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Sample records for sodium channel genes

  1. Molecular cloning and analysis of zebrafish voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit genes: implications for the evolution of electrical signaling in vertebrates

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    Zhong Tao P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Action potential generation in excitable cells such as myocytes and neurons critically depends on voltage-gated sodium channels. In mammals, sodium channels exist as macromolecular complexes that include a pore-forming alpha subunit and 1 or more modulatory beta subunits. Although alpha subunit genes have been cloned from diverse metazoans including flies, jellyfish, and humans, beta subunits have not previously been identified in any non-mammalian species. To gain further insight into the evolution of electrical signaling in vertebrates, we investigated beta subunit genes in the teleost Danio rerio (zebrafish. Results We identified and cloned single zebrafish gene homologs for beta1-beta3 (zbeta1-zbeta3 and duplicate genes for beta4 (zbeta4.1, zbeta4.2. Sodium channel beta subunit loci are similarly organized in fish and mammalian genomes. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, zbeta1 and zbeta2 subunit genes display extensive alternative splicing. Zebrafish beta subunit genes and their splice variants are differentially-expressed in excitable tissues, indicating tissue-specific regulation of zbeta1-4 expression and splicing. Co-expression of the genes encoding zbeta1 and the zebrafish sodium channel alpha subunit Nav1.5 in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells increased sodium current and altered channel gating, demonstrating functional interactions between zebrafish alpha and beta subunits. Analysis of the synteny and phylogeny of mammalian, teleost, amphibian, and avian beta subunit and related genes indicated that all extant vertebrate beta subunits are orthologous, that beta2/beta4 and beta1/beta3 share common ancestry, and that beta subunits are closely related to other proteins sharing the V-type immunoglobulin domain structure. Vertebrate sodium channel beta subunit genes were not identified in the genomes of invertebrate chordates and are unrelated to known subunits of the para sodium channel in Drosophila. Conclusion The

  2. Voltage-gated sodium channels: action players with many faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmann, Tamara T.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for the upstroke of the action potential and thereby play an important role in propagation of the electrical impulse in excitable tissues like muscle, nerve and the heart. Duplication of the sodium channels encoding genes during evolution generated the

  3. Slack, Slick, and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels

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    Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    The Slack and Slick genes encode potassium channels that are very widely expressed in the central nervous system. These channels are activated by elevations in intracellular sodium, such as those that occur during trains of one or more action potentials, or following activation of nonselective cationic neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA receptors. This review covers the cellular and molecular properties of Slack and Slick channels and compares them with findings on the properties of sodium-activated potassium currents (termed KNa currents) in native neurons. Human mutations in Slack channels produce extremely severe defects in learning and development, suggesting that KNa channels play a central role in neuronal plasticity and intellectual function. PMID:24319675

  4. Sodium Channel Mutations and Pyrethroid Resistance in Aedes aegypti

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    Yuzhe Du

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insect pests and human disease vectors. Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary targets of pyrethroid insecticides. Mutations in the sodium channel have been shown to be responsible for pyrethroid resistance, known as knockdown resistance (kdr, in various insects including mosquitoes. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the principal urban vectors of dengue, zika, and yellow fever viruses, multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sodium channel gene have been found in pyrethroid-resistant populations and some of them have been functionally confirmed to be responsible for kdr in an in vitro expression system, Xenopus oocytes. This mini-review aims to provide an update on the identification and functional characterization of pyrethroid resistance-associated sodium channel mutations from Aedes aegypti. The collection of kdr mutations not only helped us develop molecular markers for resistance monitoring, but also provided valuable information for computational molecular modeling of pyrethroid receptor sites on the sodium channel.

  5. A SCN9A gene-encoded dorsal root ganglia sodium channel polymorphism associated with severe fibromyalgia

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    Vargas-Alarcon Gilberto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A consistent line of investigation suggests that autonomic nervous system dysfunction may explain the multi-system features of fibromyalgia (FM; and that FM is a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG are key sympathetic-nociceptive short-circuit sites. Sodium channels located in DRG (particularly Nav1.7 act as molecular gatekeepers for pain detection. Nav1.7 is encoded in gene SCN9A of chromosome 2q24.3 and is predominantly expressed in the DRG pain-sensing neurons and sympathetic ganglia neurons. Several SCN9A sodium channelopathies have been recognized as the cause of rare painful dysautonomic syndromes such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder and primary erythromelalgia. The aim of this study was to search for an association between fibromyalgia and several SCN9A sodium channels gene polymorphisms. Methods We studied 73 Mexican women suffering from FM and 48 age-matched women who considered themselves healthy. All participants filled out the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ. Genomic DNA from whole blood containing EDTA was extracted by standard techniques. The following SCN9A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were determined by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays: rs4371369; rs4387806; rs4453709; rs4597545; rs6746030; rs6754031; rs7607967; rs12620053; rs12994338; and rs13017637. Results The frequency of the rs6754031 polymorphism was significantly different in both groups (P = 0.036 mostly due to an absence of the GG genotype in controls. Interestingly; patients with this rs6754031 GG genotype had higher FIQ scores (median = 80; percentile 25/75 = 69/88 than patients with the GT genotype (median = 63; percentile 25/75 = 58/73; P = 0.002 and the TT genotype (median = 71; percentile 25/75 = 64/77; P = 0.001. Conclusion In this ethnic group; a disabling form of FM is associated to a particular SCN9A sodium channel gene variant. These preliminary results raise the possibility that

  6. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells

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    Williams Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. Results We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. Conclusion SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  7. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells.

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    Gao, Na; Lu, Min; Echeverri, Fernando; Laita, Bianca; Kalabat, Dalia; Williams, Mark E; Hevezi, Peter; Zlotnik, Albert; Moyer, Bryan D

    2009-03-12

    Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  8. A remarkably stable TipE gene cluster: evolution of insect Para sodium channel auxiliary subunits

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    Li Jia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First identified in fruit flies with temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotypes, the Drosophila melanogaster TipE locus encodes four voltage-gated sodium (NaV channel auxiliary subunits. This cluster of TipE-like genes on chromosome 3L, and a fifth family member on chromosome 3R, are important for the optional expression and functionality of the Para NaV channel but appear quite distinct from auxiliary subunits in vertebrates. Here, we exploited available arthropod genomic resources to trace the origin of TipE-like genes by mapping their evolutionary histories and examining their genomic architectures. Results We identified a remarkably conserved synteny block of TipE-like orthologues with well-maintained local gene arrangements from 21 insect species. Homologues in the water flea, Daphnia pulex, suggest an ancestral pancrustacean repertoire of four TipE-like genes; a subsequent gene duplication may have generated functional redundancy allowing gene losses in the silk moth and mosquitoes. Intronic nesting of the insect TipE gene cluster probably occurred following the divergence from crustaceans, but in the flour beetle and silk moth genomes the clusters apparently escaped from nesting. Across Pancrustacea, TipE gene family members have experienced intronic nesting, escape from nesting, retrotransposition, translocation, and gene loss events while generally maintaining their local gene neighbourhoods. D. melanogaster TipE-like genes exhibit coordinated spatial and temporal regulation of expression distinct from their host gene but well-correlated with their regulatory target, the Para NaV channel, suggesting that functional constraints may preserve the TipE gene cluster. We identified homology between TipE-like NaV channel regulators and vertebrate Slo-beta auxiliary subunits of big-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa channels, which suggests that ion channel regulatory partners have evolved distinct lineage

  9. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  10. Parallel evolution of tetrodotoxin resistance in three voltage-gated sodium channel genes in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis.

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    McGlothlin, Joel W; Chuckalovcak, John P; Janes, Daniel E; Edwards, Scott V; Feldman, Chris R; Brodie, Edmund D; Pfrender, Michael E; Brodie, Edmund D

    2014-11-01

    Members of a gene family expressed in a single species often experience common selection pressures. Consequently, the molecular basis of complex adaptations may be expected to involve parallel evolutionary changes in multiple paralogs. Here, we use bacterial artificial chromosome library scans to investigate the evolution of the voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) family in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis, a predator of highly toxic Taricha newts. Newts possess tetrodotoxin (TTX), which blocks Nav's, arresting action potentials in nerves and muscle. Some Thamnophis populations have evolved resistance to extremely high levels of TTX. Previous work has identified amino acid sites in the skeletal muscle sodium channel Nav1.4 that confer resistance to TTX and vary across populations. We identify parallel evolution of TTX resistance in two additional Nav paralogs, Nav1.6 and 1.7, which are known to be expressed in the peripheral nervous system and should thus be exposed to ingested TTX. Each paralog contains at least one TTX-resistant substitution identical to a substitution previously identified in Nav1.4. These sites are fixed across populations, suggesting that the resistant peripheral nerves antedate resistant muscle. In contrast, three sodium channels expressed solely in the central nervous system (Nav1.1-1.3) showed no evidence of TTX resistance, consistent with protection from toxins by the blood-brain barrier. We also report the exon-intron structure of six Nav paralogs, the first such analysis for snake genes. Our results demonstrate that the molecular basis of adaptation may be both repeatable across members of a gene family and predictable based on functional considerations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Channels and Pulmonary Edema

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    Mike Althaus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of pulmonary edema can be considered as a combination of alveolar flooding via increased fluid filtration, impaired alveolar-capillary barrier integrity, and disturbed resolution due to decreased alveolar fluid clearance. An important mechanism regulating alveolar fluid clearance is sodium transport across the alveolar epithelium. Transepithelial sodium transport is largely dependent on the activity of sodium channels in alveolar epithelial cells. This paper describes how sodium channels contribute to alveolar fluid clearance under physiological conditions and how deregulation of sodium channel activity might contribute to the pathogenesis of lung diseases associated with pulmonary edema. Furthermore, sodium channels as putative molecular targets for the treatment of pulmonary edema are discussed.

  12. Metaflumizone is a novel sodium channel blocker insecticide.

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    Salgado, V L; Hayashi, J H

    2007-12-15

    Metaflumizone is a novel semicarbazone insecticide, derived chemically from the pyrazoline sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs) discovered at Philips-Duphar in the early 1970s, but with greatly improved mammalian safety. This paper describes studies confirming that the insecticidal action of metaflumizone is due to the state-dependent blockage of sodium channels. Larvae of the moth Spodoptera eridania injected with metaflumizone became paralyzed, concomitant with blockage of all nerve activity. Furthermore, tonic firing of abdominal stretch receptor organs from Spodoptera frugiperda was blocked by metaflumizone applied in the bath, consistent with the block of voltage-dependent sodium channels. Studies on native sodium channels, in primary-cultured neurons isolated from the CNS of the larvae of the moth Manduca sexta and on Para/TipE sodium channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus (African clawed frog) oocytes, confirmed that metaflumizone blocks sodium channels by binding selectively to the slow-inactivated state, which is characteristic of the SCBIs. The results confirm that metaflumizone is a novel sodium channel blocker insecticide.

  13. Expression, purification and functional reconstitution of slack sodium-activated potassium channels.

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    Yan, Yangyang; Yang, Youshan; Bian, Shumin; Sigworth, Fred J

    2012-11-01

    The slack (slo2.2) gene codes for a potassium-channel α-subunit of the 6TM voltage-gated channel family. Expression of slack results in Na(+)-activated potassium channel activity in various cell types. We describe the purification and reconstitution of Slack protein and show that the Slack α-subunit alone is sufficient for potassium channel activity activated by sodium ions as assayed in planar bilayer membranes and in membrane vesicles.

  14. A sodium-channel mutation causes isolated cardiac conduction disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. L.; Bink-Boelkens, M. T.; Bezzina, C. R.; Viswanathan, P. C.; Beaufort-Krol, G. C.; van Tintelen, P. J.; van den Berg, M. P.; Wilde, A. A.; Balser, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac conduction disorders slow the heart rhythm and cause disability in millions of people worldwide. Inherited mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding the human cardiac sodium (Na+) channel, have been associated with rapid heart rhythms that occur suddenly and are life-threatening; however, a

  15. A sodium-channel mutation causes isolated cardiac conduction disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, HL; Bink-Boelkens, MTE; Bezzina, CR; Viswanathan, PC; Beaufort-Krol, GCM; van Tintelen, PJ; van den Berg, MP; Wilde, AAM; Balser, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac conduction disorders slow the heart rhythm and cause disability in millions of people worldwide. Inherited mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding the human cardiac sodium (Na+) channel, have been associated with rapid heart rhythms that occur suddenly and are life-threatening(1-3); however, a

  16. Sodium Channel (Dys)Function and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2010-01-01

    P>Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane proteins located in the cell membrane of cardiomyocytes. Influx of sodium ions through these ion channels is responsible for the initial fast upstroke of the cardiac action potential. This inward sodium current thus triggers the initiation

  17. Preliminary Plugging tests in Narrow Sodium Channels by Sodium and Carbon Dioxide reaction

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    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This report is on the investigation of the physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO{sub 2} inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO{sub 2} boundary failure in PCHEs in realistic operating conditions. The first phenomenon is potential channel plugging inside the narrow PCHE channel. Unlike a conventional shell and- tube type HXs, failures in a PCHE are expected to be small cracks. If the faulted channel is blocked, it may have a positive function for plant safety because the pressure boundary would automatically recover due to this self-plugging. The other one is damage propagation on pressure boundary, which is referred to as potential wastage with combined corrosion/erosion effect. Physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO{sub 2} inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO{sub 2} boundary failure in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) were investigated. Our preliminary experimental results of plugging show that sodium flow immediately stopped as CO{sub 2} was injected through the nozzle at 300-400 .deg. C in 3 mm sodium channels, whereas sodium flow stopped about 60 min after CO{sub 2} injection in 5 mm sodium channels.

  18. GAPDH-mediated posttranscriptional regulations of sodium channel Scn1a and Scn3a genes under seizure and ketogenic diet conditions.

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    Lin, Guo-Wang; Lu, Ping; Zeng, Tao; Tang, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yong-Hong; Liu, Shu-Jing; Gao, Mei-Mei; Zhao, Qi-Hua; Yi, Yong-Hong; Long, Yue-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal expressions of sodium channel SCN1A and SCN3A genes alter neural excitability that are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy, a long-term risk of recurrent seizures. Ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat and low-carbohydrate treatment for difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children, has been suggested to reverse gene expression patterns. Here, we reveal a novel role of GAPDH on the posttranscriptional regulation of mouse Scn1a and Scn3a expressions under seizure and KD conditions. We show that GAPDH binds to a conserved region in the 3' UTRs of human and mouse SCN1A and SCN3A genes, which decreases and increases genes' expressions by affecting mRNA stability through SCN1A 3' UTR and SCN3A 3' UTR, respectively. In seizure mice, the upregulation and phosphorylation of GAPDH enhance its binding to the 3' UTR, which lead to downregulation of Scn1a and upregulation of Scn3a. Furthermore, administration of KD generates β-hydroxybutyric acid which rescues the abnormal expressions of Scn1a and Scn3a by weakening the GAPDH's binding to the element. Taken together, these data suggest that GAPDH-mediated expression regulation of sodium channel genes may be associated with epilepsy and the anticonvulsant action of KD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene expression profile of sodium channel subunits in the anterior cingulate cortex during experimental paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice

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    Willias Masocha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, causes neuropathic pain whose supraspinal pathophysiology is not fully understood. Dysregulation of sodium channel expression, studied mainly in the periphery and spinal cord level, contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. We examined gene expression of sodium channel (Nav subunits by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC at day 7 post first administration of paclitaxel, when mice had developed paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia. The ACC was chosen because increased activity in the ACC has been observed during neuropathic pain. In the ACC of vehicle-treated animals the threshold cycle (Ct values for Nav1.4, Nav1.5, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were above 30 and/or not detectable in some samples. Thus, comparison in mRNA expression between untreated control, vehicle-treated and paclitaxel treated animals was done for Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax as well as Navβ1–Navβ4. There were no differences in the transcript levels of Nav1.1–Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax, Navβ1–Navβ3 between untreated and vehicle-treated mice, however, vehicle treatment increased Navβ4 expression. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and Nax, but not Nav1.3, sodium channel alpha subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. Treatment with paclitaxel significantly increased the expression of Navβ1 and Navβ3, but not Navβ2 and Navβ4, sodium channel beta subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP there is differential upregulation of sodium channels in the ACC, which might contribute to the increased neuronal activity observed in the area during neuropathic pain.

  20. Investigation of Plugging of Narrow Sodium Channels by Sodium and Carbon Dioxide Interaction

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    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae-joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle system is known to be a promising power conversion system for improving the efficiency and preventing the sodium water reaction (SWR) of the current SFR concept using a Rankine steam cycle. PCHEs are known to have potential for reducing the volume occupied by the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} exchangers as well as the heat exchanger mass relative to traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Here, we report a study on a plugging test by the interaction of sodium and CO{sub 2} to investigate design parameters of sodium channels in the realistic operating conditions. We investigated a plugging test by an interaction of sodium and CO{sub 2} with different cross sectional areas of the sodium channels. It was found that the flow rate of sodium decreased earlier and faster with a narrower cross sectional area compared to a wider one. Our experimental results are expected to be used for determining the sodium channel areas of PCHEs.

  1. Identification of an alternative knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutation, M918L, and a novel mutation, V1010A, in the Thrips tabaci voltage-gated sodium channel gene.

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    Wu, Meixiang; Gotoh, Hiroki; Waters, Timothy; Walsh, Douglas B; Lavine, Laura Corley

    2014-06-01

    Knockdown resistance (kdr) has been identified as a main mechanism against pyrethroid insecticides in many arthropod pests including in the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci. To characterize and identify pyrethroid-resistance in onion thrips in Washington state, we conducted insecticide bioassays and sequenced a region of the voltage gated sodium channel gene from several different T. tabaci populations. Field collected Thrips tabaci were found to have large variations in resistance to the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin. We identified two single nucleotide substitutions in our analysis of a partial sequence of the T. tabaci voltage-gated sodium channel gene. One mutation resulted in the non-synonymous substitution of methionine with leucine (M918L), which is well known to be responsible for super knockdown resistance in some pest species. Another non-synonymous substitution, a valine (GTT) to alanine (GCT) replacement at amino acid 1010 (V1010A) was identified in our study and was associated with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance. We have characterized a known kdr mutation and identified a novel mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Thrips tabaci associated with resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin. This gene region and these mutations are expected to be useful in the development of a diagnostic test to detect kdr resistance in many onion thrips populations. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Multi-country Survey Revealed Prevalent and Novel F1534S Mutation in Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (VGSC Gene in Aedes albopictus.

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    Jiabao Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is an important dengue vector because of its aggressive biting behavior and rapid spread out of its native home range in Southeast Asia. Pyrethroids are widely used for adult mosquito control, and resistance to pyrethroids should be carefully monitored because vector control is the only effective method currently available to prevent dengue transmission. The voltage-gated sodium channel gene is the target site of pyrethroids, and mutations in this gene cause knockdown resistance (kdr. Previous studies reported various mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC gene, but the spatial distribution of kdr mutations in Ae. albopictus has not been systematically examined, and the association between kdr mutation and phenotypic resistance has not been established.A total of 597 Ae. albopictus individuals from 12 populations across Asia, Africa, America and Europe were examined for mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Three domains for a total of 1,107 bp were sequenced for every individual. Two populations from southern China were examined for pyrethroid resistance using the World Health Organization standard tube bioassay, and the association between kdr mutations and phenotypic resistance was tested.A total of 29 synonymous mutations were found across domain II, III and IV of the VGSC gene. Non-synonymous mutations in two codons of the VGSC gene were detected in 5 populations from 4 countries. A novel mutation at 1532 codon (I1532T was found in Rome, Italy with a frequency of 19.7%. The second novel mutation at codon 1534 (F1534S was detected in southern China and Florida, USA with a frequency ranging from 9.5-22.6%. The WHO insecticide susceptibility bioassay found 90.1% and 96.1% mortality in the two populations from southern China, suggesting resistance and probable resistance. Positive association between kdr mutations with deltamethrin resistance was established in these two populations.Two novel kdr

  3. Multi-country Survey Revealed Prevalent and Novel F1534S Mutation in Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (VGSC) Gene in Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiabao; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa; Cai, Songwu; Li, Yiji; Wang, Xiaoming; Lo, Eugenia; Lee, Rebecca; Sheen, Roger; Duan, Jinhua; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2016-05-01

    Aedes albopictus is an important dengue vector because of its aggressive biting behavior and rapid spread out of its native home range in Southeast Asia. Pyrethroids are widely used for adult mosquito control, and resistance to pyrethroids should be carefully monitored because vector control is the only effective method currently available to prevent dengue transmission. The voltage-gated sodium channel gene is the target site of pyrethroids, and mutations in this gene cause knockdown resistance (kdr). Previous studies reported various mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene, but the spatial distribution of kdr mutations in Ae. albopictus has not been systematically examined, and the association between kdr mutation and phenotypic resistance has not been established. A total of 597 Ae. albopictus individuals from 12 populations across Asia, Africa, America and Europe were examined for mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Three domains for a total of 1,107 bp were sequenced for every individual. Two populations from southern China were examined for pyrethroid resistance using the World Health Organization standard tube bioassay, and the association between kdr mutations and phenotypic resistance was tested. A total of 29 synonymous mutations were found across domain II, III and IV of the VGSC gene. Non-synonymous mutations in two codons of the VGSC gene were detected in 5 populations from 4 countries. A novel mutation at 1532 codon (I1532T) was found in Rome, Italy with a frequency of 19.7%. The second novel mutation at codon 1534 (F1534S) was detected in southern China and Florida, USA with a frequency ranging from 9.5-22.6%. The WHO insecticide susceptibility bioassay found 90.1% and 96.1% mortality in the two populations from southern China, suggesting resistance and probable resistance. Positive association between kdr mutations with deltamethrin resistance was established in these two populations. Two novel kdr mutations, I1532T

  4. A new sodium channel {alpha}-subunit gene (Scn9a) from Schwann cells maps to the Scn1a, Scn2a, Scn3a cluster of mouse chromosome 2

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    Beckers, M.C.; Ernst, E.; Gros, P. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-15

    We have used a total of 27 AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains to determine the chromosomal location of a newly identified gene encoding an {alpha}-subunit isoform of the sodium channel from Schwann cells, Scn9a. Linkage analysis established that Scn9a mapped to the proximal segment of mouse chromosome 2. The segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 145 progeny from a Mus spretus x C57BL/6J backcross indicates that Scn9a is very tightly linked to Scn1a (gene encoding the type I sodium channel {alpha}-subunit of the brain) and forms part of a cluster of four Scna genes located on mouse chromosome 2. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Visualizing individual sodium channels on the move.

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    Heinemann, Stefan H

    2012-07-27

    Visualization of voltage-gated sodium channels at work is an important requirement for the understanding of rapid electrical signaling in nerve cells. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Ondrus and colleagues have mastered this challenge by chemical synthesis of a fluorescent antagonist and by monitoring single sodium channels in living cells with unprecedented optical resolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mutations in sodium channel {beta}-subunit SCN3B are associated with early-onset lone atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Morten Salling; Jespersen, Thomas; Nielsen, Jonas Bille

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent arrhythmia. Screening of SCN5A-the gene encoding the a-subunit of the cardiac sodium channel-has indicated that disturbances of the sodium current may play a central role in the mechanism of lone AF. We tested the hypothesis that lone AF in young...... across species. Electrophysiological studies on the SCN3B mutation were carried out and all three SCN3B mutations caused a functionally reduced sodium channel current. One synonymous variant was found in SCN4B. CONCLUSION: In 192 young lone AF patients, we found three patients with suspected disease...

  7. Design of a Nested Eight-Channel Sodium and Four-Channel Proton Coil for 7 Tesla Knee Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan; Madelin, Guillaume; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Chang, Gregory; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Wiggins, Graham C.

    2012-01-01

    The critical design aim for a dual-tuned sodium/proton coil is to maximize sodium sensitivity and transmit field (B1+) homogeneity while simultaneously providing adequate proton sensitivity and homogeneity. While most dual-frequency coils utilize lossy high-impedance trap circuits or PIN diodes to allow dual-resonance, we explored a nested-coil design for sodium/proton knee imaging at 7T. A stand-alone eight-channel sodium receive array was implemented without standard dual-resonance circuitry to provide improved sodium signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over a volume coil. A detunable sodium birdcage was added for homogeneous sodium excitation and a four-channel proton transmit-receive array was added to provide anatomical reference imaging and B0 shimming capability. Both modules were implemented with minimal disturbance to the eight-channel sodium array by managing their respective resonances and geometrical arrangement. In vivo sodium SNR was 1.2 to 1.7 times greater in the developed eight-channel array than in a mono-nuclear sodium birdcage coil, while the developed four-channel proton array provided SNR similar to that of a commercial mono-nuclear proton birdcage coil. PMID:22887123

  8. Simplified numerical simulation of hot channel in sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, F. de A.S. da; Silva Filho, E.

    1988-12-01

    The thermal-hydraulic parameter values that restrict the operation of a liquid sodium cooled reactor are not established by the average conditions of the coolant in the reactor core but by the extreme conditions of the hot channel. The present work was developed to analysis of hot channel of a sodium cooled reactor, adapting to this reactor an existent simplified model for hot channel of pressurized water reactor. The model was applied for a standard sodium reactor and the results are considered satisfatory. (author) [pt

  9. Role of aquaporin and sodium channel in pleural water movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinjun; Hu, Jie; Bai, Chunxue

    2003-12-16

    The role of the ENaC sodium channel and aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channel on pleural fluid dynamics in mice was investigated. 0.25 ml of hypertonic or isosmolar fluid was infused into the pleural space in anesthetized wildtype and AQP1 null mice. Pleural fluid was sampled at specified times to quantify the osmolality and volume. The sodium channel activator terbutaline increased isosmolar fluid clearance by 90% while the sodium channel inhibitor amiloride decreased it by 15%, but had no effect on osmotically driven water transport. AQP1 deletion significantly decreased osmotic water transport in pleural space by twofold, but it had no effect on isosmolar fluid clearance. Pretreatment with dexamethasone increased pleural osmotic fluid entry by 25%, while intravenous injection of HgCl2 decreased osmotic pleural water movement by 43%. These results provided evidence for a role of a sodium channel in pleural fluid absorption; AQP1 plays a major role in osmotic liquid transport but it does not affect isosmolar fluid clearance.

  10. Intracellular calcium modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels in ventricular myocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casini, Simona; Verkerk, Arie O.; van Borren, Marcel M. G. J.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Tan, Hanno L.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels control action potential (AP) upstroke and cell excitability. Intracellular calcium (Ca(i)(2+)) regulates AP properties by modulating various ion channels. Whether Ca(i)(2+) modulates sodium channels in ventricular myocytes, is unresolved. We studied

  11. Cation gating and selectivity in a purified, reconstituted, voltage-dependent sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchi, R.L.; Tanaka, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    In excitable membranes, the voltage-dependent sodium channel controls the primary membrane conductance change necessary for the generation of an action potential. Over the past four decades, the time- and voltage-dependent sodium currents gated by this channel have been thoroughly documented with increasingly sophisticated voltage-clamp techniques. Recent advances in the biochemistry of membrane proteins have led to the solubilization and purification of this channel protein from nerve (6) and from muscle (4) or muscle-derived (1) membranes, and have provided an approach to the correlation of the channel's molecular structure with its functional properties. Each of these sodium channel preparations appears to contain a large glycoprotein either as its sole component (2) or in association with several small subunits (6, 3). Evidence that these purified proteins represent the excitable membrane sodium channel is presented. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Molecular and kinetic determinants of local anaesthetic action on sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R J; Zamponi, G W; Sierralta, I E

    1998-11-23

    (1) Local anaesthetics (LA) rely for their clinical actions on state-dependent inhibition of voltage-dependent sodium channels. (2) Single, batrachoxin-modified sodium channels in planar lipid bilayers allow direct observation of drug-channel interactions. Two modes of inhibition of single-channel current are observed: fast block of the open channels and prolongation of a long-lived closed state, some of whose properties resemble those of the inactivated state of unmodified channels. (3) Analogues of different parts of the LA molecule separately mimic each blocking mode: amines--fast block, and water-soluble aromatics--closed state prolongation. (4) Interaction between a mu-conotoxin derivative and diethylammonium indicate an intrapore site of fast, open-state block. (5) Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that hydrophobic residues in transmembrane segment 6 of repeat domain 4 of sodium channels are critical for both LA binding and stabilization of the inactivated state.

  13. Mining Protein Evolution for Insights into Mechanisms of Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channel Auxiliary Subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinarolo, Steven; Granata, Daniele; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Ahern, Christopher A

    2018-02-21

    Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) beta (β) subunits have been called the "overachieving" auxiliary ion channel subunit. Indeed, these subunits regulate the trafficking of the sodium channel complex at the plasma membrane and simultaneously tune the voltage-dependent properties of the pore-forming alpha-subunit. It is now known that VGSC β-subunits are capable of similar modulation of multiple isoforms of related voltage-gated potassium channels, suggesting that their abilities extend into the broader voltage-gated channels. The gene family for these single transmembrane immunoglobulin beta-fold proteins extends well beyond the traditional VGSC β1-β4 subunit designation, with deep roots into the cell adhesion protein family and myelin-related proteins - where inherited mutations result in a myriad of electrical signaling disorders. Yet, very little is known about how VGSC β-subunits support protein trafficking pathways, the basis for their modulation of voltage-dependent gating, and, ultimately, their role in shaping neuronal excitability. An evolutionary approach can be useful in yielding new clues to such functions as it provides an unbiased assessment of protein residues, folds, and functions. An approach is described here which indicates the greater emergence of the modern β-subunits roughly 400 million years ago in the early neurons of Bilateria and bony fish, and the unexpected presence of distant homologues in bacteriophages. Recent structural breakthroughs containing α and β eukaryotic sodium channels containing subunits suggest a novel role for a highly conserved polar contact that occurs within the transmembrane segments. Overall, a mixture of approaches will ultimately advance our understanding of the mechanism for β-subunit interactions with voltage-sensor containing ion channels and membrane proteins.

  14. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: Evolutionary History and Distinctive Sequence Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimova, M A; Granata, D; Carnevale, V

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) are responsible for the rising phase of the action potential. Their role in electrical signal transmission is so relevant that their emergence is believed to be one of the crucial factors enabling development of nervous system. The presence of voltage-gated sodium-selective channels in bacteria (BacNav) has raised questions concerning the evolutionary history of the ones in animals. Here we review some of the milestones in the field of Nav phylogenetic analysis and discuss some of the most important sequence features that distinguish these channels from voltage-gated potassium channels and transient receptor potential channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modification of sodium and potassium channel kinetics by diethyl ether and studies on sodium channel inactivation in the crayfish giant axon membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, Bruce Palmer [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The effects of ether and halothane on membrane currents in the voltage clamped crayfish giant axon membrane were investigated. Concentrations of ether up to 300 mM and of halothane up to 32 mM had no effect on resting potential or leakage conductance. Ether and halothane reduced the size of sodium currents without changing the voltage dependence of the peak currents or their reversal potential. Ether and halothane also produced a reversible, dose-dependent speeding of sodium current decay at all membrane potentials. Ether reduced the time constants for inactivation, and also shifted the midpoint of the steady-state inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. Potassium currents were smaller with ether present, with no change in the voltage dependence of steady-state currents. The activation of potassium channels was faster with ether present. There was no apparent change in the capacitance of the crayfish giant axon membrane with ether concentrations of up to 100 mM. Experiments on sodium channel inactivation kinetics were performed using 4-aminopyridine to block potassium currents. Sodium currents decayed with a time course generally fit well by a single exponential. The time constant of decay was a steep function of voltage, especially in the negative resistance region of the peak current vs voltage relation.The time course of inactivation was very similar to that of the decay of the current at the same potential. The measurement of steady-state inactivation curves with different test pulses showed no shifts along the voltage asix. The voltage-dependence of the integral of sodium conductance was measured to test models of sodium channel inactivation in which channels must open before inactivating; the results appear inconsistent with some of the simplest cases of such models.

  16. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the voltage gated sodium ion channel TcNav causes mortality in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Halim, Hesham M; Alshukri, Baida M H; Ahmad, Munawar S; Nakasu, Erich Y T; Awwad, Mohammed H; Salama, Elham M; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Edwards, Martin G

    2016-07-14

    The voltage-gated sodium ion channel (VGSC) belongs to the largest superfamily of ion channels. Since VGSCs play key roles in physiological processes they are major targets for effective insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to analyse gene function, but recently, it has shown potential to contribute to novel strategies for selectively controlling agricultural insect pests. The current study evaluates the delivery of dsRNA targeted to the sodium ion channel paralytic A (TcNav) gene in Tribolium castaneum as a viable means of controlling this insect pest. Delivery of TcNav dsRNA caused severe developmental arrest with larval mortalities up to 73% post injection of dsRNA. Injected larvae showed significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression between 30-60%. Expression was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in pupae following injection causing 30% and 42% knockdown for early and late pupal stages, respectively. Oral delivery of dsRNA caused dose-dependant mortalities of between 19 and 51.34%; this was accompanied by significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression following 3 days of continuous feeding. The majority of larvae injected with, or fed, dsRNA died during the final larval stage prior to pupation. This work provides evidence of a viable RNAi-based strategy for insect control.

  17. Physiological regulation of epithelial sodium channel by proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Friis, Ulla G; Bistrup, Claus

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Activation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by proteolysis appears to be relevant for day-to-day physiological regulation of channel activity in kidney and other epithelial tissues. Pathophysiogical, proteolytic activation of ENaC in kidney has been demonstrated in proteinuric...

  18. Propylparaben reduces the excitability of hippocampal neurons by blocking sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Valderrábano, Leonardo; Rocha, Luisa; Galván, Emilio J

    2016-12-01

    Propylparaben (PPB) is an antimicrobial preservative widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. Virtual screening methodologies predicted anticonvulsant activity of PPB that was confirmed in vivo. Thus, we explored the effects of PPB on the excitability of hippocampal neurons by using standard patch clamp techniques. Bath perfusion of PPB reduced the fast-inactivating sodium current (I Na ) amplitude, causing a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of the I Na, and markedly delayed the sodium channel recovery from the inactivation state. Also, PPB effectively suppressed the riluzole-sensitive, persistent sodium current (I NaP ). PPB perfusion also modified the action potential kinetics, and higher concentrations of PPB suppressed the spike activity. Nevertheless, the modulatory effects of PPB did not occur when PPB was internally applied by whole-cell dialysis. These results indicate that PPB reduces the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons by modulating voltage-dependent sodium channels. The mechanistic basis of this effect is a marked delay in the recovery from inactivation state of the voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Our results indicate that similar to local anesthetics and anticonvulsant drugs that act on sodium channels, PPB acts in a use-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual variation and hormonal modulation of a sodium channel beta subunit in the electric organ correlate with variation in a social signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Wu, Ming-Ming; Zakon, Harold H

    2007-09-01

    The sodium channel beta1 subunit affects sodium channel gating and surface density, but little is known about the factors that regulate beta1 expression or its participation in the fine control of cellular excitability. In this study we examined whether graded expression of the beta1 subunit contributes to the gradient in sodium current inactivation, which is tightly controlled and directly related to a social behavior, the electric organ discharge (EOD), in a weakly electric fish Sternopygus macrurus. We found the mRNA and protein levels of beta1 in the electric organ both correlate with EOD frequency. We identified a novel mRNA splice form of this gene and found the splicing preference for this novel splice form also correlates with EOD frequency. Androgen implants lowered EOD frequency and decreased the beta1 mRNA level but did not affect splicing. Coexpression of each splice form in Xenopus oocytes with either the human muscle sodium channel gene, hNav1.4, or a Sternopygus ortholog, smNav1.4b, sped the rate of inactivation of the sodium current and shifted the steady-state inactivation toward less negative membrane potentials. The translational product of the novel mRNA splice form lacks a previously identified important tyrosine residue but still functions normally. The properties of the fish alpha and coexpressed beta1 subunits in the oocyte replicate those of the electric organ's endogenous sodium current. These data highlight the role of ion channel beta subunits in regulating cellular excitability.

  20. Action of insecticidal N-alkylamides at site 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottea, J.A.; Payne, G.T.; Soderlund, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine synthetic N-alkylamides were examined as inhibitors of the specific binding of [ 3 H]batrachotoxinin A 20α-benzoate ([ 3 H]BTX-B) to sodium channels and as activators of sodium uptake in mouse brain synaptoneurosomes. In the presence of scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) venom, the six insecticidal analogues were active as both inhibitors of [ 3 H]BTX-B binding and stimulators of sodium uptake. These findings are consistent with an action of these compounds at the alkaloid activator recognition site (site 2) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel. The three noninsecticidal N-alkylamides also inhibited [ 3 H]BTX-B binding but were ineffective as activators of sodium uptake. Concentration-response studies revealed that some of the insecticidal amides also enhanced sodium uptake through a second, high-affinity interaction that does not involve site 2, but this secondary effect does not appear to be correlated with insecticidal activity. The activities of N-alkylamides as sodium channel activators were influenced by the length of the alkenyl chain and the location of unsaturation within the molecule. These results further define the actions of N-alkylamides on sodium channels and illustrate the significance of the multiple binding domains of the sodium channel as target sites for insect control agents

  1. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paula L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  2. β1 subunit stabilises sodium channel Nav1.7 against mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Jannis; Meents, Jannis; Machtens, Jan-Philipp; Lampert, Angelika

    2018-06-01

    The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 is a key player in neuronal excitability and pain signalling. In addition to voltage sensing, the channel is also modulated by mechanical stress. Using whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, we discovered that the sodium channel subunit β1 is able to prevent the impact of mechanical stress on Nav1.7. An intramolecular disulfide bond of β1 was identified to be essential for stabilisation of inactivation, but not activation, against mechanical stress using molecular dynamics simulations, homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis. Our results highlight the role of segment 6 of domain IV in fast inactivation. We present a candidate mechanism for sodium channel stabilisation against mechanical stress, ensuring reliable channel functionality in living systems. Voltage-gated sodium channels are key players in neuronal excitability and pain signalling. Precise gating of these channels is crucial as even small functional alterations can lead to pathological phenotypes such as pain or heart failure. Mechanical stress has been shown to affect sodium channel activation and inactivation. This suggests that stabilising components are necessary to ensure precise channel gating in living organisms. Here, we show that mechanical shear stress affects voltage dependence of activation and fast inactivation of the Nav1.7 channel. Co-expression of the β1 subunit, however, protects both gating modes of Nav1.7 against mechanical shear stress. Using molecular dynamics simulation, homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis, we identify an intramolecular disulfide bond of β1 (Cys21-Cys43) which is partially involved in this process: the β1-C43A mutant prevents mechanical modulation of voltage dependence of activation, but not of fast inactivation. Our data emphasise the unique role of segment 6 of domain IV for sodium channel fast inactivation and confirm previous reports that the intracellular process of fast inactivation can be

  3. Distribution and function of voltage-gated sodium channels in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ou, Shao-Wu; Wang, Yun-Jie

    2017-11-02

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are the basic ion channels for neuronal excitability, which are crucial for the resting potential and the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons. To date, at least nine distinct sodium channel isoforms have been detected in the nervous system. Recent studies have identified that voltage-gated sodium channels not only play an essential role in the normal electrophysiological activities of neurons but also have a close relationship with neurological diseases. In this study, the latest research findings regarding the structure, type, distribution, and function of VGSCs in the nervous system and their relationship to neurological diseases, such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain, brain tumors, neural trauma, and multiple sclerosis, are reviewed in detail.

  4. RING finger protein 121 facilitates the degradation and membrane localization of voltage-gated sodium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Kazutoyo; Low, Sean E.; Yamada, Kenta; Saint-Amant, Louis; Zhou, Weibin; Muto, Akira; Asakawa, Kazuhide; Nakai, Junichi; Kawakami, Koichi; Kuwada, John Y.; Hirata, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Following their synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) are transported to the membranes of excitable cells, where they often cluster, such as at the axon initial segment of neurons. Although the mechanisms by which NaV channels form and maintain clusters have been extensively examined, the processes that govern their transport and degradation have received less attention. Our entry into the study of these processes began with the isolation of a new allele of the zebrafish mutant alligator, which we found to be caused by mutations in the gene encoding really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 121 (RNF121), an E3-ubiquitin ligase present in the ER and cis-Golgi compartments. Here we demonstrate that RNF121 facilitates two opposing fates of NaV channels: (i) ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and (ii) membrane localization when coexpressed with auxiliary NaVβ subunits. Collectively, these results indicate that RNF121 participates in the quality control of NaV channels during their synthesis and subsequent transport to the membrane. PMID:25691753

  5. Potential Roles of Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Channels in Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siguang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ENaC/degenerin ion channel superfamily includes the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC and acid sensitive ionic channel (ASIC. ENaC is a multimeric ion channel formed by heteromultimeric membrane glycoproteins, which participate in a multitude of biological processes by mediating the transport of sodium (Na+ across epithelial tissues such as the kidney, lungs, bladder, and gut. Aberrant ENaC functions contribute to several human disease states including pseudohypoaldosteronism, Liddle syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and salt-sensitive hypertension. Increasing evidence suggests that ion channels not only regulate ion homeostasis and electric signaling in excitable cells but also play important roles in cancer cell behaviors such as proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration. Indeed, ENaCs/ASICs had been reported to be associated with cancer characteristics. Given their cell surface localization and pharmacology, pharmacological strategies to target ENaC/ASIC family members may be promising cancer therapeutics.

  6. Mechanism of sodium channel block by local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis B; Zhorov, Boris S

    2017-04-03

    Local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants include both charged and electroneutral compounds that block voltage-gated sodium channels. Prior studies have revealed a common drug-binding region within the pore, but details about the binding sites and mechanism of block remain unclear. Here, we use the x-ray structure of a prokaryotic sodium channel, NavMs, to model a eukaryotic channel and dock representative ligands. These include lidocaine, QX-314, cocaine, quinidine, lamotrigine, carbamazepine (CMZ), phenytoin, lacosamide, sipatrigine, and bisphenol A. Preliminary calculations demonstrated that a sodium ion near the selectivity filter attracts electroneutral CMZ but repels cationic lidocaine. Therefore, we further docked electroneutral and cationic drugs with and without a sodium ion, respectively. In our models, all the drugs interact with a phenylalanine in helix IVS6. Electroneutral drugs trap a sodium ion in the proximity of the selectivity filter, and this same site attracts the charged group of cationic ligands. At this position, even small drugs can block the permeation pathway by an electrostatic or steric mechanism. Our study proposes a common pharmacophore for these diverse drugs. It includes a cationic moiety and an aromatic moiety, which are usually linked by four bonds. © 2017 Tikhonov and Zhorov.

  7. A negative charge in transmembrane segment 1 of domain II of the cockroach sodium channel is critical for channel gating and action of pyrethroid insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yuzhe; Song Weizhong; Groome, James R.; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo Ningguang; Dong Ke

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroids, an important class of synthetic insecticides. Pyrethroids bind to a distinct receptor site on sodium channels and prolong the open state by inhibiting channel deactivation and inactivation. Recent studies have begun to reveal sodium channel residues important for pyrethroid binding. However, how pyrethroid binding leads to inhibition of sodium channel deactivation and inactivation remains elusive. In this study, we show that a negatively charged aspartic acid residue at position 802 (D802) located in the extracellular end of transmembrane segment 1 of domain II (IIS1) is critical for both the action of pyrethroids and the voltage dependence of channel activation. Charge-reversing or -neutralizing substitutions (K, G, or A) of D802 shifted the voltage dependence of activation in the depolarizing direction and reduced channel sensitivity to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide. The charge-reversing mutation D802K also accelerated open-state deactivation, which may have counteracted the inhibition of sodium channel deactivation by deltamethrin. In contrast, the D802G substitution slowed open-state deactivation, suggesting an additional mechanism for neutralizing the action of deltamethrin. Importantly, Schild analysis showed that D802 is not involved in pyrethroid binding. Thus, we have identified a sodium channel residue that is critical for regulating the action of pyrethroids on the sodium channel without affecting the receptor site of pyrethroids.

  8. Functionalized Fullerene Targeting Human Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel, hNav1.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Robinson, Anna; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2017-08-16

    Mutations of hNa v 1.7 that cause its activities to be enhanced contribute to severe neuropathic pain. Only a small number of hNa v 1.7 specific inhibitors have been identified, most of which interact with the voltage-sensing domain of the voltage-activated sodium ion channel. In our previous computational study, we demonstrated that a [Lys 6 ]-C 84 fullerene binds tightly (affinity of 46 nM) to Na v Ab, the voltage-gated sodium channel from the bacterium Arcobacter butzleri. Here, we extend this work and, using molecular dynamics simulations, demonstrate that the same [Lys 6 ]-C 84 fullerene binds strongly (2.7 nM) to the pore of a modeled human sodium ion channel hNa v 1.7. In contrast, the fullerene binds only weakly to a mutated model of hNa v 1.7 (I1399D) (14.5 mM) and a model of the skeletal muscle hNa v 1.4 (3.7 mM). Comparison of one representative sequence from each of the nine human sodium channel isoforms shows that only hNa v 1.7 possesses residues that are critical for binding the fullerene derivative and blocking the channel pore.

  9. Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, I; Luchinsky, D G; Tindjong, R; McClintock, P V E; Eisenberg, R S

    2013-11-01

    We use Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to study the ionic conduction and valence selectivity of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as functions of the fixed charge Q(f) at its selectivity filter. We are thus able to reconcile the discrete calcium conduction bands recently revealed in our BD simulations, M0 (Q(f)=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e), with a set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5e), L1 (1.5e), thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands vs Q(f) for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Q(f) leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium-selective, nonblocking channel) → M0 (nonselective channel) → L1 (sodium-selective channel with divalent block) → M1 (calcium-selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L0 band is putatively identified with the eukaryotic sodium channel The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced transformations between nonselective channels, sodium-selective channels, and calcium-selective channels, which we interpret as transitions between different rows of the identification table. By considering the potential energy changes during permeation, we show explicitly that the multi-ion conduction bands of calcium and sodium channels arise as the result of resonant barrierless conduction. The pattern of periodic conduction bands is explained on the basis of sequential neutralization taking account of self-energy, as Q(f)(z,i)=ze(1/2+i), where i is the order of the band and z is the valence of the ion. Our results confirm the crucial influence of electrostatic interactions on conduction and on the Ca(2+)/Na(+) valence selectivity of calcium and sodium ion channels. The model and results could be also applicable to biomimetic nanopores with charged walls.

  10. The hitchhiker’s guide to the voltage-gated sodium channel galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels contribute to the rising phase of action potentials and served as an early muse for biophysicists laying the foundation for our current understanding of electrical signaling. Given their central role in electrical excitability, it is not surprising that (a) inherited mutations in genes encoding for Nav channels and their accessory subunits have been linked to excitability disorders in brain, muscle, and heart; and (b) Nav channels are targeted by various drugs and naturally occurring toxins. Although the overall architecture and behavior of these channels are likely to be similar to the more well-studied voltage-gated potassium channels, eukaryotic Nav channels lack structural and functional symmetry, a notable difference that has implications for gating and selectivity. Activation of voltage-sensing modules of the first three domains in Nav channels is sufficient to open the channel pore, whereas movement of the domain IV voltage sensor is correlated with inactivation. Also, structure–function studies of eukaryotic Nav channels show that a set of amino acids in the selectivity filter, referred to as DEKA locus, is essential for Na+ selectivity. Structures of prokaryotic Nav channels have also shed new light on mechanisms of drug block. These structures exhibit lateral fenestrations that are large enough to allow drugs or lipophilic molecules to gain access into the inner vestibule, suggesting that this might be the passage for drug entry into a closed channel. In this Review, we will synthesize our current understanding of Nav channel gating mechanisms, ion selectivity and permeation, and modulation by therapeutics and toxins in light of the new structures of the prokaryotic Nav channels that, for the time being, serve as structural models of their eukaryotic counterparts. PMID:26712848

  11. Cellular hyper-excitability caused by mutations that alter the activation process of voltage-gated sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed-Yassine eAMAROUCH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav are widely expressed as macro-molecular complexes in both excitable and non-excitable tissues. In excitable tissues, the upstroke of the action potential is the result of the passage of a large and rapid influx of sodium ions through these channels. NaV dysfunction has been associated with an increasingly wide range of neurological, muscular and cardiac disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recently identified sodium channel mutations that are linked to hyper-excitability phenotypes and associated with the alteration of the activation process of voltage gated sodium channels. Indeed, several clinical manifestations that demonstrate an alteration of tissue excitability were recently shown to be strongly associated with the presence of mutations that affect the activation process of the voltage-gated sodium channels. These emerging genotype-phenotype correlations have expanded the clinical spectrum of sodium channelopathies to include disorders which feature a hyper-excitability phenotype that may or may not be associated with a cardiomyopathy. The p.I141V mutation in SCN4A and SCN5A, as well as its homologous p.I136V mutation in SCN9A, are interesting examples of mutations that have been linked to inherited hyperexcitability myotonia, exercise-induced polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and erythromelalgia, respectively. Regardless of which sodium channel isoform is investigated, the substitution of the isoleucine to valine in the locus 141 induces similar modifications in the biophysical properties of the voltage-gated sodium channels by shifting the voltage-dependence of steady state activation towards more negative potentials.

  12. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  13. Antiepileptic drugs targeting sodium channels: subunit and neuron-type specific interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, X.

    2013-01-01

    Certain antiepileptic drugs (e.g. carbamazepine and lamotrigine) block sodium channels in an use-dependent manner and this mechanism contributes to the anti-convulsant properties of these drugs. There are, however, subtle differences in sodium current blocking properties of the antiepileptic drugs

  14. To4, the first Tityus obscurus β-toxin fully electrophysiologically characterized on human sodium channel isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Harry Morales; Mourão, Caroline Barbosa Farias; Tibery, Diogo Vieira; Barbosa, Eder Alves; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni

    2017-09-01

    Many scorpion toxins that act on sodium channels (NaScTxs) have been characterized till date. These toxins may act modulating the inactivation or the activation of sodium channels and are named α- or β-types, respectively. Some venom toxins from Tityus obscurus (Buthidae), a scorpion widely distributed in the Brazilian Amazon, have been partially characterized in previous studies; however, little information about their electrophysiological role on sodium ion channels has been published. In the present study, we describe the purification, identification and electrophysiological characterization of a NaScTx, which was first described as Tc54 and further fully sequenced and renamed To4. This toxin shows a marked β-type effect on different sodium channel subtypes (hNa v 1.1-hNa v 1.7) at low concentrations, and has more pronounced activity on hNa v 1.1, hNa v 1.2 and hNa v 1.4. By comparing To4 primary structure with other Tityus β-toxins which have already been electrophysiologically tested, it is possible to establish some key amino acid residues for the sodium channel activity. Thus, To4 is the first toxin from T. obscurus fully electrophysiologically characterized on different human sodium channel isoforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Two novel sodium channel mutations associated with resistance to indoxacarb and metaflumizone in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Liang; Su, Wen; Zhang, Jian-Heng; Yang, Yi-Hua; Dong, Ke; Wu, Yi-Dong

    2016-02-01

    Indoxacarb and metaflumizone belong to a relatively new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs). Due to intensive use of indoxacarb, field-evolved indoxacarb resistance has been reported in several lepidopteran pests, including the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, a serious pest of cruciferous crops. In particular, the BY12 population of P. xylostella, collected from Baiyun, Guangdong Province of China in 2012, was 750-fold more resistant to indoxacarb and 70-fold more resistant to metaflumizone compared with the susceptible Roth strain. Comparison of complementary DNA sequences encoding the sodium channel genes of Roth and BY12 revealed two point mutations (F1845Y and V1848I) in the sixth segment of domain IV of the PxNav protein in the BY population. Both mutations are located within a highly conserved sequence region that is predicted to be involved in the binding sites of local anesthetics and SCBIs based on mammalian sodium channels. A significant correlation was observed among 10 field-collected populations between the mutant allele (Y1845 or I1848) frequencies (1.7% to 52.5%) and resistance levels to both indoxacarb (34- to 870-fold) and metaflumizone (1- to 70-fold). The two mutations were never found to co-exist in the same allele of PxNav , suggesting that they arose independently. This is the first time that sodium channel mutations have been associated with high levels of resistance to SCBIs. F1845Y and V1848I are molecular markers for resistance monitoring in the diamondback moth and possibly other insect pest species. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Comparative effects of sodium channel blockers in short term rat whole embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Mats F, E-mail: Mats.Nilsson@farmbio.uu.se [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Sköld, Anna-Carin; Ericson, Ann-Christin; Annas, Anita; Villar, Rodrigo Palma [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Cebers, Gvido [AstraZeneca R and D, iMed, 141 Portland Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hellmold, Heike; Gustafson, Anne-Lee [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Webster, William S [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect on the rat embryonic heart of two experimental drugs (AZA and AZB) which are known to block the sodium channel Nav1.5, the hERG potassium channel and the L-type calcium channel. The sodium channel blockers bupivacaine, lidocaine, and the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine were used as reference substances. The experimental model was the gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryo cultured in vitro. In this model the embryonic heart activity can be directly observed, recorded and analyzed using computer assisted image analysis as it responds to the addition of test drugs. The effect on the heart was studied for a range of concentrations and for a duration up to 3 h. The results showed that AZA and AZB caused a concentration-dependent bradycardia of the embryonic heart and at high concentrations heart block. These effects were reversible on washout. In terms of potency to cause bradycardia the compounds were ranked AZB > bupivacaine > AZA > lidocaine > nifedipine. Comparison with results from previous studies with more specific ion channel blockers suggests that the primary effect of AZA and AZB was sodium channel blockage. The study shows that the short-term rat whole embryo culture (WEC) is a suitable system to detect substances hazardous to the embryonic heart. - Highlights: • Study of the effect of sodium channel blocking drugs on embryonic heart function • We used a modified method rat whole embryo culture with image analysis. • The drugs tested caused a concentration dependent bradycardia and heart block. • The effect of drugs acting on multiple ion channels is difficult to predict. • This method may be used to detect cardiotoxicity in prenatal development.

  17. Comparative effects of sodium channel blockers in short term rat whole embryo culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mats F; Sköld, Anna-Carin; Ericson, Ann-Christin; Annas, Anita; Villar, Rodrigo Palma; Cebers, Gvido; Hellmold, Heike; Gustafson, Anne-Lee; Webster, William S

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect on the rat embryonic heart of two experimental drugs (AZA and AZB) which are known to block the sodium channel Nav1.5, the hERG potassium channel and the L-type calcium channel. The sodium channel blockers bupivacaine, lidocaine, and the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine were used as reference substances. The experimental model was the gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryo cultured in vitro. In this model the embryonic heart activity can be directly observed, recorded and analyzed using computer assisted image analysis as it responds to the addition of test drugs. The effect on the heart was studied for a range of concentrations and for a duration up to 3 h. The results showed that AZA and AZB caused a concentration-dependent bradycardia of the embryonic heart and at high concentrations heart block. These effects were reversible on washout. In terms of potency to cause bradycardia the compounds were ranked AZB > bupivacaine > AZA > lidocaine > nifedipine. Comparison with results from previous studies with more specific ion channel blockers suggests that the primary effect of AZA and AZB was sodium channel blockage. The study shows that the short-term rat whole embryo culture (WEC) is a suitable system to detect substances hazardous to the embryonic heart. - Highlights: • Study of the effect of sodium channel blocking drugs on embryonic heart function • We used a modified method rat whole embryo culture with image analysis. • The drugs tested caused a concentration dependent bradycardia and heart block. • The effect of drugs acting on multiple ion channels is difficult to predict. • This method may be used to detect cardiotoxicity in prenatal development

  18. Ligand-based design and synthesis of novel sodium channel blockers from a combined phenytoin–lidocaine pharmacophore

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuesheng; Jones, Paulianda J.; Batts, Timothy W.; Landry, Victoria; Patel, Manoj K.; Brown, Milton L.

    2008-01-01

    The voltage-gated sodium channel remains a rich area for the development of novel blockers. In this study we used comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), a ligand-based design strategy, to generate a 3D model based upon local anesthetics, hydantoins, and α-hydroxyphenylamides to elucidate a SAR for their binding site in the neuronal sodium channel. Correlation by partial least squares (PLS) analysis of in vitro sodium channel binding activity (expressed as pIC50) and the CoMFA descripto...

  19. Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroi, Yukiko; Chanda, Baron

    2009-01-01

    Local anesthetics block sodium channels in a state-dependent fashion, binding with higher affinity to open and/or inactivated states. Gating current measurements show that local anesthetics immobilize a fraction of the gating charge, suggesting that the movement of voltage sensors is modified when a local anesthetic binds to the pore of the sodium channel. Here, using voltage clamp fluorescence measurements, we provide a quantitative description of the effect of local anesthetics on the steady-state behavior of the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. Lidocaine and QX-314 shifted the midpoints of the fluorescence-voltage (F-V) curves of S4 domain III in the hyperpolarizing direction by 57 and 65 mV, respectively. A single mutation in the S6 of domain IV (F1579A), a site critical for local anesthetic block, abolished the effect of QX-314 on the voltage sensor of domain III. Both local anesthetics modestly shifted the F-V relationships of S4 domain IV toward hyperpolarized potentials. In contrast, the F-V curve of the S4 domain I was shifted by 11 mV in the depolarizing direction upon QX-314 binding. These antagonistic effects of the local anesthetic indicate that the drug modifies the coupling between the voltage-sensing domains of the sodium channel. Our findings suggest a novel role of local anesthetics in modulating the gating apparatus of the sodium channel.

  20. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel β1/β1B Subunits Regulate Cardiac Physiology and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Edokobi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myocyte contraction is initiated by a set of intricately orchestrated electrical impulses, collectively known as action potentials (APs. Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs are responsible for the upstroke and propagation of APs in excitable cells, including cardiomyocytes. NaVs consist of a single, pore-forming α subunit and two different β subunits. The β subunits are multifunctional cell adhesion molecules and channel modulators that have cell type and subcellular domain specific functional effects. Variants in SCN1B, the gene encoding the Nav-β1 and -β1B subunits, are linked to atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, e.g., Brugada syndrome, as well as to the early infantile epileptic encephalopathy Dravet syndrome, all of which put patients at risk for sudden death. Evidence over the past two decades has demonstrated that Nav-β1/β1B subunits play critical roles in cardiac myocyte physiology, in which they regulate tetrodotoxin-resistant and -sensitive sodium currents, potassium currents, and calcium handling, and that Nav-β1/β1B subunit dysfunction generates substrates for arrhythmias. This review will highlight the role of Nav-β1/β1B subunits in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology.

  1. Single sodium channels from human skeletal muscle in planar lipid bilayers: characterization and response to pentobarbital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wartenberg, Hans C.; Urban, Bernd W.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the response to general anesthetics of different sodium-channel subtypes, we examined the effects of pentobarbital, a close thiopental analogue, on single sodium channels from human skeletal muscle and compared them to existing data from human brain and human ventricular

  2. Molecular Basis of Paraltyic Neurotoxin Action on Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-14

    of 9,700 daltons isolated from the coral Goni2oora gy. (1). The toxin enhances neurally mediated contraction of blood vessels and taenia coli of the...sites on the solium channel and to identify the site of GPT action within the structure of the sodium channel protein. 2. Site of Action of Brvyetoxin

  3. Slick (Kcnt2 Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels Limit Peptidergic Nociceptor Excitability and Hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L Tomasello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slick (Kcnt2 sodium-activated potassium (K Na channel is a rapidly gating and weakly voltage-dependent and sodium-dependent potassium channel with no clearly defined physiological function. Within the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, we show Slick channels are exclusively expressed in small-sized and medium-sized calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP-containing DRG neurons, and a pool of channels are localized to large dense-core vesicles (LDCV-containing CGRP. We stimulated DRG neurons for CGRP release and found Slick channels contained within CGRP-positive LDCV translocated to the neuronal membrane. Behavioral studies in Slick knockout (KO mice indicated increased basal heat detection and exacerbated thermal hyperalgesia compared with wild-type littermate controls during neuropathic and chronic inflammatory pain. Electrophysiologic recordings of DRG neurons from Slick KO mice revealed that Slick channels contribute to outward current, propensity to fire action potentials (APs, and to AP properties. Our data suggest that Slick channels restrain the excitability of CGRP-containing neurons, diminishing pain behavior after inflammation and injury.

  4. On conduction in a bacterial sodium channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Furini

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Na⁺-channels are transmembrane proteins that are responsible for the fast depolarizing phase of the action potential in nerve and muscular cells. Selective permeability of Na⁺ over Ca²⁺ or K⁺ ions is essential for the biological function of Na⁺-channels. After the emergence of the first high-resolution structure of a Na⁺-channel, an anionic coordination site was proposed to confer Na⁺ selectivity through partial dehydration of Na⁺ via its direct interaction with conserved glutamate side chains. By combining molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations, a low-energy permeation pathway for Na⁺ ion translocation through the selectivity filter of the recently determined crystal structure of a prokaryotic sodium channel from Arcobacter butzleri is characterised. The picture that emerges is that of a pore preferentially occupied by two ions, which can switch between different configurations by crossing low free-energy barriers. In contrast to K⁺-channels, the movements of the ions appear to be weakly coupled in Na⁺-channels. When the free-energy maps for Na⁺ and K⁺ ions are compared, a selective site is characterised in the narrowest region of the filter, where a hydrated Na⁺ ion, and not a hydrated K⁺ ion, is energetically stable.

  5. Marine Toxins That Target Voltage-gated Sodium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. French

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Eukaryotic, voltage-gated sodium (NaV channels are large membrane proteins which underlie generation and propagation of rapid electrical signals in nerve, muscle and heart. Nine different NaV receptor sites, for natural ligands and/or drugs, have been identified, based on functional analyses and site-directed mutagenesis. In the marine ecosystem, numerous toxins have evolved to disrupt NaV channel function, either by inhibition of current flow through the channels, or by modifying the activation and inactivation gating processes by which the channels open and close. These toxins function in their native environment as offensive or defensive weapons in prey capture or deterrence of predators. In composition, they range from organic molecules of varying size and complexity to peptides consisting of ~10-70 amino acids. We review the variety of known NaV-targeted marine toxins, outlining, where known, their sites of interaction with the channel protein and their functional effects. In a number of cases, these natural ligands have the potential applications as drugs in clinical settings, or as models for drug development.

  6. Voltage-gated sodium channels as targets for pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Linda M; Emyr Davies, T G; O'Reilly, Andrias O; Williamson, Martin S; Wallace, B A

    2017-10-01

    The pyrethroid insecticides are a very successful group of compounds that have been used extensively for the control of arthropod pests of agricultural crops and vectors of animal and human disease. Unfortunately, this has led to the development of resistance to the compounds in many species. The mode of action of pyrethroids is known to be via interactions with the voltage-gated sodium channel. Understanding how binding to the channel is affected by amino acid substitutions that give rise to resistance has helped to elucidate the mode of action of the compounds and the molecular basis of their selectivity for insects vs mammals and between insects and other arthropods. Modelling of the channel/pyrethroid interactions, coupled with the ability to express mutant channels in oocytes and study function, has led to knowledge of both how the channels function and potentially how to design novel insecticides with greater species selectivity.

  7. Comparison and optimization of in silico algorithms for predicting the pathogenicity of sodium channel variants in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Katherine D; Bouley, Thomas M; Horn, Paul S

    2017-07-01

    Variants in neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunits genes SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN8A are common in early onset epileptic encephalopathies and other autosomal dominant childhood epilepsy syndromes. However, in clinical practice, missense variants are often classified as variants of uncertain significance when missense variants are identified but heritability cannot be determined. Genetic testing reports often include results of computational tests to estimate pathogenicity and the frequency of that variant in population-based databases. The objective of this work was to enhance clinicians' understanding of results by (1) determining how effectively computational algorithms predict epileptogenicity of sodium channel (SCN) missense variants; (2) optimizing their predictive capabilities; and (3) determining if epilepsy-associated SCN variants are present in population-based databases. This will help clinicians better understand the results of indeterminate SCN test results in people with epilepsy. Pathogenic, likely pathogenic, and benign variants in SCNs were identified using databases of sodium channel variants. Benign variants were also identified from population-based databases. Eight algorithms commonly used to predict pathogenicity were compared. In addition, logistic regression was used to determine if a combination of algorithms could better predict pathogenicity. Based on American College of Medical Genetic Criteria, 440 variants were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic and 84 were classified as benign or likely benign. Twenty-eight variants previously associated with epilepsy were present in population-based gene databases. The output provided by most computational algorithms had a high sensitivity but low specificity with an accuracy of 0.52-0.77. Accuracy could be improved by adjusting the threshold for pathogenicity. Using this adjustment, the Mendelian Clinically Applicable Pathogenicity (M-CAP) algorithm had an accuracy of 0.90 and a

  8. Safety and efficacy of a Nav1.7 selective sodium channel blocker in patients with trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Palmer, Joanne; Morisset, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current standard of care for trigeminal neuralgia is treatment with the sodium channel blockers carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, which although effective are associated with poor tolerability and the need for titration. BIIB074, a Nav1.7-selective, state-dependent sodium-channel blocker...

  9. The Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) voltage-gated sodium channel and mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in field-collected adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B W; Pietrantonio, P V

    2010-05-01

    Helicoverpa zea is one of the most costly insect pests of food and fiber crops throughout the Americas. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely applied for its control as they are effective and relatively inexpensive; however, resistance to pyrethroids threatens agricultural systems sustainability because alternative insecticides are often more expensive or less effective. Although pyrethroid resistance has been identified in this pest since 1990, the mechanisms of resistance have not yet been elucidated at the molecular level. Pyrethroids exert their toxicity by prolonging the open state of the voltage-gated sodium channel. Here we report the cDNA sequence of the H. zea sodium channel alpha-subunit homologous to the para gene from Drosophila melanogaster. In field-collected males which were resistant to cypermethrin as determined by the adult vial test, we identify known resistance-conferring mutations L1029H and V421M, along with two novel mutations at the V421 residue, V421A and V421G. An additional mutation, I951V, may be the first example of a pyrethroid resistance mutation caused by RNA editing. Identification of the sodium channel cDNA sequence will allow for testing hypotheses on target-site resistance for insecticides acting on this channel through modeling and expression studies. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for resistance will greatly improve our ability to identify and predict resistance, as well as preserve susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased renal sodium absorption by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis during fasting in healthy man. A possible role of the epithelial sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graffe Carolina C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment with prostaglandin inhibitors can reduce renal function and impair renal water and sodium excretion. We tested the hypotheses that a reduction in prostaglandin synthesis by ibuprofen treatment during fasting decreased renal water and sodium excretion by increased absorption of water and sodium via the aquaporin2 water channels and the epithelial sodium channels. Methods The effect of ibuprofen, 600 mg thrice daily, was measured during fasting in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover study of 17 healthy humans. The subjects received a standardized diet on day 1, fasted at day 2, and received an IV infusion of 3% NaCl on day 3. The effect variables were urinary excretions of aquaporin2 (u-AQP2, the beta-fraction of the epithelial sodium channel (u-ENaCbeta, cyclic-AMP (u-cAMP, prostaglandin E2 (u-PGE2. Free water clearance (CH2O, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa, and plasma concentrations of vasopressin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial-, and brain natriuretic peptide. Results Ibuprofen decreased u-AQP2, u-PGE2, and FENa at all parts of the study. During the same time, ibuprofen significantly increased u-ENaCbeta. Ibuprofen did not change the response in p-AVP, u-c-AMP, urinary output, and free water clearance during any of these periods. Atrial-and brain natriuretic peptide were higher. Conclusion During inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, urinary sodium excretion decreased in parallel with an increase in sodium absorption and increase in u-ENaCbeta. U-AQP2 decreased indicating that water transport via AQP2 fell. The vasopressin-c-AMP-axis did not mediate this effect, but it may be a consequence of the changes in the natriuretic peptide system and/or the angiotensin-aldosterone system Trial Registration Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT00281762

  11. The Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack Is Required for Optimal Cognitive Flexibility in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Anne E.; Dieter, Rebekka; Nann, Yvette; Hausmann, Mario; Meyerdierks, Nora; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Ruth, Peter; Lukowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    "Kcnt1" encoded sodium-activated potassium channels (Slack channels) are highly expressed throughout the brain where they modulate the firing patterns and general excitability of many types of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that Slack channels may be important for higher brain functions such as cognition and normal intellectual…

  12. Actions of the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin on sodium channels expressed in rat cerebral cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are important sites for the neurotoxic actions of pyrethroid insecticides in mammals. Here, we studied the mode of action of bifenthrin on the native sodium channels in cerebral cortical neurons prepared from newborn rat brain, where the toxic effects are largely generated. Bifenthrin caused a pronounced late current that persisted at the end of a depolarizing pulse, a slowly-decaying tail current following repolarization and significant resting modification (25.3% modification at 10 μM). No significant bifenthrin-induced effect was observed at the peak current. Bifenthrin also caused a concentration-dependent hyperpolarizing shift in steady-state activation and inactivation as well as slowed recovery from channel inactivation. Repetitive depolarization increased the potency of bifenthrin with high frequency. There was approximately 64% inhibition of modification upon repetitive activation by 10-Hz trains of depolarizing pulses. These results suggest that bifenthrin binds to and modifies sodium channels in both the closed and open states and exhibits the behavior between type I and type II.

  13. Adaptive evolution of the vertebrate skeletal muscle sodium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a highly potent neurotoxin that blocks the action potential by selectively binding to voltage-gated sodium channels (Na v. The skeletal muscle Na v (Na v1.4 channels in most pufferfish species and certain North American garter snakes are resistant to TTX, whereas in most mammals they are TTX-sensitive. It still remains unclear as to whether the difference in this sensitivity among the various vertebrate species can be associated with adaptive evolution. In this study, we investigated the adaptive evolution of the vertebrate Na v1.4 channels. By means of the CODEML program of the PAML 4.3 package, the lineages of both garter snakes and pufferfishes were denoted to be under positive selection. The positively selected sites identified in the p-loop regions indicated their involvement in Na v1.4 channel sensitivity to TTX. Most of these sites were located in the intracellular regions of the Na v1.4 channel, thereby implying the possible association of these regions with the regulation of voltage-sensor movement.

  14. Toxins That Affect Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yonghua

    2017-10-26

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are critical in generation and conduction of electrical signals in multiple excitable tissues. Natural toxins, produced by animal, plant, and microorganisms, target VGSCs through diverse strategies developed over millions of years of evolutions. Studying of the diverse interaction between VGSC and VGSC-targeting toxins has been contributing to the increasing understanding of molecular structure and function, pharmacology, and drug development potential of VGSCs. This chapter aims to summarize some of the current views on the VGSC-toxin interaction based on the established receptor sites of VGSC for natural toxins.

  15. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial cells by lipoxin A4 through AhR-cAMP-dependent pathway. Bi-Huan Cheng1,2, Li-Wei Pan2, Sheng-Rong Zhang3, Bin-Yu Ying2, Ben-Ji. Wang2, Guo-Liang Lin2 and Shi-Fang Ding1*. 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong ...

  16. Cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 distribution in myocytes via interacting proteins: the multiple pool model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Diana; Gillet, Ludovic; Abriel, Hugues

    2013-04-01

    The cardiac sodium current (INa) is responsible for the rapid depolarization of cardiac cells, thus allowing for their contraction. It is also involved in regulating the duration of the cardiac action potential (AP) and propagation of the impulse throughout the myocardium. Cardiac INa is generated by the voltage-gated Na(+) channel, NaV1.5, a 2016-residue protein which forms the pore of the channel. Over the past years, hundreds of mutations in SCN5A, the human gene coding for NaV1.5, have been linked to many cardiac electrical disorders, including the congenital and acquired long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, conduction slowing, sick sinus syndrome, atrial fibrillation, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Similar to many membrane proteins, NaV1.5 has been found to be regulated by several interacting proteins. In some cases, these different proteins, which reside in distinct membrane compartments (i.e. lateral membrane vs. intercalated disks), have been shown to interact with the same regulatory domain of NaV1.5, thus suggesting that several pools of NaV1.5 channels may co-exist in cardiac cells. The aim of this review article is to summarize the recent works that demonstrate its interaction with regulatory proteins and illustrate the model that the sodium channel NaV1.5 resides in distinct and different pools in cardiac cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Knockdown resistance (kdr) of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Aedes aegypti population in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Penny Humaidah; Prastowo, Joko; Widyasari, Anis; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos

    2017-06-05

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector of several arthropod-borne viral infections in the tropics profoundly affecting humans, such as dengue fever (DF), West Nile (WN), chikungunya and more recently Zika. Eradication of Aedes still largely depends on insecticides, which is the most cost-effective strategy, and often inefficient due to resistance development in exposed Aedes populations. We here conducted a study of Ae. aegypti resistance towards several insecticides regularly used in the city of Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Aedes aegypti egg samples were collected with ovitraps and thereafter hatched in the insectary of the Gadjah Mada University. The F0 generation was used for all bioassay-related experiments and knockdown resistance (kdr) assays. Results clearly showed resistance development of Ae. aegypti against tested insecticides. Mortalities of Ae. aegypti were less than 90% with highest resistance observed against 0.75% permethrin. Mosquitoes from the southern parts of Denpasar presented high level of resistance pattern in comparison to those from the western and northern parts of Denpasar. Kdr analysis of voltage-gated sodium channel (Vgsc) gene showed significant association to S989P and V1016G mutations linked to resistance phenotypes against 0.75% permethrin. Conversely, Ae. aegypti F1534C gene mutation did not result in any significant correlation to resistance development. Periodically surveillance of insecticide resistances in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes will help local public health authorities to set better goals and allow proper evaluation of on-going mosquito control strategies. Initial detection of insecticide resistance will contribute to conduct proper actions in delaying mosquito resistance development such as insecticide rotation or combination of compounds in order to prolong chemical efficacy in combating Ae. aegypti vectors in Indonesia.

  18. Major Channels Involved In Neuropsychiatric Disorders And Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eImbrici

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated ion channels are important mediators of physiological functions in the central nervous system. The cyclic activation of these channels influences neurotransmitter release, neuron excitability, gene transcription and plasticity, providing distinct brain areas with unique physiological and pharmacological response. A growing body of data has implicated ion channels in the susceptibility or pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. Indeed, population studies support the association of polymorphisms in calcium and potassium channels with the genetic risk for bipolar disorders or schizophrenia. Moreover, point mutations in calcium, sodium and potassium channel genes have been identified in some childhood developmental disorders. Finally, antibodies against potassium channel complexes occur in a series of autoimmune psychiatric diseases. Here we report recent studies assessing the role of calcium, sodium and potassium channels in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders, and briefly summarize promising pharmacological strategies targeted on ion channels for the therapy of mental illness and related genetic tests.

  19. Multidrug resistance in epilepsy and polymorphisms in the voltage-gated sodium channel genes SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN3A: correlation among phenotype, genotype, and mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Patrick; Poon, Wai Sang; Ng, Ho-Keung; Kang, David E; Wong, Virginia; Ng, Ping Wing; Lui, Colin H T; Sin, Ngai Chuen; Wong, Ka S; Baum, Larry

    2008-11-01

    Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) prevent seizures by blocking voltage-gated brain sodium channels. However, treatment is ineffective in 30% of epilepsy patients, which might, at least in part, result from polymorphisms of the sodium channel genes. We investigated the association of AED responsiveness with genetic polymorphisms and correlated any association with mRNA expression of the neuronal sodium channels. We performed genotyping of tagging and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SCN1A, 2A, and 3A in 471 Chinese epilepsy patients (272 drug responsive and 199 drug resistant). A total of 27 SNPs were selected based on the HapMap database. Genotype distributions in drug-responsive and drug-resistant patients were compared. SCN2A mRNA was quantified by real-time PCR in 24 brain and 57 blood samples. Its level was compared between patients with different genotypes of an SCN2A SNP found to be associated with drug responsiveness. SCN2A IVS7-32A>G (rs2304016) A alleles were associated with drug resistance (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.7, P=0.007). Haplotypes containing the IVS7-32A>G allele A were also associated with drug resistance. IVS7-32A>G is located within the putative splicing branch site for splicing exons 7 and 9. PCR of reverse-transcribed RNA from blood or brain of patients with different IVS7-32A>G genotypes using primers in exons 7 and 9 showed no skipping of exon 8, and real-time PCR showed no difference in SCN2A mRNA levels among genotypes. Results of this study suggest an association between SCN2A IVS7-32A>G and AED responsiveness, without evidence of an effect on splicing or mRNA expression.

  20. The antipsychotic drug loxapine is an opener of the sodium-activated potassium channel slack (Slo2.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, B; Sethuramanujam, S; Picchione, Kelly E; Bhattacharjee, A; Khessibi, N; Chesney, F; Lanneau, C; Curet, O; Avenet, P

    2012-03-01

    Sodium-activated potassium (K(Na)) channels have been suggested to set the resting potential, to modulate slow after-hyperpolarizations, and to control bursting behavior or spike frequency adaptation (Trends Neurosci 28:422-428, 2005). One of the genes that encodes K(Na) channels is called Slack (Kcnt1, Slo2.2). Studies found that Slack channels were highly expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons and modulated their firing frequency (J Neurosci 30:14165-14172, 2010). Therefore, Slack channel openers are of significant interest as putative analgesic drugs. We screened the library of pharmacologically active compounds with recombinant human Slack channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, by using rubidium efflux measurements with atomic absorption spectrometry. Riluzole at 500 μM was used as a reference agonist. The antipsychotic drug loxapine and the anthelmintic drug niclosamide were both found to activate Slack channels, which was confirmed by using manual patch-clamp analyses (EC(50) = 4.4 μM and EC(50) = 2.9 μM, respectively). Psychotropic drugs structurally related to loxapine were also evaluated in patch-clamp experiments, but none was found to be as active as loxapine. Loxapine properties were confirmed at the single-channel level with recombinant rat Slack channels. In dorsal root ganglion neurons, loxapine was found to behave as an opener of native K(Na) channels and to increase the rheobase of action potential. This study identifies new K(Na) channel pharmacological tools, which will be useful for further Slack channel investigations.

  1. Action potential generation requires a high sodium channel density in the axon initial segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Ilschner, Susanne U.; Kampa, Björn M.; Williams, Stephen R.; Ruben, Peter C.; Stuart, Greg J.

    2008-01-01

    The axon initial segment ( AIS) is a specialized region in neurons where action potentials are initiated. It is commonly assumed that this process requires a high density of voltage-gated sodium ( Na(+)) channels. Paradoxically, the results of patch-clamp studies suggest that the Na(+) channel

  2. Bromodomain-containing Protein 4 Activates Voltage-gated Sodium Channel 1.7 Transcription in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons to Mediate Thermal Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Ho, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Cheng-Yuan; Wang, Hsueh-Hsiao; Lee, An-Sheng; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Chau, Yat-Pang; Peng, Hsien-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Bromodomain-containing protein 4 binds acetylated promoter histones and promotes transcription; however, the role of bromodomain-containing protein 4 in inflammatory hyperalgesia remains unclear. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received hind paw injections of complete Freund's adjuvant to induce hyperalgesia. The dorsal root ganglia were examined to detect changes in bromodomain-containing protein 4 expression and the activation of genes involved in the expression of voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7, which is a key pain-related ion channel. The intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant injections resulted in thermal hyperalgesia (4.0 ± 1.5 s; n = 7). The immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting results demonstrated an increase in the bromodomain-containing protein 4-expressing dorsal root ganglia neurons (3.78 ± 0.38 fold; n = 7) and bromodomain-containing protein 4 protein levels (2.62 ± 0.39 fold; n = 6). After the complete Freund's adjuvant injection, histone H3 protein acetylation was enhanced in the voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 promoter, and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 and phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II were recruited to this area. Furthermore, the voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7-mediated currents were enhanced in neurons of the complete Freund's adjuvant rats (55 ± 11 vs. 19 ± 9 pA/pF; n = 4 to 6 neurons). Using bromodomain-containing protein 4-targeted antisense small interfering RNA to the complete Freund's adjuvant-treated rats, the authors demonstrated a reduction in the expression of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (0.68 ± 0.16 fold; n = 7), a reduction in thermal hyperalgesia (7.5 ± 1.5 s; n = 7), and a reduction in the increased voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 currents (21 ± 4 pA/pF; n = 4 to 6 neurons). Complete Freund's adjuvant triggers enhanced bromodomain-containing protein 4 expression, ultimately leading to the enhanced excitability of nociceptive neurons and thermal hyperalgesia. This effect is

  3. Distribution and function of sodium channel subtypes in human atrial myocardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, Susann G.; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Maass, Alexander H.; Lange, Volkmar; Renner, Andre; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Bonz, Andreas; Muck, Jenny; Ertl, Georg; Catterall, William A.; Scheuer, Todd; Maier, Sebastian K. G.

    Voltage-gated sodium channels composed of a pore-forming alpha subunit and auxiliary beta subunits are responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiac muscle. However, their localization and expression patterns in human myocardium have not yet been clearly defined. We used

  4. Loss-of-Function Sodium Channel Mutations in Infancy A Pattern Unfolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Priya; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of channelopathies in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with structurally normal hearts is a rapidly evolving story.(1) Many ion channels are involved, including loss-of-function sodium channelopathies of which the phenotypic spectrum ranges from lethal arrhythmias

  5. Guanidinium Toxins and Their Interactions with Voltage-Gated Sodium Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M. Durán-Riveroll

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Guanidinium toxins, such as saxitoxin (STX, tetrodotoxin (TTX and their analogs, are naturally occurring alkaloids with divergent evolutionary origins and biogeographical distribution, but which share the common chemical feature of guanidinium moieties. These guanidinium groups confer high biological activity with high affinity and ion flux blockage capacity for voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV. Members of the STX group, known collectively as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, are produced among three genera of marine dinoflagellates and about a dozen genera of primarily freshwater or brackish water cyanobacteria. In contrast, toxins of the TTX group occur mainly in macrozoa, particularly among puffer fish, several species of marine invertebrates and a few terrestrial amphibians. In the case of TTX and analogs, most evidence suggests that symbiotic bacteria are the origin of the toxins, although endogenous biosynthesis independent from bacteria has not been excluded. The evolutionary origin of the biosynthetic genes for STX and analogs in dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria remains elusive. These highly potent molecules have been the subject of intensive research since the latter half of the past century; first to study the mode of action of their toxigenicity, and later as tools to characterize the role and structure of NaV channels, and finally as therapeutics. Their pharmacological activities have provided encouragement for their use as therapeutants for ion channel-related pathologies, such as pain control. The functional role in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems for both groups of toxins is unproven, although plausible mechanisms of ion channel regulation and chemical defense are often invoked. Molecular approaches and the development of improved detection methods will yield deeper understanding of their physiological and ecological roles. This knowledge will facilitate their further biotechnological exploitation and point the way towards

  6. Frequency of V1016I and F1534C mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene in Aedes aegypti in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Leslie C; Ponce, Gustavo; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Lopez, Beatriz; Flores, Adriana E

    2015-06-01

    The V1016I and F1534C mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene have been associated with resistance to pyrethroids and DDT in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A study was carried out to determine the frequency of I1016 and C1534 by real-time PCR in five natural populations of Ae. aegypti in Venezuela during 2008, 2010 and 2012, as well as in a strain selected with 0.14 µg of deltamethrin for 15 generations. In natural populations, frequencies of I1016 varied between 0.01 and 0.37, and frequencies of C1534 between 0.35 and 1.0. In the Pampanito strain, the frequency of I1016 increased from 0.02 in F1 up to 0.5 in F15 and from 0.35 up to fixation for C1534 after selection with deltamethrin. The results showed that C1534 frequencies are higher than I1016 frequencies in natural populations of Ae. aegypti in Venezuela, and that deltamethrin selected the C1534 more rapidly than I1016. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Structure-activity relationships for the action of 11 pyrethroid insecticides on rat Nav1.8 sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.-S.; Soderlund, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-sensitive sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting nerve function. This paper describes the action of 11 structurally diverse commercial pyrethroid insecticides on the rat Na v 1.8 sodium channel isoform, the principal carrier of the tetrodotoxin-resistant, pyrethroid-sensitive sodium current of sensory neurons, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. All 11 compounds produced characteristic sodium tail currents following a depolarizing pulse that ranged from rapidly-decaying monoexponential currents (allethrin, cismethrin and permethrin) to persistent biexponential currents (cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin). Tail currents for the remaining compounds (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and tefluthrin) were monoexponential and decayed with kinetics intermediate between these extremes. Reconstruction of currents carried solely by the pyrethroid-modified subpopulation of channels revealed two types of pyrethroid-modified currents. The first type, found with cismethrin, allethrin, permethrin and tefluthrin, activated relatively rapidly and inactivated partially during a 40-ms depolarization. The second type, found with cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin and fenvalerate, activated more slowly and did not detectably inactivate during a 40-ms depolarization. Only bifenthrin did not produce modified currents that fit clearly into either of these categories. In all cases, the rate of activation of modified channels was strongly correlated with the rate of tail current decay following repolarization. Modification of Na v 1.8 sodium channels by cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin was enhanced 2.3- to 3.4-fold by repetitive stimulation; this effect appeared to result from the accumulation of persistently open channels rather than preferential binding to open channel states. Fenpropathrin was the most effective compound against Na v 1

  8. Electric organ discharge diversification in mormyrid weakly electric fish is associated with differential expression of voltage-gated ion channel genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Rebecca; Kirschbaum, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    In mormyrid weakly electric fish, the electric organ discharge (EOD) is used for species recognition, orientation and prey localization. Produced in the muscle-derived adult electric organ, the EOD exhibits a wide diversity across species in both waveform and duration. While certain defining EOD characteristics can be linked to anatomical features of the electric organ, many factors underlying EOD differentiation are yet unknown. Here, we report the differential expression of 13 Kv1 voltage-gated potassium channel genes, two inwardly rectifying potassium channel genes, two previously studied sodium channel genes and an ATPase pump in two sympatric species of the genus Campylomormyrus in both the adult electric organ and skeletal muscle. Campylomormyrus compressirostris displays a basal EOD, largely unchanged during development, while C. tshokwe has an elongated, putatively derived discharge. We report an upregulation in all Kv1 genes in the electric organ of Campylomormyrus tshokwe when compared to both skeletal muscle and C. compressirostris electric organ. This pattern of upregulation in a species with a derived EOD form suggests that voltage-gated potassium channels are potentially involved in the diversification of the EOD signal among mormyrid weakly electric fish.

  9. Distinct molecular sites of anaesthetic action: pentobarbital block of human brain sodium channels is alleviated by removal of fast inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wartenberg, H. C.; Urban, B. W.; Duch, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    Fast inactivation of sodium channel function is modified by anaesthetics. Its quantitative contribution to the overall anaesthetic effect is assessed by removing the fast inactivation mechanism enzymatically. Sodium channels from human brain cortex were incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. After

  10. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. C. Nomenclature and Properties of Calcium-Activated and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Aldrich, Richard W; Chandy, K George; Grissmer, Stephan; Wei, Aguan D; Wulff, Heike

    2017-01-01

    A subset of potassium channels is regulated primarily by changes in the cytoplasmic concentration of ions, including calcium, sodium, chloride, and protons. The eight members of this subfamily were originally all designated as calcium-activated channels. More recent studies have clarified the gating mechanisms for these channels and have documented that not all members are sensitive to calcium. This article describes the molecular relationships between these channels and provides an introduction to their functional properties. It also introduces a new nomenclature that differentiates between calcium- and sodium-activated potassium channels. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Characterization of Gene Candidates for Vacuolar Sodium Transport from Hordeum Vulgare

    KAUST Repository

    Scheu, Arne Hagen August

    2017-05-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress for land plants, and multiple mechanisms of salt tolerance have evolved. Tissue tolerance is one of these mechanisms, which involves the sequestration of sodium into the vacuole to retain low cytosolic sodium concentrations. This enables the plant to maintain cellular functions, and ultimately maintain growth and yield. However, the molecular components involved in tissue tolerance remain elusive. Several candidate genes for vacuolar sodium sequestration have recently been identified by proteome analysis of vacuolar membranes purified from the salt-tolerant cereal Hordeum vulgare (barley). In this study, I aimed to characterize these candidates in more detail. I successfully cloned coding sequences for the majority of candidate genes with primers designed based on the barley reference genome sequence. During the course of this study a newer genome sequence with improved annotations was published, to which I also compared my observations. To study the candidate genes, I used the heterologous expression system Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). I used several salt sensitive yeast strains (deficient in intrinsic sodium transporters) to test whether the candidate genes would affect their salt tolerance by mediating the sequestration of sodium into the yeast vacuole. I observed a reduction in growth upon expression for several of the gene candidate under salt-stress conditions. However, confocal microscopy suggests that most gene products are subject to degradation, and did not localize to the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast). Therefore, growth effects cannot be linked to protein function without further evidence. Various potential causes are discussed, including inaccuracies in the genome resource used as reference for primer design and issues inherent to the model system. Finally, I make suggestions on how to proceed to further characterize the candidate genes and hopefully identify novel sodium transporters from barley.

  12. Sodium channel SCN8A (Nav1.6: properties and de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy and intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle Elizabeth O'Brien

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The sodium channel Nav1.6, encoded by the gene SCN8A, is one of the major voltage-gated channels in human brain. The sequences of sodium channels have been highly conserved during evolution, and minor changes in biophysical properties can have a major impact in vivo. Insight into the role of Nav1.6 has come from analysis of spontaneous and induced mutations of mouse Scn8a during the past 18 years. Only within the past year has the role of SCN8A in human disease become apparent from whole exome and genome sequences of patients with sporadic disease. Unique features of Nav1.6 include its contribution to persistent current, resurgent current, repetitive neuronal firing, and subcellular localization at the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. Loss of Nav1.6 activity results in reduced neuronal excitability, while gain-of-function mutations can increase neuronal excitability. Mouse Scn8a (med mutants exhibit movement disorders including ataxia, tremor and dystonia. Thus far, more than ten human de novo mutations have been identified in patients with two types of disorders, epileptic encephalopathy and intellectual disability. We review these human mutations as well as the unique features of Nav1.6 that contribute to its role in determining neuronal excitability in vivo. A supplemental figure illustrating the positions of amino acid residues within the 4 domains and 24 transmembrane segments of Nav1.6 is provided to facilitate the location of novel mutations within the channel protein.

  13. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue lowers blood pressure through vasodilation and sodium channel inhibition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khan, M. A. H.; Pavlov, T. S.; Christain, S. V.; Neckář, Jan; Staruschenko, A.; Gauthier, K. M.; Capdevila, J. H.; Falck, J. R.; Campbell, W. B.; Imig, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 7 (2014), s. 463-474 ISSN 0143-5221 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : angiotensin II * epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) * epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.598, year: 2014

  14. Molecular basis for class Ib anti-arrhythmic inhibition of cardiac sodium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Galpin, Jason D; Frankel, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channels are established therapeutic targets for the management of inherited and acquired arrhythmias by class I anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs). These drugs share a common target receptor bearing two highly conserved aromatic side chains, and are subdivided by the Vaughan-Williams...

  15. Essential Oils and Their Constituents Targeting the GABAergic System and Sodium Channels as Treatment of Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Jun Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils and the constituents in them exhibit different pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive, anxiolytic-like, and anticonvulsant effects. They are widely applied as a complementary therapy for people with anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, pain, and cognitive deficit symptoms through inhalation, oral administration, and aromatherapy. Recent studies show that essential oils are emerging as a promising source for modulation of the GABAergic system and sodium ion channels. This review summarizes the recent findings regarding the pharmacological properties of essential oils and compounds from the oils and the mechanisms underlying their effects. Specifically, the review focuses on the essential oils and their constituents targeting the GABAergic system and sodium channels, and their antinociceptive, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant properties. Some constituents target transient receptor potential (TRP channels to exert analgesic effects. Some components could interact with multiple therapeutic target proteins, for example, inhibit the function of sodium channels and, at the same time, activate GABAA receptors. The review concentrates on perspective compounds that could be better candidates for new drug development in the control of pain and anxiety syndromes.

  16. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel trafficking and function by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Planès, Carole; Escudier, Estelle; Fanen, Pascale; Coste, André; Clerici, Christine

    2007-11-23

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) has been shown to correct the cellular trafficking of several mutant or nonmutant plasma membrane proteins such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator through the expression of 70-kDa heat shock proteins. The objective of the study was to determine whether 4-PBA may influence the functional expression of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). Using primary cultures of HNEC, we demonstrate that 4-PBA (5 mm for 6 h) markedly stimulated amiloride-sensitive sodium channel activity and that this was related to an increased abundance of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits in the apical membrane. The increase in ENaC cell surface expression (i) was due to insertion of newly ENaC subunits as determined by brefeldin A experiments and (ii) was not associated with cell surface retention of ENaC subunits because endocytosis of ENaC subunits was unchanged. In addition, we find that ENaC co-immunoprecipitated with the heat shock protein constitutively expressed Hsc70, that has been reported to modulate ENaC trafficking, and that 4-PBA decreased Hsc70 protein level. Finally, we report that in cystic fibrosis HNEC obtained from two cystic fibrosis patients, 4-PBA increased functional expression of ENaC as demonstrated by the increase in amiloride-sensitive sodium transport and in alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunit expression in the apical membrane. Our results suggest that in HNEC, 4-PBA increases the functional expression of ENaC through the insertion of new alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits into the apical membrane and also suggest that 4-PBA could modify ENaC trafficking by reducing Hsc70 protein expression.

  17. Site of anticonvulsant action on sodium channels: autoradiographic and electrophysiological studies in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, P.F.; Baraban, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine interact allosterically with the batrachotoxin binding site of sodium channels. In the present study, we demonstrate an autoradiographic technique to localize the batrachotoxin binding site on sodium channels in rat brain using [ 3 H]batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate (BTX-B). Binding of [ 3 H]BTX-B to brain sections is dependent on potentiating allosteric interactions with scorpion venom and is displaced by BTX-B (Kd approximately 200 nM), aconitine, veratridine, and phenytoin with the same rank order of potencies as described in brain synaptosomes. The maximum number of [ 3 H]BTX-B binding sites in forebrain sections also agrees with biochemical determinations. Autoradiographic localizations indicate that [ 3 H]BTX-B binding sites are not restricted to cell bodies and axons but are present in synaptic zones throughout the brain. For example, a particularly dense concentration of these sites in the substantia nigra is associated with afferent terminals of the striatonigral projection. By contrast, myelinated structures possess much lower densities of binding sites. In addition, we present electrophysiological evidence that synaptic transmission, as opposed to axonal conduction, is preferentially sensitive to the action of aconitine and veratridine. Finally, the synaptic block produced by these sodium channel activators is inhibited by phenytoin and carbamazepine at therapeutic anticonvulsant concentrations

  18. Hydration status regulates sodium flux and inflammatory pathways through epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Hong, Seok Jong; Zeitchek, Michael; Cooper, Garry; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Ping; Qureshi, Hannan A; Zhong, Aimei; Porterfield, Marshall D; Galiano, Robert D; Surmeier, D James; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2015-03-01

    Although it is known that the inflammatory response that results from disruption of epithelial barrier function after injury results in excessive scarring, the upstream signals remain unknown. It has also been observed that epithelial disruption results in reduced hydration status and that the use of occlusive dressings that prevent water loss from wounds decreases scar formation. We hypothesized that hydration status changes sodium homeostasis and induces sodium flux in keratinocytes, which result in activation of pathways responsible for keratinocyte-fibroblast signaling and ultimately lead to activation of fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate that perturbations in epithelial barrier function lead to increased sodium flux in keratinocytes. We identified that sodium flux in keratinocytes is mediated by epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and causes increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, which activate fibroblast via the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway. Similar changes in signal transduction and sodium flux occur by increased sodium concentration, which simulates reduced hydration, in the media in epithelial cultures or human ex vivo skin cultures. Blockade of ENaC, prostaglandin synthesis, or PGE2 receptors all reduce markers of fibroblast activation and collagen synthesis. In addition, employing a validated in vivo excessive scar model in the rabbit ear, we demonstrate that utilization of either an ENaC blocker or a COX-2 inhibitor results in a marked reduction in scarring. Other experiments demonstrate that the activation of COX-2 in response to increased sodium flux is mediated through the PIK3/Akt pathway. Our results indicate that ENaC responds to small changes in sodium concentration with inflammatory mediators and suggest that the ENaC pathway is a potential target for a strategy to prevent fibrosis.

  19. Plant ion channels: gene families, physiology, and functional genomics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, John M; Mäser, Pascal; Schroeder, Julian I

    2009-01-01

    Distinct potassium, anion, and calcium channels in the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane of plant cells have been identified and characterized by patch clamping. Primarily owing to advances in Arabidopsis genetics and genomics, and yeast functional complementation, many of the corresponding genes have been identified. Recent advances in our understanding of ion channel genes that mediate signal transduction and ion transport are discussed here. Some plant ion channels, for example, ALMT and SLAC anion channel subunits, are unique. The majority of plant ion channel families exhibit homology to animal genes; such families include both hyperpolarization- and depolarization-activated Shaker-type potassium channels, CLC chloride transporters/channels, cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, and ionotropic glutamate receptor homologs. These plant ion channels offer unique opportunities to analyze the structural mechanisms and functions of ion channels. Here we review gene families of selected plant ion channel classes and discuss unique structure-function aspects and their physiological roles in plant cell signaling and transport.

  20. Divergent actions of the pyrethroid insecticides S-bioallethrin, tefluthrin, and deltamethrin on rat Nav1.6 sodium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jianguo; Soderlund, David M.

    2010-01-01

    We expressed rat Na v 1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat β 1 and β 2 auxiliary subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides S-bioallethrin, deltamethrin, and tefluthrin on expressed sodium currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. S-Bioallethrin, a type I structure, produced transient modification evident in the induction of rapidly decaying sodium tail currents, weak resting modification (5.7% modification at 100 μM), and no further enhancement of modification upon repetitive activation by high-frequency trains of depolarizing pulses. By contrast deltamethrin, a type II structure, produced sodium tail currents that were ∼ 9-fold more persistent than those caused by S-bioallethrin, barely detectable resting modification (2.5% modification at 100 μM), and 3.7-fold enhancement of modification upon repetitive activation. Tefluthrin, a type I structure with high mammalian toxicity, exhibited properties intermediate between S-bioallethrin and deltamethrin: intermediate tail current decay kinetics, much greater resting modification (14.1% at 100 μM), and 2.8-fold enhancement of resting modification upon repetitive activation. Comparison of concentration-effect data showed that repetitive depolarization increased the potency of tefluthrin ∼ 15-fold and that tefluthrin was ∼ 10-fold more potent than deltamethrin as a use-dependent modifier of Na v 1.6 sodium channels. Concentration-effect data from parallel experiments with the rat Na v 1.2 sodium channel coexpressed with the rat β 1 and β 2 subunits in oocytes showed that the Na v 1.6 isoform was at least 15-fold more sensitive to tefluthrin and deltamethrin than the Na v 1.2 isoform. These results implicate sodium channels containing the Na v 1.6 isoform as potential targets for the central neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids.

  1. Gating transitions in the selectivity filter region of a sodium channel are coupled to the domain IV voltage sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capes, Deborah L; Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel; Jarecki, Brian W; French, Robert J; Chanda, Baron

    2012-02-14

    Voltage-dependent ion channels are crucial for generation and propagation of electrical activity in biological systems. The primary mechanism for voltage transduction in these proteins involves the movement of a voltage-sensing domain (D), which opens a gate located on the cytoplasmic side. A distinct conformational change in the selectivity filter near the extracellular side has been implicated in slow inactivation gating, which is important for spike frequency adaptation in neural circuits. However, it remains an open question whether gating transitions in the selectivity filter region are also actuated by voltage sensors. Here, we examine conformational coupling between each of the four voltage sensors and the outer pore of a eukaryotic voltage-dependent sodium channel. The voltage sensors of these sodium channels are not structurally symmetric and exhibit functional specialization. To track the conformational rearrangements of individual voltage-sensing domains, we recorded domain-specific gating pore currents. Our data show that, of the four voltage sensors, only the domain IV voltage sensor is coupled to the conformation of the selectivity filter region of the sodium channel. Trapping the outer pore in a particular conformation with a high-affinity toxin or disulphide crossbridge impedes the return of this voltage sensor to its resting conformation. Our findings directly establish that, in addition to the canonical electromechanical coupling between voltage sensor and inner pore gates of a sodium channel, gating transitions in the selectivity filter region are also coupled to the movement of a voltage sensor. Furthermore, our results also imply that the voltage sensor of domain IV is unique in this linkage and in the ability to initiate slow inactivation in sodium channels.

  2. Asymmetric functional contributions of acidic and aromatic side chains in sodium channel voltage-sensor domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Elstone, Fisal D; Niciforovic, Ana P

    2014-01-01

    largely enigmatic. To this end, natural and unnatural side chain substitutions were made in the S2 hydrophobic core (HC), the extracellular negative charge cluster (ENC), and the intracellular negative charge cluster (INC) of the four VSDs of the skeletal muscle sodium channel isoform (NaV1......Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels mediate electrical excitability in animals. Despite strong sequence conservation among the voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) of closely related voltage-gated potassium (KV) and NaV channels, the functional contributions of individual side chains in Nav VSDs remain.......4). The results show that the highly conserved aromatic side chain constituting the S2 HC makes distinct functional contributions in each of the four NaV domains. No obvious cation-pi interaction exists with nearby S4 charges in any domain, and natural and unnatural mutations at these aromatic sites produce...

  3. Differential gene expression and filamentation of Listeria monocytogenes 08-5923 exposed to sodium lactate and sodium diacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoji; Basu, Urmila; Miller, Petr; McMullen, Lynn M

    2017-05-01

    This study reports the gene expression and filamentation in Listeria monocytogenes 08-5923 following exposure to food preservatives sodium lactate (NaL) and sodium diacetate (SD). L. monocytogenes 08-5923 was challenged with a mixture of NaL/SD, NaL or sodium acetate at 37 °C in tryptic soy broth. In the initial study, L. monocytogenes 08-5923 was exposed to NaL/SD for 24 h. The transcriptome was investigated by RNA sequencing. A stress response network was discovered in L. monocytogenes 08-5923, which is mediated by genes encoding two-component systems (hisJ, lisK, OmpR family gene, resE) and RNA polymerase factors (sigC, sigH). NaL/SD resulted in the down-regulation of genes in glycolysis (pykA, eno, fbaA, pgm) and up-regulation of genes in DNA repair (radC), cell division (ftsE) and cell structure synthesis (flagella synthesis: flgK, fliF, fliD). Filamentation was monitored by flow cytometry. NaL/SD mixture resulted in filamentation in L. monocytogenes 08-5923. Longer exposure was required to induce filamentation in L. monocytogenes for SD (24 h) than for NaL (8 h) when cells were exposed to individual salt. The quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed the down-regulation of ftsE in filamented cells of Listeria exposed to NaL or sodium acetate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pyrethroid resistance in Sitophilus zeamais is associated with a mutation (T929I) in the voltage-gated sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rúbia A; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Christopher; Field, Linda M; Duce, Ian R

    2011-08-01

    The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, is the most important pest affecting stored grain in Brazil and its control relies heavily on the use of insecticides. The intensive use of compounds such as the pyrethroids has led to the emergence of resistance, and previous studies have suggested that resistance to both pyrethroids and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) may result from reduced sensitivity of the insecticide target, the voltage-gated sodium channel. To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying pyrethroid resistance in S. zeamais, the domain II region of the voltage-gated sodium channel (para-orthologue) gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced from susceptible and resistant laboratory S. zeamais strains that were selected with a discriminating dose of DDT. A single point mutation, T929I, was found in the para gene of the resistant S. zeamais populations and its presence in individual weevils was strongly associated with survival after DDT exposure. This is the first identification of a target-site resistance mutation in S. zeamais and unusually it is a super-kdr type mutation occurring in the absence of the more common kdr (L1014F) substitution. A high-throughput assay based on TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping was developed for sensitive detection of the mutation and used to screen field-collected strains of S. zeamais. This showed that the mutation is present at low frequency in field populations and is a useful tool for informing control strategies. © 2011 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Conduction velocity is regulated by sodium channel inactivation in unmyelinated axons innervating the rat cranial meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Col, Roberto; Messlinger, Karl; Carr, Richard W

    2008-02-15

    Axonal conduction velocity varies according to the level of preceding impulse activity. In unmyelinated axons this typically results in a slowing of conduction velocity and a parallel increase in threshold. It is currently held that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-dependent axonal hyperpolarization is responsible for this slowing but this has long been equivocal. We therefore examined conduction velocity changes during repetitive activation of single unmyelinated axons innervating the rat cranial meninges. In direct contradiction to the currently accepted postulate, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase blockade actually enhanced activity-induced conduction velocity slowing, while the degree of velocity slowing was curtailed in the presence of lidocaine (10-300 microm) and carbamazepine (30-500 microm) but not tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10-80 nm). This suggests that a change in the number of available sodium channels is the most prominent factor responsible for activity-induced changes in conduction velocity in unmyelinated axons. At moderate stimulus frequencies, axonal conduction velocity is determined by an interaction between residual sodium channel inactivation following each impulse and the retrieval of channels from inactivation by a concomitant Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-mediated hyperpolarization. Since the process is primarily dependent upon sodium channel availability, tracking conduction velocity provides a means of accessing relative changes in the excitability of nociceptive neurons.

  6. Intron retention in mRNA encoding ancillary subunit of insect voltage-gated sodium channel modulates channel expression, gating regulation and drug sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline M Bourdin

    Full Text Available Insect voltage-gated sodium (Nav channels are formed by a well-known pore-forming α-subunit encoded by para-like gene and ancillary subunits related to TipE from the mutation "temperature-induced-paralysis locus E." The role of these ancillary subunits in the modulation of biophysical and pharmacological properties of Na(+ currents are not enough documented. The unique neuronal ancillary subunit TipE-homologous protein 1 of Drosophila melanogaster (DmTEH1 strongly enhances the expression of insect Nav channels when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Here we report the cloning and functional expression of two neuronal DmTEH1-homologs of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, PaTEH1A and PaTEH1B, encoded by a single bicistronic gene. In PaTEH1B, the second exon encoding the last 11-amino-acid residues of PaTEH1A is shifted to 3'UTR by the retention of a 96-bp intron-containing coding-message, thus generating a new C-terminal end. We investigated the gating and pharmacological properties of the Drosophila Nav channel variant (DmNav1-1 co-expressed with DmTEH1, PaTEH1A, PaTEH1B or a truncated mutant PaTEH1Δ(270-280 in Xenopus oocytes. PaTEH1B caused a 2.2-fold current density decrease, concomitant with an equivalent α-subunit incorporation decrease in the plasma membrane, compared to PaTEH1A and PaTEH1Δ(270-280. PaTEH1B positively shifted the voltage-dependences of activation and slow inactivation of DmNav1-1 channels to more positive potentials compared to PaTEH1A, suggesting that the C-terminal end of both proteins may influence the function of the voltage-sensor and the pore of Nav channel. Interestingly, our findings showed that the sensitivity of DmNav1-1 channels to lidocaine and to the pyrazoline-type insecticide metabolite DCJW depends on associated TEH1-like subunits. In conclusion, our work demonstrates for the first time that density, gating and pharmacological properties of Nav channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes can be

  7. Mitochondria-derived superoxide and voltage-gated sodium channels in baroreceptor neurons from chronic heart-failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huiyin; Liu, Jinxu; Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Libin; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Li, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that chronic heart failure (CHF) reduces expression and activation of voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels in baroreceptor neurons, which are involved in the blunted baroreceptor neuron excitability and contribute to the impairment of baroreflex in the CHF state. The present study examined the role of mitochondria-derived superoxide in the reduced Na(v) channel function in coronary artery ligation-induced CHF rats. CHF decreased the protein expression and activity of mitochondrial complex enzymes and manganese SOD (MnSOD) and elevated the mitochondria-derived superoxide level in the nodose neurons compared with those in sham nodose neurons. Adenoviral MnSOD (Ad.MnSOD) gene transfection (50 multiplicity of infection) into the nodose neurons normalized the MnSOD expression and reduced the elevation of mitochondrial superoxide in the nodose neurons from CHF rats. Ad.MnSOD also partially reversed the reduced protein expression and current density of the Na(v) channels and the suppressed cell excitability (the number of action potential and the current threshold for inducing action potential) in aortic baroreceptor neurons from CHF rats. Data from the present study indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased protein expression and activity of mitochondrial complex enzymes and MnSOD and elevated mitochondria-derived superoxide, contributes to the reduced Na(v) channel activation and cell excitability in the aortic baroreceptor neurons in CHF rats.

  8. Biological activity of the functional epitope of ciguatoxin fragment AB on the neuroblastoma sodium channel in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Y; Chun, K E; Campora, C E; Higa, N; Suma, C; Hamajima, A; Isobe, M

    2006-01-01

    It is well established that the targeted receptor for ciguatoxin (CTX) in mammalian tissues is the sodium channel, affecting the influx of sodium into cells and altering the action potential and function of the cell. Since the syntheses of fragments of CTX has become available, our focus has been on the receptor functions of the west sphere AB and east sphere JKLM fragments using the neuroblastoma cell assay, guinea pig atrium assay, and the membrane immunobead assay (MIA). The data presented here suggest that the west sphere AB of the ciguatoxin molecule is the active portion and is responsible for the activation of the sodium channels. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Native pyroglutamation of huwentoxin-IV: a post-translational modification that increases the trapping ability to the sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Mingqiang; Duan, Zhigui; Chen, Juliang; Li, Jianglin; Xiao, Yuchen; Liang, Songping

    2013-01-01

    Huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), a tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s) sodium channel antagonist, is found in the venom of the Chinese spider Ornithoctonus huwena. A naturally modified HWTX-IV (mHWTX-IV), having a molecular mass 18 Da lower than HWTX-IV, has also been isolated from the venom of the same spider. By a combination of enzymatic fragmentation and MS/MS de novo sequencing, mHWTX-IV has been shown to have the same amino acid sequence as that of HWTX-IV, except that the N-terminal glutamic acid replaced by pyroglutamic acid. mHWTX-IV inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels of dorsal root ganglion neurons with an IC50 nearly equal to native HWTX-IV. mHWTX-IV showed the same activation and inactivation kinetics seen for native HWTX-IV. In contrast with HWTX-IV, which dissociates at moderate voltage depolarization voltages (+50 mV, 180000 ms), mHWTX-IV inhibition of TTX-sensitive sodium channels is not reversed by strong depolarization voltages (+200 mV, 500 ms). Recovery of Nav1.7current was voltage-dependent and was induced by extreme depolarization in the presence of HWTX-IV, but no obvious current was elicited after application of mHWTX-IV. Our data indicate that the N-terminal modification of HWTX-IV gives the peptide toxin a greater ability to trap the voltage sensor in the sodium channel. Loss of a negative charge, caused by cyclization at the N-terminus, is a possible reason why the modified toxin binds much stronger. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pyroglutamic acid residue in a spider toxin; this modification seems to increase the trapping ability of the voltage sensor in the sodium channel.

  10. Native pyroglutamation of huwentoxin-IV: a post-translational modification that increases the trapping ability to the sodium channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiang Rong

    Full Text Available Huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s sodium channel antagonist, is found in the venom of the Chinese spider Ornithoctonus huwena. A naturally modified HWTX-IV (mHWTX-IV, having a molecular mass 18 Da lower than HWTX-IV, has also been isolated from the venom of the same spider. By a combination of enzymatic fragmentation and MS/MS de novo sequencing, mHWTX-IV has been shown to have the same amino acid sequence as that of HWTX-IV, except that the N-terminal glutamic acid replaced by pyroglutamic acid. mHWTX-IV inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels of dorsal root ganglion neurons with an IC50 nearly equal to native HWTX-IV. mHWTX-IV showed the same activation and inactivation kinetics seen for native HWTX-IV. In contrast with HWTX-IV, which dissociates at moderate voltage depolarization voltages (+50 mV, 180000 ms, mHWTX-IV inhibition of TTX-sensitive sodium channels is not reversed by strong depolarization voltages (+200 mV, 500 ms. Recovery of Nav1.7current was voltage-dependent and was induced by extreme depolarization in the presence of HWTX-IV, but no obvious current was elicited after application of mHWTX-IV. Our data indicate that the N-terminal modification of HWTX-IV gives the peptide toxin a greater ability to trap the voltage sensor in the sodium channel. Loss of a negative charge, caused by cyclization at the N-terminus, is a possible reason why the modified toxin binds much stronger. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pyroglutamic acid residue in a spider toxin; this modification seems to increase the trapping ability of the voltage sensor in the sodium channel.

  11. Salt Sensitive Tet-Off-Like Systems to Knockdown Primordial Germ Cell Genes for Repressible Transgenic Sterilization in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanbo; Su, Baofeng; Qin, Guyu; Ye, Zhi; Alsaqufi, Ahmed; Perera, Dayan A; Shang, Mei; Odin, Ramjie; Vo, Khoi; Drescher, David; Robinson, Dalton; Zhang, Dan; Abass, Nermeen; Dunham, Rex A

    2017-05-31

    Repressible knockdown approaches were investigated for transgenic sterilization in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus . Two primordial germ cell (PGC) marker genes, nanos and dead end , were targeted for knockdown, and an off-target gene, vasa , was monitored. Two potentially salt sensitive repressible promoters, zebrafish adenylosuccinate synthase 2 (ADSS) and zebrafish racemase (Rm), were each coupled with four knockdown strategies: ds-sh RNA targeting the 5' end (N1) or 3' end (N2) of channel catfish nanos , full-length cDNA sequence of channel catfish nanos for overexpression (cDNA) and ds-sh RNA targeting channel catfish dead end (DND). Each construct had an untreated group and treated group with sodium chloride as the repressor compound. Spawning rates of full-sibling P₁ fish exposed or not exposed to the constructs as treated and untreated embryos were 93% and 59%, respectively, indicating potential sterilization of fish and repression of the constructs. Although the mRNA expression data of PGC marker genes were inconsistent in P₁ fish, most F₁ individuals were able to downregulate the target genes in untreated groups and repress the knockdown process in treated groups. The results indicate that repressible transgenic sterilization is feasible for reproductive control of fish, but more data from F₂ or F₃ are needed for evaluation.

  12. Structural inferences for the native skeletal muscle sodium channel as derived from patterns of endogenous proteolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, S.; Yang, J.; Barchi, R.

    1989-01-01

    The alpha subunit (Mr approximately 260,000) of the rat skeletal muscle sodium channel is sensitive to cleavage by endogenous proteases during the isolation of muscle surface membrane. Antisera against synthetic oligopeptides were used to map the resultant fragments in order to identify protease-sensitive regions of the channel's structure in its native membrane environment. Antibodies to the amino terminus labeled major fragments of Mr approximately 130,000 and 90,000 and lesser amounts of other peptides as small as Mr approximately 12,000. Antisera to epitopes within the carboxyl-terminal half of the primary sequence recognized two fragments of Mr approximately 110,000 and 78,000. Individual antisera also selectively labeled smaller polypeptides in the most extensively cleaved preparations. The immunoreactivity patterns of monoclonal antibodies previously raised against the purified channel were then surveyed. The binding sites for one group of monoclonals, including several that recognize subtype-specific epitopes in the channel structure, were localized within a 12-kDa fragment near the amino terminus. The distribution of carbohydrate along the primary structure of the channel was also assessed by quantitating 125 I-wheat germ agglutinin and 125I-concanavalin A binding to the proteolytic peptides. Most of the carbohydrate detected by these lectins was located between 22 and 90 kDa from the amino terminus of the protein. No lectin binding was detected to fragments arising from carboxyl-terminal half of the protein. These results were analyzed in terms of current models of sodium channel tertiary structure. In its normal membrane environment, the skeletal muscle sodium channel appears sensitive to cleavage by endogenous proteases in regions predicted to link the four repeat domains on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane while the repeat domains themselves are resistant to proteolysis

  13. Relation of addiction genes to hypothalamic gene changes subserving genesis and gratification of a classic instinct, sodium appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Wolfgang B; McKinley, Michael J; Walker, Lesley L; Zhang, Hao; Pfenning, Andreas R; Drago, John; Hochendoner, Sarah J; Hilton, Donald L; Lawrence, Andrew J; Denton, Derek A

    2011-07-26

    Sodium appetite is an instinct that involves avid specific intention. It is elicited by sodium deficiency, stress-evoked adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and reproduction. Genome-wide microarrays in sodium-deficient mice or after ACTH infusion showed up-regulation of hypothalamic genes, including dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP-32), dopamine receptors-1 and -2, α-2C- adrenoceptor, and striatally enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). Both DARPP-32 and neural plasticity regulator activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (ARC) were up-regulated in lateral hypothalamic orexinergic neurons by sodium deficiency. Administration of dopamine D1 (SCH23390) and D2 receptor (raclopride) antagonists reduced gratification of sodium appetite triggered by sodium deficiency. SCH23390 was specific, having no effect on osmotic-induced water drinking, whereas raclopride also reduced water intake. D1 receptor KO mice had normal sodium appetite, indicating compensatory regulation. Appetite was insensitive to SCH23390, confirming the absence of off-target effects. Bilateral microinjection of SCH23390 (100 nM in 200 nL) into rats' lateral hypothalamus greatly reduced sodium appetite. Gene set enrichment analysis in hypothalami of mice with sodium appetite showed significant enrichment of gene sets previously linked to addiction (opiates and cocaine). This finding of concerted gene regulation was attenuated on gratification with perplexingly rapid kinetics of only 10 min, anteceding significant absorption of salt from the gut. Salt appetite and hedonic liking of salt taste have evolved over >100 million y (e.g., being present in Metatheria). Drugs causing pleasure and addiction are comparatively recent and likely reflect usurping of evolutionary ancient systems with high survival value by the gratification of contemporary hedonic indulgences. Our findings outline a molecular logic for instinctive behavior encoded by the brain with

  14. Alterations of sodium and potassium channels of RGCs in RCS rat with the development of retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongshan; Song, Yanping; Yao, Junping; Weng, Chuanhuang; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2013-11-01

    All know that retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of hereditary retinal degenerative diseases characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptors and associated with progressive cells loss; nevertheless, little is known about how rods and cones loss affects the surviving inner retinal neurons and networks. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) process and convey visual information from retina to visual centers in the brain. The healthy various ion channels determine the normal reception and projection of visual signals from RGCs. Previous work on the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat, as a kind of classical RP animal model, indicated that, at late stages of retinal degeneration in RCS rat, RGCs were also morphologically and functionally affected. Here, retrograde labeling for RGCs with Fluorogold was performed to investigate the distribution, density, and morphological changes of RGCs during retinal degeneration. Then, patch clamp recording, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to study the channels of sodium and potassium properties of RGCs, so as to explore the molecular and proteinic basis for understanding the alterations of RGCs membrane properties and firing functions. We found that the resting membrane potential, input resistance, and capacitance of RGCs changed significantly at the late stage of retinal degeneration. Action potential could not be evoked in a part of RGCs. Inward sodium current and outward potassium current recording showed that sodium current was impaired severely but only slightly in potassium current. Expressions of sodium channel protein were impaired dramatically at the late stage of retinal degeneration. The results suggested that the density of RGCs decreased, process ramification impaired, and sodium ion channel proteins destructed, which led to the impairment of electrophysiological functions of RGCs and eventually resulted in the loss of visual function.

  15. Ionizing radiation alters the properties of sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, M J; Hunt, W A; Harris, R A

    1986-08-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on neuronal membrane function was assessed by measurement of neurotoxin-stimulated /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake by rat brain synaptosomes. High-energy electrons and gamma photons were equally effective in reducing the maximal uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ with no significant change in the affinity of veratridine for its binding site in the channel. Ionizing radiation reduced the veratridine-stimulated uptake at the earliest times measured (3 and 5 s), when the rate of uptake was greatest. Batrachotoxin-stimulated /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake was less sensitive to inhibition by radiation. The binding of (/sup 3/H)saxitoxin to its receptor in the sodium channel was unaffected by exposure to ionizing radiation. The effect of ionizing radiation on the lipid order of rat brain synaptic plasma membranes was measured by the fluorescence polarization of the molecular probes 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and 1-(4-(trimethylammonium)phenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. A dose of radiation that reduced the veratridine-stimulated uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ had no effect on the fluorescence polarization of either probe. These results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on the voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes. This effect of radiation is not dependent on changes in the order of membrane lipids.

  16. ASIC and ENaC type sodium channels: conformational states and the structures of the ion selectivity filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2017-02-01

    The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are members of a superfamily of channels that play critical roles in mechanosensation, chemosensation, nociception, and regulation of blood volume and pressure. These channels look and function like a tripartite funnel that directs the flow of Na + ions into the cytoplasm via the channel pore in the membrane. The subunits that form these channels share a common structure with two transmembrane segments (TM1 and TM2) and a large extracellular part. In most vertebrates, there are five paralogous genes that code for ASICs (ASIC1-ASIC5), and four for ENaC subunits alpha, beta, gamma, and delta (α, β, γ, and δ). While ASICs can form functional channels as a homo- or heterotrimer, ENaC functions as an obligate heterotrimer composed of α-β-γ or β-γ-δ subunits. The structure of ASIC has been determined in several conformations, including desensitized and open states. This review presents a comparison of the structures of these states using easy-to-understand molecular models of the full complex, the central tunnel that includes an outer vestibule, the channel pore, and ion selectivity filter. The differences in the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of the states are summarized to pinpoint the conformational changes responsible for channel opening. Results of site-directed mutagenesis studies of ENaC subunits are examined in light of ASIC1 models. Based on these comparisons, a molecular model for the selectivity filter of ENaC is built by in silico mutagenesis of an ASIC1 structure. These models suggest that Na + ions pass through the filter in a hydrated state. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. Structure-based assessment of disease-related mutations in human voltage-gated sodium channels

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    Weiyun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Voltage-gated sodium (Nav channels are essential for the rapid upstroke of action potentials and the propagation of electrical signals in nerves and muscles. Defects of Nav channels are associated with a variety of channelopathies. More than 1000 disease-related mutations have been identified in Nav channels, with Nav1.1 and Nav1.5 each harboring more than 400 mutations. Nav channels represent major targets for a wide array of neurotoxins and drugs. Atomic structures of Nav channels are required to understand their function and disease mechanisms. The recently determined atomic structure of the rabbit voltage-gated calcium (Cav channel Cav1.1 provides a template for homology-based structural modeling of the evolutionarily related Nav channels. In this Resource article, we summarized all the reported disease-related mutations in human Nav channels, generated a homologous model of human Nav1.7, and structurally mapped disease-associated mutations. Before the determination of structures of human Nav channels, the analysis presented here serves as the base framework for mechanistic investigation of Nav channelopathies and for potential structure-based drug discovery.

  18. Structure-based assessment of disease-related mutations in human voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiyun; Liu, Minhao; Yan, S Frank; Yan, Nieng

    2017-06-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels are essential for the rapid upstroke of action potentials and the propagation of electrical signals in nerves and muscles. Defects of Na v channels are associated with a variety of channelopathies. More than 1000 disease-related mutations have been identified in Na v channels, with Na v 1.1 and Na v 1.5 each harboring more than 400 mutations. Na v channels represent major targets for a wide array of neurotoxins and drugs. Atomic structures of Na v channels are required to understand their function and disease mechanisms. The recently determined atomic structure of the rabbit voltage-gated calcium (Ca v ) channel Ca v 1.1 provides a template for homology-based structural modeling of the evolutionarily related Na v channels. In this Resource article, we summarized all the reported disease-related mutations in human Na v channels, generated a homologous model of human Na v 1.7, and structurally mapped disease-associated mutations. Before the determination of structures of human Na v channels, the analysis presented here serves as the base framework for mechanistic investigation of Na v channelopathies and for potential structure-based drug discovery.

  19. A novel tarantula toxin stabilizes the deactivated voltage sensor of bacterial sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Zhou, Xi; Nguyen, Phuong Tran; Zhang, Yunxiao; Hu, Zhaotun; Zhang, Changxin; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; DeCaen, Paul G; Liang, Songping; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na V s) are activated by transiting the voltage sensor from the deactivated to the activated state. The crystal structures of several bacterial Na V s have captured the voltage sensor module (VSM) in an activated state, but structure of the deactivated voltage sensor remains elusive. In this study, we sought to identify peptide toxins stabilizing the deactivated VSM of bacterial Na V s. We screened fractions from several venoms and characterized a cystine knot toxin called JZTx-27 from the venom of tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao as a high-affinity antagonist of the prokaryotic Na V s Ns V Ba (nonselective voltage-gated Bacillus alcalophilus ) and NaChBac (bacterial sodium channel from Bacillus halodurans ) (IC 50 = 112 nM and 30 nM, respectively). JZTx-27 was more efficacious at weaker depolarizing voltages and significantly slowed the activation but accelerated the deactivation of Ns V Ba, whereas the local anesthetic drug lidocaine was shown to antagonize Ns V Ba without affecting channel gating. Mutation analysis confirmed that JZTx-27 bound to S3-4 linker of Ns V Ba, with F98 being the critical residue in determining toxin affinity. All electrophysiological data and in silico analysis suggested that JZTx-27 trapped VSM of Ns V Ba in one of the deactivated states. In mammalian Na V s, JZTx-27 preferably inhibited the inactivation of Na V 1.5 by targeting the fourth transmembrane domain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of peptide antagonist for prokaryotic Na V s. More important, we proposed that JZTx-27 stabilized the Ns V Ba VSM in the deactivated state and may be used as a probe to determine the structure of the deactivated VSM of Na V s.-Tang, C., Zhou, X., Nguyen, P. T., Zhang, Y., Hu, Z., Zhang, C., Yarov-Yarovoy, V., DeCaen, P. G., Liang, S., Liu, Z. A novel tarantula toxin stabilizes the deactivated voltage sensor of bacterial sodium channel. © FASEB.

  20. Salt Sensitive Tet-Off-Like Systems to Knockdown Primordial Germ Cell Genes for Repressible Transgenic Sterilization in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbo Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Repressible knockdown approaches were investigated for transgenic sterilization in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Two primordial germ cell (PGC marker genes, nanos and dead end, were targeted for knockdown, and an off-target gene, vasa, was monitored. Two potentially salt sensitive repressible promoters, zebrafish adenylosuccinate synthase 2 (ADSS and zebrafish racemase (Rm, were each coupled with four knockdown strategies: ds-sh RNA targeting the 5′ end (N1 or 3′ end (N2 of channel catfish nanos, full-length cDNA sequence of channel catfish nanos for overexpression (cDNA and ds-sh RNA targeting channel catfish dead end (DND. Each construct had an untreated group and treated group with sodium chloride as the repressor compound. Spawning rates of full-sibling P1 fish exposed or not exposed to the constructs as treated and untreated embryos were 93% and 59%, respectively, indicating potential sterilization of fish and repression of the constructs. Although the mRNA expression data of PGC marker genes were inconsistent in P1 fish, most F1 individuals were able to downregulate the target genes in untreated groups and repress the knockdown process in treated groups. The results indicate that repressible transgenic sterilization is feasible for reproductive control of fish, but more data from F2 or F3 are needed for evaluation.

  1. Voltage-gated sodium channels: pharmaceutical targets via anticonvulsants to treat epileptic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsayed, Mena; Sokolov, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by seizures and convulsions. The basis of epilepsy is an increase in neuronal excitability that, in some cases, may be caused by functional defects in neuronal voltage gated sodium channels, Nav1.1 and Nav1.2. The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as effective therapies for epilepsy have been characterized by extensive research. Most of the classic AEDs targeting Nav share a common mechanism of action by stabilizing the channel's fast-inactivated state. In contrast, novel AEDs, such as lacosamide, stabilize the slow-inactivated state in neuronal Nav1.1 and Nav1.7 isoforms. This paper reviews the different mechanisms by which this stabilization occurs to determine new methods for treatment.

  2. Soluble adenylyl cyclase in vascular endothelium: gene expression control of epithelial sodium channel-α, Na+/K+-ATPase-α/β, and mineralocorticoid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Nedele, Johanna; Guske, Katrin; Maase, Martina; Lenders, Malte; Schelleckes, Michael; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva

    2014-04-01

    The Ca(2+)- and bicarbonate-activated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) has been identified recently as an important mediator of aldosterone signaling in the kidney. Nuclear sAC has been reported to stimulate cAMP response element-binding protein 1 phosphorylation via protein kinase A, suggesting an alternative cAMP pathway in the nucleus. In this study, we analyzed the sAC as a potential modulator of endothelial stiffness in the vascular endothelium. We determined the contribution of sAC to cAMP response element-mediated transcriptional activation in vascular endothelial cells and kidney collecting duct cells. Inhibition of sAC by the specific inhibitor KH7 significantly reduced cAMP response element-mediated promoter activity and affected cAMP response element-binding protein 1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, KH7 and anti-sAC small interfering RNA significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of epithelial sodium channel-α and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-α. Using atomic force microscopy, a nano-technique that measures stiffness and deformability of living cells, we detected significant endothelial cell softening after sAC inhibition. Our results suggest that the sAC is a regulator of gene expression involved in aldosterone signaling and an important regulator of endothelial stiffness. Additional studies are warranted to investigate the protective action of sAC inhibitors in humans for potential clinical use.

  3. Contribution of chloride channel permease to fluoride resistance in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Takatoshi; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Genes encoding fluoride transporters have been identified in bacterial and archaeal species. The genome sequence of the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans bacteria suggests the presence of a putative fluoride transporter, which is referred to as a chloride channel permease. Two homologues of this gene (GenBank locus tags SMU_1290c and SMU_1289c) reside in tandem in the genome of S. mutans The aim of this study was to determine whether the chloride channel permeases contribute to fluoride resistance. We constructed SMU_1290c- and SMU_1289c-knockout S. mutans UA159 strains. We also constructed a double-knockout strain lacking both genes. SMU_1290c or SMU_1289c was transformed into a fluoride transporter- disrupted Escherichia coli strain. All bacterial strains were cultured under appropriate conditions with or without sodium fluoride, and fluoride resistance was evaluated. All three gene-knockout S. mutans strains showed lower resistance to sodium fluoride than did the wild-type strain. No significant changes in resistance to other sodium halides were recognized between the wild-type and double-knockout strains. Both SMU_1290c and SMU_1289c transformation rescued fluoride transporter-disrupted E. coli cell from fluoride toxicity. We conclude that the chloride channel permeases contribute to fluoride resistance in S. mutans. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Conotoxins Targeting Neuronal Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Subtypes: Potential Analgesics?

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    Jeffrey R. McArthur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC are the primary mediators of electrical signal amplification and propagation in excitable cells. VGSC subtypes are diverse, with different biophysical and pharmacological properties, and varied tissue distribution. Altered VGSC expression and/or increased VGSC activity in sensory neurons is characteristic of inflammatory and neuropathic pain states. Therefore, VGSC modulators could be used in prospective analgesic compounds. VGSCs have specific binding sites for four conotoxin families: μ-, μO-, δ- and ί-conotoxins. Various studies have identified that the binding site of these peptide toxins is restricted to well-defined areas or domains. To date, only the μ- and μO-family exhibit analgesic properties in animal pain models. This review will focus on conotoxins from the μ- and μO-families that act on neuronal VGSCs. Examples of how these conotoxins target various pharmacologically important neuronal ion channels, as well as potential problems with the development of drugs from conotoxins, will be discussed.

  5. The sodium channel activator Lu AE98134 normalizes the altered firing properties of fast spiking interneurons in Dlx5/6+/- mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Schoubye, Nadia Lybøl; Frederiksen, Kristen; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2018-01-01

    Mental disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with impaired firing properties of fast spiking inhibitory interneurons (FSINs) causing reduced task-evoked gamma-oscillation in prefrontal cortex. The voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1 is highly expressed in PV-positive interneurons, but only...... at low levels in principal cells. Positive modulators of Nav1.1 channels are for this reason considered potential candidates for the treatment of cognitive disorders. Here we examined the effect of the novel positive modulator of voltage-gated sodium channels Lu AE98134. We found that Lu AE98134...... facilitated the sodium current mediated by NaV1.1 expressed in HEK cells by shifting its activation to more negative values, decreasing its inactivation kinetics and promoting a persistent inward current. In a slice preparation from the brain of adult mice, Lu AE98134 promoted the excitability of fast spiking...

  6. Amiloride blocks lithium entry through the sodium channel thereby attenuating the resultant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortenoeven, M.L.A.; Li, Y.; Shaw, S.M.; Gaeggeler, H.P.; Rossier, B.C.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium therapy frequently induces nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; amiloride appears to prevent its occurrence in some clinical cases. Amiloride blocks the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) located in the apical membrane of principal cells; hence one possibility is that ENaC is the main entry site

  7. Molecular Surface of JZTX-V (β-Theraphotoxin-Cj2a Interacting with Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Subtype NaV1.4

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    Ji Luo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs; NaV1.1–NaV1.9 have been proven to be critical in controlling the function of excitable cells, and human genetic evidence shows that aberrant function of these channels causes channelopathies, including epilepsy, arrhythmia, paralytic myotonia, and pain. The effects of peptide toxins, especially those isolated from spider venom, have shed light on the structure–function relationship of these channels. However, most of these toxins have not been analyzed in detail. In particular, the bioactive faces of these toxins have not been determined. Jingzhaotoxin (JZTX-V (also known as β-theraphotoxin-Cj2a is a 29-amino acid peptide toxin isolated from the venom of the spider Chilobrachys jingzhao. JZTX-V adopts an inhibitory cysteine knot (ICK motif and has an inhibitory effect on voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. Previous experiments have shown that JZTX-V has an inhibitory effect on TTX-S and TTX-R sodium currents on rat DRG cells with IC50 values of 27.6 and 30.2 nM, respectively, and is able to shift the activation and inactivation curves to the depolarizing and the hyperpolarizing direction, respectively. Here, we show that JZTX-V has a much stronger inhibitory effect on NaV1.4, the isoform of voltage-gated sodium channels predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle cells, with an IC50 value of 5.12 nM, compared with IC50 values of 61.7–2700 nM for other heterologously expressed NaV1 subtypes. Furthermore, we investigated the bioactive surface of JZTX-V by alanine-scanning the effect of toxin on NaV1.4 and demonstrate that the bioactive face of JZTX-V is composed of three hydrophobic (W5, M6, and W7 and two cationic (R20 and K22 residues. Our results establish that, consistent with previous assumptions, JZTX-V is a Janus-faced toxin which may be a useful tool for the further investigation of the structure and function of sodium channels.

  8. Structure of a eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium channel at near-atomic resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huaizong; Zhou, Qiang; Pan, Xiaojing; Li, Zhangqiang; Wu, Jianping; Yan, Nieng

    2017-03-03

    Voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels are responsible for the initiation and propagation of action potentials. They are associated with a variety of channelopathies and are targeted by multiple pharmaceutical drugs and natural toxins. Here, we report the cryogenic electron microscopy structure of a putative Na v channel from American cockroach (designated Na v PaS) at 3.8 angstrom resolution. The voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) of the four repeats exhibit distinct conformations. The entrance to the asymmetric selectivity filter vestibule is guarded by heavily glycosylated and disulfide bond-stabilized extracellular loops. On the cytoplasmic side, a conserved amino-terminal domain is placed below VSD I , and a carboxy-terminal domain binds to the III-IV linker. The structure of Na v PaS establishes an important foundation for understanding function and disease mechanism of Na v and related voltage-gated calcium channels. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Biophysical and Pharmacological Characterization of Nav1.9 Voltage Dependent Sodium Channels Stably Expressed in HEK-293 Cells.

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    Zhixin Lin

    Full Text Available The voltage dependent sodium channel Nav1.9, is expressed preferentially in peripheral sensory neurons and has been linked to human genetic pain disorders, which makes it target of interest for the development of new pain therapeutics. However, characterization of Nav1.9 pharmacology has been limited due in part to the historical difficulty of functionally expressing recombinant channels. Here we report the successful generation and characterization of human, mouse and rat Nav1.9 stably expressed in human HEK-293 cells. These cells exhibit slowly activating and inactivating inward sodium channel currents that have characteristics of native Nav1.9. Optimal functional expression was achieved by coexpression of Nav1.9 with β1/β2 subunits. While recombinantly expressed Nav1.9 was found to be sensitive to sodium channel inhibitors TC-N 1752 and tetracaine, potency was up to 100-fold less than reported for other Nav channel subtypes despite evidence to support an interaction with the canonical local anesthetic (LA binding region on Domain 4 S6. Nav1.9 Domain 2 S6 pore domain contains a unique lysine residue (K799 which is predicted to be spatially near the local anesthetic interaction site. Mutation of this residue to the consensus asparagine (K799N resulted in an increase in potency for tetracaine, but a decrease for TC-N 1752, suggesting that this residue can influence interaction of inhibitors with the Nav1.9 pore. In summary, we have shown that stable functional expression of Nav1.9 in the widely used HEK-293 cells is possible, which opens up opportunities to better understand channel properties and may potentially aid identification of novel Nav1.9 based pharmacotherapies.

  10. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, W.M.; Emerick, M.C.; Agnew, W.S. (Yale Univ. School of medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3,200 pmol of ({sup 3}H)TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of {approximately}285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. The authors describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  11. Trans-Channel Interactions in Batrachotoxin-Modified Skeletal Muscle Sodium Channels: Voltage-Dependent Block by Cytoplasmic Amines, and the Influence of μ-Conotoxin GIIIA Derivatives and Permeant Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Evgeny; Britvina, Tatiana; McArthur, Jeff R.; Ma, Quanli; Sierralta, Iván; Zamponi, Gerald W.; French, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    External μ-conotoxins and internal amine blockers inhibit each other's block of voltage-gated sodium channels. We explore the basis of this interaction by measuring the shifts in voltage-dependence of channel inhibition by internal amines induced by two μ-conotoxin derivatives with different charge distributions and net charges. Charge changes on the toxin were made at residue 13, which is thought to penetrate most deeply into the channel, making it likely to have the strongest individual interaction with an internal charged ligand. When an R13Q or R13E molecule was bound to the channel, the voltage dependence of diethylammonium (DEA)-block shifted toward more depolarized potentials (23 mV for R13Q, and 16 mV for R13E). An electrostatic model of the repulsion between DEA and the toxin simulated these data, with a distance between residue 13 of the μ-conotoxin and the DEA-binding site of ∼15 Å. Surprisingly, for tetrapropylammonium, the shifts were only 9 mV for R13Q, and 7 mV for R13E. The smaller shifts associated with R13E, the toxin with a smaller net charge, are generally consistent with an electrostatic interaction. However, the smaller shifts observed for tetrapropylammonium than for DEA suggest that other factors must be involved. Two observations indicate that the coupling of permeant ion occupancy of the channel to blocker binding may contribute to the overall amine-toxin interaction: 1), R13Q binding decreases the apparent affinity of sodium for the conducting pore by ∼4-fold; and 2), increasing external [Na+] decreases block by DEA at constant voltage. Thus, even though a number of studies suggest that sodium channels are occupied by no more than one ion most of the time, measurable coupling occurs between permeant ions and toxin or amine blockers. Such interactions likely determine, in part, the strength of trans-channel, amine-conotoxin interactions. PMID:18658222

  12. Trans-channel interactions in batrachotoxin-modified skeletal muscle sodium channels: voltage-dependent block by cytoplasmic amines, and the influence of mu-conotoxin GIIIA derivatives and permeant ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Evgeny; Britvina, Tatiana; McArthur, Jeff R; Ma, Quanli; Sierralta, Iván; Zamponi, Gerald W; French, Robert J

    2008-11-01

    External mu-conotoxins and internal amine blockers inhibit each other's block of voltage-gated sodium channels. We explore the basis of this interaction by measuring the shifts in voltage-dependence of channel inhibition by internal amines induced by two mu-conotoxin derivatives with different charge distributions and net charges. Charge changes on the toxin were made at residue 13, which is thought to penetrate most deeply into the channel, making it likely to have the strongest individual interaction with an internal charged ligand. When an R13Q or R13E molecule was bound to the channel, the voltage dependence of diethylammonium (DEA)-block shifted toward more depolarized potentials (23 mV for R13Q, and 16 mV for R13E). An electrostatic model of the repulsion between DEA and the toxin simulated these data, with a distance between residue 13 of the mu-conotoxin and the DEA-binding site of approximately 15 A. Surprisingly, for tetrapropylammonium, the shifts were only 9 mV for R13Q, and 7 mV for R13E. The smaller shifts associated with R13E, the toxin with a smaller net charge, are generally consistent with an electrostatic interaction. However, the smaller shifts observed for tetrapropylammonium than for DEA suggest that other factors must be involved. Two observations indicate that the coupling of permeant ion occupancy of the channel to blocker binding may contribute to the overall amine-toxin interaction: 1), R13Q binding decreases the apparent affinity of sodium for the conducting pore by approximately 4-fold; and 2), increasing external [Na(+)] decreases block by DEA at constant voltage. Thus, even though a number of studies suggest that sodium channels are occupied by no more than one ion most of the time, measurable coupling occurs between permeant ions and toxin or amine blockers. Such interactions likely determine, in part, the strength of trans-channel, amine-conotoxin interactions.

  13. Localisation of SCN10A gene product Na(v)1.8 and novel pain-related ion channels in human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facer, Paul; Punjabi, Prakash P; Abrari, Andleeb; Kaba, Riyaz A; Severs, Nicholas J; Chambers, John; Kooner, Jaspal S; Anand, Praveen

    2011-01-01

    We have shown that the gene SCN10A encoding the sodium channel Na(v)1.8 is a susceptibility factor for heart block and serious ventricular arrhythmia. Since Na(v)1.8 is known to be present in nerve fibres that mediate pain, it may be related to both cardiac pain and dysrhythmia. The localisation of Na(v)1.8 and other key nociceptive ion channels, including Na(v)1.7, Na(v)1.9, capsaicin receptor TRPV1, and purinergic receptor P2X(3), have not been reported in human heart. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Na(v)1.8, related sodium and other sensory channels in human cardiac tissue, and correlate their density with sympathetic nerves, regenerating nerves (GAP-43), and vascularity. Human heart atrial appendage tissues (n = 13) were collected during surgery for valve disease. Tissues were investigated by immunohistology using specific antibodies to Na(v)1.8 and other markers. Na(v)1.8 immunoreactivity was detected in nerve fibres and fascicles in the myocardium, often closely associated with small capillaries. Na(v)1.8 nerve fibres per mm(2) correlated significantly with vascular markers. Na(v)1.8-immunoreactivity was present also in cardiomyocytes with a similar distribution pattern to that seen with connexins, the specialised gap junction proteins of myocardial intercalated discs. Na(v)1.5-immunoreactivity was detected in cardiomyocytes but not in nerve fibres. Na(v)1.7, Na(v)1.9, TRPV1, P2X(3)/P2X(2), and GAP43 positive nerve fibres were relatively sparse, whereas sympathetic innervation and connexin43 were abundant. We conclude that sodium channel Na(v)1.8 is present in sensory nerves and cardiomyocytes of human heart. Na(v)1.8 and other pain channels provide new targets for the understanding and treatment of cardiac pain and dysrhythmia.

  14. A gene-based analysis of variants in the serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase (SGK genes with blood pressure responses to sodium intake: the GenSalt Study.

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    Changwei Li

    Full Text Available Serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase (SGK plays a critical role in the regulation of renal sodium transport. We examined the association between SGK genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP using single-marker and gene-based association analysis.A 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/day followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day was conducted among 1,906 Chinese participants. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Additive associations between each SNP and salt-sensitivity phenotypes were assessed using a mixed linear regression model to account for family dependencies. Gene-based analyses were conducted using the truncated p-value method. The Bonferroni-method was used to adjust for multiple testing in all analyses.In single-marker association analyses, SGK1 marker rs2758151 was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP response to high-sodium intervention (P = 0.0010. DBP responses (95% confidence interval to high-sodium intervention for genotypes C/C, C/T, and T/T were 2.04 (1.57 to 2.52, 1.79 (1.42 to 2.16, and 0.85 (0.30 to 1.41 mmHg, respectively. Similar trends were observed for SBP and MAP responses although not significant (P = 0.15 and 0.0026, respectively. In addition, gene-based analyses demonstrated significant associations between SGK1 and SBP, DBP and MAP responses to high sodium intervention (P = 0.0002, 0.0076, and 0.00001, respectively. Neither SGK2 nor SGK3 were associated with the salt-sensitivity phenotypes in single-maker or gene-based analyses.The current study identified association of the SGK1 gene and BP salt-sensitivity in the Han Chinese population. Further studies are warranted to identify causal SGK1 gene variants.

  15. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC expression in mouse lung infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Radzioch Danuta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in agar beads in the mouse lung leads to chronic lung infection in susceptible mouse strains. As the infection generates a strong inflammatory response with some lung edema, we tested if it could modulate the expression of genes involved in lung liquid clearance, such as the α, β and γ subunits of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC and the catalytic subunit of Na+-K+-ATPase. Methods Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in agar beads were instilled in the lung of resistant (BalB/c and susceptible (DBA/2, C57BL/6 and A/J mouse strains. The mRNA expression of ENaC and Na+-K+-ATPase subunits was tested in the lung by Northern blot following a 3 hours to 14 days infection. Results The infection of the different mouse strains evoked regulation of α and β ENaC mRNA. Following Pseudomonas instillation, the expression of αENaC mRNA decreased to a median of 43% on days 3 and 7 after infection and was still decreased to a median of 45% 14 days after infection (p 1Na+-K+-ATPase mRNA, the catalytic subunit of the sodium pump, was recorded. The distinctive expression profiles of the three subunits were not different, between the susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Conclusions These results show that Pseudomonas infection, by modulating ENaC subunit expression, could influence edema formation and clearance in infected lungs.

  16. Regulation of sodium channel function by bilayer elasticity: the importance of hydrophobic coupling. Effects of Micelle-forming amphiphiles and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August; Birn, Pia; Hansen, Anker J

    2004-01-01

    , Triton X-100, and reduced Triton X-100) that make lipid bilayers less "stiff", as measured using gA channels, shift the voltage dependence of sodium channel inactivation toward more hyperpolarized potentials. At low amphiphile concentration, the magnitude of the shift is linearly correlated to the change...

  17. Chronic ciguatoxin treatment induces synaptic scaling through voltage gated sodium channels in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Víctor; Vale, Carmen; Rubiolo, Juan A; Roel, Maria; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luís M

    2015-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channels activators that cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents with long-term neurological alterations. In central neurons, chronic perturbations in activity induce homeostatic synaptic mechanisms that adjust the strength of excitatory synapses and modulate glutamate receptor expression in order to stabilize the overall activity. Immediate early genes, such as Arc and Egr1, are induced in response to activity changes and underlie the trafficking of glutamate receptors during neuronal homeostasis. To better understand the long lasting neurological consequences of ciguatera, it is important to establish the role that chronic changes in activity produced by ciguatoxins represent to central neurons. Here, the effect of a 30 min exposure of 10-13 days in vitro (DIV) cortical neurons to the synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on Arc and Egr1 expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction approaches. Since the toxin increased the mRNA levels of both Arc and Egr1, the effect of CTX 3C in NaV channels, membrane potential, firing activity, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and glutamate receptors expression in cortical neurons after a 24 h exposure was evaluated using electrophysiological and western blot approaches. The data presented here show that CTX 3C induced an upregulation of Arc and Egr1 that was prevented by previous coincubation of the neurons with the NaV channel blocker tetrodotoxin. In addition, chronic CTX 3C caused a concentration-dependent shift in the activation voltage of NaV channels to more negative potentials and produced membrane potential depolarization. Moreover, 24 h treatment of cortical neurons with 5 nM CTX 3C decreased neuronal firing and induced synaptic scaling mechanisms, as evidenced by a decrease in the amplitude of mEPSCs and downregulation in the protein level of glutamate receptors that was also prevented by tetrodotoxin

  18. Paramecium BBS genes are key to presence of channels in Cilia

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    Valentine Megan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in genes coding for ciliary proteins contribute to complex human syndromes called ciliopathies, such as Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS. We used the model organism Paramecium to focus on ciliary ion channels that affect the beat form and sensory function of motile cilia and evaluate the effects of perturbing BBS proteins on these channels. Methods We used immunoprecipitations and mass spectrometry to explore whether Paramecium proteins interact as in mammalian cells. We used RNA interference (RNAi and swimming behavior assays to examine the effects of BBS depletion on ciliary ion channels that control ciliary beating. Combining RNA interference and epitope tagging, we examined the effects of BBS depletion of BBS 7, 8 and 9 on the location of three channels and a chemoreceptor in cilia. Results We found 10 orthologs of 8 BBS genes in P. tetraurelia. BBS1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 co-immunoprecipitate. While RNAi reduction of BBS 7 and 9 gene products caused loss and shortening of cilia, RNAi for all BBS genes except BBS2 affected patterns of ciliary motility that are governed by ciliary ion channels. Swimming behavior assays pointed to loss of ciliary K+ channel function. Combining RNAi and epitope tagged ciliary proteins we demonstrated that a calcium activated K+ channel was no longer located in the cilia upon depletion of BBS 7, 8 or 9, consistent with the cells’ swimming behavior. The TRPP channel PKD2 was also lost from the cilia. In contrast, the ciliary voltage gated calcium channel was unaffected by BBS depletion, consistent with behavioral assays. The ciliary location of a chemoreceptor for folate was similarly unperturbed by the depletion of BBS 7, 8 or 9. Conclusions The co-immunoprecipitation of BBS 1,2,4,5,7,8, and 9 suggests a complex of BBS proteins. RNAi for BBS 7, 8 or 9 gene products causes the selective loss of K+ and PKD2 channels from the cilia while the critical voltage gated calcium channel and a

  19. Mining the Virgin Land of Neurotoxicology: A Novel Paradigm of Neurotoxic Peptides Action on Glycosylated Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

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    Zhirui Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs are important membrane protein carrying on the molecular basis for action potentials (AP in neuronal firings. Even though the structure-function studies were the most pursued spots, the posttranslation modification processes, such as glycosylation, phosphorylation, and alternative splicing associating with channel functions captured less eyesights. The accumulative research suggested an interaction between the sialic acids chains and ion-permeable pores, giving rise to subtle but significant impacts on channel gating. Sodium channel-specific neurotoxic toxins, a family of long-chain polypeptides originated from venomous animals, are found to potentially share the binding sites adjacent to glycosylated region on VGSCs. Thus, an interaction between toxin and glycosylated VGSC might hopefully join the campaign to approach the role of glycosylation in modulating VGSCs-involved neuronal network activity. This paper will cover the state-of-the-art advances of researches on glycosylation-mediated VGSCs function and the possible underlying mechanisms of interactions between toxin and glycosylated VGSCs, which may therefore, fulfill the knowledge in identifying the pharmacological targets and therapeutic values of VGSCs.

  20. DRG Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel 1.7 Is Upregulated in Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy in Rats and in Humans with Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; North, Robert Y; Rhines, Laurence D; Tatsui, Claudio Esteves; Rao, Ganesh; Edwards, Denaya D; Cassidy, Ryan M; Harrison, Daniel S; Johansson, Caj A; Zhang, Hongmei; Dougherty, Patrick M

    2018-01-31

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse effect experienced by cancer patients receiving treatment with paclitaxel. The voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 (Na v 1.7) plays an important role in multiple preclinical models of neuropathic pain and in inherited human pain phenotypes, and its gene expression is increased in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of paclitaxel-treated rats. Hence, the potential of change in the expression and function of Na v 1.7 protein in DRGs from male rats with paclitaxel-related CIPN and from male and female humans with cancer-related neuropathic pain was tested here. Double immunofluorescence in CIPN rats showed that Na v 1.7 was upregulated in small DRG neuron somata, especially those also expressing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and in central processes of these cells in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in rat DRG neurons revealed that paclitaxel induced an enhancement of ProTx II (a selective Na v 1.7 channel blocker)-sensitive sodium currents. Bath-applied ProTx II suppressed spontaneous action potentials in DRG neurons occurring in rats with CIPN, while intrathecal injection of ProTx II significantly attenuated behavioral signs of CIPN. Complementarily, DRG neurons isolated from segments where patients had a history of neuropathic pain also showed electrophysiological and immunofluorescence results indicating an increased expression of Na v 1.7 associated with spontaneous activity. Na v 1.7 was also colocalized in human cells expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and CGRP. Furthermore, ProTx II decreased firing frequency in human DRGs with spontaneous action potentials. This study suggests that Na v 1.7 may provide a potential new target for the treatment of neuropathic pain, including chemotherapy (paclitaxel)-induced neuropathic pain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This work demonstrates that the expression and function of the voltage-gated sodium channel Na

  1. Predictive 3D modelling of the interactions of pyrethroids with the voltage-gated sodium channels of ticks and mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrias O; Williamson, Martin S; González-Cabrera, Joel; Turberg, Andreas; Field, Linda M; Wallace, B A; Davies, T G Emyr

    2014-03-01

    The pyrethroid insecticides are a very successful group of compounds that target invertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels and are widely used in the control of insects, ticks and mites. It is well established that some pyrethroids are good insecticides whereas others are more effective as acaricides. This species specificity is advantageous for controlling particular pest(s) in the presence of another non-target invertebrate, for example controlling the Varroa mite in honeybee colonies. We applied in silico techniques to compare the voltage-gated sodium channels of insects versus ticks and mites and their interactions with a range of pyrethroids and DDT analogues. We identified a single amino acid difference within the pyrethroid binding pocket of ticks/mites that may have significant impact on the effectiveness of pyrethroids as acaricides. Other individual amino acid differences within the binding pocket in distinct tick and mite species may provide a basis for future acaricidal selectivity. Three-dimensional modelling of the pyrethroid/DDT receptor site has led to a new hypothesis to explain the preferential binding of acaricidal pyrethroids to the sodium channels of ticks/mites. This is important for understanding pyrethroid selectivity and the potential effects of mutations that can give rise to resistance to pyrethroids in commercially-important pest species. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Evidence for Dual Binding Sites for 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in Insect Sodium Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Zhorov, Boris S.; Dong, Ke

    2016-01-01

    1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), the first organochlorine insecticide, and pyrethroid insecticides are sodium channel agonists. Although the use of DDT is banned in most of the world due to its detrimental impact on the ecosystem, indoor residual spraying of DDT is still recommended for malaria control in Africa. Development of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids is a serious global obstacle for managing disease vectors. Mapping DDT binding sites is necessary for understanding mechanisms of resistance and modulation of sodium channels by structurally different ligands. The pioneering model of the housefly sodium channel visualized the first receptor for pyrethroids, PyR1, in the II/III domain interface and suggested that DDT binds within PyR1. Previously, we proposed the second pyrethroid receptor, PyR2, at the I/II domain interface. However, whether DDT binds to both pyrethroid receptor sites remains unknown. Here, using computational docking of DDT into the Kv1.2-based mosquito sodium channel model, we predict that two DDT molecules can bind simultaneously within PyR1 and PyR2. The bulky trichloromethyl group of each DDT molecule fits snugly between four helices in the bent domain interface, whereas two p-chlorophenyl rings extend into two wings of the interface. Model-driven mutagenesis and electrophysiological analysis confirmed these propositions and revealed 10 previously unknown DDT-sensing residues within PyR1 and PyR2. Our study proposes a dual DDT-receptor model and provides a structural background for rational development of new insecticides. PMID:26637352

  3. An evolutionarily conserved gene family encodes proton-selective ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yu-Hsiang; Cooper, Alexander J; Teng, Bochuan; Chang, Rui B; Artiga, Daniel J; Turner, Heather N; Mulhall, Eric M; Ye, Wenlei; Smith, Andrew D; Liman, Emily R

    2018-03-02

    Ion channels form the basis for cellular electrical signaling. Despite the scores of genetically identified ion channels selective for other monatomic ions, only one type of proton-selective ion channel has been found in eukaryotic cells. By comparative transcriptome analysis of mouse taste receptor cells, we identified Otopetrin1 (OTOP1), a protein required for development of gravity-sensing otoconia in the vestibular system, as forming a proton-selective ion channel. We found that murine OTOP1 is enriched in acid-detecting taste receptor cells and is required for their zinc-sensitive proton conductance. Two related murine genes, Otop2 and Otop3 , and a Drosophila ortholog also encode proton channels. Evolutionary conservation of the gene family and its widespread tissue distribution suggest a broad role for proton channels in physiology and pathophysiology. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Ciguatoxins Evoke Potent CGRP Release by Activation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Subtypes NaV1.9, NaV1.7 and NaV1.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Touska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatoxins (CTXs are marine toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning, a debilitating disease dominated by sensory and neurological disturbances that include cold allodynia and various painful symptoms as well as long-lasting pruritus. Although CTXs are known as the most potent mammalian sodium channel activator toxins, the etiology of many of its neurosensory symptoms remains unresolved. We recently described that local application of 1 nM Pacific Ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1 into the skin of human subjects induces a long-lasting, painful axon reflex flare and that CTXs are particularly effective in releasing calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP from nerve terminals. In this study, we used mouse and rat skin preparations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA to study the molecular mechanism by which P-CTX-1 induces CGRP release. We show that P-CTX-1 induces CGRP release more effectively in mouse as compared to rat skin, exhibiting EC50 concentrations in the low nanomolar range. P-CTX-1-induced CGRP release from skin is dependent on extracellular calcium and sodium, but independent from the activation of various thermosensory transient receptor potential (TRP ion channels. In contrast, lidocaine and tetrodotoxin (TTX reduce CGRP release by 53–75%, with the remaining fraction involving L-type and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC. Using transgenic mice, we revealed that the TTX-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC NaV1.9, but not NaV1.8 or NaV1.7 alone and the combined activation of the TTX-sensitive VGSC subtypes NaV1.7 and NaV1.1 carry the largest part of the P-CTX-1-caused CGRP release of 42% and 34%, respectively. Given the contribution of CGRP to nociceptive and itch sensing pathways, our findings contribute to a better understanding of sensory symptoms of acute and chronic ciguatera that may help in the identification of potential therapeutics.

  5. Ciguatoxins Evoke Potent CGRP Release by Activation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Subtypes NaV1.9, NaV1.7 and NaV1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touska, Filip; Sattler, Simon; Malsch, Philipp; Lewis, Richard J.; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are marine toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning, a debilitating disease dominated by sensory and neurological disturbances that include cold allodynia and various painful symptoms as well as long-lasting pruritus. Although CTXs are known as the most potent mammalian sodium channel activator toxins, the etiology of many of its neurosensory symptoms remains unresolved. We recently described that local application of 1 nM Pacific Ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) into the skin of human subjects induces a long-lasting, painful axon reflex flare and that CTXs are particularly effective in releasing calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) from nerve terminals. In this study, we used mouse and rat skin preparations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to study the molecular mechanism by which P-CTX-1 induces CGRP release. We show that P-CTX-1 induces CGRP release more effectively in mouse as compared to rat skin, exhibiting EC50 concentrations in the low nanomolar range. P-CTX-1-induced CGRP release from skin is dependent on extracellular calcium and sodium, but independent from the activation of various thermosensory transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. In contrast, lidocaine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) reduce CGRP release by 53–75%, with the remaining fraction involving L-type and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). Using transgenic mice, we revealed that the TTX-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) NaV1.9, but not NaV1.8 or NaV1.7 alone and the combined activation of the TTX-sensitive VGSC subtypes NaV1.7 and NaV1.1 carry the largest part of the P-CTX-1-caused CGRP release of 42% and 34%, respectively. Given the contribution of CGRP to nociceptive and itch sensing pathways, our findings contribute to a better understanding of sensory symptoms of acute and chronic ciguatera that may help in the identification of potential therapeutics. PMID:28867800

  6. The epithelial sodium channel γ-subunit is processed proteolytically in human kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Rikke Zachar; Skjødt, Karsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) of the kidney is necessary for extracellular volume homeostasis and normal arterial BP. Activity of ENaC is enhanced by proteolytic cleavage of the gamma-subunit and putative release of a 43-amino acid inhibitory tract from the gamma-subunit ectodomain. We......ENaC was detected consistently only in tissue from patients with proteinuria and observed in collecting ducts. In conclusion, human kidney gammaENaC is subject to proteolytic cleavage, yielding fragments compatible with furin cleavage, and proteinuria is associated with cleavage at the putative prostasin...

  7. Domain IV voltage-sensor movement is both sufficient and rate limiting for fast inactivation in sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capes, Deborah L; Goldschen-Ohm, Marcel P; Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel; Bezanilla, Francisco; Chanda, Baron

    2013-08-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for the generation and propagation of electrical signals in most excitable cells. Activation of Na(+) channels initiates an action potential, and fast inactivation facilitates repolarization of the membrane by the outward K(+) current. Fast inactivation is also the main determinant of the refractory period between successive electrical impulses. Although the voltage sensor of domain IV (DIV) has been implicated in fast inactivation, it remains unclear whether the activation of DIV alone is sufficient for fast inactivation to occur. Here, we functionally neutralize each specific voltage sensor by mutating several critical arginines in the S4 segment to glutamines. We assess the individual role of each voltage-sensing domain in the voltage dependence and kinetics of fast inactivation upon its specific inhibition. We show that movement of the DIV voltage sensor is the rate-limiting step for both development and recovery from fast inactivation. Our data suggest that activation of the DIV voltage sensor alone is sufficient for fast inactivation to occur, and that activation of DIV before channel opening is the molecular mechanism for closed-state inactivation. We propose a kinetic model of sodium channel gating that can account for our major findings over a wide voltage range by postulating that DIV movement is both necessary and sufficient for fast inactivation.

  8. Synthetic Ciguatoxins Selectively Activate Nav1.8-derived Chimeric Sodium Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kaoru; Inoue, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro; Kondo, Chie; Kinoshita, Eiji; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Seyama, Issei

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C has been shown to activate tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels (Nav1.2, Nav1.4, and Nav1.5) by accelerating activation kinetics and shifting the activation curve toward hyperpolarization (Yamaoka, K., Inoue, M., Miyahara, H., Miyazaki, K., and Hirama, M. (2004) Br. J. Pharmacol. 142, 879–889). In this study, we further explored the effects of CTX3C on the TTX-resistant sodium channel Nav1.8. TTX-resistant channels have been shown to be involved in transducing pain and related sensations (Akopian, A. N., Sivilotti, L., and Wood, J. N. (1996) Nature 379, 257–262). Thus, we hypothesized that ciguatoxin-induced activation of the Nav1.8 current would account for the neurological symptoms of ciguatera poisoning. We found that 0.1 μm CTX3C preferentially affected the activation process of the Nav1.8 channel compared with those of the Nav1.2 and Nav1.4 channels. Importantly, without stimulation, 0.1 μm CTX3C induced a large leakage current (IL). The conductance of the IL calculated relative to the maximum conductance (Gmax) was 10 times larger than that of Nav1.2 or Nav1.4. To determine the molecular domain of Nav1.8 responsible for conferring higher sensitivity to CTX3C, we made two chimeric constructs from Nav1.4 and Nav1.8. Chimeras containing the N-terminal half of Nav1.8 exhibited a large response similar to wild-type Nav1.8, indicating that the region conferring high sensitivity to ciguatoxin action is located in the D1 or D2 domains. PMID:19164297

  9. Development and validation of a thallium flux-based functional assay for the sodium channel NaV1.7 and its utility for lead discovery and compound profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu; Days, Emily; Romaine, Ian; Abney, Kris K; Kaufmann, Kristian; Sulikowski, Gary; Stauffer, Shaun; Lindsley, Craig W; Weaver, C David

    2015-06-17

    Ion channels are critical for life, and they are targets of numerous drugs. The sequencing of the human genome has revealed the existence of hundreds of different ion channel subunits capable of forming thousands of ion channels. In the face of this diversity, we only have a few selective small-molecule tools to aid in our understanding of the role specific ion channels in physiology which may in turn help illuminate their therapeutic potential. Although the advent of automated electrophysiology has increased the rate at which we can screen for and characterize ion channel modulators, the technique's high per-measurement cost and moderate throughput compared to other high-throughput screening approaches limit its utility for large-scale high-throughput screening. Therefore, lower cost, more rapid techniques are needed. While ion channel types capable of fluxing calcium are well-served by low cost, very high-throughput fluorescence-based assays, other channel types such as sodium channels remain underserved by present functional assay techniques. In order to address this shortcoming, we have developed a thallium flux-based assay for sodium channels using the NaV1.7 channel as a model target. We show that the assay is able to rapidly and cost-effectively identify NaV1.7 inhibitors thus providing a new method useful for the discovery and profiling of sodium channel modulators.

  10. Characterization of the binding of the Ptychodiscus brevis neurotoxin T17 to sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The lipid-soluble polyether neurotoxins isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) have been determined to bind to a unique receptor site associated with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in rat brain synaptosomes. Reduction of the C 42 aldehyde function of T34 to the alcohol function of T17 using NaB 3 H 4 yielded 3 H-T17 with a specific activity of 15 Ci;/mmol. Using this specific probe, binding to sodium channels was measured at 4 0 CC, 22 0 C, and 37 0 C. Rosenthal analysis of the binding data yielded a K/sub d/ of 2.9 nM and B/sub max/ of 6.8 pmoles 3 H-T17 per mg of synaptosomal protein at 4 0 C. Both K/sub d/ and B/sub max/ were found to be temperature dependent. Depolarization of the synaptosomes by osmotic lysis resulted in the loss of 34% of the available receptor sites, with no decrease in binding affinity. Unlabeled T17, T34, and synthetic T17 (reduced T34) were equipotent in their ability to displace 3 H-T17 from its specific receptor site. Competition experiments using natural toxin probes specific for sites I-IV on the voltage-sensitive sodium channel demonstrate that 3 H-T17 does not bind to any of the previously-described neurotoxin receptor sites. A fifth site is proposed

  11. Characterization of the binding of the Ptychodiscus brevis neurotoxin T17 to sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The lipid-soluble polyether neurotoxins isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) have been determined to bind to a unique receptor site associated with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in rat brain synaptosomes. Reduction of the C/sub 42/ aldehyde function of T34 to the alcohol function of T17 using NaB/sup 3/H/sub 4/ yielded /sup 3/H-T17 with a specific activity of 15 Ci;/mmol. Using this specific probe, binding to sodium channels was measured at 4/sup 0/CC, 22/sup 0/C, and 37/sup 0/C. Rosenthal analysis of the binding data yielded a K/sub d/ of 2.9 nM and B/sub max/ of 6.8 pmoles /sup 3/H-T17 per mg of synaptosomal protein at 4/sup 0/C. Both K/sub d/ and B/sub max/ were found to be temperature dependent. Depolarization of the synaptosomes by osmotic lysis resulted in the loss of 34% of the available receptor sites, with no decrease in binding affinity. Unlabeled T17, T34, and synthetic T17 (reduced T34) were equipotent in their ability to displace /sup 3/H-T17 from its specific receptor site. Competition experiments using natural toxin probes specific for sites I-IV on the voltage-sensitive sodium channel demonstrate that /sup 3/H-T17 does not bind to any of the previously-described neurotoxin receptor sites. A fifth site is proposed.

  12. Evidence for Dual Binding Sites for 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in Insect Sodium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Zhorov, Boris S; Dong, Ke

    2016-02-26

    1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), the first organochlorine insecticide, and pyrethroid insecticides are sodium channel agonists. Although the use of DDT is banned in most of the world due to its detrimental impact on the ecosystem, indoor residual spraying of DDT is still recommended for malaria control in Africa. Development of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids is a serious global obstacle for managing disease vectors. Mapping DDT binding sites is necessary for understanding mechanisms of resistance and modulation of sodium channels by structurally different ligands. The pioneering model of the housefly sodium channel visualized the first receptor for pyrethroids, PyR1, in the II/III domain interface and suggested that DDT binds within PyR1. Previously, we proposed the second pyrethroid receptor, PyR2, at the I/II domain interface. However, whether DDT binds to both pyrethroid receptor sites remains unknown. Here, using computational docking of DDT into the Kv1.2-based mosquito sodium channel model, we predict that two DDT molecules can bind simultaneously within PyR1 and PyR2. The bulky trichloromethyl group of each DDT molecule fits snugly between four helices in the bent domain interface, whereas two p-chlorophenyl rings extend into two wings of the interface. Model-driven mutagenesis and electrophysiological analysis confirmed these propositions and revealed 10 previously unknown DDT-sensing residues within PyR1 and PyR2. Our study proposes a dual DDT-receptor model and provides a structural background for rational development of new insecticides. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Differential distribution of the sodium-activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high-conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093-2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of the β1 auxiliary subunit on modification of Rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels expressed in HEK293 cells by the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Bingjun [College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Soderlund, David M., E-mail: dms6@cornell.edu [Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We expressed rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels with or without the rat β1 subunit in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on whole-cell sodium currents. In assays with the Na{sub v}1.6 α subunit alone, both pyrethroids prolonged channel inactivation and deactivation and shifted the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation toward hyperpolarization. Maximal shifts in activation were ~ 18 mV for tefluthrin and ~ 24 mV for deltamethrin. These compounds also caused hyperpolarizing shifts of ~ 10–14 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation and increased in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation. The effects of pyrethroids on the voltage-dependent gating greatly increased the size of sodium window currents compared to unmodified channels; modified channels exhibited increased probability of spontaneous opening at membrane potentials more negative than the normal threshold for channel activation and incomplete channel inactivation. Coexpression of Na{sub v}1.6 with the β1 subunit had no effect on the kinetic behavior of pyrethroid-modified channels but had divergent effects on the voltage-dependent gating of tefluthrin- or deltamethrin-modified channels, increasing the size of tefluthrin-induced window currents but decreasing the size of corresponding deltamethrin-induced currents. Unexpectedly, the β1 subunit did not confer sensitivity to use-dependent channel modification by either tefluthrin or deltamethrin. We conclude from these results that functional reconstitution of channels in vitro requires careful attention to the subunit composition of channel complexes to ensure that channels in vitro are faithful functional and pharmacological models of channels in neurons. - Highlights: • We expressed Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels with or without β1 subunits in HEK293 cells. • Tefluthrin and deltamethrin

  15. Ion channel gene expressions in infertile men: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Carkci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is described as not receiving pregnancy despite unprotected and regular sexual intercourse in a 1 yr period. It is detected by 15% of the couples. Male and female factor in the etiology may be detected in similar rates. Objective: The present study aims to investigate ion channel gene expression in semen samples of infertile male compared with fertile men. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 men who applied to the urology clinic due to infertility were divided into five equal groups: asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, teratozoospermia, and normozoospermia (control. All paticipants were evaluated with Cation Channel Spermia (CatSper 1, 2, 3, 4, Proton Voltage Gated Ion Channel1 (Hv1, Potassium Channel Subfamily U1 (KCNU1, and transmembrane protein (TMEM16A gene expression in semen samples. Results: “CatSper1, 4, HV1, KCNU1, and TMEM16A gene expression were detected higher in the oligozoospermia group compared to the controls. CatSper1, 2, 3, 4, KCNU1, and TMEM16A gene expression in the asthenozoospermia group and CatSper1, 2, 3, 4, KCNU1, and TMEM16A gene expression in the teratozoospermia group were detected lower compared to the controls. CatSper1, 4, HV1, and TMEM16A gen expression were higher in the oligoasthenoteratozoospermia men than the controls while CatSper3 gen expression was detected as lower.” Conclusion: It was detected that these ion channels have an effect on sperm progressive motility and morphology. It may be considered that mutations in these ion channels may result in infertility

  16. Pacemaker rate and depolarization block in nigral dopamine neurons: a somatic sodium channel balancing act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kristal R.; Huertas, Marco A.; Horn, John P.; Canavier, Carmen C.; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2012-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are slow intrinsic pacemakers that undergo depolarization (DP) block upon moderate stimulation. Understanding DP block is important because it has been correlated with the clinical efficacy of chronic antipsychotic drug treatment. Here we describe how voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels regulate DP block and pacemaker activity in DA neurons of the substantia nigra using rat brain slices. The distribution, density and gating of NaV currents were manipulated by blocking native channels with tetrodotoxin and by creating virtual channels and anti-channels with dynamic clamp. Although action potentials initiate in the axon initial segment (AIS) and NaV channels are distributed in multiple dendrites, selective reduction of NaV channel activity in the soma was sufficient to decrease pacemaker frequency and increase susceptibility to DP block. Conversely, increasing somatic NaV current density raised pacemaker frequency and lowered susceptibility to DP block. Finally, when NaV currents were restricted to the soma, pacemaker activity occurred at abnormally high rates due to excessive local subthreshold NaV current. Together with computational simulations, these data show that both the slow pacemaker rate and the sensitivity to DP block that characterizes DA neurons result from the low density of somatic NaV channels. More generally, we conclude that the somatodendritic distribution of NaV channels is a major determinant of repetitive spiking frequency. PMID:23077037

  17. Synthetic ciguatoxins selectively activate Nav1.8-derived chimeric sodium channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kaoru; Inoue, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro; Kondo, Chie; Kinoshita, Eiji; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Seyama, Issei

    2009-03-20

    The synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C has been shown to activate tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels (Na(v)1.2, Na(v)1.4, and Na(v)1.5) by accelerating activation kinetics and shifting the activation curve toward hyperpolarization (Yamaoka, K., Inoue, M., Miyahara, H., Miyazaki, K., and Hirama, M. (2004) Br. J. Pharmacol. 142, 879-889). In this study, we further explored the effects of CTX3C on the TTX-resistant sodium channel Na(v)1.8. TTX-resistant channels have been shown to be involved in transducing pain and related sensations (Akopian, A. N., Sivilotti, L., and Wood, J. N. (1996) Nature 379, 257-262). Thus, we hypothesized that ciguatoxin-induced activation of the Na(v)1.8 current would account for the neurological symptoms of ciguatera poisoning. We found that 0.1 mum CTX3C preferentially affected the activation process of the Na(v)1.8 channel compared with those of the Na(v)1.2 and Na(v)1.4 channels. Importantly, without stimulation, 0.1 mum CTX3C induced a large leakage current (I (L)). The conductance of the I (L) calculated relative to the maximum conductance (G (max)) was 10 times larger than that of Na(v)1.2 or Na(v)1.4. To determine the molecular domain of Na(v)1.8 responsible for conferring higher sensitivity to CTX3C, we made two chimeric constructs from Na(v)1.4 and Na(v)1.8. Chimeras containing the N-terminal half of Na(v)1.8 exhibited a large response similar to wild-type Na(v)1.8, indicating that the region conferring high sensitivity to ciguatoxin action is located in the D1 or D2 domains.

  18. Sodium Channel Nav1.8 Underlies TTX-Resistant Axonal Action Potential Conduction in Somatosensory C-Fibers of Distal Cutaneous Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Amanda H; Vyshnevska, Alina; Hartke, Timothy V; De Col, Roberto; Mankowski, Joseph L; Turnquist, Brian; Bosmans, Frank; Reeh, Peter W; Schmelz, Martin; Carr, Richard W; Ringkamp, Matthias

    2017-05-17

    Voltage-gated sodium (Na V ) channels are responsible for the initiation and conduction of action potentials within primary afferents. The nine Na V channel isoforms recognized in mammals are often functionally divided into tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive (TTX-s) channels (Na V 1.1-Na V 1.4, Na V 1.6-Na V 1.7) that are blocked by nanomolar concentrations and TTX-resistant (TTX-r) channels (Na V 1.8 and Na V 1.9) inhibited by millimolar concentrations, with Na V 1.5 having an intermediate toxin sensitivity. For small-diameter primary afferent neurons, it is unclear to what extent different Na V channel isoforms are distributed along the peripheral and central branches of their bifurcated axons. To determine the relative contribution of TTX-s and TTX-r channels to action potential conduction in different axonal compartments, we investigated the effects of TTX on C-fiber-mediated compound action potentials (C-CAPs) of proximal and distal peripheral nerve segments and dorsal roots from mice and pigtail monkeys ( Macaca nemestrina ). In the dorsal roots and proximal peripheral nerves of mice and nonhuman primates, TTX reduced the C-CAP amplitude to 16% of the baseline. In contrast, >30% of the C-CAP was resistant to TTX in distal peripheral branches of monkeys and WT and Na V 1.9 -/- mice. In nerves from Na V 1.8 -/- mice, TTX-r C-CAPs could not be detected. These data indicate that Na V 1.8 is the primary isoform underlying TTX-r conduction in distal axons of somatosensory C-fibers. Furthermore, there is a differential spatial distribution of Na V 1.8 within C-fiber axons, being functionally more prominent in the most distal axons and terminal regions. The enrichment of Na V 1.8 in distal axons may provide a useful target in the treatment of pain of peripheral origin. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT It is unclear whether individual sodium channel isoforms exert differential roles in action potential conduction along the axonal membrane of nociceptive, unmyelinated peripheral nerve

  19. Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States). Global Technology Development; Tatli, Emre [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Czerniak, Luke [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoichi, Momozaki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The project “Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems” was conducted jointly by Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), over the period October 1, 2013- March 31, 2016. The project’s motivation was the need to provide designers of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) with a validated, state-of-the-art computational tool for the prediction of sodium oxide (Na2O) deposition in small-diameter sodium heat exchanger (HX) channels, such as those in the diffusion bonded HXs proposed for SFRs coupled with a supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system. In SFRs, Na2O deposition can potentially occur following accidental air ingress in the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) sodium and simultaneous failure of the IHTS sodium cold trap. In this scenario, oxygen can travel through the IHTS loop and reach the coldest regions, represented by the cold end of the sodium channels of the HXs, where Na2O precipitation may initiate and continue. In addition to deteriorating HX heat transfer and pressure drop performance, Na2O deposition can lead to channel plugging especially when the size of the sodium channels is small, which is the case for diffusion bonded HXs whose sodium channel hydraulic diameter is generally below 5 mm. Sodium oxide melts at a high temperature well above the sodium melting temperature such that removal of a solid plug such as through dissolution by pure sodium could take a lengthy time. The Sodium Plugging Phenomena Loop (SPPL) was developed at ANL, prior to this project, for investigating Na2O deposition phenomena within sodium channels that are prototypical of the diffusion bonded HX channels envisioned for SFR-sCO2 systems. In this project, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test

  20. Unusual Voltage-Gated Sodium Currents as Targets for Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C; Cummins, T R

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a serious health problem that impacts the lives of many individuals. Hyperexcitability of peripheral sensory neurons contributes to both acute and chronic pain syndromes. Because voltage-gated sodium currents are crucial to the transmission of electrical signals in peripheral sensory neurons, the channels that underlie these currents are attractive targets for pain therapeutics. Sodium currents and channels in peripheral sensory neurons are complex. Multiple-channel isoforms contribute to the macroscopic currents in nociceptive sensory neurons. These different isoforms exhibit substantial variations in their kinetics and pharmacology. Furthermore, sodium current complexity is enhanced by an array of interacting proteins that can substantially modify the properties of voltage-gated sodium channels. Resurgent sodium currents, atypical currents that can enhance recovery from inactivation and neuronal firing, are increasingly being recognized as playing potentially important roles in sensory neuron hyperexcitability and pain sensations. Here we discuss unusual sodium channels and currents that have been identified in nociceptive sensory neurons, describe what is known about the molecular determinants of the complex sodium currents in these neurons. Finally, we provide an overview of therapeutic strategies to target voltage-gated sodium currents in nociceptive neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lysine and the Na+/K+ Selectivity in Mammalian Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium (Nav channels are critical in the generation and transmission of neuronal signals in mammals. The crystal structures of several prokaryotic Nav channels determined in recent years inspire the mechanistic studies on their selection upon the permeable cations (especially between Na+ and K+ ions, a property that is proposed to be mainly determined by residues in the selectivity filter. However, the mechanism of cation selection in mammalian Nav channels lacks direct explanation at atomic level due to the difference in amino acid sequences between mammalian and prokaryotic Nav homologues, especially at the constriction site where the DEKA motif has been identified to determine the Na+/K+ selectivity in mammalian Nav channels but is completely absent in the prokaryotic counterparts. Among the DEKA residues, Lys is of the most importance since its mutation to Arg abolishes the Na+/K+ selectivity. In this work, we modeled the pore domain of mammalian Nav channels by mutating the four residues at the constriction site of a prokaryotic Nav channel (NavRh to DEKA, and then mechanistically investigated the contribution of Lys in cation selection using molecular dynamics simulations. The DERA mutant was generated as a comparison to understand the loss of ion selectivity caused by the K-to-R mutation. Simulations and free energy calculations on the mutants indicate that Lys facilitates Na+/K+ selection by electrostatically repelling the cation to a highly Na+-selective location sandwiched by the carboxylate groups of Asp and Glu at the constriction site. In contrast, the electrostatic repulsion is substantially weakened when Lys is mutated to Arg, because of two intrinsic properties of the Arg side chain: the planar geometric design and the sparse charge distribution of the guanidine group.

  2. Lysine and the Na+/K+ Selectivity in Mammalian Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Huihui; Xia, Mengdie; Gong, Haipeng

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are critical in the generation and transmission of neuronal signals in mammals. The crystal structures of several prokaryotic Nav channels determined in recent years inspire the mechanistic studies on their selection upon the permeable cations (especially between Na+ and K+ ions), a property that is proposed to be mainly determined by residues in the selectivity filter. However, the mechanism of cation selection in mammalian Nav channels lacks direct explanation at atomic level due to the difference in amino acid sequences between mammalian and prokaryotic Nav homologues, especially at the constriction site where the DEKA motif has been identified to determine the Na+/K+ selectivity in mammalian Nav channels but is completely absent in the prokaryotic counterparts. Among the DEKA residues, Lys is of the most importance since its mutation to Arg abolishes the Na+/K+ selectivity. In this work, we modeled the pore domain of mammalian Nav channels by mutating the four residues at the constriction site of a prokaryotic Nav channel (NavRh) to DEKA, and then mechanistically investigated the contribution of Lys in cation selection using molecular dynamics simulations. The DERA mutant was generated as a comparison to understand the loss of ion selectivity caused by the K-to-R mutation. Simulations and free energy calculations on the mutants indicate that Lys facilitates Na+/K+ selection by electrostatically repelling the cation to a highly Na+-selective location sandwiched by the carboxylate groups of Asp and Glu at the constriction site. In contrast, the electrostatic repulsion is substantially weakened when Lys is mutated to Arg, because of two intrinsic properties of the Arg side chain: the planar geometric design and the sparse charge distribution of the guanidine group.

  3. Expanded functional diversity of shaker K(+ channels in cnidarians is driven by gene expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jegla

    Full Text Available The genome of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (starlet sea anemone provides a molecular genetic view into the first nervous systems, which appeared in a late common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Nematostella has a surprisingly large and diverse set of neuronal signaling genes including paralogs of most neuronal signaling molecules found in higher metazoans. Several ion channel gene families are highly expanded in the sea anemone, including three subfamilies of the Shaker K(+ channel gene family: Shaker (Kv1, Shaw (Kv3 and Shal (Kv4. In order to better understand the physiological significance of these voltage-gated K(+ channel expansions, we analyzed the function of 18 members of the 20 gene Shaker subfamily in Nematostella. Six of the Nematostella Shaker genes express functional homotetrameric K(+ channels in vitro. These include functional orthologs of bilaterian Shakers and channels with an unusually high threshold for voltage activation. We identified 11 Nematostella Shaker genes with a distinct "silent" or "regulatory" phenotype; these encode subunits that function only in heteromeric channels and serve to further diversify Nematostella Shaker channel gating properties. Subunits with the regulatory phenotype have not previously been found in the Shaker subfamily, but have evolved independently in the Shab (Kv2 family in vertebrates and the Shal family in a cnidarian. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that regulatory subunits were present in ancestral cnidarians, but have continued to diversity at a high rate after the split between anthozoans and hydrozoans. Comparison of Shaker family gene complements from diverse metazoan species reveals frequent, large scale duplication has produced highly unique sets of Shaker channels in the major metazoan lineages.

  4. Differential gene expression of cardiac ion channels in human dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Micaela Molina-Navarro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is characterized by idiopathic dilation and systolic contractile dysfunction of the cardiac chambers. The present work aimed to study the alterations in gene expression of ion channels involved in cardiomyocyte function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microarray profiling using the Affymetrix Human Gene® 1.0 ST array was performed using 17 RNA samples, 12 from DCM patients undergoing cardiac transplantation and 5 control donors (CNT. The analysis focused on 7 cardiac ion channel genes, since this category has not been previously studied in human DCM. SCN2B was upregulated, while KCNJ5, KCNJ8, CLIC2, CLCN3, CACNB2, and CACNA1C were downregulated. The RT-qPCR (21 DCM and 8 CNT samples validated the gene expression of SCN2B (p < 0.0001, KCNJ5 (p < 0.05, KCNJ8 (p < 0.05, CLIC2 (p < 0.05, and CACNB2 (p < 0.05. Furthermore, we performed an IPA analysis and we found a functional relationship between the different ion channels studied in this work. CONCLUSION: This study shows a differential expression of ion channel genes involved in cardiac contraction in DCM that might partly underlie the changes in left ventricular function observed in these patients. These results could be the basis for new genetic therapeutic approaches.

  5. Constraint shapes convergence in tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Chris R; Brodie, Edmund D; Brodie, Edmund D; Pfrender, Michael E

    2012-03-20

    Natural selection often produces convergent changes in unrelated lineages, but the degree to which such adaptations occur via predictable genetic paths is unknown. If only a limited subset of possible mutations is fixed in independent lineages, then it is clear that constraint in the production or function of molecular variants is an important determinant of adaptation. We demonstrate remarkably constrained convergence during the evolution of resistance to the lethal poison, tetrodotoxin, in six snake species representing three distinct lineages from around the globe. Resistance-conferring amino acid substitutions in a voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v)1.4, are clustered in only two regions of the protein, and a majority of the replacements are confined to the same three positions. The observed changes represent only a small fraction of the experimentally validated mutations known to increase Na(v)1.4 resistance to tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that constraints resulting from functional tradeoffs between ion channel function and toxin resistance led to predictable patterns of evolutionary convergence at the molecular level. Our data are consistent with theoretical predictions and recent microcosm work that suggest a predictable path is followed during an adaptive walk along a mutational landscape, and that natural selection may be frequently constrained to produce similar genetic outcomes even when operating on independent lineages.

  6. Acid-sensing ion and epithelial sodium channels do not contribute to the mechanoreceptor component of the exercise pressor reflex

    OpenAIRE

    McCord, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Shawn G.; Kaufman, Marc P.

    2008-01-01

    Amiloride, injected into the popliteal artery, has been reported to attenuate the reflex pressor response to static contraction of the triceps surae muscles. Both mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising in contracting skeletal muscle are believed to evoke this effect, which has been named the exercise pressor reflex. Amiloride blocks both acid-sensing ion channels, as well as epithelial sodium channels. Nevertheless, amiloride is thought to block the metabolic stimulus to the reflex, because...

  7. Distinct interactions of Na+ and Ca2+ ions with the selectivity filter of the bacterial sodium channel NaVAb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Song; Zangerl, Eva-Maria; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ca 2+ translocates slowly in the filter, due to lack of “loose” knock-on mechanism. ► Identification of a high affinity binding site in Na V Ab selectivity filter. ► Changes of EEEE locus triggered by electrostatic interactions with Ca 2+ ions. -- Abstract: Rapid and selective ion transport is essential for the generation and regulation of electrical signaling pathways in living organisms. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations to investigate how the bacterial sodium channel Na V Ab (Arcobacter butzleri) differentiates between Na + and Ca 2+ ions. Multiple nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations revealed distinct binding patterns for these two cations in the selectivity filter and suggested a high affinity calcium binding site formed by backbone atoms of residues Leu-176 and Thr-175 (S CEN ) in the sodium channel selectivity filter

  8. [Channels: a new way to revisit pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    Many "essential" diseases that manifest themselves in the form of crises or fits (epilepsies, episodic ataxia, periodic paralyses, myotonia, heart rhythm disorders, etc.) are due to ionic channel dysfunction and are thus referred to as "channelopathies". Some of these disorders are congenital, due to mutations of genes encoding channel subunits, while others result from toxic, immune or hormonal disturbances affecting channelfunction. Channelopathies take on a wide variety of clinical forms, depending on the type of channel (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride...) and the type of dysfunction (loss or gain of function). Some apparently unrelated diseases affecting distinct organs are due to a similar dysfunction of the same channel, revealing unsuspected relationships between organs and between medical specialties. In addition, a given syndrome can be caused by distinct channel dysfunctions. This provides new opportunities for diferential diagnosis and specific correction of the causal defects, although some treatments find applications across multiple medical specialties.

  9. Coupled-channel optical calculation of electron-atom scattering: elastic scattering from sodium at 20 to 150 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, Igor; Konovalov, D.A.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-04-01

    A coupled-channel optical method for electron-atom scattering is applied to elastic electron-sodium scattering at energies of 20, 22.1, 54.4, 100, and 150 eV. It is demonstrated that the effect of all the inelastic channels on elastic scattering may be well reproduced by the 'ab initio' calculated complex non-local polarization potential. Whilst the experiments generally agree at small angles and therefore agree on the total elastic cross section, there is considerable discrepancy at intermediate and backward angles. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Characterization of Gene Candidates for Vacuolar Sodium Transport from Hordeum Vulgare

    KAUST Repository

    Scheu, Arne Hagen August

    2017-01-01

    Various potential causes are discussed, including inaccuracies in the genome resource used as reference for primer design and issues inherent to the model system. Finally, I make suggestions on how to proceed to further characterize the candidate genes and hopefully identify novel sodium transporters from barley.

  11. Identification of potential novel interaction partners of the sodium-activated potassium channels Slick and Slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Schwarzer, Christoph; Kremser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert H; Knaus, Hans-Günther

    2015-12-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are paralogous channels of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. Slick and Slack channels are widely distributed in the mammalian CNS and they play a role in slow afterhyperpolarization, generation of depolarizing afterpotentials and in setting and stabilizing the resting potential. In the present study we used a combined approach of (co)-immunoprecipitation studies, Western blot analysis, double immunofluorescence and mass spectrometric sequencing in order to investigate protein-protein interactions of the Slick and Slack channels. The data strongly suggest that Slick and Slack channels co-assemble into identical cellular complexes. Double immunofluorescence experiments revealed that Slick and Slack channels co-localize in distinct mouse brain regions. Moreover, we identified the small cytoplasmic protein beta-synuclein and the transmembrane protein 263 (TMEM 263) as novel interaction partners of both, native Slick and Slack channels. In addition, the inactive dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP 10) and the synapse associated protein 102 (SAP 102) were identified as constituents of the native Slick and Slack channel complexes in the mouse brain. This study presents new insights into protein-protein interactions of native Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain.

  12. Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of anophelines and their association with resistance to pyrethroids - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Paula B; Santos, Joselita Maria M; Martins, Ademir J

    2014-10-07

    Constant and extensive use of chemical insecticides has created a selection pressure and favored resistance development in many insect species worldwide. One of the most important pyrethroid resistance mechanisms is classified as target site insensitivity, due to conformational changes in the target site that impair a proper binding of the insecticide molecule. The voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV) is the target of pyrethroids and DDT insecticides, used to control insects of medical, agricultural and veterinary importance, such as anophelines. It has been reported that the presence of a few non-silent point mutations in the NaV gene are associated with pyrethroid resistance, termed as 'kdr' (knockdown resistance) for preventing the knockdown effect of these insecticides. The presence of these mutations, as well as their effects, has been thoroughly studied in Anopheles mosquitoes. So far, kdr mutations have already been detected in at least 13 species (Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles sacharovi, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles vagus, Anopheles paraliae, Anopheles peditaeniatus and Anopheles albimanus) from populations of African, Asian and, more recently, American continents. Seven mutational variants (L1014F, L1014S, L1014C, L1014W, N1013S, N1575Y and V1010L) were described, with the highest prevalence of L1014F, which occurs at the 1014 site in NaV IIS6 domain. The increase of frequency and distribution of kdr mutations clearly shows the importance of this mechanism in the process of pyrethroid resistance. In this sense, several species-specific and highly sensitive methods have been designed in order to genotype individual mosquitoes for kdr in large scale, which may serve as important tolls for monitoring the dynamics of pyrethroid resistance in natural populations. We also briefly discuss investigations concerning the course of Plasmodium

  13. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Finiguerra

    Full Text Available The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST. Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI or wild-type isoforms (PWI, while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI. There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR, ingestion rate (I, and gross growth efficiency (GGE for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed.

  14. Loss of Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack and FMRP Differentially Affect Social Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Anne E; Ehinger, Rebekka; Straubinger, Julia; Zerfass, Patrick; Nann, Yvette; Lukowski, Robert

    2018-05-31

    The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack (Slo2.2) is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons where it is supposed to shape firing properties important for neuronal excitability. Slack activity is enhanced by interaction with the Fragile-X-Mental-Retardation-Protein (FMRP) and loss of FMRP leads to decreased sodium-activated potassium currents in medial nucleus of the trapezoid body neurons of the Fmr1-knockout (KO) mouse representing a mouse model of the human Fragile-X-Syndrome (FXS) and autism. Autism is a frequent comorbidity of FXS, but it is unclear whether Slack is involved in autistic or related conditions of FXS in vivo. By applying a wide range of behavioral tests, we compared social and autism-related behaviors in Slack- and FMRP-deficient mice. In our hands, as expected, FMRP-deficiency causes autism-related behavioral changes in nesting and in a marble-burying test. In contrast, Slack-deficient males exhibited specific abnormalities in sociability in direct and indirect social interaction tests. Hence, we show for the first time that a proper Slack channel function is mandatory for normal social behavior in mice. Nevertheless, as deficits in social behaviors seem to occur independently from each other in FMRP and Slack null mutants, we conclude that Slack is not involved in the autistic phenotype of FMRP KO mice. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  16. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF PSEUDOMONAS GENES DETERMINING SODIUM DODECYL-SULFATE BIODEGRADATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAVISON, J; BRUNEL, F; PHANOPOULOS, A; PROZZI, D; TERPSTRA, P

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of two genes involved in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) degradation, by Pseudomonas, have been determined. One of these, sdsA, codes for an alkyl sulfatase (58 957 Da) and has similarity (31.8% identity over a 201-amino acid stretch) to the N terminus of a predicted protein of

  17. Trafficking regulates the subcellular distribution of voltage-gated sodium channels in primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lan

    2015-09-30

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) comprise at least nine pore-forming α subunits. Of these, Nav1.6, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are the most frequently studied in primary sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglion and are mainly localized to the cytoplasm. A large pool of intracellular Navs raises the possibility that changes in Nav trafficking could alter channel function. The molecular mediators of Nav trafficking mainly consist of signals within the Navs themselves, interacting proteins and extracellular factors. The surface expression of Navs is achieved by escape from the endoplasmic reticulum and proteasome degradation, forward trafficking and plasma membrane anchoring, and it is also regulated by channel phosphorylation and ubiquitination in primary sensory neurons. Axonal transport and localization of Navs in afferent fibers involves the motor protein KIF5B and scaffold proteins, including contactin and PDZ domain containing 2. Localization of Nav1.6 to the nodes of Ranvier in myelinated fibers of primary sensory neurons requires node formation and the submembrane cytoskeletal protein complex. These findings inform our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying Nav trafficking in primary sensory neurons.

  18. Associations Between Genetic Variants of NADPH Oxidase-Related Genes and Blood Pressure Responses to Dietary Sodium Intervention: The GenSalt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xikun; Hu, Zunsong; Chen, Jing; Huang, Jianfeng; Huang, Chen; Liu, Fangchao; Gu, Charles; Yang, Xueli; Hixson, James E; Lu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Liu, De-Pei; He, Jiang; Chen, Shufeng; Gu, Dongfeng

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively test the associations of genetic variants of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-related genes with blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium intervention in a Chinese population. We conducted a 7-day low-sodium intervention followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention among 1,906 participants in rural China. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each dietary intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the additive associations of 63 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 NADPH oxidase-related genes with BP responses to dietary sodium intervention. Gene-based analyses were conducted using the truncated product method. The Bonferroni method was used to adjust for multiple testing in all analyses. Systolic BP (SBP) response to high-sodium intervention significantly decreased with the number of minor T allele of marker rs6967221 in RAC1 (P = 4.51 × 10-4). SBP responses (95% confidence interval) for genotypes CC, CT, and TT were 5.03 (4.71, 5.36), 4.20 (3.54, 4.85), and 0.56 (-1.08, 2.20) mm Hg, respectively, during the high-sodium intervention. Gene-based analyses revealed that RAC1 was significantly associated with SBP response to high-sodium intervention (P = 1.00 × 10-6) and diastolic BP response to low-sodium intervention (P = 9.80 × 10-4). These findings suggested that genetic variants of NADPH oxidase-related genes may contribute to the variation of BP responses to sodium intervention in Chinese population. Further replication of these findings is warranted. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiangou Yiangos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

  20. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS), considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5) and controls (n = 12), and the other patients with BMS (n = 7) and controls (n = 10). BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS). Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS. PMID:20529324

  1. Discovery of Point Mutations in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel from African Aedes aegypti Populations: Potential Phylogenetic Reasons for Gene Introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranami, Yuto; Kawashima, Emiko; Osei, Joseph H. N.; Sakyi, Kojo Yirenkyi; Dadzie, Samuel; de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Appawu, Maxwell; Ohta, Nobuo; Minakawa, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Background Yellow fever is endemic in some countries in Africa, and Aedes aegpyti is one of the most important vectors implicated in the outbreak. The mapping of the nation-wide distribution and the detection of insecticide resistance of vector mosquitoes will provide the beneficial information for forecasting of dengue and yellow fever outbreaks and effective control measures. Methodology/Principal Findings High resistance to DDT was observed in all mosquito colonies collected in Ghana. The resistance and the possible existence of resistance or tolerance to permethrin were suspected in some colonies. High frequencies of point mutations at the voltage-gated sodium channel (F1534C) and one heterozygote of the other mutation (V1016I) were detected, and this is the first detection on the African continent. The frequency of F1534C allele and the ratio of F1534C homozygotes in Ae. aegypti aegypti (Aaa) were significantly higher than those in Ae. aegypti formosus (Aaf). We could detect the two types of introns between exon 20 and 21, and the F1534C mutations were strongly linked with one type of intron, which was commonly found in South East Asian and South and Central American countries, suggesting the possibility that this mutation was introduced from other continents or convergently selected after the introgression of Aaa genes from the above area. Conclusions/Significance The worldwide eradication programs in 1940s and 1950s might have caused high selection pressure on the mosquito populations and expanded the distribution of insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations. Selection of the F1534C point mutation could be hypothesized to have taken place during this period. The selection of the resistant population of Ae. aegypti with the point mutation of F1534C, and the worldwide transportation of vector mosquitoes in accordance with human activity such as trading of used tires, might result in the widespread distribution of F1534C point mutation in tropical countries

  2. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  3. Distribution of TTX-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels in primary sensory endings of mammalian muscle spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Dario I; Vincent, Jacob A; Cope, Timothy C

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying signaling of mechanical stimuli by muscle spindles remains incomplete. In particular, the ionic conductances that sustain tonic firing during static muscle stretch are unknown. We hypothesized that tonic firing by spindle afferents depends on sodium persistent inward current (INaP) and tested for the necessary presence of the appropriate voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels in primary sensory endings. The NaV 1.6 isoform was selected for both its capacity to produce INaP and for its presence in other mechanosensors that fire tonically. The present study shows that NaV 1.6 immunoreactivity (IR) is concentrated in heminodes, presumably where tonic firing is generated, and we were surprised to find NaV 1.6 IR strongly expressed also in the sensory terminals, where mechanotransduction occurs. This spatial pattern of NaV 1.6 IR distribution was consistent for three mammalian species (rat, cat, and mouse), as was tonic firing by primary spindle afferents. These findings meet some of the conditions needed to establish participation of INaP in tonic firing by primary sensory endings. The study was extended to two additional NaV isoforms, selected for their sensitivity to TTX, excluding TTX-resistant NaV channels, which alone are insufficient to support firing by primary spindle endings. Positive immunoreactivity was found for NaV 1.1 , predominantly in sensory terminals together with NaV 1.6 and for NaV 1.7 , mainly in preterminal axons. Differential distribution in primary sensory endings suggests specialized roles for these three NaV isoforms in the process of mechanosensory signaling by muscle spindles. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The molecular mechanisms underlying mechanosensory signaling responsible for proprioceptive functions are not completely elucidated. This study provides the first evidence that voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) are expressed in the spindle primary sensory ending, where NaVs are found at every site

  4. Structure of a prokaryotic sodium channel pore reveals essential gating elements and an outer ion binding site common to eukaryotic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, David; Findeisen, Felix; Abderemane-Ali, Fayal; Arrigoni, Cristina; Wong, Stephanie; Nurva, Shailika Reddy; Loussouarn, Gildas; Minor, Daniel L

    2014-01-23

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) are central elements of cellular excitation. Notwithstanding advances from recent bacterial NaV (BacNaV) structures, key questions about gating and ion selectivity remain. Here, we present a closed conformation of NaVAe1p, a pore-only BacNaV derived from NaVAe1, a BacNaV from the arsenite oxidizer Alkalilimnicola ehrlichei found in Mono Lake, California, that provides insight into both fundamental properties. The structure reveals a pore domain in which the pore-lining S6 helix connects to a helical cytoplasmic tail. Electrophysiological studies of full-length BacNaVs show that two elements defined by the NaVAe1p structure, an S6 activation gate position and the cytoplasmic tail "neck", are central to BacNaV gating. The structure also reveals the selectivity filter ion entry site, termed the "outer ion" site. Comparison with mammalian voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV) selectivity filters, together with functional studies, shows that this site forms a previously unknown determinant of CaV high-affinity calcium binding. Our findings underscore commonalities between BacNaVs and eukaryotic voltage-gated channels and provide a framework for understanding gating and ion permeation in this superfamily. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effect of sodium phenylbutyrate on the apoptosis of human tongue squamous cancer cell line and expression of p21 and survivin genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-qiang; Feng, Feng-lan; Gu, Hong-biao; Pan, De-shun

    2010-07-01

    To examine the effects of sodium phenylbutyrate on the apoptosis of human tongue squamous cancer cell line and expression of p21 and survivin genes. The inhibition effects of sodium phenylbutyrate on Tca8113 and human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TCSSA) cell lines were detected by methyl thiazoly terazolium (MTT) and the apoptosis of the cancer cells after being induced by sodium phenylbutyrate examined by flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of p21 and survivin genes were observed with Western blotting and RT-PCR. Compared with control group, the level of p21 mRNA and protein of Tca8113 cellline increased to 0.09 ± 0.08 and increased 0.72 ± 0.10, that of TCSSA cellline increased 1.34 ± 0.12 and 1.56 ± 0.09 (P Sodium phenylbutyrate inhibited the cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis and arrested the cells in G₁/G₀ phase. The amount of p21 mRNA and protein were increased, and the expression of survivin gene was decreased. Sodium phenylbutyrate exhibited remarkable inhibitory effects on human tongue squamous cancer cell proliferation and induced cancer cell apoptosis. The mechanism may be due to up-regulation of p21 gene and down-regulation of survivin gene. The mRNA level of p21 gene and survivin gene showed a strong correlation.

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis of Ciguatoxin-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Mice Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andrés Rubiolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatoxins are polyether marine toxins that act as sodium channel activators. These toxins cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents several symptoms in humans including long-term neurological alterations. Earlier work has shown that both acute and chronic exposure of primary cortical neurons to synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C have profound impacts on neuronal function. Thus, the present work aimed to identify relevant neuronal genes and metabolic pathways that could be altered by ciguatoxin exposure. To study the effect of ciguatoxins in primary neurons in culture, we performed a transcriptomic analysis using whole mouse genome microarrays, for primary cortical neurons exposed during 6, 24, or 72 h in culture to CTX3C. Here, we have shown that the effects of the toxin on gene expression differ with the exposure time. The results presented here have identified several relevant genes and pathways related to the effect of ciguatoxins on neurons and may assist in future research or even treatment of ciguatera. Moreover, we demonstrated that the effects of the toxin on gene expression were exclusively consequential of its action as a voltage-gated sodium channel activator, since all the effects of CTX3C were avoided by preincubation of the neurons with the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin.

  7. COMMD1 regulates the delta epithelial sodium channel (δENaC) through trafficking and ubiquitination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tina; Ke, Ying; Ly, Kevin; McDonald, Fiona J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The COMM domain of COMMD1 mediates binding to δENaC. → COMMD1 reduces the cell surface population of δENaC. → COMMD1 increases the population of δENaC-ubiquitin. → Both endogenous and transfected δENaC localize with COMMD1 and transferrin suggesting they are located in early/recycling endosomes. -- Abstract: The delta subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (δENaC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. δENaC is distinct from the related α-, β- and γENaC subunits, known for their role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure control, as δENaC is expressed in brain neurons and activated by external protons. COMMD1 (copper metabolism Murr1 domain 1) was previously found to associate with and downregulate δENaC activity. Here, we show that COMMD1 interacts with δENaC through its COMM domain. Co-expression of δENaC with COMMD1 significantly reduced δENaC surface expression, and led to an increase in δENaC ubiquitination. Immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy studies show that COMMD1 promoted localization of δENaC to the early/recycling endosomal pool where the two proteins were localized together. These results suggest that COMMD1 downregulates δENaC activity by reducing δENaC surface expression through promoting internalization of surface δENaC to an intracellular recycling pool, possibly via enhanced ubiquitination.

  8. COMMD1 regulates the delta epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) through trafficking and ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tina; Ke, Ying; Ly, Kevin [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); McDonald, Fiona J., E-mail: fiona.mcdonald@otago.ac.nz [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} The COMM domain of COMMD1 mediates binding to {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 reduces the cell surface population of {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 increases the population of {delta}ENaC-ubiquitin. {yields} Both endogenous and transfected {delta}ENaC localize with COMMD1 and transferrin suggesting they are located in early/recycling endosomes. -- Abstract: The delta subunit of the epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. {delta}ENaC is distinct from the related {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}ENaC subunits, known for their role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure control, as {delta}ENaC is expressed in brain neurons and activated by external protons. COMMD1 (copper metabolism Murr1 domain 1) was previously found to associate with and downregulate {delta}ENaC activity. Here, we show that COMMD1 interacts with {delta}ENaC through its COMM domain. Co-expression of {delta}ENaC with COMMD1 significantly reduced {delta}ENaC surface expression, and led to an increase in {delta}ENaC ubiquitination. Immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy studies show that COMMD1 promoted localization of {delta}ENaC to the early/recycling endosomal pool where the two proteins were localized together. These results suggest that COMMD1 downregulates {delta}ENaC activity by reducing {delta}ENaC surface expression through promoting internalization of surface {delta}ENaC to an intracellular recycling pool, possibly via enhanced ubiquitination.

  9. Substitutions in the domain III voltage-sensing module enhance the sensitivity of an insect sodium channel to a scorpion beta-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weizhong; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Luo, Ningguang; Turkov, Michael; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael; Goldin, Alan L; Dong, Ke

    2011-05-06

    Scorpion β-toxins bind to the extracellular regions of the voltage-sensing module of domain II and to the pore module of domain III in voltage-gated sodium channels and enhance channel activation by trapping and stabilizing the voltage sensor of domain II in its activated state. We investigated the interaction of a highly potent insect-selective scorpion depressant β-toxin, Lqh-dprIT(3), from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus with insect sodium channels from Blattella germanica (BgNa(v)). Like other scorpion β-toxins, Lqh-dprIT(3) shifts the voltage dependence of activation of BgNa(v) channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to more negative membrane potentials but only after strong depolarizing prepulses. Notably, among 10 BgNa(v) splice variants tested for their sensitivity to the toxin, only BgNa(v)1-1 was hypersensitive due to an L1285P substitution in IIIS1 resulting from a U-to-C RNA-editing event. Furthermore, charge reversal of a negatively charged residue (E1290K) at the extracellular end of IIIS1 and the two innermost positively charged residues (R4E and R5E) in IIIS4 also increased the channel sensitivity to Lqh-dprIT(3). Besides enhancement of toxin sensitivity, the R4E substitution caused an additional 20-mV negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation of toxin-modified channels, inducing a unique toxin-modified state. Our findings provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of the domain III voltage-sensing module in the action of scorpion β-toxins. This hypersensitivity most likely reflects an increase in IIS4 trapping via allosteric mechanisms, suggesting coupling between the voltage sensors in neighboring domains during channel activation.

  10. Differential state-dependent modification of rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Bingjun [College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Soderlund, David M., E-mail: dms6@cornell.edu [Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We expressed rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat {beta}1 and {beta}2 auxiliary subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on expressed sodium currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Both pyrethroids produced concentration-dependent, resting modification of Na{sub v}1.6 channels, prolonging the kinetics of channel inactivation and deactivation to produce persistent 'late' currents during depolarization and tail currents following repolarization. Both pyrethroids also produced concentration dependent hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation. Maximal shifts in activation, determined from the voltage dependence of the pyrethroid-induced late and tail currents, were {approx} 25 mV for tefluthrin and {approx} 20 mV for deltamethrin. The highest attainable concentrations of these compounds also caused shifts of {approx} 5-10 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. In addition to their effects on the voltage dependence of inactivation, both compounds caused concentration-dependent increases in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation following strong depolarizing prepulses. We assessed the use-dependent effects of tefluthrin and deltamethrin on Na{sub v}1.6 channels by determining the effect of trains of 1 to 100 5-ms depolarizing prepulses at frequencies of 20 or 66.7 Hz on the extent of channel modification. Repetitive depolarization at either frequency increased modification by deltamethrin by {approx} 2.3-fold but had no effect on modification by tefluthrin. Tefluthrin and deltamethrin were equally potent as modifiers of Na{sub v}1.6 channels in HEK293 cells using the conditions producing maximal modification as the basis for comparison. These findings show that the actions of tefluthrin and deltamethrin of Na{sub v}1.6 channels

  11. Eslicarbazepine and the enhancement of slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels: a comparison with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and lacosamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeisen, Simon; Pires, Nuno; Loureiro, Ana I; Bonifácio, Maria João; Palma, Nuno; Whyment, Andrew; Spanswick, David; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effects of eslicarbazepine, carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC) and lacosamide (LCM) on the fast and slow inactivated states of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). The anti-epileptiform activity was evaluated in mouse isolated hippocampal slices. The anticonvulsant effects were evaluated in MES and the 6-Hz psychomotor tests. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to investigate the effects of eslicarbazepine, CBZ, OXC and LCM on sodium channels endogenously expressed in N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells. CBZ and eslicarbazepine exhibit similar concentration dependent suppression of epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices. In N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells, at a concentration of 250 μM, the voltage dependence of the fast inactivation was not influenced by eslicarbazepine, whereas LCM, CBZ and OXC shifted the V0.5 value (mV) by -4.8, -12.0 and -16.6, respectively. Eslicarbazepine- and LCM-treated fast-inactivated channels recovered similarly to control conditions, whereas CBZ- and OXC-treated channels required longer pulses to recover. CBZ, eslicarbazepine and LCM shifted the voltage dependence of the slow inactivation (V0.5, mV) by -4.6, -31.2 and -53.3, respectively. For eslicarbazepine, LCM, CBZ and OXC, the affinity to the slow inactivated state was 5.9, 10.4, 1.7 and 1.8 times higher than to the channels in the resting state, respectively. In conclusion, eslicarbazepine did not share with CBZ and OXC the ability to alter fast inactivation of VGSC. Both eslicarbazepine and LCM reduce VGSC availability through enhancement of slow inactivation, but LCM demonstrated higher interaction with VGSC in the resting state and with fast inactivation gating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CFD Modeling of Sodium-Oxide Deposition in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Compact Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatli, Emre; Ferroni, Paolo; Mazzoccoli, Jason

    2015-09-02

    The possible use of compact heat exchangers (HXs) in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) employing a Brayton cycle is promising due to their high power density and resulting small volume in comparison with conventional shell-and-tube HXs. However, the small diameter of their channels makes them more susceptible to plugging due to Na2O deposition during accident conditions. Although cold traps are designed to reduce oxygen impurity levels in the sodium coolant, their failure, in conjunction with accidental air ingress into the sodium boundary, could result in coolant oxygen levels that are above the saturation limit in the cooler parts of the HX channels. This can result in Na2O crystallization and the formation of solid deposits on cooled channel surfaces, limiting or even blocking coolant flow. The development of analysis tools capable of modeling the formation of these deposits in the presence of sodium flow will allow designers of SFRs to properly size the HX channels so that, in the scenario mentioned above, the reactor operator has sufficient time to detect and react to the affected HX. Until now, analytical methodologies to predict the formation of these deposits have been developed, but never implemented in a high-fidelity computational tool suited to modern reactor design techniques. This paper summarizes the challenges and the current status in the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to predict deposit formation, with particular emphasis on sensitivity studies on some parameters affecting deposition.

  13. Ion Channel Genes and Epilepsy: Functional Alteration, Pathogenic Potential, and Mechanism of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Yan, Li-Min; Su, Tao; He, Na; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Wang, Jie; Shi, Yi-Wu; Yi, Yong-Hong; Liao, Wei-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Ion channels are crucial in the generation and modulation of excitability in the nervous system and have been implicated in human epilepsy. Forty-one epilepsy-associated ion channel genes and their mutations are systematically reviewed. In this paper, we analyzed the genotypes, functional alterations (funotypes), and phenotypes of these mutations. Eleven genes featured loss-of-function mutations and six had gain-of-function mutations. Nine genes displayed diversified funotypes, among which a distinct funotype-phenotype correlation was found in SCN1A. These data suggest that the funotype is an essential consideration in evaluating the pathogenicity of mutations and a distinct funotype or funotype-phenotype correlation helps to define the pathogenic potential of a gene.

  14. Radiochemotherapy of hepatocarcinoma via lentivirus-mediated transfer of human sodium iodide symporter gene and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Libo, E-mail: libochen888@hotmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China); Guo Guoying [Xinyuan Institute of Medicine and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Liu Tianjing; Guo Lihe [Division of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Zhu Ruisen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene/ganciclovir (GCV) system has been widely used as a traditional gene therapy modality, and the sodium/iodide symporter gene (NIS) has been found to be a novel therapeutic gene. Since the therapeutic effects of radioiodine therapy or prodrug chemotherapy on cancers following NIS or HSV-TK gene transfer need to be enhanced, this study was designed to investigate the feasibility of radiochemotherapy for hepatocarcinoma via coexpression of NIS gene and HSV-TK gene. Methods: HepG2 cells were stably transfected with NIS, TK and GFP gene via recombinant lentiviral vector and named HepG2/NTG. Gene expression was examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence imaging and iodide uptake. The therapeutic effects were assessed by MTT assay and clonogenic assay. Results: HepG2/NTG cells concentrated {sup 125}I{sup -} up to 76-fold higher than the wild-type cells within 20 min, and the efflux happened with a T{sub 1/2eff} of less than 10 min. The iodide uptake in HepG2/NTG cells was specifically inhibited by sodium perchlorate. Dose-dependent toxicity to HepG2/NTG cells by either GCV or {sup 131}I was revealed by clonogenic assay and MTT assay, respectively. The survival rate of HepG2/NTG cells decreased to 49.7%{+-}2.5%, 43.4%{+-}2.8% and 8.6%{+-}1.2% after exposure to {sup 131}I, GCV and combined therapy, respectively. Conclusion: We demonstrate that radiochemotherapy of hepatocarcinoma via lentiviral-mediated coexpression of NIS gene and HSV-TK gene leads to stronger killing effect than single treatment, and in vivo studies are needed to verify these findings.

  15. Radiochemotherapy of hepatocarcinoma via lentivirus-mediated transfer of human sodium iodide symporter gene and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Libo; Guo Guoying; Liu Tianjing; Guo Lihe; Zhu Ruisen

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene/ganciclovir (GCV) system has been widely used as a traditional gene therapy modality, and the sodium/iodide symporter gene (NIS) has been found to be a novel therapeutic gene. Since the therapeutic effects of radioiodine therapy or prodrug chemotherapy on cancers following NIS or HSV-TK gene transfer need to be enhanced, this study was designed to investigate the feasibility of radiochemotherapy for hepatocarcinoma via coexpression of NIS gene and HSV-TK gene. Methods: HepG2 cells were stably transfected with NIS, TK and GFP gene via recombinant lentiviral vector and named HepG2/NTG. Gene expression was examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence imaging and iodide uptake. The therapeutic effects were assessed by MTT assay and clonogenic assay. Results: HepG2/NTG cells concentrated 125 I - up to 76-fold higher than the wild-type cells within 20 min, and the efflux happened with a T 1/2eff of less than 10 min. The iodide uptake in HepG2/NTG cells was specifically inhibited by sodium perchlorate. Dose-dependent toxicity to HepG2/NTG cells by either GCV or 131 I was revealed by clonogenic assay and MTT assay, respectively. The survival rate of HepG2/NTG cells decreased to 49.7%±2.5%, 43.4%±2.8% and 8.6%±1.2% after exposure to 131 I, GCV and combined therapy, respectively. Conclusion: We demonstrate that radiochemotherapy of hepatocarcinoma via lentiviral-mediated coexpression of NIS gene and HSV-TK gene leads to stronger killing effect than single treatment, and in vivo studies are needed to verify these findings.

  16. Influence of water-soluble channeling agents on the release of diclofenac sodium from Irvingia malayana wax matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsawimonwat, Songwut; Charumanee, Suporn; Kaewvichit, Sayam; Sirithunyalug, Jakkapan; Sirisa-Ard, Panee; Piyamongkol, Sirivipa; Siangwong, Kulthawat

    2017-05-01

    Irvingia malayana wax (IW) is majorly composed of esters of medium chain fatty acids. Its melting point is low and closed to the body temperature. This study aimed at investigating the potential of IW as a matrix-forming agent and evaluate the effect of soluble channeling agents on the release of diclofenac sodium (DS) from IW matrix tablets. The preformulation study by infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry showed no incompatibility between IW and DS or soluble channeling agents, namely PEG 4000, PEG 6000 and lactose. IW retarded the release of DS from the matrix tablets more efficiently than carnauba wax due to its greater hydrophobicity and its ability to become partial molten wax at 37° C. Factors affecting the release of DS from IW matrix were drug concentrations, and types and concentrations of channeling agents. The release of DS significantly improved when DS concentration reached approximately 33%. The fast dissolving channeling agent, lactose, could enhance the drug release rate more effectively than PEG 4000 and PEG 6000, respectively. The linear relationship between the DS release rate and the concentration of the chosen channeling agent, PEG 6000, was found (r 2 =0.9866).

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Activation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiushi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs are complex and heterogeneous compounds implicated in diabetes. Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC at the distal nephron plays an important role in diabetic hypertension. Here, we report that H2S antagonizes AGEs-induced ENaC activation in A6 cells. ENaC open probability (PO in A6 cells was significantly increased by exogenous AGEs and that this AGEs-induced ENaC activity was abolished by NaHS (a donor of H2S and TEMPOL. Incubating A6 cells with the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole (3-AT mimicked the effects of AGEs on ENaC activity, but did not induce any additive effect. We found that the expression levels of catalase were significantly reduced by AGEs and both AGEs and 3-AT facilitated ROS uptake in A6 cells, which were significantly inhibited by NaHS. The specific PTEN and PI3K inhibitors, BPV(pic  and LY294002, influence ENaC activity in AGEs-pretreated A6 cells. Moreover, after removal of AGEs from AGEs-pretreated A6 cells for 72 hours, ENaC PO remained at a high level, suggesting that an AGEs-related “metabolic memory” may be involved in sodium homeostasis. Our data, for the first time, show that H2S prevents AGEs-induced ENaC activation by targeting the ROS/PI3K/PTEN pathway.

  18. Sodium channels as targets for volatile anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl F. Herold

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of modern inhaled anesthetics although widely used in clinical settings are still poorly understood. Considerable evidence supports effects on membrane proteins such as ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels of excitable cells. Na+ channels are crucial to action potential initiation and propagation, and represent potential targets for volatile anesthetics. Inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels leads to reduced neurotransmitter release at the synapse and could therefore contribute to the mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics produce their characteristic effects: amnesia, unconsciousness, and immobility. Early studies on crayfish and squid giant axon showed inhibition of Na+ currents by volatile anesthetics. Subsequent studies using native neuronal preparations and heterologous expression systems with various mammalian Na+ channel isoforms implicated inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels in anesthetic actions. Volatile anesthetics reduce peak Na+ current and shift the voltage of half-maximal steady-state inactivation towards more negative potentials, thus stabilizing the fast-inactivated state. Furthermore recovery from fast-inactivation is slowed together with an enhanced use-dependent block during pulse train protocols. These effects can reduce neurotransmitter release by depressing presynaptic excitability, depolarization and Ca entry, and ultimately transmitter release. This reduction in transmitter release is more portent for glutamatergic vs. GABAergic terminals. Involvement of Na+ channel inhibition in mediating the immobility caused by volatile anesthetics has been demonstrated in animal studies, in which intrathecal infusion of the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin increases volatile anesthetic potency, whereas infusion of the Na+ channels agonist veratridine reduces anesthetic potency. These studies indicate that inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels by volatile anesthetics is involved in mediating some of

  19. Binding modes and functional surface of anti-mammalian scorpion α-toxins to sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2012-10-02

    Scorpion α-toxins bind to the voltage-sensing domains of voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels and interfere with the inactivation mechanisms. The functional surface of α-toxins has been shown to contain an NC-domain consisting of the five-residue turn (positions 8-12) and the C-terminus (positions 56-64) and a core-domain centered on the residue 18. The NC- and core-domains are interconnected by the linker-domain (positions 8-18). Here with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we examine the binding modes between two α-toxins, the anti-mammalian AahII and the anti-insect LqhαIT, and the voltage-sensing domain of rat Na(V)1.2, a subtype of Na(V) channels expressed in nerve cells. Both toxins are docked to the extracellular side of the voltage-sensing domain of Na(V)1.2 using molecular dynamics simulations, with the linker-domain assumed to wedge into the binding pocket. Several salt bridges and hydrophobic clusters are observed to form between the NC- and core-domains of the toxins and Na(V)1.2 and stabilize the toxin-channel complexes. The binding modes predicted are consistent with available mutagenesis data and can readily explain the relative affinities of AahII and LqhαIT for Na(V)1.2. The dissociation constants for the two toxin-channel complexes are derived, which compare favorably with experiment. Our models demonstrate that the functional surface of anti-mammalian scorpion α-toxins is centered on the linker-domain, similar to that of β-toxins.

  20. Sodium selectivity of Reissner's membrane epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyunghee X

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. It was previously shown that the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride and benzamil. The most commonly-observed target of these drugs is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, which is composed of the three subunits α-,β- and γ-ENaC. However, other less-selective cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive to benzamil and amiloride. The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6196, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch clamp. Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3. By contrast, α-,β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. Complete replacement of bath Na+ with the inpermeable cation NMDG+ led to the same inward current as with benzamil in a Na+ bath. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride/benzamil-sensitive absorptive flux of Reissner's membrane mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel that has several key characteristics in common with αβγ-ENaC. The amiloride-sensitive pathway therefore absorbs only Na+ in this epithelium and does not provide a parasensory K+ efflux route from scala

  1. Distribution of cardiac sodium channels in clusters potentiates ephaptic interactions in the intercalated disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hichri, Echrak; Abriel, Hugues; Kucera, Jan P

    2018-02-15

    It has been proposed that ephaptic conduction, relying on interactions between the sodium (Na + ) current and the extracellular potential in intercalated discs, might contribute to cardiac conduction when gap junctional coupling is reduced, but this mechanism is still controversial. In intercalated discs, Na + channels form clusters near gap junction plaques, but the functional significance of these clusters has never been evaluated. In HEK cells expressing cardiac Na + channels, we show that restricting the extracellular space modulates the Na + current, as predicted by corresponding simulations accounting for ephaptic effects. In a high-resolution model of the intercalated disc, clusters of Na + channels that face each other across the intercellular cleft facilitate ephaptic impulse transmission when gap junctional coupling is reduced. Thus, our simulations reveal a functional role for the clustering of Na + channels in intercalated discs, and suggest that rearrangement of these clusters in disease may influence cardiac conduction. It has been proposed that ephaptic interactions in intercalated discs, mediated by extracellular potentials, contribute to cardiac impulse propagation when gap junctional coupling is reduced. However, experiments demonstrating ephaptic effects on the cardiac Na + current (I Na ) are scarce. Furthermore, Na + channels form clusters around gap junction plaques, but the electrophysiological significance of these clusters has never been investigated. In patch clamp experiments with HEK cells stably expressing human Na v 1.5 channels, we examined how restricting the extracellular space modulates I Na elicited by an activation protocol. In parallel, we developed a high-resolution computer model of the intercalated disc to investigate how the distribution of Na + channels influences ephaptic interactions. Approaching the HEK cells to a non-conducting obstacle always increased peak I Na at step potentials near the threshold of I Na activation

  2. Systematic Study of Binding of μ-Conotoxins to the Sodium Channel NaV1.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Mahdavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV are fundamental components of the nervous system. Their dysfunction is implicated in a number of neurological disorders, such as chronic pain, making them potential targets for the treatment of such disorders. The prominence of the NaV channels in the nervous system has been exploited by venomous animals for preying purposes, which have developed toxins that can block the NaV channels, thereby disabling their function. Because of their potency, such toxins could provide drug leads for the treatment of neurological disorders associated with NaV channels. However, most toxins lack selectivity for a given target NaV channel, and improving their selectivity profile among the NaV1 isoforms is essential for their development as drug leads. Computational methods will be very useful in the solution of such design problems, provided accurate models of the protein-ligand complex can be constructed. Using docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we have recently constructed a model for the NaV1.4-μ-conotoxin-GIIIA complex and validated it with the ample mutational data available for this complex. Here, we use the validated NaV1.4 model in a systematic study of binding other μ-conotoxins (PIIIA, KIIIA and BuIIIB to NaV1.4. The binding mode obtained for each complex is shown to be consistent with the available mutation data and binding constants. We compare the binding modes of PIIIA, KIIIA and BuIIIB to that of GIIIA and point out the similarities and differences among them. The detailed information about NaV1.4-μ-conotoxin interactions provided here will be useful in the design of new NaV channel blocking peptides.

  3. Spontaneous and CRH-Induced Excitability and Calcium Signaling in Mice Corticotrophs Involves Sodium, Calcium, and Cation-Conducting Channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Tomič, M.; Kučka, M.; Aguilera, G.; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 4 (2016), s. 1576-1589 ISSN 0013-7227 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : action potential * background sodium conductance * bursting activity * cation -conducting channels * cytosolic calcium concentration * resting membrane potential Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.286, year: 2016

  4. THE PRESENCE OF A B SUBUNIT INCREASES SENSITIVITY OF SODIUM CHANNEL NAV1.3, BUT NOT NAV1.2, TO TYPE II PYRETHROIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) are a primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. VSSCs are comprised of a pore-forming ¿ and auxillary ß subunits, and multiple isoforms of both subunit types exist. The sensitivity of different isoform combinations to pyrethroids has not...

  5. Substituted 4-phenyl-2-aminoimidazoles and 4-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-2-aminoimidazoles as voltage-gated sodium channel modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidar, Nace; Jakopin, Žiga; Madge, David J; Chan, Fiona; Tytgat, Jan; Peigneur, Steve; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Tomašić, Tihomir; Ilaš, Janez; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin; Kikelj, Danijel

    2014-03-03

    Voltage-gated sodium channels play an integral part in neurotransmission and their dysfunction is frequently a cause of various neurological disorders. On the basis of the structure of marine alkaloid clathrodin, twenty eight new analogs were designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to block human NaV1.3, NaV1.4 and NaV1.7 channels, as well as for their selectivity against human cardiac isoform NaV1.5, using automated patch clamp electrophysiological assay. Several compounds exhibited promising activities on different NaV channel isoforms in the medium micromolar range and some of the compounds showed also moderate isoform selectivities. The most promising results were obtained for the NaV1.3 channel, for which four compounds were found to possess IC₅₀ values lower than 15 μM. All of the active compounds bind to the open-inactivated states of the channels and therefore act as state-dependent modulators. The obtained results validate the approach of using natural products driven chemistry for drug discovery starting points and represent a good foundation for future design of selective NaV modulators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Polymorphism of intron-1 in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from Cameroon with emphasis on insecticide knockdown resistance mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etang, Josiane; Vicente, Jose L; Nwane, Philippe; Chouaibou, Mouhamadou; Morlais, Isabelle; Do Rosario, Virgilio E; Simard, Frederic; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Toto, Jean Claude; Pinto, Joao

    2009-07-01

    Sequence variation at the intron-1 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene in Anopheles gambiae M- and S-forms from Cameroon was assessed to explore the number of mutational events originating knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles. Mosquitoes were sampled between December 2005 and June 2006 from three geographical areas: (i) Magba in the western region; (ii) Loum, Tiko, Douala, Kribi, and Campo along the Atlantic coast; and (iii) Bertoua, in the eastern continental plateau. Both 1014S and 1014F kdr alleles were found in the S-form with overall frequencies of 14% and 42% respectively. Only the 1014F allele was found in the M-form at lower frequency (11%). Analysis of a 455 bp region of intron-1 upstream the kdr locus revealed four independent mutation events originating kdr alleles, here named MS1 -1014F, S1-1014S and S2-1014S kdr-intron-1 haplotypes in S-form and MS3-1014F kdr-intron-1 haplotype in the M-form. Furthermore, there was evidence for mutual introgression of kdr 1014F allele between the two molecular forms, MS1 and MS3 being widely shared by them. Although no M/S hybrid was observed in analysed samples, this wide distribution of haplotypes MS1 and MS3 suggests inter-form hybridizing at significant level and emphasizes the rapid diffusion of the kdr alleles in Africa. The mosaic of genetic events found in Cameroon is representative of the situation in the West-Central African region and highlights the importance of evaluating the spatial and temporal evolution of kdr alleles for a better management of insecticide resistance.

  7. Support for calcium channel gene defects in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ake Tzu-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternation of synaptic homeostasis is a biological process whose disruption might predispose children to autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Calcium channel genes (CCG contribute to modulating neuronal function and evidence implicating CCG in ASD has been accumulating. We conducted a targeted association analysis of CCG using existing genome-wide association study (GWAS data and imputation methods in a combined sample of parent/affected child trios from two ASD family collections to explore this hypothesis. Methods A total of 2,176 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP (703 genotyped and 1,473 imputed covering the genes that encode the α1 subunit proteins of 10 calcium channels were tested for association with ASD in a combined sample of 2,781 parent/affected child trios from 543 multiplex Caucasian ASD families from the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange (AGRE and 1,651 multiplex and simplex Caucasian ASD families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP. SNP imputation using IMPUTE2 and a combined reference panel from the HapMap3 and the 1,000 Genomes Project increased coverage density of the CCG. Family-based association was tested using the FBAT software which controls for population stratification and accounts for the non-independence of siblings within multiplex families. The level of significance for association was set at 2.3E-05, providing a Bonferroni correction for this targeted 10-gene panel. Results Four SNPs in three CCGs were associated with ASD. One, rs10848653, is located in CACNA1C, a gene in which rare de novo mutations are responsible for Timothy syndrome, a Mendelian disorder that features ASD. Two others, rs198538 and rs198545, located in CACN1G, and a fourth, rs5750860, located in CACNA1I, are in CCGs that encode T-type calcium channels, genes with previous ASD associations. Conclusions These associations support a role for common CCG SNPs in ASD.

  8. Down-regulation of voltage-dependent sodium channels initiated by sodium influx in developing neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargent, B.; Couraud, F.

    1990-01-01

    To address the issue of whether regulatory feedback exists between the electrical activity of a neuron and ion-channel density, the authors investigated the effect of Na + -channel activators (scorpion α toxin, batrachotoxin, and veratridine) on the density of Na + channels in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro. A partial but rapid (t 1/2 , 15 min) disappearance of surface Na + channels was observed as measured by a decrease in the specific binding of [ 3 H]saxitoxin and 125 I-labeled scorpion β toxin and a decrease in specific 22 Na + uptake. Moreover, the increase in the number of Na + channels that normally occurs during neuronal maturation in vitro was inhibited by chronic channel activator treatment. The induced disappearance of Na + channels was abolished by tetrodotoxin, was found to be dependent on the external Na + concentration, and was prevented when either choline (a nonpermeant ion) or Li + (a permeant ion) was substituted for Na + . Amphotericin B, a Na + ionophore, and monensin were able to mimick the effect of Na + -channel activators, while a KCl depolarization failed to do this. This feedback regulation seems to be a neuronal property since Na + -channel density in cultured astrocytes was not affected by channel activator treatment or by amphotericin B. The present evidence suggests that an increase in intracellular Na + concentration, whether elicited by Na + -channel activators or mediated by a Na + ionophore, can induce a decrease in surface Na + channels and therefore is involved in down-regulation of Na + -channel density in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro

  9. Direct evidence that scorpion α-toxins (site-3 modulate sodium channel inactivation by hindrance of voltage-sensor movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongming Ma

    Full Text Available The position of the voltage-sensing transmembrane segment, S4, in voltage-gated ion channels as a function of voltage remains incompletely elucidated. Site-3 toxins bind primarily to the extracellular loops connecting transmembrane helical segments S1-S2 and S3-S4 in Domain 4 (D4 and S5-S6 in Domain 1 (D1 and slow fast-inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. As S4 of the human skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, hNav1.4, moves in response to depolarization from the resting to the inactivated state, two D4S4 reporters (R2C and R3C, Arg1451Cys and Arg1454Cys, respectively move from internal to external positions as deduced by reactivity to internally or externally applied sulfhydryl group reagents, methane thiosulfonates (MTS. The changes in reporter reactivity, when cycling rapidly between hyperpolarized and depolarized voltages, enabled determination of the positions of the D4 voltage-sensor and of its rate of movement. Scorpion α-toxin binding impedes D4S4 segment movement during inactivation since the modification rates of R3C in hNav1.4 with methanethiosulfonate (CH3SO2SCH2CH2R, where R = -N(CH33 (+ trimethylammonium, MTSET and benzophenone-4-carboxamidocysteine methanethiosulfonate (BPMTS were slowed ~10-fold in toxin-modified channels. Based upon the different size, hydrophobicity and charge of the two reagents it is unlikely that the change in reactivity is due to direct or indirect blockage of access of this site to reagent in the presence of toxin (Tx, but rather is the result of inability of this segment to move outward to the normal extent and at the normal rate in the toxin-modified channel. Measurements of availability of R3C to internally applied reagent show decreased access (slower rates of thiol reaction providing further evidence for encumbered D4S4 movement in the presence of toxins consistent with the assignment of at least part of the toxin binding site to the region of D4S4 region of the voltage

  10. Proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel ENaC in preeclampsia examined with urinary exosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Ravn; Rytz, Mie; Frederiksen-Møller, Britta

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the kidneys may explain the coupling between proteinuria, edema, suppressed aldosterone and hypertension in preeclampsia. Preeclamptic women excrete plasminogen-plasmin in urine. In vitro, plasmin increases the activity...... as a positive control for the presence of collecting duct membrane. RESULTS: Urine plasmin-plasminogen/creatinine ratio was increased in the preeclampsia group (p... pregnancy and preeclampsia CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to examine collecting duct transport proteins in urine exosome from pregnant women including γ-ENaC, 2) Urine exosome fraction displays a variable pattern of γ-ENaC signal with a predominance of cleaved forms in both normal and preeclamptic women...

  11. Congenital Hypothyroidism Caused by a PAX8 Gene Mutation Manifested as Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Jo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations of the PAX8 gene are considered to mainly cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH due to thyroid hypoplasia. However, some patients with PAX8 mutation have demonstrated a normal-sized thyroid gland. Here we report a CH patient caused by a PAX8 mutation, which manifested as iodide transport defect (ITD. Hypothyroidism was detected by neonatal screening and L-thyroxine replacement was started immediately. Although 123I scintigraphy at 5 years of age showed that the thyroid gland was in the normal position and of small size, his iodide trapping was low. The ratio of the saliva/plasma radioactive iodide was low. He did not have goiter; however laboratory findings suggested that he had partial ITD. Gene analyses showed that the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS gene was normal; instead, a mutation in the PAX8 gene causing R31H substitution was identified. The present report demonstrates that individuals with defective PAX8 can have partial ITD, and thus genetic analysis is useful for differential diagnosis.

  12. Identification of Novel Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Mutations in Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooziyan, Samira; Sadaghianifar, Ali; Taghilou, Behrooz; Galavani, Hossein; Ghaffari, Eslam; Gholizadeh, Saber

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the increase of head louse infestation in Iran (7.4%) and especially in West-Azerbaijan Province (248%) has raised the hypothesis of insecticide resistance development. There are different mechanisms of resistance to various groups of insecticides, and knockdown resistance (kdr) is a prominent mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids, an insecticide group which is used conventionally for pediculosis control. For detection of kdr-type well-known amino acid substitutions (M815I-T917I-L920F) and additional sodium channel mutations potentially associated with kdr resistance in head and body lice, louse populations were collected from West-Azerbaijan and Zanjan Provinces of Iran. Six novel mutations were found to be located in the IIS1-2 extracellular loop (H813P) and IIS5 (I927F, L928A, R929V, L930M, and L932M) of the α-subunit. Genotyping results showed that all specimens (100%) have at least one of these or the well-known mutations. Therefore, the presence of kdr-related and novel mutations in the sodium channel is likely to be the reason for the frequent use of pyrethroid insecticides due to treatment failure against lice. Further studies are now required to evaluate the prevalence of the kdr-like mutant allele for monitoring of insecticide resistance and the management of head and body lice in other provinces of the country. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The feasibility of using a baculovirus vector to deliver the sodium-iodide symporter gene as a reporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xiang; Li Biao; Wang Jun; Yin Hongyan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang Yifan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China)], E-mail: zhangyifan1992@yahoo.com.cn

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of baculovirus vectors in transducing FTC-133 cells and to examine the feasibility of using baculovirus vectors for the delivery of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) gene as a reporter through co-transduction to monitor the expression of the target gene. Method: Two recombinant baculoviruses were constructed to express NIS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) respectively. FTC-133, 8050C, SW1116, A549 cells, were infected with Bac-GFP. The infection efficiency of Bac-GFP and the intensity of fluorescence, in either the presence or absence of sodium butyrate, were monitored by flow cytometry. The iodine uptake by FTC-133 cells infected with Bac-NIS was measured using a {gamma} counter. FTC-133 cells were infected with a mixture of equal amounts of Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP at different setting of multiplicity of infection (MOI). The changes of GFP fluorescence intensity and iodine uptake were monitored 24 h after infection in the coinfected cells. Results: We have successfully constructed recombinant baculoviruses carrying NIS and GFP under the control of the cytomegalovirus IE-1 promoter. We found that transduced efficiency of baculovirus in 8505C, SW1116, A549 cells are low in absence of sodium butyrate. Yet Bac-GFP infects FTC-133 cells at a high efficiency, 77.67%, 85.57% and 93.23% with MOI of 100, 200 and 400, respectively. The fluorescence intensity of the Bac-GFP infected tumor cells correlated positively with the MOI of the virus. Sodium butyrate induction increased both the infection efficiency and the fluorescence intensity, but increase of infection efficiency was insignificant in FTC-133 cells. Reporter gene (GFP) expression in FTC-133 is stable within 7 days after infection. The radioactivity incorporated by the tumor cells infected with Bac-NIS correlated positively with the MOI of Bac-NIS as well. In tumor cells co-infected with Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP, the amount of radioactivity incorporated significantly correlated with

  14. Na+-H+ exchanger and proton channel in heart failure associated with Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bkaily, Ghassan; Jacques, Danielle

    2017-10-01

    Cardiomyopathy is found in patients with Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophies, which are linked muscle diseases caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin defects are not limited to DMD but are also present in mild BMD. The hereditary cardiomyopathic hamster of the UM-X7.1 strain is a particular experimental model of heart failure (HF) leading to early death in muscular dystrophy (dystrophin deficiency and sarcoglycan mutation) and heart disease (δ-sarcoglycan deficiency and dystrophin mutation) in human DMD. Using this model, our previous work showed a defect in intracellular sodium homeostasis before the appearance of any apparent biochemical and histological defects. This was attributed to the continual presence of the fetal slow sodium channel, which was also found to be active in human DMD. Due to muscular intracellular acidosis, the intracellular sodium overload in DMD and BMD was also due to sodium influx through the sodium-hydrogen exchanger NHE-1. Lifetime treatment with an NHE-1 inhibitor prevented intracellular Na + overload and early death due to HF. Our previous work also showed that another proton transporter, the voltage-gated proton channel (Hv1), exists in many cell types including heart cells and skeletal muscle fibers. The Hv1 could be indirectly implicated in the beneficial effect of blocking NHE-1.

  15. Topology of transmembrane channel-like gene 1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labay, Valentina; Weichert, Rachel M; Makishima, Tomoko; Griffith, Andrew J

    2010-10-05

    Mutations of transmembrane channel-like gene 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss in humans and mice. TMC1 is the founding member of a family of genes encoding proteins of unknown function that are predicted to contain multiple transmembrane domains. The goal of our study was to define the topology of mouse TMC1 expressed heterologously in tissue culture cells. TMC1 was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane of five tissue culture cell lines that we tested. We used anti-TMC1 and anti-HA antibodies to probe the topologic orientation of three native epitopes and seven HA epitope tags along full-length TMC1 after selective or complete permeabilization of transfected cells with digitonin or Triton X-100, respectively. TMC1 was present within the ER as an integral membrane protein containing six transmembrane domains and cytosolic N- and C-termini. There is a large cytoplasmic loop, between the fourth and fifth transmembrane domains, with two highly conserved hydrophobic regions that might associate with or penetrate, but do not span, the plasma membrane. Our study is the first to demonstrate that TMC1 is a transmembrane protein. The topologic organization revealed by this study shares some features with that of the shaker-TRP superfamily of ion channels.

  16. Sodium channels in axons and glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C M; Strichartz, G R; Orkand, R K

    1979-11-01

    Experiments investigating both the binding of radioactively labelled saxitoxin (STX) and the electrophysiological response to drugs that increase the sodium permeability of excitable membranes were conducted in an effort to detect sodium channels in glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa, the mudpuppy. Glial cells in nerves from chronically enucleated animals, which lack optic nerve axons, show no saturable uptake of STX whereas a saturable uptake is clearly present in normal optic nerves. The normal nerve is depolarized by aconitine, batrachotoxin, and veratridine (10(-6)-10(-5) M), whereas the all-glial preparation is only depolarized by veratridine and at concentrations greater than 10(-3) M. Unlike the depolarization caused by veratridine in normal nerves, the response in the all-glial tissue is not blocked by tetrodotoxin nor enhanced by scorpion venom (Leiurus quinquestriatus). In glial cells of the normal nerve, where axons are also present, the addition of 10(-5) M veratridine does lead to a transient depolarization; however, it is much briefer than the axonal response to veratridine in this same tissue. This glial response to veratridine could be caused by the efflux of K+ from the drug-depolarized axons, and is similar to the glial response to extracellular K+ accumulation resulting from action potentials in the axon.

  17. Functional modifications of acid-sensing ion channels by ligand-gated chloride channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanmao Chen

    Full Text Available Together, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs and epithelial sodium channels (ENaC constitute the majority of voltage-independent sodium channels in mammals. ENaC is regulated by a chloride channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Here we show that ASICs were reversibly inhibited by activation of GABA(A receptors in murine hippocampal neurons. This inhibition of ASICs required opening of the chloride channels but occurred with both outward and inward GABA(A receptor-mediated currents. Moreover, activation of the GABA(A receptors modified the pharmacological features and kinetic properties of the ASIC currents, including the time course of activation, desensitization and deactivation. Modification of ASICs by open GABA(A receptors was also observed in both nucleated patches and outside-out patches excised from hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, ASICs and GABA(A receptors interacted to regulate synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampal slices. The activation of glycine receptors, which are similar to GABA(A receptors, also modified ASICs in spinal neurons. We conclude that GABA(A receptors and glycine receptors modify ASICs in neurons through mechanisms that require the opening of chloride channels.

  18. Functional Na(V)1.8 Channels in Intracardiac Neurons The Link Between SCN10A and Cardiac Electrophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; Remme, Carol Ann; Schumacher, Cees A.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; Wolswinkel, Rianne; de Jonge, Berend; Bezzina, Connie R.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The SCN10A gene encodes the neuronal sodium channel isoform Na(V)1.8. Several recent genome-wide association studies have linked SCN10A to PR interval and QRS duration, strongly suggesting an as-yet unknown role for Na(V)1.8 in cardiac electrophysiology. Objective: To demonstrate the

  19. Co-occurrence of point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Oo, Sai Zaw Min; Thaung, Sein; Kawashima, Emiko; Maung, Yan Naung Maung; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to determine the types and frequencies of mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti collected from used tires in Yangon City, Myanmar. We determined high pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae at all collection sites in Yangon City, by using a simplified knockdown bioassay. We showed that V1016G and S989P mutations were widely distributed, with high frequencies (84.4% and 78.8%, respectively). By contrast, we were unable to detect I1011M (or I1011V) or L1014F mutations. F1534C mutations were also widely distributed, but with a lower frequency than the V1016G mutation (21.2%). High percentage of co-occurrence of the homozygous V1016G/S989P mutations was detected (65.7%). Additionally, co-occurrence of homozygous V1016G/F1534C mutations (2.9%) and homozygous V1016G/F1534C/S989P mutations (0.98%) were detected in the present study. Pyrethroid insecticides were first used for malaria control in 1992, and have since been constantly used in Myanmar. This intensive use may explain the strong selection pressure toward Aedes aegypti, because this mosquito is generally a domestic and endophagic species with a preference for indoor breeding. Extensive use of DDT for malaria control before the use of this chemical was banned may also explain the development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti.

  20. Co-occurrence of Point Mutations in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel of Pyrethroid-Resistant Aedes aegypti Populations in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Oo, Sai Zaw Min; Thaung, Sein; Kawashima, Emiko; Maung, Yan Naung Maung; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Background Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to determine the types and frequencies of mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti collected from used tires in Yangon City, Myanmar. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined high pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae at all collection sites in Yangon City, by using a simplified knockdown bioassay. We showed that V1016G and S989P mutations were widely distributed, with high frequencies (84.4% and 78.8%, respectively). By contrast, we were unable to detect I1011M (or I1011V) or L1014F mutations. F1534C mutations were also widely distributed, but with a lower frequency than the V1016G mutation (21.2%). High percentage of co-occurrence of the homozygous V1016G/S989P mutations was detected (65.7%). Additionally, co-occurrence of homozygous V1016G/F1534C mutations (2.9%) and homozygous V1016G/F1534C/S989P mutations (0.98%) were detected in the present study. Conclusions/Significance Pyrethroid insecticides were first used for malaria control in 1992, and have since been constantly used in Myanmar. This intensive use may explain the strong selection pressure toward Aedes aegypti, because this mosquito is generally a domestic and endophagic species with a preference for indoor breeding. Extensive use of DDT for malaria control before the use of this chemical was banned may also explain the development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti. PMID:25077956

  1. Mutation in the Sodium Channel Gene Corresponds With Phenotypic Resistance of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) to Pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, G M; Miller, R J; Tidwell, J; Barreto, R; Guerrero, F D; Kaufman, P E; Pérez de León, A A

    2017-11-07

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille), is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and vector of pathogens that kill humans and animals. Pyrethroids represent a class of synthetic acaricides that have been used intensely to try to control the brown dog tick and mitigate the risk of tick-borne disease transmission. However, acaricide resistance is an emerging problem in the management of the brown dog tick. Understanding the mechanism of resistance to acaricides, including pyrethroids, is important to adapt brown dog tick control strategies. The main objective of this study was to determine if target-site mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in other pests could be associated with phenotypic resistance detected in a brown dog tick population from Florida. We amplified segment 6 of the domain III of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel protein, using cDNAs synthesized from pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant tick strains. A single nucleotide point mutation (SNP) identified in a highly conserved region of domain III S6 in the resistant ticks resulted in an amino acid change from phenylalanine to leucine. This mutation is characteristic of resistance phenotypes in other tick species, and is the first report of this mutation in R. sanguineus. Molecular assays based on this knowledge could be developed to diagnose the risk for pyrethroid resistance, and to inform decisions on integrated brown dog tick management practices. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Behaviour of carbon-bearing impurity suspensions in sodium loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Alexseev, V V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    The experimental estimation results of the carbon-bearing impurity particle sizes in sodium by the sedimentometric analysis methods are presented. The techniques and results of the mass transfer calculations between the sodium flows contained the carbon-bearing impurity disperse phase, and the channel walls, the carbon particles solution kinetics and the soluble carbon near-wall concentration in channel with allowance for the flow-wall mass transfer processes, are given. (author)

  3. Behaviour of carbon-bearing impurity suspensions in sodium loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Alexseev, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental estimation results of the carbon-bearing impurity particle sizes in sodium by the sedimentometric analysis methods are presented. The techniques and results of the mass transfer calculations between the sodium flows contained the carbon-bearing impurity disperse phase, and the channel walls, the carbon particles solution kinetics and the soluble carbon near-wall concentration in channel with allowance for the flow-wall mass transfer processes, are given. (author)

  4. cAMP-dependent kinase does not modulate the Slack sodium-activated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwer, Megan O; Picchione, Kelly E; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2009-09-01

    The Slack gene encodes a Na(+)-activated K(+) channel and is expressed in many different types of neurons. Like the prokaryotic Ca(2+)-gated K(+) channel MthK, Slack contains two 'regulator of K(+) conductance' (RCK) domains within its carboxy terminal, domains likely involved in Na(+) binding and channel gating. It also contains multiple consensus protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites and although regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, modulation by PKA has not been determined. To test if PKA directly regulates Slack, nystatin-perforated patch whole-cell currents were recorded from a human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell line stably expressing Slack. Bath application of forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, caused a rapid and complete inhibition of Slack currents however, the inactive homolog of forskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin caused a similar effect. In contrast, bath application of 8-bromo-cAMP did not affect the amplitude nor the activation kinetics of Slack currents. In excised inside-out patch recordings, direct application of the PKA catalytic subunit to patches did not affect the open probability of Slack channels nor was open probability affected by direct application of protein phosphatase 2B. Preincubation of cells with the protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720 also did not change current density. Finally, mutating the consensus phosphorylation site located between RCK domain 1 and domain 2 from serine to glutamate did not affect current activation kinetics. We conclude that unlike PKC, phosphorylation by PKA does not acutely modulate the function and gating activation kinetics of Slack channels.

  5. Spatiotemporal magnetic fields enhance cytosolic Ca.sup.2+./sup. levels and induce actin polymerization via activation of voltage-gated sodium channels in skeletal muscle cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rubio Ayala, M.; Syrovets, T.; Hafner, S.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Simmet, T.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 163, May (2018), s. 174-184 ISSN 0142-9612 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alternating magnetic field * skeletal muscle * cytosolic calcium * modeling * eddy current * voltage-gated sodium channels Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 8.402, year: 2016

  6. Cardiac sodium channel Na(v)1.5 interacts with and is regulated by the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Gavillet, Bruno; van Bemmelen, Miguel X

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify proteins interacting with the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.5, we used the last 66 amino acids of the C-terminus of the channel as bait to screen a human cardiac cDNA library. We identified the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1 as an interacting protein. Pull......-down experiments confirmed the interaction, and indicated that it depends on the PDZ-domain binding motif of Na(v)1.5. Co-expression experiments in HEK293 cells showed that PTPH1 shifts the Na(v)1.5 availability relationship toward hyperpolarized potentials, whereas an inactive PTPH1 or the tyrosine kinase Fyn...... does the opposite. The results of this study suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation destabilizes the inactivated state of Na(v)1.5....

  7. Modulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC by bacterial metalloproteases and protease inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Butterworth

    Full Text Available The serralysin family of metalloproteases is associated with the virulence of multiple gram-negative human pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The serralysin proteases share highly conserved catalytic domains and show evolutionary similarity to the mammalian matrix metalloproteases. Our previous studies demonstrated that alkaline protease (AP from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of activating the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, leading to an increase in sodium absorption in airway epithelia. The serralysin proteases are often co-expressed with endogenous, intracellular or periplasmic inhibitors, which putatively protect the bacterium from unwanted or unregulated protease activities. To evaluate the potential use of these small protein inhibitors in regulating the serralysin induced activation of ENaC, proteases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens were purified for characterization along with a high affinity inhibitor from Pseudomonas. Both proteases showed activity against in vitro substrates and could be blocked by near stoichiometric concentrations of the inhibitor. In addition, both proteases were capable of activating ENaC when added to the apical surfaces of multiple epithelial cells with similar slow activation kinetics. The high-affinity periplasmic inhibitor from Pseudomonas effectively blocked this activation. These data suggest that multiple metalloproteases are capable of activating ENaC. Further, the endogenous, periplasmic bacterial inhibitors may be useful for modulating the downstream effects of the serralysin virulence factors under physiological conditions.

  8. Ca2+ Channel Re-localization to Plasma-Membrane Microdomains Strengthens Activation of Ca2+-Dependent Nuclear Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Samanta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In polarized cells or cells with complex geometry, clustering of plasma-membrane (PM ion channels is an effective mechanism for eliciting spatially restricted signals. However, channel clustering is also seen in cells with relatively simple topology, suggesting it fulfills a more fundamental role in cell biology than simply orchestrating compartmentalized responses. Here, we have compared the ability of store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels confined to PM microdomains with a similar number of dispersed CRAC channels to activate transcription factors, which subsequently increase nuclear gene expression. For similar levels of channel activity, we find that channel confinement is considerably more effective in stimulating gene expression. Our results identify a long-range signaling advantage to the tight evolutionary conservation of channel clustering and reveal that CRAC channel aggregation increases the strength, fidelity, and reliability of the general process of excitation-transcription coupling.

  9. A novel amino acid substitution in a voltage-gated sodium channel is associated with knockdown resistance to permethrin in Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng; Shen, Wen-Kai; Wang, Tzu-Ting; Lin, Ying-Hsi; Hsu, Err-Lieh; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2009-04-01

    To identify pertinent mutations associated with knockdown resistance to permethrin, the entire coding sequence of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene Aa-para was sequenced and analyzed from a Per-R strain with 190-fold resistance to permethrin and two susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti. The longest transcript, a 6441bp open reading frame, encodes 2147 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass of 241kDa. A total of 33 exons were found in the Aa-para gene over 293kb of genomic DNA. Three previously unreported optional exons were identified. The first two exons, m and n, were located within the intracellular domain I/II, and the third, f', was found within the II/III linkers. The two mutually exclusive exons, d and l, were the only alternative exons in all the cDNA clones sequenced in this study. The most distinct finding was a novel amino acid substitution mutation, D1794Y, located within the extracellular linker between IVS5 and IVS6, which is concurrent with the known V1023G mutation in Aa-para of the Per-R strain. The high frequency and coexistence of the two mutations in the Per-R strain suggest that they might exert a synergistic effect to provide the knockdown resistance to permethrin. Furthermore, both cDNA and genomic DNA data from the same individual mosquitoes have demonstrated that RNA editing was not involved in amino acid substitutions of the Per-R strain.

  10. Co-regulation of the atrial natriuretic factor and cardiac myosin light chain-2 genes during alpha-adrenergic stimulation of neonatal rat ventricular cells. Identification of cis sequences within an embryonic and a constitutive contractile protein gene which mediate inducible expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, K U; Baracchini, E; Ross, R S; Harris, A N; Henderson, S A; Evans, S M; Glembotski, C C; Chien, K R

    1991-04-25

    To study the mechanisms which mediate the transcriptional activation of cardiac genes during alpha adrenergic stimulation, the present study examined the regulated expression of three cardiac genes, a ventricular embryonic gene (atrial natriuretic factor, ANF), a constitutively expressed contractile protein gene (cardiac MLC-2), and a cardiac sodium channel gene. alpha 1-Adrenergic stimulation activates the expression and release of ANF from neonatal ventricular cells. As assessed by RNase protection analyses, treatment with alpha-adrenergic agonists increases the steady-state levels of ANF mRNA by greater than 15-fold. However, a rat cardiac sodium channel gene mRNA is not induced, indicating that alpha-adrenergic stimulation does not lead to an increase in the expression of all cardiac genes. Studies employing a series of rat ANF luciferase and rat MLC-2 luciferase fusion genes identify 315- and 92-base pair cis regulatory sequences within an embryonic gene (ANF) and a constitutively expressed contractile protein gene (MLC-2), respectively, which mediate alpha-adrenergic-inducible gene expression. Transfection of various ANF luciferase reporters into neonatal rat ventricular cells demonstrated that upstream sequences which mediate tissue-specific expression (-3003 to -638) can be segregated from those responsible for inducibility. The lack of inducibility of a cardiac Na+ channel gene, and the segregation of ANF gene sequences which mediate cardiac specific from those which mediate inducible expression, provides further insight into the relationship between muscle-specific and inducible expression during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Based on these results, a testable model is proposed for the induction of embryonic cardiac genes and constitutively expressed contractile protein genes and the noninducibility of a subset of cardiac genes during alpha-adrenergic stimulation of neonatal rat ventricular cells.

  11. Larval application of sodium channel homologous dsRNA restores pyrethroid insecticide susceptibility in a resistant adult mosquito population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Ana Caroline Dalla; Chitolina, Rodrigo Faitta; Fermino, Marise Lopes; de Castro Poncio, Lisiane; Weiss, Avital; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Paldi, Nitzan; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Henen, Jonathan; Maori, Eyal

    2016-07-14

    Mosquitoes host and pass on to humans a variety of disease-causing pathogens such as infectious viruses and other parasitic microorganisms. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance is threatening the effectiveness of current control measures for common mosquito vector borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue and Zika. Therefore, the emerging resistance to the widely used pyrethroid insecticides is an alarming problem for public health. Herein we demonstrated the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to increase susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to a widely used pyrethroid insecticide. Experiments were performed on a field-collected pyrethroid resistant strain of Ae. aegypti (Rio de Janeiro; RJ). Larvae from the resistant Ae. aegypti population were soaked with double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that correspond either to voltage-gate sodium channel (VGSC), P-glycoprotein, or P450 detoxification genes and reared to adulthood. Adult mortality rates in the presence of various Deltamethrin pyrethroid concentrations were used to assess mosquito insecticide susceptibility. We characterized the RJ Ae. aegypti strain with regard to its level of resistance to a pyrethroid insecticide and found that it was approximately 6 times more resistant to Deltamethrin compared to the laboratory Rockefeller strain. The RJ strain displayed a higher frequency of Val1016Ile and Phe1534Cys substitutions of the VGSC gene. The resistant strain also displayed a higher basal expression level of VGSC compared to the Rockefeller strain. When dsRNA-treated mosquitoes were subjected to a standard pyrethroid contact bioassay, only dsRNA targeting VGSC increased the adult mortality of the pyrethroid resistant strain. The dsRNA treatment proved effective in increasing adult mosquito susceptibility over a range of pyrethroid concentrations and these results were associated with dsRNA-specific small interfering RNAs in treated adults, and the corresponding specific down regulation of VGSC gene expression

  12. TWIK-1 two-pore domain potassium channels change ion selectivity and conduct inward leak sodium currents in hypokalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liqun; Zhang, Xuexin; Chen, Haijun

    2011-06-07

    Background potassium (K+) channels, which are normally selectively permeable to K+, maintain the cardiac resting membrane potential at around -80 mV. In subphysiological extracellular K+ concentrations ([K+]o), which occur in pathological hypokalemia, the resting membrane potential of human cardiomyocytes can depolarize to around -50 mV, whereas rat and mouse cardiomyocytes become hyperpolarized, consistent with the Nernst equation for K+. This paradoxical depolarization of cardiomyocytes in subphysiological [K+]o, which may contribute to cardiac arrhythmias, is thought to involve an inward leak sodium (Na+) current. Here, we show that human cardiac TWIK-1 (also known as K2P1) two-pore domain K+ channels change ion selectivity, becoming permeable to external Na+, and conduct inward leak Na+ currents in subphysiological [K+]o. A specific threonine residue (Thr118) within the pore selectivity sequence TxGYG was required for this altered ion selectivity. Mouse cardiomyocyte-derived HL-1 cells exhibited paradoxical depolarization with ectopic expression of TWIK-1 channels, whereas TWIK-1 knockdown in human spherical primary cardiac myocytes eliminated paradoxical depolarization. These findings indicate that ion selectivity of TWIK-1 K+ channels changes during pathological hypokalemia, elucidate a molecular basis for inward leak Na+ currents that could trigger or contribute to cardiac paradoxical depolarization in lowered [K+]o, and identify a mechanism for regulating cardiac excitability.

  13. The N-terminal domain of Slack determines the formation and trafficking of Slick/Slack heteromeric sodium-activated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Kronengold, Jack; Yan, Yangyang; Gazula, Valeswara-Rao; Brown, Maile R; Ma, Liqun; Ferreira, Gonzalo; Yang, Youshan; Bhattacharjee, Arin; Sigworth, Fred J; Salkoff, Larry; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2009-04-29

    Potassium channels activated by intracellular Na(+) ions (K(Na)) play several distinct roles in regulating the firing patterns of neurons, and, at the single channel level, their properties are quite diverse. Two known genes, Slick and Slack, encode K(Na) channels. We have now found that Slick and Slack subunits coassemble to form heteromeric channels that differ from the homomers in their unitary conductance, kinetic behavior, subcellular localization, and response to activation of protein kinase C. Heteromer formation requires the N-terminal domain of Slack-B, one of the alternative splice variants of the Slack channel. This cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of Slack-B also facilitates the localization of heteromeric K(Na) channels to the plasma membrane. Immunocytochemical studies indicate that Slick and Slack-B subunits are coexpressed in many central neurons. Our findings provide a molecular explanation for some of the diversity in reported properties of neuronal K(Na) channels.

  14. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France); Clare, Jeffrey J. [Eaton Pharma Consulting, Eaton Socon, Cambridgeshire PE19 8EF (United Kingdom); Debanne, Dominique [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France); Alcaraz, Gisele, E-mail: gisele.alcaraz@univmed.fr [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  15. A point mutation (L1015F) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene associated with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) population from the transgenic Bt cotton field of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Congai; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-02-01

    In China, the green mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), has caused severe economic damage to many kinds of crops, especially the cotton and jujubes. Pyrethroid insecticides have been widely used for controlling this pest in the transgenic Bt cotton field. Five populations of A. lucorum collected from cotton crops at different locations in China were evaluated for lambda-cyhalothrin resistance. The results showed that only the population collected from Shandong Province exhibited 30-fold of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin. Neither PBO nor DEF had obvious synergism when compared the synergistic ratio between SS and RR strain which was originated from the Shandong population. Besides, there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in the carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, or 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activities between the Shandong population and the laboratory susceptible strain (SS). The full-length sodium channel gene named AlVSSC encoding 2028 amino acids was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). One single point mutation L1015F in the AlVSSC was detected only in the Shandong population. Our results revealed that the L1015F mutation associated with pyrethroid resistance was identified in A. lucorum populations in China. These results will be useful for the rational chemical control of A. lucorum in the transgenic Bt cotton field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Autosomal recessive hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria is not caused by mutations in the type II renal sodium/phosphate cotransporter gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Koul, K. Op de; Knots, E.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present the genetic defect for autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is unknown. Type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter (NPT2) gene is a serious candidate for being the causative gene in either or both autosomal recessive and

  17. Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene variants increase sodium and bicarbonate transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Kemp, Brandon A; Carlson, Julia M; Tran, Hanh T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Langouët-Astrié, Christophe J; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2018-01-01

    Salt sensitivity of blood pressure affects >30% of the hypertensive and >15% of the normotensive population. Variants of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene, SLC4A5, are associated with increased blood pressure in several ethnic groups. SLC4A5 variants are also highly associated with salt sensitivity, independent of hypertension. However, little is known about how NBCe2 contributes to salt sensitivity, although NBCe2 regulates renal tubular sodium bicarbonate transport. We hypothesized that SLC4A5 rs10177833 and rs7571842 increase NBCe2 expression and human renal proximal tubule cell (hRPTC) sodium transport and may be a cause of salt sensitivity of blood pressure. To characterize the hRPTC ion transport of wild-type (WT) and homozygous variants (HV) of SLC4A5. The expressions of NBCe2 mRNA and protein were not different between hRPTCs carrying WT or HV SLC4A5 before or after dopaminergic or angiotensin (II and III) stimulation. However, luminal to basolateral sodium transport, NHE3 protein, and Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity in hRPTCs were higher in HV than WT SLC4A5. Increasing intracellular sodium enhanced the apical location of NBCe2 in HV hRPTCs (4.24±0.35% to 11.06±1.72% (P<0.05, N = 3, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)) as determined by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM). In hRPTCs isolated from kidney tissue, increasing intracellular sodium enhanced bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate and increased NBCe2 mRNA and protein expressions to a greater extent in HV than WT SLC4A5 (+38.00±6.23% vs HV normal salt (P<0.01, N = 4, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)). In hRPTCs isolated from freshly voided urine, bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery was also faster in those from salt-sensitive and carriers of HV SLC4A5 than from salt-resistant and carriers of WT SLC4A5. The faster NBCe2-specific bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate in HV SCL4A5 was normalized by SLC4A5- but not SLC4A4-shRNA. The binding of purified hepatocyte

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrrolidine derivatives as novel and potent sodium channel blockers for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Maki; Tsuruta, Osamu; Tatsumi, Ryo; Soejima, Aki

    2013-07-15

    A novel series of pyrrolidine derivatives as Na(+) channel blockers was synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on neuronal Na(+) channels. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of a pyrrolidine analogue 2 led to the discovery of 5e as a potent Na(+) channel blocker with a low inhibitory action against human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels. Compound 5e showed remarkably neuroprotective activity in a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, suggesting that 5e would act as a neuroprotectant for ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of channel noise on firing coherence of small-world Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X. J.; Lei, J. Z.; Perc, M.; Lu, Q. S.; Lv, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effects of channel noise on firing coherence of Watts-Strogatz small-world networks consisting of biophysically realistic HH neurons having a fraction of blocked voltage-gated sodium and potassium ion channels embedded in their neuronal membranes. The intensity of channel noise is determined by the number of non-blocked ion channels, which depends on the fraction of working ion channels and the membrane patch size with the assumption of homogeneous ion channel density. We find that firing coherence of the neuronal network can be either enhanced or reduced depending on the source of channel noise. As shown in this paper, sodium channel noise reduces firing coherence of neuronal networks; in contrast, potassium channel noise enhances it. Furthermore, compared with potassium channel noise, sodium channel noise plays a dominant role in affecting firing coherence of the neuronal network. Moreover, we declare that the observed phenomena are independent of the rewiring probability.

  20. Temperature fluctuation of sodium in annular flow channel heated by single-pin with blockage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Keiji; Kimura, Jiro; Ogawa, Masuro; Okada, Toshio

    1978-01-01

    Root mean square (RMS) value and power spectral density (PSD) of temperature fluctuation were measured with use of forced-circulating sodium in an annular channel (6.5 mm I.D., 20mm O.D.) with concentric disk to simulate blockage (about 80%) of sodium flow. The experimental range of the heat flux was 40 -- 150 W/cm 2 and the bulk flow velocity 0.14--0.41m/sec (Re=7.7x10 3 --2.3x10 4 ) under a temperature of 500--800 0 C. The RMS value measured at the exit of heating section (150mm downstream from the blockage) is larger by a factor of 2 -- 3 than that in the wake (10 -- 20mm downstream from the blockage), marking a few deg.C for a heat flux of 105W/cm 2 and a flow velocity of 0.27m/sec. The RMS value is proportional to the wall-to-bulk-fluid temperature difference in heat transfer, presenting the similar dependence on the heat flux and flow velocity. The fluctuations of temperature are greatly attenuated in the upper unheated section where the radial temperature gradient is absent, and consequently it is suggested that the fluctuations of temperature should be caused by the local turbulence of flow, such as a vortex street due to blockage in the present experiment, under the presence of large gradient of temperature near the heating surface. (auth.)

  1. Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baldev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.

  2. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Takamasa; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki; Murawaki, Yoshiyuki; Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo; Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Shiota, Goshi

    2006-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SRα promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes

  3. Some problems of leaks in sodium-water steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Sergeev, G.V.; Sednev, A.R.; Makarov, V.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper contains data on wastage of steam generator structural materials and high-nickel alloys in the zone of water leakage into sodium as well as investigation results for self-enlargement of water leaks into sodium through defects in these materials. It is shown that the rate of material damage in the zone of sodium-water reaction and in the channel with water leaking-out decreases with increasing nickel content in steels and strongly depends on sodium temperature. The paper presents experimentally obtained dependences of leakage self-enlargement rates on sodium temperature and leakage size

  4. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiac ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMoreno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been reported to exhibit antiarrhythmic properties, attributed to their capability to modulate ion channels. In the present review, we will focus on the effects of PUFAs on cardiac sodium channel (Nav1.5 and two potassium channels (Kv (Kv1.5 and Kv11.1. n-3 marine (docohexaenoic and eicohexapentaenoic acid and plant origin (alpha-linolenic acid PUFAs block Kv1.5 and Kv11.1 channels at physiological concentrations. Also, DHA and EPA decreased Nav1.5 and calcium channels. These effects on Na and Ca channels theoretically should shorten the cardiac APD, whereas the blocking actions of n-3 PUFAs of Kv channels should lengthen the cardiac action potential. Experiments performed in female rabbits fed with a diet rich in n-3 PUFAs show a longer cardiac action potential and effective refractory period. This study was performed to analyze if their antiarrhythmic effects are due to a reduction of triangulation, reverse use-dependence, instability and dispersion of the cardiac action potential (TRIaD as a measure of proarrhythmic effects. Dietary n-3 PUFAs supplementation markedly reduced dofetilide-induced TRIaD and abolished dofetilide-induced torsades de pointes (TdP. Ultrafast sodium channel block by DHA may account for the antiarrhythmic protection of dietary supplements of n-3 PUFAs against dofetilide induced proarrhythmia observed in this animal model. The cardiac effects of n-3 PUFAs resemble those of amiodarone: both block sodium, calcium and potassium channels, have anti-adrenergic properties, can prolong the cardiac action potential, reverse TRIaD and suppress TdP. The main difference is that sodium channel block by n-3 PUFAs has a much faster onset and offset kinetics. Therefore, the electrophysiological profile of n-3 PUFAs appears more desirable: the duration of reduced sodium current (facilitates re-entry is much shorter. The n-3 PUFAs appear as a safer alternative to other antiarrhythmic

  6. Development and utilization of a fluorescence-based receptor-binding assay for the site 5 voltage-sensitive sodium channel ligands brevetoxin and ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Jennifer R; Jacocks, Henry M; Niven, Susan C; Poli, Mark A; Baden, Daniel G; Bourdelais, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    Brevetoxins are a family of ladder-frame polyether toxins produced during blooms of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Consumption of fish exposed to K. brevis blooms can lead to the development of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. The toxic effects of brevetoxins are due to activation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) in cell membranes. Binding of toxins has historically been measured using a radioligand competition assay that is fraught with difficulty. In this study, we developed a novel fluorescence-based binding assay for the brevetoxin receptor. Several fluorophores were conjugated to polyether brevetoxin-2 and used as the labeled ligand. Brevetoxin analogs were able to compete for binding with the fluorescent ligands. This assay was qualified against the standard radioligand receptor assay for the brevetoxin receptor. Furthermore, the fluorescence-based assay was used to determine relative concentrations of toxins in raw extracts of K. brevis culture, and to determine ciguatoxin affinity to site 5 of VSSCs. The fluorescence-based assay was quicker, safer, and far less expensive. As such, this assay can be used to replace the current radioligand assay and will be a vital tool for future experiments examining the binding affinity of various ligands for site 5 on sodium channels.

  7. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-07-01

    Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction.

  8. Genes and Gene Networks Involved in Sodium Fluoride-Elicited Cell Death Accompanying Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Oral Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Tabuchi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cell death induced by sodium fluoride (NaF, we analyzed gene expression patterns in rat oral epithelial ROE2 cells exposed to NaF using global-scale microarrays and bioinformatics tools. A relatively high concentration of NaF (2 mM induced cell death concomitant with decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential, chromatin condensation and caspase-3 activation. Using 980 probe sets, we identified 432 up-regulated and 548 down-regulated genes, that were differentially expressed by >2.5-fold in the cells treated with 2 mM of NaF and categorized them into 4 groups by K-means clustering. Ingenuity® pathway analysis revealed several gene networks from gene clusters. The gene networks Up-I and Up-II included many up-regulated genes that were mainly associated with the biological function of induction or prevention of cell death, respectively, such as Atf3, Ddit3 and Fos (for Up-I and Atf4 and Hspa5 (for Up-II. Interestingly, knockdown of Ddit3 and Hspa5 significantly increased and decreased the number of viable cells, respectively. Moreover, several endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-related genes including, Ddit3, Atf4 and Hapa5, were observed in these gene networks. These findings will provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms of NaF-induced cell death accompanying ER stress in oral epithelial cells.

  9. The human Nav1.5 F1486 deletion associated with long QT syndrome leads to impaired sodium channel inactivation and reduced lidocaine sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weihua; Xiao, Yucheng; Chen, Hanying; Ashpole, Nicole M; Piekarz, Andrew D; Ma, Peilin; Hudmon, Andy; Cummins, Theodore R; Shou, Weinian

    2012-01-01

    The deletion of phenylalanine 1486 (F1486del) in the human cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (hNav1.5) is associated with fatal long QT (LQT) syndrome. In this study we determined how F1486del impairs the functional properties of hNav1.5 and alters action potential firing in heterologous expression systems (human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells) and their native cardiomyocyte background. Cells expressing hNav1.5-F1486del exhibited a loss-of-function alteration, reflected by an 80% reduction of peak current density, and several gain-of-function alterations, including reduced channel inactivation, enlarged window current, substantial augmentation of persistent late sodium current and an increase in ramp current. We also observed substantial action potential duration (APD) prolongation and prominent early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in neonatal cardiomyocytes expressing the F1486del channels, as well as in computer simulations of myocyte activity. In addition, lidocaine sensitivity was dramatically reduced, which probably contributed to the poor therapeutic outcome observed in the patient carrying the hNav1.5-F1486del mutation. Therefore, despite the significant reduction in peak current density, the F1486del mutation also leads to substantial gain-of-function alterations that are sufficient to cause APD prolongation and EADs, the predominant characteristic of LQTs. These data demonstrate that hNav1.5 mutations can have complex functional consequences and highlight the importance of identifying the specific molecular defect when evaluating potential treatments for individuals with prolonged QT intervals. PMID:22826127

  10. Salt-Induced Hypertension in a Mouse Model of Liddle's Syndrome is Mediated by Epithelial Sodium Channels in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huysse, James W.; Amin, Md. Shahrier; Yang, Baoli; Leenen, Frans H. H.

    2012-01-01

    Neural precursor cell expressed and developmentally downregulated 4-2 protein (Nedd4-2) facilitates the endocytosis of epithelial Na channels (ENaC). Both mice and humans with a loss of regulation of ENaC by Nedd4-2 have salt-induced hypertension. ENaC is also expressed in the brain, where it is critical for hypertension on high salt diet in salt-sensitive rats. In the present studies we assessed whether Nedd4-2 knockout (−/−) mice have: 1) increased brain ENaC; 2) elevated CSF sodium on high salt diet; and 3) enhanced pressor responses to CSF sodium and hypertension on high salt diet, both mediated by brain ENaC. Prominent choroid plexus and neuronal ENaC staining was present in −/− but not in wild-type (W/T) mice. In chronically instrumented mice, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of Na-rich aCSF increased MAP 3-fold higher in −/− than W/T. Icv infusion of the ENaC blocker benzamil abolished this enhancement. In telemetered −/− mice on high salt diet (8% NaCl), CSF [Na+], MAP and HR increased significantly, MAP by 30-35 mmHg. These MAP and HR responses were largely prevented by icv benzamil, but only to a minor extent by sc benzamil at the icv rate. We conclude that increased ENaC expression in the brain of Nedd 4-2 −/− mice mediates their hypertensive response to high salt diet, by causing increased sodium levels in the CSF as well as hyper-responsiveness to CSF sodium. These findings highlight the possible causative contribution of CNS ENaC in the etiology of salt-induced hypertension. PMID:22802227

  11. Direct effect of methylprednisolone on renal sodium and water transport via the principal cells in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Thomas G; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids influence renal concentrating and diluting ability. We tested the hypothesis that methylprednisolone treatment increased renal water and sodium absorption by increased absorption via the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels and the epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) respectively....

  12. Imaging of human sodium-iodide symporter gene expression mediated by recombinant adenovirus in skeletal muscle of living rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyun Suk; Park, Seong-Wook; Lee, Heuiran; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Yang, You-Jung; Moon, Dae Hyuk

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of recombinant adenovirus-mediated human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression by 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy in skeletal muscle of rats. Replication-defective recombinant adenovirus encoding hNIS gene [Rad-CMV-hNIS 5 x 10 7 , 2 x 10 8 or 1 x 10 9 plaque forming units (pfu)] or β-galactosidase gene (Rad-CMV-LacZ 1 x 10 9 pfu) was injected into the right biceps femoris muscle of rats (n=5-6 for each group). Three days after gene transfer, scintigraphy was performed using a gamma camera 30 min after injection of 99m TcO 4 - (1.85 MBq). An additional two rats injected with 1 x 10 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS underwent 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy with sodium perchlorate. After the imaging studies, rats were sacrificed for assessment of the biodistribution of 99m TcO 4 - and measurement of hNIS mRNA expression. In all the rats injected with 1 x 10 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS, hNIS expression was successfully imaged by 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy, while rats injected with Rad-CMV-LacZ or lower doses of Rad-CMV-hNIS failed to show uptake. The biodistribution studies indicated that a significantly different amount of 99m TcO 4 - was retained in the liver (p 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS. The muscular hNIS mRNA level quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was significantly higher in rats injected with 1 x 10 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS (p 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS were specifically inhibited by sodium perchlorate. This study illustrated that 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy can monitor Rad-CMV-hNIS-mediated gene expression in skeletal muscle of rats, non-invasively and quantitatively. (orig.)

  13. The Drosophila gene CheB42a is a novel modifier of Deg/ENaC channel function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Ben-Shahar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Degenerin/epithelial Na(+ channels (DEG/ENaC represent a diverse family of voltage-insensitive cation channels whose functions include Na(+ transport across epithelia, mechanosensation, nociception, salt sensing, modification of neurotransmission, and detecting the neurotransmitter FMRFamide. We previously showed that the Drosophila melanogaster Deg/ENaC gene lounge lizard (llz is co-transcribed in an operon-like locus with another gene of unknown function, CheB42a. Because operons often encode proteins in the same biochemical or physiological pathway, we hypothesized that CHEB42A and LLZ might function together. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found both genes expressed in cells previously implicated in sensory functions during male courtship. Furthermore, when coexpressed, LLZ coprecipitated with CHEB42A, suggesting that the two proteins form a complex. Although LLZ expressed either alone or with CHEB42A did not generate ion channel currents, CHEB42A increased current amplitude of another DEG/ENaC protein whose ligand (protons is known, acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a. We also found that CHEB42A was cleaved to generate a secreted protein, suggesting that CHEB42A may play an important role in the extracellular space. These data suggest that CHEB42A is a modulatory subunit for sensory-related Deg/ENaC signaling. These results are consistent with operon-like transcription of CheB42a and llz and explain the similar contributions of these genes to courtship behavior.

  14. Rab27a regulates epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity through synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 effector mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Sunil K.; Horiuchi, Hisanori; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2006-01-01

    Liddle's syndrome (excessive absorption of sodium ions) and PHA-1 (pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1) with decreased sodium absorption are caused by the mutations in the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel ENaC. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in vesicle transport, docking, and fusion. Earlier, we reported that Rab27a inhibits ENaC-mediated currents through protein-protein interaction in HT-29 cells. We hereby report that Rab27a-dependent inhibition is associated with the GTP/GDP status as constitutively active or GTPase-deficient mutant Q78L inhibits amiloride-sensitive currents whereas GDP-locked inactive mutant T23N showed no effect. In order to further explore the molecular mechanism of this regulation, we performed competitive assays with two Rab27a-binding proteins: synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 (a putative priming factor for exocytosis). Both proteins eliminate negative modulation of Rab27a on ENaC function. The SLP-5 reversal of Rab27a effect was restricted to C-terminal C2A/C2B domains assigned for putative phospholipids-binding function while the Rab27a-binding SHD motif imparted higher inhibition. The ENaC-mediated currents remain unaffected by Rab27a though SLP-5 appears to strongly bind it. The immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that in the presence of excessive Munc13-4 and SLP-5 proteins, Rab27a interaction with ENaC is diminished. Munc13-4 and SLP-5 limit the Rab27a availability to ENaC, thus minimizing its effect on channel function. These observations decisively prove that Rab27a inhibits ENaC function through a complex mechanism that involves GTP/GDP status, and protein-protein interactions involving Munc13-4 and SLP-5 effector proteins

  15. A selectivity filter at the intracellular end of the acid-sensing ion channel pore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy; Flood, Emelie; Boiteux, Céline

    2017-01-01

    Increased extracellular proton concentrations during neurotransmission are converted to excitatory sodium influx by acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). 10-fold sodium/potassium selectivity in ASICs has long been attributed to a central constriction in the channel pore, but experimental verificatio...... at the "GAS belt" in the central constriction. Instead, we identified a band of glutamate and aspartate side chains at the lower end of the pore that enables preferential sodium conduction....

  16. Multiple sodium channel isoforms mediate the pathological effects of Pacific ciguatoxin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, Marco C.; Israel, Mathilde R.; Caldwell, Ashlee; Castro, Joel; Deuis, Jennifer R.; Harrington, Andrea M.; Keramidas, Angelo; Garcia-Caraballo, Sonia; Maddern, Jessica; Erickson, Andelain; Grundy, Luke; Rychkov, Grigori Y.; Zimmermann, Katharina; Lewis, Richard J.; Brierley, Stuart M.; Vetter, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Human intoxication with the seafood poison ciguatoxin, a dinoflagellate polyether that activates voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV), causes ciguatera, a disease characterised by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances. We assessed the activity of the most potent congener, Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), on NaV1.1–1.9 using imaging and electrophysiological approaches. Although P-CTX-1 is essentially a non-selective NaV toxin and shifted the voltage-dependence of activation to more hyperpolarising potentials at all NaV subtypes, an increase in the inactivation time constant was observed only at NaV1.8, while the slope factor of the conductance-voltage curves was significantly increased for NaV1.7 and peak current was significantly increased for NaV1.6. Accordingly, P-CTX-1-induced visceral and cutaneous pain behaviours were significantly decreased after pharmacological inhibition of NaV1.8 and the tetrodotoxin-sensitive isoforms NaV1.7 and NaV1.6, respectively. The contribution of these isoforms to excitability of peripheral C- and A-fibre sensory neurons, confirmed using murine skin and visceral single-fibre recordings, reflects the expression pattern of NaV isoforms in peripheral sensory neurons and their contribution to membrane depolarisation, action potential initiation and propagation. PMID:28225079

  17. Developmental regulation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The developmental regulation of the voltage-sensitive Na + channel in rat skeletal muscle was studied in vivo and in vitro. In triceps surae muscle developing in vivo the development of TTX-sensitive Na + channel occurred primarily during the first three postnatal weeks as determined by the specific binding of [ 3 H]saxitoxin. This development proceeded in two separate phases. The first phase occurs independently of continuing motor neuron innervation and accounts for 60% of the adult density of TTX-sensitive Na + channels. The second phase, which begins about day 11, requires innervation. Muscle cells in primary culture were found to have both TTX-sensitive and insensitive Na + channels. The development of the TTX-sensitive channel, in vitro, paralleled the initial innervation-independent phase of development observed in vivo. The density of TTX-sensitive Na + channels in cultured muscle cells was regulated by electrical activity and cytosolic Ca ++ levels. Pharmacological blockade of the spontaneous electrical activity present in these cells lead to a nearly 2-fold increase in the surface density of TTX-sensitive channels. The turnover time of the TTX-sensitive Na + channel was measured by blocking the incorporation of newly synthesized channels with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked protein glycosylation. The regulation of channel density by electrical activity, cytosolic Ca ++ levels, and agents affecting cyclic neucleotide levels had no effect on the turnover time of the TTX-sensitive Na + channel, indicating that these regulatory agents instead affect the synthesis of the channel

  18. Feasibility of sodium/iodide symporter gene as a new imaging reporter gene: comparison with HSV1-tk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae Hoon; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Kwang Il; Kang, Joo Hyun; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Chul Woo; Lee, Myung Chul

    2004-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging reporter genes, such as HSV1-tk and D 2 receptor genes, make it possible to visualise gene expression non-invasively and repetitively in vivo. However, these systems require the synthesis of complicated substrates and the availability of expensive PET equipment. Expression of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene can be easily monitored with radioiodines and technetium-99m using a gamma camera. To evaluate the possibility of using NIS as an imaging reporter gene, we compared its characteristics with those of the conventional HSV1-tk gene. The CM cell line was made by transfecting the HSV1-tk gene into CT-26 (mouse colon carcinoma cell line). The CTN and CMN cell lines were then made by transfecting the NIS gene into CT-26 and CM. We measured the uptake of iodine-125 iodovinyldeoxyuridine ([ 125 I]IVDU) and 125 I to evaluate the expression of the HSV1-tk and NIS genes, respectively. Each cell line was injected into four flank sites in Balb/c mice. The biodistribution study was performed after intravenously injecting [ 125 I]IVDU and 131 I, and 131 I scintigraphy was performed for the evaluation of NIS expression. In vitro studies indicated that CTN and CMN had 40- to 79-fold and 150- to 256-fold higher uptake of 125 I than CT-26 and CM, respectively. Furthermore, CM and CMN showed 57- to 69-fold higher uptake of [ 125 I]IVDU than CT-26 and CTN. NIS gene expression and 125 I accumulation were found to be directly correlated (R 2 =0.923), as were HSV1-tk gene expression and [ 125 I]IVDU accumulation (R 2 =0.956). Calculated signal per unit NIS and HSV1-tk mRNA expression was 23,240±3,755 cpm and 34,039±5,346 cpm, respectively. In vivo study indicated that CTN and CMN had 2.3- and 5.8-fold higher uptake of 131 I than CT-26 and CM, and 1.8- and 3.5-fold higher uptake of [ 125 I]IVDU than CT-26 and CTN. Scintigraphy using 131 I easily visualised CTN and CMN tumours. In conclusion, the NIS gene may be viewed as an imaging

  19. Electron scattering from sodium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-10-01

    A comprehensive comparison is made between theoretical calculations and experimental data for intermediate energy (≥ 10 eV) electron scattering from sodium vapour. The theoretical predictions of coupled-channels calculations (including one, two or four channels) do not agree with experimental values of the differential cross sections for elastic scattering or the resonant 3s to 3p excitation. Increasingly-more-sophisticated calculations, incorporating electron correlations in the target states, and also including core-excited states in the close-coupling expansion, are done at a few selected energies in an attempt to isolate the cause of the discrepancies between theory and experiment. It is found that these more-sophisticated calculations give essentially the same results as the two- and four-channel calculations using Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Comparison of the sodium high-energy elastic differential cross sections with those of neon suggests that the sodium differential cross section experiments may suffer from systematic errors. There is also disagreement, at the higher energies, between theoretical values for the scattering parameters and those that are derived from laser-excited superelastic scattering and electron photon coincidence experiments. When allowance is made for the finite acceptance angle of the electron spectrometers used in the experiments by convoluting the theory with a function representing the distribution of electrons entering the electron spectrometer it is found that the magnitudes of the differences between theory and experiment are reduced

  20. Association between Three Mutations, F1565C, V1023G and S996P, in the Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channel Gene and Knockdown Resistance in Aedes aegypti from Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuliandari, Juli Rochmijati; Lee, Siu Fai; White, Vanessa Linley; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy Margaret

    2015-07-23

    Mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc) have been identified in Aedes aegypti and some have been associated with pyrethroid insecticide resistance. Whether these mutations cause resistance, alone or in combination with other alleles, remains unclear, but must be understood if mutations are to become markers for resistance monitoring. We describe High Resolution Melt (HRM) genotyping assays for assessing mutations found in Ae. aegypti in Indonesia (F1565C, V1023G, S996P) and use them to test for associations with pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes from Yogyakarta, a city where insecticide use is widespread. Such knowledge is important because Yogyakarta is a target area for releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with virus-blocking traits for dengue suppression. We identify three alleles across Yogyakarta putatively linked to resistance in previous research. By comparing resistant and susceptible mosquitoes from bioassays, we show that the 1023G allele is associated with resistance to type I and type II pyrethroids. In contrast, F1565C homozygotes were rare and there was only a weak association between individuals heterozygous for the mutation and resistance to a type I pyrethroid. As the heterozygote is expected to be incompletely recessive, it is likely that this association was due to a different resistance mechanism being present. A resistance advantage conferred to V1023G homozygotes through addition of the S996P allele in the homozygous form was suggested for the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Screening of V1023G and S996P should assist resistance monitoring in Ae. aegypti from Yogyakarta, and these mutations should be maintained in Wolbachia strains destined for release in this city to ensure that these virus-blocking strains of mosquitoes are not disadvantaged, relative to resident populations.

  1. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy.

  2. Voltage-gated sodium channel polymorphism and metabolic resistance in pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ademir Jesus; Lins, Rachel Mazzei Moura de Andrade; Linss, Jutta Gerlinde Birgitt; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Valle, Denise

    2009-07-01

    The nature of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti Brazilian populations was investigated. Quantification of enzymes related to metabolic resistance in two distinct populations, located in the Northeast and Southeast regions, revealed increases in Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and Esterase levels. Additionally, polymorphism was found in the IIS6 region of Ae. aegypti voltage-gated sodium channel (AaNa(V)), the pyrethroid target site. Sequences were classified in two haplotype groups, A and B, according to the size of the intron in that region. Rockefeller, a susceptible control lineage, contains only B sequences. In field populations, some A sequences present a substitution in the 1011 site (Ile/Met). When resistant and susceptible individuals were compared, the frequency of both A (with the Met mutation) and B sequences were slightly increased in resistant specimens. The involvement of the AaNa(V) polymorphism in pyrethroid resistance and the metabolic mechanisms that lead to potential cross-resistance between organophosphate and pyrethroids are discussed.

  3. Systematic and quantitative mRNA expression analysis of TRP channel genes at the single trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion level in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewauw Ine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatosensory nerve fibres arising from cell bodies within the trigeminal ganglia (TG in the head and from a string of dorsal root ganglia (DRG located lateral to the spinal cord convey endogenous and environmental stimuli to the central nervous system. Although several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP superfamily of cation channels have been implicated in somatosensation, the expression levels of TRP channel genes in the individual sensory ganglia have never been systematically studied. Results Here, we used quantitative real-time PCR to analyse and compare mRNA expression of all TRP channels in TG and individual DRGs from 27 anatomically defined segments of the spinal cord of the mouse. At the mRNA level, 17 of the 28 TRP channel genes, TRPA1, TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPML1 and TRPP2, were detectable in every tested ganglion. Notably, four TRP channels, TRPC4, TRPM4, TRPM8 and TRPV1, showed statistically significant variation in mRNA levels between DRGs from different segments, suggesting ganglion-specific regulation of TRP channel gene expression. These ganglion-to-ganglion differences in TRP channel transcript levels may contribute to the variability in sensory responses in functional studies. Conclusions We developed, compared and refined techniques to quantitatively analyse the relative mRNA expression of all TRP channel genes at the single ganglion level. This study also provides for the first time a comparative mRNA distribution profile in TG and DRG along the entire vertebral column for the mammalian TRP channel family.

  4. A single Markov-type kinetic model accounting for the macroscopic currents of all human voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Pietro; Massobrio, Paolo; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette

    2017-09-01

    Modelling ionic channels represents a fundamental step towards developing biologically detailed neuron models. Until recently, the voltage-gated ion channels have been mainly modelled according to the formalism introduced by the seminal works of Hodgkin and Huxley (HH). However, following the continuing achievements in the biophysical and molecular comprehension of these pore-forming transmembrane proteins, the HH formalism turned out to carry limitations and inconsistencies in reproducing the ion-channels electrophysiological behaviour. At the same time, Markov-type kinetic models have been increasingly proven to successfully replicate both the electrophysiological and biophysical features of different ion channels. However, in order to model even the finest non-conducting molecular conformational change, they are often equipped with a considerable number of states and related transitions, which make them computationally heavy and less suitable for implementation in conductance-based neurons and large networks of those. In this purely modelling study we develop a Markov-type kinetic model for all human voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). The model framework is detailed, unifying (i.e., it accounts for all ion-channel isoforms) and computationally efficient (i.e. with a minimal set of states and transitions). The electrophysiological data to be modelled are gathered from previously published studies on whole-cell patch-clamp experiments in mammalian cell lines heterologously expressing the human VGSC subtypes (from NaV1.1 to NaV1.9). By adopting a minimum sequence of states, and using the same state diagram for all the distinct isoforms, the model ensures the lightest computational load when used in neuron models and neural networks of increasing complexity. The transitions between the states are described by original ordinary differential equations, which represent the rate of the state transitions as a function of voltage (i.e., membrane potential). The

  5. Proteinuric diseases with sodium retention: Is plasmin the link?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Skøtt, Ole; Jensen, Boye L

    2012-01-01

    1. Sodium retention in disease states characterized by proteinuria, such as nephrotic syndrome, preeclampsia, and diabetic nephropathy, occurs through poorly understood mechanism(s). 2. In the nephrotic syndrome, data from experimental and clinical studies indicate that the sodium retention...... originates in the renal cortical collecting duct and involves hyper-activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). 3. The stimulus for the increased ENaC activity does not appear to involve any of the classical sodium retaining mechanisms, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, arginine...... and diabetic nephropathy, which are also characterized by proteinuria and sodium retention. 7. In this review, we will examine the evidence for a role of urinary serine protease activity in the development of sodium and water retention in diseases characterised by proteinuria with a focus on the nephrotic...

  6. PG BN 1600 sodium fire protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Urbancik, L.

    1978-12-01

    A design was developed of a fire protection system for steam generator of a 1600 MW sodium cooled fast reactor (BN-1600). Chemical reactions are described of liquid sodium with atmospheric components and solid materials coming into contact with sodium in its release from the steam generator, and in safeguarding protection against sodium fires. The requirements for the purity of nitrogen as an atmosphere inert to liquid sodium are given. Characteristics and basic parameters are shown of level and spray fires, elementary terms are explained concerning the properties of aerosols formed during fires, the methods and means of release signalling and fire alarm are described as are fire precautions using fire-fighting equipment, modifying the support tank and the cell bottom and building sewage pits. The design of the system comprises an alarm system for liquid sodium using point and line electric contact sensors and flame photometer based aerosol sensors as well as a fire-fighting system based on the system of channelling liquid sodium into emergency discharge tanks filled with an inert gas, a set of fire extinguishers and other fire fighting material, and measures for the elimination of sodium fire consequences. (J.B.)

  7. Plasmin in Nephrotic Urine Activates the Epithelial Sodium Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Bistrup, Claus; Friis, Ulla G

    2009-01-01

    stimulated amiloride-sensitive transepithelial sodium transport in M-1 cells and increased amiloride-sensitive whole-cell currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing ENaC. Activation of ENaC by plasmin involved cleavage and release of an inhibitory peptide from the ENaC gamma subunit...

  8. Anestésicos locais: interação com membranas biológicas e com o canal de sódio voltagem-dependente Local anesthetics: interaction with biological membranes and with the voltage-gated sodium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ribeiro de Araujo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many theories about the mechanism of action of local anesthetics (LA are described in the literature. Two types of theories can be distinguished: those that focus on the direct effects of LA on their target protein in the axon membranes, i.e. the voltage-gated sodium channel and the ones that take into account the interaction of anesthetic molecules with the lipid membrane phase for the reversible nerve blockage. Since there is a direct correlation between LA hydrophobicity and potency, it is crucial to take this physico-chemical property into account to understand the mechanism of action of LA, be it on the sodium channel protein, lipid(s, or on the whole membrane phase.

  9. High affinity for the rat brain sodium channel of newly discovered hydroxybenzoate saxitoxin analogues from the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Lyndon; Negri, Andrew; Quilliam, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison family has been recently extended by the discovery of several analogues possessing a hydoxybenzoate moiety instead of the carbamoyl group one finds in saxitoxin, the parent molecule of this toxin family. We have investigated the potency of these new analogues on a representative isoform of the pharmacological target of these toxins, the voltage gated sodium channel. These toxins were found to have K1's in the low nanomolar range, only slightly less potent than saxitoxin. The hydroxybenzoate group may increase the lipophilicity of these toxins and improve their ability to pass through epithelia and therefore its uptake and elimination in both intoxication victims and animals that bioaccumulate paralytic shellfish toxins.

  10. Variation in the Sodium-Dependent Vitamin C Transporter 2 Gene Is Associated with Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome among Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Vogel, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease possibly due to its anti-oxidative effects, beneficial effects on endothelial function and importance in collagen synthesis. The sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 is responsible for the transport of vitamin C into various...... cells and malfunction of this protein leads to reduced vitamin C in tissue, including the arterial wall. We tested the hypothesis that candidate variations rs6139591 and rs1776964 in the gene coding for sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 are associated with development of acute coronary syndrome....

  11. Effects of channel blocking on information transmission and energy efficiency in squid giant axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujiang; Yue, Yuan; Yu, Yuguo; Liu, Liwei; Yu, Lianchun

    2018-04-01

    Action potentials are the information carriers of neural systems. The generation of action potentials involves the cooperative opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels. This process is metabolically expensive because the ions flowing through open channels need to be restored to maintain concentration gradients of these ions. Toxins like tetraethylammonium can block working ion channels, thus affecting the function and energy cost of neurons. In this paper, by computer simulation of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model, we studied the effects of channel blocking with toxins on the information transmission and energy efficiency in squid giant axons. We found that gradually blocking sodium channels will sequentially maximize the information transmission and energy efficiency of the axons, whereas moderate blocking of potassium channels will have little impact on the information transmission and will decrease the energy efficiency. Heavy blocking of potassium channels will cause self-sustained oscillation of membrane potentials. Simultaneously blocking sodium and potassium channels with the same ratio increases both information transmission and energy efficiency. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that information processing capacity and energy efficiency can be maximized by regulating the number of active ion channels, and this indicates a viable avenue for future experimentation.

  12. CNS sites activated by renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in response to hypertonic saline in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Vanessa S; Terrill, Christopher; Hopewood, Ian; Loewy, Arthur D; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2017-05-01

    In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate. Subsequently, brain tissue was analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of the protein Fos, a marker for neuronal activation. Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in numerous sites in the forebrain and brainstem. These areas included the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). The most effective stimulus was 500mOsm NaCl. Activation of these sites was attenuated or prevented by administration of benzamil (1μM) or amiloride (10μM) into the renal pelvis concomitantly with hypertonic saline. In anesthetized rats, infusion of hypertonic saline but not isotonic saline into the renal pelvis elevated ARN activity and this increase was attenuated by simultaneous infusion of benzamil or amiloride. We propose that renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) play a role in activation of ARN and, via central visceral afferent circuits, this system modulates fluid volume and peripheral blood pressure. These pathways may contribute to the development of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Propafenone Overdose-induced Arrhythmia and Subsequent Correction After Administration of Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bruss, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 71-year old woman presented to the emergency department with near-syncope, chest pain, and shortness of breath. She has a history of hypertension, congestive heart failure and an “irregular heartbeat.” She cannot remember what medications she takes. She recently saw her cardiologist and had some of her medications adjusted, but she can’t remember what specific changes were made. An electrocardiogram was performed, one ampule of sodium bicarbonate was administered and a repeat ECG obtained; patient felt improvement of her symptoms after administration of sodium bicarbonate. Significant findings: The first ECG in this case showed sinus tachycardia with a widened QRS (black arrow, a rightward axis, prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc, and terminal R wave in AVR (white arrow. There are several potential causes for these ECG findings, but put together with the patient’s history, we were suspicious of sodium channel blockers being the most likely cause. The second ECG, after sodium bicarbonate was administered, demonstrated a normal QRS (black arrow and no rightward axis deviation, reduction of the QTC and resolution of the terminal R wave (white arrow. We later learned that the patient’s cardiologist recently increased her propafenone dose. Discussion: Propafenone is a class 1C anti-arrhythmic that slows influx of sodium ions into the cells. It slows the rate of increase of the action potential thereby prolonging conduction and refractoriness in all areas of the myocardium.1 The mortality from acute Class 1C toxicity has been reported as high as 22.5%.1 The degree of propafenone toxicity is directly correlated to the QRS interval,1 so monitoring said interval is very helpful in determining resolution of the drug’s cardiotoxic effects. The electrocardiac effect of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs is a well-known and often tested finding. These effects include prolongation of the QRS and QTc, right axis deviation

  14. Experimentation with PEC channel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponetti, R.; Iacovelli, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentation on prototypes of PEC components is presently being carried out at Casaccia CRE. This report shows the results of the first cycle of experimentation of the central channel, concerning the aspects of sodium removal after experimentation

  15. Robustness, Death of Spiral Wave in the Network of Neurons under Partial Ion Channel Block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Ma; Long, Huang; Chun-Ni, Wang; Zhong-Sheng, Pu

    2013-01-01

    The development of spiral wave in a two-dimensional square array due to partial ion channel block (Potassium, Sodium) is investigated, the dynamics of the node is described by Hodgkin—Huxley neuron and these neurons are coupled with nearest neighbor connection. The parameter ratio x Na (and x K ), which defines the ratio of working ion channel number of sodium (potassium) to the total ion channel number of sodium (and potassium), is used to measure the shift conductance induced by channel block. The distribution of statistical variable R in the two-parameter phase space (parameter ratio vs. poisoning area) is extensively calculated to mark the parameter region for transition of spiral wave induced by partial ion channel block, the area with smaller factors of synchronization R is associated the parameter region that spiral wave keeps alive and robust to the channel poisoning. Spiral wave keeps alive when the poisoned area (potassium or sodium) and degree of intoxication are small, distinct transition (death, several spiral waves coexist or multi-arm spiral wave emergence) occurs under moderate ratio x Na (and x K ) when the size of blocked area exceeds certain thresholds. Breakup of spiral wave occurs and multi-arm of spiral waves are observed when the channel noise is considered. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. An increase in [Ca2+]i activates basolateral chloride channels and inhibits apical sodium channels in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which increases in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) cause a decrease in macroscopic sodium absorption across principal cells of the frog skin epithelium. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope set-up, sodium abs...

  17. A Novel Nonsense Variant in Nav1.5 Cofactor MOG1 Eliminates Its Sodium Current Increasing Effect and May Increase the Risk of Arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Morten S; Jensen, Niels F; Holst, Anders G

    2011-01-01

    at a lower frequency (1.8% vs 0.4%, P = 0.078). Electrophysiological investigation showed that the p.E61X variant completely eliminates the sodium current-increasing effect of MOG1 and thereby causes loss of function in the sodium current. When mimicking heterozygosity by coexpression of Nav1.5 with wild......BACKGROUND: The protein MOG1 is a cofactor of the cardiac sodium channel, Nav1.5. Overexpression of MOG1 in Nav1.5-expressing cells increases sodium current markedly. Mutations in the genes encoding Nav1.5 and its accessory proteins have been associated with cardiac arrhythmias of significant...... and 23 were patients with Brugada syndrome. The effect of one variant was investigated functionally by patch-clamping CHO-K1 cells coexpressing Nav1.5 with MOG1. RESULTS: We uncovered a novel heterozygous nonsense variant, c.181G>T (p.E61X), that, however, was also present in control subjects, albeit...

  18. A mutation (L1014F) in the voltage-gated sodium channel of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is associated with resistance to pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen P; Paul, Verity L; Slater, Russell; Warren, Anne; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Williamson, Martin S

    2014-08-01

    The grain aphid, Sitobion avenae Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important pest of cereal crops. Pesticides are the main method for control but carry the risk of selecting for resistance. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroid sprays applied to S. avenae, field samples were collected and screened for mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, the primary target site for pyrethroids. Aphid mobility and mortality to lambda-cyhalothrin were measured in coated glass vial bioassays. A single amino acid substitution (L1014F) was identified in the domain IIS6 segment of the sodium channel from the S. avenae samples exhibiting reduced pyrethroid efficacy. Bioassays on aphids heterozygous for the kdr mutation (SR) or homozygous for the wild-type allele (SS) showed that those carrying the mutation had significantly lower susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin. The L1014F (kdr) mutation, known to confer pyrethroid resistance in many insect pests, has been identified for the first time in S. avenae. Clonal lines heterozygous for the mutation showed 35-40-fold resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in laboratory bioassays, consistent with the reported effect of this mutation on pyrethroid sensitivity in other aphid species. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Silvia L; Orta-Salazar, Gerardo; Gauthereau, Marcia Y; Millan-Perez Peña, Lourdes; Salinas-Stefanón, Eduardo M

    2003-01-01

    Toluene is an industrial solvent widely used as a drug of abuse, which can produce sudden sniffing death due to cardiac arrhythmias. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that toluene inhibits cardiac sodium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes transfected with Nav1.5 cDNA and in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. In oocytes, toluene inhibited sodium currents (INa+) in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 274 μM (confidence limits: 141–407μM). The inhibition was complete, voltage-independent, and slowly reversible. Toluene had no effect on: (i) the shape of the I–V curves; (ii) the reversal potential of Na+; and (iii) the steady-state inactivation. The slow recovery time constant from inactivation of INa+ decreased with toluene exposure, while the fast recovery time constant remained unchanged. Block of INa+ by toluene was use- and frequency-dependent. In rat cardiac myocytes, 300 μM toluene inhibited the sodium current (INa+) by 62%; this inhibition was voltage independent. These results suggest that toluene binds to cardiac Na+ channels in the open state and unbinds either when channels move between inactivated states or from an inactivated to a closed state. The use- and frequency-dependent block of INa+ by toluene might be responsible, at least in part, for its arrhythmogenic effect. PMID:14534149

  20. Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Munmun; Zhou, Zhigang; Hao, Shuanglin; Mata, Marina; Fink, David J

    2012-03-22

    Painful neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. Previous studies have identified significant increases in the amount of voltage gated sodium channel isoforms Na(V)1.7 and Na(V)1.3 protein in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. We found that gene transfer-mediated release of the inhibitory neurotransmitters enkephalin or gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) from DRG neurons in diabetic animals reduced pain-related behaviors coincident with a reduction in Na(V)1.7 protein levels in DRG in vivo. To further evaluate the role of Na(V)α subunit levels in DRG in the pathogenesis of pain in diabetic neuropathy, we constructed a non-replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based vector expressing a microRNA (miRNA) against Na(V)α subunits. Subcutaneous inoculation of the miRNA-expressing HSV vector into the feet of diabetic rats to transduce DRG resulted in a reduction in Na(V)α subunit levels in DRG neurons, coincident with a reduction in cold allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia. These data support the role of increased Na(V)α protein in DRG in the pathogenesis of pain in diabetic neuropathy, and provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of a novel therapy that could be used to treat intractable pain in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  1. Gene Therapy in Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen S.V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy has progressed from a dream to a bedside reality in quite a few human diseases. From its first application in adenosine deaminase deficiency, through the years, its application has evolved to vascular angiogenesis and cardiac arrhythmias. Gene based biological pacemakers using viral vectors or mesenchymal cells tested in animal models hold much promise. Induction of pacemaker activity within the left bundle branch can provide stable heart rates. Genetic modification of the AV node mimicking beta blockade can be therapeutic in the management of atrial fibrillation. G protein overexpression to modify the AV node also is experimental. Modification and expression of potassium channel genes altering the delayed rectifier potassium currents may permit better management of congenital long QT syndromes. Arrhythmias in a failing heart are due to abnormal calcium cycling. Potential targets for genetic modulation include the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump, calsequestrin and sodium calcium exchanger.Lastly the ethical concerns need to be addressed.

  2. First detection of multiple knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel using three new genotyping methods in Anopheles sinensis from Guangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei L; Li, Chun X; Wang, Zhong M; Liu, Mei D; Dong, Yan D; Feng, Xiang Y; Wu, Zhi M; Guo, Xiao X; Xing, Dan; Zhang, Ying M; Wang, Zhong C; Zhao, Tong Y

    2012-09-01

    To investigate knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles sinensis (Wiedemann, 1828), from Guangxi province, southwest China, a segment of a sodium channel gene was sequenced and genotyped using three new genotyping assays. Direct sequencing revealed the presence of TTG-to-TCG and TG-to-TTT mutations at allele position L1014, which led to L1014S and L1014F substitutions in a few individual and two novel substitutions of N1013S and L1014W in two DNA templates. A low frequency of the kdr allele mostly in the heterozygous state of L1014S and L1014F was observed in this mosquito population. In this study, the genotyping of An. sinensis using three polymerase chain reaction-based methods generated consistent results, which agreed with the results of DNA sequencing. In total, 52 mosquitoes were genotyped using a direct sequencing assay. The number of mosquitoes and their genotypes were as follows: L/L = 24, L/S = 19, L/F = 8, and F/W = 1. The allelic frequency of L1014, 1014S, and 1014F were 72, 18, and 9%, respectively.

  3. Ion channels in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Remco J

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor with the most dismal prognosis. It is characterized by extensive invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. Median survival is only 15 months due to this behavior, rendering focal surgical resection ineffective and adequate radiotherapy impossible. At this moment, several ion channels have been implicated in glioblastoma proliferation, migration, and invasion. This paper summarizes studies on potassium, sodium, chloride, and calcium channels of glioblastoma. It provides an up-to-date overview of the literature that could ultimately lead to new therapeutic targets.

  4. In vivo potency of different ligands on voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safrany-Fark, Arpad; Petrovszki, Zita; Kekesi, Gabriella; Liszli, Peter; Benedek, Gyorgy; Keresztes, Csilla; Horvath, Gyongyi

    2015-09-05

    The Ranvier nodes of thick myelinated nerve fibers contain almost exclusively voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs), while the unmyelinated fibers have several receptors (e.g., cannabinoid, transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1), too. Therefore, a nerve which contains only motor fibers can be an appropriate in vivo model for selective influence of Navs. The goals were to evaluate the potency of local anesthetic drugs on such a nerve in vivo; furthermore, to investigate the effects of ligands with different structures (arachidonic acid, anandamide, capsaicin and nisoxetine) that were proved to inhibit Navs in vitro with antinociceptive properties. The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve was explored in anesthetized Wistar rats; after its stimulation, the electrical activity of the vibrissae muscles was registered following the perineural injection of different drugs. Lidocaine, bupivacaine and ropivacaine evoked dose-dependent decrease in electromyographic activity, i.e., lidocaine had lower potency than bupivacaine or ropivacaine. QX-314 did not cause any effect by itself, but its co-application with lidocaine produced a prolonged inhibition. Nisoxetine had a very low potency. While anandamide and capsaicin in high doses caused about 50% decrease in the amplitude of action potential, arachidonic acid did not influence the responses. We proved that the classical local anesthetics have high potency on motor nerves, suggesting that this method might be a reliable model for selective targeting of Navs in vivo circumstances. It is proposed that the effects of these endogenous lipids and capsaicin on sensory fibers are not primarily mediated by Navs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies of alpha-helicity and intersegmental interactions in voltage-gated Na+ channels: S2D4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongming Ma

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Much data, including crystallographic, support structural models of sodium and potassium channels consisting of S1-S4 transmembrane segments (the "voltage-sensing domain" clustered around a central pore-forming region (S5-S6 segments and the intervening loop. Voltage gated sodium channels have four non-identical domains which differentiates them from the homotetrameric potassium channels that form the basis for current structural models. Since potassium and sodium channels also exhibit many different functional characteristics and the fourth domain (D4 of sodium channels differs in function from other domains (D1-D3, we have explored its structure in order to determine whether segments in D4 of sodium channels differ significantly from that determined for potassium channels. We have probed the secondary and tertiary structure and the role of the individual amino acid residues of the S2D4 of Na(v1.4 by employing cysteine-scanning mutagenesis (with tryptophan and glutamine substituted for native cysteine. A Fourier transform power spectrum of perturbations in free energy of steady-state inactivation gating (using midpoint potentials and slopes of Boltzmann equation fits of channel availability, h(infinity-V plots indicates a substantial amount of alpha-helical structure in S2D4 (peak at 106 degrees, alpha-Periodicity Index (alpha-PI of 3.10, This conclusion is supported by alpha-PI values of 3.28 and 2.84 for the perturbations in rate constants of entry into (beta and exit from (alpha fast inactivation at 0 mV for mutant channels relative to WT channels assuming a simple two-state model for transition from the open to inactivated state. The results of cysteine substitution at the two most sensitive sites of the S2D4 alpha-helix (N1382 and E1392C support the existence of electrostatic network interactions between S2 and other transmembrane segments within Na(v1.4D4 similar to but not identical to those proposed for K+ channels.

  6. Theoretical Study of Sodium-Water Surface Reaction Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using the ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule on the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. It was found that the estimated rate constant of the former was much larger than the latter. The results are the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR).

  7. Theoretical study of sodium-water surface reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    2012-01-01

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using the ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule on the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. It was found that the estimated rate constant of the former was much larger than the latter. The results are the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). (author)

  8. Tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibits neuronal sodium channels by binding to receptor site 4 and trapping the domain ii voltage sensor in the closed configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yucheng; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Zhu, Weiguo; Moczydlowski, Edward; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R

    2008-10-03

    Peptide toxins with high affinity, divergent pharmacological functions, and isoform-specific selectivity are powerful tools for investigating the structure-function relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although a number of interesting inhibitors have been reported from tarantula venoms, little is known about the mechanism for their interaction with VGSCs. We show that huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), a 35-residue peptide from tarantula Ornithoctonus huwena venom, preferentially inhibits neuronal VGSC subtypes rNav1.2, rNav1.3, and hNav1.7 compared with muscle subtypes rNav1.4 and hNav1.5. Of the five VGSCs examined, hNav1.7 was most sensitive to HWTX-IV (IC(50) approximately 26 nM). Following application of 1 microm HWTX-IV, hNav1.7 currents could only be elicited with extreme depolarizations (>+100 mV). Recovery of hNav1.7 channels from HWTX-IV inhibition could be induced by extreme depolarizations or moderate depolarizations lasting several minutes. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis indicated that the toxin docked at neurotoxin receptor site 4 located at the extracellular S3-S4 linker of domain II. Mutations E818Q and D816N in hNav1.7 decreased toxin affinity for hNav1.7 by approximately 300-fold, whereas the reverse mutations in rNav1.4 (N655D/Q657E) and the corresponding mutations in hNav1.5 (R812D/S814E) greatly increased the sensitivity of the muscle VGSCs to HWTX-IV. Our data identify a novel mechanism for sodium channel inhibition by tarantula toxins involving binding to neurotoxin receptor site 4. In contrast to scorpion beta-toxins that trap the IIS4 voltage sensor in an outward configuration, we propose that HWTX-IV traps the voltage sensor of domain II in the inward, closed configuration.

  9. Imaging of human sodium-iodide symporter gene expression mediated by recombinant adenovirus in skeletal muscle of living rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyun Suk; Park, Seong-Wook [Department of Internal Medicine (Cardiology), Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, 138-736, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Heuiran; Kim, Sung Jin [Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Won Woo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Yang, You-Jung; Moon, Dae Hyuk [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2004-09-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of recombinant adenovirus-mediated human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression by {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy in skeletal muscle of rats. Replication-defective recombinant adenovirus encoding hNIS gene [Rad-CMV-hNIS 5 x 10{sup 7}, 2 x 10{sup 8} or 1 x 10{sup 9} plaque forming units (pfu)] or {beta}-galactosidase gene (Rad-CMV-LacZ 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu) was injected into the right biceps femoris muscle of rats (n=5-6 for each group). Three days after gene transfer, scintigraphy was performed using a gamma camera 30 min after injection of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} (1.85 MBq). An additional two rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS underwent {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy with sodium perchlorate. After the imaging studies, rats were sacrificed for assessment of the biodistribution of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and measurement of hNIS mRNA expression. In all the rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS, hNIS expression was successfully imaged by {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy, while rats injected with Rad-CMV-LacZ or lower doses of Rad-CMV-hNIS failed to show uptake. The biodistribution studies indicated that a significantly different amount of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was retained in the liver (p<0.001) and the right muscle (p<0.05), with the highest uptake in rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS. The muscular hNIS mRNA level quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was significantly higher in rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS (p<0.05), with a positive correlation with the imaging counts (r=0.810, p<0.05) and the biodistribution (r=0.847, p<0.001). Hot spots in rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS were specifically inhibited by sodium perchlorate. This study illustrated that {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy can monitor Rad-CMV-hNIS-mediated gene expression in

  10. A novel toxin from Haplopelma lividum selectively inhibits the NAV1.8 channel and possesses potent analgesic efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Ping; Huang, Honggang; Wang, Gan

    2017-01-01

    Spider venoms are a complex mixture of peptides with a large number of neurotoxins targeting ion channels. Although thousands of peptide toxins have been identified from venoms of numerous species of spiders, many unknown species urgently need to be investigated. In this study, a novel sodium...... channel inhibitor, μ-TRTX-Hl1a, was identified from the venom of Haplopelma lividum. It contained eight cysteines and formed a conserved cysteine pattern of ICK motif. μ-TRTX-Hl1a inhibited the TTX-resistant (TTX-r) sodium channel current rather than the TTX-sensitive (TTX-s) sodium channel current...

  11. Transfer of the sodium/iodide symporter gene into gliomas for radioiodine therapy in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jian; Li Wei; Liu Xiaohua; Xiao Qian; Jia Qiang; Li Ning

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The most frequent brain tumors are the gliomas. Glioblastomas are largely incurable secondary, to their rapid, aggressive and diffusely infiltrative growth pattern and hypervascularity. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of transecting human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene into human glioma cell lines to facilitate radioactive iodide treatment in vitro. Methods: Transecting hNIS gene into human glioma cell lines U251 was performed by recombinant expression plasmids with lipofectamine 2000-plasmid complexes. The hNIS gene cell lines with stable expression (hNIS-U251) were selected through G418 antibiotic constraint. The hNIS-U251 gene cell lines were then evaluated for their biologic functions, including 125 I uptake assay, 125 I influx-course, 125 I-efflux-course, 131 I inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyhe-trazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometer. Results: We were successful in transecting hNIS gene into human glioma cell lines by recombinant expression plasmids, and were able to obtain hNIS gene cell lines (hNIS-U251) with stable expression. The hNIS-U251 cell lines could intake and bind radioactive iodide by hNIS gene. The uptakes of 125 I were 117 fold higher in hNIS-U251 cell lines than U251 cell lines [(50 469.88 ± 997.29), (432.92 ± 89.28) counts·min -1 , respectively]. And the proliferation index of hNIS-U251 cell lines was lower than U251 cell lines after incubating with 131 I. Conclusion: The hNIS gene with stable gene expression (hNIS- U251) cell lines could be labeled by 131 I with a high efficiency, thereby may function effectively in the treatment of glioma-related brain tumors. (authors)

  12. Characterization of the chicken inward rectifier K+ channel IRK1/Kir2.1 gene

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    Locke Emily

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inward rectifier potassium channels (IRK contribute to the normal function of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. The chick inward rectifier K+ channel cIRK1/Kir2.1 is expressed in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, but not in liver; a distribution similar but not identical to that of mouse Kir2.1. We set out to explore regulatory domains of the cIRK1 promoter that enhance or inhibit expression of the gene in different cell types. Results We cloned and characterized the 5'-flanking region of cIRK1. cIRK1 contains two exons with splice sites in the 5'-untranslated region, a structure similar to mouse and human orthologs. cIRK1 has multiple transcription initiation sites, a feature also seen in mouse. However, while the chicken and mouse promoter regions share many regulatory motifs, cIRK1 possesses a GC-richer promoter and a putative TATA box, which appears to positively regulate gene expression. We report here the identification of several candidate cell/tissue specific cIRK1 regulatory domains by comparing promoter activities in expressing (Qm7 and non-expressing (DF1 cells using in vitro transcription assays. Conclusion While multiple transcription initiation sites and the combinatorial function of several domains in activating cIRK1 expression are similar to those seen in mKir2.1, the cIRK1 promoter differs by the presence of a putative TATA box. In addition, several domains that regulate the gene's expression differentially in muscle (Qm7 and fibroblast cells (DF1 were identified. These results provide fundamental data to analyze cIRK1 transcriptional mechanisms. The control elements identified here may provide clues to the tissue-specific expression of this K+ channel.

  13. Association analysis of a highly polymorphic CAG Repeat in the human potassium channel gene KCNN3 and migraine susceptibility

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    Ovcaric Mick

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine is a polygenic multifactorial disease, possessing environmental and genetic causative factors with multiple involved genes. Mutations in various ion channel genes are responsible for a number of neurological disorders. KCNN3 is a neuronal small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel gene that contains two polyglutamine tracts, encoded by polymorphic CAG repeats in the gene. This gene plays a critical role in determining the firing pattern of neurons and acts to regulate intracellular calcium channels. Methods The present association study tested whether length variations in the second (more 3' polymorphic CAG repeat in exon 1 of the KCNN3 gene, are involved in susceptibility to migraine with and without aura (MA and MO. In total 423 DNA samples from unrelated individuals, of which 202 consisted of migraine patients and 221 non-migraine controls, were genotyped and analysed using a fluorescence labelled primer set on an ABI310 Genetic Analyzer. Allele frequencies were calculated from observed genotype counts for the KCNN3 polymorphism. Analysis was performed using standard contingency table analysis, incorporating the chi-squared test of independence and CLUMP analysis. Results Overall, there was no convincing evidence that KCNN3 CAG lengths differ between Caucasian migraineurs and controls, with no significant difference in the allelic length distribution of CAG repeats between the population groups (P = 0.090. Also the MA and MO subtypes did not differ significantly between control allelic distributions (P > 0.05. The prevalence of the long CAG repeat (>19 repeats did not reach statistical significance in migraineurs (P = 0.15, nor was there a significant difference between the MA and MO subgroups observed compared to controls (P = 0.46 and P = 0.09, respectively, or between MA vs MO (P = 0.40. Conclusion This association study provides no evidence that length variations of the second polyglutamine array in

  14. Nanomolar bifenthrin alters synchronous Ca2+ oscillations and cortical neuron development independent of sodium channel activity.

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    Cao, Zhengyu; Cui, Yanjun; Nguyen, Hai M; Jenkins, David Paul; Wulff, Heike; Pessah, Isaac N

    2014-04-01

    Bifenthrin, a relatively stable type I pyrethroid that causes tremors and impairs motor activity in rodents, is broadly used. We investigated whether nanomolar bifenthrin alters synchronous Ca(2+) oscillations (SCOs) necessary for activity-dependent dendritic development. Primary mouse cortical neurons were cultured 8 or 9 days in vitro (DIV), loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator Fluo-4, and imaged using a Fluorescence Imaging Plate Reader Tetra. Acute exposure to bifenthrin rapidly increased the frequency of SCOs by 2.7-fold (EC50 = 58 nM) and decreased SCO amplitude by 36%. Changes in SCO properties were independent of modifications in voltage-gated sodium channels since 100 nM bifenthrin had no effect on the whole-cell Na(+) current, nor did it influence neuronal resting membrane potential. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine failed to ameliorate bifenthrin-triggered SCO activity. By contrast, the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)5 antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine] normalized bifenthrin-triggered increase in SCO frequency without altering baseline SCO activity, indicating that bifenthrin amplifies mGluR5 signaling independent of Na(+) channel modification. Competitive [AP-5; (-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid] and noncompetitive (dizocilpine, or MK-801 [(5S,10R)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate]) N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists partially decreased both basal and bifenthrin-triggered SCO frequency increase. Bifenthrin-modified SCO rapidly enhanced the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Subacute (48 hours) exposure to bifenthrin commencing 2 DIV-enhanced neurite outgrowth and persistently increased SCO frequency and reduced SCO amplitude. Bifenthrin-stimulated neurite outgrowth and CREB phosphorylation were dependent on mGluR5 activity since MPEP normalized both responses. Collectively these data identify a new mechanism by which bifenthrin potently alters Ca(2

  15. Activation of sodium channels by α-scorpion toxin, BmK NT1, produced neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cells: an association with intracellular Ca2+ overloading.

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    He, Yuwei; Zou, Xiaohan; Li, Xichun; Chen, Juan; Jin, Liang; Zhang, Fan; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu

    2017-02-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are responsible for the action potential generation in excitable cells including neurons and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Scorpion toxins are invaluable tools to explore the structure and function of ion channels. BmK NT1, a scorpion toxin from Buthus martensii Karsch, stimulates sodium influx in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). In this study, we characterized the mode of action of BmK NT1 on the VGSCs and explored the cellular response in CGC cultures. BmK NT1 delayed the fast inactivation of VGSCs, increased the Na + currents, and shifted the steady-state activation and inactivation to more hyperpolarized membrane potential, which was similar to the mode of action of α-scorpion toxins. BmK NT1 stimulated neuron death (EC 50  = 0.68 µM) and produced massive intracellular Ca 2+ overloading (EC 50  = 0.98 µM). TTX abrogated these responses, suggesting that both responses were subsequent to the activation of VGSCs. The Ca 2+ response of BmK NT1 was primary through extracellular Ca 2+ influx since reducing the extracellular Ca 2+ concentration suppressed the Ca 2+ response. Further pharmacological evaluation demonstrated that BmK NT1-induced Ca 2+ influx and neurotoxicity were partially blocked either by MK-801, an NMDA receptor blocker, or by KB-R7943, an inhibitor of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers. Nifedipine, an L-type Ca 2+ channel inhibitor, slightly suppressed both Ca 2+ response and neurotoxicity. A combination of these three inhibitors abrogated both responses. Considered together, these data ambiguously demonstrated that activation of VGSCs by an α-scorpion toxin was sufficient to produce neurotoxicity which was associated with intracellular Ca 2+ overloading through both NMDA receptor- and Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger-mediated Ca 2+ influx.

  16. Sequence Alterations of I(Ks Potassium Channel Genes in Kazakhstani Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

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    Ainur Akilzhanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia, and it results in significant morbidity and mortality. However, the pathogenesis of AF remains unclear to date. Recently, more pieces of evidence indicated that AF is a multifactorial disease resulting from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Recent studies suggest that genetic mutation of the slow delayed rectifier potassium channel (I(Ks may underlie AF.Objective. To investigate sequence alterations of I(Ks potassium channel genes KCNQ1, KCNE1 and KCNE2 in Kazakhstani patients with atrial fibrillation.Methods. Genomic DNA of 69 cases with atrial fibrillation and 27 relatives were analyzed for mutations in all protein-coding exons and their flanking splice site regions of the genes KCNQ1 (NM_000218.2 and NM_181798.1, KCNE1 (NM_000219.2, and KCNE2 (NM_172201.1 using bidirectional sequencing on the ABI 3730xL DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA.Results. In total, a disease-causing mutation was identified in 39 of the 69 (56.5% index cases. Of these, altered sequence variants in the KCNQ1 gene accounted for 14.5% of the mutations, whereas a KCNE1 mutation accounted for 43.5% of the mutations and KCNE2 mutation accounted for 1.4% of the mutations. The majority of the distinct mutations were found in a single case (80%, whereas 20% of the mutations were observed more than once. We found two sequence variants in KCNQ1 exon 13 (S546S G1638A and exon 16 (Y662Y, C1986T in ten patients (14.5%. In KCNE1 gene in exon 3 mutation, S59G A280G was observed in 30 of 69 patients (43.5% and KCNE2 exon 2 T10K C29A in 1 patient (1.4%. Genetic cascade screening of 27 relatives to the 69 index cases with an identified mutation revealed 26.9% mutation carriers  who were at risk of cardiac events such as syncope or sudden unexpected death.Conclusion. In this cohort of Kazakhstani index cases with AF, a disease-causing mutation was identified in

  17. Interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Urinary Sodium, Potassium, and Sodium-Potassium Ratio on the Risk of Hypertension in Korean Adults

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    Yeong Mi Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a complex disease explained with diverse factors including environmental factors and genetic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine the interaction effects between gene variants and 24 h estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and sodium-potassium excretion ratios on the risk of hypertension. A total of 8839 participants were included in the genome-wide association study (GWAS to find genetic factors associated with hypertension. Tanaka and Kawasaki formulas were applied to estimate 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion. A total of 4414 participants were included in interaction analyses to identify the interaction effects of gene variants according to 24 h estimated urinary factors on the risk of hypertension. CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 were significantly modified by urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. In addition, MKLN rs1643270 with urinary potassium excretion, LOC101929750 rs7554672 with urinary sodium and potassium excretion, and TENM4 rs10466739 with urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio showed significant interaction effects. The present study results indicated that the mutant alleles of CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 had the strongest protective effects against hypertension in the middle group of 24 h estimated urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. Further studies are needed to replicate these analyses in other populations.

  18. Detection of the V1016G mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) by allele-specific PCR assay, and its distribution and effect on deltamethrin resistance in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Steven A; Plernsub, Suriya; Yanola, Jintana; Lumjuan, Nongkran; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Choochote, Wej; Somboon, Pradya

    2013-08-30

    Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides is widespread among populations of Aedes aegypti, the main vector for the dengue virus. Several different point mutations within the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene contribute to such resistance. A mutation at position 1016 in domain II, segment 6 of the VGSC gene in Ae. aegypti leads to a valine to glycine substitution (V1016G) that confers resistance to deltamethrin. This study developed and utilized an allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) assay that could be used to detect the V1016G mutation. The assay was validated against a number of sequenced DNA samples of known genotype and was determined to be in complete agreement. Larvae and pupae were collected from various localities throughout Thailand. Samples were reared to adulthood and their resistance status against deltamethrin was determined by standard WHO susceptibility bioassays. Deltamethrin-resistant and susceptible insects were then genotyped for the V1016G mutation. Additionally, some samples were genotyped for a second mutation at position 1534 in domain III (F1534C) which is also known to confer pyrethroid resistance. The bioassay results revealed an overall mortality of 77.6%. Homozygous 1016G individuals survived at higher rates than either heterozygous or wild-type (1016 V) mosquitoes. The 1016G mutation was significantly and positively associated with deltamethrin resistance and was widely distributed throughout Thailand. Interestingly, wild-type 1016 V mosquitoes tested were homozygous for the 1534C mutation, and all heterozygous mosquitoes were also heterozygous for 1534C. Mutant homozygous (G/G) mosquitoes expressed the wild-type (F/F) at position 1534. However, the presence of the 1534C mutation was not associated with deltamethrin resistance. Our bioassay results indicate that all populations sampled display some degree of resistance to deltamethrin. Homozygous 1016G mosquitoes were far likelier to survive such exposure. However, resistance in some

  19. A survey of pyrethroid-resistant populations of Meligethes aeneus F. in Poland indicates the incidence of numerous substitutions in the pyrethroid target site of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in individual beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesińska, B; Czerwoniec, A; Wieczorek, P; Węgorek, P; Zamojska, J; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, A

    2014-10-01

    The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) is the most devastating pest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and is controlled by pyrethroid insecticides. However, resistance to pyrethroids in Europe is becoming widespread and predominant. Pyrethroids target the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC), and mutations in VSSC may be responsible for pyrethroid insensitivity. Here, we analysed individual beetles that were resistant to esfenvalerate, a pyrethroid, from 14 populations that were collected from oilseed rape fields in Poland. We screened the VSSC domains that were presumed to directly interact with pyrethroids. We identified 18 heterozygous nucleic acid substitutions, amongst which six caused an amino acid change: N912S, G926S, I936V, R957G, F1538L and E1553G. Our analysis of the three-dimensional structure of these domains in VSSC revealed that some of these changes may slightly influence the protein structure and hence the docking efficiency of esfenvalerate. Therefore, these mutations may impact the susceptibility of the sodium channel to the action of this insecticide. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. The natural scorpion peptide, BmK NT1 activates voltage-gated sodium channels and produces neurotoxicity in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaohan; He, Yuwei; Qiao, Jinping; Zhang, Chunlei; Cao, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    The scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat neuronal diseases such as neuropathic pain, paralysis and epilepsy for thousands of years. Studies have demonstrated that scorpion venom is the primary active component. Although scorpion venom can effectively attenuate pain in the clinic, it also produces neurotoxic response. In this study, toxicity guided purification led to identify a mammalian toxin termed BmK NT1 comprising of 65 amino acid residues and an amidated C-terminus, a mature peptide encoded by the nucleotide sequence (GenBank No. AF464898). In contract to the recombinant product of the same nucleotide sequence, BmK AGAP, which displayed analgesic and anti-tumor effect, intravenous injection (i.v.) of BmK NT1 produced acute toxicity in mice with an LD50 value of 1.36 mg/kg. In primary cultured cerebellar granule cells, BmK NT1 produced a concentration-dependent cell death with an IC50 value of 0.65 μM (0.41-1.03 μM, 95% Confidence Intervals, 95% CI) which was abolished by TTX, a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker. We also demonstrated that BmK NT1 produced modest sodium influx in cerebellar granule cell cultures with an EC50 value of 2.19 μM (0.76-6.40 μM, 95% CI), an effect similar to VGSC agonist, veratridine. The sodium influx response was abolished by TTX suggesting that BmK NT1-induced sodium influx is solely through activation of VGSC. Considered these data together, we demonstrated that BmK NT1 activated VGSC and produced neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cell cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Loss of functional K+ channels encoded by ether-à-go-go-related genes in mouse myometrium prior to labour onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, I A; Yeung, S Y; Tribe, R M; Ohya, S

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that ion channels encoded by the ether-à-go-go-related gene family have a functional impact in smooth muscle in addition to their accepted role in cardiac myocytes and neurones. This study aimed to assess the expression of ERG1–3 (KCNH1–3) genes in the murine myometrium (smooth muscle layer of the uterus) and determine the functional impact of the ion channels encoded by these genes in pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Quantitative RT-PCR did not detect message for ERG2 and 3 in whole myometrial tissue extracts. In contrast, message for two isoforms of mERG1 were readily detected with mERG1a more abundant than mERG1b. In isometric tension studies of non-pregnant myometrium, the ERG channel blockers dofetilide (1 μm), E4031 (1 μm) and Be-KM1 (100 nm) increased spontaneous contractility and ERG activators (PD118057 and NS1643) inhibited spontaneous contractility. In contrast, neither ERG blockade nor activation had any effect on the inherent contractility in myometrium from late pregnant (19 days gestation) animals. Moreover, dofetilide-sensitive K+ currents with distinctive ‘hooked’ kinetics were considerably smaller in uterine myocytes from late pregnant compared to non-pregnant animals. Expression of mERG1 isoforms did not alter throughout gestation or upon delivery, but the expression of genes encoding auxillary subunits (KCNE) were up-regulated considerably. This study provides the first evidence for a regulation of ERG-encoded K+ channels as a precursor to late pregnancy physiological activity. PMID:19332483

  2. Co-overexpressing a plasma membrane and a vacuolar membrane sodium/proton antiporter significantly improves salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane bound sodium/proton (Sodium/Hydrogen) antiporter that transports sodium into the vacuole and exports hydrogen into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane bound sodium/hydrogen antiporter that exports sodium to the ex...

  3. Convergent Substitutions in a Sodium Channel Suggest Multiple Origins of Toxin Resistance in Poison Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, Rebecca D; Santos, Juan C; O'Connell, Lauren A; Zakon, Harold H; Cannatella, David C

    2016-04-01

    Complex phenotypes typically have a correspondingly multifaceted genetic component. However, the genotype-phenotype association between chemical defense and resistance is often simple: genetic changes in the binding site of a toxin alter how it affects its target. Some toxic organisms, such as poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae), have defensive alkaloids that disrupt the function of ion channels, proteins that are crucial for nerve and muscle activity. Using protein-docking models, we predict that three major classes of poison frog alkaloids (histrionicotoxins, pumiliotoxins, and batrachotoxins) bind to similar sites in the highly conserved inner pore of the muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.4. We predict that poison frogs are somewhat resistant to these compounds because they have six types of amino acid replacements in the Nav1.4 inner pore that are absent in all other frogs except for a distantly related alkaloid-defended frog from Madagascar, Mantella aurantiaca. Protein-docking models and comparative phylogenetics support the role of these replacements in alkaloid resistance. Taking into account the four independent origins of chemical defense in Dendrobatidae, phylogenetic patterns of the amino acid replacements suggest that 1) alkaloid resistance in Nav1.4 evolved independently at least seven times in these frogs, 2) variation in resistance-conferring replacements is likely a result of differences in alkaloid exposure across species, and 3) functional constraint shapes the evolution of the Nav1.4 inner pore. Our study is the first to demonstrate the genetic basis of autoresistance in frogs with alkaloid defenses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Novel cytochrome P450 (CYP6D1) and voltage sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) alleles of the house fly (Musca domestica) and their roles in pyrethroid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing; Yang, Chan; Liu, Yan; Gao, Qi; Li, Mei; Qiu, Xinghui

    2018-04-01

    The house fly Musca domestica is an important disease vector. Point mutation-mediated target-site insensitivity of the voltage sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) and increased detoxification mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP6D1) overexpression have been characterized as two major mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance. In this study, genetic mutations in the Vssc and CYP6D1 genes and their contribution to pyrethroid resistance were investigated. Twelve lines of house flies homozygous for four genotypes were established. House flies carrying the VSSC 1014F mutation and overexpressing CYP6D1 had higher resistance to pyrethroids than those carrying 1014F alone. The presence of the 15-bp insert in the promoter region of the CYP6D1 gene did not necessarily result in a significant increase in CYP6D1 mRNA and pyrethroid resistance levels. A novel Vssc allele carrying two mutations (G1924D and G2004S) in combination with the classic 1014F and a novel CYP6D1 allele that is very similar to CYP6D1v1 were identified in Chinese house flies. This work demonstrates the effect of genetic mutations in CYP6D1 and Vssc on the susceptibility of house flies to pyrethroids, and verifies that 15-bp insert-containing CYP6D1 alleles have a single origin. These findings offer insights into the evolution of insecticide resistance and have implications for house fly control. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Identification of Ppk26, a DEG/ENaC Channel Functioning with Ppk1 in a Mutually Dependent Manner to Guide Locomotion Behavior in Drosophila

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    David A. Gorczyca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A major gap in our understanding of sensation is how a single sensory neuron can differentially respond to a multitude of different stimuli (polymodality, such as propio- or nocisensation. The prevailing hypothesis is that different stimuli are transduced through ion channels with diverse properties and subunit composition. In a screen for ion channel genes expressed in polymodal nociceptive neurons, we identified Ppk26, a member of the trimeric degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC family, as being necessary for proper locomotion behavior in Drosophila larvae in a mutually dependent fashion with coexpressed Ppk1, another member of the same family. Mutants lacking Ppk1 and Ppk26 were defective in mechanical, but not thermal, nociception behavior. Mutants of Piezo, a channel involved in mechanical nociception in the same neurons, did not show a defect in locomotion, suggesting distinct molecular machinery for mediating locomotor feedback and mechanical nociception.

  6. Modular organization of α-toxins from scorpion venom mirrors domain structure of their targets, sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugunov, Anton O; Koromyslova, Anna D; Berkut, Antonina A; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Polyansky, Anton A; Pentkovsky, Vladimir M; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Grishin, Eugene V; Efremov, Roman G

    2013-06-28

    To gain success in the evolutionary "arms race," venomous animals such as scorpions produce diverse neurotoxins selected to hit targets in the nervous system of prey. Scorpion α-toxins affect insect and/or mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)s) and thereby modify the excitability of muscle and nerve cells. Although more than 100 α-toxins are known and a number of them have been studied into detail, the molecular mechanism of their interaction with Na(v)s is still poorly understood. Here, we employ extensive molecular dynamics simulations and spatial mapping of hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties distributed over the molecular surface of α-toxins. It is revealed that despite the small size and relatively rigid structure, these toxins possess modular organization from structural, functional, and evolutionary perspectives. The more conserved and rigid "core module" is supplemented with the "specificity module" (SM) that is comparatively flexible and variable and determines the taxon (mammal versus insect) specificity of α-toxin activity. We further show that SMs in mammal toxins are more flexible and hydrophilic than in insect toxins. Concomitant sequence-based analysis of the extracellular loops of Na(v)s suggests that α-toxins recognize the channels using both modules. We propose that the core module binds to the voltage-sensing domain IV, whereas the more versatile SM interacts with the pore domain in repeat I of Na(v)s. These findings corroborate and expand the hypothesis on different functional epitopes of toxins that has been reported previously. In effect, we propose that the modular structure in toxins evolved to match the domain architecture of Na(v)s.

  7. Urine exosomes from healthy and hypertensive pregnancies display elevated level of - α-subunit and cleaved - α- and γ-subunits of the epithelial sodium channel--ENaC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Ravn; Frederiksen-Møller, Britta; Langkilde, Rikke Zachar

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension, proteinuria, suppression of plasma renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and impaired urine sodium excretion. Aberrantly filtered plasmin in urine may activate proteolytically the γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and promote Na+ reabsorption...... aldosterone was higher in pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy, and the urine Na/K ratio was lower in preeclampsia compared to healthy pregnancy. Exosome markers ALIX and AQP-2 were stably associated with exosomes across groups. Exosomal α-ENaC-subunit migrated at 75 kDa and dominantly at 50 k......Da and was significantly elevated in pregnancy. In human kidney cortex tissue and two of four pelvis catheter urine, ~90-100 kDa full-length γ-ENaC was detected while no full-length γ-ENaC but 75, 60, and 37 kDa variants dominated in voided urine exosomes. There was no difference in γ-ENaC protein abundances between...

  8. Lupanine Improves Glucose Homeostasis by Influencing KATP Channels and Insulin Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Wiedemann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The glucose-lowering effects of lupin seeds involve the combined action of several components. The present study investigates the influence of one of the main quinolizidine alkaloids, lupanine, on pancreatic beta cells and in an animal model of type-2 diabetes mellitus. In vitro studies were performed with insulin-secreting INS-1E cells or islets of C57BL/6 mice. In the in vivo experiments, hyperglycemia was induced in rats by injecting streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body weight. In the presence of 15 mmol/L glucose, insulin secretion was significantly elevated by 0.5 mmol/L lupanine, whereas the alkaloid did not stimulate insulin release with lower glucose concentrations. In islets treated with l-arginine, the potentiating effect of lupanine already occurred at 8 mmol/L glucose. Lupanine increased the expression of the Ins-1 gene. The potentiating effect on secretion was correlated to membrane depolarization and an increase in the frequency of Ca2+ action potentials. Determination of the current through ATP-dependent K+ channels (KATP channels revealed that lupanine directly inhibited the channel. The effect was dose-dependent but, even with a high lupanine concentration of 1 mmol/L or after a prolonged exposure time (12 h, the KATP channel block was incomplete. Oral administration of lupanine did not induce hypoglycemia. By contrast, lupanine improved glycemic control in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In summary, lupanine acts as a positive modulator of insulin release obviously without a risk for hypoglycemic episodes.

  9. Efficacy of sodium channel blockers in SCN2A early infantile epileptic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilena, Robertino; Striano, Pasquale; Gennaro, Elena; Bassi, Laura; Olivotto, Sara; Tadini, Laura; Mosca, Fabio; Barbieri, Sergio; Zara, Federico; Fumagalli, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Recent clinical evidence supports a targeted therapeutic approach for genetic epileptic encephalopathies based on the molecular dysfunction. A 2-day-old male infant presented with epileptic encephalopathy characterized by burst-suppression EEG background and tonic-clonic migrating partial seizures. The condition was refractory to phenobarbital, pyridoxine, pyridoxal phosphate and levetiracetam, but a dramatic response to an intravenous loading dose of phenytoin was documented by video-EEG monitoring. Over weeks phenytoin was successfully switched to carbamazepine to prevent seizure relapses associated with difficulty in maintaining proper blood levels of phenytoin. Genetic analysis identified a novel de novo heterozygous mutation (c.[4633A>G]p.[Met1545Val]) in SCN2A. At two years and three months of age the patient is still seizure-free on carbamazepine, although a developmental delay is evident. Sodium channel blockers represent the first-line treatment for confirmed or suspected SCN2A-related epileptic encephalopathies. In severe cases with compatible electro-clinical features we propose a treatment algorithm based on a test trial with high dose intravenous phenytoin followed in case of a positive response by carbamazepine, more suitable for long-term maintenance treatment. Because of their rarity, collaborative studies are needed to delineate shared therapeutic protocols for EIEE based on the electro-clinical features and the presumed underlying genetic substrate. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of stochastic differential equation approximation of ion channel gating models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Ian C

    2009-04-01

    Fox and Lu derived an algorithm based on stochastic differential equations for approximating the kinetics of ion channel gating that is simpler and faster than "exact" algorithms for simulating Markov process models of channel gating. However, the approximation may not be sufficiently accurate to predict statistics of action potential generation in some cases. The objective of this study was to develop a framework for analyzing the inaccuracies and determining their origin. Simulations of a patch of membrane with voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels were performed using an exact algorithm for the kinetics of channel gating and the approximate algorithm of Fox & Lu. The Fox & Lu algorithm assumes that channel gating particle dynamics have a stochastic term that is uncorrelated, zero-mean Gaussian noise, whereas the results of this study demonstrate that in many cases the stochastic term in the Fox & Lu algorithm should be correlated and non-Gaussian noise with a non-zero mean. The results indicate that: (i) the source of the inaccuracy is that the Fox & Lu algorithm does not adequately describe the combined behavior of the multiple activation particles in each sodium and potassium channel, and (ii) the accuracy does not improve with increasing numbers of channels.

  11. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Castro, Héctor; Arenas, Isabel; García, David E; González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-05-05

    The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7), voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2), the A-type transient outward (IA) and delayed rectifier (IDR) currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels.

  13. Modeling removal of accumulated potassium from T-tubules by inward rectifier potassium channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, W.; Vliek, M.; Wienk, E.D.; Alberink, M.J.; Ypey, D.L.; Ypey, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The membrane models of Cannon et al. (1993) and Alberink et al. (1995) for mammalian skeletal muscle fibers are based upon Hodgkin-Huxley descriptions of sodium, potassium delayed rectifier and leak conductances and the capacitive current taking into account fast inactivation of sodium channels. Now

  14. Under sodium ultrasonic imaging system for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, V.H.; Lalwani, S.K.; Agashe, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Under Sodium UltraSonic Scanner (USUSS) has been developed to detect the growth and protrusion of fuel sub-assemblies of PFBR, submerged in liquid sodium by using the ultrasonic imaging technique during reactor shut-down when liquid sodium is at 180 ℃. The imaging is carried out prior to every Fuel handling operation. Electronics Division, BARC has designed and developed an 8-Channel Ultrasonic Imaging System (UIS) which consists of 4 downward viewing and 4 side viewing ultrasonic transducers alongwith pulser-receiver, signal processing electronics hardware and software. An automated mechanical scanner developed by IGCAR houses sodium immersible transducers to image the fuel sub assemblies. The system has been successfully tested with dummy protruding and grown FSAs, submerged under liquid sodium. Such ultrasonic imaging systems are not available to India from international market. The USUSS developed indigenously has all the features available in similar systems developed by other countries. After every imaging campaign, the mechanical scanner containing ultrasonic transducers is stored in the Argon filled storage-pit. Before every campaign of USUSS, it is necessary to check the healthiness of the sodium immersible and contaminated ultrasonic transducers, as the under-sodium scanner is decontaminated once in five years. For this purpose, a novel Non Contact Ultrasonic Inspection System (NCUIS) has been designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC to check the functionality of the high-temperature and contaminated transducers of USUSS, using air-coupled ultrasonic technique. (author)

  15. Localization of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and their effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigemino-neuronal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Johansson, H.; Amrutkar, D.V.; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are membrane proteins contributing to electrical propagation through neurons. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide found in the trigeminovascular system (TGVS). Both BK(Ca) channels and CGRP are involved in migrai...

  16. Detection Test for Leakage of CO2 into Sodium Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong

    2015-01-01

    This report is about the facility for the detection test for leakage of CO 2 into sodium loop. The facility for the detection test for leakage of CO 2 into sodium loop was introduced. The test will be carried out. Our experimental results are going to be expected to be used for approach methods to detect CO 2 leaking into sodium in heat exchangers. A sodium-and-carbon dioxide (Na-CO 2 ) heat exchanger is one of the key components for the supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle power conversion system of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). A printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is considered for the Na-CO 2 heat exchanger, which is known to have potential for reducing the volume occupied by the exchangers compared to traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Among various issues about the Na- CO 2 exchanger, detection of CO 2 leaking into sodium in the heat exchanger is most important thing for its safe operation. It is known that reaction products from sodium and CO 2 such as sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) and amorphous carbon are hardly soluble in sodium, which cause plug sodium channels. Detection technique for Na 2 CO 3 in sodium loop has not been developed yet. Therefore, detection of CO 2 and CO from reaction of sodium and CO 2 are proper to detect CO 2 leakage into sodium loop

  17. Prediction of sodium critical heat flux (CHF) in annular channel using grey systems theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Su Guanghui; Zhang Weizhong; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan

    2001-01-01

    Using grey systems theory and experimental data obtained from sodium boiling test loop in China, the grey mutual analysis of some parameters influencing sodium CHF is carried out, and the CHF values are predicted by GM(1, 1) model. The GM(1, h) model is established for CHF prediction, and the predicted CHF values are good agreement with the experimental data

  18. Coevolution of the Ile1,016 and Cys1,534 Mutations in the Voltage Gated Sodium Channel Gene of Aedes aegypti in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Z Vera-Maloof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L. is the principal urban vector of dengue viruses. Currently 2.5 billion people are at risk for infection and reduction of Ae. aegypti populations is the most effective means to reduce the risk of transmission. Pyrethroids are used extensively for adult mosquito control, especially during dengue outbreaks. Pyrethroids promote activation and prolong the activation of the voltage gated sodium channel protein (VGSC by interacting with two distinct pyrethroid receptor sites [1], formed by the interfaces of the transmembrane helix subunit 6 (S6 of domains II and III. Mutations of S6 in domains II and III synergize so that double mutants have higher pyrethroid resistance than mutants in either domain alone. Computer models predict an allosteric interaction between mutations in the two domains. In Ae. aegypti, a Ile1,016 mutation in the S6 of domain II was discovered in 2006 and found to be associated with pyrethroid resistance in field populations in Mexico. In 2010 a second mutation, Cys1,534 in the S6 of domain III was discovered and also found to be associated with pyrethroid resistance and correlated with the frequency of Ile1,016.A linkage disequilibrium analysis was performed on Ile1,016 and Cys1,534 in Ae. aegypti collected in Mexico from 2000-2012 to test for statistical associations between S6 in domains II and III in natural populations. We estimated the frequency of the four dilocus haplotypes in 1,016 and 1,534: Val1,016/Phe1,534 (susceptible, Val1,016/Cys1,534, Ile1,016/Phe1,534, and Ile1,016/Cys1,534 (resistant. The susceptible Val1,016/Phe1,534 haplotype went from near fixation to extinction and the resistant Ile1,016/Cys1,534 haplotype increased in all collections from a frequency close to zero to frequencies ranging from 0.5-0.9. The Val1,016/Cys1,534 haplotype increased in all collections until 2008 after which it began to decline as Ile1,016/Cys1,534 increased. However, the Ile1,016/Phe1

  19. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lazcano-Pérez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7, voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2, the A-type transient outward (IA and delayed rectifier (IDR currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels.

  20. Dopamine negatively modulates the NCA ion channels in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalidou, Irini; Cooper, Kirsten; Pereira, Laura; Ailion, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The NALCN/NCA ion channel is a cation channel related to voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. NALCN has been reported to be a sodium leak channel with a conserved role in establishing neuronal resting membrane potential, but its precise cellular role and regulation are unclear. The Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of NALCN, NCA-1 and NCA-2, act in premotor interneurons to regulate motor circuit activity that sustains locomotion. Recently we found that NCA-1 and NCA-2 are activated by a signal transduction pathway acting downstream of the heterotrimeric G protein Gq and the small GTPase Rho. Through a forward genetic screen, here we identify the GPCR kinase GRK-2 as a new player affecting signaling through the Gq-Rho-NCA pathway. Using structure-function analysis, we find that the GPCR phosphorylation and membrane association domains of GRK-2 are required for its function. Genetic epistasis experiments suggest that GRK-2 acts on the D2-like dopamine receptor DOP-3 to inhibit Go signaling and positively modulate NCA-1 and NCA-2 activity. Through cell-specific rescuing experiments, we find that GRK-2 and DOP-3 act in premotor interneurons to modulate NCA channel function. Finally, we demonstrate that dopamine, through DOP-3, negatively regulates NCA activity. Thus, this study identifies a pathway by which dopamine modulates the activity of the NCA channels.

  1. Changes in urinary excretion of water and sodium transporters during amiloride and bendroflumethiazide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janni M; Mose, Frank H; Kulik, Anna-Ewa O

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To quantify changes in urinary excretion of aquaporin2 water channels (u-AQP2), the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (u-NKCC2) and the epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaC) during treatment with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ), amiloride and placebo. METHODS: In a randomized, double....... General linear model with repeated measures or related samples Friedman's two-way analysis was used to compare differences. Post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons of post infusion periods to baseline within each treatment group. RESULTS: At baseline there were no differences in u...... by the constant infusion clearance technique with (51)Cr-EDTA as reference substance. To estimate the changes in water transport via AQP2 and sodium transport via NKCC2 and ENaC, u-NKCC2, the gamma fraction of ENaC (u-ENaCγ), and u-AQP2 were measured at baseline and after infusion with 3% hypertonic saline. U...

  2. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Preziosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, P<0.05, clpn2 (1.3-fold increase, P<0.05, and clpn3 (13.0-fold decrease, P<0.05, whereas the subsequent refeeding did not change the expression of these genes as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Calpain catalytic activity in channel catfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01 after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  3. MiR-30b Attenuates Neuropathic Pain by Regulating Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Nav1.3 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songxue Su

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nav1.3 is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive isoform among voltage-gated sodium channels that are closely associated with neuropathic pain. It can be up-regulated following nerve injury, but its biological function remains uncertain. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous non-coding RNAs that can regulate post-transcriptional gene expression by binding with their target mRNAs. Using Target Scan software, we discovered that SCN3A is the major target of miR-30b, and we then determined whether miR-30b regulated the expression of Nav1.3 by transfecting miR-30b agomir through the stimulation of TNF-α or by transfecting miR-30b antagomir in primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. The spinal nerve ligation (SNL model was used to determine the contribution of miR-30b to neuropathic pain, to evaluate changes in Nav1.3 mRNA and protein expression, and to understand the sensitivity of rats to mechanical and thermal stimuli. Our results showed that miR-30b agomir transfection down-regulated Nav1.3 mRNA stimulated with TNF-α in primary DRG neurons. Moreover, miR-30b overexpression significantly attenuated neuropathic pain induced by SNL, with decreases in the expression of Nav1.3 mRNA and protein both in DRG neurons and spinal cord. Activation of Nav1.3 caused by miR-30b antagomir was identified. These data suggest that miR-30b is involved in the development of neuropathic pain, probably by regulating the expression of Nav1.3, and might be a novel therapeutic target for neuropathic pain.Perspective: This study is the first to explore the important role of miR-30b and Nav1.3 in spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain, and our evidence may provide new insight for improving therapeutic approaches to pain.

  4. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  5. dyschronic, a Drosophila homolog of a deaf-blindness gene, regulates circadian output and Slowpoke channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E C Jepson

    Full Text Available Many aspects of behavior and physiology are under circadian control. In Drosophila, the molecular clock that regulates rhythmic patterns of behavior has been extensively characterized. In contrast, genetic loci involved in linking the clock to alterations in motor activity have remained elusive. In a forward-genetic screen, we uncovered a new component of the circadian output pathway, which we have termed dyschronic (dysc. dysc mutants exhibit arrhythmic locomotor behavior, yet their eclosion rhythms are normal and clock protein cycling remains intact. Intriguingly, dysc is the closest Drosophila homolog of whirlin, a gene linked to type II Usher syndrome, the leading cause of deaf-blindness in humans. Whirlin and other Usher proteins are expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, yet their function in the CNS has not been investigated. We show that DYSC is expressed in major neuronal tracts and regulates expression of the calcium-activated potassium channel SLOWPOKE (SLO, an ion channel also required in the circadian output pathway. SLO and DYSC are co-localized in the brain and control each other's expression post-transcriptionally. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate they form a complex, suggesting they regulate each other through protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, electrophysiological recordings of neurons in the adult brain show that SLO-dependent currents are greatly reduced in dysc mutants. Our work identifies a Drosophila homolog of a deaf-blindness gene as a new component of the circadian output pathway and an important regulator of ion channel expression, and suggests novel roles for Usher proteins in the mammalian nervous system.

  6. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 4 predominantly localizes to an early endosome-related organelle upon heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Verena; Friedrich, Katharina; Polleichtner, Georg; Gründer, Stefan

    2015-12-15

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are voltage-independent proton-gated amiloride sensitive sodium channels, belonging to the DEG/ENaC gene family. Six different ASICs have been identified (ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3, ASIC4) that are activated by a drop in extracellular pH, either as homo- or heteromers. An exception is ASIC4, which is not activated by protons as a homomer and which does not contribute to functional heteromeric ASICs. Insensitivity of ASIC4 to protons and its comparatively low sequence identity to other ASICs (45%) raises the question whether ASIC4 may have different functions than other ASICs. In this study, we therefore investigated the subcellular localization of ASIC4 in heterologous cell lines, which revealed a surprising accumulation of the channel in early endosome-related vacuoles. Moreover, we identified an unique amino-terminal motif as important for forward-trafficking from the ER/Golgi to the early endosome-related compartment. Collectively, our results show that heterologously expressed ASIC4 predominantly resides in an intracellular endosomal compartment.

  7. Investigations of the Navβ1b sodium channel subunit in human ventricle; functional characterization of the H162P Brugada Syndrome mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Lei; Koivumaki, Jussi; Liang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Brugada Syndrome (BrS) is a rare inherited disease which can give rise to ventricular arrhythmia and ultimately sudden cardiac death. Numerous loss-of-function mutations in the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 have been associated with BrS. However, few mutations in the auxiliary Navβ1-4 subunits ha...... density was reduced by 48 % (-645±151 vs - 334±71 pA/pF), V1/2 steady-state inactivation shifted by -6.7 mV (-70.3±1.5 vs. -77.0±2.8 mV), and time-dependent recovery from inactivation slowed by more than 50% as compared to co-expression with Navβ1b WT. Computer simulations revealed...

  8. FMRFamide-gated sodium channel and ASIC channels: a new class of ionotropic receptors for FMRFamide and related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingueglia, Eric; Deval, Emmanuel; Lazdunski, Michel

    2006-05-01

    FMRFamide and related peptides typically exert their action through G-protein coupled receptors. However, two ionotropic receptors for these peptides have recently been identified. They are both members of the epithelial amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel and degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family of ion channels. The invertebrate FMRFamide-gated Na+ channel (FaNaC) is a neuronal Na+-selective channel which is directly gated by micromolar concentrations of FMRFamide and related tetrapeptides. Its response is fast and partially desensitizing, and FaNaC has been proposed to participate in peptidergic neurotransmission. On the other hand, mammalian acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are not gated but are directly modulated by FMRFamide and related mammalian peptides like NPFF and NPSF. ASICs are activated by external protons and are therefore extracellular pH sensors. They are expressed both in the central and peripheral nervous system and appear to be involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes such as hippocampal long-term potentiation and defects in learning and memory, acquired fear-related behavior, retinal function, brain ischemia, pain sensation in ischemia and inflammation, taste perception, hearing functions, and mechanoperception. The potentiation of ASIC activity by endogenous RFamide neuropeptides probably participates in the response to noxious acidosis in sensory and central neurons. Available data also raises the possibility of the existence of still unknown FMRFamide related endogenous peptides acting as direct agonists for ASICs.

  9. Anion channels: master switches of stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-04-01

    During stress, plant cells activate anion channels and trigger the release of anions across the plasma membrane. Recently, two new gene families have been identified that encode major groups of anion channels. The SLAC/SLAH channels are characterized by slow voltage-dependent activation (S-type), whereas ALMT genes encode rapid-activating channels (R-type). Both S- and R-type channels are stimulated in guard cells by the stress hormone ABA, which leads to stomatal closure. Besides their role in ABA-dependent stomatal movement, anion channels are also activated by biotic stress factors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Given that anion channels occur throughout the plant kingdom, they are likely to serve a general function as master switches of stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Renal Dysfunction Induced by Kidney-Specific Gene Deletion of Hsd11b2 as a Primary Cause of Salt-Dependent Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kohei; Nishimoto, Mitsuhiro; Hirohama, Daigoro; Ayuzawa, Nobuhiro; Kawarazaki, Wakako; Watanabe, Atsushi; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Loffing, Johannes; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Marumo, Takeshi; Fujita, Toshiro

    2017-07-01

    Genome-wide analysis of renal sodium-transporting system has identified specific variations of Mendelian hypertensive disorders, including HSD11B2 gene variants in apparent mineralocorticoid excess. However, these genetic variations in extrarenal tissue can be involved in developing hypertension, as demonstrated in former studies using global and brain-specific Hsd11b2 knockout rodents. To re-examine the importance of renal dysfunction on developing hypertension, we generated kidney-specific Hsd11b2 knockout mice. The knockout mice exhibited systemic hypertension, which was abolished by reducing salt intake, suggesting its salt-dependency. In addition, we detected an increase in renal membrane expressions of cleaved epithelial sodium channel-α and T53-phosphorylated Na + -Cl - cotransporter in the knockout mice. Acute intraperitoneal administration of amiloride-induced natriuresis and increased urinary sodium/potassium ratio more in the knockout mice compared with those in the wild-type control mice. Chronic administration of amiloride and high-KCl diet significantly decreased mean blood pressure in the knockout mice, which was accompanied with the correction of hypokalemia and the resultant decrease in Na + -Cl - cotransporter phosphorylation. Accordingly, a Na + -Cl - cotransporter blocker hydrochlorothiazide significantly decreased mean blood pressure in the knockout mice. Chronic administration of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone significantly decreased mean blood pressure of the knockout mice along with downregulation of cleaved epithelial sodium channel-α and phosphorylated Na + -Cl - cotransporter expression in the knockout kidney. Our data suggest that kidney-specific deficiency of 11β-HSD2 leads to salt-dependent hypertension, which is attributed to mineralocorticoid receptor-epithelial sodium channel-Na + -Cl - cotransporter activation in the kidney, and provides evidence that renal dysfunction is essential for developing the

  11. Knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of a malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and PCR assays for their detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om P; Dykes, Cherry L; Lather, Manila; Agrawal, Om P; Adak, Tridibes

    2011-03-14

    Knockdown resistance (kdr) in insects, resulting from mutation(s) in the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene is one of the mechanisms of resistance against DDT and pyrethroid-group of insecticides. The most common mutation(s) associated with knockdown resistance in insects, including anophelines, has been reported to be present at residue Leu1014 in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of the vgsc gene. This study reports the presence of two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014S and L1014F, at this residue in a major malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and describes new PCR assays for their detection. Part of the vgsc (IIS4-S5 linker-to-IIS6 transmembrane segment) of An. stephensi collected from Alwar (Rajasthan, India) was PCR-amplified from genomic DNA, sequenced and analysed for the presence of deduced amino acid substitution(s). Analysis of DNA sequences revealed the presence of two alternative non-synonymous point mutations at L1014 residue in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of vgsc, i.e., T>C mutation on the second position and A>T mutation on the third position of the codon, leading to Leu (TTA)-to-Ser (TCA) and -Phe (TTT) amino acid substitutions, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed for identification of each of these two point mutations. Genotyping of An. stephensi mosquitoes from Alwar by PCR assays revealed the presence of both mutations, with a high frequency of L1014S. The PCR assays developed for detection of the kdr mutations were specific as confirmed by DNA sequencing of PCR-genotyped samples. Two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014S and L1014F, were detected in An. stephensi with a high allelic frequency of L1014S. The occurrence of L1014S is being reported for the first time in An. stephensi. Two specific PCR assays were developed for detection of two kdr-like mutations in An. stephensi.

  12. Formation of a sodium bicarbonate cluster in the structure of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, M. V.; Kamzin, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    Ceramic sodium-substituted carbonated hydroxyapatite has been synthesized using the method of the solid-phase reaction in the temperature range of 640-820°C in water vapor. It has been established that substitutions of Ca2+ ions in the cation and anion subsystems with Na+ ions and the PO{4/3-} and OH- groups with CO{3/2-} ions lead to a considerable acceleration of the shrinkage and synthesis of dense ceramics at substantially lower temperatures than in the case of unsubstituted hydroxyapatite. Sintering in water vapor leads to densification of carbonate groups in channel positions, which induces the appearance of orderings of A2 and B2 types (bands with wave numbers 867 and 865 cm-1 in IR spectra, respectively) as well as the protonation of carbonate groups both in A and B sites and the formation of sodium bicarbonate clusters (856 and 859 cm-1) in addition to carbonate ordering of A1 and B1 types (879 and 872 cm-1).

  13. Development and Testing of an In Vitro Assay for Screening of Potential Therapeutic Agents against Na Channel Neurotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-03

    or by synthesis , the search almost certainly would have failed (3). Fortunately, the accumulated knowledge of sodium channel pharmacology allows the...distinct sodium channel domains. These studies were made possible by the synthesis of a tritiated analog of BTX, batrachotoxinin-A benzoate (BTX-B), of...elaborated upon. Creveling et al. (11) found that the local anesthetic lidocaine ethiodide was 10 times more potent at displacing specifically bound [3H]BTX-B

  14. Surface dynamics of voltage-gated ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Martin; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna; Voigt, Andreas; Heck, Jennifer; Bikbaev, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neurons encode information in fast changes of the membrane potential, and thus electrical membrane properties are critically important for the integration and processing of synaptic inputs by a neuron. These electrical properties are largely determined by ion channels embedded in the membrane. The distribution of most ion channels in the membrane is not spatially uniform: they undergo activity-driven changes in the range of minutes to days. Even in the range of milliseconds, the composition and topology of ion channels are not static but engage in highly dynamic processes including stochastic or activity-dependent transient association of the pore-forming and auxiliary subunits, lateral diffusion, as well as clustering of different channels. In this review we briefly discuss the potential impact of mobile sodium, calcium and potassium ion channels and the functional significance of this for individual neurons and neuronal networks. PMID:26891382

  15. Current-voltage curve of sodium channels and concentration dependence of sodium permeability in frog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, W; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Lindemann, B

    1977-01-01

    1. The inward facing membranes of in vitro frog skin epithelium were depolarized with solutions of high K concentration. The electrical properties of the epithelium are then expected to be governed by the outward facing, Na-selective membrane.2. In this state, the transepithelial voltage (V...... was recorded. This procedure was repeated after blocking the Na channels with amiloride to obtain the current-voltage curve of transmembrane and paracellular shunt pathways. The current-voltage curve of the Na channels was computed by subtracting the shunt current from the total current.4. The instantaneous I...... of the inward facing membranes but reflects the true behaviour of P(Na).6. The steady-state P(Na) at a given (Na)(o) is smaller than the transient P(Na) observed right after a stepwise increase of (Na)(o) to this value. The time constant of P(Na)-relaxation is in the order of seconds.7. In conclusion, Na...

  16. Dose response evaluation of gene expression profiles in the skin of K6/ODC mice exposed to sodium arsenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlborn, Gene J.; Nelson, Gail M.; Ward, William O.; Knapp, Geremy; Allen, James W.; Ouyang Ming; Roop, Barbara C.; Chen Yan; O'Brien, Thomas; Kitchin, Kirk T.; Delker, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic drinking water exposure to inorganic arsenic and its metabolites increases tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, we characterized gene expression profiles from analysis of K6/ODC mice administered 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1.0 and 10 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 4 weeks. Following exposure, total RNA was isolated from mouse skin and processed to biotin-labeled cRNA for microarray analyses. Skin gene expression was analyzed with Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 GeneChips (registered) , and pathway analysis was conducted with DAVID (NIH), Ingenuity (registered) Systems and MetaCore's GeneGo. Differential expression of several key genes was verified through qPCR. Only the highest dose (10 ppm) resulted in significantly altered KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways, including MAPK, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Wnt, Jak-Stat, Tight junction, Toll-like, phosphatidylinositol and insulin signaling pathways. Approximately 20 genes exhibited a dose response, including several genes known to be associated with carcinogenesis or tumor progression including cyclin D1, CLIC4, Ephrin A1, STAT3 and DNA methyltransferase 3a. Although transcription changes in all identified genes have not previously been linked to arsenic carcinogenesis, their association with carcinogenesis in other systems suggests that these genes may play a role in the early stages of arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis and can be considered potential biomarkers

  17. Activity of the anticonvulsant lacosamide in experimental and human epilepsy via selective effects on slow Na+ channel inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Dominik; Opitz, Thoralf; Niespodziany, Isabelle; Wolff, Christian; Beck, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    In human epilepsy, pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drug therapy is a major problem affecting ~30% of patients with epilepsy. Many classical antiepileptic drugs target voltage-gated sodium channels, and their potent activity in inhibiting high-frequency firing has been attributed to their strong use-dependent blocking action. In chronic epilepsy, a loss of use-dependent block has emerged as a potential cellular mechanism of pharmacoresistance for anticonvulsants acting on voltage-gated sodium channels. The anticonvulsant drug lacosamide (LCM) also targets sodium channels, but has been shown to preferentially affect sodium channel slow inactivation processes, in contrast to most other anticonvulsants. We used whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in acutely isolated cells to investigate the effects of LCM on transient Na + currents. Furthermore, we used whole-cell current clamp recordings to assess effects on repetitive action potential firing in hippocampal slices. We show here that LCM exerts its effects primarily via shifting the slow inactivation voltage dependence to more hyperpolarized potentials in hippocampal dentate granule cells from control and epileptic rats, and from patients with epilepsy. It is important to note that this activity of LCM was maintained in chronic experimental and human epilepsy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the efficacy of LCM in inhibiting high-frequency firing is undiminished in chronic experimental and human epilepsy. Taken together, these results show that LCM exhibits maintained efficacy in chronic epilepsy, in contrast to conventional use-dependent sodium channel blockers such as carbamazepine. They also establish that targeting slow inactivation may be a promising strategy for overcoming target mechanisms of pharmacoresistance. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. The Deletion of Endothelial Sodium Channel α (αENaC Impairs Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation and Endothelial Barrier Integrity in Endotoxemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sternak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC activity in the regulation of endothelial function is not clear. Here, we analyze the role of ENaC in the regulation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation and endothelial permeability in vivo in mice with conditional αENaC subunit gene inactivation in the endothelium (endo-αENaCKO mice using unique MRI-based analysis of acetylcholine-, flow-mediated dilation and vascular permeability. Mice were challenged or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, from Salmonella typhosa, 10 mg/kg, i.p.. In addition, changes in vascular permeability in ex vivo organs were analyzed by Evans Blue assay, while changes in vascular permeability in perfused mesenteric artery were determined by a FITC-dextran-based assay. In basal conditions, Ach-induced response was completely lost, flow-induced vasodilation was inhibited approximately by half but endothelial permeability was not changed in endo-αENaCKO vs. control mice. In LPS-treated mice, both Ach- and flow-induced vasodilation was more severely impaired in endo-αENaCKO vs. control mice. There was also a dramatic increase in permeability in lungs, brain and isolated vessels as evidenced by in vivo and ex vivo analysis in endotoxemic endo-αENaCKO vs. control mice. The impaired endothelial function in endotoxemia in endo-αENaCKO was associated with a decrease of lectin and CD31 endothelial staining in the lung as compared with control mice. In conclusion, the activity of endothelial ENaC in vivo contributes to endothelial-dependent vasodilation in the physiological conditions and the preservation of endothelial barrier integrity in endotoxemia.

  19. Heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 channels differentially regulate action potential initiation and conduction in neocortical myelinated axons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battefeld, A.; Tran, B.T.; Gavrilis, J.; Cooper, E.C.; Kole, Maarten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/256257574

    2014-01-01

    Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of Kv7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Nav ) channels in the axonal

  20. Heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 channels differentially regulate action potential initiation and conduction in neocortical myelinated axons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battefeld, A.; Tran, Baouyen T; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C; Kole, Maarten H P

    2014-01-01

    Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of K(v)7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels in the

  1. [Mechanism of action of neurotoxins acting on the inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, E

    1998-01-01

    This review focuses on the mechanism(s) of action of neurotoxins acting on the inactivation of voltage-gated Na channels. Na channels are transmembrane proteins which are fundamental for cellular communication. These proteins form pores in the plasma membrane allowing passive ionic movements to occur. Their opening and closing are controlled by gating systems which depend on both membrane potential and time. Na channels have three functional properties, mainly studied using electrophysiological and biochemical techniques, to ensure their role in the generation and propagation of action potentials: 1) a highly selectivity for Na ions, 2) a rapid opening ("activation"), responsible for the depolarizing phase of the action potential, and 3) a late closing ("inactivation") involved in the repolarizing phase of the action potential. As an essential protein for membrane excitability, the Na channel is the specific target of a number of vegetal and animal toxins which, by binding to the channel, alter its activity by affecting one or more of its properties. At least six toxin receptor sites have been identified on the neuronal Na channel on the basis of binding studies. However, only toxins interacting with four of these sites (sites 2, 3, 5 et 6) produce alterations of channel inactivation. The maximal percentage of Na channels modified by the binding of neurotoxins to sites 2 (batrachotoxin and some alkaloids), 3 (alpha-scorpion and sea anemone toxins), 5 (brevetoxins and ciguatoxins) et 6 (delta-conotoxins) is different according to the site considered. However, in all cases, these channels do not inactivate. Moreover, Na channels modified by toxins which bind to sites 2, 5 and 6 activate at membrane potentials more negative than do unmodified channels. The physiological consequences of Na channel modifications, induced by the binding of neurotoxins to sites 2, 3, 5 and 6, are (i) an inhibition of cellular excitability due to an important membrane depolarization (site

  2. The Venus Flytrap Dionaea muscipula Counts Prey-Induced Action Potentials to Induce Sodium Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Jennifer; Scherzer, Sönke; Krol, Elzbieta; Kreuzer, Ines; von Meyer, Katharina; Lorey, Christian; Mueller, Thomas D; Shabala, Lana; Monte, Isabel; Solano, Roberto; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Rennenberg, Heinz; Shabala, Sergey; Neher, Erwin; Hedrich, Rainer

    2016-02-08

    Carnivorous plants, such as the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), depend on an animal diet when grown in nutrient-poor soils. When an insect visits the trap and tilts the mechanosensors on the inner surface, action potentials (APs) are fired. After a moving object elicits two APs, the trap snaps shut, encaging the victim. Panicking preys repeatedly touch the trigger hairs over the subsequent hours, leading to a hermetically closed trap, which via the gland-based endocrine system is flooded by a prey-decomposing acidic enzyme cocktail. Here, we asked the question as to how many times trigger hairs have to be stimulated (e.g., now many APs are required) for the flytrap to recognize an encaged object as potential food, thus making it worthwhile activating the glands. By applying a series of trigger-hair stimulations, we found that the touch hormone jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway is activated after the second stimulus, while more than three APs are required to trigger an expression of genes encoding prey-degrading hydrolases, and that this expression is proportional to the number of mechanical stimulations. A decomposing animal contains a sodium load, and we have found that these sodium ions enter the capture organ via glands. We identified a flytrap sodium channel DmHKT1 as responsible for this sodium acquisition, with the number of transcripts expressed being dependent on the number of mechano-electric stimulations. Hence, the number of APs a victim triggers while trying to break out of the trap identifies the moving prey as a struggling Na(+)-rich animal and nutrition for the plant. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis associated with a mutation in the sodium channel gene SCN4A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew H; Markarian, Katherine; Braziunene, Ieva

    2004-12-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THypoKPP) is an uncommon disorder with an unknown etiology. We describe a family in which the proband presented with paralysis and thyrotoxicosis. Because of similarities between familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis (FHypoKPP) and THypoKPP, we sequenced exon 12 of the SCN4A gene, which is known to be mutated in FHypoKPP. We identified an Arg672Ser mutation in the proband and his affected father, as well as the proband's brother. As the brother has paralysis without thyrotoxicosis, our finding suggests that the genetic spectrum of FHypoKPP and THypoKPP overlap. We speculate that thyroid hormone may exert a threshold or permissive effect in hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Non-thyrotoxic family members of individuals with THypoKPP may have an unrecognized risk for paralysis.

  4. Detection Test for Leakage of CO{sub 2} into Sodium Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This report is about the facility for the detection test for leakage of CO{sub 2} into sodium loop. The facility for the detection test for leakage of CO{sub 2} into sodium loop was introduced. The test will be carried out. Our experimental results are going to be expected to be used for approach methods to detect CO{sub 2} leaking into sodium in heat exchangers. A sodium-and-carbon dioxide (Na-CO{sub 2}) heat exchanger is one of the key components for the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle power conversion system of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). A printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is considered for the Na-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger, which is known to have potential for reducing the volume occupied by the exchangers compared to traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Among various issues about the Na- CO{sub 2} exchanger, detection of CO{sub 2} leaking into sodium in the heat exchanger is most important thing for its safe operation. It is known that reaction products from sodium and CO{sub 2} such as sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and amorphous carbon are hardly soluble in sodium, which cause plug sodium channels. Detection technique for Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in sodium loop has not been developed yet. Therefore, detection of CO{sub 2} and CO from reaction of sodium and CO{sub 2} are proper to detect CO{sub 2} leakage into sodium loop.

  5. Rab11-dependent Recycling of the Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Channel*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeffery; Guo, Jun; Yang, Tonghua; Li, Wentao; Lamothe, Shawn M.; Kang, Yudi; Szendrey, John A.; Zhang, Shetuan

    2015-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr). A reduction in the hERG current causes long QT syndrome, which predisposes affected individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. We reported previously that hERG channels in the plasma membrane undergo vigorous internalization under low K+ conditions. In the present study, we addressed whether hERG internalization occurs under normal K+ conditions and whether/how internalized channels are recycled back to the plasma membrane. Using patch clamp, Western blot, and confocal imaging analyses, we demonstrated that internalized hERG channels can effectively recycle back to the plasma membrane. Low K+-enhanced hERG internalization is accompanied by an increased rate of hERG recovery in the plasma membrane upon reculture following proteinase K-mediated clearance of cell-surface proteins. The increased recovery rate is not due to enhanced protein synthesis, as hERG mRNA expression was not altered by low K+ exposure, and the increased recovery was observed in the presence of the protein biosynthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. GTPase Rab11, but not Rab4, is involved in the recycling of hERG channels. Interfering with Rab11 function not only delayed hERG recovery in cells after exposure to low K+ medium but also decreased hERG expression and function in cells under normal culture conditions. We concluded that the recycling pathway plays an important role in the homeostasis of plasma membrane-bound hERG channels. PMID:26152716

  6. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  7. Numerical study of the underexpanded nitrogen jets submerged into liquid sodium in the frame of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.; Allou, A.; Parisse, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    The study of the consequences of a gas leakage in the secondary/ tertiary heat exchangers is one of the essential points in the safety analysis of Sodium-cooled Fast nuclear Reactors (SFRs). This work is in the frame of the technology of the Compact plates Sodium-Gas heat Exchangers (ECSG) which is an alternative to conventional steam Rankine cycles. The overpressure of the tertiary nitrogen loop causes the formation of underexpanded gas jets submerged in the liquid sodium. In order to establish a safety evaluation, it would be an asset to be able to estimate the leakage. The gas leak detection by the acoustic method based on the bubbles field has been proposed. It requires then a delicate knowledge of the bubble field. This work contributes to development a numerical tool and its validation to model the transport and the production of bubbles in the downstream of underexpanded gas jets. The code CANOP modeling bi-phasic compressible flow is investigated under the actual condition of the underexpanded nitrogen jets submerged in the liquid sodium in an ECSG channel. Expensive computational cost is limited by using an Adaptive Mesh Refinement. (author)

  8. Reduced Sodium Current in the Lateral Ventricular Wall Induces Inferolateral J-Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijborg, Veronique M F; Potse, Mark; Conrath, Chantal E; Belterman, Charly N W; De Bakker, Jacques M T; Coronel, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    J-waves in inferolateral leads are associated with a higher risk for idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We aimed to test potential mechanisms (depolarization or repolarization dependent) responsible for inferolateral J-waves. We hypothesized that inferolateral J-waves can be caused by regional delayed activation of myocardium that is activated late during normal conditions. Computer simulations were performed to evaluate how J-point elevation is influenced by reducing sodium current conductivity (GNa), increasing transient outward current conductivity (Gto), or cellular uncoupling in three predefined ventricular regions (lateral, anterior, or septal). Two pig hearts were Langendorff-perfused with selective perfusion with a sodium channel blocker of lateral or anterior/septal regions. Volume-conducted pseudo-electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded to detect the presence of J-waves. Epicardial unipolar electrograms were simultaneously recorded to obtain activation times (AT). Simulation data showed that conduction slowing, caused by reduced sodium current, in lateral, but not in other regions induced inferolateral J-waves. An increase in transient outward potassium current or cellular uncoupling in the lateral zone elicited slight J-point elevations which did not meet J-wave criteria. Additional conduction slowing in the entire heart attenuated J-waves and J-point elevations on the ECG, because of masking by the QRS. Experimental data confirmed that conduction slowing attributed to sodium channel blockade in the left lateral but not in the anterior/septal ventricular region induced inferolateral J-waves. J-waves coincided with the delayed activation. Reduced sodium current in the left lateral ventricular myocardium can cause inferolateral J-waves on the ECG.

  9. Influence of Pyrethroid Insecticides on Sodium and Calcium Influx in Neocortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Using murine neocortical neurons in primary culture, we have compared the ability of 11 structurally diverse pyrethroid insecticides to evoke Na+ ...

  10. Different role of TTX-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV 1) subtypes in action potential initiation and conduction in vagal airway nociceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollarik, M; Sun, H; Herbstsomer, R A; Ru, F; Kocmalova, M; Meeker, S N; Undem, B J

    2018-04-15

    The action potential initiation in the nerve terminals and its subsequent conduction along the axons of afferent nerves are not necessarily dependent on the same voltage-gated sodium channel (Na V 1) subunits. The action potential initiation in jugular C-fibres within airway tissues is not blocked by TTX; nonetheless, conduction of action potentials along the vagal axons of these nerves is often dependent on TTX-sensitive channels. This is not the case for nodose airway Aδ-fibres and C-fibres, where both action potential initiation and conduction is abolished by TTX or selective Na V 1.7 blockers. The difference between the initiation of action potentials within the airways vs. conduction along the axons should be considered when developing Na V 1 blocking drugs for topical application to the respiratory tract. The action potential (AP) initiation in the nerve terminals and its subsequent AP conduction along the axons do not necessarily depend on the same subtypes of voltage-gated sodium channels (Na V 1s). We evaluated the role of TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant Na V 1s in vagal afferent nociceptor nerves derived from jugular and nodose ganglia innervating the respiratory system. Single cell RT-PCR was performed on vagal afferent neurons retrogradely labelled from the guinea pig trachea. Almost all of the jugular neurons expressed the TTX-sensitive channel Na V 1.7 along with TTX-resistant Na V 1.8 and Na V 1.9. Tracheal nodose neurons also expressed Na V 1.7 but, less frequently, Na V 1.8 and Na V 1.9. Na V 1.6 were expressed in ∼40% of the jugular and 25% of nodose tracheal neurons. Other Na V 1 α subunits were only rarely expressed. Single fibre recordings were made from the vagal nodose and jugular nerve fibres innervating the trachea or lung in the isolated perfused vagally-innervated preparations that allowed for selective drug delivery to the nerve terminal compartment (AP initiation) or to the desheathed vagus nerve (AP conduction). AP initiation in

  11. Molecular modelling studies of kdr mutations in voltage gated sodium channel revealed significant conformational variations contributing to insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Gopal, Jeyakodi; Kasinathan, Gunasekaran; Purushothaman, Jambulingam

    2018-06-01

    Voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC) of mosquito vectors are the primary targets of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and other synthetic pyrethroids used in public health programmes. The knockdown resistant (kdr) mutations in VGSC are associated with the insecticide resistance especially in Anophelines. The present study is aimed to emphasize and demarcate the impact of three kdr-mutations such as L1014S, L1014F and L1014H on insecticide resistance. The membrane model of sodium transport domain of VGSC (STD-VGSC) was constructed using de novo approach based on domain and trans-membrane predictions. The comparative molecular modelling studies of wild type and mutant models of STD-VGSC revealed that L1014F mutant was observed to be near native to the wild type model in all the respects, but, L1014S and L1014H mutations showed drastic variations in the energy levels, root mean square fluctuations (RMSF) that resulted in conformational variations. The predicted binding sites also showed variable cavity volumes and RMSF in L1014S and L1014H mutants. Further, DDT also found be bound in near native manner to wild type in L1014F mutant and with variable orientation and affinities in L1014S and L1014H mutants. The variations and fluctuations observed in mutant structures explained that each mutation has its specific impact on the conformation of VGSC and its binding with DDT. The study provides new insights into the structure-function-correlations of mutant STD-VGSC structures and demonstrates the role and effects of kdr mutations on insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors.

  12. ATP sensitive potassium channels in the skeletal muscle functions : involvement of the KCNJ11(Kir6.2 gene in the determination of Warner Bratzer shear force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico eTricarico

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-sensitive K+-channels (KATP are distributed in the tissues coupling metabolism with K+ ions efflux. KATP subunits are encoded by KCNJ8 (Kir6.1, KCNJ11 (Kir6.2, ABCC8 (SUR1 and ABCC9 (SUR2 genes, alternative RNA splicing give rise to SUR variants that confer distinct physiological properties on the channel. An high expression/activity of the sarco-KATP channel is observed in various rat fast-twitch muscles, characterized by elevated muscle strength, while a low expression/activity is observed in the slow-twitch muscles characterized by reduced strength and frailty. Down-regulation of the KATP subunits of fast-twitch fibres is found in conditions characterized by weakness and frailty. KCNJ11 gene knockout mice have reduced glycogen, lean phenotype, lower body fat, and weakness. KATP channel is also a sensor of muscle atrophy. The KCNJ11 gene is located on BTA15, close to a QTL for meat tenderness, it has also a role in glycogen storage, a key mechanism of the postmortem transformation of muscle into meat. The role of KCNJ11 gene in muscle function may underlie an effect of KCNJ11 genotypes on meat tenderness, as recently reported. The fiber phenotype and genotype are important in livestock production science. Quantitative traits including meat production and quality are influenced both by environment and genes. Molecular markers can play an important role in the genetic improvement of animals through breeding strategies. Many factors influence the muscle Warner-Bratzler shear force including breed, age, feeding, the biochemical and functional parameters. The role of KCNJ11gene and related genes on muscle tenderness will be discussed in the present review.

  13. Heteromeric K(v)7.2/7.3 Channels Differentially Regulate Action Potential Initiation and Conduction in Neocortical Myelinated Axons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battefeld, Arne; Tran, Baouyen T.; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C.; Kole, Maarten H. P.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of K(v)7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Na-v) channels in the

  14. Distinct roles of the DmNav and DSC1 channels in the action of DDT and pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Du, Yuzhe; Tolinski, Josh; Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang; Zhorov, Boris S; Dong, Ke

    2015-03-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav channels) are critical for electrical signaling in the nervous system and are the primary targets of the insecticides DDT and pyrethroids. In Drosophila melanogaster, besides the canonical Nav channel, Para (also called DmNav), there is a sodium channel-like cation channel called DSC1 (Drosophila sodium channel 1). Temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations in DmNav (para(ts)) confer resistance to DDT and pyrethroids, whereas DSC1 knockout flies exhibit enhanced sensitivity to pyrethroids. To further define the roles and interaction of DmNav and DSC1 channels in DDT and pyrethroid neurotoxicology, we generated a DmNav/DSC1 double mutant line by introducing a para(ts1) allele (carrying the I265N mutation) into a DSC1 knockout line. We confirmed that the I265N mutation reduced the sensitivity to two pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin of a DmNav variant expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Computer modeling predicts that the I265N mutation confers pyrethroid resistance by allosterically altering the second pyrethroid receptor site on the DmNav channel. Furthermore, we found that I265N-mediated pyrethroid resistance in para(ts1) mutant flies was almost completely abolished in para(ts1);DSC1(-/-) double mutant flies. Unexpectedly, however, the DSC1 knockout flies were less sensitive to DDT, compared to the control flies (w(1118A)), and the para(ts1);DSC1(-/-) double mutant flies were even more resistant to DDT compared to the DSC1 knockout or para(ts1) mutant. Our findings revealed distinct roles of the DmNav and DSC1 channels in the neurotoxicology of DDT vs. pyrethroids and implicate the exciting possibility of using DSC1 channel blockers or modifiers in the management of pyrethroid resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. On the Capacity of the Dirty Paper Channel with Fast Fading and Discrete Channel States

    OpenAIRE

    Rini, Stefano; Shitz, Shlomo Shamai

    2016-01-01

    The "writing dirty paper" capacity result crucially dependents on the perfect channel knowledge at the transmitter as the presence of even a small uncertainty in the channel realization gravely hampers the ability of the transmitter to pre-code its transmission against the channel state. This is particularly disappointing as it implies that interference pre-coding in practical systems is effective only when the channel estimates at the users have very high precision, a condition which is gene...

  16. State-dependent compound inhibition of Nav1.2 sodium channels using the FLIPR Vm dye: on-target and off-target effects of diverse pharmacological agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Elfrida R; Pruthi, Farhana; Olanrewaju, Shakira; Ilyin, Victor I; Crumley, Gregg; Kutlina, Elena; Valenzano, Kenneth J; Woodward, Richard M

    2006-02-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaChs) are relevant targets for pain, epilepsy, and a variety of neurological and cardiac disorders. Traditionally, it has been difficult to develop structure-activity relationships for NaCh inhibitors due to rapid channel kinetics and state-dependent compound interactions. Membrane potential (Vm) dyes in conjunction with a high-throughput fluorescence imaging plate reader (FLIPR) offer a satisfactory 1st-tier solution. Thus, the authors have developed a FLIPR Vm assay of rat Nav1.2 NaCh. Channels were opened by addition of veratridine, and Vm dye responses were measured. The IC50 values from various structural classes of compounds were compared to the resting state binding constant (Kr)and inactivated state binding constant (Ki)obtained using patch-clamp electrophysiology (EP). The FLIPR values correlated with Ki but not Kr. FLIPRIC50 values fell within 0.1-to 1.5-fold of EP Ki values, indicating that the assay generally reports use-dependent inhibition rather than resting state block. The Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC, Sigma) was screened. Confirmed hits arose from diverse classes such as dopamine receptor antagonists, serotonin transport inhibitors, and kinase inhibitors. These data suggest that NaCh inhibition is inherent in a diverse set of biologically active molecules and may warrant counterscreening NaChs to avoid unwanted secondary pharmacology.

  17. Mechanisms of Sodium Transport in Plants—Progresses and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Keisham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of sodium (Na+ influx, effective compartmentalization, and efflux in higher plants is crucial to manipulate Na+ accumulation and assure the maintenance of low Na+ concentration in the cytosol and, hence, plant tolerance to salt stress. Na+ influx across the plasma membrane in the roots occur mainly via nonselective cation channels (NSCCs. Na+ is compartmentalized into vacuoles by Na+/H+ exchangers (NHXs. Na+ efflux from the plant roots is mediated by the activity of Na+/H+ antiporters catalyzed by the salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1 protein. In animals, ouabain (OU-sensitive Na+, K+-ATPase (a P-type ATPase mediates sodium efflux. The evolution of P-type ATPases in higher plants does not exclude the possibility of sodium efflux mechanisms similar to the Na+, K+-ATPase-dependent mechanisms characteristic of animal cells. Using novel fluorescence imaging and spectrofluorometric methodologies, an OU-sensitive sodium efflux system has recently been reported to be physiologically active in roots. This review summarizes and analyzes the current knowledge on Na+ influx, compartmentalization, and efflux in higher plants in response to salt stress.

  18. Sodium channel blockade with QRS widening after an escitalopram overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreffler, Susan M; Marraffa, Jeanna M; Stork, Christine M; Mackey, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    Escitalopram is rarely associated with prolongation of the QTc interval; however, there are no reported cases of QRS complex widening associated with escitalopram overdose. We report a case of a patient who presented with both QRS complex widening and QTc interval prolongation after an escitalopram overdose. A 16-year-old girl presented to the emergency department after ingestion of escitalopram, tramadol/acetaminophen, and hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Laboratory results were significant for 4-hour acetaminophen 21.1 μg/mL. Serum electrolytes including potassium, magnesium, and calcium were all normal. Initial electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed a widened QRS with an incomplete right bundle branch pattern. After administration of 100-mEq sodium bicarbonate, a repeat ECG revealed narrowing of the QRS complex and a prolonged QTc interval. Magnesium sulfate 2 g intravenous and sodium bicarbonate drip were initiated. A repeat ECG, 1 hour after the second, revealed normalization of the QRS complex and QTc interval. Prolongation of the QTc interval is an expected effect of escitalopram. Both escitalopram and citalopram are metabolized to the cardiotoxic metabolite S-didesmethylcitalopram and didesmethylcitalopram, respectively, which have been implicated in numerous cardiac abnormalities including widening of the QRS complex. Although never previously described with escitalopram, this mechanism provides a reasonable explanation for the QRS complex widening and incomplete right bundle branch block that occurred in our patient. Both QRS complex widening and QTc interval prolongation should be monitored in cases of escitalopram and citalopram overdoses.

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayang Qin

    Full Text Available Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Landong; Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Qingshou; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  1. Prompt burst energetics experiments: fresh oxide/sodium series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reil, K.O.; Young, M.F.

    1978-08-01

    A series of in-pile experiments has been performed to provide information on thermal energy to work conversion under prompt burst excursion (PBE) conditions. These consisted of single pin tests using fresh uranium oxide or uranium carbide fuel in a capsule geometry, with either stagnant sodium or helium in the coolant channel. The experiments were irradiated with single or double pulses in the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) to provide energy depositions up to 2900 J/g. This report covers the seven single and five double pulse UO 2 sodium-in tests. Experimental data includes pressure and linear motion transducer histories, measured work-energy conversion efficiencies, and post-irradiation examination. Analysis includes derived work-energy conversion efficiencies (up to 0.54%), pin failure modeling, hydrodynamic analysis of pressure pulse propagation in the channel, and piston stopping effects. Initial pressure events in the single pulse experiments appear to be dominated by fuel vapor pressure. Definite fuel-coolant interactions were observed in several experiments, including some that were coincident with stopping of the linear motion transducer piston, suggesting a possible triggering effect by the deceleration pressure

  2. Clinical and experimental applications of sodium phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2011-09-01

    Histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase are enzymes responsible for histone acetylation and deacetylation, respectively, in which the histones are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail and on the surface of the nucleosome core. These processes are considered the most important epigenetic mechanisms for remodeling the chromatin structure and controlling the gene expression. Histone acetylation is associated with gene activation. Sodium phenylbutyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has been approved for treatement of urea cycle disorders and is under investigation in cancer, hemoglobinopathies, motor neuron diseases, and cystic fibrosis clinical trials. Due to its characteristics, not only of histone deacetylase inhibitor, but also of ammonia sink and chemical chaperone, the interest towards this molecule is growing worldwide. This review aims to update the current literature, involving the use of sodium phenylbutyrate in experimental studies and clinical trials.

  3. Phycodnavirus potassium ion channel proteins question the virus molecular piracy hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    Full Text Available Phycodnaviruses are large dsDNA, algal-infecting viruses that encode many genes with homologs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the viral gene products are the smallest proteins known to form functional K(+ channels. To determine if these viral K(+ channels are the product of molecular piracy from their hosts, we compared the sequences of the K(+ channel pore modules from seven phycodnaviruses to the K(+ channels from Chlorella variabilis and Ectocarpus siliculosus, whose genomes have recently been sequenced. C. variabilis is the host for two of the viruses PBCV-1 and NY-2A and E. siliculosus is the host for the virus EsV-1. Systematic phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that the viral K(+ channels are not related to any lineage of the host channel homologs and that they are more closely related to each other than to their host homologs. A consensus sequence of the viral channels resembles a protein of unknown function from a proteobacterium. However, the bacterial protein lacks the consensus motif of all K(+ channels and it does not form a functional channel in yeast, suggesting that the viral channels did not come from a proteobacterium. Collectively, our results indicate that the viruses did not acquire their K(+ channel-encoding genes from their current algal hosts by gene transfer; thus alternative explanations are required. One possibility is that the viral genes arose from ancient organisms, which served as their hosts before the viruses developed their current host specificity. Alternatively the viral proteins could be the origin of K(+ channels in algae and perhaps even all cellular organisms.

  4. 43. Calmodulin regulating calcium sensitivity of Na channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vegiraju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available By extrapolating information from existing research and observing previous assumptions regarding the structure of the Na Channel, this experiment was conducted under the hypothesis that the Na Channel is in part regulated by the calmodulin protein, as a result proving calcium sensitivity of the Na Channel. Furthermore, we assume that there is a one to one stoichiometry between the Na Channel and the Calmodulin. There has been extensive research into the functionality and structure of sodium ion channels (Na channels, as several diseases are associated with the lack of regulation of sodium ions, that is caused by the disfunction of these Na channels. However, one highly controversial matter in the field is the importance of the protein calmodulin (CaM and calcium in Na channel function. Calmodulin is a protein that is well known for its role as a calcium binding messenger protein, and that association is believed to play an indirect role in regulating the Na channel through the Na channel’s supposed calcium sensitivity. While there are proponents for both sides, there has been relatively little research that provides strong evidence for either case. In this experiment, the effect of calmodulin on NaV 1.5 is tested by preparing a set of cardiac cells (of the human specie with the NaV 1.5 C-Termini and CaM protein, which were then to be placed in solutions with varying concentrations of calcium. We took special care to test multiple concentrations of calcium, as previous studies have tested very low concentrations, with Manu Ben-Johny’s team from the John Hopkins laboratory in particular testing up to a meager 50 micromolar, despite producing a well-respected paper (By comparison, the average Na channel can naturally sustain a concentration of almost 1-2 millimolar and on some occasions, reaching even higher concentrations. After using light scattering and observing the signals given off by the calcium interacting with these Nav1.5/Ca

  5. Transient mixed convection in a cavity. Comparison between water and sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.

    1983-01-01

    The basic problem studied is the interaction between a vortex and a thermal stratification. The experiments are done in a parallelepipedic cavity which bottom communicates with a rectangular channel. A forced flow in this channel induces a recirculating flow in the cavity. The transient condition is a decrease (step wise or slope) of the inlet temperature at a constant flowrate. This problem is studied with two different approaches: experiments in water or in sodium. In the sodium experiments, the dimension of the cavity ensures large values of the Peclet number (about 10 4 ) and a wide range of values for the Richardson number (from 0.1 to 3). With these experiment, all the regimes of mixed convection, from forced convection to complete stratification can be covered. These results are compared with the other approach using a water model. This comparison is very helpful for studies on the thermalhydraulic behavior of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors. (author)

  6. Mechanosensitive Piezo Channels in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaino, C; Farrugia, G; Beyder, A

    2017-01-01

    Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling. Several mechanosensitive ionic conductances have been identified in the mechanosensory GI cells, ranging from mechanosensitive voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels to the mechanogated ion channels, such as the two-pore domain potassium channels K2P (TREK-1) and nonselective cation channels from the transient receptor potential family. The recently discovered Piezo channels are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to cellular mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 are nonselective cationic ion channels that are directly activated by mechanical forces and have well-defined biophysical and pharmacologic properties. The role of Piezo channels in the GI epithelium is currently under investigation and their role in the smooth muscle syncytium and enteric neurons is still not known. In this review, we outline the current state of knowledge on mechanosensitive ion channels in the GI tract, with a focus on the known and potential functions of the Piezo channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-translational modifications of voltage-gated sodium channels in chronic pain syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric James Laedermann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the peripheral sensory nervous system the neuronal expression of voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs is a very important for the transmission of nociceptive information since they give rise to the upstroke of the action potential. Navs are composed of 9 different isoforms with distinct biophysical properties. Studying the mutations associated with the increase or absence of pain sensitivity in humans, as well as other expression studies, have highlighted Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 as being the most important contributors to the control of nociceptive neuronal electrogenesis. Modulating their expression and/or function can impact the shape of the action potential and consequently modify pain transmission, a process that is observed in persistent pain conditions.Post-translational modification (PTM of Navs is a well-known process that modifies their expression and function. In chronic pain syndromes, the release of inflammatory molecules into the direct environment of dorsal root ganglia (DRG sensory neurons leads to an abnormal activation of enzymes that induce Navs PTM. The addition of small molecules, i.e. peptides, phosphoryl groups, ubiquitin moieties and/or carbohydrates, can modify the function of Navs in two different ways: via direct physical interference with the subunit of Nav gating, or via the control of Nav trafficking. Both mechanisms have a profound impact on neuronal excitability. In this review we will discuss the role of Protein Kinase A, B and C, Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases and Ca++/Calmodulin-dependent Kinase II in peripheral chronic pain syndromes. We will also discuss more recent findings that the ubiquitination of Nav1.7 by Nedd4-2 and the effect of methylglyoxal on Nav1.8 are also implicated in the development of experimental neuropathic pain. We will address the potential roles of other PTMs in chronic pain and highlight the need for further investigation of PTMs of Navs in order to develop new pharmacological

  8. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  9. Reaction path analysis of sodium-water reaction phenomena in support of chemical reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    2011-01-01

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule to the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. The results are used as the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by JAEA toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). (author)

  10. Ion Selectivity Mechanism in a Bacterial Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hailong; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    The proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) is a prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that responds to the binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and mediates fast signal transmission. Recent emergence of a high resolution crystal structure of GLIC captured in a potentially open state allowed detailed, atomic-level insight into ion conduction and selectivity mechanisms in these channels. Herein, we have examined the barriers to ion conduction and origins of ion selectivity in the GLIC channel by the construction of potential of mean force (PMF) profiles for sodium and chloride ions inside the transmembrane region. Our calculations reveal that the GLIC channel is open for a sodium ion to transport, but presents a ∼10 kcal/mol free energy barrier for a chloride ion, which arises primarily from the unfavorable interactions with a ring of negatively charged glutamate residues (E-2) at the intracellular end and a ring of hydrophobic residues (I9) in the middle of the transmembrane domain. Our collective findings further suggest that the charge selection mechanism can, to a large extent, be attributed to the narrow intracellular end and a ring of glutamate residues in this position their strong negative electrostatics and ability to bind cations. By contrast, E19 at the extracellular entrance only plays a minor role in ion selectivity of GLIC. In addition to electrostatics, both ion hydration and protein dynamics are found to be crucial for ion conduction as well, which explains why a chloride ion experiences a much greater barrier than a sodium ion in the hydrophobic region of the pore.

  11. Effect of Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Delivered Via a Cell Platform on Cardiac Conduction and Arrhythmia Induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boink, Gerard J. J.; Lu, Jia; Driessen, Helen E.; Duan, Lian; Sosunov, Eugene A.; Anyukhovsky, Evgeny P.; Shlapakova, Iryna N.; Lau, David H.; Rosen, Tove S.; Danilo, Peter; Jia, Zhiheng; Ozgen, Nazira; Bobkov, Yevgeniy; Guo, Yuanjian; Brink, Peter R.; Kryukova, Yelena; Robinson, Richard B.; Entcheva, Emilia; Cohen, Ira S.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Background-In depolarized myocardial infarct epicardial border zones, the cardiac sodium channel is largely inactivated, contributing to slow conduction and reentry. We have demonstrated that adenoviral delivery of the skeletal muscle Na+ channel (SkM1) to epicardial border zones normalizes

  12. Glioblastoma cancer stem cell lines express functional acid sensing ion channels ASIC1a and ASIC3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yuemin; Bresenitz, Pia; Reska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Acidic microenvironment is commonly observed in tumour tissues, including glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive and lethal brain tumour in adults. Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are neuronal voltage-insensitive sodium channels, which are sensors of extracellular protons. Here we studied...

  13. Calculation of total cross sections for electron and positron scattering on sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Ratnavelu, K.; Zhou, Y.

    1993-02-01

    Total cross sections for electron and positron scattering on sodium and potassium are calculated at various energies and compared with experiment. The method use is the coupled-channels-optical method with the equivalent-local polarisation potential, which takes all channels into account. For electrons the calculations are checked by comparison with coupled-channels-optical calculations using a detailed polarisation potential that makes only one approximation, that of weak coupling in the ionisation space. The polarisation potential for positrons includes effects of ionisation and positronium formation. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Identification of mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in the voltage-gated sodium channel of the tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddi, Khalid; Berger, Madeleine; Bielza, Pablo; Cifuentes, Dina; Field, Linda M; Gorman, Kevin; Rapisarda, Carmelo; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris

    2012-07-01

    The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera) is a significant pest of tomatoes that has undergone a rapid expansion in its range during the past six years and is now present across Europe, North Africa and parts of Asia. One of the main means of controlling this pest is through the use of chemical insecticides. In the current study insecticide bioassays were used to determine the susceptibility of five T. absoluta strains established from field collections from Europe and Brazil to pyrethroids. High levels of resistance to λ cyhalothrin and tau fluvalinate were observed in all five strains tested. To investigate whether pyrethroid resistance was mediated by mutation of the para-type sodium channel in T. absoluta the IIS4-IIS6 region of the para gene, which contains many of the mutation sites previously shown to confer knock down (kdr)-type resistance to pyrethroids across a range of different arthropod species, was cloned and sequenced. This revealed that three kdr/super-kdr-type mutations (M918T, T929I and L1014F), were present at high frequencies within all five resistant strains at known resistance 'hot-spots'. This is the first description of these mutations together in any insect population. High-throughput DNA-based diagnostic assays were developed and used to assess the prevalence of these mutations in 27 field strains from 12 countries. Overall mutant allele frequencies were high (L1014F 0.98, M918T 0.35, T929I 0.60) and remarkably no individual was observed that did not carry kdr in combination with either M918T or T929I. The presence of these mutations at high frequency in T. absoluta populations across much of its range suggests pyrethroids are likely to be ineffective for control and supports the idea that the rapid expansion of this species over the last six years may be in part mediated by the resistance of this pest to chemical insecticides. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the voltage-gated sodium channel of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Coy, Monique R; Wang, Jin-Jun; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2017-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an important insect pest of citrus. It is the vector of 'Candidatus' Liberibacter asiaticus, a phloem-limited bacterium that infects citrus, resulting in the disease Huanglongbing (HLB). Disease management relies heavily on suppression of D. citri populations with insecticides, including pyrethroids. In recent annual surveys to monitor insecticide resistance, reduced susceptibility to fenpropathrin was identified in several field populations of D. citri. The primary target of pyrethroids is the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). The VGSC is prone to target-site insensitivity because of mutations that either reduce pyrethroid binding and/or alter gating kinetics. These mutations, known as knockdown resistance or kdr, have been reported in a wide diversity of arthropod species. Alternative splicing, in combination with kdr mutations, has been also associated with reduced pyrethroid efficacy. Here we report the molecular characterization of the VGSC in D. citri along with a survey of alternative splicing across developmental stages of this species. Previous studies demonstrated that D. citri has an exquisite enzymatic arsenal to detoxify insecticides resulting in reduced efficacy. The results from the current investigation demonstrate that target-site insensitivity is also a potential basis for insecticide resistance to pyrethroids in D. citri. The VGSC sequence and its molecular characterization should facilitate early elucidation of the underlying cause of an established case of resistance to pyrethroids. This is the first characterization of a VGSC from a hemipteran to this level of detail, with the majority of the previous studies on dipterans and lepidopterans. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Molecular cloning of ion channels in Felis catus that are related to periodic paralyses in man: a contribution to the understanding of the genetic susceptibility to feline neck ventroflexion and paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlyn Zapata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neck ventroflexion in cats has different causes; however, the most common is the hypokalemia associated with flaccid paralysis secondary to chronic renal failure. In humans, the most common causes of acute flaccid paralysis are hypokalemia precipitated by thyrotoxicosis and familial forms linked to mutations in sodium, potassium, and calcium channel genes. Here, we describe the sequencing and analysis of skeletal muscle ion channels in Felis catus that could be related to periodic paralyses in humans, contributing to the understanding of the genetic susceptibility to feline neck ventroflexion and paralysis. We studied genomic DNA from eleven cats, including five animals that were hyperthyroid with hypokalemia, although only one presented with muscle weakness, and six healthy control domestic cats. We identified the ion channel ortholog genes KCNJ2, KCNJ12, KCNJ14, CACNA1S and SCN4A in the Felis catus genome, together with several polymorphic variants. Upon comparative alignment with other genomes, we found that Felis catus provides evidence for a high genomic conservation of ion channel sequences. Although we hypothesized that neck ventroflexion in cats could be associated with a thyrotoxic or familial periodic paralysis channel mutation, we did not identify any previously detected human channel mutation in the hyperthyroid cat presenting hypokalemia. However, based on the small number of affected cats in this study, we cannot yet rule out this molecular mechanism. Notwithstanding, hyperthyroidism should still be considered as a differential diagnosis in hypokalemic feline paralysis.

  17. Neuroplastic alteration of TTX-resistant sodium channel with visceral pain and morphine-induced hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jinghong Chen,1,2,4 Ze-hui Gong,4 Hao Yan,2 Zhijun Qiao,3 Bo-yi Qin41Department of Internal Medicine, Neuroscience Program, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; 2The Divisions of Pharmacy, Pharmacology core lab, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX, USA; 4Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, China Abstract: The discovery of the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R Na+ channel in nociceptive neurons has provided a special target for analgesic intervention. In a previous study we found that both morphine tolerance and persistent visceral inflammation resulted in visceral hyperalgesia. It has also been suggested that hyperexcitability of sensory neurons due to altered TTX-R Na+ channel properties and expression contributes to hyperalgesia; however, we do not know if some TTX-R Na+ channel property changes can be triggered by visceral hyperalgesia and morphine tolerance, or whether there are similar molecular or channel mechanisms in both situations. To evaluate the effects of morphine tolerance and visceral inflammation on the channel, we investigated the dorsal root ganglia (DRG neuronal change following these chronic treatments. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording, we recorded TTX-R Na+ currents in isolated adult rat lumbar and sacral (L6-S2 DRG neurons from normal and pathologic rats with colon inflammatory pain or chronic morphine treatment. We found that the amplitudes of TTX-R Na+ currents were signiflcantly increased in small-diameter DRG neurons with either morphine tolerance or visceral inflammatory pain. Meanwhile, the result also showed that those treatments altered the kinetics properties of the electrical current (ie, the activating and inactivating speed of the channel was accelerated. Our current results suggested that in both models, visceral chronic inflammatory pain and morphine tolerance causes electrophysiological changes in voltage

  18. Ca²⁺-dependent K⁺ channels in exocrine salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E

    2014-06-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K(+) secretion in exocrine glands. Two K(+) channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: (1) a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene, and (2) a voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The Role of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Management of Some Toxic Ingestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibek E. Mirrakhimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities. Based on the available literature and empiric experience, the administration of sodium bicarbonate appears to be beneficial in the management of a patient with the above-mentioned toxidromes. However, most of the available evidence originates from case reports, case series, and expert consensus recommendations. The potential mechanisms of sodium bicarbonate include high sodium load and the development of metabolic alkalosis with resultant decreased tissue penetration of the toxic substance with subsequent increased urinary excretion. While receiving sodium bicarbonate, patients must be monitored for the development of associated side effects including electrolyte abnormalities, the progression of metabolic alkalosis, volume overload, worsening respiratory status, and/or worsening metabolic acidosis. Patients with oliguric/anuric renal failure and advanced decompensated heart failure should not receive sodium bicarbonate.

  20. The Role of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Management of Some Toxic Ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Ayach, Taha; Barbaryan, Aram; Talari, Goutham; Chadha, Romil; Gray, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities. Based on the available literature and empiric experience, the administration of sodium bicarbonate appears to be beneficial in the management of a patient with the above-mentioned toxidromes. However, most of the available evidence originates from case reports, case series, and expert consensus recommendations. The potential mechanisms of sodium bicarbonate include high sodium load and the development of metabolic alkalosis with resultant decreased tissue penetration of the toxic substance with subsequent increased urinary excretion. While receiving sodium bicarbonate, patients must be monitored for the development of associated side effects including electrolyte abnormalities, the progression of metabolic alkalosis, volume overload, worsening respiratory status, and/or worsening metabolic acidosis. Patients with oliguric/anuric renal failure and advanced decompensated heart failure should not receive sodium bicarbonate.

  1. Slack sodium-activated potassium channel membrane expression requires p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, Sushmitha; Fleites, John; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2016-04-01

    p38 MAPK has long been understood as an inducible kinase under conditions of cellular stress, but there is now increasing evidence to support its role in the regulation of neuronal function. Several phosphorylation targets have been identified, an appreciable number of which are ion channels, implicating the possible involvement of p38 MAPK in neuronal excitability. The KNa channel Slack is an important protein to be studied as it is highly and ubiquitously expressed in DRG neurons and is important in the maintenance of their firing accommodation. We sought to examine if the Slack channel could be a substrate of p38 MAPK activity. First, we found that the Slack C-terminus contains two putative p38 MAPK phosphorylation sites that are highly conserved across species. Second, we show via electrophysiology experiments that KNa currents and further, Slack currents, are subject to tonic modulation by p38 MAPK. Third, biochemical approaches revealed that Slack channel regulation by p38 MAPK occurs through direct phosphorylation at the two putative sites of interaction, and mutating both sites prevented surface expression of Slack channels. Based on these results, we conclude that p38 MAPK is an obligate regulator of Slack channel function via the trafficking of channels into the membrane. The present study identifies Slack KNa channels as p38 MAPK substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative study of the effect of ciguatoxins on voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ channels in cerebellar neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sheila; Vale, Carmen; Alonso, Eva; Alfonso, Carmen; Rodríguez, Paula; Otero, Paz; Alfonso, Amparo; Vale, Paulo; Hirama, Masahiro; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2011-04-18

    Ciguatera is a global disease caused by the consumption of certain warm-water fish (ciguateric fish) that have accumulated orally effective levels of sodium channel activator toxins (ciguatoxins) through the marine food chain. The effect of ciguatoxin standards and contaminated ciguatoxin samples was evaluated by electrophysiological recordings in cultured cerebellar neurons. The toxins affected both voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium channels (Kv) although with different potencies. CTX 3C was the most active toxin blocking the peak inward sodium currents, followed by P-CTX 1B and 51-OH CTX 3C. In contrast, P-CTX 1B was more effective in blocking potassium currents. The analysis of six different samples of contaminated fish, in which a ciguatoxin analogue of mass 1040.6, not identical with the standard 51-OH CTX 3C, was the most prevalent compound, indicated an additive effect of the different ciguatoxins present in the samples. The results presented here constitute the first comparison of the potencies of three different purified ciguatoxins on sodium and potassium channels in the same neuronal preparation and indicate that electrophysiological recordings from cultured cerebellar neurons may provide a valuable tool to detect and quantify ciguatoxins in the very low nanomolar range.

  3. Comparative study of the distribution of the alpha-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels in normal and axotomized rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Obata, Koichi; Dai, Yi; Noguchi, Koichi

    2008-09-10

    We compared the distribution of the alpha-subunit mRNAs of voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.1-1.3 and Nav1.6-1.9 and a related channel, Nax, in histochemically identified neuronal subpopulations of the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In the naïve DRG, the expression of Nav1.1 and Nav1.6 was restricted to A-fiber neurons, and they were preferentially expressed by TrkC neurons, suggesting that proprioceptive neurons possess these channels. Nav1.7, -1.8, and -1.9 mRNAs were more abundant in C-fiber neurons compared with A-fiber ones. Nax was evenly expressed in both populations. Although Nav1.8 and -1.9 were preferentially expressed by TrkA neurons, other alpha-subunits were expressed independently of TrkA expression. Actually, all IB4(+) neurons expressed both Nav1.8 and -1.9, and relatively limited subpopulations of IB4(+) neurons (3% and 12%, respectively) expressed Nav1.1 and/or Nav1.6. These findings provide useful information in interpreting the electrophysiological characteristics of some neuronal subpopulations of naïve DRG. After L5 spinal nerve ligation, Nav1.3 mRNA was up-regulated mainly in A-fiber neurons in the ipsilateral L5 DRG. Although previous studies demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) reversed this up-regulation, the Nav1.3 induction was independent of either TrkA or GFRalpha1 expression, suggesting that the induction of Nav1.3 may be one of the common responses of axotomized DRG neurons without a direct relationship to NGF/GDNF supply. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The Renal Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2: Is It a Major Contributor to Sodium and pH Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Xu, Peng; Gildea, John J

    2016-09-01

    The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2, aka NBC4) was originally isolated from the human testis and heart (Pushkin et al. IUBMB Life 50:13-19, 2000). Subsequently, NBCe2 was found in diverse locations where it plays a role in regulating sodium and bicarbonate transport, influencing intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and ultimately plasma pH (Boron et al. J Exp Biol. 212:1697-1706, 2009; Parker and Boron, Physiol Rev. 93:803-959, 2013; Romero et al. Mol Asp Med. 34:159-182, 2013). NBCe2 is located in human and rodent renal-collecting duct and proximal tubule. While much is known about the two electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters, NBCe1 and NBCe2, in the regulation of sodium homeostasis and pH balance in the rodent kidney, little is known about their roles in human renal physiology. NBCe2 is located in the proximal tubule Golgi apparatus under basal conditions and then disperses throughout the cell, but particularly into the apical membrane microvilli, during various maneuvers that increase intracellular sodium. This review will summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NBCe2 in the human kidney and how genetic variants of its gene, SLC4A5, contribute to salt sensitivity of blood pressure.

  5. Voltage-gated sodium channel expression and action potential generation in differentiated NG108-15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxu; Tu, Huiyin; Zhang, Dongze; Zheng, Hong; Li, Yu-Long

    2012-10-25

    The generation of action potential is required for stimulus-evoked neurotransmitter release in most neurons. Although various voltage-gated ion channels are involved in action potential production, the initiation of the action potential is mainly mediated by voltage-gated Na+ channels. In the present study, differentiation-induced changes of mRNA and protein expression of Na+ channels, Na+ currents, and cell membrane excitability were investigated in NG108-15 cells. Whole-cell patch-clamp results showed that differentiation (9 days) didn't change cell membrane excitability, compared to undifferentiated state. But differentiation (21 days) induced the action potential generation in 45.5% of NG108-15 cells (25/55 cells). In 9-day-differentiated cells, Na+ currents were mildly increased, which was also found in 21-day differentiated cells without action potential. In 21-day differentiated cells with action potential, Na+ currents were significantly enhanced. Western blot data showed that the expression of Na+ channels was increased with differentiated-time dependent manner. Single-cell real-time PCR data demonstrated that the expression of Na+ channel mRNA was increased by 21 days of differentiation in NG108-15 cells. More importantly, the mRNA level of Na+ channels in cells with action potential was higher than that in cells without action potential. Differentiation induces expression of voltage-gated Na+ channels and action potential generation in NG108-15 cells. A high level of the Na+ channel density is required for differentiation-triggered action potential generation.

  6. Veratridine activates a silent sodium-channel in rat isolated aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WERMELSKIRCHEN, D; WILFFERT, B; NEBEL, U; LEIDIG, A; WIRTH, A; Peters, Thies

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the existence of silent Na+ channels, isolated rat aorta was treated with veratridine (0.1 mM) and the resulting Ca2+ uptake was determined. After 30-min incubation the total tissue uptake of Ca2+ and Ca2+ uptake increased from 2.325 +/- 0.017 to 2.614 +/- 0.080 nmol/mg wet weight

  7. Stability of Reference Genes for Messenger RNA Quantification by Real-Time PCR in Mouse Dextran Sodium Sulfate Experimental Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Eissa

    Full Text Available Many animal models have been developed to characterize the complexity of colonic inflammation. In dextran sodium sulfate (DSS experimental colitis in mice the choice of reference genes is critical for accurate quantification of target genes using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR. No studies have addressed the performance of reference genes in mice DSS-experimental colitis. This study aimed to determine the stability of reference genes expression (RGE in DSS-experimental murine colitis.Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice using DSS5% for 5 days, control group received water. RNA was extracted from inflamed and non-inflamed colon. Using RT-qPCR, comparative analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria and relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression was determined by calculating the difference in the threshold cycle.Colitis significantly altered the stability of mucosal RGE. Commonly used glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh, β-actin (Actb, or β2-microglobulin (β2m showed the highest variability within the inflamed and control groups. Conversely, TATA-box-binding protein (Tbp and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (Eef2 were not affected by inflammation and were the most stable genes. Normalization of colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels was dependent on the reference gene used. Depending on the genes used to normalize the data, statistical significance varied from significant when TBP / Eef2 were used to non-significant when Gapdh, Actb or β2m were used.This study highlights the appropriate choice of RGE to ensure adequate normalization of RT-qPCR data when using this model. Suboptimal RGE may explain controversial results from published studies. We recommend using Tbp and Eef2 instead of Gapdh, Actb or β2m as reference genes.

  8. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  9. Effect of diclofenac sodium on the level of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 in patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Cui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of diclofenac sodium on the level of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1 in patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP. MethodsA total of 120 patients who underwent ERCP in The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from September 2012 to October 2013 were enrolled and randomly divided into diclofenac sodium group and control group, with 60 patients in each group. The patients in the diclofenac sodium group were given intramuscular injection of Olfen (containing diclofenac sodium 75 mg immediately after ERCP. Blood samples were collected before surgery and at 3 and 24 hours after surgery, and the level of amylase was measured. The incidence of abdominal pain was also observed and the incidence rate of PEP was calculated for both groups. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of NAG-1 in plasma. An repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data, a univariate analysis of variance was used for data meeting the requirements of sphericity test, and the Greenhouse-Geisser correction method was used for data which did not meet the requirements of sphericity test. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsThe diclofenac sodium group had a significantly lower incidence rate of PEP than the control group [6.67% (4/60 vs 20.00% (12/60, χ2=4.62, P=0.03]. The diclofenac sodium group had a significantly lower level of amylase than the control group at 3 and 24 hours after surgery (at 3 hours after surgery: 202.70±120.44 U/L vs 283.57±178.39 U/L, t=2.06, P<0.05, at 24 hours after surgery: 209.13±157.14 U/L vs 30597±20869 U/L, t=2.03, P<0.05. At 3 hours after ERCP, the diclofenac sodium group had significant increases in the mRNA and protein expression of NAG-1 in plasma and significantly higher mRNA and protein expression of NAG-1 than the control group

  10. A case of pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 with a mutation in the mineralocorticoid receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Lee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1 is a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized in newborns by salt wasting with dehydration, hyperkalemia and failure to thrive. This disease is heterogeneous in etiology and includes autosomal dominant PHA1 owing to mutations of the NR3C2 gene encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor, autosomal recessive PHA1 due to mutations of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC gene, and secondary PHA1 associated with urinary tract diseases. Amongst these diseases, autosomal dominant PHA1 shows has manifestations restricted to renal tubules including a mild salt loss during infancy and that shows a gradual improvement with advancing age. Here, we report a neonatal case of PHA1 with a NR3C2 gene mutation (a heterozygous c.2146_2147insG in exon 5, in which the patient showed failure to thrive, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and elevated plasma renin and aldosterone levels. This is the first case of pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 confirmed by genetic analysis in Korea.

  11. UNC79 and UNC80, putative auxiliary subunits of the NARROW ABDOMEN ion channel, are indispensable for robust circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila.

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    Bridget C Lear

    Full Text Available In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a network of circadian pacemaker neurons drives daily rhythms in rest and activity. The ion channel NARROW ABDOMEN (NA, orthologous to the mammalian sodium leak channel NALCN, functions downstream of the molecular circadian clock in pacemaker neurons to promote behavioral rhythmicity. To better understand the function and regulation of the NA channel, we have characterized two putative auxiliary channel subunits in Drosophila, unc79 (aka dunc79 and unc80 (aka CG18437. We have generated novel unc79 and unc80 mutations that represent strong or complete loss-of-function alleles. These mutants display severe defects in circadian locomotor rhythmicity that are indistinguishable from na mutant phenotypes. Tissue-specific RNA interference and rescue analyses indicate that UNC79 and UNC80 likely function within pacemaker neurons, with similar anatomical requirements to NA. We observe an interdependent, post-transcriptional regulatory relationship among the three gene products, as loss of na, unc79, or unc80 gene function leads to decreased expression of all three proteins, with minimal effect on transcript levels. Yet despite this relationship, we find that the requirement for unc79 and unc80 in circadian rhythmicity cannot be bypassed by increasing NA protein expression, nor can these putative auxiliary subunits substitute for each other. These data indicate functional requirements for UNC79 and UNC80 beyond promoting channel subunit expression. Immunoprecipitation experiments also confirm that UNC79 and UNC80 form a complex with NA in the Drosophila brain. Taken together, these data suggest that Drosophila NA, UNC79, and UNC80 function together in circadian clock neurons to promote rhythmic behavior.

  12. Functional characterization of a prokaryotic Kir channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkvetchakul, Decha; Bhattacharyya, Jaya; Jeliazkova, Iana; Groesbeck, Darcy K; Cukras, Catherine A; Nichols, Colin G

    2004-11-05

    The Kir gene family encodes inward rectifying K+ (Kir) channels that are widespread and critical regulators of excitability in eukaryotic cells. A related gene family (KirBac) has recently been identified in prokaryotes. While a crystal structure of one member, Kir-Bac1.1, has been solved, there has been no functional characterization of any KirBac gene products. Here we present functional characterization of KirBac1.1 reconstituted in liposomes. Utilizing a 86Rb+ uptake assay, we demonstrate that KirBac1.1 generates a K+ -selective permeation path that is inhibited by extraliposomal Ba2+ and Ca2+ ions. In contrast to KcsA (an acid-activated bacterial potassium channel), KirBac1.1 is inhibited by extraliposomal acid (pKa approximately 6). This characterization of KirBac1.1 activity now paves the way for further correlation of structure and function in this model Kir channel.

  13. Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation-induced plasticity is NMDA-receptor independent but sodium-channel blocker and benzodiazepines sensitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila eChaieb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS between 0.1 and 640 Hz of the primary motor cortex (M1 for 10 minutes induces a persistent excitability increase lasting for at least 60 minutes. However, the mechanism of tRNS-induced cortical excitability alterations is not yet fully understood. Objective: The main aim of this study was to get first efficacy data with regard to the possible neuronal effect of tRNS. Methods: Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to measure levels of cortical excitability before and after combined application of tRNS at an intensity of 1mA for 10mins stimulation duration and a pharmacological agent (or sham on 8 healthy male participants. Results: The sodium channel blocker carbamazepine showed a tendency towards inhibiting MEPs 5-60 mins poststimulation. The GABAA agonist lorazepam suppressed tRNS-induced cortical excitability increases at 0-20 and 60 min time points. The partial NMDA receptor agonist D-cycloserine, the NMDA receptor antagonist dextromethorphan and the D2/D3 receptor agonist ropinirole had no significant effects on the excitability increases seen with tRNS.Conclusions: In contrast to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, aftereffects of tRNS are seem to be not NMDA receptor dependent and can be suppressed by benzodiazepines suggesting that tDCS and tRNS depend upon different mechanisms.

  14. The Snake with the Scorpion’s Sting: Novel Three-Finger Toxin Sodium Channel Activators from the Venom of the Long-Glanded Blue Coral Snake (Calliophis bivirgatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl C. Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Millions of years of evolution have fine-tuned the ability of venom peptides to rapidly incapacitate both prey and potential predators. Toxicofera reptiles are characterized by serous-secreting mandibular or maxillary glands with heightened levels of protein expression. These glands are the core anatomical components of the toxicoferan venom system, which exists in myriad points along an evolutionary continuum. Neofunctionalisation of toxins is facilitated by positive selection at functional hotspots on the ancestral protein and venom proteins have undergone dynamic diversification in helodermatid and varanid lizards as well as advanced snakes. A spectacular point on the venom system continuum is the long-glanded blue coral snake (Calliophis bivirgatus, a specialist feeder that preys on fast moving, venomous snakes which have both a high likelihood of prey escape but also represent significant danger to the predator itself. The maxillary venom glands of C. bivirgatus extend one quarter of the snake’s body length and nestle within the rib cavity. Despite the snake’s notoriety its venom has remained largely unstudied. Here we show that the venom uniquely produces spastic paralysis, in contrast to the flaccid paralysis typically produced by neurotoxic snake venoms. The toxin responsible, which we have called calliotoxin (δ-elapitoxin-Cb1a, is a three-finger toxin (3FTx. Calliotoxin shifts the voltage-dependence of NaV1.4 activation to more hyperpolarised potentials, inhibits inactivation, and produces large ramp currents, consistent with its profound effects on contractile force in an isolated skeletal muscle preparation. Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV are a particularly attractive pharmacological target as they are involved in almost all physiological processes including action potential generation and conduction. Accordingly, venom peptides that interfere with NaV function provide a key defensive and predatory advantage to a range of

  15. Endothelial epithelial sodium channel inhibition activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt in small-diameter mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco R; Venegas, Fabiola; González, Magdalena; Andrés, Sergio; Vallejos, Catalina; Riquelme, Gloria; Sierralta, Jimena; Michea, Luis

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in vascular tissue. However, the role that ENaC may play in the responses to vasoconstrictors and NO production has yet to be addressed. In this study, the contractile responses of perfused pressurized small-diameter rat mesenteric arteries to phenylephrine and serotonin were reduced by ENaC blockade with amiloride (75.1+/-3.2% and 16.9+/-2.3% of control values, respectively; P<0.01) that was dose dependent (EC(50)=88.9+/-1.6 nmol/L). Incubation with benzamil, another ENaC blocker, had similar effects. alpha, beta, and gamma ENaC were identified in small-diameter rat mesenteric arteries using RT-PCR and Western blot with specific antibodies. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry localized ENaC expression to the tunica media and endothelium of small-diameter rat mesenteric arteries. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that primary cultures of mesenteric artery endothelial cells expressed amiloride-sensitive sodium currents. Mechanical ablation of the endothelium or inhibition of eNOS with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine inhibited the reduction in contractility caused by ENaC blockers. ENaC inhibitors increased eNOS phosphorylation (Ser 1177) and Akt phosphorylation (Ser 473). The presence of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 blunted Akt phosphorylation and eNOS phosphorylation and the decrease in the response to phenylephrine caused by blockers of ENaC, indicating that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway was activated after ENaC inhibition. Finally, we observed that the effects of blockers of ENaC were flow dependent and that the vasodilatory response to shear stress was enhanced by ENaC blockade. Our results identify a previously unappreciated role for ENaC as a negative modulator of eNOS and NO production in resistance arteries.

  16. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Willocq, Valerie; Pitcairn, Emily J; Lemire, Joan M; Paré, Jean-François; Shi, Nian-Qing; McLaughlin, Kelly A; Levin, Michael

    2017-10-15

    Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4) is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels ( I h currents) with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10) and not by a later block (post-stage 10). Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative) mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal , Lefty , and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. The Nav1.2 channel is regulated by GSK3

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Thomas F.; Nenov, Miroslav N.; Wildburger, Norelle C.; Lichti, Cheryl; Luisi, Jonathan; Vergara, Fernanda; Panova-Electronova, Neli I.; Nilsson, Carol L.; Rudra, Jai; Green, Thomas A.; Labate, Demetrio; Laezza, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Background Phosphorylation plays an essential role in regulating the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels and excitability. Yet, a surprisingly limited number of kinases have been identified as regulators of Nav channels. Herein, we posited that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a critical kinase found associated with numerous brain disorders, might directly regulate neuronal Nav channels. Methods We used patch-clamp electrophysiology to record sodium currents from Nav1.2 channels stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. mRNA and protein levels were quantified with RT-PCR, Western blot, or confocal microscopy, and in vitro phosphorylation and mass spectrometry to identify phosphorylated residues. Results We found that exposure of cells to GSK3 inhibitor XIII significantly potentiates the peak current density of Nav1.2, a phenotype reproduced by silencing GSK3 with siRNA. Contrarily, overexpression of GSK3β suppressed Nav1.2-encoded currents. Neither mRNA nor total protein expression were changed upon GSK3 inhibition. Cell surface labeling of CD4-chimeric constructs expressing intracellular domains of the Nav1.2 channel indicates that cell surface expression of CD4-Nav1.2-Ctail was up-regulated upon pharmacological inhibition of GSK3, resulting in an increase of surface puncta at the plasma membrane. Finally, using in vitro phosphorylation in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry, we further demonstrate that GSK3β phosphorylates T1966 at the C-terminal tail of Nav1.2. Conclusion These findings provide evidence for a new mechanism by which GSK3 modulate Nav channel function via its C-terminal tail. General Significance These findings provide fundamental knowledge in understanding signaling dysfunction common in several neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25615535

  18. Effects of sodium nitrite on renal function and blood pressure in hypertensive vs. healthy study participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbæk, Jeppe B; Hornstrup, Bodil G; Jørgensen, Andreas N

    2018-01-01

    to determine the effects of NaNO2 on blood pressure (BP) and renal sodium and water regulation in patients with EHT compared with healthy control study participants (CON). METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused 240 μg NaNO2/kg/h or isotonic saline for 2 h in 14 EHT and 14 CON. During...... infusion, we measured changes in brachial and central BP, free water clearance, fractional sodium excretion, and urinary excretion rate of γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (U-ENaCγ), and aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2). RESULTS: Placebo-adjusted brachial SBP decreased 18 mmHg (P ... infusion in EHT and 12 mmHg (P fractional sodium excretion, free water clearance, and U...

  19. On the Mechanism of Human Red Blood Cell Longevity: Roles of Calcium, the Sodium Pump, PIEZO1, and Gardos Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio L. Lew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a healthy adult, the transport of O2 and CO2 between lungs and tissues is performed by about 2 · 1013 red blood cells, of which around 1.7 · 1011 are renewed every day, a turnover resulting from an average circulatory lifespan of about 120 days. Cellular lifespan is the result of an evolutionary balance between the energy costs of maintaining cells in a fit functional state versus cell renewal. In this Review we examine how the set of passive and active membrane transporters of the mature red blood cells interact to maximize their circulatory longevity thus minimizing costs on expensive cell turnover. Red blood cell deformability is critical for optimal rheology and gas exchange functionality during capillary flow, best fulfilled when the volume of each human red blood cell is kept at a fraction of about 0.55–0.60 of the maximal spherical volume allowed by its membrane area, the optimal-volume-ratio range. The extent to which red blood cell volumes can be preserved within or near these narrow optimal-volume-ratio margins determines the potential for circulatory longevity. We show that the low cation permeability of red blood cells allows volume stability to be achieved with extraordinary cost-efficiency, favouring cell longevity over cell turnover. We suggest a mechanism by which the interplay of a declining sodium pump and two passive membrane transporters, the mechanosensitive PIEZO1 channel, a candidate mediator of Psickle in sickle cells, and the Ca2+-sensitive, K+-selective Gardos channel, can implement red blood cell volume stability around the optimal-volume-ratio range, as required for extended circulatory longevity.

  20. Multi-channel grouping techniques for conducting reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Wilburn, N.P.

    1975-01-01

    In conducting safety studies for postulated unprotected accidents in an LMFBR system, it is common practice to employ multi-channel coupled neutronics, thermal hydraulics computer programs such as SAS3A or MELT-III. The multichannel feature of such code systems is important if the natural fuel failure incoherencies and the resulting sodium void/fuel motion reactivity feedbacks--which have strong spatial variations--are to be properly modeled. Because of the large amounts of computer time associated with many channel runs, however, there is a strong incentive to conduct parametric studies with as few channels as possible. The paper presented is focused on methods successfully employed to accomplish this end for a study of the hypothetical unprotected transient overpower accident conducted for the FFTF

  1. Prenatal programming of rat cortical collecting tubule sodium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Lozano, German; Baum, Michel

    2012-03-15

    Prenatal insults have been shown to lead to elevated blood pressure in offspring when they are studied as adults. Prenatal administration of dexamethasone and dietary protein deprivation have demonstrated that there is an increase in transporter abundance for a number of nephron segments but not the subunits of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the cortical collecting duct. Recent studies have shown that aldosterone is elevated in offspring of protein-deprived mothers when studied as adults, but the physiological importance of the increase in serum aldosterone is unknown. As an indirect measure of ENaC activity, we compared the natriuretic response to benzamil in offspring of mothers who ate a low-protein diet (6%) with those who ate a normal diet (20%) for the last half of pregnancy. The natriuretic response to benzamil was greater in the 6% group (821.1 ± 161.0 μmol/24 h) compared with the 20% group (279.1 ± 137.0 μmol/24 h), consistent with greater ENaC activity in vivo (P sodium transport (-1.9 ± 3.1 pmol·mm(-1)·min(-1)), the offspring of rats that ate a 6% protein diet during the last half of pregnancy had a net sodium flux of 10.7 ± 2.6 pmol·mm(-1)·min(-1) (P = 0.01) in tubules perfused in vitro. Sodium transport was measured using ion-selective electrodes, a novel technique allowing measurement of sodium in nanoliter quantities of fluid. Thus we directly demonstrate that there is prenatal programming of cortical collecting duct sodium transport.

  2. Response to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition is selectively blunted by high sodium in angiotensin-converting enzyme DD genotype: evidence for gene-environment interaction in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lely, A Titia; Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers; Zuurman, Mike; Visser, Folkert W; Kocks, Menno J A; Boomsma, Frans; Navis, Gerjan

    2010-12-01

    Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade is a cornerstone in cardiovascular protection. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-DD genotype has been associated with resistance to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEi), but data are conflicting. As sodium intake modifies the effect of ACEi as well as the genotype-phenotype relationship, we hypothesize gene-environment interaction between sodium-status, the response to ACEi, and ACE genotype. Thirty-five male volunteers (26 ± 9 years; II n = 6, ID n = 18, DD n = 11) were studied during placebo and ACEi (double blind, enalapril 20 mg/day) on low [7 days 50 mmol Na/day (low salt)] and high [7 days 200 mmol Na/day (high salt)] sodium, with a washout of 6 weeks in-between. After each period mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured before and during graded infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II). During high salt, ACEi reduced MAP in II and ID, but not in DD [II: 88 (78-94) versus 76 (72-88); ID: 87 (84-91) versus 83 (79-87); both P DD: 86 (82-96) versus 88 (80-90); ns, P DD: 84 (80-91) versus 81 (75-85); all P DD, with an 18% rise in MAP during the highest dose versus 22 and 31% in ID and II (P DD genotype during high salt, accompanied by blunted sensitivity to Ang II. Low salt corrects both abnormalities. Further analysis of this gene-environment interaction in patients may contribute to strategies for improvement of individual treatment efficacy.

  3. Grey relevant analysis of sodium critical heat flux in annular channel and the establishing of grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Su Guanghui; Liao Yixiang; Zhang Weizhong; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan

    1999-12-01

    Using grey systems theory and experimental data obtained from sodium boiling test loop in China, grey mutual analysis is done to some parameters influencing sodium CHF. The results of CHF are predicted by using GM (1,1) model. The GM(1,h) model is made up for creating CHF model. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data

  4. Genetic divergence between two sympatric species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex in the paralytic gene, a locus associated with insecticide resistance and lovesong production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RMMA Lins

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. L. longipalpis s.l. is a species complex but until recently the existence of cryptic sibling species among Brazilian populations was a controversial issue. A fragment of paralytic (para, a voltage dependent sodium channel gene associated with insecticide resistance and courtship song production in Drosophila, was isolated and used as a molecular marker to study the divergence between two sympatric siblings of the L. longipalpis complex from Sobral, Brazil. The results revealed para as the first single locus DNA marker presenting fixed differences between the two species in this locality. In addition, two low frequency amino-acid changes in an otherwise very conserved region of the channel were observed, raising the possibility that it might be associated with incipient resistance in this vector. To the best of our knowledge, the present study represents the first population genetics analysis of insecticide resistance genes in this important leishmaniasis vector.

  5. A Flexible Nested Sodium and Proton Coil Array with Wideband Matching for Knee Cartilage MRI at 3 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan; Lakshmanan, Karthik; Madelin, Guillaume; Alon, Leeor; Chang, Gregory; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Wiggins, Graham C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We describe a 6×2 channel sodium/proton array for knee MRI at 3 Tesla. Multi-element coil arrays are desirable because of well-known signal-to-noise ratio advantages over volume and single-element coils. However, low coil-tissue coupling that is characteristic of coils operating at low frequency can make the potential gains from a phased array difficult to realize. Methods The issue of low coil-tissue coupling in the developed six channel sodium receive array was addressed by implementing 1) a mechanically flexible former to minimize coil-to-tissue distance and reduce the overall diameter of the array and 2) a wideband matching scheme that counteracts preamplifier noise degradation caused by coil coupling and a high quality factor. The sodium array was complemented with a nested proton array to enable standard MRI. Results The wideband matching scheme and tight-fitting mechanical design contributed to greater than 30% central SNR gain on the sodium module over a mono-nuclear sodium birdcage coil, while the performance of the proton module was sufficient for clinical imaging. Conclusion We expect the strategies presented in this work to be generally relevant in high density receive arrays, particularly in x-nuclei or small animal applications, or in those where the array is distant from the targeted tissue. PMID:26502310

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of Arabidopsis Sodium Proton Antiporter (NHX and Human Sodium Proton Exchanger (NHE Homologs in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hima Kumari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Na+ transporters play an important role during salt stress and development. The present study is aimed at genome-wide identification, in silico analysis of sodium-proton antiporter (NHX and sodium-proton exchanger (NHE-type transporters in Sorghum bicolor and their expression patterns under varied abiotic stress conditions. In Sorghum, seven NHX and nine NHE homologs were identified. Amiloride (a known inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger activity binding motif was noticed in both types of the transporters. Chromosome 2 was found to be a hotspot region with five sodium transporters. Phylogenetic analysis inferred six ortholog and three paralog groups. To gain an insight into functional divergence of SbNHX/NHE transporters, real-time gene expression was performed under salt, drought, heat, and cold stresses in embryo, root, stem, and leaf tissues. Expression patterns revealed that both SbNHXs and SbNHEs are responsive either to single or multiple abiotic stresses. The predicted protein–protein interaction networks revealed that only SbNHX7 is involved in the calcineurin B-like proteins (CBL- CBL interacting protein kinases (CIPK pathway. The study provides insights into the functional divergence of SbNHX/NHE transporter genes with tissue specific expressions in Sorghum under different abiotic stress conditions.

  7. DNS of turbulent channel flow with conjugate heat transfer at Prandtl number 0.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiselj, Iztok, E-mail: iztok.tiselj@ijs.si [' Jozef Stefan' Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cizelj, Leon, E-mail: leon.cizelj@ijs.si [' Jozef Stefan' Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNS database for turbulent channel flow at Prandtl number 0.01 and various Re{sub {tau}}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two ideal boundary condition analyzed: non-fluctuating and fluctuating temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNS database with conjugate heat transfer for liquid sodium-steel contact. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Penetration of the turbulent temperature fluctuations into the solid wall analyzed. - Abstract: Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the fully developed velocity and temperature fields in a turbulent channel flow coupled with the unsteady conduction in the heated walls was carried out. Simulations were performed with passive scalar approximation at Prandtl number 0.01, which roughly corresponds to the Prandtl number of liquid sodium. DNSs were performed at friction Reynolds numbers 180, 395 and 590. The obtained statistical quantities like mean temperatures, profiles of the root-mean-square (RMS) temperature fluctuations for various thermal properties of wall and fluid, and various wall thicknesses were obtained from a pseudo-spectral channel-flow code. Even for the highest implemented Reynolds number the temperature profile in the fluid does not exhibit log-law region and the near-wall RMS temperature fluctuations show Reynolds number dependence. Conjugate heat transfer simulations of liquid sodium-steel system point to a relatively intensive penetration of turbulent temperature fluctuations into the heated wall. Database containing the results is available in a digital form.

  8. Molecular identity of dendritic voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Andrea; Nusser, Zoltan

    2010-05-14

    Active invasion of the dendritic tree by action potentials (APs) generated in the axon is essential for associative synaptic plasticity and neuronal ensemble formation. In cortical pyramidal cells (PCs), this AP back-propagation is supported by dendritic voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels, whose molecular identity is unknown. Using a highly sensitive electron microscopic immunogold technique, we revealed the presence of the Nav1.6 subunit in hippocampal CA1 PC proximal and distal dendrites. Here, the subunit density is lower by a factor of 35 to 80 than that found in axon initial segments. A gradual decrease in Nav1.6 density along the proximodistal axis of the dendritic tree was also detected without any labeling in dendritic spines. Our results reveal the characteristic subcellular distribution of the Nav1.6 subunit, identifying this molecule as a key substrate enabling dendritic excitability.

  9. Ciguatoxins Evoke Potent CGRP Release by Activation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Subtypes Na(V)1.9, Na(V)1.7 and Na(V)1.1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Touška, Filip; Sattler, S.; Malsch, P.; Lewis, R. J.; Reeh, P. W.; Zimmermann, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 9 (2017), č. článku 269. ISSN 1660-3397 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : voltage-gated calcium channels * calcitonin-gene related peptide * tetrodotoxin * TTX * P-CTX-1 * TRPA1 * TRPC5 * neuropathic pain * neurogenic inflammation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.503, year: 2016

  10. Novel transcripts of the estrogen receptor α gene in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Wu, Chunfa; Maule, Alec G.; Chang, Xiaotian

    2000-01-01

    Complementary DNA libraries from liver and ovary of an immature female channel catfish were screened with a homologous ERα cDNA probe. The hepatic library yielded two new channel catfish ER cDNAs that encode N-terminal ERα variants of different sizes. Relative to the catfish ERα (medium size; 581 residues) previously reported, these new cDNAs encode Long-ERα (36 residues longer) and Short-ERα (389 residues shorter). The 5′-end of Long-ERα cDNA is identical to that of Medium-ERα but has an additional 503-bp segment with an upstream, in-frame translation-start codon. Recombinant Long-ERα binds estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 3.4 nM), similar to that previously reported for Medium-ERα but lower than reported for catfish ERβ. Short-ERα cDNA encodes a protein that lacks most of the receptor protein and does not bind estrogen. Northern hybridization confirmed the existence of multiple hepatic ERα RNAs that include the size range of the ERα cDNAs obtained from the libraries as well as additional sizes. Using primers for RT-PCR that target locations internal to the protein-coding sequence, we also established the presence of several ERα cDNA variants with in-frame insertions in the ligand-binding and DNA-binding domains and in-frame or out-of-frame deletions in the ligand-binding domain. These internal variants showed patterns of expression that differed between the ovary and liver. Further, the ovarian library yielded a full-length, ERα antisense cDNA containing a poly(A) signal and tail. A limited survey of histological preparations from juvenile catfish by in situ hybridization using directionally synthesized cRNA probes also suggested the expression of ERα antisense RNA in a tissue-specific manner. In conclusion, channel catfish seemingly have three broad classes of ERα mRNA variants: those encoding N-terminal truncated variants, those encoding internal variants (including C-terminal truncated variants), and antisense mRNA. The sense variants may

  11. Ultrafast and Highly Reversible Sodium Storage in Zinc-Antimony Intermetallic Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Anmin [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Gan, Li-yong [Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, (China). Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Materials; Cheng, Yingchun [Nanjing Univ. of Technology (China). Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM); Tao, Xinyong [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Yuan, Yifei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Sharifi-Asl, Soroosh [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; He, Kun [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Asayesh-Ardakani, Hasti [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Vasiraju, Venkata [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering; Lu, Jun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Mashayek, Farzad [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Klie, Robert [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Department of Physics; Vaddiraju, Sreeram [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering; Schwingenschlögl, Udo [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department

    2015-12-17

    The progress on sodium-ion battery technology faces many grand challenges, one of which is the considerably lower rate of sodium insertion/deinsertion in electrode materials due to the larger size of sodium (Na) ions and complicated redox reactions compared to the lithium-ion systems. Here, it is demonstrated that sodium ions can be reversibly stored in Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires at speeds that can exceed 295 nm s-1. Remarkably, these values are one to three orders of magnitude higher than the sodiation rate of other nanowires electrochemically tested with in situ transmission electron micro­scopy. It is found that the nanowires display about 161% volume expansion after the first sodiation and then cycle with an 83% reversible volume expansion. Despite their massive expansion, the nanowires can be cycled without any cracking or facture during the ultrafast sodiation/desodiation process. Additionally, most of the phases involved in the sodiation/desodiation process possess high electrical conductivity. More specifically, the NaZnSb exhibits a layered structure, which provides channels for fast Na+ diffusion. This observation indicates that Zn-Sb intermetallic nanomaterials offer great promise as high rate and good cycling stability anodic materials for the next generation of sodium-ion batteries.

  12. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Bryan; Erickson, Jeffrey D

    2004-02-01

    The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNAT) of the SLC38 gene family resemble the classically-described System A and System N transport activities in terms of their functional properties and patterns of regulation. Transport of small, aliphatic amino acids by System A subtypes (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4) is rheogenic and pH sensitive. The System N subtypes SNAT3 and SNAT5 also countertransport H(+), which may be key to their operation in reverse, and have narrower substrate profiles than do the System A subtypes. Glutamine emerges as a favored substrate throughout the family, except for SNAT4. The SLC38 transporters undoubtedly play many physiological roles including the transfer of glutamine from astrocyte to neuron in the CNS, ammonia detoxification and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and the renal response to acidosis. Probing their regulation has revealed additional roles, and recent work has considered SLC38 transporters as therapeutic targets in neoplasia.

  13. Fast-slow asymptotics for a Markov chain model of fast sodium current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starý, Tomáš; Biktashev, Vadim N.

    2017-09-01

    We explore the feasibility of using fast-slow asymptotics to eliminate the computational stiffness of discrete-state, continuous-time deterministic Markov chain models of ionic channels underlying cardiac excitability. We focus on a Markov chain model of fast sodium current, and investigate its asymptotic behaviour with respect to small parameters identified in different ways.

  14. Dynamic instability forecasting for through-out sodium steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.V.; Rassokhin, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    Simplified technique for determining boundaries of dynamic instability of through-out sodium steam generators is presented. The technique is based on the application of autoresonance concept to autooscillating model of dynamic instability of a steam-generating channel. Estimated model parameters and basic investigational results for different conditions are given. Assessment is performed according to the instability degree. Use of the technique is effective for multiversion studying of SG design at early designing stages

  15. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  16. Establishment of a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line expressing dual reporter genes: sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Won Jung; Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Mo Sun

    2007-01-01

    Dual reporter gene imaging has several advantages for more sophisticated molecular imaging studies such as gene therapy monitoring. Herein, we have constructed hepatoma cell line expressing dual reporter genes of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and the functionalities of the genes were evaluated in vivo by nuclear and optical imaging. A pRetro-PN vector was constructed after separating NIS gene from pcDNA-NIS. RSV-EGFP-WPRE fragment separated from pLNRGW was cloned into pRetro-PN vector. The final vector expressing dual reporter genes was named pRetro-PNRGW. A human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected by the retrovirus containing NIS and EGFP gene (HepG2-NE). Expression of NIS gene was confirmed by RT-PCR, radioiodine uptake and efflux studies. Expression of EGFP was confirmed by RT-PCR and fluorescence microscope. The HepG2 and HepG2-NE cells were implanted in shoulder and hindlimb of nude mice, then fluorescence image, gamma camera image and I-124 microPET image were undertaken. The HepG2-NE cell was successfully constructed. RT-PCR showed NIS and EGFP mRNA expression. About 50% of cells showed fluorescence. The iodine uptake of NIS-expressed cells was about 9 times higher than control. In efflux study, T 1/2 of HepG2-NE cells was 9 min. HepG2-NE xenograft showed high signal-to-background fluorescent spots and higher iodine-uptake compared to those of HepG2 xenograft. A hepatoma cell line expressing NIS and EGFP dual reporter genes was successfully constructed and could be used as a potential either by therapeutic gene or imaging reporter gene

  17. Thiazolidinediones and Edema: Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Thiazolidinediones-Induced Renal Sodium Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Shoko; Nakamura, Motonobu; Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Seki, George

    2015-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are one of the major classes of antidiabetic drugs that are used widely. TZDs improve insulin resistance by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and ameliorate diabetic and other nephropathies, at least, in experimental animals. However, TZDs have side effects, such as edema, congestive heart failure, and bone fracture, and may increase bladder cancer risk. Edema and heart failure, which both probably originate from renal sodium retention, are of great importance because these side effects make it difficult to continue the use of TZDs. However, the pathogenesis of edema remains a matter of controversy. Initially, upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the collecting ducts by TZDs was thought to be the primary cause of edema. However, the results of other studies do not support this view. Recent data suggest the involvement of transporters in the proximal tubule, such as sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and sodium-proton exchanger. Other studies have suggested that sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of Henle and aquaporins are also possible targets for TZDs. This paper will discuss the recent advances in the pathogenesis of TZD-induced sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules and edema.

  18. Voltage-sensitive sodium channel mutations S989P + V1016G in Aedes aegypti confer variable resistance to pyrethroids, DDT and oxadiazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Letícia B; Kasai, Shinji; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2018-03-01

    Aedes aegypti is a vector of several important human pathogens. Control efforts rely primarily on pyrethroid insecticides for adult mosquito control, especially during disease outbreaks. A. aegypti has developed resistance nearly everywhere it occurs and insecticides are used. An important mechanism of resistance is due to mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) gene. Two mutations, in particular, S989P + V1016G, commonly occur together in parts of Asia. We have created a strain (KDR:ROCK) that contains the Vssc mutations S989P + V1016G as the only mechanism of pyrethroid resistance within the genetic background of Rockefeller (ROCK), a susceptible lab strain. We created KDR:ROCK by crossing the pyrethroid-resistant strain Singapore with ROCK followed by four backcrosses with ROCK and Vssc S989P + V1016G genotype selections. We determined the levels of resistance conferred to 17 structurally diverse pyrethroids, the organochloride DDT, and oxadiazines (VSSC blockers) indoxacarb (proinsecticide) and DCJW (the active metabolite of indoxacarb). Levels of resistance to the pyrethroids were variable, ranging from 21- to 107-fold, but no clear pattern between resistance and chemical structure was observed. Resistance is inherited as an incompletely recessive trait. KDR:ROCK had a > 2000-fold resistance to DDT, 37.5-fold cross-resistance to indoxacarb and 13.4-fold cross-resistance to DCJW. Etofenprox (and DDT) should be avoided in areas where Vssc mutations S989P + V1016G exist at high frequencies. We found that pyrethroid structure cannot be used to predict the level of resistance conferred by kdr. These results provide useful information for resistance management and for better understanding pyrethroid interactions with VSSC. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of

  19. Characteristics of liquid and boiling sodium flows in heating pin bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menant, Bernard

    1976-01-01

    This study is related to cooling accidents which could occur in sodium cooled fast reactors. Thermo-hydraulic aspects of boiling experiments in pin bundles with helical wire-wrap spacer systems, in the case of undamaged geometries, are analyzed. Differences and analogies in the behavior of multi-rod bundle flows and one-dimensional channel flows are studied. A boiling model is developed for bundle geometries, and predictions obtained with the FLICA code using this models are presented. These predictions are compared with experimental results obtained in a water 19-rod bundle. Then, results of sodium boiling experiments through a 19-rod bundle are interpreted. Both cases of high power and reduced power are envisaged. (author) [fr

  20. The Role of Nav1.9 Channel in the Development of Neuropathic Orofacial Pain Associated with Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulz, Ana Paula; Kopach, Olga; Santana-Varela, Sonia; Wood, John N

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is accompanied by severe mechanical, thermal and chemical hypersensitivity of the orofacial area innervated by neurons of trigeminal ganglion (TG). We examined the role of the voltage-gated sodium channel subtype Nav1.9 in the development of trigeminal neuralgia. We found that Nav1.9 is required for the development of both thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity induced by constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CION). The CION model does not induce change on Nav1.9 mRNA expression in the ipsilateral TG neurons when evaluated 9 days after surgery. These results demonstrate that Nav1.9 channels play a critical role in the development of orofacial neuropathic pain. New routes for the treatment of orofacial neuropathic pain focussing on regulation of the voltage-gated Nav1.9 sodium channel activity should be investigated. © 2015 Luiz et al.

  1. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  2. Downregulation of Kv7.4 channel activity in primary and secondary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Chadha, Preet S; Davis, Alison J

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K(+)) channels encoded by KCNQ genes (Kv7 channels) have been identified in various rodent and human blood vessels as key regulators of vascular tone; however, nothing is known about the functional impact of these channels in vascular disease. We ascertained the effect of...... structurally different activators of Kv7.2 through Kv7.5 channels (BMS-204352, S-1, and retigabine) on blood vessels from normotensive and hypertensive animals.......Voltage-gated potassium (K(+)) channels encoded by KCNQ genes (Kv7 channels) have been identified in various rodent and human blood vessels as key regulators of vascular tone; however, nothing is known about the functional impact of these channels in vascular disease. We ascertained the effect of 3...

  3. Interaction of H2S with Calcium Permeable Channels and Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing amount of evidence has suggested that hydrogen sulfide (H2S, as a gasotransmitter, is involved in intensive physiological and pathological processes. More and more research groups have found that H2S mediates diverse cellular biological functions related to regulating intracellular calcium concentration. These groups have demonstrated the reciprocal interaction between H2S and calcium ion channels and transporters, such as L-type calcium channels (LTCC, T-type calcium channels (TTCC, sodium/calcium exchangers (NCX, transient receptor potential (TRP channels, β-adrenergic receptors, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR in different cells. However, the understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms is incomplete. Recently, some research groups demonstrated that H2S modulates the activity of calcium ion channels through protein S-sulfhydration and polysulfide reactions. In this review, we elucidate that H2S controls intracellular calcium homeostasis and the underlying mechanisms.

  4. Efficacy of Sodium Carbonate Peroxyhydrate as A Catfish Egg Disinfectant and Comparison to Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (SCP) for improving channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus hatching success when used as a prophylactic chemotherapeutant during egg incubation. In the first experiment, efficacy of SCP was evaluated in 379-L, al...

  5. Emerging role of the KCNT1 Slack channel in intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Grace E; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2014-01-01

    The sodium-activated potassium KNa channels Slack and Slick are encoded by KCNT1 and KCNT2, respectively. These channels are found in neurons throughout the brain, and are responsible for a delayed outward current termed I KNa. These currents integrate into shaping neuronal excitability, as well as adaptation in response to maintained stimulation. Abnormal Slack channel activity may play a role in Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause for intellectual disability and inherited autism. Slack channels interact directly with the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and I KNa is reduced in animal models of Fragile X syndrome that lack FMRP. Human Slack mutations that alter channel activity can also lead to intellectual disability, as has been found for several childhood epileptic disorders. Ongoing research is elucidating the relationship between mutant Slack channel activity, development of early onset epilepsies and intellectual impairment. This review describes the emerging role of Slack channels in intellectual disability, coupled with an overview of the physiological role of neuronal I KNa currents.

  6. Effects of (−-Gallocatechin-3-Gallate on Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Min Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The (−-gallocatechin-3-gallate (GCG concentration in some tea beverages can account for as much as 50% of the total catechins. It has been shown that catechins have analgesic properties. Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav mediate neuronal action potentials. Tetrodotoxin inhibits all Nav isoforms, but Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are relatively tetrodotoxin-resistant compared to other isoforms and functionally linked to nociception. In this study, the effects of GCG on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents were investigated in rat primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons via the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that 1 μM GCG reduced the amplitudes of peak current density of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents significantly. Furthermore, the inhibition was accompanied by a depolarizing shift of the activation voltage and a hyperpolarizing shift of steady-state inactivation voltage. The percentage block of GCG (1 μM on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ current was 45.1% ± 1.1% in 10 min. In addition, GCG did not produce frequency-dependent block of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents at stimulation frequencies of 1 Hz, 2 Hz and 5 Hz. On the basis of these findings, we propose that GCG may be a potential analgesic agent.

  7. Additivity of Pyrethroid Actions on Sodium Influx in Cortical Neurons in Cerebrocortical Neurons in Primary Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Although previous work has tested the additivity of pyrethroids in vivo, this has not been assessed directly at the primary molecular ...

  8. Targeting the CRMP2-Ca2+ Channel Complex for Abortive Treatment of Migraine and Posttraumatic Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    LCM prevents nitric oxide (NO) donor -induced CA and blood CGRP elevation in rats with triptan-induced latent sensitization. • Aim 3 (PORRECA Lab...the development of cephalic and extracephalic allodynia induced by nitric oxide (NO) donor given at 30 min prior to the NO donor injections in...cranial cup, inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide donor , sodium channels, calcium channels, excitability, constellation pharmacology constellation

  9. Novel Mutations in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel of Pyrethroid-Resistant Varroa destructor Populations from the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cabrera, Joel; Rodríguez-Vargas, Sonia; Davies, T. G. Emyr; Field, Linda M.; Schmehl, Daniel; Ellis, James D.; Krieger, Klemens; Williamson, Martin S.

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor has a significant worldwide impact on bee colony health. In the absence of control measures, parasitized colonies invariably collapse within 3 years. The synthetic pyrethroids tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin have proven very effective at managing this mite within apiaries, but intensive control programs based mainly on one active ingredient have led to many reports of pyrethroid resistance. In Europe, a modification of leucine to valine at position 925 (L925V) of the V. destructor voltage-gated sodium channel was correlated with resistance, the mutation being found at high frequency exclusively in hives with a recent history of pyrethroid treatment. Here, we identify two novel mutations, L925M and L925I, in tau-fluvalinate resistant V. destructor collected at seven sites across Florida and Georgia in the Southeastern region of the USA. Using a multiplexed TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay, these mutations were found to be present in 98% of the mites surviving tau-fluvalinate treatment. The mutations were also found in 45% of the non-treated mites, suggesting a high potential for resistance evolution if selection pressure is applied. The results from a more extensive monitoring programme, using the Taqman® assay described here, would clearly help beekeepers with their decision making as to when to include or exclude pyrethroid control products and thereby facilitate more effective mite management programmes. PMID:27191597

  10. Novel Mutations in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel of Pyrethroid-Resistant Varroa destructor Populations from the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cabrera, Joel; Rodríguez-Vargas, Sonia; Davies, T G Emyr; Field, Linda M; Schmehl, Daniel; Ellis, James D; Krieger, Klemens; Williamson, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor has a significant worldwide impact on bee colony health. In the absence of control measures, parasitized colonies invariably collapse within 3 years. The synthetic pyrethroids tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin have proven very effective at managing this mite within apiaries, but intensive control programs based mainly on one active ingredient have led to many reports of pyrethroid resistance. In Europe, a modification of leucine to valine at position 925 (L925V) of the V. destructor voltage-gated sodium channel was correlated with resistance, the mutation being found at high frequency exclusively in hives with a recent history of pyrethroid treatment. Here, we identify two novel mutations, L925M and L925I, in tau-fluvalinate resistant V. destructor collected at seven sites across Florida and Georgia in the Southeastern region of the USA. Using a multiplexed TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay, these mutations were found to be present in 98% of the mites surviving tau-fluvalinate treatment. The mutations were also found in 45% of the non-treated mites, suggesting a high potential for resistance evolution if selection pressure is applied. The results from a more extensive monitoring programme, using the Taqman® assay described here, would clearly help beekeepers with their decision making as to when to include or exclude pyrethroid control products and thereby facilitate more effective mite management programmes.

  11. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo

    2017-08-01

    The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3 loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3 loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3 loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3 loxloxCre mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3 loxloxCre mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3 loxloxCre mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of acid-sensing ion channels and selection of reference genes in mouse and naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Smith, Ewan St John

    2016-12-13

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels comprised of six subunits encoded by four genes and they are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. ASICs have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes: pain, breathing, synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Unlike mice and humans, naked mole-rats do not perceive acid as a noxious stimulus, even though their sensory neurons express functional ASICs, likely an adaptation to living in a hypercapnic subterranean environment. Previous studies of ASIC expression in the mammalian nervous system have often not examined all subunits, or have failed to adequately quantify expression between tissues; to date there has been no attempt to determine ASIC expression in the central nervous system of the naked mole-rat. Here we perform a geNorm study to identify reliable housekeeping genes in both mouse and naked mole-rat and then use quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the relative amounts of ASIC transcripts in different tissues of both species. We identify RPL13A (ribosomal protein L13A) and CANX (calnexin), and β-ACTIN and EIF4A (eukaryotic initiation factor 4a) as being the most stably expressed housekeeping genes in mouse and naked mole-rat, respectively. In both species, ASIC3 was most highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and ASIC1a, ASIC2b and ASIC3 were more highly expressed across all brain regions compared to the other subunits. We also show that ASIC4, a proton-insensitive subunit of relatively unknown function, was highly expressed in all mouse tissues apart from DRG and hippocampus, but was by contrast the lowliest expressed ASIC in all naked mole-rat tissues.

  13. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  14. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  15. "Slow" Voltage-Dependent Inactivation of CaV2.2 Calcium Channels Is Modulated by the PKC Activator Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    Full Text Available CaV2.2 (N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca2+ channels play key roles in neurons and neuroendocrine cells including the control of cellular excitability, neurotransmitter / hormone secretion, and gene expression. Calcium entry is precisely controlled by channel gating properties including multiple forms of inactivation. "Fast" voltage-dependent inactivation is relatively well-characterized and occurs over the tens-to- hundreds of milliseconds timeframe. Superimposed on this is the molecularly distinct, but poorly understood process of "slow" voltage-dependent inactivation, which develops / recovers over seconds-to-minutes. Protein kinases can modulate "slow" inactivation of sodium channels, but little is known about if/how second messengers control "slow" inactivation of Ca2+ channels. We investigated this using recombinant CaV2.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells and native CaV2 channels endogenously expressed in adrenal chromaffin cells. The PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA dramatically prolonged recovery from "slow" inactivation, but an inactive control (4α-PMA had no effect. This effect of PMA was prevented by calphostin C, which targets the C1-domain on PKC, but only partially reduced by inhibitors that target the catalytic domain of PKC. The subtype of the channel β-subunit altered the kinetics of inactivation but not the magnitude of slowing produced by PMA. Intracellular GDP-β-S reduced the effect of PMA suggesting a role for G proteins in modulating "slow" inactivation. We postulate that the kinetics of recovery from "slow" inactivation could provide a molecular memory of recent cellular activity and help control CaV2 channel availability, electrical excitability, and neurotransmission in the seconds-to-minutes timeframe.

  16. Osmotic stress regulates the strength and kinetics of sugar binding to the maltoporin channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnev, Philip A; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Harries, Daniel; Adrian Parsegian, V

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of osmotic stress, exerted by salts, on carbohydrate binding to the sugar-specific bacterial channel maltoporin. When the channel is reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers, single events of its occlusion by sugar are seen as transient interruptions in the flow of small ions. We find that, for most salts, changes in the free energy of maltoporin-sugar binding vary linearly with solution osmotic pressure. Such a change in binding with solution osmolarity indicates that for each salt a constant number of salt-excluding water molecules is released upon sugar-maltoporin association at all salt concentrations. We find that larger numbers of water molecules are released upon binding of the cyclic carbohydrate β-cyclodextrin (CD) than upon binding of the corresponding linear homologue maltoheptaose (m7). Remarkably, the extent to which salts affect the binding constants and rates depends sensitively on the type of salt; dehydration in solutions of different anions corresponds to the Hofmeister series. In sodium sulfate solutions, CD and m7 respectively release about 120 and 35 salt-excluding water molecules; in sodium chloride solutions, 35 and 15 waters. No water release is observed with sodium bromide. Finally, by adding adamantane, known to form an inclusion complex with CD, we can infer that CD not only dehydrates but also undergoes a conformational change upon binding to the channel. As a practical outcome, our results also demonstrate how osmotic stress can improve single-molecule detection of different solutes using protein-based nanopores.

  17. Selective spider toxins reveal a role for Nav1.1 channel in mechanical pain

    OpenAIRE

    Osteen, Jeremiah D.; Herzig, Volker; Gilchrist, John; Emrick, Joshua J.; Zhang, Chuchu; Wang, Xidao; Castro, Joel; Garcia-Caraballo, Sonia; Grundy, Luke; Rychkov, Grigori Y.; Weyer, Andy D.; Dekan, Zoltan; Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Alewood, Paul; Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels initiate action potentials in most neurons, including primary afferent nerve fibers of the pain pathway. Local anesthetics block pain through non-specific actions at all Nav channels, but the discovery of selective modulators would facilitate the analysis of individual subtypes and their contributions to chemical, mechanical, or thermal pain. Here, we identify and characterize spider toxins that selectively activate the Nav1.1 subtype, whose role in nocicep...

  18. TRPV6 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher-Trost, Claudia; Weissgerber, Petra; Wissenbach, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    TRPV6 (former synonyms ECAC2, CaT1, CaT-like) displays several specific features which makes it unique among the members of the mammalian Trp gene family (1) TRPV6 (and its closest relative, TRPV5) are the only highly Ca(2+)-selective channels of the entire TRP superfamily (Peng et al. 1999; Wissenbach et al. 2001; Voets et al. 2004). (2) Translation of Trpv6 initiates at a non-AUG codon, at ACG, located upstream of the annotated AUG, which is not used for initiation (Fecher-Trost et al. 2013). The ACG codon is nevertheless decoded by methionine. Not only a very rare event in eukaryotic biology, the full-length TRPV6 protein existing in vivo comprises an amino terminus extended by 40 amino acid residues compared to the annotated truncated TRPV6 protein which has been used in most studies on TRPV6 channel activity so far. (In the following numbering occurs according to this full-length protein, with the numbers of the so far annotated truncated protein in brackets). (3) Only in humans a coupled polymorphism of Trpv6 exists causing three amino acid exchanges and resulting in an ancestral Trpv6 haplotype and a so-called derived Trpv6 haplotype (Wissenbach et al. 2001). The ancestral allele encodes the amino acid residues C197(157), M418(378) and M721(681) and the derived alleles R197(157), V418(378) and T721(681). The ancestral haplotype is found in all species, the derived Trpv6 haplotype has only been identified in humans, and its frequency increases with the distance to the African continent. Apparently the Trpv6 gene has been a strong target for selection in humans, and its derived variant is one of the few examples showing consistently differences to the orthologues genes of other primates (Akey et al. 2004, 2006; Stajich and Hahn 2005; Hughes et al. 2008). (4) The Trpv6 gene expression is significantly upregulated in several human malignancies including the most common cancers, prostate and breast cancer (Wissenbach et al. 2001; Zhuang et al. 2002; Fixemer et al

  19. BDNF gene delivery within and beyond templated agarose multi-channel guidance scaffolds enhances peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingyong; Lu, Paul; Lynam, Dan; Bednark, Bridget; Campana, W. Marie; Sakamoto, Jeff; Tuszynski, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Objective. We combined implantation of multi-channel templated agarose scaffolds with growth factor gene delivery to examine whether this combinatorial treatment can enhance peripheral axonal regeneration through long sciatic nerve gaps. Approach. 15 mm long scaffolds were templated into highly organized, strictly linear channels, mimicking the linear organization of natural nerves into fascicles of related function. Scaffolds were filled with syngeneic bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) secreting the growth factor brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lentiviral vectors expressing BDNF were injected into the sciatic nerve segment distal to the scaffold implantation site. Main results. Twelve weeks after injury, scaffolds supported highly linear regeneration of host axons across the 15 mm lesion gap. The incorporation of BDNF-secreting cells into scaffolds significantly increased axonal regeneration, and additional injection of viral vectors expressing BDNF into the distal segment of the transected nerve significantly enhanced axonal regeneration beyond the lesion. Significance. Combinatorial treatment with multichannel bioengineered scaffolds and distal growth factor delivery significantly improves peripheral nerve repair, rivaling the gold standard of autografts.

  20. Voltage-gated sodium channel expression in mouse DRG after SNI leads to re-evaluation of projections of injured fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laedermann, Cédric J; Pertin, Marie; Suter, Marc R; Decosterd, Isabelle

    2014-03-11

    Dysregulation of voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)s) is believed to play a major role in nerve fiber hyperexcitability associated with neuropathic pain. A complete transcriptional characterization of the different isoforms of Na(v)s under normal and pathological conditions had never been performed on mice, despite their widespread use in pain research. Na(v)s mRNA levels in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were studied in the spared nerve injury (SNI) and spinal nerve ligation (SNL) models of neuropathic pain. In the SNI model, injured and non-injured neurons were intermingled in lumbar DRG, which were pooled to increase the tissue available for experiments. A strong downregulation was observed for every Na(v)s isoform expressed except for Na(v)1.2; even Na(v)1.3, known to be upregulated in rat neuropathic pain models, was lower in the SNI mouse model. This suggests differences between these two species. In the SNL model, where the cell bodies of injured and non-injured fibers are anatomically separated between different DRG, most Na(v)s were observed to be downregulated in the L5 DRG receiving axotomized fibers. Transcription was then investigated independently in the L3, L4 and L5 DRG in the SNI model, and an important downregulation of many Na(v)s isoforms was observed in the L3 DRG, suggesting the presence of numerous injured neurons there after SNI. Consequently, the proportion of axotomized neurons in the L3, L4 and L5 DRG after SNI was characterized by studying the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). Using this marker of nerve injury confirmed that most injured fibers find their cell bodies in the L3 and L4 DRG after SNI in C57BL/6 J mice; this contrasts with their L4 and L5 DRG localization in rats. The spared sural nerve, through which pain hypersensitivity is measured in behavioral studies, mostly projects into the L4 and L5 DRG. The complex regulation of Na(v)s, together with the anatomical rostral shift of the DRG harboring injured

  1. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Brown, R C; Spurlock, G; Southgate, K; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  2. Evaluation of transcriptional activity of the oestrogen receptor with sodium iodide symporter as an imaging reporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joo Hyun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Kwang Il; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul

    2006-10-01

    Oestrogen receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors whose activity is modulated either by oestrogens or by an alternative signalling pathway. Oestrogen receptors interact via a specific DNA-binding domain, the oestrogen responsive element (ERE), in the promoter region of sensitive genes. This binding leads to an initiation of gene expression and hormonal effects. To determine the transcriptional activity of the oestrogen receptor, we developed a molecular imaging system using sodium iodide symporter (NIS) as a reporter gene. The NIS reporter gene was placed under the control of an artificial ERE derived from pERE-TA-SEAP and named as pERE-NIS. pERE-NIS was transferred to MCF-7, human breast cancer cells, which highly expressed oestrogen receptor-alpha with lipofectamine. Stably expressing cells were generated by selection with G418 for 14 days. After treatment of 17beta-oestradiol and tamoxifen with serial doses, the (125)I uptake was measured for the determination of NIS expression. The inhibition of NIS activity was performed with 50 micromol x l(-1) potassium perchlorate. The MCF7/pERE-NIS treated with 17beta-oestradiol accumulated (125)I up to 70-80% higher than did non-treated cells. NIS expression was increased according to increasing doses of 17beta-oestradiol. MCF7/pERE-NIS treated with tamoxifen also accumulated (125)I up to 50% higher than did non-treated cells. Potassium perchlorate completely inhibited (125)I uptake. When MDA-MB231 cells, the oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells, were transfected with pERE-NIS, (125)I uptake of MDA-MB-231/pERE-NIS did not increase. This pERE-NIS reporter system is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring transcriptional activity of the oestrogen receptor. Therefore, cis-enhancer reporter systems with ERE will be applicable to the development of a novel selective oestrogen receptor modulator with low toxicity and high efficacy.

  3. A comprehensive approach to identifying repurposed drugs to treat SCN8A epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Talia A; Maher, Chani M; Gerlach, Aaron C; Gay, Bryant C; Antonio, Brett M; Santos, Sonia C; Padilla, Karen M; Rader, JulieAnn; Krafte, Douglas S; Fox, Matthew A; Stewart, Gregory R; Petrovski, Slavé; Devinsky, Orrin; Might, Matthew; Petrou, Steven; Goldstein, David B

    2018-04-01

    Many previous studies of drug repurposing have relied on literature review followed by evaluation of a limited number of candidate compounds. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a more comprehensive approach using high-throughput screening to identify inhibitors of a gain-of-function mutation in the SCN8A gene associated with severe pediatric epilepsy. We developed cellular models expressing wild-type or an R1872Q mutation in the Na v 1.6 sodium channel encoded by SCN8A. Voltage clamp experiments in HEK-293 cells expressing the SCN8A R1872Q mutation demonstrated a leftward shift in sodium channel activation as well as delayed inactivation; both changes are consistent with a gain-of-function mutation. We next developed a fluorescence-based, sodium flux assay and used it to assess an extensive library of approved drugs, including a panel of antiepileptic drugs, for inhibitory activity in the mutated cell line. Lead candidates were evaluated in follow-on studies to generate concentration-response curves for inhibiting sodium influx. Select compounds of clinical interest were evaluated by electrophysiology to further characterize drug effects on wild-type and mutant sodium channel functions. The screen identified 90 drugs that significantly inhibited sodium influx in the R1872Q cell line. Four drugs of potential clinical interest-amitriptyline, carvedilol, nilvadipine, and carbamazepine-were further investigated and demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of sodium channel currents. A comprehensive drug repurposing screen identified potential new candidates for the treatment of epilepsy caused by the R1872Q mutation in the SCN8A gene. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyda R Frolova

    Full Text Available The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav, calcium (ICav, and potassium (IKv currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+ and calcium (Ca2+ currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+ currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential.

  5. Calcium Homeostasis Modulator 1-Like Currents in Rat Fungiform Taste Cells Expressing Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigiani, Albertino

    2017-05-01

    Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels. In heterologous expression systems, these channels mediate outwardly rectifying membrane currents with distinct biophysical and pharmacological properties. I therefore tested whether also salt-detecting taste cells were endowed with these currents. To this aim, I applied the patch-clamp techniques to single cells in isolated taste buds from rat fungiform papillae. Salt-detecting cells were functionally identified by exploiting the effect of amiloride, which induces a current response by shutting down ENaCs. I looked for the presence of outwardly rectifying currents by using appropriate voltage-clamp protocols and specific pharmacological tools. I found that indeed salt-detecting cells possessed these currents with properties consistent with the presence, at least in part, of CALHM1 channels. Unexpectedly, CALHM1-like currents in taste cells were potentiated by known blockers of pannexin, suggesting a possible inhibitory action of this protein on CALMH1. These findings indicate that communication between salt-detecting cells and nerve endings might involve ATP release by CALMH1 channels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. In vitro radionuclide therapy and in vivo scintigraphic imaging of alpha fetoprotein producing hepatocellular carcinoma by targeted sodium iodide symporter gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Song, Inho; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo; Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study aimed to develop a gene expression targeting method for specific imaging and therapy of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) producing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, using an adenovirus vector containing the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene driven by an AFP enhancer/promoter. The recombinant adenovirus vector, AdAFPhNIS (containing the hNIS gene driven by human AFP enhancer/promoter) was prepared. After in vitro infection by the adenovirus, hNIS gene expression in AFP producing cells and in AFP nonproducing cells was investigated using {sup 125}I uptake assay and semi quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The killing effect of {sup 131}I vitro clonogenic assay. In addition, tumor bearing mice were intravenously injected with the adenovirus, and scintigraphic images were obtained. The expression of hNIS was efficiently demonstrated by {sup 125}I uptake assay in AFP producing cells, but not in AFP nonproducing cells. AFP producing HCC targeted gene expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Furthermore, in vitro clonogenic assay showed that hNIS gene expression induced by AdAFPhNIS infection in AFP producing cells caused more sensitivity to {sup 131}I than that in AFP nonproducing cells. Injected intravenously in HuH-7 tumor xenografts mice by adenovirus, the functional hNIS gene expression was confirmed in tumor by in vivo scintigraphic imaging. An AFP producing HCC was targeted with an adenovirus vector containing the hNIS gene using the AFP enhancer/promoter in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that AFP producing HCC specific molecular imaging and radionuclide gene therapy are feasible using this recombinant adenovirus vector system.

  7. In vitro radionuclide therapy and in vivo scintigraphic imaging of alpha fetoprotein producing hepatocellular carcinoma by targeted sodium iodide symporter gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Song, Inho; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo; Kang, Joo Hyun; Chung, June Key

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a gene expression targeting method for specific imaging and therapy of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) producing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, using an adenovirus vector containing the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene driven by an AFP enhancer/promoter. The recombinant adenovirus vector, AdAFPhNIS (containing the hNIS gene driven by human AFP enhancer/promoter) was prepared. After in vitro infection by the adenovirus, hNIS gene expression in AFP producing cells and in AFP nonproducing cells was investigated using 125 I uptake assay and semi quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The killing effect of 131 I vitro clonogenic assay. In addition, tumor bearing mice were intravenously injected with the adenovirus, and scintigraphic images were obtained. The expression of hNIS was efficiently demonstrated by 125 I uptake assay in AFP producing cells, but not in AFP nonproducing cells. AFP producing HCC targeted gene expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Furthermore, in vitro clonogenic assay showed that hNIS gene expression induced by AdAFPhNIS infection in AFP producing cells caused more sensitivity to 131 I than that in AFP nonproducing cells. Injected intravenously in HuH-7 tumor xenografts mice by adenovirus, the functional hNIS gene expression was confirmed in tumor by in vivo scintigraphic imaging. An AFP producing HCC was targeted with an adenovirus vector containing the hNIS gene using the AFP enhancer/promoter in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that AFP producing HCC specific molecular imaging and radionuclide gene therapy are feasible using this recombinant adenovirus vector system

  8. Voltage-gated Na+ channel SCN5A is a key regulator of a gene transcriptional network that controls colon cancer invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Carrie D.; Vaske, Charles J.; Schwartz, Arnold M.; Obias, Vincent; Frank, Bryan; Luu, Truong; Sarvazyan, Narine; Irby, Rosalyn; Strausberg, Robert L.; Hales, Tim G.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Lee, Norman H.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) have been implicated in the metastatic potential of human breast, prostate and lung cancer cells. Specifically, the SCN5A gene encoding the VGSC isotype Nav1.5 has been defined as a key driver of human cancer cell invasion. In this study, we examined the expression and function of VGSCs in a panel of colon cancer cell lines by electrophysiological recordings. Na+ channel activity and invasive potential were inhibited pharmacologically by tetrodotoxin or genetically by siRNAs specifically targeting SCN5A. Clinical relevance was es