fricke dosimeter. It is thus may be said that this dosimeter has combined the desirable properties of both dosimeter together

  4. Synthesis and crystal structure of a spiro amine: 3,9,12-triaza-6-azoniaspiro[5,8]tetradecane chloride trihydrochloride dihydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Johan; Kofod, Pauli; Olsen, Carl Erik

    1995-01-01

    trihydrochloride dihydrate has been solved by the X-ray diffraction technique at T = 120 K; Mr = 380.2, orthorhombic, Pbca, a = 18.922(4), b = 21.706(4), c = 8.512(4) .ANG., Z = 8, Dx = 1.44 g cm-3, MoKa = 0.71073 .ANG., m = 6.9 cm-1, F(000) = 1624, R = 0.056 for 1921 unique reflections. The nine-membered ring...

  5. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  6. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  7. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  8. Investigations on nucleation, HRXRD, optical, piezoelectric, polarizability and Z-scan analysis of L-arginine maleate dihydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthy Priya, S.; Alexandar, A.; Surendran, P.; Lakshmanan, A.; Rameshkumar, P.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2017-04-01

    An efficient organic nonlinear optical single crystal of L-arginine maleate dihydrate (LAMD) has been grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) and slow cooling technique (SCT). The crystalline perfection of the crystal was examined using high-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD) analysis. Photoluminescence study confirmed the optical properties and defects level in the crystal lattice. Electromechanical behaviour was observed using piezoelectric co-efficient (d33) analysis. The photoconductivity analysis confirmed the negative photoconducting nature of the material. The dielectric constant and loss were measured as a function of frequency with varying temperature and vice-versa. The laser damage threshold (LDT) measurement was carried out using Nd:YAG Laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm (Focal length is 35 cm) and the obtained results showed that LDT value of the crystal is high compared to KDP crystal. The high laser damage threshold of the grown crystal makes it a potential candidate for second and higher order nonlinear optical device application. The third order nonlinear optical parameters of LAMD crystal is determined by open-aperture and closed-aperture studies using Z-scan technique. The third order linear and nonlinear optical parameters such as the nonlinear refractive index (n2), two photon absorption coefficient (β), Real part (Reχ3) and imaginary part (Imχ3) of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility are calculated.

  9. Commensurately modulated 1/4 and 1/5 phases of deuterated betaine calcium chloride dihydrate: a neutron structural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, O.; Cousson, A.; Kiat, J.M.; Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry; Paulus, W.; Technische Hochschule Aachen; Ezpeleta, J.M.; Zuniga, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The structures of the commensurate 1/4 and 1/5 phases of the displacively modulated compound D-BCCD [deuterated betaine (trimethylammonioacetate) calcium chloride dihydrate, i.e. (CD 3 ) 3 NCD 2 COOCaCl 2 (D 2 O) 2 or CaCl 2 x C 5 D 11 NO 2 x 2D 2 O] have been determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction at 100 and 68 K, respectively. The structural model of the 1/4 phase is found to be quite different from that obtained previously from X-ray diffraction data of the hydrogenated compound. This discrepancy comes from the fact that X-ray irradiation induces in this compound an unusual time-dependent decrease of the intensity of high-order satellite diffraction peaks. As a consequence and due to the commensurate nature of the phases investigated, X-ray diffraction failed to detect the large anharmonicity of the structural modulation which is clearly present in the two structures determined by neutron diffraction. (orig.)

  10. Calcification in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystalline deposits in the knee: anatomic, radiographic, MR imaging, and histologic study in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, M.; Chung, C.B.; Lima, J.E. de; Trudell, D. [Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States); Johnson, K.; Terkeltaub, R.; Resnick, D. [Department of Rheumatology, University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States); Pe, S. [University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States)

    2004-07-01

    To demonstrate and determine the frequency and location of calcification within cadaveric knees with or without calcification typical of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), utilizing histologic, radiographic and MR imaging techniques. Ten cadaveric knees of elderly individuals that demonstrated no radiographic evidence of prior surgery or trauma were studied with MR imaging and subsequently sectioned in planes corresponding to those obtained with MR imaging. The slices were imaged with high-resolution radiography. Two musculoskeletal radiologists correlated the anatomic, MR and radiographic findings. Three of the knees, which did not demonstrate calcifications, were utilized as controls. Histologic sections were obtained from four knees that contained calcifications and from the three controls, and analyzed with special histologic stains that demonstrate phosphorus and calcium. Radiographic imaging and histologic analysis demonstrated widespread CPPD crystal deposition in four of the 10 knee specimens (40%). MR imaging demonstrated some calcifications only within the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles in three of the four (75%) specimens that had CPPD deposits. In all four specimens radiographs and histologic analysis were more sensitive than MR imaging. Histologic analysis demonstrated no evidence of CPPD crystals in the control specimens. MR imaging is insensitive to the presence of CPPD deposits in the knee, even when such deposits are widespread. Our study suggests that the sensitivity of MR imaging was significantly better in detecting CPPD deposits in the hyaline cartilage of the femoral condyles when compared with other internal structures, even when such structures contained a higher amount of calcification. (orig.)

  11. Crystallization of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate with presence of glutamic acid and arginine at 37 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengfeng; Ge, Xiaolu; Li, Guochang; Bai, Jiahai; Ding, Rui

    2014-08-01

    The formations of non-metabolic stones, bones and teeth were seriously related to the morphology, size and surface reactivity of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). Herein, a facile biomimetic mineralization method with presence of glutamic acid and arginine was employed to fabricate DCPD with well-defined morphology and adjustable crystallite size. In reaction solution containing more arginine, crystallization of DCPD occurred with faster rate of nucleation and higher density of stacked layers due to the generation of more OH(-) ions after hydrolysis of arginine at 37 °C. With addition of fluorescein or acetone, the consumption of OH(-) ions or desolvation reaction of Ca(2+) ions was modulated, which resulted in the fabrication of DCPD with adjustable crystallite sizes and densities of stacked layers. In comparison with fluorescein-loading DCPD, dicalcium phosphate anhydrate was prepared with enhanced photoluminescence properties due to the reduction of self-quenching effect and regular arrangement of encapsulated fluorescein molecules. With addition of more acetone, DCPD was prepared with smaller crystallite size via antisolvent crystallization. The simulated process with addition of amino acids under 37 °C would shed light on the dynamic process of biomineralization for calcium phosphate compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. "Fabrication of arbitrarily shaped carbonate apatite foam based on the interlocking process of dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    Carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) foam with an interconnected porous structure is highly attractive as a scaffold for bone replacement. In this study, arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was formed from α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) foam granules via a two-step process involving treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution followed by hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution, which is key to fabricating arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam, enables dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) crystals to form on the α-TCP foam granules. The generated DCPD crystals cause the α-TCP granules to interlock with each other, inducing an α-TCP/DCPD foam. The interlocking structure containing DCPD crystals can survive hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was fabricated from the α-TCP/DCPD foam via hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C for 24 h in the presence of a large amount of NaHCO 3 .

  13. Biphasic calcium sulfate dihydrate/iron-modified alpha-tricalcium phosphate bone cement for spinal applications: in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, M D; Lopez, J; Torres, R; Barraco, M; Fernandez, E; Valle, L J; Poeata, I

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the cytocompatibility of new 'iron-modified/alpha-tricalcium phosphate (IM/α-TCP) and calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD)' bone cement (IM/α-TCP/CSD-BC) intended for spinal applications has been approached. The objective was to investigate by direct-contact osteoblast-like cell cultures (from 1 to 14 days) the in vitro cell adhesion, proliferation, morphology and cytoskeleton organization of MG-63 cells seeded onto the new cements. The results were as follows: (a) quantitative MTT-assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that cell adhesion, proliferation and viability were not affected with time by the presence of iron in the cements; (b) double immunofluorescent labeling of F-actin and α-tubulin showed a dynamic interaction between the cell and its porous substrates sustaining the locomotion phenomenon on the cements' surface, which favored the colonization, and confirming the biocompatibility of the experimental cements; (c) SEM-cell morphology and cytoskeleton observations also evidenced that MG-63 cells were able to adhere, to spread and to attain normal morphology on the new IM/α-TCP/CSD-BC which offered favorable substratum properties for osteoblast-like cells proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The results showed that these new iron-modified cement-like biomaterials have cytocompatible features of interest not only as possible spinal cancellous bone replacement biomaterial but also as bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  14. Evans hole and non linear optical activity in Bis(melaminium) sulphate dihydrate: A vibrational spectral study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, V R; Binoy, J; Dawn Dharma Roy, S; Marchewka, M K; Jayakumar, V S

    2015-01-01

    Bis(melaminium) sulphate dihydrate (BMSD), an interesting melaminium derivative for nonlinear optical activity, has been subjected to vibrational spectral analysis using FT IR and FT Raman spectra. The analysis has been aided by the Potential Energy Distribution (PED) of vibrational spectral bands, derived using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The geometry is found to correlate well with the XRD structure and the band profiles for certain vibrations in the finger print region have been theoretically explained using Evans hole. The detailed Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis of the hydrogen bonding in BMSD has also been carried out to understand the correlation between the stabilization energy of hyperconjugation of the lone pair of donor with the σ(∗) orbital of hydrogen-acceptor bond and the strength of hydrogen bond. The theoretical calculation shows that BMSD has NLO efficiency, 2.66 times that of urea. The frontier molecular orbital analysis points to a charge transfer, which contributes to NLO activity, through N-H…O intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the melaminium ring and the sulphate. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping has also been performed for the detailed analysis of the mutual interactions between melaminium ring and sulphate ion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural and vibrational spectroscopic studies on charge transfer and ionic hydrogen bonding interactions of melaminium benzoate dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Gunasekaran, S.; Rajakumar, P. R.; Anbalagan, G.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of melaminium benzoate dihydrate (MBDH) have been grown from aqueous solution by the slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. Crystalline nature of the grown crystal has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction studies. The optimized geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of MBDH were obtained by the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory using B3LYP/cam-B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with the experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral values. The obtained vibrational wavenumbers and optimized geometric parameters are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. UV-Visible spectrum was recorded in the region 200-400 nm and the electronic properties, HOMO-LUMO energies and other related electronic parameters are calculated. The isotropic chemical shifts computed by 1H and 13C NMR analysis also show good agreement with experimental observation. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis has been performed on MBDH compound to analyze the stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization. Molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEP) has also been performed by DFT/cam-B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Differential scanning calorimetric measurements performed on the powder sample indicate the phase transition point approximately at 368 and 358 K for heating and cooling, respectively.

  16. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  17. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  18. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  19. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  20. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  1. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  2. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  3. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  4. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  5. Change perspective to increase diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease! A new approach: the axial scan of the meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Filippou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (US is a relevant tool in the study of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP deposition disease. However, differential diagnosis of hyperechoic deposits within the fibrocartilage can be difficult; moreover, US study is limited by the need of an adequate acoustic window. We describe a US scanning technique that offers a new viewpoint in the study of knee meniscal structure: a longitudinal scan performed according to the long axis of meniscus. This technique proves to be particularly useful for the identification of CPP deposition, but could also improve the US diagnostic utility and accuracy in other meniscal pathologies.

  6. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  7. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  8. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  9. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  10. Neutron scattering techniques for betaine calcium chloride dihydrate under applied external field (temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, O.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied with neutron scattering techniques betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD), a dielectric aperiodic crystal which displays a Devil's staircase type phase diagram made up of several incommensurate and commensurate phases, having a range of stability very sensitive to temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure. We have measured a global hysteresis of δ(T) of about 2-3 K in the two incommensurate phases. A structural study of the modulated commensurate phases 1/4 and 1/5 allows us to evidence that the atomic modulation functions are anharmonic. The relevance of the modelization of the modulated structure by polar Ising pseudo-spins is then directly established. On the basis of group theory calculation in the four dimensional super-space, we interpret this anharmonic modulation as a soliton regime with respect to the lowest-temperature non modulated ferroelectric phase. The continuous character of the transition to the lowest-temperature non modulated phase and the diffuse scattering observed in this phase are accounted for the presence of ferroelectric domains separated by discommensurations. Furthermore, we have shown that X-rays induce in BCCD a strong variation with time of irradiation of the intensity of satellite peaks, and more specifically for third order ones. This is why the 'X-rays' structural model is found more harmonic than the 'neutron' one. Under electric field applied along the vector b axis, we confirm that commensurate phases with δ = even/odd are favoured and hence are polar along this direction. We have evidenced at 10 kV / cm two new higher order commensurate phases in the phase INC2, corroborating the idea of a 'complete' Devil's air-case phase diagram. A phenomenon of generalized coexistence of phases occurs above 5 kV / cm. We have characterized at high field phase transitions between 'coexisting' phases, which are distinguishable from classical lock-in transitions. Under hydrostatic pressure, our results contradict

  11. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  12. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  13. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  14. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  15. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  16. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  17. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  18. Codissolution of calcium hydrogenphosphate and sodium hydrogencitrate in water. Spontaneous supersaturation of calcium citrate increasing calcium bioavailability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Danielsen, Bente Pia; Garcia, André Castilho

    2018-01-01

    The sparingly soluble calcium hydrogenphosphate dihydrate, co-dissolving in water during dissolution of freely soluble sodium hydrogencitrate sesquihydrate as caused by proton transfer from hydrogencitrate to hydrogenphosphate, was found to form homogenous solutions supersaturated by a factor up...... to 8 in calcium citrate tetrahydrate. A critical hydrogencitrate concentration for formation of homogeneous solutions was found to depend linearly on dissolved calcium hydrogenphosphate: [HCitr2-] = 14[CaHPO4] - 0.05 at 25 °C. The lag phase for precipitation of calcium citrate tetrahydrate......, as identified from FT-IR spectra, from these spontaneously formed supersaturated solutions was several hours, and the time to reach solubility equilibrium was several days. Initial calcium ion activity was found to be almost independent of the degree of supersaturation as determined electrochemically...

  19. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.; Anderson, N.R.

    1971-01-01

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  20. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  1. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.C.; Brewer, J.; Forster, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  2. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  3. Tetrabutylammonium 4-hydroxybenzoate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (n-C4H94N+·C7H5O3−·2H2O, the carboxylate group is twisted slightly out of the plane of the attached benzene ring, the two C—C—C—O torsion angles being −8.9 (2 and −10.7 (2°. The anion interacts with two water molecules through several O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming wide ribbons along the a axis constructed from two anion–water chains. These ribbons are contained between unclosed diamond-like (16.2 × 15.0 Å channels constructed by four rows of tetrabutylammonium cations, which are arranged along the [011] and [01overline{1}] directions.

  4. Studies on the syntheses, structural characterization, antimicrobial-, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the cocrystals caffeine:cinnamic acid and caffeine:eosin dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, G. S.; Seethalakshmi, P. G.; Bhuvanesh, N.; Kumaresan, S.

    2013-10-01

    Two organic cocrystals namely, caffeine:cinnamic acid [(caf)(ca)] (1) and caffeine:eosin dihydrate [(caf)(eos)]·2H2O (2) were synthesized and studied by FT-IR, TGA/DTA, and single crystal XRD. The crystal system of cocrystal 1 is triclinic with space group P-1 and Z = 2 and that of cocrystal 2 is monoclinic with space group P21/C and Z = 4. An imidazole-carboxylic acid synthon is observed in the cocrystal 1. The intermolecular hydrogen bond, O-H⋯N and π-π interactions play a major role in stabilizing 1 whereas the intermolecular hydrogen bonds, O-H⋯O, O-H⋯N, and intramolecular hydrogen bond, O-H⋯Br; along with π-π interactions together play a vital role in stabilizing the structure of 2. The antimicrobial- and DPPH radical scavenging activities of both the cocrystals were studied.

  5. Preparation and thermal characterization of oxalic acid dihydrate/bentonite composite as shape-stabilized phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lipeng; Xie, Shaolei; Sun, Jinhe; Jia, Yongzhong

    2017-03-01

    Oxalic acid dihydrate (OAD) which has very high initial phase transition enthalpy is a promising phase change material (PCM). In this paper, shape-stabilized composite PCMs composed of OAD and bentonite were prepared by a facile blending method to overcome the problem of leakage. FT-IR results indicated the interactions between OAD and bentonite, such as the capillary force and the hydrogen bonding, resulting in the confined crystallization process. As a result, the OAD was confined to be amorphous. The thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope results showed that sample had the best coating effect when the amount of bentonite was 17.7%. The differential scanning calorimetry analyses demonstrated that a decrease in the OAD content was accompanied by a continuous decrease in the melting point and phase change enthalpy of the composites.

  6. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  7. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  8. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  9. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  10. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  11. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Fresl, M.; Svoboda, V.

    1979-02-01

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  12. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  13. Sodium fires and its extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhedov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The fire safety problems of NPP with sodium coolants in USSR are presented. The design of sodium reactors is made with premises with sodium coolants being hermetic and filled with nitrogen. Some engineering solutions of fire safety including design, elaboration and choice of construction and protection materials are presented. Some theoretical aspects of sodium burning are presented as well as methods of sodium fire extinguishing methods including the use of powder

  14. Evolution of the dicalcium phosphate-dihydrate (DCPD coating created by large amplitude sinusoidal voltammetry (LASV on corrosion resistance of the ZW3 magnesium alloy in chloride containing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajánek D.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is focused on the preparation of coating based on the dicalcium phosphate-dihydrate (DCPD on the surface of ZW3 magnesium alloy. For the preparation of the coating a cathodic electrodeposition technique called Large Amplitude Sinusoidal Voltammetry (LASV was used. The DCPD layer was prepared at the temperature of 22 ± 2 °C in electrolyte composed of 0.1M Ca(NO3.4H2O, 0.06 M NH4H2PO4 and H2O2. Electrochemical characteristics were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS in 0.1M NaCl solution. The obtained data in form of Nyquist plots were analysed by the equivalent circuit method. It is clear from the measured values of polarization resistance Rp that dicalcium phosphate-dihydrate (DCPD layer prepared by LASV electro-deposition technique improved corrosion resistance of ZW3 alloy in the chosen environment.

  15. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τ c = δ·g -0.83 ·10 (3570/T Na -3.34) , in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and

  16. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H Y; Choi, Y D [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  17. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  18. The combustion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The burning rates of sodium in the form of vapour jets, droplets, sprays and unconfined and confined pools have been reviewed. Attention has been paid to assessing the value of models in the various combustion modes. Additional models have been constructed for the descriptions of laminar and turbulent vapour jets, stationary droplets, forced convection over ambient pool fires together with correlations for peak pressures in confined pool environments. Where appropriate experiments with sodium have not been conducted, the likely behaviour is predicted by comparison with the burning of other fuels, particularly in the field of large free ambient fires. Some areas where further knowledge is required are highlighted. (author)

  19. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  20. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  1. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  2. Complex crystals formed in the aqueous solution of copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugasaka, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Ayako

    1977-01-01

    Crystals of different crystal habits were separated from the copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide solution and the thermal changes of the composition of copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide complexes were studied by chemical analysis, thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometry. Granular and columnar crystals were determined to be copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide dihydrate by X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. Needle crystal (A) which was separated from the solution at 25 0 C was assumed to be Na 2 CuI 3 .6H 2 O. (A) was stable in its appearance in the air, but the X-ray diffraction pattern of (A) changed. Needle crystal (B) which was recrystallized at 10 0 C from mother liquor after the separation of crystal (A) was assumed to be NaCuI 2 .4H 2 O. (B) was hygroscopic and decomposed to precipitate copper(I) iodide with moisture in the air. (A) and (B) were found to change by heating and or drying, respectively, as follows: Na 2 CuI 3 .6H 2 O → (-2H 2 O, 80 0 C) → 2NaI.2H 2 O + CuI → (-4H 2 O, 160 0 C) → 2NaI + CuI → (+1/2O 2 , 450 0 C) → 2NaI + CuO + 1/2I 2 , NaCuI 2 .4H 2 O → (-4H 2 O, Dried) → NaI + CuI. (auth.)

  3. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  4. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  5. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harant, M.

    1978-01-01

    Substitution, inverse and substitution inverse relations in form of regression polynomials were used in calculating saturation pressure and density for thermodynamic and transport properties determination of sodium. Program UNISOAUT/A3 was used in calculating regression polynomials coefficients. (J.P.)

  6. Extinction of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Spagna, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents how, starting from a knowledge of sodium ignition and burning, principles for extinction (smothering catch trays, leak recuperation systems, powders) can be developed. These techniques applied in Superphenix 1 and PEC reactors have been tested in the ESMERALDA experimental program which is a joint French/Italian project. (author)

  7. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability

  8. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  9. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  10. Creep in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnock, W.; Cordwell, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Available information on the creep of austenitic, ferritic and Alloy-800 type steels in liquid sodium is critically reviewed. Creep properties of stainless steels can be affected by element transfer and corrosion. At reactor structural component temperatures environmental effects are likely to be less important than changes due to thermal ageing. At high clad temperatures (700 0 C) decarburisation may cause the loss of strength and ductility in unstabilised steels while cavity formation may cause embrittlement in stabilised steels. The properties of Alloy 800 are, in some experiments, found to deteriorate while in others they are enhanced. This may be a consequence of the metallurgical complexity of the material or arise from the nature of the various techniques employed. Low alloy ferritic steels tend to decarburise in sodium at temperatures greater than 500 0 C and this leads to loss of strength and an increase in ductility. High alloy ferritics are immune to this effect and appear to be able to tolerate a degree of carburisation. Although intergranular cracking may be enhanced in liquid sodium the mechanical consequences are not significant and evidence for the existence of an embrittlement effect not associated with element transfer or corrosion is weak. Stress and strain may enhance element transfer at crack tips. However in real cracks the gettering or supply action of the crack faces conditions the chemistry of the cracks in sodium and protects the crack tip from element transfer. Thus creep crack extension rates should be independent of changes in bulk coolant chemistry. (author)

  11. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  12. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  13. Safety measuring for sodium handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, T J; Kim, B H; Choi, J H

    2001-09-01

    This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented.

  14. A new oxidimetric reagent: potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium--VII. Photometric titration of vanadium(IV) and of cerium(III) alone and in mixtures with iroN(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G G; Rao, P K

    1967-01-01

    Vanadium(IV) can be accurately titrated with potassium dichromate in media containing phosphoric acid of 3-12M concentration: the change in absorption of vanadium(IV) is followed in the region 660 mmicro using a red filter. It is more convenient to carry out the titration in 3M phosphoric acid because at higher concentrations chloride, nitrate, cerium(III) and manganese(II) may interfere. Photoelcetric titration is more convenient than potentiometric because the former can be made in a 3M phosphoric acid medium, whereas the latter is possible only in 12M phosphoric acid. The simultaneous differential photometric titration of iron(II) and vanadium(IV) is also possible. Conditions have been found for the photometric titration of cerium(III) and of cerium(III) plus iron(II). The titration is carried out (at 450 mmicro or with a blue filter) in about 10.5M phosphoric acid. Application of the method to a cerium mineral is considered.

  15. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  16. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  17. Development of Sodium Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Jeong, K. C.; Park, J. H.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, B. S.

    2003-02-01

    The basic P and ID and fabrication method for IHTS simplification experiment were prepared for the experimental apparatus. In order to investigate the later phase of a SWR event, an experimental apparatus was designed and manufactured. The 620 data set have been obtained in the experiment of free surface fluctuation and an experimental correlation for the critical gas entertainment condition is additionally developed. For development of water into sodium leak detection technology, the properties from leak noises were extracted, and the tools for analyzing acoustic noises were constructed. The state-of-the-art on the flow and differential pressure measuring techniques in the piping system is investigated to develop new techniques which are applicable to high temperature sodium flow environment. The plan for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement was drawn up by analysing the error factors in temperature measurement. And the countermeasures for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement due to complex heat transfer were prepared

  18. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  19. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  20. Sodium characterization during the starting period of a sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Parmentier, C.; Soenen, M.

    1976-01-01

    A sodium loop for analytical chemistry studies has been built by S.C.K./C.E.N. at Mol Belgium. Its first working period was used to test analytical methods, to characterize the sodium and to define the operating parameters of the loop. This report covers the working parameters of the loop, the characterization of the filling sodium and its purity evolution during the first working period of the loop

  1. Structural characterization, vibrational spectroscopy accomplished with DFT calculation, thermal and dielectric behaviors in a new organic-inorganic tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajlaoui, Sondes, E-mail: hajlaouisondes@yahoo.fr [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Chaabane, Iskandar [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Lhoste, Jérôme; Bulou, Alain [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, CNRS UMR 6283, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085, Le Mans, Cedex 9 (France); Guidara, Kamel [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-09-15

    In this work a novel compound tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate was synthesized and characterized by; single crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric measurement. The crystal structure refinement at room temperature reveled that this later belongs to the monoclinic compound with P121/c1 space group with the following unit cell parameters a = 8.2699(3) Å, b = 12.4665(4) Å, c = 22.3341(7) Å and β = 92.94(0)°. The crystal arrangement can be described by stacked organic-inorganic layers in the c direction with two independent water molecules placed between each two layers. The detailed interpretations of the vibrational properties of the studied compound were performed using density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/LanL2DZ basis set, and has enabled us to make the detailed assignments by comparative study of the experimental and calculated Raman and IR spectra. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement disclosed two anomalies in the temperature range 356–376 (T{sub 1}) K and at 393 K (T{sub 2}) characterized by the dehydration of the sample and probably a reconstruction of a new structure after T{sub 2} transition. The temperature dependences of dielectric permittivity show a relaxation process around T{sub 2} anomaly indicating the occurrence of the disorder at high temperature. The dependence of the exponent m(T) on temperature, extracted from the straight lines of log(ε″) with log (ω), suggests that the correlated barrier hopping is the appropriate model for the conduction mechanism. - Highlights: • The single-crystal X-ray diffraction has been performed. • The assignments of the vibration modes based on DFT were reported and discussed. • Differential scanning calorimetric reveals the presence of two endothermic peaks. • The electric permittivity was studied using the impedance measurements. • The CBH is the appropriate model for the conduction

  2. Electron-beam-induced reduction of Fe3+ in iron phosphate dihydrate, ferrihydrite, haemosiderin and ferritin as revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ying-Hsi; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik; Bleloch, Andrew; Gass, Mhairi; Sader, Kasim; Brown, Andy

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high-energy electron irradiation on ferritin/haemosiderin cores (in an iron-overloaded human liver biopsy), its mineral analogue; six-line ferrihydrite (6LFh), and iron phosphate dihydrate (which has similar octahedral ferric iron to oxygen coordination to that in ferrihydrite and ferritin/haemosiderin cores) has been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Fe L 2,3 -ionisation edges were recorded on two types of electron microscope: a 200 keV transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a 100 keV scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), in order to investigate the damage mechanisms in operation and to establish a methodology for minimum specimen alteration during analytical electron microscopic characterisation. A specimen damage mechanism dominated by radiolysis that results in the preferential loss of iron co-ordinating ligands (O, OH and H 2 O) is discussed. The net result of irradiation is structural re-organisation and reduction of iron within the iron hydroxides. At sufficiently low electron fluence and particularly in the lower incident energy, finer probe diameter STEM, the alteration is shown to be minimal. All the materials examined exhibit damage which as a function of cumulative fluence is best fitted by an inverse power-law, implying that several chemical and structural changes occur in response to the electron beam and we suggest that these are governed by secondary processes arising from the primary ionisation event. This work affirms that electron fluence and current density should be considered when measuring mixed valence ratios with EELS.

  3. Electron-beam-induced reduction of Fe{sup 3+} in iron phosphate dihydrate, ferrihydrite, haemosiderin and ferritin as revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ying-Hsi; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik [Institute for Materials Research, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Bleloch, Andrew; Gass, Mhairi [SuperSTEM, Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Sader, Kasim [Institute for Materials Research, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); SuperSTEM, Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy, E-mail: a.p.brown@leeds.ac.uk [Institute for Materials Research, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The effect of high-energy electron irradiation on ferritin/haemosiderin cores (in an iron-overloaded human liver biopsy), its mineral analogue; six-line ferrihydrite (6LFh), and iron phosphate dihydrate (which has similar octahedral ferric iron to oxygen coordination to that in ferrihydrite and ferritin/haemosiderin cores) has been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Fe L{sub 2,3}-ionisation edges were recorded on two types of electron microscope: a 200 keV transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a 100 keV scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), in order to investigate the damage mechanisms in operation and to establish a methodology for minimum specimen alteration during analytical electron microscopic characterisation. A specimen damage mechanism dominated by radiolysis that results in the preferential loss of iron co-ordinating ligands (O, OH and H{sub 2}O) is discussed. The net result of irradiation is structural re-organisation and reduction of iron within the iron hydroxides. At sufficiently low electron fluence and particularly in the lower incident energy, finer probe diameter STEM, the alteration is shown to be minimal. All the materials examined exhibit damage which as a function of cumulative fluence is best fitted by an inverse power-law, implying that several chemical and structural changes occur in response to the electron beam and we suggest that these are governed by secondary processes arising from the primary ionisation event. This work affirms that electron fluence and current density should be considered when measuring mixed valence ratios with EELS.

  4. Changes in the solid state of anhydrous and hydrated forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions: Evidence of the formation of new hydrated forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, Roberta; Rascioni, Riccardo; Di Martino, Piera

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the solid state change of the anhydrous and hydrate solid forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions. Grinding was carried out manually in a mortar under the following conditions: at room temperature under air atmosphere (Method A), in the presence of liquid nitrogen under air atmosphere (Method B), at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere (Method C), and in the presence of liquid nitrogen under nitrogen atmosphere (Method D). Among the hydrates, the following forms were used: a dihydrate form (DSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 55% RH; a dihydrate form (CSN) obtained by crystallizing sodium naproxen from water; the tetrahydrate form (TSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 75% RH. The metastable monohydrate form (MSN), previously described in the literature, was not used because of its high physical instability. The chemical stability during grinding was firstly assessed and proven by HPLC. Modification of the particle size and shape, and changes in the solid state under different grinding methods were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry and thermogravimetry, respectively. The study demonstrated the strong influence of starting form, grinding and environmental conditions on particle size, shape and solid state of recovered sodium naproxen forms. In particular, it was demonstrated that in the absence of liquid nitrogen (Methods A and C), either at air or at nitrogen atmosphere, the monohydrate form (MSN) was obtained from any hydrates, meaning that these grinding conditions favored the dehydration of superior hydrates. The grinding process carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen (Method B) led to further hydration of the starting materials: new hydrate forms were identified as one pentahydrate form and one hexahydrate form. The hydration was caused by the condensation of the atmospheric water on sodium naproxen

  5. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  6. Double sodium rubidium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhoseev, M.V.; Khal'baeva, K.M.; Khajkina, E.G.; Ogurtsov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    According to ceramic technique double sodium-rubidium molybdates of the compositions Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 (0.5≤x≤0.67) and Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 have been prepared. It is ascertained that Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 is crystallized in glaserite structural type (trigonal crystal system, sp.gr. P3m1, Z=2) and melts incongruently at 640 deg C. Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 at room temperature is unstable and gradually decomposes into Na 2 MoO 4 and Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4

  7. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  8. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  9. Carbon transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Espigares, M.; Lapena, J.; La Torre, M. de

    1983-01-01

    Carbon activities in dynamic non isothermal sodium system are determined using an equilibratium method. Foils of Fe-18 w% Cr-8 W% Ni alloy with low carbon content (in the as received condition) are exposed to dynamic liquid sodium in the temperature range between 450 0 C and 700 0 C. The analysis was used to evaluate the carburization-decarburization behaviour of type 304 stainless steel exposed to sodium. (author)

  10. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew D.; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming H.; Qu, Haiyan; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II) of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S)-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 13C and 23Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH) and anhydrate (AH) structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system. All structures contain Na+/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information. PMID:25295174

  11. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Bond

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 13C and 23Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH and anhydrate (AH structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S-naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system. All structures contain Na+/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information.

  12. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew D; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming H; Qu, Haiyan; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2014-09-01

    Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II) of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S)-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state (13)C and (23)Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH) and anhydrate (AH) structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system. All structures contain Na(+)/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information.

  13. Sodium waste technology: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds

  14. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  15. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  16. Cavitation erosion in sodium flow, sodium cavitation tunnel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, Pierre.

    1981-04-01

    The high-volume sodium flows present in fast neutron reactors are liable to induce cavitation phenomena in various portion of the sodium lines and pumps. The absence of sufficient data in this area led the C.E.A. to undertake an erosion research program in cavitating sodium flow. This paper discusses the considerations leading to the definition and execution of sodium cavitation erosion tests, and reviews the tests run with 400 0 C sodium on various steel grades: 316, 316 L, 316 Ti (Z8CNDT17-12), Poral (Z3CND18-12), 304 L and LN2 - clad 316 L (Ni coating-clad 316 L). Acoustic detection and signal processing methods were used with an instrument package designed and implemented at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

  17. The experimental sodium facility NAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, H.; Grunwald, G.; May, R.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of preparations for the introduction of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors an experimental sodium facility was installed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research at Rossendorf. Design, engineering aspects and operation of this facility are described; operating experience is briefly discussed. (author)

  18. Sodium as a reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, S.B.G.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the use of sodium as a reactor coolant, to the advantages and problems related to its use, its mechanical, thermophysics, eletronical, magnetic and nuclear properties. It is mainly a bibliographic review, with the aim of gathering the necessary information to persons initiating in the study of sodium and also as reference source. (author) [pt

  19. Recent progress in sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, W. J.

    1963-10-15

    Progress over the past year in U. S. laboratories studying some of the materials and engineering problems that must be resolved in bringing the technology of sodium to an economically and technically attractive point is reviewed. The status of sodium cooled power reactors in the U. S. is described. (P.C.H.)

  20. Method of processing waste sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety store of waste sodium in the form of intermetallic compounds. Method: Waste sodium used in a reactor is mixed with molten metal under an inert gas atmosphere and resulted intermetallic compounds are stored in a closely sealed container to enable quasi-permanent safety store as inert compound. Used waste sodium particularly, waste sodium in the primary system containing radioactive substances is charged in a waste sodium melting tank having a heater on the side, the tank is evacuated by a vacuum pump and then sealed with gaseous argon supplied from a gaseous argon tank, and waste sodium is melted under heating. The temperature and the amount of the liquid are measured by a thermometer and a level meter respectively. While on the other hand, molten metal such as Sn, Pb and Zn having melting point above 300 0 C are charged in a metal melting tank and heated by a heater. The molten sodium and the molten metals are charged into a mixing tank and agitated to mix by an induction type agitator. Sodium vapors in the tank are collected by traps. The air in the tank is replaced with gaseous argon. The molten mixture is closely sealed in a drum can and cooled to solidify for safety storage. (Seki, T.)

  1. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  2. Friction and wear in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Droher, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the design of a safe and reliable sodium-cooled reactor one of the more important problem areas is that of friction and wear of components immersed in liquid sodium or exposed to sodium vapor. Sodium coolant at elevated temperatures may severely affect most oxide-bearing surface layers which provide corrosion resistance and, to some extent, lubrication and surface hardness. Consequently, accelerated deterioration may be experienced on engaged-motion contact surfaces, which could result in unexpected reactor shutdown from component malfunction or failure due to galling and seizure. An overall view of the friction and wear phenomena encountered during oscillatory rubbing of surfaces in high-temperature, liquid-sodium environments is presented. Specific data generated at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) on this subject is also presented. (U.S.)

  3. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  4. Toxicology of plutonium-sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Scenarios for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) accidents predict the loss of sodium coolant, with subsequent core melt-down and release of mixed sodium-fuel aerosols [Na-(PuU)O 2 ] into the environment. Studies in other laboratories demonstrated that mixed aerosols of Na 2 O-PuO 2 were more readily transported from the lung than PuO 2 aerosols. We therefore devised a continuous aerosol-generating system for animal exposures in which laser-generated fuel aerosols were swept through sodium vapor to form sodium-fuel aerosols. These fuel and sodium-fuel aerosols were compared with regard to their physicochemical properties and their biological behavior following inhalation studies in rats and dogs

  5. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Sodium ionization detector and sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrizo, J.; Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Work conducted on a basic technology development effort with the Westinghouse Sodium Ionization Detector (SID) sensor is reported. Included are results obtained for three task areas: (1) On-line operational response testing - in-situ calibration techniques; (2) Performance-reliability characteristics of aged filaments; and (3) Evaluation of chemical interference effects. The results showed that a calibrator filament coated with a sodium compound, when activated, does supply the necessary sodium atoms to provide a valid operational in-situ test. The life time of new Cr 2 0 3 -protected SID sensor filaments can be extended by operating at a reduced temperature. However, there also is a reduction in the sensitivity. Non-sodium species, such as products from a smoldering fire and organic aerosols, produce an interference response from the sensor comparable to a typical sodium response

  7. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  8. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental ... for maintenance or disposal, need to be cleaned free of sodium for the ... scenario on sodium removal using different alcohols are ... ethoxide and sodium n-propoxide by KBr pellet method.

  9. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  10. Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

  11. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units

  12. Up-regulated expression of cartilage intermediate-layer protein and ANK in articular hyaline cartilage from patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Jun; Ryan, Lawrence M; Masuda, Ikuko

    2002-12-01

    Excess accumulation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (ePPi) in aged human cartilage is crucial in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal formation in cartilage matrix. Two sources of ePPi are ePPi-generating ectoenzymes (NTPPPH) and extracellular transport of intracellular PPi by ANK. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of NTPPPH and ANK in ePPi elaboration, by investigating expression of NTPPPH enzymes (cartilage intermediate-layer protein [CILP] and plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1 [PC-1]) and ANK in human chondrocytes from osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage containing CPPD crystals and without crystals. Chondrocytes were harvested from knee cartilage at the time of arthroplasty (OA with CPPD crystals [CPPD], n = 8; OA without crystals [OA], n = 10). Normal adult human chondrocytes (n = 1) were used as a control. Chondrocytes were cultured with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), which stimulates ePPi elaboration, and/or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which inhibits ePPi elaboration. NTPPPH and ePPi were measured in the media at 48 hours. Media CILP, PC-1, and ANK were determined by dot-immunoblot analysis. Chondrocyte messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to study expression of mRNA for CILP, PC-1, and ANK. NTPPPH and ANK mRNA and protein were also studied in fresh frozen cartilage. Basal ePPi elaboration and NTPPPH activity in conditioned media from CPPD chondrocytes were elevated compared with normal chondrocytes, and tended to be higher compared with OA chondrocytes. Basal expression of mRNA for CILP (chondrocytes) and ANK (cartilage) was higher in both CPPD chondrocytes and CPPD cartilage extract than in OA or normal samples. PC-1 mRNA was less abundant in CPPD chondrocytes and cartilage extract than in OA chondrocytes and extract, although the difference was not significant. CILP, PC-1, and ANK protein levels were similar in CPPD, OA, and normal chondrocytes

  13. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tran, Jennifer L; Clarkson, Michael R

    2003-11-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium. Primary literature was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-June 2003). Abstracts were obtained from the manufacturer and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium in solid organ transplantation were considered for inclusion. English-language studies and abstracts were selected for inclusion, but were limited to those consisting of human subjects. Mycophenolate sodium, a mycophenolic acid prodrug, is an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolic acid reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. Mycophenolate sodium is enteric coated and has been suggested as a potential method to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse events seen with mycophenolate mofetil. Both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium have been shown to be therapeutically equivalent at decreasing the incidence of allograft rejection and loss. The frequency of adverse events is similar between both compounds, with the most common events being diarrhea and leukopenia. Mycophenolate sodium is effective in preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. At doses of 720 mg twice daily, the efficacy and safety profiles are similar to those of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg twice daily. Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in Switzerland; approval in the US is pending.

  14. Water simulation of sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, S.S.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic simulation of a large sodium reactor by a scaled water model is examined. The Richardson Number, friction coefficient and the Peclet Number can be closely matched with the water system at full power and the similarity is retained for buoyancy driven flows. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a reactor vessel provided by a scaled water experiment is better than that by a scaled sodium test. Results from a correctly scaled water test can be tentatively extrapolated to a full size sodium system

  15. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...

  16. Analytical study of sodium combustion phenomena under sodium leak accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, J. Y.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2001-12-01

    The rise of temperature and pressure, the release of aerosol in the buildings as a result of sodium fire must be considered for the safety measures of LMR. Therefore for the safety of the LMR, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of sodium fire, resulting from the various type of leakage. ASSCOPS(Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustion in Pool and Spray) is the computer code for the analysis of the thermal consequence of sodium leak and fire in LMR that has been developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) in Japan. In this study, a preliminary analysis of sodium leak and fire accidents in S/G building of KALIMER is made by using ASSCOPS code. Various phenomena of interest are spray and pool burning, peak pressure, temperature change, local structure temperature, aerosol behavior, drain system into smothering tank, ventilation characteristics at each cell with the safety venting system and nitrogen injection system. In this calculation, the dimension of the S/G building was chosen in accordance with the selected options of LMR name KALIMER(Korea). As a result of this study, it was shown that subsequent effect of sodium fire depended upon whether the sodium continued to leak from the pipe or not, whether the ventilation system was running, whether the inert gas injection system was provided, whether the sodium on floor was drained into the smothering tank or not, whether the building was sealed or not, etc. Specially the excessive rise of pressure into each cell was prevented by installing the pressure release plates on wall of the building

  17. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhki Yui; Masahiko Hayashi; Jiro Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called ?dead sodium? broke a...

  18. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    OpenAIRE

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  19. The quantitative monitoring of mechanochemical reaction between solid L-tartaric acid and sodium carbonate monohydrate by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Liu, Guifeng; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Zengyang; Wei, Yongbo; Liu, Min; Wen, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2011-11-01

    The solid-state reaction of chiral tartaric acid and alkali carbonate was studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The sodium tartrate dihydrate was synthesized with high efficiency by mechanical grinding in the solid-state without waste that is particularly sustainable and environmentally benign. Distinct THz absorptions were observed for reactants and products. It indicates that THz spectroscopy is sensitive to different materials and crystal structures. The characteristic THz absorption peak at 1.09 THz of L (+)-Tartaric acid was selected for quantitative analysis. The reaction kinetics could be expressed by the Second-order equation and the Jander equation, which is consistent with a three-dimensional diffusion mechanism. The combination of multi-techniques including synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (SRXRPD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the grinding process and presented supporting evidences. The results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy technique has great potential applications in process monitoring and analysis in pharmaceutical and chemical synthesis industry.

  20. Sodium concrete reaction - Structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferskakis, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structuralchemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  1. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-01-01

    ISU's Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents

  2. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  3. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  4. CCDC 1042529: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[tetrakis(mu4-Oxalato)-bis(mu3-oxalato)-hexakis(mu2-aqua)-diaqua-di-iron-hexa-sodium dihydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  5. CCDC 1042530: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[tetrakis(mu4-Oxalato)-bis(mu3-oxalato)-hexakis(mu2-aqua)-diaqua-di-chromium-hexa-sodium dihydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  6. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  7. Characterization of potassium dichromate solutions for spectrophotometercalibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, F. C.; Silva, E. M.; Gomes, J. F. S.; Borges, P. P.

    2018-03-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis in the ultraviolet (UV) region is used in the determination of several quantitative and qualitative parameters. For ensuring reliability of the analyses performed on the spectrophotometers, verification / calibration of the equipment must be performed periodically using certified reference materials (CRMs). This work presents the characterization stage needed for producing this CRM. The property value characterized was the absorbance for the wavelengths in the UV spectral regions. This CRM will contribute to guarantee the accuracy and linearity of the absorbance scale to the spectrophotometers, through which analytical measurement results will be provided with metrological traceability.

  8. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N Y; Olivares-Perez, A [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Atlixco, Coordinacion de Bioquimica, Prolongacion Heliotropo N0 1201, Vista Hermosa Atlixco, Puebla (Mexico); Grande-Grande, A, E-mail: nilyame@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  9. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  10. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  11. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid...

  12. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  13. The dismantling of fast reactors: sodium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Berte, M.; Serpante, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fast reactors require a coolant that does not slow down neutrons so water can not be used. Metallic sodium has been chosen because of its outstanding neutronic and thermal properties but sodium reacts easily with air and water and this implies that sodium-smeary components can not be considered as usual nuclear wastes. A stage of sodium neutralizing is necessary in the processing of wastes from fast reactors. Metallic sodium is turned into a chemically stable compound: soda, carbonates or sodium salts. This article presents several methods used by Framatome in an industrial way when dismantling sodium-cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  14. (Diethylenetriaminebis(theophyllinatozinc(II dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila-Zsolt Kun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Zn(C7H7N4O22(C4H13N3]·2H2O, the ZnII ion is pentacoordinated by three N atoms of the diethylenetriamine ligand and one N atom of each of the two theophyllinate anions in a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. The Zn—N distances range from 2.076 (3 to 2.221 (3 Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H...O, O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the theophylline and diethylenetriamine ligands and uncoordinated water molecules.

  15. Hexaaquamanganese(II dipicrate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Zhang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Mn(H2O6](C6H2N3O72·2H2O, the manganese cation, on an inversion centre, is coordinated by six water molecules, but the picrate anion has no coordinative interaction with the manganese cation. The anions in the stack are linked via short intermolecular O...C (3.013 and 2.973 Å and C...C (3.089 and 3.065 Å contacts and hydrogen bonds.

  16. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    K?se, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; U?ar, Sema Kalkan; ?oker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  17. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  18. Some techniques for sodium removal in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Waimai; Ding Dejun; Guo Huanfang; Hong Shuzhang; Zhou Shuxia; Shen Fenyang; Yang Zhongmin; Xu Yongxing

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the experiment and application on sodium removal and sodium disposal are presented. Steam-nitrogen process was used in CIAE for cleaning cold traps, sodium vapor traps, a sodium tank. Atomized water-nitrogen process was used for cleaning dummy fuel assembly for CEFR and a sintered stainless steel filter. Sprinkle process was used for cleaning some tubes. Bultylcellosolve was used for cleaning sintered stainless steel filter and sodium flow measurement device. Ethanol alcohol was used for cleaning electromagnetic pump. Paraffin, transformer-oil or their mixture was used for cleaning sodium valves, a sodium vapor trap and sodium-potassium alloy absorber. A small sintered stainless steel filter was distillated in vacuum. A simple sodium disposal device has been served for several years in CIA.E. It can dispose about 10 Kg sodium each time and the disposal process is no-aerosol. It operates in open air for non-radioactive sodium. In recent years a small sodium cleaning plant has been built. It can use atomized water, steam or organic alcohol to removal of sodium. The LAVEL cleaning plant and SLAPSO cleaning plant were introduced from Italy. And CEFR preliminary design on sodium cleaning for spent fuel assembly and on sodium removal-decontamination for large reactor components is introduced. Vapour-nitrogen process is planned to use in them. (author)

  19. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  20. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  1. Sodium aerosol formation in an argon flow over hot sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.; Dolias, M.J.; UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Thermal Hydraulics Div.)

    1987-01-01

    Vapour evaporation, which partly forms aerosol, occurs when a cold gas flows over a hot liquid. A previous well-mixed model is extended to predict the final vapour plus aerosol content of such a flow in terms of its initial and final temperatures. The predictions are compared to results of the Copacabana II experiment in which argon passed over a sodium pool. Agreement is obtained for the final sodium density at moderate flow rates, and physical reasons are given as to why deviations occur at low and high flow rates. (author)

  2. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Brown, R C; Spurlock, G; Southgate, K; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  3. LMFBR safety and sodium boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, W.D.; Tschamper, P.M.; Fontana, M.H.; Henry, R.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Within the U.S. Fast Breeder Reactor Safety R and D Work Breakdown Structure for Line of Assurance 2, Limit Core Damage, the influence of sodium boiling upon the progression and termination of accidents is being studied in loss of flow, transient overpower, loss of piping integrity, loss of shutdown heat removal system and local fault situations. The pertinent analytical and experimental results of this research to date are surveyed and compared with the requirements for demonstrating the effectiveness of this line of assurance. A discussion of specific technical issues concerned with sodium boiling and the need for future development work is also presented.

  4. Neutronic spectrometry measurements in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlini, G.; Acerbis, S.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of neutronic penetration in sodium, which could serve as a reference and as a benchmark for computer codes. The model employed consisted of an assembly of 7 containers full of sodium for a total of 10 tons and a useful length of almost 4 metres. Measurements were performed at various depths along the central axis of the structure with proton recoil proportional counters. The energy band explored was between 100 and 650 keV. Here we report not only the original spectra of the impulses but also the neutronic spectra found by unfolding with the SPEC-4 code

  5. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  6. Neutron scattering techniques for betaine calcium chloride dihydrate under applied external field (temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure); Etude par diffusion de neutrons du chlorure de calcium et de betaine dihydrate sous champ externe applique (temperature, champ electrique et pression hydrostatique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, O

    1997-11-17

    We have studied with neutron scattering techniques betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD), a dielectric aperiodic crystal which displays a Devil`s staircase type phase diagram made up of several incommensurate and commensurate phases, having a range of stability very sensitive to temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure. We have measured a global hysteresis of {delta}(T) of about 2-3 K in the two incommensurate phases. A structural study of the modulated commensurate phases 1/4 and 1/5 allows us to evidence that the atomic modulation functions are anharmonic. The relevance of the modelization of the modulated structure by polar Ising pseudo-spins is then directly established. On the basis of group theory calculation in the four dimensional super-space, we interpret this anharmonic modulation as a soliton regime with respect to the lowest-temperature non modulated ferroelectric phase. The continuous character of the transition to the lowest-temperature non modulated phase and the diffuse scattering observed in this phase are accounted for the presence of ferroelectric domains separated by discommensurations. Furthermore, we have shown that X-rays induce in BCCD a strong variation with time of irradiation of the intensity of satellite peaks, and more specifically for third order ones. This is why the `X-rays` structural model is found more harmonic than the `neutron` one. Under electric field applied along the vector b axis, we confirm that commensurate phases with {delta} = even/odd are favoured and hence are polar along this direction. We have evidenced at 10 kV / cm two new higher order commensurate phases in the phase INC2, corroborating the idea of a `complete` Devil`s air-case phase diagram. A phenomenon of generalized coexistence of phases occurs above 5 kV / cm. We have characterized at high field phase transitions between `coexisting` phases, which are distinguishable from classical lock-in transitions. Under hydrostatic pressure, our results

  7. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  8. High-pressure sodium lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  9. Cavitation problems in sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, X.

    1976-01-01

    Cavitation poses few problems for sodium valves, in spite of the fact that the loops are not pressurized. This is no doubt due to the low flow velocities in the pipes. For auxiliary loop valves we are attempting to standardize performances with respect to cavitation. For economic reasons cavitation thresholds are approached with large diameter valves. (author)

  10. Structure of sodium perbromate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, A.C.; Gallucci, J.C.; Gerkin, R.E.; Reppart, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    NaBrO 4 .H 2 O, M r =184.90, monoclinic, C2/c, a=15.7575(19), b=5.7373(15), c=11.3390(19) A, β=111.193(10)deg. In this structure, there are two inequivalent Na ions, each coordinated by six O atoms. In each of the two types of distorted octahedra, there are three inequivalent Na-O distances; the average Na(1)-O and Na(2)-O distances are 2.379(10) and 2.405(23) A, respectively. The perbromate ion in this structure displays very nearly regular tetrahedral geometry, although it is subject to no symmetry constraints; the average observed Br-O distance is 1.601(4) A, while the average observed O-Br-O angle is 109.5(9)deg. These values agree well with previously reported values. The perbromate ion, but neither of the sodium coordination polyhedra, shows rigid-body behavior. The average rigid-body corrected Br-O distance in the perbromate ion is 1.624(3) A. Refinement of the two inequivalent H atoms permitted detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonding, which is slightly different from that reported for the isomorphic sodium perchlorate monohydrate. Dynamic disordering of the H atoms as detailed by magnetic resonance methods for sodium perchlorate monohydrate is not clearly indicated in our X-ray study of sodium perbromate monohydrate. (orig./GSCH)

  11. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; L'homme, A.; Lhiaubet, G.; Himeno, Y.; Kirby, C.R.; Mitsutsuka, N.

    1984-01-01

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in medical costs. Problem Not all foods are created equal Understanding sodium in foods can be confusing ... for lower sodium choices. About 25% comes from restaurants and it can be hard for a person ...

  13. ELTA: Cita{sup trademark}: Sodium measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauvais, O. [Water Analysis Line Mgr, ELTA (France)

    2002-07-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  14. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  15. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a...

  16. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at 0.1...

  17. Clinical impact of nonosmotic sodium storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, R.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the

  18. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations provided...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i) Amount...

  20. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  1. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  2. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg. No... ore calcined to impure soda ash and then purified; or (3) synthesized from limestone by the Solvay...

  5. Sodium fires and nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.N.; Zubin, A.; Drobyshev, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The danger of sodium aerosol release at a design basis accident (DBA) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor that involves coolant leakage and burning, is being analyzed. It has been shown that radioactive and toxic releases at DBA do not exceed permissible values. Some means of sodium fire fighting are described. (author)

  6. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  8. Sodium purification in Rapsodie; La purification du sodium a Rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [French] Ce rapport fait partie d'une serie de publications presentant l'essentiel des resultats des essais effectues a l'occasion du demarrage du premier reacteur francais a neutrons rapides: RAPSODIE. Cet article expose les techniques de la purification du sodium utilise dans les circuits de refroidissement du reacteur tant au point de vue de leur realisation technologique, que des resultats obtenus pendant la premiere annee de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  9. Transformation of sodium from the Rapsodie fast breeder reactor into sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, J.; Latge, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major problems raised by decommissioning a fast breeder reactor (FBR) concerns the disposal of the sodium coolant. The Desora operation was undertaken to eliminate the Rapsodie primary sodium as part of the partial decommissioning program, and to develop an operational sodium treatment unit for other needs. The process involves reacting small quantities of sodium in water inside a closed vessel, producing aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is described in this work. (O.L.). 4 figs

  10. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400°C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 lm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  11. Sodium-concrete reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1982-07-01

    Major observations have been formulated after reviewing test results for over 100 sodium-concrete reaction tests. The observations form the basis for developing a mechanistic model to predict the transient behavior of sodium-concrete reactions. The major observations are listed. Mechanisms associated with sodium and water transport to the reaction zone are identified, and represented by appropriate mathematical expressions. The model attempts to explain large-scale, long-term (100 h) test results were sodium-concrete reactions terminated even in the presence of unreacted sodium and concrete

  12. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  13. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  14. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig, E-mail: cgerardi@anl.gov; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Distributed temperature sensors measured high-resolution liquid-sodium temperatures. • DTSs worked well up to 400 °C. • A single DTS simultaneously detected sodium level and temperature. - Abstract: Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400 °C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 μm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  16. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Development of the immersed sodium flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1994-09-01

    An immersed sodium flowmeter of the range 3 m 3 /h is developed. It is a flowmeter of entire-sealed construction, it can be operated in sodium. Its construction, the theoretical calculation of the calibration characteristic and the pressure loss, the test facility and the calibration test are presented in detail. It analytical expression of the calibration characteristic in the temperature limit 200∼600 degree C and the error analysis are given. The basic error of this immersed sodium flowmeter is below +-2.3% of the measuring range. The immersed sodium flowmeter can be used to resolve the sodium flowrate measuring problems of the in-reactor component of LMFBR, for example, the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor sodium purification loop, the flowrate measuring of the immersed sodium pump and the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor test component

  18. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  19. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  20. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  1. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  2. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daolong Chen

    1996-01-01

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  3. Instrumentation for Sodium Circuits; Instrumentation des Circuits de Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambillard, E. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lions, N. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache (France)

    1967-06-15

    Electromagnetic flow meters, level gauges and differential pressure gauges are among the main measurement instruments designed and tested at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for sodium reactors. The main characteristics of the flow meters used with RAPSODIE are indicated. The instruments used in this connection are of the permanent -magnet or electromagnet type (in the primary circuits). A description is given of the calibration methods employed - use is made of diaphragms or Venturi tubes as standard flow meters - and information is given on the results measured for maximum sodium flows of 400 m{sup 3}/h. Three types of continuous level gauge have been studied. Resistance gauge. Two varieties used for the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of RAPSODIE are described. In one there is a compensation resistance along the whole height of the measuring element (the continuous gauges used with the RAPSODIE reactor are at present of this type). In the other type of gauge a device is incorporated to heat the measurement element and prevent the formation of conducting deposits (prototype sodium tests have been completed). Induction gauge. This type has two coupled coils and is fitted with a device to compensate for temperature effects. A description is given of a prototype which has been built and the results obtained in the course of sodium tests are described. Ultrasonic gauge. With this type, a transmitter is fitted on top of the outside of the sodium container; there is also a vertical wave guide, the bottom of which is immersed in the liquid metal and possesses a reflector system which returns the ultrasonic beam towards the surface. Fixed reference marks provide a permanent means of calibration and the whole apparatus is welded. This type of gauge is now being constructed. The differential pressure gauges that have been built, and used in particular with Venturi tube flow meters, are modified versions of the devices employed with the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of

  4. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Köse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  5. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  6. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium vapour and sodium mist in the cover gas of a sodium system of a fast breeder reactor cause various problems. In this report, with the results of measurements of sodium mist concentration, the distribution of sodium mist diameter in cover gas was analytically obtained. The analysis was made by using the different nucleus model B. The measurement of the concentration of sodium mist was carried out with a sodium mist pot designed by the author. The experiment was done at the sodium temperature of 400 and 500 degree centigrade. The relations among sodium temperature, upper wall temperature, and the sodium mist concentration in cover gas were obtained. Evaluation of effective condensed nuclear radius in the cover gas was made by the comparison of analysis and experimental results. The results of this evaluation shows the following conclusions. It is impossible to express the distribution of sodium mist diameter by normal distribution or logarithmic normal distribution. Drop of sodium temperature results in the decrease of weight mean radius of generated sodium mist. Drop of upper wall temperature causes the decrease of weight mean radius, and increases sodium mist concentration. (Kato, T.)

  7. Sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchangers design problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the calculation methods adapted, in working-out the stresses due to fluid pressures (normal as well as transient), weights, piping-reactions, vibration in the tube-bundle and also the thermal stresses during normal and transient conditions, for the mechanical design of intermediate heat-exchanger. The thermal stress evaluation of the tube-sheet is given particular emphasis. A brief outline of the design problems connected with the Na-Na exchangers of large size sodium cooled fast reactor plants is also given. (author)

  8. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  9. Wireless sensor network for sodium leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Raj, Baldev; Sivalingam, Krishna M.; Ebenezer, Jemimah; Chandran, T.; Shanmugavel, M.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Early detection of sodium leak is mandatory in any reactor handling liquid sodium. ► Wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced for detecting sodium leak. ► We designed and developed a wireless sensor node in-house. ► We deployed a pilot wireless sensor network for handling nine sodium leak signals. - Abstract: To study the mechanical properties of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor component materials under the influence of sodium, the IN Sodium Test (INSOT) facility has been erected and commissioned at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Sodium reacts violently with air/moisture leading to fire. Hence early detection of sodium leak if any is mandatory for such plants and almost 140 sodium leak detectors are placed throughout the loop. All these detectors are wired to the control room for data collection and monitoring. To reduce the cost, space and maintenance that are involved in cabling, the wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced in the sodium leak detection system of INSOT. This paper describes about the deployment details of the pilot wireless sensor network and the measures taken for the successful deployment.

  10. Containment Sodium Chemistry Models in MELCOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    To meet regulatory needs for sodium fast reactors’ future development, including licensing requirements, Sandia National Laboratories is modernizing MELCOR, a severe accident analysis computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Specifically, Sandia is modernizing MELCOR to include the capability to model sodium reactors. However, Sandia’s modernization effort primarily focuses on the containment response aspects of the sodium reactor accidents. Sandia began modernizing MELCOR in 2013 to allow a sodium coolant, rather than water, for conventional light water reactors. In the past three years, Sandia has been implementing the sodium chemistry containment models in CONTAIN-LMR, a legacy NRC code, into MELCOR. These chemistry models include spray fire, pool fire and atmosphere chemistry models. Only the first two chemistry models have been implemented though it is intended to implement all these models into MELCOR. A new package called “NAC” has been created to manage the sodium chemistry model more efficiently. In 2017 Sandia began validating the implemented models in MELCOR by simulating available experiments. The CONTAIN-LMR sodium models include sodium atmosphere chemistry and sodium-concrete interaction models. This paper presents sodium property models, the implemented models, implementation issues, and a path towards validation against existing experimental data.

  11. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  12. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  13. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  14. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  15. Interaction of oil and paraffin with sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Lamykin, E V; Alekseev, V V; Sergeev, G P [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the investigation results on the kinetics of a gaseous oil pyrolysis product composition change in the presence of sodium under static conditions at 350 deg. C, 550 deg. C and 700 deg. C as well as the behaviour of oil and paraffin within the sodium circulating loops. The calculated estimations of the critical oil physical state parameters in sodium flows are given. (author)

  16. Interaction of oil and paraffin with sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kovalev, Yu.P.; Lamykin, E.V.; Alekseev, V.V.; Sergeev, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the investigation results on the kinetics of a gaseous oil pyrolysis product composition change in the presence of sodium under static conditions at 350 deg. C, 550 deg. C and 700 deg. C as well as the behaviour of oil and paraffin within the sodium circulating loops. The calculated estimations of the critical oil physical state parameters in sodium flows are given. (author)

  17. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, R K [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1979-03-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  18. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  19. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillard, R.K.

    1978-10-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking

  20. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Casteels, F.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  1. Cosmic ray produced sodium and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Barbosa, A.

    1981-07-01

    The following topics were presented: calculations of the theoretical production rate of sodium-22 in the atmosphere in order to estimate its activity in rain water; description of the method of chemical separation of sodium and of counting of various radionuclide samples; results obtained for 22 Na, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 7 Be and 210 Pb and seasonal variations of these radionuclides in rain and river waters; seasonal variations of natural elements, sodium, potassium and uranium in rain and river waters [fr

  2. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lievens, F; Casteels, F [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1980-05-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  3. Sodium cleaning from sodium contaminated components and operation for experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, T. J.; Nam, H. Y.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.; Choi, J. H

    2007-11-15

    An objective of washing technology development for sodium contaminated equipment is to clean and reuse safely and effectively the used equipment through a washing and maintenance, and recovery of the sodium wastes generated during washing.

  4. Sodium pool fire analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor by calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Xu Mi; Jin Degui

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical models were established according to the characteristic of sodium pool fire, and the SPOOL code was created independently. Some transient processes in sodium pool fire were modeled, including chemical reaction of sodium and oxygen; sodium combustion heat transfer modes in several kids of media; production, deposition and discharge of sodium aerosol; mass and energy exchange between different media in different ventilating conditions. The important characteristic parameters were calculated, such as pressure and temperature of gas, temperature of building materials, mass concentration of sodium aerosol, and so on. The SPOOL code, which provided available safety analysis tool for sodium pool fire accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactor, was well demonstrated with experimental data

  5. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  6. Measurement of carbon thermodynamic activity in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Alekseev, V V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    The report presents the brief outline on system of carbon activity detecting system in sodium (SCD), operating on the carbon-permeable membrane, of the methods and the results of testing it under the experimental circulating loop conditions. The results of carbon activity sensor calibration with the use of equilibrium samples of XI8H9, Fe -8Ni, Fe -12Mn materials are listed. The behaviour of carbon activity sensor signals in sodium under various transitional conditions and hydrodynamic perturbation in the circulating loop, containing carbon bearing impurities in the sodium flow and their deposits on the surfaces flushed by sodium, are described. (author)

  7. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  8. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, M; Kanbe, M; Yagisawa, H; Sasaki, S; Kataoka, H; Fukada, T; Ishii, Y; Saito, R; Mimoto, Y [O-arai Engineering Centre, PNC, Ibaraki-ken, Tokio (Japan)

    1978-08-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  9. Dissolution of LMFBR fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Moss, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide, normally insoluble in biological fluids, becomes much more soluble when mixed with sodium as the aerosol is formed. Sodium-fuel aerosols are approximately 20 times less soluble in simulated lung fluid than in distilled water. Solubility of sodium-fuel aerosols increases when Na 2 CO 3 are added to the distilled-water dissolution fluid. Mixed-oxide fuel aerosols without sodium present are relatively insoluble in distilled water, simulated lung fluid, and distilled water with Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 added

  10. Sodium-blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M

    1999-03-01

    In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.

  11. Methods and means of sodium fire fighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemskij, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Methods and means for coaling sodium fire fighting are analyzed. Their advantages and drawbacks are considered. Comparative data on sodium fire fighting using some of considered compositions are presented. High efficiency of self-expanding compositions (Grafeks SK-23 and RS) is noted. Properties of MGS new composition for sodium fire fighting are considered. High fighting ability of the composition independent of burning metal layer width is shown. It is noted that fire fighting MGS efficiency decreases with growth of time of free fire burning which affects fire fighting methods. Technical means of powder delivery to burning sodium are reported

  12. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1996-07-01

    The constructions and performances of lots of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of good linearity. The accurate measurement data of sodium process parameters (flowrate, pressure and level) can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, mutual isolative the 0∼10 V direct-current analogue output and the CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. Theses intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFBR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic errors of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge are +-2%, +-2.3%, +-0.3% and +-1.9% of measuring ranges respectively. (9 figs.)

  13. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.; Fukada, T.; Ishii, Y.; Saito, R.; Mimoto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  14. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.

    1978-02-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of ''JOYO'' and Dummy fuel assembly of ''JOYO'', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of ''JOYO'', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of ''JOYO'' and a proto-type Isolation valve of ''JOYO'' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental subassemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of ''MONJU'' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of Sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a ''JOYO'' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  15. Method for processing radioactive wastes containing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Takeshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To bake, solidify and process even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium. Structure: H and or NH 4 zeolites of more than 90g per chemical equivalent of sodium present in the waste is added to and left in radioactive wastes containing sodium, after which they are fed to a baker such as rotary cylindrical baker, spray baker and the like to bake and solidify the wastes at 350 to 800 0 C. Thereby, it is possible to bake and solidify even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium, which has been impossible to do so previously. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Sodium-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammers, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a sodium-cooled nuclear reactor, whose reactor tank contains the primary circuit, shielding surrounding the reactor core and a primary/secondary heat exchanger, particularly a fast breeder reactor on the module principle. In order to achieve this module principle it is proposed to have electromagnetic circulating pumps outside the reactor tank, where the heat exchanger is accomodated in an annular case above the pumps. This case has several openings at the top end to the space above the reactor core, some smaller openings in the middle to the same space and is connected at the bottom to an annular space between the tank wall and the reactor core. As a favoured variant, it is proposed that the annular electromagnetic pumps should be arranged concentrically to the reactor tank, where there is an annual duct on the inside of the reactor tank. In this way the sodium-cooled nuclear reactor is made suitable as a module with a large number of such elements. (orig.) [de

  17. Operating experience with sodium valves in the TNO-sodium test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasselt, M.L.G. van

    1974-01-01

    The development of sodium components for the SNR-300 in Holland has reached the stage where full scale testing in sodium has almost been finished and construction is at its height. It is against this background that a review is given of the weaknesses in one area or the other of the commercially available types of sodium valves used in TNO's smaller test facilities at Apeldoorn and TNO's 50 MW sodium components test facility at Hengelo. (U.S.)

  18. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA; Olusegun Olusoji SOREMEKUN; Olakunle Wasiu SUBAIR; Atinuke OLADOYE

    2008-01-01

    The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel i...

  19. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (<115 mmol), usual sodium (low usual so...

  1. Control of sodium fires and sodium-water reactions in breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, K.; Ruloff, G.; Voss, J.

    1985-01-01

    The excellent neutronic and thermodynamic properties of sodium as a fast-reactor coolant are somewhat counterbalanced by its high oxygen affinity. Because incidents like sodium fires and sodium-water reactions cannot be absolutely excluded, their effects and preventive measures have to be investigated. Characteristics and counter-measures are discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Sodium ordering and the control of magnetism in sodium cobaltate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.J.P.; Roger, M.; Tennant, D.A.; Goff, J.P.; Gutmann, M.J.; Hoffmann, J.-U.; Prabhakaran, D.; Shannon, N.; Lake, B.; Deen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The long-range three-dimensional ordering of Na + ions was studied in a sample of composition Na 0.75 CoO 2 using single-crystal neutron diffraction. Large-scale numerical simulations reveal the ordering principle for this system, the formation of multi-vacancy charged droplets then order long range, and the structure factors from these defect clusters are in good agreement with the observed neutron diffraction intensities. The electrostatic potential is found to be the dominant factor in determining the sodium ordering and its associated distortion field. The superstructures induce a periodic potential in the CoO 2 , giving potential wells that are larger than the single-particle hopping frequency and so able to localize holes. The results readily explain many of the observed electrical and magnetic properties, including the three dimensionality of the magnetic excitations

  3. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely... specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate [CH2(CH2...

  4. Sodium fires. Progress achieved in research and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Casselman, C.; Charpenel, J.; Natta, M.; Devillers, C.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes the sodium fire programs undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department. Experimental results concerning sodium ignition and combustion, sodium fire suppression, sodium aerosol filtration and sodium-concrete contact reactions are given and the applications of these results in the Super-Phenix reactor is discussed

  5. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  6. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morewith, H A; Johnson, R P; Nelson, C T; Otter, J M [Energy System Group, Rockwell International, Rockwell (United States)

    1979-03-01

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, {approx}23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-{mu}m sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 {mu}m) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m{sup 2} burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglomerates fell out as they moved downwind, depositing 1 kg/m{sup 2} at 1 m downwind from the edge of the pan. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that the sodium fires produced mainly Na{sub 2}O, and that the conversion of NaOH was slow. Comparison were made with COMRADEX-IV code models, which are appropriate for calculating deposition and concentrations for downwind distances between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} m. (author)

  7. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morewith, H.A.; Johnson, R.P.; Nelson, C.T.; Otter, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, ∼23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-μm sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 μm) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m 2 burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglomerates fell out as they moved downwind, depositing 1 kg/m 2 at 1 m downwind from the edge of the pan. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that the sodium fires produced mainly Na 2 O, and that the conversion of NaOH was slow. Comparison were made with COMRADEX-IV code models, which are appropriate for calculating deposition and concentrations for downwind distances between 10 2 and 10 4 m. (author)

  8. Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

  9. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to formulate sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B by controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a “passive carrier” in targeted antifungal therapy. Methods: Sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B were prepared by controlled ...

  10. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  11. Development of industrial utilization of metallic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhara, Shunichi

    1995-01-01

    Sodium exists in large quantity, being ranked to 6th in the existence proportion of elements, and takes 2.83% of the matters composing earth crust. Sodium is an alkali metal which is light weight, chemically very active and a strong reducing substance. It is excellent in the compatibility with iron and steel materials, and it possesses good heat conduction and flow characteristics and stable nuclear characteristics. Since the industrial production of sodium became practical, its utilization was developed as the reducing agent and catalyst in chemical industry, the core coolant and heat transport medium for nuclear reactors, the material composing the secondary batteries for storing electric power, and the auxiliaries for metal refining and so on. The industrial production of metallic sodium is carried out by the electrolysis of melted salt, namely Downs process. The production of metallic sodium in Japan is 3000-6000 t yearly, and its import is 300-350 t. Its main use is for organic chemical industry including dye production. The grades of metallic sodium products and their uses are shown. The utilization of sodium for large fast reactors, the utilization of NaK as the heat transport and cooling medium for space use nuclear reactors and deep sea fast reactor system, and the utilization of sodium as the catalyst in dye production, for silicon carbide fiber production and for agricultural and medical chemical production are reported. (K.I.)

  12. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the finished meat product, and the amount of...

  13. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... finished product. (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions... finished meat product and the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the...

  14. Eclampsia despite strict dietary sodium restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delemarre, F.M.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Berendes, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The classic indication for prescribing dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy has been the prevention of eclampsia. We describe a case of intrapartum eclampsia in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman. A strongly sodium restricted diet was prescribed because of pre-eclampsia. Compliance to the diet was

  15. PG BN 1600 sodium fire protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Urbancik, L.

    1978-12-01

    A design was developed of a fire protection system for steam generator of a 1600 MW sodium cooled fast reactor (BN-1600). Chemical reactions are described of liquid sodium with atmospheric components and solid materials coming into contact with sodium in its release from the steam generator, and in safeguarding protection against sodium fires. The requirements for the purity of nitrogen as an atmosphere inert to liquid sodium are given. Characteristics and basic parameters are shown of level and spray fires, elementary terms are explained concerning the properties of aerosols formed during fires, the methods and means of release signalling and fire alarm are described as are fire precautions using fire-fighting equipment, modifying the support tank and the cell bottom and building sewage pits. The design of the system comprises an alarm system for liquid sodium using point and line electric contact sensors and flame photometer based aerosol sensors as well as a fire-fighting system based on the system of channelling liquid sodium into emergency discharge tanks filled with an inert gas, a set of fire extinguishers and other fire fighting material, and measures for the elimination of sodium fire consequences. (J.B.)

  16. Visualizing individual sodium channels on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Stefan H

    2012-07-27

    Visualization of voltage-gated sodium channels at work is an important requirement for the understanding of rapid electrical signaling in nerve cells. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Ondrus and colleagues have mastered this challenge by chemical synthesis of a fluorescent antagonist and by monitoring single sodium channels in living cells with unprecedented optical resolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging. (author)

  18. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  19. Sodium removal, storage, and requalification of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.; Shimazaki, T.; Oliva, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to devise, develop, test, and evaluate techniques for sodium removal and storage of test specimens and components, and to expand and refine, by test and analysis, the sodium removal and storage techniques and procedures for use in processing typical LMFBR components

  20. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product....

  1. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  2. Sodium technology at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.T.; Smith, C.R.F.; Olson, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Since the installation of purity monitoring systems in 1967, the control of the purity of the primary and secondary sodium and cover gas systems at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been excellent. A rigorous monitoring program is being used to assure that operating limits for more than 25 chemical and radioactive impurities are not exceeded. The program involves the use of sophisticated sampling and analysis techniques and on-line monitors for both sodium and cover gas systems. Sodium purity control is accomplished by essentially continuous cold trapping of a small side stream of the total circulating sodium. The cold traps have been found to be very effective for the removal of the major chemical impurities (oxygen and hydrogen) and tritium but are almost ineffective for 131 I and 137 Cs that enter the sodium from fuel cladding breaks. Purging with pure argon maintains the cover gas purity

  3. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochlorite (bleach is commonly used as an irrigant during dental proce-dures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI. In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  4. Destruction of mechanical structures by sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.

    1992-01-01

    With respect to pipe ruptures and leakages in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors, it can be assumed that relatively large amounts of liquid sodium will be poured or sprayed into an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Under reactor conditions, the sodium will burn immediately, leading to temperature and pressure rises in the containment, and the strong aerosol release may influence ventilation and filter systems. In addition to these consequences, which are well known, it must be taken into account that the sodium fire also attacks mechanical structures like steel and concrete. In the frame work of the sodium fire research program (FAUNA) at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, extensive experiments were performed to investigate the consequences of sodium pool, spray, and combined fires

  5. Sodium evaporation into a forced argon flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki; Kasahara, Fumio; Ishiguro, Ryoji

    1975-01-01

    Evaporation from a rectangular sodium free surface into an argon flow was measured. Tests were carried out with varying sodium temperature, argon velocity and argon temperature respectively under conditions of fog formation being possible. In order to clarify the enhancement of evaporation by fog formation, convection heat transfer from a plate of the same geometry into an air flow was also measured. The evaporation rate and Sherwood number were compared with those predicted by both the heat transfer experiment and the theory proposed by Hill and Szekely, and also a comparison was run with the previously reported experimental results of sodium evaporation. As a result it was shown that the sodium evaporation rate in this experiment is at least four times as large as that predicted by the heat transfer experiment and varies almost linearly with the heat transfer rate and the sodium vapour pressure. (auth.)

  6. The role of sodium in the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sodium is a metallic element with the symbol Na , in the same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs; is widespread in nature in the form of salts (nitrates, carbonates, chlorides, atomic number 11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft metal, reactive and with a low melting point , with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F. From the commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all the alkaline metals. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on earth, because it quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications .

  7. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na 2 O (l) , and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH (g) . The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH (g) , NaOH (l) and H2 (g) . Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar

  8. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  9. Low Blood Sodium in Older Adults: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium in older adults: A concern? Why is low blood sodium a health concern for older adults? ... treated? Answers from Paul Y. Takahashi, M.D. Low blood sodium (hyponatremia) occurs when you have an ...

  10. Stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in patients with solitary pure calcium oxalate stones smaller than 1.0 cm in the proximal ureter, with special reference to monohydrate and dihydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyanagi, Osamu; Nagaoka, Akira; Izumi, Takuji; Kawamura, Yuko; Tsukigi, Masaaki; Ishii, Tatsuya; Ohji, Hiroshi; Kato, Tomoyuki; Tomita, Yoshihiko

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess stone-free rates following extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of pure calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones in the proximal ureter. The investigators retrospectively examined 53 patients with 5-10 mm pure CaOx stones in the proximal ureter from the medical archives of 593 consecutive patients treated with ESWL. The compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) in a given stone were determined by infrared spectrometry. Stone size, attenuation number and stone-to-skin distance (SSD) were measured using plain radiography and computed tomography (CT). ESWL success was evaluated by stone-free status after the first single session. On average, calculi were 8.0 × 5.3 mm in size, with an SSD of 11.0 cm. The mean CT attenuation value was 740.1 HU. Attenuation numbers correlated significantly with stone diameter (r = 0.49), but had no correlation with the stone content of COM or COD. A negative correlation was observed between COM and COD content (r = -0.925). With regard to patients' physical characteristics and COM and COD content, no differences were found between study subgroups with stone-free and residual status (n = 38 and 15, respectively). There were also no differences in clinical features between patient subgroups with COM- or COD-predominant stones (n = 22 and 31, respectively). The findings indicated that the differences in COM and COD content of CaOx stones had no impact on stone clearance after ESWL and that a favorable stone-free rate of the stones treated with ESWL may be achieved independently of CaOx hydration.

  11. Development of sodium disposal technology. Experiment of sodium compound solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Toshiyuki; Ohura, Masato; Yatoh, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    A large amount of sodium containing radioactive waste will come up at the time of final shutdown/decommission of FBR plant. The radioactive waste is managed as solid state material in a closed can in Japan. As for the sodium, there is no established method to convert the radioactive sodium to solid waste. Further, the sodium is highly reactive. Thus, it is recommended to convert the sodium to a stable substance before the solidification process. One of the stabilizing methods is conversion of sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. These stabilization and solidification processes should be safe, economical, and efficient. In order to develop such sodium disposal technology, nonradioactive sodium was used and a basic experiment was performed. Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method was employed as the solidification process of sodium hydroxide solution. Experimental parameters were mixing ratio of the sodium hydroxide and the slag solidification material, temperature and concentration of the sodium hydroxide. The best parameters were obtained to achieve the maximum filling ratio of the sodium hydroxide under a condition of enough high compressive strength of the solidified waste. In a beaker level test, the solidified waste was kept in a long term and it was shown that there was no change of appearance, density, and also the compressive strength was kept at a target value. In a real scale test, homogeneous profiles of the density and the compressive strength were obtained. The compressive strength was higher than the target value. It was shown that the Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method can be applied to the solidification process of the sodium hydroxide solution, which was produced by the stabilization process. (author)

  12. The influence of sodium fires on LMFBRs safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin, F [DSN/Centre de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1979-03-01

    In a sodium cooled reactor, sodium fires are accidental conditions to be taken into account in safety analysis. For the various sodium categories, fire conditions, associated risks, safety analysis objectives and detailed corresponding issues are indicated, An experimental research program can be deduced from these considerations. This report covers the following: safety analysis methodology; primary sodium fires; secondary sodium fires; auxiliary sodium fires, and related experimental research programs.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Simulation towards Sodium Safety in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponraju, D.; Rao, Hemanth; Das, Sanjay Kumar; Punitha; Nashine, B.K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary and future program on sodium fire: Past - Design verification of LCT by experiments; Small scale experiments on sodium resistant concrete; Small sodium spray: - Fire senario; - particle distribution. Current activities - Containment code development; Demonstration of LCT system, effective LCT design; Qualification of extinguishers and sodium resistant contrete; LBB justification; Aerosol distribution. Future - Sodium school; HR development in handing sodium systems; Collaboration with AERB, IRSN, CEA and other International Organizations; Design guidelines

  14. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, in a mixture containing water and an organic, water miscible or partly water miscible solvent, which solvent influences the transition temperature below which sodium...

  15. The influence of sodium fires on LMFBRs safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justin, F.

    1979-01-01

    In a sodium cooled reactor, sodium fires are accidental conditions to be taken into account in safety analysis. For the various sodium categories, fire conditions, associated risks, safety analysis objectives and detailed corresponding issues are indicated, An experimental research program can be deduced from these considerations. This report covers the following: safety analysis methodology; primary sodium fires; secondary sodium fires; auxiliary sodium fires, and related experimental research programs

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  17. Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Aram; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-07-21

    Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, K.Y.

    1982-05-01

    Natural and forced convection experiments (SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test section with the pressure-velocity boundary condition and subsequently extended to the whole loop. For the test section simulation, a steady-state and transient calculations are performed and compared with experimental data. For the loop simulation, two methods are used, a simulated 1-D loop and an actual 1-D loop. In the simulated 1-D loop analysis, the vapor density is increased by one hundred and two hundred times to avoid the code failure and the results still showed some of the important characteristics of the two-phase flow oscillation in a loop. A mathematical model is suggested for the two-phase flow oscillation. In the actual 1-D loop, only the single phase calculation was performed and turned out to be nearly the same as the simulated 1-D loop single phase results

  19. First principle study of sodium decorated graphyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Utpal, E-mail: utpalchemiitkgp@yahoo.com [Assam University, Silchar (India); Bhattacharya, Barnali [Assam University, Silchar (India); Seriani, Nicola [The Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-05

    Highlights: • Presence of Na decreases the stability of the system. • Na-decorated graphyne compounds are metallic and might be used in electronics. • The sodium-adsorbed graphyne can be used as electrodes in Na-ion battery. - Abstract: We present first-principles calculations of the electronic properties of Na-decorated graphyne. This structure of the graphyne family is a direct band gap semiconductor with a band gap of 0.44 eV in absence of sodium, but Na-decorated graphyne compounds are metallic, and can then be employed as carbon-based conductors. Metallization is due to charge donation from sodium to carbon. Pristine graphyne is more stable than Na-decorated graphyne, therefore is seems probable that, if this material should be employed as electrode in Na-ion batteries, it would lead to the formation of metallic sodium rather than well dispersed sodium ions. On the other side, this property might be useful if graphyne is employed in water desalination. Finally, the abrupt change from a semiconducting to a metallic state in presence of a small amount of sodium might be exploited in electronics, e.g. for the production of smooth metal–semiconductor interfaces through spatially selective deposition of sodium.

  20. UK position paper on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, G J [National Nuclear Corporation Ltd., Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Glass, D [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment, Thurso, Caithness (United Kingdom); Newman, R N [Central Electricity Generating Board, Berekely Nuclear Laboratory, Berkeley, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom); Ramsdale, S A [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate, Culcheth, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Snelling, K W [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  1. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pae, Jae Huem; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Sik; Lee, Choong Hui; Chung, Ki Hong; Keum, Choong Ki [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    Sodium is commonly used as a coolant in liquid metal reactor. A large amount of its leakage may be possible in hypothetical accidents, even though the possibility is very low. In case that the leaked hot sodium comes in direct contact with structural concrete of liquid metal reactor, the reactor`s integrity can be challenged by the rupture of structure materials, hydrogen generation and its explosion, and release of radioactive aerosols due to sodium-concrete reaction. The knowledge of sodium-concrete reaction is evaluated to be one of the important and indispensable technologies for the establishment of safety measure in liquid metal reactor. In this study, the experimental facility of sodium-concrete reaction is to be designed, constructed and operated. And the reaction phenomena of sodium-concrete reaction is also to be analyzed through the experimental results. The aim of this study is to establish the measure of safety and protection for sodium-related facilities and to secure one of the fundamental technologies of liquid metal reactor safety. 47 refs., 7 figs., 13 tab.

  2. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    2012-01-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  3. UK position paper on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.; Glass, D.; Newman, R.N.; Ramsdale, S.A.; Snelling, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  4. Installation for the suppression of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.; Lee, C.J.; Rowe, D.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic operating principles are discussed of a passive baffle-catch tray fire suppression system for sodium fires. A new design is described incorporating increased compartmentalization of the collecting and drainage parts of the device. The burning and smoke generation rates from trays with varying aperture sizes were measured. From the experiments it was found that the burning rate and smoke generation rates could be related satisfactorily to the aperture areas. For the smallest aperture size ( 2 ) it was found that the smoke release was considerably less than that from a fire of the same area, because the smoke deposited on the underside of the baffle. A re-ignition problem was found, where pillars of sodium oxide (wicks) grow upward from the surface of the drained sodium and begin to burn when level with the baffle aperature. From a knowledge of the rate of growth of the wicks, trays may be made sufficiently deep to avoid the problem. Self acting valves were developed which allow the passage of sodium through the aperture and close when drainage is complete. These devices were shown to effect complete extinction of the drained sodium. Using the designs proposed it is possible to construct a system that will reduce the smoke emission from the drained sodium by a factor approaching 10 3 , without the use of valves, or with the self acting valves developed, reduce the emission from the drained sodium to approximately zero. (author)

  5. Under sodium ultrasonic imaging system for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, V.H.; Lalwani, S.K.; Agashe, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Under Sodium UltraSonic Scanner (USUSS) has been developed to detect the growth and protrusion of fuel sub-assemblies of PFBR, submerged in liquid sodium by using the ultrasonic imaging technique during reactor shut-down when liquid sodium is at 180 ℃. The imaging is carried out prior to every Fuel handling operation. Electronics Division, BARC has designed and developed an 8-Channel Ultrasonic Imaging System (UIS) which consists of 4 downward viewing and 4 side viewing ultrasonic transducers alongwith pulser-receiver, signal processing electronics hardware and software. An automated mechanical scanner developed by IGCAR houses sodium immersible transducers to image the fuel sub assemblies. The system has been successfully tested with dummy protruding and grown FSAs, submerged under liquid sodium. Such ultrasonic imaging systems are not available to India from international market. The USUSS developed indigenously has all the features available in similar systems developed by other countries. After every imaging campaign, the mechanical scanner containing ultrasonic transducers is stored in the Argon filled storage-pit. Before every campaign of USUSS, it is necessary to check the healthiness of the sodium immersible and contaminated ultrasonic transducers, as the under-sodium scanner is decontaminated once in five years. For this purpose, a novel Non Contact Ultrasonic Inspection System (NCUIS) has been designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC to check the functionality of the high-temperature and contaminated transducers of USUSS, using air-coupled ultrasonic technique. (author)

  6. Iodine release from sodium pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Yokota, N.; Akagane, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine release associated with sodium pool combustion was determined by heating 20 gr sodium containing sodium iodide, which was labelled with 131 I and dissolved in the sodium in concentration of 1∼1,000 ppm, to burn on a nickel crucible in conditioned atmosphere in a closed vessel of 0.4 m 3 . Oxygen concentration was changed in 5∼21% and humidity in 0∼89% by mixing nitrogen gas and air. Combustion products were trapped by a Maypack filter composed of particle filters, copper screens and activated charcoal beds and by a glass beads pack cooled by liquid argon. Iodine collected on these filter elements was determined by radio-gas chromatography. When the sodium sample burned in the atmosphere of air at room temperature, the release fractions observed were 6∼33% for sodium and 1∼20% for iodine added in the sodium. The release iodine was present in aerosol at a ratio of 98%, and the remainder in the gas form. The release fraction of iodine trended to decrease as oxygen concentration and humidity in the atmosphere increased. No organic iodide was detected in the combustion products. (author)

  7. Computer simulation for sodium-concrete reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Zhu Jizhou

    2006-01-01

    In the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), direct contacts between sodium and concrete is unavoidable. Due to sodium's high chemical reactivity, sodium would react with concrete violently. Lots of hydrogen gas and heat would be released then. This would harm the ignorantly of the containment. This paper developed a program to simualte sodium-conrete reactions across-the-board. It could give the reaction zone temperature, pool temperature, penetration depth, penetration rate, hydrogen flux and reaction heat and so on. Concrete was considered to be composed of silica and water only in this paper. The variable, the quitient of sodium hydroxide, was introduced in the continuity equation to simulate the chemical reactions more realistically. The product of the net gas flux and boundary depth was ably transformed to that of penetration rate and boundary depth. The complex chemical kinetics equations was simplified under some hypothesises. All the technique applied above simplified the computer simulation consumedly. In other words, they made the computer simulation feasible. Theoretics models that applied in the program and the calculation procedure were expatiated in detail. Good agreements of an overall transient behavior were obtained in the series of sodium-concrete reaction experiment analysis. The comparison between the analytical and experimental results showed the program presented in this paper was creditable and reasonable for simulating the sodium-concrete reactions. This program could be used for nuclear safety judgement. (authors)

  8. Removal of sodium from the component of the sodium purification loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high-oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  9. Review of the sodium fire experiments including sodium-concrete-reactions and summary of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.

    1996-01-01

    In the technical and design concept of containment systems of sodium cooled breeder reactors it has to be considered, that leakages in sodium pipes lead to sodium fires. The temperature and pressure rise caused by sodium fires makes it indispensable to analyse these accidents to be able to assess the safety of the whole system. Generally sodium leakages may lead to three different types of fires with different consequences. The main influences are the geometry of the leakage, shape, size, location, and the sodium conditions, such as temperature, flow rate and velocity. It must be also considered the reaction of sodium with surfaces like concrete. The paper gives an overview over all the sodium fire experiments performed in the FAUNA-facility (220 m 3 ) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the years 1979 to 1993. The experimental program started with the investigation of pool fires on burning areas between 2 and 12 m 2 with up to 500 kg of Sodium. The experiments had been continued with 3 combined fires and 40 experiments on spray fires. 7 experiments on sodium-concrete reactions completed the program. (author)

  10. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na + -K + -ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional 22 Na and 36 Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na + -K + -ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until ∼64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s)

  11. An investigation of sodium iodide solubility in sodium-stainless steel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Norihiko; Tashiro, Suguru

    1996-01-01

    Sodium iodide and major constituents of stainless steel in sodium are determined by using the steel capsules to obtain a better understanding on contribution of the constituents to the apparent iodide solubility in sodium. The capsule loaded with 20 g sodium and 0.1 - 0.3 g powder of sodium iodide is heated at its upper part in a furnace and cooled at its bottom on brass plates to establish a large temperature gradient along the capsule tube. After a given period of equilibration, the iodide and constituents are fixed in solidified sodium by quick quenching of the capsules. Sodium samples are taken from the sectioned capsule tube and submitted to sodium dissolution by vaporized water for determination of the iodine and to vacuum distillation for determination of the metal elements. Iron and nickel concentrations are observed to be lower in the samples at higher iodine concentrations. Chromium and manganese concentrations are seen to be insensitive to the iodine concentrations. The observations can be interpreted by a model that sodium oxide combines with metal iodide in sodium to form a complex compound and with consideration that the compound will fall and deposit onto the bottom of the capsule by thermal diffusion. (author)

  12. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1977-01-01

    The sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface was studied. The analysis was performed by assuming that the sodium mist is emitted into the main flow without condensation and then grows up in the main flow and drops on the sodium surface. The effects of growth of sodium mist to the system were investigated. The model of the phenomena is the sodium deposition onto a horizontal flat plate which is placed above the sodium surface with the medium cover gas. One-dimensional analysis can be done. The rate of deposition is greatly reduced when the temperature of the flat plate is lowered. For the analysis of this phenomena, it is assumed that the sodium mist grows by condensation. One of results is that the real state may be the state between the state that the condensation of mist is made in the boundary layer and the state that the mist is condensed in the main flow. Others are that there is no effect of sodium mist condensation on the rate of deposition, and that the rate of the vaporization of sodium is given by the original and the modified model. (Kato, T.)

  13. Dynamic thermal baffle on lower head of FBR sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnel, A.; Foussat, C.

    1981-01-01

    The cover head of the heat exchanger is bathed on the one side by the primary sodium of the 'cold' header of the vessel and on the other side by the secondary sodium which feeds the heat exchange tube bank through the lower tubesheet. In the case of transient or permanent operating conditions at partial ratings, there are large temperature differences between the inner sodium (inlet temperature conditions of secondary sodium) and the outer sodium (mean temperature conditions in the primary sodium outlet port), hence the necessity of designing a thermal baffle which protects the head and its connection to the tubesheet. A 'static' thermal baffle consisting of a thick steel plate enclosing static sodium around the head proves inadequate during transient operating conditions. This is why a 'dynamic' thermal baffle is used whose design is based on the fact that the primary sodium in the lower part of the outlet port is always at a temperature close to that of the secondary sodium in the inlet header and the head. The primary sodium is taken from the bottom of the outlet port by a ring deflector and circulates in an annulus created by a double housing and the head. It flows out through openings in the lower part of the housing. (orig./GL)

  14. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  15. Overflow type sodium sampler for FBTR circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Ganesan, V.; Chandran, K.; Periaswami, G.

    1996-01-01

    Obtaining a representative sample is crucial for getting reliable results in sodium analysis. Sampling liquid sodium reliability is complicated since impurities segregate while cooling. Selective sorption of certain elements calls for use of different crucible materials for various sodium impurities. Sampling methods currently in use such as flow through sampling and dip sampling are not the proper methods as they can not take care of the above problems. An overflow type sampler where the entire sample contained in a crucible can be used for analysis thus obviating problems due to segregation has been developed for use in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). This report describes the construction and operation of this sampler. (author)

  16. IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ''Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated

  17. Conceptural design of multipurpose sodium test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Yuh, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the conceptural design of the multipurpose sodium test loop (MSTL). This MSTL consists mainly of impurity control and measurement system, corrosion and masstransfer system and heat transfer system. Problems associated with liquid sodium coolant will be studied and operating experiences will be obtained by the use of this facility. This technology will be used to evaluate safety and reliability of large sodium facility in the future. The total cost excluding the cost of building construction is estimated to 175 thousand dollars. (Author)

  18. Calculation of thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of sodium previously recommended by Padilla have been updated. As much as possible, the approach described by Padilla has been used. For sodium in the states of saturated liquid and vapor, subcooled liquid and superheated vapor, the following thermodynamic properties were determined: enthalpy, heat capacity (constant pressure and constant volume), pressure, density, thermal-expansion coefficient, and compressibility (adiabatic and isothermal). In addition to the above properties, thermodynamic properties including heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, surface tension, speed of sound and transport properties of themal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, emissivity, and viscosity were determined for saturated sodium

  19. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K; Gardner, J J; Lockley, W J.S.; Preston, J R; Wilkinson, D J [Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/l when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/l which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  1. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000 0 F (427 and 538 0 C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  2. A method for the manufacture of nuclear-purity sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Paul; Graff, Willy.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for the manufacture of sodium from the amalgam provided by sodium chloride aqueous electrolysis cells, comprising the steps of treating the sodium amalgam by a sodium polysulfide or a mixture of sodium polysulfide in anhydrous alcohol solution, then causing the thus obtained sodium monosulfide to react with a polysulfide or a mixture of polysulfides so as to obtain a mixture of sodium polysulfides with a higher sodium content, and finally separating sodium through the electrolysis of the sodium-rich polysulfides, the electrolysis being carried out in an electrolytic cell with β-alumina solid electrolyte operating at a temperature between 250 and 300 deg C, in which the polysulfide forms the anode compartment and sodium the cathode compartment [fr

  3. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels Albert; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjorn; Jurgens, Gesche

    2017-01-01

    Background: In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of whether a reduced sodium intake improves health is still unsolved. Objectives: To estimate the effects of low sodium intake versus high sodium intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), plasma or serum...... results: A total of 185 studies were included. The average sodium intake was reduced from 201 mmol/day (corresponding to high usual level) to 66 mmol/day (corresponding to the recommended level). The effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP) was as follows: white people with normotension: SBP.......0005) and triglyceride (P sodium intake as compared with high sodium intake. All effects were stable in 125 study populations with a sodium intake below 250 mmol/day and a sodium reduction intervention of at least one week. Authors' conclusions: Sodium reduction from an average high usual sodium...

  4. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dogs, sausage and ham. Buy fresh or frozen poultry or meat that hasn't been injected with ... use of sodium-laden condiments. Soy sauce, salad dressings, sauces, dips, ketchup, mustard and relish all contain ...

  5. Ultrasonic sweep arm for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrbacher, H.A.; Bartholomay, R.

    1975-05-01

    This report describes experience in the use of a new type of monitoring and testing device to be applied in conjunction with components under sodium. In the method outlined, ultrasonic pulses are used which are emitted into the sodium plenum of fast breeder reactors by newly developed high temperature transducers. The basic work was conducted under out-of-pile conditions in a sodium tank of the sodium tank facility of the Karlsruhe Institute for Reactor Development. The sensor development, which preceded this phase, resulted in the use of soldered lithium niobate crystals whose operating characteristics were improved by the preliminary treatment outlined in the report. Special materials and techniques suitable for sensor fabrication are proposed. An alternative to soldering is suggested for contacting the crystals with their diaphragms, i.e. a contact pressure concept for the range of application up to 2 MHz. (orig.) [de

  6. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sodium alginate composite (F–C–SA) in sheet form. F–C–SA composite was prepared and characterized for its physicochemical properties like water absorption capacity, surface morphology, FTIR spectra and mechanical properties.

  7. Antimicrobial efficacy of nanosilver, sodium hypochlorite and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NS), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Two tests of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zone of inhibition were carried out using NS, NaOCl and CHX. 70-fold ...

  8. Filtration of sodium-fire aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexas, A.; Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1979-01-01

    Different filter devices have been developed and tested with respect to their use in the off-gas system of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to prevent the escape of sodium-fire aerosols that might be formed in case of an accident. The testing results have shown that the use of a multilayer sand bed filter is still the best method to filter limited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time. Efficiencies on the order of 99.98 and 98.8% were reached for loading capacities of 500 and 1000 g/m 2 , respectively. Unlimited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols can be filtered by wet scrubbers with an efficiency of 70% per scrubber stage. Fiberglas filters connot be used for the filtration of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time because the filter material can be destroyed after several days of operating

  9. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.; Richard, J.; Godbillon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dicolofenac sodium labelled with deuterium in the phenylacetic ring was prepared from [ 2 H 5 ]-bromobenzene in a six-step reaction. It was found to be suitable for use in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in man. (Author)

  10. Monju secondary heat transport system sodium leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Hiroi, Hiroshi; Usami, Shin; Iwata, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    On December 8, 1995, the sodium leakage from the secondary heat transport system (SHTS) occurred in the piping room of the reactor auxiliary building in Monju. The secondary sodium leaked through a temperature sensor, due to the breakaway of the tip of the well tube of the sensor installed near the outlet of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the C loop of SHTS. The reactor core remained cooled and thus, from the viewpoint of radiological hazards, the safety of the reactor was secured. There were no adverse effects for operating personnel or the surrounding environment. The cause of the well tube failure is considered to result from high cycle fatigue due to flow induced vibrations. Delay in draining the sodium from the leaking loop increased the consequential effects from sodium combustion products. (author)

  11. Small sodium valve design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, R.; Elie, X.; Vercasson, M.; Nedelec, J.

    1974-01-01

    Conventionally, valves for sodium pipes smaller than 125 mm in diameter are called ''small sodium valves''. However, this limit should rather be considered as the lower limit o ''large sodium valves''. In fact, both the largest sizes of small valves and the smallest of large valves can be found in the range of 125-300 mm in diameter. Thus what is said about small valves also applies, for a few valve types, above the 125 mm limit. Sodium valves are described here in a general manner, with no manufacturing details except when necessary for understanding valve behavior. Operating experience is pointed out wherever possible. Finally, some information is given about ongoing or proposed development plans. (U.S.)

  12. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a ... method, and the particle size analysis was carried out by scanning electron ... capacity of sodium alginate was evaluated in terms of drug to polymer ratio.

  13. CRBRP sodium circulating pump design evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrujo, F.; Cook, M.; Manners, L.; Cothran, H.

    1977-12-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) primary sodium pump design concept; (2) pump level control system; (3) resolution of design problems in stress analysis, dynamics analysis, and mechanical design; (4) model testing; (5) planned performance tests; and (6) fabrication status

  14. Parabrachial and hypothalamic interaction in sodium appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayawansa, S.; Peckins, S.; Ruch, S.

    2011-01-01

    Rats with bilateral lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) fail to exhibit sodium appetite. Lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) also block salt appetite. The PBN projection to the LH is largely ipsilateral. If these deficits are functionally dependent, damaging the PBN on one side and the LH on the other should also block Na appetite. First, bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the LH were needed because the electrolytic damage used previously destroyed both cells and axons. The ibotenic LH lesions produced substantial weight loss and eliminated Na appetite. Controls with ipsilateral PBN and LH lesions gained weight and displayed robust sodium appetite. The rats with asymmetric PBN-LH lesions also gained weight, but after sodium depletion consistently failed to increase intake of 0.5 M NaCl. These results dissociate loss of sodium appetite from the classic weight loss after LH damage and prove that Na appetite requires communication between neurons in the LH and the PBN. PMID:21270347

  15. Polymerization of sodium methacrylate induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan S, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work has two objectives, first: it is pretended to localize the lines of carbon links in its IR spectra, and second: following the polymerization of sodium methacrylate according to that it is irradiated with gamma rays. (Author)

  16. Sodium removal from Hallam Reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntsman, L.K.; Meservey, R.H.

    1979-08-01

    This report discussed the removal of sodium from major components of the Hallam Nuclear Power Facility. This facility contained the experimental ractor used to test the feasibility of sodium coolant. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy assigned EG and G Idaho, Inc., the task of carrying out this decontamination and decommissioning program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Since their shipment to the INEL from Lincoln, Nebraska in 1968, the Hallam Reactor components had been stored in inert nitrogen to prevent the sodium in the components from reacting with moisture in the air. The procedure used to react the sodium in the components and to decontaminate them is discussed. Problems and unusual occurrences in the decontamination and decommissioning process are also reported

  17. Sodium vapour aerosol formation and sodium deposition current work within the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawtin, P [Chemical Engineering Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Seed, G [Nuclear Power Company (Risley) Ltd, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1977-01-01

    The significance to reactor operation of sodium transport through the cover gas of a sodium-cooled fast reactor and its subsequent deposition on cooled reactor surfaces is fully appreciated in the UK. A programme of work is therefore underway designed to understand the mechanism of sodium transport under these conditions. This paper described the work which has so far been completed, discussed the work presently in progress, and outlines future plans. (author)

  18. Apparatus for removing impurities in the sodium of sodium cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, A

    1970-11-11

    An apparatus is provided for removing oxygen from liquid sodium flowing in a sodium cooled reactor. The removal of oxygen is complete with high efficiency. The liquid sodium to be purified is disposed outside a cylindrical wall and negatively charged, whereas sodium as a reducing material is disposed inside the same wall. The cylindrical wall is made of zirconia-calcia (ZrO/sub 2/)sub(0.87)(CaO)sub(0.13) solid electrolyte, the cylinder having a thickness of 2.5mm, a diameter of 3cm and a depth of 20cm under the sodium level. Electric resistance of the solid electrolyte is 2.3 ohm at 500/sup 0/C. A current of 1A by the application of 25 volts treats 0.3g of oxygen. Consequently, 1 liter or 1kg of liquid sodium containing 1,000ppm of oxygen can be purified for about 3 hours at an electrical consumption of 7.5 watt-hour. In one embodiment, a cylindrical electrolytic solid made of zirconia-calcia or zirconia-yttria was disposed in a container. Liquid sodium containing oxygen flowed outside of the cylinder. Liquid sodium as a reducing material was present inside the cylinder and the container and the cylinder were electrically insulated. An electrode was inserted at the center of the cylinder and a baffle plate at the upper portion of the electrode to shield heat and rising sodium vapor was provided. The space above the container was filled with an inert gas. The oxygen in the liquid sodium to be purified transferred through the wall of the cylinder into the interior of the cylinder so as to oxydize the reducing sodium material. The supersaturated sodium oxide inside the cylinder was deposited.

  19. Astrocyte Sodium Signalling and Panglial Spread of Sodium Signals in Brain White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Behrouz; Hammel, Evelyn L; Kafitz, Karl W; Rose, Christine R

    2017-09-01

    In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum. Focal application of glutamate induced sodium transients in SR101-positive astrocytes. These were largely unaltered in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptors blockers, but strongly dampened upon pharmacological inhibition of glutamate uptake. Sodium signals induced in individual astrocytes readily spread into neighboring SR101-positive cells with peak amplitudes decaying monoexponentially with distance from the stimulated cell. In addition, spread of sodium was largely unaltered during pharmacological inhibition of purinergic and glutamate receptors, indicating gap junction-mediated, passive diffusion of sodium between astrocytes. Using cell-type-specific, transgenic reporter mice, we found that sodium signals also propagated, albeit less effectively, from astrocytes to neighboring oligodendrocytes and NG2 cells. Again, panglial spread was unaltered with purinergic and glutamate receptors blocked. Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters induces sodium signals in white matter astrocytes, which spread within the astrocyte syncytium. In addition, we found a panglial passage of sodium signals from astrocytes to NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes, indicating functional coupling between these macroglial cells in white matter.

  20. Behaviour of oxygen in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1975-01-01

    In this work, the vacuum distillation method has been used for the determination of oxygen concentration in liquid sodium. During this investigation, more than 800 analyses have been made and a fluctuation of between 15 and 20$ has been noted in the results. The performance of a cold trap to remove oxygen from sodium has been studied and the corresponding mass transfer coefficient evaluated. The value of this coefficient was in good agreement with those achieved by other workers. (Authors) 69 refs

  1. Rechargeable sodium all-solid-state battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B.

    2017-01-01

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  2. Bleaching of Wool with Sodium Borohydride

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Yilmazer, MSc.; Mehmet Kanik, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    An untreated wool fabric was bleached both with sodium borohydride (SBH) in the presence of sodium bisulphite (SBS) solution and with a commercial H2O2 bleaching method. The concentration effects of SBH and SBS, bleaching time, pH and temperature on SBH bleaching process were investigated. Whiteness, yellowness and alkali solubility results were assessed for both bleaching methods. The results showed that whiteness degrees obtained with SBH bleaching was comparable with that of H2O2 bleaching...

  3. Energetics of sodium efflux from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbolla, M.G.; Rosen, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    When energy-starved cells of Escherichia coli were passively loaded with 22 Na+, efflux of sodium could be initiated by addition of a source of metabolic energy. Conditions were established where the source of energy was phosphate bond energy, an electrochemical proton gradient, or both. Only an electrochemical proton gradient was required for efflux from intact cells. These results are consistent with secondary exchange of Na+ for H+ catalyzed by a sodium/proton antiporter

  4. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  5. Assessment of flow induced vibration in a sodium-sodium heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, V. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.in; Thirumalai, M.; Prabhakar, R.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-01-15

    The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under construction at Kalpakkam. It is a liquid metal sodium cooled pool type fast reactor with all primary components located inside a sodium pool. The heat produced due to fission in the core is transported by primary sodium to the secondary sodium in a sodium to sodium Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX), which in turn is transferred to water in the steam generator. PFBR IHX is a shell and tube type heat exchanger with primary sodium on shell side and secondary sodium in the tube side. Since IHX is one of the critical components placed inside the radioactive primary sodium, trouble-free operation of the IHX is very much essential for power plant availability. To validate the design and the adequacy of the support system provided for the IHX, flow induced vibration (FIV) experiments were carried out in a water test loop on a 60 deg. sector model. This paper discusses the flow induced vibration measurements carried out in 60 deg. sector model of IHX, the modeling criteria, the results and conclusion.

  6. Parametric study of sodium aerosols in the cover-gas space of sodium-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, A.

    1975-03-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the behavior of sodium aerosols in the cover-gas space of a sodium-cooled reactor. A review of the literature was first made to examine methods of aerosol generation, mathematical expressions representing aerosol behavior, and pertinent experimental investigations of sodium aerosols. In the development of the model, some terms were derived from basic principles and other terms were estimated from available correlations. The model was simulated on a computer, and important parameters were studied to determine their effects on the overall behavior of sodium aerosols. The parameters studied were sodium pool temperature, source and initial size of particles, film thickness at the sodium pool/cover gas interface, wall plating parameters, cover-gas flow rate, and type of cover gas (argon and helium). The model satisfactorily describes the behavior of sodium aerosol in argon, but not in helium. Possible reasons are given for the failure of the model with helium, and further experimental work is recommended. The mathematical model, with appropriate modifications to describe the behavior of sodium aerosols in helium, would be very useful in designing traps to remove aerosols from the cover gas of sodium-cooled reactors. (U.S.)

  7. NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

    2013-09-01

    Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

  8. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Denning, Richard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic event Energetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolant Entrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached cladding Rates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodium Surface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclides Thermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphere Reactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  9. Annual report 1974. Sodium technology development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The sodium technology development program comprises a number of separate research programs in the field of designing and testing parts and components for the SNR-300 reactor. Design studies and theoretical studies on cold trapping and the behavior of hydrogen in sodium circuits are reported. A preliminary test program for fighting sodium fires is completed. Results of research done on vibration measurements and counter-current mixing in a dummy tube bundle of a S.N.R. spiralized steam generator with counter-current flow are reported briefly. Research done in the field of heat transfer, pressure drop and bubble dynamics of a straight pipe steam generator are also briefly reported. To determine the influence of spiral diameter of the spiralized pipe on heat transfer in a spiralized pipe heat exchanger, a second testsection will be built in 1975. Research was reported on pump viscoseals, bearing stability, rotordynamics and bearing materials for sodium pumps. Research done on the properties of SNR-construction materials at high temperature and long time exposure and corrosion in sodium are reported. Fundamental research on corrosion accompanied this research. The report closes with results of weldability, mechanized-welding and remote welding of sodium-wetted surfaces

  10. Pet food safety: sodium in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2008-08-01

    Healthy dogs and cats appear to be able to adjust to differing amounts of sodium in their diet via the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanisms. There is no strong evidence that increased dietary sodium increases the risk of hypertension in dogs and cats, and the current recommendation for hypertensive animals is to avoid high dietary salt intake without making a specific effort to restrict it. The prevalence of salt sensitivity and its effect on blood pressure has not been determined for cats or dogs. The ideal amount of sodium in the diet of dogs and cats with cardiac deficiency has not been determined, as increasing may detrimentally increase the extracellular fluid volume, but decreasing it may detrimentally increase the activation of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Increased dietary sodium increases urine output and may decrease the risk of forming calcium oxalate uroliths due to the decrease in relative supersaturation of solutes. However, caution should be used in increasing the sodium intake of patients with renal disease as increased dietary sodium may have a negative effect on the kidneys independent of any effect on blood pressure.

  11. Evaluation of determinative methods for sodium impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Marcelo; Guido, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose; Ares, Osvaldo

    1988-01-01

    Sodium, universally accepted as heat transfer fluid in fast breeder reactors, requires a special technology for every operation involved in any applicable methodology, due to its well known chemical reactivity. The purpose of this work is: a) to study the sources and effects of chemical species which, as traces, accompany sodium used in the nuclear field; b) to classify, taking into account, the present requirements and resources of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the procedures found in the literature for determination of the most important impurities which exist in experimental liquid sodium systems and c) to describe the principles of the methods and to evaluate them in order to make a selection. It was concluded the convenience to develop, as a first stage, laboratory procedures to determine carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and non-volatile impurities, which besides serving present needs, will be referential for direct methods with undeferred response. The latter are needed in liquid sodium experimental loops and require, primarily, more complex and extended development. Additionally, a description is made of experimental work performed up-to-now in this laboratory, consisting of a transfer device for sodium sampling and a sodium distillation device, adapted from a previous design, with associated vacuum and inert gas systems. It is intended as a separative technique for indirect determination of oxygen and non-volatile impurities. (Author) [es

  12. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal

  13. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

  14. Use of sodium salt electrolysis in the process of continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents test results concerning the selection of sodium salt for the technology of continuous modification of the EN AC-AlSi12 alloy, which is based on electrolysis of sodium salts, occurring directly in a crucible with liquid alloy. Sodium ions formed as a result of the sodium salt dissociation and the electrolysis are ...

  15. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m<3>, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of sodium

  16. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  17. Methods for the sodium cooled fast reactor fire safety provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, B.V.; Dergachev, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    Problems of fire safety provision on NPPs with sodium cooled fast reactor are under discussion. Methods of sodium leak localization, measures eliminating sodium flaring up during leaks and main means of sodium fire extinguishing are considered. An extinguishing of sodium flaring up is performed by means of sodium temperatUre decrease and by limitation of hydrogen access to the flaring up surface. A conclusion is made that the most effective methods of extinguishing are the following: self-extinguishing (due to hydrogen burning out in a limiting volume); extinguishing by a gas mixture of nitrogen and carbonic acid (initial filling and blowing of rooms during sodium flaring up); extinguishing by special powders

  18. Method of processing radioactive metallic sodium with recycling alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko; Mitsuzuka, Norimasa.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To employ high safety alcohol procession and decrease the amount of wastes in the procession of radioactive metallic sodium discharged from LMFBR type reactors. Method: Radioactive metallic sodium containing long half-decay period nuclides such as cesium, strontium, barium, cerium, lanthanum or zirconium is dissolved in an alcohol at about 70% purity. After extracting the sodium alcoholate thus formed, gaseous hydrochloride is blown-in to separate the sodium alcoholate into alcohol and sodium chloride, and regenerated alcohol is used again for dissolving sodium metal. The sodium chloride thus separated is processed into solid wastes. (Furukawa, Y.)

  19. Water Mock-up for the Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    It is important to safely treat the waste sodium which was produced from the sodium cooled fast reactors and the sodium facilities. About 1.3 tons of sodium waste has accumulated at KAERI from the sodium experiments which have been carried out since 1990. Also, large scaled sodium experiments are scheduled to verify the design of the sodium cooled fast reactor. As a treatment method for the waste sodium produced at the sodium facility, an investigation of the reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide aqueous has been developed. The NOAH process was developed in France for the treatment of waste sodium produced from sodium facilities and reactors. In the NOAH process, a small amount of sodium waste is continuously injected into the upper space which is formed on the free surface of the aqueous and slowly reacted with sodium hydroxide aqueous. Since the density of the sodium is lower than that of the aqueous, the injected sodium waste sometimes accumulates above the free surface of the sodium hydroxide aqueous, and its reaction rate becomes slow or suddenly increases. In the improved process, the sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a sodium hydroxide aqueous through an atomizing nozzle installed on a lower level than that of the aqueous to maintain the reaction uniformly. Fig.1 shows the sodium waste process which was proposed in KAERI. The aqueous is composed of 60% sodium hydroxide, and its temperature is about 60 .deg. C. The process is an exothermic reaction. The hydrogen gas is generated, and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide increases in this process. It needs several systems for the process, i.e. a waste sodium injection, a cooling of the aqueous, hydrogen ventilation, and neutralization with nitric acid. The atomizing nozzle was designed to inject the sodium with the nitrogen gas which supplies a heat to the sodium to prevent its solidification and to uniformly mix the sodium with the aqueous. There are

  20. Development of sodium leak detectors for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvia, J.I.; Rao, P. Vijayamohana; Babu, B.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sodium leak detection system developed for PFBR using diverse principle. ► Miniature, remotely locatable diverse leak detector developed for Main Vessel. ► Mutual inductance type leak detectors designed and adapted for different locations. ► Sodium Ionisation detectors used for area monitoring. ► Crosswire type leak detector designed, developed and tested. - Abstract: The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam near Chennai in India. The wide and high operating temperature, highly chemically active nature of sodium and its reaction with air make the sodium instrumentation complex over the conventional instrumentation. Over the years, traditional instruments such as wire type leak detectors, spark plug type leak detectors were developed and used in different sodium systems. The redundant and diverse leak detection method calls for development of special instrumentation for sodium systems which include sodium ionization (leak) detector for detecting minute sodium leak in addition to those systems based on mutual inductance principle. For detection of sodium leak from reactor Main Vessel (MV), diverse methods are used such as miniature, remotely locatable, Mutual Inductance type Leak Detector(MILD) and specially modified spark plug type leak detector. The design of MILD is suitably modified for detecting leak in double wall pipes and Diverse Safety Rod drive Mechanism (DSRDM). Steam/water leak in steam generator produces hydrogen and leads to high pressure and temperature in the system. Rupture disc is used as a safety device which punctures itself due to sudden pressure rise. To detect the discharge of sodium and its reaction products at the downstream of the rupture disc due to bursting of the rupture disc, cross wire type leak detector has been designed, developed and tested. The selection of the leak detection system depends on the location where leak has to be detected. This paper

  1. Sodium Flux Growth of Bulk Gallium Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Dollen, Paul Martin

    This dissertation focused on development of a novel apparatus and techniques for crystal growth of bulk gallium nitride (GaN) using the sodium flux method. Though several methods exist to produce bulk GaN, none have been commercialized on an industrial scale. The sodium flux method offers potentially lower cost production due to relatively mild process conditions while maintaining high crystal quality. But the current equipment and methods for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN are generally not amenable to large-scale crystal growth or in situ investigation of growth processes, which has hampered progress. A key task was to prevent sodium loss or migration from the sodium-gallium growth melt while permitting N2 gas to access the growing crystal, which was accomplished by implementing a reflux condensing stem along with a reusable sealed capsule. The reflux condensing stem also enabled direct monitoring and control of the melt temperature, which has not been previously reported for the sodium flux method. Molybdenum-based materials were identified from a corrosion study as candidates for direct containment of the corrosive sodium-gallium melt. Successful introduction of these materials allowed implementation of a crucible-free containment system, which improved process control and can potentially reduce crystal impurity levels. Using the new growth system, the (0001) Ga face (+c plane) growth rate was >50 mum/hr, which is the highest bulk GaN growth rate reported for the sodium flux method. Omega X-ray rocking curve (?-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were 1020 atoms/cm3, possibly due to reactor cleaning and handling procedures. This dissertation also introduced an in situ technique to correlate changes in N2 pressure with dissolution of nitrogen and precipitation of GaN from the sodium-gallium melt. Different stages of N2 pressure decay were identified and linked to

  2. Investigation for the sodium leak in Monju. Sodium leak and fire test-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Koji; Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    2000-08-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in the Monju reactor (hereinafter referred to as Monju) on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) a sodium leak test, (2) a sodium leak and fire test-1, and (3) a sodium leak and fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PEC. The main objectives of these tests were to confirm the leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and the effects of the sodium fire on the integrity of the surrounding structure. This report describes the results of the sodium fire test-I carried out as a preliminary test. The test was performed using the SOLFA-2 (Sodium Leak, Fire and Aerosol) facility on April 8, 1996. In this test, sodium heated to 480degC was leaked for approximately 1.5 hours from a leak simulating apparatus and caused to drop onto a ventilation duct and a grating with the same dimensions and layout as those in Monju. The main conclusions obtained from the test are shown below: 1) Observation from video cameras in the test revealed that in the early stages of the sodium leak, sodium dripped out of the flexible tube of the thermometer. This dripping and burning expanded in range as the sodium splashed on the duct. 2) No damage to the duct itself was detected. However, the aluminum louver frame of the ventilation duct's lower inlet was damaged. Its machine screws came off, leaving half of the grill (on the grating side) detached. 3) No large hole, like the one seen at Monju, was found when the grating was removed from the testing system for inspection, although the area centered on the point were the sodium dripped was damaged in a way indicating the first stages of grating failure. The 5mm square lattice was corroded through in some parts, and numerous blades (originally 3.2 mm thick) had become sharpened like the blade of a knife. 4) The burning pan underside thermocouple near the leak point measured 700degC in within approximately 10 minutes, and for the next hour remained

  3. Corrosion behaviors of ceramics against liquid sodium. Sodium corrosion characteristics of sintering additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yoshiaki; Kano, Shigeki; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1998-01-01

    It has been progressed as the Frontier Materials Research to research and develop ceramics to apply for several components of fast breeder reactor using liquid sodium as coolant instead of metallic materials. Grain boundary of ceramics has peculiar properties compared with matrix because most of ceramics are produced by hardening and firing their raw powders. Some previous researchers indicated that ceramics were mainly corroded at grain boundaries by liquid sodium, and ceramics could not be used under corrosive environment. Thus, it is the most important for the usage of ceramics in liquid sodium to improve corrosion resistance of grain boundaries. In order to develop the advanced ceramics having good sodium corrosion resistance among fine ceramics, which have recently been progressed in quality and characteristics remarkably, sodium corrosion behaviors of typical sintering additives such as MgO, Y 2 O 3 and AlN etc. have been examined and evaluated. As a result, the followings have been clarified and some useful knowledge about developing advanced ceramics having good corrosion resistance against liquid sodium has been obtained. (1) Sodium corrosion behavior of MgO depended on Si content. Samples containing large amount of Si were corroded severely by liquid sodium, whereas others with low Si contents showed good corrosion resistance. (2) Both Y 2 O 3 and AlN, which contained little Si, showed good sodium corrosion resistance. (3) MgO, Y 2 O 3 and AlN are thought to be corroded by liquid sodium, if they contain some SiO 2 . Therefore, in order to improve sodium corrosion resistance, it is very important for these ceramics to prevent the contamination of matrix with SiO 2 through purity control of their raw powders. (author)

  4. Current status of sodium fire and aerosol research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1989-01-01

    State-of-the-art of the research and development related to sodium fire and aerosol behaviour is presented. This paper covers the Japanese work on sodium leak, leak detector, sodium oxidation and combustion, sodium aerosol release, fire mitigation, reliabilities of the electrical instruments and the reactor components under the sodium aerosols suspended atmosphere, aerosol plugging in a leak path, and the computer codes are presented. (author)

  5. Identification of impurities in sodium and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, B.I.; Voltchkov, L.G.; Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, E.K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents some investigation results on sodium technology. In particular, a description is given of a calculation method for evaluation of sodium-cover gas-impurities equilibrium compositions as well as experimental results on development of methods for sodium sampling, equipment for non-metallic impurities (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon) constant control in sodium. The investigation results on sodium purification with cold traps are presented

  6. Effect of sodium lactate /sodium diacetate in combination with sodium nitrite on physiochemical, microbial properties and sensory evaluation of cow sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Sedghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite has been always considered as one of the common additives due to its antibacterial effects on Clostridium botulinum and meat products' color, however it produces cancer creating nitrosamine. Recently, organic acids and their salts such as lactates have been employed as antimicrobial compounds. Lactates also improve organileptic properties including color, texture and taste and antioxidant properties. Sodium lactate causes to more reduction of anaerobic spore former bacteria than nitrite, inhibits botulin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Sodium lactate produces a permanent reddish pink color through reduction of deoxymygloboline and producing deoxymyoglobuline. In this study, the decrease of sodium nitrite amount from 120ppm to 15ppm by adding sodium lactate / sodium diacetate led to achieve an acceptable product. The best results revealed through adding 3.0625% of sodium lactate / sodium diacetate in combination with 30ppm sodium nitrite. Results also exhibited more reduction of pathogens' growth than nitrite, enhanced flavor slightly, but unable to produce reddish pink color as produced by nitrite. Results also exhibited that sodium lactate / diacetate cause to retard in microbial growth, reducing chemical change, enhance sensory properties, partially improvement in taste and texture. Although inappropriate color demonstrated sodium lactate / diacetate's inability in red pink color production in 4th sample (contains 15 ppm nitrite, its synergy effect in combination with sodium nitrite on nitroso myoglobuline production has been proven, led to sodium nitrite reduction in sausages.

  7. Development of Sodium Technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    In the experiments to investigate the characteristics of the free surface fluctuation in a vessel, the experimental correlation was modeled to describe the free surface fluctuation in the upper plenum of a liquid metal reactor within 95% reliability and 2.4% error. The correlation was used to verify the computational model. The new conceptual flowmeters were suggested to measure the sodium flow for the reliability enhancement. The electromagnetic flowmeter with permanent magnet showed a good linearity and repeatability. For reuse of the sodium contaminated component, CO{sub 2} bubbling method was developed. Sodium in 0.3mm crevice specimen was removed completely. The optimum condition for the used sodium treatment was deduced to estimate which reaction is more safe and adequate for operation condition by analyzing the reactivity alleviation condition and the reaction rate with the control of sodium hydroxide concentration A series of tests were carried out to investigate the enlargement rate of the nozzle hole itself and the sodium-water reaction temperature associated with needle-like jets of a high-pressure water/steam into the sodium side of a steam generator. The size of the nozzle hole became larger with an increased duration of the steam injection both for the 2.25Cr-1Mo and M9Cr-1Mo steels by a self-wastage phenomenon. For developing the SWR acoustic leak detection technology, the tool prepared by the LabVIEW was installed with the system, and confirmed the performance of the on-line acoustic leak detection tool using the SWR leak signal acquired in the KAERI facility.

  8. Policy Options for Reducing Dietary Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay McLaren

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with soaring health-care costs, Canadian governments should consider creative ways to enable the population to stay healthy — and making it possible for Canadians to reduce their sodium intake is an extremely cost-effective way to do so. Excess sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. On average, Canadians consume 3,400 mg of sodium a day (1,100 mg over recommended levels, at least three-quarters of which comes from processed foods. Any attempt at sodium reduction must therefore involve the food industry. This paper surveys sodium reduction efforts in jurisdictions around the globe, as well as past Canadian attempts, to provide provincial and federal policymakers with a comprehensive suite of lessons learned and a host of far-sighted policy recommendations ranging from food procurement to legislation and private sector engagement. Provincial governments, individually or together, must launch multi-pronged efforts involving food service companies, manufacturers, post-secondary institutes and the media to ensure that low-sodium alternatives are readily available, and that consumers are aware of them. They must also support federal action on changing dietary guidelines and introducing restrictions on food advertising to children. The benefits to be had are very real. In light of evidence showing that population-level intervention is superior to clinical intervention in terms of cost-effectiveness, returning up to $11.10 for every dollar spent and generating tens of billions in direct health-care savings, there is a very strong case for investing in population-level sodium reduction interventions that will work. The time for governments to act is now.

  9. Salt craving: the psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-08-06

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.

  10. Sodium tests on an integrated purification prototype for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, R.

    1984-04-01

    This paper describes sodium tests performed on the integrated primary sodium purification prototype of the Creys Malville Super Phenix 1 fast breeder reactor. These tests comprised: - hydrostatic test, - thermal tests, - handling tests. They enabled a number of new technological arrangements to be qualified and provided the necessary information for the design and construction of the Super Phenix 1 purification units

  11. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  12. Sodium and cover gas chemistry in the high temperature sodium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Duncan, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    The equipment and procedures used in following sodium and cover gas chemistry changes in the High Temperature Sodium Facility are presented. The methods of analysis and results obtained are given. Impurity trends which have been measured during the facility operations are discussed

  13. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  14. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  15. Preliminary Plugging tests in Narrow Sodium Channels by Sodium and Carbon Dioxide reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This report is on the investigation of the physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO{sub 2} inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO{sub 2} boundary failure in PCHEs in realistic operating conditions. The first phenomenon is potential channel plugging inside the narrow PCHE channel. Unlike a conventional shell and- tube type HXs, failures in a PCHE are expected to be small cracks. If the faulted channel is blocked, it may have a positive function for plant safety because the pressure boundary would automatically recover due to this self-plugging. The other one is damage propagation on pressure boundary, which is referred to as potential wastage with combined corrosion/erosion effect. Physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO{sub 2} inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO{sub 2} boundary failure in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) were investigated. Our preliminary experimental results of plugging show that sodium flow immediately stopped as CO{sub 2} was injected through the nozzle at 300-400 .deg. C in 3 mm sodium channels, whereas sodium flow stopped about 60 min after CO{sub 2} injection in 5 mm sodium channels.

  16. Investigation of Plugging of Narrow Sodium Channels by Sodium and Carbon Dioxide Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae-joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle system is known to be a promising power conversion system for improving the efficiency and preventing the sodium water reaction (SWR) of the current SFR concept using a Rankine steam cycle. PCHEs are known to have potential for reducing the volume occupied by the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} exchangers as well as the heat exchanger mass relative to traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Here, we report a study on a plugging test by the interaction of sodium and CO{sub 2} to investigate design parameters of sodium channels in the realistic operating conditions. We investigated a plugging test by an interaction of sodium and CO{sub 2} with different cross sectional areas of the sodium channels. It was found that the flow rate of sodium decreased earlier and faster with a narrower cross sectional area compared to a wider one. Our experimental results are expected to be used for determining the sodium channel areas of PCHEs.

  17. Simultaneous HPLC method for determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangkaew Lakkanatinaporn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple HPLC method has been developed for the separation and determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary preparations. Both drugs were separated well on a Kromasil C18 column (5 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.5% triethylamine in 1% acetic acid, pH 3 (18:82, v/v as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.5 ml/ min. The presence of both substances was monitored by UV absorption detection at 271 nm. The retention times of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline were 3.2 and 16.0 min, respectively. The performance of the developed method was tested. Linear responses of both drugs were achieved between 48-145% of labeled amount over the concentration ranges of 35-101 µg/ml and 102-306 µg/ ml for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline with correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.9980 and 0.9998, respectively. Accuracy expressed in term of recoveries were 101.4± 1.21% (n=6 for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and 99.7±0.92% (n=6 for sodium sulfaquinoxaline. Precision of the method in terms of the relative standard deviation is not more than 2% in all cases. These figures of merit indicated the validity of the developed method.

  18. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... poisoning and unapproved injectable drug products containing sodium thiosulfate labeled for the treatment of... for the treatment of cyanide poisoning are new drugs that require approved new drug applications (NDAs... Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection drug product, labeled for treatment of acute cyanide poisoning...

  19. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the util...

  20. Hemodialysis for near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity in a child receiving sodium phosphate enemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Smoyer, William E; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of considering hemodialysis as a treatment option in the management of sodium phosphate toxicity. This is a case report of a 4-year-old who presented to the emergency department with shock, decreased mental status, seizures, and tetany due to sodium phosphate toxicity from sodium phosphate enemas. Traditional management of hyperphosphatemia with aggressive hydration and diuretics was insufficient to reverse the hemodynamic and neurological abnormalities in this child. This is the first report of the use of hemodialysis in a child without preexisting renal failure for the successful management of near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity. Hemodialysis can safely be used as an adjunctive therapy in sodium phosphate toxicity to rapidly reduce serum phosphate levels and increase serum calcium levels in children not responding to conventional management.

  1. Operator decision support system for sodium loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Hyeang; Park, Kyu Ho; Kim, Tak Kon; Jo, Choong Ho; Seong, Kyeong A; Lee, Keon Myeong; Kim, Yeong Dal; Kim, Chang Beom; Kim, Jong Kyu; Jo, Hee Chang; Lee, Ji Hyeong; Jeong, Yoon Soo; Chio, Jong Hyeong; Jeong, Bong Joon; Hong, Joon Seong; Kim, Bong Wan; Seong, Byeong Hak [Korea Advanced Institute Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an operator decision support system by computerizing the sodium circuit. This study developed graphical display interface for the control panel which provides the safety control of equipment, the recognition of experimental process states and sodium circuit states. In this study, basic work to develop an operator decision support real-time expert system for sodium loop was carried out. Simplification of control commands and effective operation of various real-time data and signals by equipment code standardization are studied. The cost ineffectiveness of the single processor structure provides the ground for the development of cost effective parallel processing system. The important tasks of this study are (1) design and implementation of control state surveillance panel of sodium loop, (2) requirement analysis of operator support real-time expert system for sodium loop, (3) design of standard code rule for operating equipment and research on the cost effective all purpose parallel processing system and (4) requirement analysis of expert system and design of control state variables and user interface for experimental process. 10 refs., 36 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Fuel and fission product release from sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauter, H.

    1992-01-01

    The NALA program at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe is concerned with the release of fuel and fission products from hot or boiling sodium pools (radiological secondary source term) in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor accident scenario with tank failure. The main concern is to determine retention factors (RF), to uncover the most essential parameters that influence the RF values, and to describe the way they do it. In the framework of the last NALA series, NALA IIIc, the influence of sodium-concrete interaction was investigated, partly with subsequent sodium burning. In our experiments, ∼3 kg of sodium and added pieces of concrete reaching from 4 to 40 g was used. The composition of the concrete was suitable for shielding and construction as used in the SNR-300 reactor. Fuel was simulated by 20-μm particles of depleted UO 2 , and CeO 2 , NaI, and TeO 2 were used as fission products. Most experiments were performed in an inert argon gas atmosphere with monitored hydrogen development. In some cases, the preheated pool was allowed to come into contact with ambient air, which caused an ordinary sodium fire. For the latter case, we used the 220-m 3 FAUNA vessel as an outer containment and collected the fire aerosols by a trap and subsequent filters for analysis

  3. [Sodium restriction during pregnancy: an outdated advice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, P W; Peeters, L L

    1999-10-23

    Even in an early phase of pregnancy marked haemodynamic changes occur, including a fall in vascular resistance and blood pressure and a rise in cardiac output. To compensate for the increased intravascular capacity the kidney retains more sodium and water. Apparently, the set point of sodium homeostasis shifts to a higher level at the expense of an expansion of extracellular volume. Studies during the normal menstrual cycle have shown that these changes, albeit smaller, also occur during the luteal phase. These fluctuations with the menstrual cycle are less apparent if salt intake is low, suggesting that a high salt intake is needed to facilitate the process of sodium retention. In pregnancies complicated by hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia body fluid volumes are low with an enhanced tendency to retain sodium after a volume challenge. These data, together with the lack of an apparent benefit of sodium restriction, suggest that the practice of prescribing a low-salt diet to hypertensive pregnant women should be abandoned.

  4. UKAEA mechanical test work in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    The main aim of the UKAEA work is to perform mechanical tests in high quality sodium, and on the basis of relatively long term tests to establish whether factors need to be applied to the air data for the design and assessment of components which will have to operate in sodium for up to 30 years. Most of the tests will be performed in sodium containing 5-10 ppm O 2 and ∼ 1 ppm C with a flow rate over the specimen surface of 3m/sec. Some work is also planned to establish the effect of changes in oxygen level up to 30 ppm on the properties and carburization studies will also be performed. Thin work has been in progress on a limited scale for 2-3 years but is now increasing in magnitude to meet the programme requirements. The materials under test include Type 316 steel and 9% Cr steel with most emphasis being placed on the austenitic steel. From the very limited fatigue and stress rupture tests so far performed on Type 316 steel there is no evidence to suggest that high purity sodium may be detrimental. Longer term tests are necessary however to confirm this finding which is based on results from relatively short term tests. Tests are also necessary in less pure sodium

  5. Ultrasonic flow-meter test in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Y.; Uno, O.; Kamei, M.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the R and D programme for the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, an ultrasonic flow-meter (USFM) test is being carried out in sodium in the O-Arai Engineering Center of PNC. Prior to the present test, an in-water test was done at the manufacturer's as a preliminary investigation. The results reported here are the results up to the present. Calibration tests using the actual fluid were conducted on a 12-inch ultrasonic flow-meter with guide rods fabricated for sodium flow measurement. The test conditions in sodium were a temperature of 200 approximately 400 0 C and flow-rates of 0 approximately 6m/s. The main results are: (1) The linearity of output signal was good and accuracy was within 1%; (2) The alternating type of the USFM was much better than the fixed type in temperature change; (3) 2MHz of transducer frequency was better than 3MHz in sodium; (4) The S/N ratio of the ultrasonic signal and the length/diameter effect in a wide range in sodium surpassed the in-water test. (author)

  6. Assessment of sodium status in large ruminants by measuring the sodium-to-potassium ratio in muzzle secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Rani, D

    1999-09-01

    To develop a simple diagnostic test to assess sodium status in large ruminants on the basis of the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) and to determine its relevance. 7 buffalo heifers and 21 lactating, pregnant, and nonpregnant dairy cows and heifers. Buffalo heifers were subjected in 2 experiments to variable dietary sodium intake or sodium depletion and changes in sodium and potassium concentrations; Na:K was simultaneously monitored in various body fluids to study its value for indicating sodium status. Validity of the muzzle secretion test was assessed. Muzzle secretion and urinary Na:K and sodium concentration, but not serum electrolyte concentrations, reflected the sodium status of buffalo heifers in response to the widely variable intake of sodium (0.03 to 0.16% of dry matter [DM]). Progressive sodium depletion during an 11-day period, using saliva deprivation caused reciprocal changes in sodium and potassium concentrations in saliva and muzzle secretion, but not in urine. Decreasing urine sodium concentration was associated with decreasing urine potassium concentration. Saliva, urine, and muzzle secretion Na:K closely reflected the degree of sodium deficit. Buffaloes or dairy cows maintained on optimal sodium intake had muzzle secretion and urine Na:K > 0.30. Muzzle secretion or urine Na:K muzzle secretion Na:K, and to a large extent urine Na:K, may be used as a convenient diagnostic tool to assess sodium status in large ruminants. It has accuracy similar to that of saliva Na:K.

  7. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle.

  8. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle. PMID:26039160

  9. Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of [U- 14 C]glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order

  10. Synthesis and thermolysis of sodium hexachloromolybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushakbaev, A.; Terishkhanova, I.G.; Parpiev, N.A.; Adylova, Sh.N.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of Na 3 MoCl 6 and the process of its thermal decomposition are described. Sodium hexachloromolybdate is synthesized by means of molybdenum chloride compolunds (MoCl 5 ; MoCl 5 +Mo, MoCl 3 ) interaction with sodium chloride at moderate temperatures in nitrogen atmosphere. It is shown, that Na 3 MoCl 6 thermolysis in conventional conditions takes place in two stages: the first one (570-600 K) corresponds to the formation of mixture MoO 2 +NaMoCl 4 +5NaCl, the second one (930 K) - to MoO 3 +3NaCl formation. In an inert atmosphere at 920 K a mixture of metal molybdenum and sodium chloride is observed

  11. Water and sodium balance in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummer, C; Norsk, P; Heer, M

    2001-01-01

    , cumulative water balance and total body water content are stable during flight if hydration, nutritional energy supply, and protection of muscle mass are at an acceptable level. Recent water balance data disclose that the phenomenon of an absolute water loss during space flight, which has often been reported...... and an exaggerated extravasation very early in-flight. The mechanisms for the increased vascular permeability are not known. Evaporation, oral hydration, and urinary fluid excretion, the major components of water balance, are generally diminished during space flight compared with conditions on Earth. Nevertheless...... in the past, is not a consequence of the variable microG. The handling of sodium, however, is considerably affected by microG. Sodium-retaining endocrine systems, such as renin-aldosterone and catecholamines, are much more activated during microG than on Earth. Despite a comparable oral sodium supply, urinary...

  12. Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

    1987-08-01

    Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order.

  13. Analysis and monitoring of carbon in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lievens, F; Parmentier, C [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1980-05-01

    Chemical analyses used by SCK/CEN at Mol Belgium, in the carbon mass transfer studies include on-line activity measurements, and off-line carbon determinations on sodium samples and on alloys equilibrated with the carbon activity in the loop sodium. For carbon activity measurements efforts were directed to the development of EMF and diffusion type carbon meters. The Monitor tab technique was used for calibration. Chemical off-line analyses were developed for identification and measurement of total carbon and for carbon chemical states in the ppb range. Analysed chemical states are carbides, Carbonates, Carbonyl and Cyanide. (author)

  14. Effect of amides on sodium tetraborate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Molodkin, A.K.; Sadetdinov, Sh.V.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of solubility and refractometry at 25 deg C were applied to investigate sodium tetraborate - formamide (dimethylformamide) - water systems. It is stated that they are of simple eutonic type as well as the earlier described sodium tetraborate-acetamide-water system. Amides reduce solubility of the salt. The effect of contact interaction between dissolved substances on salt cation hydration and thus on the value of liotropic amide effect is confirmed. This value is found to be also depend on the number of molecules of coordination water in the initial crystalline hydrate

  15. Effect of amides on sodium tetraborate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsekhanskij, R S; Skvortsov, V G; Molodkin, A K; Sadetdinov, Sh V

    1986-11-01

    Methods of solubility and refractometry at 25 deg C were applied to investigate sodium tetraborate - formamide (dimethylformamide) - water systems. It is stated that they are of simple eutonic type as well as the earlier described sodium tetraborate-acetamide-water system. Amides reduce solubility of the salt. The effect of contact interaction between dissolved substances on salt cation hydration and thus on the value of liotropic amide effect is confirmed. This value is found to be also depend on the number of molecules of coordination water in the initial crystalline hydrate.

  16. Sodium immersible high temperature microphone design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, A.P.; Anderson, T.T.; Janicek, J.J.

    1975-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a rugged high-temperature (HT) microphone for use as a sodium-immersed acoustic monitor in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs). Microphones of this design have been extensively tested in room temperature water, in air up to 1200 0 F, and in sodium up to 1200 0 F. They have been successfully installed and employed as acoustic monitors in several operating liquid metal systems. The design, construction sequence, calibration, and testing of these microphones are described. 6 references. (U.S.)

  17. Hydrogen detector for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Rodgers, D.N.

    1975-01-01

    An improved hydrogen detector for use in sodium cooled reactors is described. The improved detector basically comprises a diffusion tube of either pure nickel or stainless steel having a coating on the vacuum side (inside) of a thin layer of refractory metal, e.g., tungsten or molybdenum. The refractory metal functions as a diffusion barrier in the path of hydrogen diffusing from the sodium on the outside of the detector into the vacuum on the inside, thus by adjusting the thickness of the coating, it is possible to control the rate of permeation of hydrogen through the tube, thereby providing a more stable detector. (U.S.)

  18. Analysis and monitoring of carbon in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Parmentier, C.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical analyses used by SCK/CEN at Mol Belgium, in the carbon mass transfer studies include on-line activity measurements, and off-line carbon determinations on sodium samples and on alloys equilibrated with the carbon activity in the loop sodium. For carbon activity measurements efforts were directed to the development of EMF and diffusion type carbon meters. The Monitor tab technique was used for calibration. Chemical off-line analyses were developed for identification and measurement of total carbon and for carbon chemical states in the ppb range. Analysed chemical states are carbides, Carbonates, Carbonyl and Cyanide. (author)

  19. Esmeralda project for studying extensive sodium fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sophy, Y.M.; Roy, D.; Bentz, A.; Gerosa, A.; Noel, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the Esmeralda Project for studying extensive fires involving up to 70 metric tons of sodium. The motivations which prompted the decision to create this research facility are related to construction of the Super-Phenix breeder reactor and to the scale effect problems posed by the use of very large quantities of sodium. Information is included on the dimensions of the installation, the objectives of the project, the means to be employed, the timetable to be followed, and the organization which was created for this project within the context of Franco-Italian cooperation

  20. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  1. Handling of sodium for the FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballif, J.L.; Meadows, G.E.

    1978-06-01

    Based on the High Temperature Sodium Facility (HTSF) experience and the extensive design efforts for FFTF, procedures are in place for the unloading of the tank cars and for the fill of the FFTF reactor. Special precautions have been taken to provide safe handling and to accommodate contingencies in operation. These contingencies include special protective suits allowing personnel to enter and correct conditions arising from fill operations in the course of moving 7.71 x 10 5 kg (1.7 x 10 6 lbs) of sodium from the tank cars into the reactor vessel and its loop system

  2. An equation of state for sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, P.

    1981-03-01

    The equation of state (EOS) for sodium which has been employed in assessments of hypothetical accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors has been in use for some years in the British programme. During this time some important experimental reference data, upon which the EOS is based, have been revised. The purpose of this report is primarily to update the sodium EOS by incorporating these revised data. In addition, a number of improvements have been made in the calculational technique used in deriving properties in the single phase. These refinements, which have indicated numerical errors in the earlier EOS output, have improved the precision of the reported data. (author)

  3. Corrosion of steels in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.; Hawtin, P.

    1976-01-01

    Proposed expressions for the corrosion and deposition rates and other relevant data are examined theoretically using models which treat both particle and molecular transport and the coupling between particle and molecular concentrations. It is difficult to reconcile some properties of the observed rates, including sodium velocity dependence, with currently accepted best values for the equilibrium iron concentration in sodium. To overcome this difficulty a new model is proposed which contains two iron solubilities, one with and one without association with oxygen, which can also explain some existing anomalies in solubility measurements. The models also give a qualitative understanding of some properties of particles in circuits including the observed size distribution

  4. Description of the sodium loop ML-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, de la M.; Melches, I; Lapena, J.; Martinez, T.A.; Miguel, de D.; Duran, F.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium loop ML-3 is described. The main objective of this facility is to obtain mechanical property data for LMFBR materials in creep and low cycle fatigue testing in flowing sodium. ML-3 includes 10 test stations for creep and two for fatigue. It is possible to operate simultaneously at three different temperature levels. The maximum operating temperature is 650 deg C at flow velocities up to 5 m/s. The ML-3 loop has been located in a manner that permits the fill/dump tank cover gas and security systems to be shared with an earlier circuit, the ML-1. (author)

  5. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  6. Non-aqueous removal of sodium from reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, F H; Steele, O P [Rockwell International, Atomics International Division, Canoga Park (United States)

    1978-08-01

    Reactor components from sodium-cooled systems. whether radioactive or not, must have the sodium removed before they can be safely handled for 1) disposal, 2) examination and test, or 3) decontamination, repair, and requalification. In the latter two cases, the sodium must be removed in a manner which will not harm the component. and prevent future use. Two methods for sodium removal using non-aqueous techniques have been studied extensively in the U.S.A. in the past few years: the Alcohol Process, which uses a fully denatured ethanol to react away the sodium; and the Evaporative Process, which uses heat and vacuum to evaporate the sodium from the component.

  7. Non-aqueous removal of sodium from reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, F.H.; Steele, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    Reactor components from sodium-cooled systems. whether radioactive or not, must have the sodium removed before they can be safely handled for 1) disposal, 2) examination and test, or 3) decontamination, repair, and requalification. In the latter two cases, the sodium must be removed in a manner which will not harm the component. and prevent future use. Two methods for sodium removal using non-aqueous techniques have been studied extensively in the U.S.A. in the past few years: the Alcohol Process, which uses a fully denatured ethanol to react away the sodium; and the Evaporative Process, which uses heat and vacuum to evaporate the sodium from the component

  8. Restraining Sodium Volatilization in the Ferric Bauxite Direct Reduction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct reduction is an emerging utilization technology of ferric bauxite. However, it requires much more sodium carbonate than ordinary bauxite does. The volatilization is one of the most significant parts of sodium carbonate consumption, as reported in previous studies. Based on the new direct reduction method for utilization of ferric bauxite, this paper has systematically investigated factors including heating temperature, heating time, and sodium carbonate dosage influencing sodium volatilization. For the purpose of reducing sodium volatilization, the Box–Benhken design was employed, and the possibility of separating iron and sodium after direct reduction was also investigated.

  9. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a sodium ionization detector for sodium-to-gas leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, K.; Elumalai, G.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive sodium-to-gas leak detector has been indigenously developed for use in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor. The detector relies on the relative ease with which sodium vapour or its aerosols including its oxides and hydroxides can be thermally ionized compared with other possible constituents such as nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour etc. in a carrier gas and is therefore called sodium ionization detector (SID). The ionization current is a measure of sodium concentration in the carrier gas sampled through the detector. Different sensor designs using platinum and rhodium as filament materials in varying sizes were constructed and their responses to different sodium aerosol concentrations in the carrier gas were investigated. Nitrogen was used as the carrier gas. Both the background current and speed of response were found to depend on the diameter of the filament. There was also a particular collector voltage which yielded maximum sensitivity of the detector. The sensor was therefore optimised considering influence of above factors and a detector has been built which demonstrates a sensitivity better than 0.3 nanogram of sodium per cubic centimetre of carrier gas for a signal to background ratio of 1:1. Its usefulness in detecting sodium fires in experimental area was also demonstrated. Currently efforts are under way to improve the life time of the filament used in the above detector. (author)

  11. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    Potassium Silicate, Sodium Metasilicate, and Sodium Silicate combine metal cations with silica to form inorganic salts used as corrosion inhibitors in cosmetics. Sodium Metasilicate also functions as a chelating agent and Sodium Silicate as a buffering and pH adjuster. Sodium Metasilicate is currently used in 168 formulations at concentrations ranging from 13% to 18%. Sodium Silicate is currently used in 24 formulations at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 55%. Potassium Silicate and Sodium Silicate have been reported as being used in industrial cleaners and detergents. Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) food ingredient. Aqueous solutions of Sodium Silicate species are a part of a chemical continuum of silicates based on an equilibrium of alkali, water, and silica. pH determines the solubility of silica and, together with concentration, determines the degree of polymerization. Sodium Silicate administered orally is readily absorbed from the alimentary canal and excreted in the urine. The toxicity of these silicates has been related to the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O and the concentration being used. The Sodium Metasilicate acute oral LD50 ranged from 847 mg/kg in male rats to 1349.3 mg/kg in female rats and from 770 mg/kg in female mice to 820 mg/kg in male mice. Gross lesions of variable severity were found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lungs, and kidneys of dogs receiving 0.25 g/kg or more of a commercial detergent containing Sodium Metasilicate; similar lesions were also seen in pigs administered the same detergent and dose. Male rats orally administered 464 mg/kg of a 20% solution containing either 2.0 or 2.4 to 1.0 ratio of sodium oxide showed no signs of toxicity, whereas doses of 1000 and 2150 mg/kg produced gasping, dypsnea, and acute depression. Dogs fed 2.4 g/kg/day of Sodium Silicate for 4 weeks had gross renal lesions but no impairment of renal function. Dermal irritation of Potassium Silicate, Sodium

  13. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  14. Bis(tetraphenylphosphonium) tetracyanidonitridochromate(V) dihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Bendix, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, (C 24 H 20 P) 2 [Cr(CN) 4 (N)]·2H 2 O, the complex anion exhibits a square-based pyramidal geometry around the central Cr V atom, which is coordinated by a nitride ligand in the apical position and by four cyanide ligands in the equatorial plane. The ......In the title compound, (C 24 H 20 P) 2 [Cr(CN) 4 (N)]·2H 2 O, the complex anion exhibits a square-based pyramidal geometry around the central Cr V atom, which is coordinated by a nitride ligand in the apical position and by four cyanide ligands in the equatorial plane. The ...

  15. Dipotassium zinc tetraiodate(V) dihydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fábry, Jan; Krupková, Radmila; Císařová, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 66, Part 3 (2010), i22-i23 ISSN 1600-5368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : x-ray structure determination * hydrogen -bonds * non-centrosymmetric structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.413, year: 2010

  16. A new polymorph of magnesium oxalate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-An Chen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, catena-poly[[diaquamagnesium(II]-μ-oxalato], [Mg(C2O4(H2O2]n, there is one Mg atom in an octahedral coordination with site symmetry 222, a unique C atom of the oxalate anion lying on a twofold axis, an O atom of the anion in a general position and a water O atom at a site with imposed twofold rotation symmetry. The Mg2+ ions are ligated by water molecules and bridged by the anions to form chains that are held together by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The structure of the title compound has already been reported in a different space group [Lagier, Pezerat & Dubernat (1969. Rev. Chim. Miner. 6, 1081–1093; Levy, Perrotey & Visser (1971. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. pp. 757–761].

  17. Electrodeposition of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate coatings on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... inorganic component of bones. Differently oriented CaHPO4·2H2O coatings transform to hydroxyapatite ... materials involved in the biomineralization of bones and teeth (Johnsson and ... The unit cell consists of alternat- ing bilayers stacked ...

  18. Detection Test for Leakage of CO2 into Sodium Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong

    2015-01-01

    This report is about the facility for the detection test for leakage of CO 2 into sodium loop. The facility for the detection test for leakage of CO 2 into sodium loop was introduced. The test will be carried out. Our experimental results are going to be expected to be used for approach methods to detect CO 2 leaking into sodium in heat exchangers. A sodium-and-carbon dioxide (Na-CO 2 ) heat exchanger is one of the key components for the supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle power conversion system of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). A printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is considered for the Na-CO 2 heat exchanger, which is known to have potential for reducing the volume occupied by the exchangers compared to traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Among various issues about the Na- CO 2 exchanger, detection of CO 2 leaking into sodium in the heat exchanger is most important thing for its safe operation. It is known that reaction products from sodium and CO 2 such as sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) and amorphous carbon are hardly soluble in sodium, which cause plug sodium channels. Detection technique for Na 2 CO 3 in sodium loop has not been developed yet. Therefore, detection of CO 2 and CO from reaction of sodium and CO 2 are proper to detect CO 2 leakage into sodium loop

  19. Effect of sodium acetate on the volumetric behaviour of some mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides in aqueous solutions over temperature range (288.15 to 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banipal, Parampaul K., E-mail: pkbanipal@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005 (India); Singh, Vickramjeet [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005 (India); Banipal, Tarlok S. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005 (India)

    2010-01-15

    The standard partial molar volumes, V{sub 2}{sup 0} at infinite dilution of eight monosaccharides [D(+)-xylose, D(-)-arabinose, D(-)-ribose, L(-)-sorbose, D(-)-fructose, D(+)-galactose, D(+)-glucose, and D(+)-mannose], six disaccharides [D(+)-cellobiose, sucrose, D(+)-melibiose, D(+)-lactose monohydrate, D(+)-trehalose dihydrate, and D(+)-maltose monohydrate] and two trisaccharides [D(+)-melizitose and D(+)-raffinose pentahydrate] (molalities of saccharides range from (0.03 to 0.12) mol . kg{sup -1}) have been determined in water and in (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0) mol . kg{sup -1} aqueous sodium acetate solutions at temperatures, T = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K from density measurements using a vibrating-tube digital densimeter. From these results, corresponding standard partial molar volumes of transfer, DELTA{sub t}V{sub 2}{sup 0} have been determined for the transfer of various saccharides from water to aqueous solutions of sodium acetate. Positive values of DELTA{sub t}V{sub 2}{sup 0} were obtained for most of the saccharides, whose magnitude increase with the concentration of sodium acetate as well as temperature. However, negative DELTA{sub t}V{sub 2}{sup 0} values were observed for L(-)-sorbose, D(-)-fructose and D(+)-xylose at lower concentrations of co-solute. The negative magnitude of DELTA{sub t}V{sub 2}{sup 0} values decrease with rise of temperature from (288.15 to 318.15) K. Pair and higher order volumetric interaction coefficients have been determined by using McMillan-Mayer theory. Partial molar expansion coefficients, (partial derivV{sub 2}{sup 0}/partial derivT){sub p} and the second derivatives (partial deriv{sup 2}V{sub 2}{sup 0}/partial derivT{sup 2}){sub p} have also been estimated. These parameters have been utilized to understand various mixing effects in aqueous solutions due to the interactions between solute (saccharide) and co-solute (sodium acetate).

  20. Structure and properties of small sodium clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2002-01-01

    and the results of other theoretical work. We have systematically calculated the optimized geometries of neutral and singly charged sodium clusters having up to 20 atoms, their multipole moments (dipole and quadrupole), static polarizabilities, binding energies per atom, ionization potentials, and frequencies...

  1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four strains of eri, Samia cynthia ricini Lepidoptera: Saturniidae that can be identified morphologically and maintained at North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat were characterized based on their protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA by random ...

  2. Development of sodium alginate and konkoli gumgrafted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is a continuation of our effort to develop a blend membrane of sodium alginate and “konkoli” gum-g-polyacrylamide (KG-g-PAAm) for bioremediation of wastewater. The effect of graft reaction conditions on the percentage graft yield in the graft copolymerization was investigated. It was observed that grafting ...

  3. Investigation of steel--sodium--iron shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblow, E.M.; Maerker, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of experimental data from 21 fast reactor shield configurations containing steel, sodium, and iron were made as part of a study of the upper axial shielding needs of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. The measured data were analyzed using both one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport codes and several cross section libraries based on ENDF/B-IV data with group structures of 51 and 171 neutron groups. One-dimensional sensitivity studies using the 171 group library and ENDF/B-IV covariance files for sodium and iron data were used to determine the sensitivities of the measured data to multigroup cross sections and to estimate uncertainties in the calculated results. Results indicate that the standard 51-group design cross section library could be expected to predict the measurements to within 30% over 12 decades of attenuation although a few of the deepest penetration configurations showed disagreements as large as a factor of three. The sensitivity results revealed very high sensitivity of the measurements to total cross section minima and cross sections from 5 to 10 MeV in sodium and iron in the deep penetration configurations. As a result, large uncertainties in the calculated results arose from small uncertainties in the cross section data. These results indicate the need for better measurements of the total cross section minima in sodium, especially around 300 keV

  4. Continuum emission of excited sodium dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, A.; Poyato, J.M.L.; Alonso, J.I.; Rico, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been made of the behaviour of excited molecular sodium using high-power Ar + laser radiation. A continuum emission was observed in the red wavelength region. This emission was thought to be caused by the formation of excited triatomic molecules. Energy transfer was observed from excited molecules to atoms. (orig.)

  5. Potential drop sensors for sodium loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraj, R.

    1978-11-01

    Potential drop sensors to detect the presence or the absence of sodium in pipe lines are described. These are very handy during loop charging and dumping operations. Their suitability to detect level surges and to monitor continuous level of liquid metals in certain applications is discussed. (author)

  6. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation

  7. Exothermic potential of sodium nitrate salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1977-06-01

    High-Level radioactive liquid waste is being reduced to a liquid slurry by an evaporation and crystallization process and stored in the existing single-shell tanks. Continuous pumping of the waste storage tank will reduce the present 30 to 50% moisture to the minimum possible. The reduced waste is a relatively immobile salt cake consisting predominantly of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) with lesser amounts of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), sodium metaaluminate (NaAlO 2 ), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Trace amounts of fission products, transuranics, and a broad spectrum of organic materials in small but unknown amounts are also present. A program was initiated in 1973 to determine whether or not conditions exist which could lead to an exothermic reaction in the salt cake. Results of the latest series of tests conducted to determine the effects of mass and pressure are summarized. Hanford salt cake, as stored, cannot support combustion, and does not ignite when covered with a burning volatile hydrocarbon

  8. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  9. Mixed cation effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    , network structure, and the resistances associated with the deformation processes in mixed cation glasses by partially substituting magnesium for calcium and calcium for lithium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and 27Al NMR spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural...

  10. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  11. Neurotransmitter: Sodium Symporters: Caught in the Act!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinauskaite, Lina

    The neurotransmitter: sodium symporters in the neurons. Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of molecules called neurotransmitters (blue dots) from first neuron and sensed by receptors on the surface of the second (purple sphere). The signal is ended by active reuptake...

  12. Fused deposition modelling of sodium caseinate dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Houlder, S.; Wit, de Martin; Buijsse, C.A.P.; Alting, A.C.

    2018-01-01

    Only recently, researchers have started experimenting with 3D printing of foods. The aim of this study was to investigate 3D printed objects from sodium caseinate dispersions, exhibiting reversible gelation behaviour. Gelation and dispensing behaviour were explored and structures of different

  13. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  14. Radiochemical measurement of mass transport in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.; Chiang, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    Mass transport processes in the sodium coolant of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) are significant in determining rates of corrosion and deposition of radioactive nuclides from the fuel cladding, deposition and cold trapping of fission products from defect or failed fuel, carbon and nitrogen redistribution in the containment materials, and removal of impurities by cold trapping or hot trapping. Mass transport between rotating, concentric cylinders in molten sodium has been investigated using a unique radiochemical method. Long-lived (33 year) cesium-137, dissolved in the sodium, decays radioactively emitting a beta to barium-137m, which decays with a short half-life (2.6 minutes) emitting a gamma. Cesium is weakly adsorbed and remains in solution, while the barium is strongly adsorbed on the stainless steel surfaces. Hence, by measuring the barium-137m activity on movable stainless steel surfaces, one can calculate the mass transport to that surface. Mass transfer coefficients in sodium measured by this method are in agreement with published heat transfer correlations when the effect of the volumetric mass source is taken into account. Hence, heat transfer correlations can be confidently utilized by analogy in estimating mass transfer in liquid-metal systems

  15. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive... as a preservative and color fixative in canned pet food containing fish, meat, and fish and meat... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and...

  16. Solubility of xenon in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Cafasso, F.A.; Feder, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    The solubility of xenon in liquid sodium was measured as a function of pressure (2-8 atm) and temperature (350-600 0 C). Henry's law was obeyed with the value of the Henry's law constant, K/sub H/ = N/sub Xe//P, ranging from 1.38 x 10 -10 atm -1 at 350C, to 1.59 x 10 -8 atm -1 at 600 0 C where N/sub Xe/ and P are the atom fraction and the partial pressure of xenon, respectively. The temperature dependence of solubility may be represented by log 10 lambda = (0.663 +- 0.01) - (4500 +- 73) T -1 , where lambda is the Ostwald coefficient (the volume of xenon dissolved per unit volume of sodium at the temperature of the experiment). The heat of solution of xenon in sodium was 20.6 +- 0.7 kcal/mole, where the standard state of xenon is defined as that of 1 mole of an ideal gas, confined to a volume equal to the molar volume of sodium

  17. Flow in sodium loop surge tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Martoch, J.

    1977-01-01

    The alternate liquid flow, the condition of vortex formation, gas entrainment in the discharge and the liquid level characteristics are studied using the models of the vertical and horizontal surge tanks of a sodium circuit with pump and heat exchangers. The conditions for vortex formation are more favourable in the vertical cylindrical tank than in the horizontal tank. The size of the vortex produced in the tank is affected by the initial speed circulation, due as a rule to an unsuitable inlet design. The proposed design considers an inlet below the sodium level using capped perforated pipes. Vortex formation, gas transport to the discharge pipe and turbulences of the liquid in the tank may be prevented by dividing the tank to the discharge and the inlet areas using perforated partitions, and by inserting the discharge cylinder above the discharge pipe outflow. The liquid level in the tank may be calmed by screens or by perforated plates. The adaptation of the surge tank of the sodium circuit will probably eliminate vortex formation and the entrainment of cover gas into the discharge piping and the sodium circuit under nominal conditions. (J.B.)

  18. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  19. Dosage of trace carbon in sodium (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannier, J.; Vasseur, A.

    1963-01-01

    A wet method for dosing carbon in sodium has been developed. The carbon is oxidised in a vacuum using Van SLYKE'S solution. The carbonic acid formed is measured volumetrically; its purity can be controlled by chromatographic analysis. The results obtained show that this method makes it possible to measure carbon in concentrations of about 10 ppm. (authors) [fr

  20. Sodium hypochlorite sterilization of culture medium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the purpose of finding an alternative to thermal sterilization, this research aimed at assessing the efficiency and ideal concentration of sodium hypochlorite for sterilization of culture media and glassware used during rooting of micropropagated Gerbera hybrida cv. Essandre. Two experiments were carried out. In the first ...